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Sample records for sheep grazing effect

  1. Effects of Grazing Abandoned Grassland on Herbage Production and Utilization, and Sheep Preference and Performance

    Håvard Steinshamn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of farmland are abandoned in Norway, which for various reasons are regarded as undesirable. Loss of farmland may have negative implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function and food production potential. The objectives of this study were to assess forage mass production and utilization, botanical composition, lamb performance, and grazing distribution pattern when reintroducing livestock grazing to an abandoned grassland. The study area was located in Central Norway, unmanaged for 12 years. Sheep grazed the area for 10 weeks in 2013 and 4 weeks in spring and autumn, respectively, in 2014 and 2015. During the summer of 2014 and 2015, the area was subjected to the following replicated treatments: (1 No grazing, (2 grazing with heifers, and (3 grazing with ewes and their offspring. The stocking rate was similar in the grazed treatments. Forage biomass production and animal intake were estimated using grazing exclosure cages and botanical composition by visual assessment. Effect on lamb performance was evaluated by live weight gain and slaughter traits in sheep subjected to three treatments: (1 Common farm procedure with summer range pasturing, (2 spring grazing period extended by 1 month on the abandoned grassland before summer range pasturing, and (3 spring and summer grazing on the abandoned grassland. Grazing distribution patterns were studied using GPS position collars on ewes. Total annual biomass production was on average 72% higher with summer grazing than without. Annual consumption and utilization was on average 218 g DM/m2 and 70% when summer grazed, and 25 g DM/m2 and 18% without grazing, respectively. Botanical composition did not differ between treatments. Live weight gain was higher in lambs subjected to an extended spring grazing period (255 g/d compared to common farm practice (228 g/d and spring and summer grazing on the abandoned grassland (203 g/d, and carcass value was 14% higher in lambs on extended spring

  2. A note on the effects of paddock size on the white clover content of swards grazed by sheep

    Wolf, de P.L.; Schulte, R.P.O.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The maintenance of a high white clover content in mixed swards under sheep grazing has been a challenge to date. This paper presents the results of an experiment in which the effect of the length of a grazing period on the botanical composition of a mixed sward was studied. Paddocks ranging in size

  3. The effect of sustained release boli with ammoniumiron(III)-hexacyanoferrate(II) on radiocesium accumulation in sheep grazing contaminated pasture

    Hansen, H.S.; Hove, K.; Barvik, K.

    1996-01-01

    Sustained release boli with the cesium binder ammoniumiron(III)-hexacyanoferrate(II) (AFCF) were tested under practical conditions for sheep grazing on pastures contaminated with radiocesium ( 134 Cs+ 137 Cs) from the Chernobyl fallout. Two types of AFCF boli were developed: boli without a protective surface coating intended to last 4-8 wk; and boli coated by a wax-mixture with an extended duration of 10-12 wk. From 1989 to 1993 we measured the effect of wax-coated and uncoated boli administered at various times during the grazing season to a total of 3,248 animals. Reductions in radiocesium levels in meat of sheep were measured by in vivo monitoring. Administration of AFCF boli without a wax-coating reduced the mean radiocesium levels in lambs by 42-75% over a 408 wk period, and administration of the wax-coated AFCF boli reduced the mean radiocesium levels by 48-65% over a 9-11 wk period. The coefficients of variation in meat radiocesium levels were similar in treated and control groups at the end of the observation period, showing that the reduction of meat radiocesium values was homogeneous throughout the treated groups. The boli giving sustained release of AFCF is a labor-saving and cost effective counter-measure for sheep grazing radiocesium contaminated pastures. 16 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Forage selection and performance of sheep grazing dry annual range.

    Ridder, de N.; Benjamin, R.W.; Keulen, van H.

    1986-01-01

    During 114 days of grazing, sheep grazing a dry annual pasture in Israel selected the fine fraction available with a higher nutritive value. As this fraction became depleted and feed quality dropped, organic matter intake dropped from 1.73 to 0.75 kg/sheep/d. Sheep lost weight, body condition and

  5. Grasses grazed by springbok and sheep | R. | African Journal of ...

    Grazing habits were determined by analysis of rumina from slaughtered springbok and sheep where springbok grazed together with Merino sheep in False Upper Karoo and together with Dorper sheep in Kalahari Thornveld. Results show that in both veld types, grass constituted about 39 percent of the dry mass intake of ...

  6. A 4-year study on the effectiveness of alternate grazing of cattle and sheep in the control of bovine parasitic gastro-enteritis.

    Bairden, K; Armour, J; Duncan, J L

    1995-11-01

    In many farming enterprises, animal management systems which could provide a practical and effective alternative to chemotherapy for the control of bovine helminthosis would be readily accepted. One system which has been proposed and shown to be effective in the short or medium term involves grazing different host species on a rotational basis. The study described here examined the effect of alternating cattle and sheep annually over an extended period of 4 years. Up to the second grazing season the system appeared to be successful, with a marked reduction in the cattle worm burdens. However, by the end of the study period the parasite burdens in calves grazed on the alternated pasture were equal to, or greater than, those of set-stocked control animals. It was thus clear that the alternate grazing strategy had failed. Data obtained from other parameters measured, i.e. faecal egg counts, pasture larval numbers and plasma pepsinogen levels, confirmed this observation.

  7. The effects of season and diet composition on the radiocaesium intake by sheep grazing on heather moorland

    Salt, C.A.; Mayes, R.W.; Colgrove, P.M.; Lamb, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    In north-east Scotland on a mixed heather and grassland pasture grazed by sheep, 2 x 2 m areas of Calluna vulgaris heath and Deschampsia flexuosa grassland were artificially contaminated with 134 Cs by soil injection. Estimates of the 134 Cs intake by sheep were made on the basis of measurements of dry matter intake, diet composition and 134 Cs concentrations in diet components, assuming that the whole pasture had been contaminated. It was calculated that between May and September the sheep had utilized 72% of herbage produced on the grassland and 29% of heather shoots produced on the heath. Assuming that the whole pasture had been contaminated, this was equivalent to a removal through grazing of 0.9% on the grassland and 2% on the heath of the 134 Cs injected into the soil. By taking the sheep off the pasture at the end of September approximately 0.08% of the injected 134 Cs would be removed from the site via the body tissues of the sheep. (author)

  8. Performance and Grazing Pattern of West African Dwarf Sheep to ...

    Sixty (60) West African Dwarf sheep managed semi intensively and grazing on natural pastures were used in a study to determine the performance and grazing pattern to seasonal forage supply and quality. The animals were allowed to graze for about 6 hours daily for four months each in the dry and wet seasons, ...

  9. Effects of Molasses-Urea Supplementation on Weight Gain, Ruminal Fermentation and Major Microbe Populations of Winter-Grazing Sheep in Inner Mongolia

    Li Chang-qing; Alatengdalai; Xue Shu-yuan; Atsushi Asano; Atsushi Tajima; Naoto Ishikawa

    2017-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to determine the effects of Molasses-Urea Supplementation (MUS) on weight gain, ruminal fermentation and major microbial populations in sheep on a winter grazing regime in Inner Mongolia. Total 40 sheep, allowed free consumption of MUS after grazing, served as a treatment group, while 30 sheep, fed only by pasture grazing, served as a control group. Ruminal fermentation parameters, consisted of pH, Bacterial Crude Protein (BCP) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) were measured. In addition, numbers of five symbiotic bacteria were investigated. The results showed as follows: the average daily weight gain, concentration of NH3-N and numbers of protozoa were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the treatment group than those in the control group. Contrastingly, no significant difference was found in BCP concentration and pH between the two groups. At the end of the experiment, the populations of Selenomonas ruminantium,Anaerovibrio lipolytica,Fibrobacter succinogenes,Ruminococcus flaveciens and Ruminococcus albus in the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). These results demonstrated that greater weight gain could be induced during winter in Inner Mongolia by improved nutritional status through promotion of microbial populations using urea and sugar.

  10. The evaluation of four Eragrostis curvula ecotypes with grazing sheep.

    There were no significant differences in the dry matter production and chemical composition of the clipped samples of the ecotypes. Keywords: afrikaans; chemical composition; dry matter production; ecotypes; eragrostis curvula; grazing; live mass; live mass gains; open rotational grazing system; production; sheep; south ...

  11. Radionuclides in sheep grazing near old uranium mines

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Malta, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico/Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear/ (IST/CTN), Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - ao km 139,7, - 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lemos, M.E. [Servicos de Alimentacao e Veterinaria da Regiao Centro, Bairro Na Sra dos Remedios, 6300 Guarda (Portugal); Vala, H.; Esteves, F. [Escola Superior Agraria de Viseu, Quinta da Alagoa, Estrada de Nelas, Ranhados,3500-606 Viseu (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    During the past century extensive uranium mining took place in Portugal for radium and uranium production. Many uranium deposits were mined as open pits and after ore extraction and transportation to milling facilities, mining wastes were left on site. One uranium ore mining site, Boco Mine, was extracted in the 1960's and 70's and mining waste and open pits were left uncovered and non-remediated since closure of uranium mining activities. During the nineties a quarry for sand extraction was operated in the same site and water from a local stream was extensively used in sand sieving. Downstream the mine areas, agriculture soils along the water course are currently used for cattle grazing. Water from this stream, and water wells, soil, pasture and sheep meat were analyzed for radionuclides of the uranium series. The U- series radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was generally the highest in concentrations especially in soil, pasture, and in internal organs of sheep. Ra-226 concentrations averaged 1093±96 Bq/kg (dry weight) in soil, 43±3 Bq/kg (dw) in pasture, and 0.76±0.41 Bq/kg (dw) in muscle tissue of sheep grown there. Other sheep internal organs displayed much higher {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such as the brain and kidneys with 7.7±2.3 Bq/kg (dw) and 28±29 Bq/kg (dw), respectively. Results of tissue sample analysis for sheep grown in a comparison area were 2 to 11 times lower, depending on the tissue. Absorbed radiation doses for internal organs of sheep were computed and may exceed 20 mSv/y in the kidney. Although elevated, this absorbed radiation dose still is below the threshold for biological effects on mammals. Nevertheless, enhanced environmental radioactive contamination mainly due to radium was observed in the area of influence of this legacy uranium mine and there is potential food chain transfer for humans (authors)

  12. Effect of early weaning and concentrate supplementation at forage intake and ingestive behavior of sheep grazing Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.

    Marina Gabriela Berchiol da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate then early weaning and concentrate supplementation effect at pasture characteristics, forage intake and ingestive behavior of lambs grazing Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.. A randomized block design was used with four treatments, three replications and five lambs per replicate. A total of 60 Suffolk lambs, that 36 were females and 24 steers. The treatments had corresponded to the combinations between early weaning precocious and concentrate supplementation strategies, that resulted in the following ones finishing systems: 1 lambs kept with mothers without supplementation; 2 lambs kept with mothers supplemented with concentrate in creep feeding at 2% of body weigh (BW in DM/day; 3 weaned lambs at 45 ± 5 days without supplementation and 4 weaned lambs at 45 ± 5 days and supplemented with concentrate at 2% of BW in DM/day. Grazing utilization method was continuous stocking with adjustment every 21 days, to maintain forage offer at 12% of BW in DM/day. To characterize the pastoral environment was assessed: morphological composition of pasture. There were made four observations the behavioral activities for individually lambs per 24 hours, such as: grazing, ruminating, suckling, supplementation, and others activities. The intake rate was measured using the technique of double sampling and determination of bite rate was made by visual observation of the number of bits made for animal. The behavior and the distribution of daily activities made by the lambs are influenced for the strategies evaluated. The exclusive presence of milk or supplement concentrate in the diet are important modulators of grazing activity, and the absence of these nutrient sources were offset per an increase in grazing time. This response considered the decrease in nutritional support and lower efficiency in harvesting the forage by lambs. The weaning influenced the morphological characteristics of the pasture, which showed favored the

  13. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    Agustina di Virgilio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets, age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour. Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of

  14. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies.

    di Virgilio, Agustina; Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals' foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals' space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals' social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by classes

  15. Phosphorus supplementation of Karakul sheep grazing natural ...

    The phosphorus (P) status of adult Karakul ewes grazing natural pasture was determined by measuring the P content of blood, saliva, faecal, and bone samples. The ewes were divided into four groups of 20 ewes each, viz. ewes supplemented with P+ and P- which lambed during May and October. All lambs born were ...

  16. Estimating phosphorus intake by grazing sheep

    phosphorus levels in various organs, tissues, bones, body fluids or excretory products of sheep reflected dietary ... did decrease bone mineral deposition slightly. Rumen fluid P and total daily urinary P levels did .... which were alike in composition except for their levels of. P and Ca. After 98 days rib biopsy specimens were.

  17. Annual methane budgets of sheep grazing systems were regulated by grazing intensities in the temperate continental steppe: A two-year case study

    Ma, Lei; Zhong, Mengying; Zhu, Yuhao; Yang, Helong; Johnson, Douglas A.; Rong, Yuping

    2018-02-01

    Methane (CH4) emission from animal husbandry accounts for a large percentage of anthropogenic contributions to CH4 emissions. Fully understanding of grazing management effects on the CH4 budget is essential for mitigating CH4 emissions in the temperate grazing steppe systems. Annual CH4 budgets for the sheep grazed steppes at various grazing intensities, un-grazing (UG, 0 sheep ha-1year-1), defer grazing (DG, 1.0 sheep ha-1 year-1), moderate grazing (MG, 1.43 sheep ha-1year-1), and heavy grazing (HG, 2.43 sheep ha-1year-1) were assessed across 2012-2014 in the agro-pastoral region of northern China. Annual soil CH4 uptake averaged across 2012-2014 were 1.1 ± 0.1, 2.4 ± 0.2, 2.2 ± 0.2, and 1.3 ± 0.1 kg CH4-C ha-1 for UG, DG (only 2013-2014), MG and HG sites. Non-growing season CH4 uptake comprised 50.0 ± 4.3% of annual CH4 uptake in 2012-2013 and 37.7 ± 2.0% in 2013-2014. DG and MG significantly promoted annual soil CH4 uptake (P 0.05). Bell-shaped relationship was presented between stocking rates and soil CH4 uptake (r2 = 0.59, P budgets for the grazed grasslands were -1.1 ± 0.1, 5.7 ± 0.6, 11.5 ± 1.5 and 15.5 ± 1.3 kg CH4-C ha-1 year-1 in UG, DG (only 2013-2014), MG and HG across 2012-2014. Soil CH4 uptake could offset 29.7 ± 5.6, 15.9 ± 4.3 and 6.8 ± 1.0% of total annual CH4 emissions from sheep, sheepfold and faeces in DG, MG, and HG. All grazed steppes are sources for atmospheric CH4 and the magnitude is regulated by grazing intensities. Sheep CH4 emissions for 1-g liveweight gain were 0.21, 0.32 and 0.37 g CH4-C in DG, MG and HG, respectively. DG is the recommended grazing management in this region to achieve greater herbage mass, higher sheep performance and lower CH4 emissions simultaneously.

  18. Grazing by sheep Ovis aries reduces island populations of water voles Arvicola amphibius

    Karl Frafjord

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The population of water voles Arvicola amphibius was surveyed on 21 islands in the Solvær archipelago, northern Norway, in August 2012; 11 islands with semi-wild domestic sheep Ovis aries and 10 islands without sheep. Signs from water voles are very easy to detect and were used as a measure of the population (on a scale 0-10, and the numbers of sheep were counted. The ranking of signs on islands with and without sheep was compared, and a significant difference was found. Islands with sheep had, with one exception, only very small and fragmented populations of water voles, the one exception being a fairly large Carex swamp that was not grazed by the sheep and where a moderate-sized population of voles was found. Islands without sheep had much larger populations of water voles, giving a ranking about four times higher. One reason for the devastating effect of sheep on water voles is probably the fact that the sheep are living year-round on these islands with no supplemental food.

  19. Sympatric cattle grazing and desert bighorn sheep foraging

    Garrison, Kyle R.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2015-01-01

    Foraging behavior affects animal fitness and is largely dictated by the resources available to an animal. Understanding factors that affect forage resources is important for conservation and management of wildlife. Cattle sympatry is proposed to limit desert bighorn population performance, but few studies have quantified the effect of cattle foraging on bighorn forage resources or foraging behavior by desert bighorn. We estimated forage biomass for desert bighorn sheep in 2 mountain ranges: the cattle-grazed Caballo Mountains and the ungrazed San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. We recorded foraging bout efficiency of adult females by recording feeding time/step while foraging, and activity budgets of 3 age-sex classes (i.e., adult males, adult females, yearlings). We also estimated forage biomass at sites where bighorn were observed foraging. We expected lower forage biomass in the cattle-grazed Caballo range than in the ungrazed San Andres range and lower biomass at cattle-accessible versus inaccessible areas within the Caballo range. We predicted bighorn would be less efficient foragers in the Caballo range. Groundcover forage biomass was low in both ranges throughout the study (Jun 2012–Nov 2013). Browse biomass, however, was 4.7 times lower in the Caballo range versus the San Andres range. Bighorn in the Caballo range exhibited greater overall daily travel time, presumably to locate areas of higher forage abundance. By selecting areas with greater forage abundance, adult females in the Caballo range exhibited foraging bout efficiency similar to their San Andres counterparts but lower overall daily browsing time. We did not find a significant reduction in forage biomass at cattle-accessible areas in the Caballo range. Only the most rugged areas in the Caballo range had abundant forage, potentially a result of intensive historical livestock use in less rugged areas. Forage conditions in the Caballo range apparently force bighorn to increase foraging effort by

  20. Efeito do pastejo rotacionado e alternado com bovinos adultos no controle da verminose em ovelhas Effect of rotational and alternate grazing with adult cattle on the control of nematode parasites in sheep

    L.H. Fernandes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos do pastejo alternado de ovinos e bovinos e do pastejo rotacionado sobre o controle da verminose em ovelhas. Utilizou-se uma área experimental composta por três módulos de 1,67ha cada. Os módulos foram subdivididos em oito piquetes. Vinte ovelhas foram colocadas no módulo 1 e quatro bovinos adultos no módulo 2. Os animais permaneceram em cada piquete do módulo por cinco dias, totalizando 40 dias de permanência em cada módulo. Ao final desse período, as ovelhas foram transferidas para o módulo onde estavam os bovinos e estes para o módulo onde estavam os ovinos, mantendo esse esquema até o final do experimento. Um grupo-controle de 20 ovelhas foi mantido, também em sistema rotacionado, em um terceiro módulo, sem compartilhar a pastagem. As ovelhas submetidas ao manejo com bovinos apresentaram o menor grau de infecção por nematódeos gastrintestinais e os maiores valores de volume globular. O pastejo rotacionado de ovinos, sem a utilização de bovinos, não foi eficiente no controle da verminose das ovelhas. A utilização do pastejo rotacionado e alternado de ovinos e bovinos adultos exerceu efeito benéfico significativo no controle da verminose ovina.The effects of rotational and alternate grazing involving cattle and sheep on the control of nematode parasites in sheep were evaluated. Three areas with 1.67ha were subdivided into eight paddocks each. Twenty ewes and four cattle were allotted to areas 1 and 2, respectively. They grazed during five days in each of eight paddocks of each area. The sheep and cattle rotated in each area for 40 days. At the end of this period, ewes were transferred to the area where cattle were previously kept and these animals were transferred to the area where sheep had previously grazed. This arrangement was kept until the end of the experiment. A control group with 20 ewes rotated in the third area, also with eight paddocks. Ewes that alternately grazed with cattle showed

  1. Plasma protein loss associated with gastrointestinal parasitism in grazing sheep.

    Yakoob, A Y; Holmes, P H; Parkins, J J; Armour, J

    1983-01-01

    Some pathophysiological effects of parasitic gastroenteritis in two groups of lambs grazing paddocks either heavily or lightly contaminated with trichostrongyle larvae were investigated between July and October 1980. The leak of plasma protein was measured on three occasions at pasture using 51chromic chloride. Total faecal output was measured indirectly using chromic oxide. Losses of 51chromic chloride-labelled plasma protein into the gastrointestinal tract were significantly higher in the lambs grazing the heavily contaminated pasture than in those grazing lightly infected ground in both July and August. The increased plasma losses were associated with high faecal egg counts, hypoalbuminaemia and elevated levels of plasma pepsinogen.

  2. Dry matter intake, performance and carcass characteristics of hair sheep reared under different grazing systems

    Viviane Rodrigues Ventolin dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different grazing systems: isolated, alternate and simultaneous, on feed intake, performance and carcass characteristics of sheep. About 5.2 ha area of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximun Jacq cultivate Tanzania was divided into 13 paddocks. This area was used as a stocking rate of two animal units (AU per ha for 7 days’ occupation and 21 days rest. A total number of 58 animals were used consisting of 12 heifers and 30 Santa Ines lambs with the addition of 16 adult ewes that were used to stabilize grazing pressure in the isolated system. The sheep were fed on 200 g per head per day of concentrate and cattle 2 kg per head per day. The parameters determined were the following: weekly weight (WW, total live weight gain (LWG and mean daily weight gain (MDW. Also dry matter intake was estimated 84 days after the start of the experiment using external indicators (Purified and Enriched Lignin in addition to carcass traits and composition which were also estimated. The result obtained for carcass composition revealed that the muscle:bone ratio and bone percentage were better in the alternate system. Moreover, the simultaneous and isolated systems showed higher lamb performance than the alternate system, while there was no effect on dry matter intake. Furthermore, there was no difference of the different systems on carcass traits and feed intake of sheep. Nevertheless, the simultaneous grazing system showed better sheep performance than the alternate grazing system.

  3. Influence of high-altitude grazing on bone metabolism of growing sheep.

    Liesegang, A; Hüttenmoser, D; Risteli, J; Leiber, F; Kreuzer, M; Wanner, M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the effect of high alpine grazing, associated with varying pasture grass qualities and more pronounced exercise on typically steep slopes, on bone metabolism by improving bone density and enhancing bone turnover in growing sheep. Twenty-four 5-month-old sheep were randomly assigned to two groups. One group was kept at high altitude (HA; 2000-2200 m a.s.l.) for 3 months, and the other group (C; control) remained in the lowlands (400 m a.s.l.). Both groups were kept in grazing pastures with access to good-quality swards. Before the start of the experiment, blood samples were taken, the sheep were weighed, and the left metatarsus of each animal was analysed by quantitative computer tomography. After 1 month, blood samples were taken and body weight was measured, followed by biweekly sampling. Finally, the animals were slaughtered, and the bones were collected for analysis of various bone parameters. Body weight development did not differ between the groups. Concentrations of 25-OH-Vitamin D, carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and activities of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase were always higher in the HA group than in the C group, except on the last two sampling dates. Bone mineral content and density increased in both groups during the experiment, but more intensively in the HA group. In addition, the cortical thickness of the HA group increased. The present study demonstrates an increase in bone turnover and mineral content of the bones of the growing sheep grazing in high alpine pastures. The factors associated with HA grazing, therefore, clearly seem to improve bone composition. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Successive sheep grazing reduces population density of Brandt's voles in steppe grassland by altering food resources: a large manipulative experiment.

    Li, Guoliang; Yin, Baofa; Wan, Xinrong; Wei, Wanhong; Wang, Guiming; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Livestock grazing has shaped grassland ecosystems around the world. Previous studies indicated grazing showed various impacts on small rodents; however, most studies were conducted over 1-2 years without controlling for confounding factors such as immigration/emigration and predation in rodents. Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) are generally recognized as pests because of food overlap with domestic herbivores, but are also important for biodiversity conservation because they provide nests or food to many birds. Fully understanding the ecological relationship between domestic herbivores and small mammals is essential to making ecosystem management decisions. To address these needs, we carried out a field experiment during the period 2010-2013 to assess the effects of sheep grazing on vegetation and the population density of Brandt's voles along a gradient of three grazing intensities by using 12 large-scale enclosures. Responses of Brandt's voles to livestock grazing varied with grazing intensity and year. As compared to the control group, sheep grazing had no effect on vole abundance in the first year but an overall negative effect on vole abundance in the following 3 years. Successive grazing caused decreases in survival and male body mass of voles, but had no significant effect on fecundity. Negative effects of grazing were associated with a grazing-induced deterioration in both food quantity (reflected by biomass and cover of less-preferred plants), and food quality (measured by tannin and total phenol content). Our findings highlight the urgent need for more flexible management of yearly rotational grazing to optimize livestock production while maintaining species diversity and ecosystem health.

  5. Physical impact of grazing by sheep on the dynamics of Nama ...

    UFS

    Physical impact of sheep grazing on arid Karoo subshrub/grass rangeland,. South Africa ... sustainability of rangeland resources, soil and vegetation responses to various grazing systems (Teague &. Dowhower .... The only significant decrease (F3,4 = 18.14, P <0.01) in basal cover of the total herbaceous layer for the 1995 ...

  6. The ecological adaptability of cloned sheep to free-grazing in the Tengger Desert of Inner Mongolia, China

    Xinxin LI,Huijuan WANG,Guanghua SU,Zhuying WEI,Chunling BAI,Wuni-MENGHE,Yanhui HOU,Changqing YU,Shorgan BOU,Guangpeng LI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the birth of the first cloned sheep, somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has been successfully used to clone a variety of mammals. Cloned livestock have no apparent health risks, and the quality and safety of the cloned animal products are similar to non-cloned animals. The social behavior and environmental adaptability of postnatal cloned animals, especially when used for grassland farm production purposes, is unknown. In the present study, the cloned Dorper sheep equipped with GPS location devices were free-grazed in a harsh natural environment similar to conditions commonly experienced by Mongolian sheep. The main findings of this research were as follows. (1 Under free-grazing conditions, the cloned sheep showed excellent climatic and ecological adaptability. In extreme temperature conditions ranging from -30 to 40ºC, the cloned sheep maintained acceptable body condition and behaved as other sheep. (2 The cloned sheep quickly adapted from a herd feeding strategy to the harsh environment and quickly exhibited a grazing regimen as other free-grazing sheep. (3 The cloned sheep exhibited free-grazing patterns and social behavior as other sheep. (4 The cloned sheep in the harsh environment thrived and produced healthy lambs. Overall, the cloned Dorper sheep exhibited excellent ecological adaptation, which is an important consideration for breeding meat sheep by cloning. The Dorper sheep readily adapted to the free-grazing conditions on the Mongolian plateau grassland, which attests to their ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions.

  7. Re-visiting the nutrition of dairy sheep grazing Mediterranean pastures

    M. Decandia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the light of recent findings in sheep nutrition and behaviour, the diets of grazing dairy sheep should be based on forages encompassing a variety of complementary nutritional values and containing moderate levels of complementary plant secondary metabolites, until recently regarded as "anti-nutritional". In lactating sheep, pastures of tannin-containing legumes like sulla (Hedysarum coronarium and chicory (Cichorium intybus can be integrated with annual grasses for establishing sustainable artificial pastures under rainfed conditions. Diets based on these forages, while ensuring high milking performance, can mitigate the unbalance of CP to energy ratio of grazing sheep. By grazing sulla and annual or Italian ryegrass (50:50 by area as spatially conterminal monocultures or in timely sequence (complementary grazing sheep eat more and perform better than by grazing the ryegrass pasture only. Concentrate supplementation of lactating sheep should be preferably based on fibrous sources (soyhulls or beet pulps, particularly from mid-lactation onwards and when supplementation levels are high. Milk urea concentration is confirmedly a useful monitoring tool to balance protein nutrition and curb the waste of N at animal and system level.

  8. 75 FR 22617 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for Domestic Sheep Grazing on the Dog...

    2010-04-29

    ... Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for Domestic Sheep Grazing on the Dog Creek and Green Creek... that will evaluate a range of alternatives for grazing domestic sheep on the Dog Creek and Green Creek... to the Bishop RMP, and would therefore require a plan amendment. The Dog Creek allotment consists of...

  9. The impact of sheep grazing on the carbon balance of a peatland

    Worrall, Fred, E-mail: Fred.Worrall@durham.ac.uk; Clay, Gareth D.

    2012-11-01

    Estimates of the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes resulting from sheep grazing upon upland peat soils have never been fully quantified. Previous studies have been limited to individual flux pathways or to comparing the presence to the absence of sheep grazing. Therefore, this study combines a model of the physical impact of grazing with models of: biomass production; energy usage in sheep; and peat accumulation. These combined modelling approaches enabled this study to consider the indirect and direct impacts of sheep upon the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of a peatland at different grazing intensities as well as the changes between grazing intensities. The study considered four vegetation scenarios (Calluna sp., Molinia sp.; reseeded grasses, and Agrostis-Festuca grassland) and a mixed vegetation scenario based upon the vegetation typical of upland peat ecosystems in northern England. Each scenario was considered for altitudes between 350 and 900 m above sea level and for grazing intensities between 0.1 and 2 ewes/ha. The study can show that the total GHG flux at the vegetative carrying capacity tended to decline with increasing altitude for all vegetation scenarios considered except for Molinia sp. The average total GHG flux for all scenarios was 1505 kg CO{sub 2}eq/ha/yr/(ewe/ha), and on average 89% of the fluxes were directly from the sheep and not from the soil, and are therefore not unique to a peat soil environment. The study suggests that emission factors for upland sheep have been greatly underestimated. By comparing the total flux due to grazers to the flux to or from the soil that allows the study to define a GHG carry capacity, i.e. the grazing intensity at which the flux due to grazing is equal to the sink represented by the peat soils, this GHG carrying capacity varies between 0.2 and 1.7 ewes/ha with this capacity declining with increasing altitude for all model scenarios. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vegetative carrying capacity was

  10. Radiocaesium in grazing sheep. A statistical analysis of variability, survey methodology and long term behaviour

    Mehli, H

    1996-05-01

    Since 1987 sheep grazing in the areas of Norway that received Chernobyl-fallout have been monitored before slaughter. These monitoring data formed the basis for development of a model describing the long term behaviour of radiocesium in unimproved pasture showing that in years with good mushroom abundance 70-80% of the radiocesium concentration in sheep is due to fungi consumption. A study of sampling strategy and variability of radiocesium concentration within flocks was also performed. 55 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Radiocaesium in grazing sheep. A statistical analysis of variability, survey methodology and long term behaviour

    Mehli, H.

    1996-05-01

    Since 1987 sheep grazing in the areas of Norway that received Chernobyl-fallout have been monitored before slaughter. These monitoring data formed the basis for development of a model describing the long term behaviour of radiocesium in unimproved pasture showing that in years with good mushroom abundance 70-80% of the radiocesium concentration in sheep is due to fungi consumption. A study of sampling strategy and variability of radiocesium concentration within flocks was also performed. 55 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs

  12. The Effect of Different Type of Herbivores, Grazing Types and Grazing Intensities on Alpine Basiphillous Vegetation of the Romanian Carpathians

    Ballová, Zuzana; Pekárik, Ladislav; Šibík, Jozef

    2017-04-01

    The major purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that there are significant differences in vegetation structure, plant species composition, and soil chemical properties in relation to type of grazing animals, various levels of grazing intensity and grazing type, and if potential differences alter with ecosystem productivity (increase in more productive ecosystems). The study was conducted in three mountain ranges of the Romanian Carpathians with a predominance of alkaline substrates (the Bucegi Mts, the Little Retezat Mts and the Ceahlău Massif). Statistical analyses were performed in R statistical software environment. The effects of grazing animals (cattle, horses and sheep), grazing types (fence, regular, irregular) and grazing intensity (low, medium, high) on the community structure were tested using ordination methods. In the case of soil properties, General Linear Mixed Model was applied. Special statistical approach eliminated the differences between the examined mountains and sites. Type of grazing animal does not significantly influence species cover but it is related to specific species occurrence. According to our results, grazing horses had similar effects as cattle compared to sheep. Grazing in restricted areas (surrounded by fence) and regular unrestricted grazing were more similar if compared to irregular grazing. When comparing the intensity of grazing, high and medium intensity were more similar to each other than to the low intensity grazing. Cattle grazed sites had significantly higher lichens cover, while the sheep patches were covered with increased overall herb layer (forbs, graminoids and low shrubs together). Medium grazing intensity decreased the lichens cover, cover of overall herb layer, and total vegetation cover compared to high and low grazing intensity. Grazing type had important impact on the lichens cover and cover of overall herb layer. The lichens cover appeared to decrease while the cover of overall herb layer

  13. Linking sheep density and grazing frequency to persistence of herb species in an alpine environment

    Lanta, V.; Austrheim, G.; Evju, M.; Klimešová, Jitka; Mysterud, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2014), s. 411-420 ISSN 0912-3814 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : sheep grazing * alpine pastures * Norway Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.296, year: 2014

  14. Adaptation of indigenous sheep, goats and camels in harsh grazing conditions

    Engelhardt, W. von; Weyreter, H.; Heller, R.; Lechner, M.; Schultka, W.

    1986-01-01

    Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)

  15. Radiocaesium transfer to grazing sheep in Nordic environments

    Hove, K.; Loensjoe, H.; Andersson, I.; Sormunen-Cristian, R.; Solheim Hansen, H.; Indridason, K.; Joensen, H.P.; Kossila, V.; Liken, A.; Magnusson, S.M.; Nielsen, S.P.; Paasikallio, A.; Palsson, S.E.; Rosen, K.; Selnes, T.; Strand, P.; Thorsson, J.; Vestergaard, T.

    1994-01-01

    Radiocaesium transfer in the soil-herbage-lamb food chain was assessed in a four-year trial conducted in sheep production locations in the Nordic countries. Radiocaesium contamination of the topsoil ranged from 3 to 30 kBq m 2 and was predominantly of Chernobyl origin in Finland, Noway, and Sweden, whereas in Iceland 137 Cs was primarily of nuclear weapon test origin, and in Denmark and the Faroe Island contamination was derived from both sources. Soil-to-herbage radiocaesium transfer factors were high on the organic and acidic soils of the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, averaging 18-82 Bq 137 Cs kg -1 herbage on a soil deposition of 1 kBq 137 Cs m -2 , and much lower on the sandy soils of Denmark and clay soils in Finland (0.4-0.8). Herbage-to-lamb concentration factors were generally more homogeneous, with values ranging from 0.25-0.70, indicating that the absorption of radiocaesium from herbage was similar in each of the countries. A 137 Cs deposition of 1 kbq m -2 soil gave rise to much lower meat radiocaesium concentrations at the sites in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Finland (0.5-3.0 Bq kg -1 ) than in Iceland, Norway, and Sweden (20-47 Bq kg -1 ). Major factors which will determine the time-integrated dose of radiocaesium transferred to man are levels of consumption of lamb meat, aggregated transfer factors from soil to meat, and effective ecological halflives of 137 Cs in the production system. It is concluded that among the Nordic countries the soil-herbage-lamb pathway is clearly of greatest importance in Iceland and Norway, intermediate in the Faroe Islands, and of comparatively lesser importance in Denmark and Sweden. (orig.)

  16. Altitude, pasture type, and sheep breed affect bone metabolism and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in grazing lambs.

    Willems, Helen; Leiber, Florian; Kohler, Martina; Kreuzer, Michael; Liesegang, Annette

    2013-05-15

    This study aimed to investigate the bone development of two mountain sheep breeds during natural summer grazing either in the lowlands or on different characteristic alpine pastures. Pasture types differed in topographic slope, plant species composition, general nutritional feeding value, Ca and P content, and Ca:P ratio of herbage. Twenty-seven Engadine sheep (ES) lambs and 27 Valaisian Black Nose sheep (VS) lambs were divided into four groups of 6 to 7 animals per breed and allocated to three contrasting alpine pasture types and one lowland pasture type. The lambs were slaughtered after 9 wk of experimental grazing. The steep alpine pastures in combination with a high (4.8) to very high (13.6) Ca:P ratio in the forage decreased total bone mineral content as measured in the middle of the left metatarsus of the lambs from both breeds, and cortical bone mineral content and cortical bone mineral density of ES lambs. Breed × pasture type interactions occurred in the development of total and cortical bone mineral content, and in cortical thickness, indicating that bone metabolism of different genotypes obviously profited differently from the varying conditions. An altitude effect occurred for 25-hydroxyvitamin D with notably higher serum concentrations on the three alpine sites, and a breed effect led to higher concentrations for ES than VS. Despite a high variance, there were pasture-type effects on serum markers of bone formation and resorption.

  17. PRODUCTIVITY OF A SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM UNDER INTENSIVE MIXED SPECIES GRAZING BY CATTLE AND SHEEP

    Leonor Yalid Manriquez-Mendoza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of forage trees in pastures enhances yield and nutritional quality of forage available for animal feeding. We assessed forage yield and nutritional quality, and weight gain of cattle and sheep foraging in a silvopastoral system containing Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. and the grasses Digitaria eriantha Stent (cv. Pangola, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. Stapf (cv. Insurgentes and Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs (cv. Tanzania, during three seasons (windy, dry and rainy in two grazing treatments: 1 mixed species grazing by four to five Criollo Lechero Tropical heifers and six female Pelibuey lambs, and 2 simple species grazing by 12 female Pelibuey lambs. Weight gain was greater (P

  18. FATTY ACID PROFILE IN MILK OF BOVEC SHEEP FED IN THE STABLE OR GRAZED IN DIFFERENT PASTURES

    Angela Cividini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profile in the milk of Bovec sheep fed total mixed ratio (TMR and grazed natural pastures in the lowland (480 m altitude supplemented with the second harvest (L as well as grazed different altitude mountain pastures; M1 (1100- 1300 m altitude, M2 (1600-1700 m altitude, M3 (1800 m altitude, M4 (1900 m altitude, M5 (2200 m altitude were determined. There was an important effect when ewes were turned from the stable to the pasture on all fatty acids. The percentage of α-linolenic acid (ALA, arachidonic acid (ARA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA increased significantly (P<0.001 with the diet. In the milk from M5 grazing the percentage of ALA was 2.5 times higher than in milk from L and 2.6 times higher than in milk from TMR. The percentage of ARA and DHA in milk was the highest when ewes were grazing on the M5 pasture (0.21±0.02 wt. %; 0.22±0.02 wt. % respectively. Total n-3PUFA and n-6PUFA increased significantly (P<0.001 by the diet. Therefore, the n-6/n-3PUFA ratio was the best (1.2 in milk produced in the highest mountain pasture (M5, in terms of nutritional requirements.

  19. Feed selection and radiocaesium intake by reindeer, sheep and goats grazing alpine summer habitats in southern Norway

    Staaland, H.; Garmo, T.H.; Hove, K.; Pedersen, O.

    1995-01-01

    Radiocaesium concentrations ( 137 Cs) were measured in extrusa from oesophageally fistulated sheep, goats and reindeer grazing alpine summer vegetation in Griningsdalen, Southern Norway in the period 1987-1989. The experiments with sheep and goats were conducted in different sub-alpine areas. The reindeer were, in addition, grazed in three areas in the low alpine zone. Grazing bouts lasted for 10-20 min and bite selections were recorded every 15 s through the grazing bout. Reindeer and goats had the most diverse food selection whereas sheep fed mainly on grasses, forbs and to some extent, on leaves of willow. The reindeer extrusa had the highest radiocaesium activity, apparently to a large extent caused by intake of lichens in areas where this type of plants were present. Depending on the type of vegetation in the grazed areas the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to grazed vegetation (Bq kg -1 dry extrusa/Bq m -2 soil) was estimated to 0.02-0.04 in sheep, 0.02-0.05 in goats and 0.02-0.43 in reindeer for 1987. (author)

  20. DIMENSIONS OF CARCASS AND INTERNAL ORGANS IN YOUNG SHEEP, UNDER CONDITIONS OF GRAZING ON ASSOCIATIONS OF PERENNIAL GRAMINACEOUS AND LEGUME

    N. DRAGOMIR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The temporary pastures’ floristic structure influences directly the growth and development of young sheep during grazing. The associations, beside the graminaceous and perennial legume species (white clover and birdsfoot trefoil, contribute mostly to the increase of carcass dimension and organ weight. The quality of the forage from such a pasture, better balanced in terms of energy and protein, influences all growth and development parameters in young sheep.

  1. Non-traditional Forages in a Managed Grazing System for Control of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Sheep: Preliminary Work

    This project compared lambs grazing forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) with lambs grazing brown mid-rib forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) x sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense Piper) hybrid (BMR) to determine if anti-parasitic effects of chicory could be demonstrated. Lambs grazed these fo...

  2. Impact of cutting and sheep grazing on ground-active spiders and carabids in intertidal salt marshes (Western France

    Pétillon, J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterize spider (Araneae and ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae communities in managed (cutting and sheep grazing and non-managed salt marshes and to assess the efficiency of management regimes in these particular ecosystems. The two groups were studied during 2002 in salt marshes of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay (NW France using pitfall traps. By opening soil and vegetation structures cutting and grazing enhanced the abundances of some halophilic species of spiders and ground beetles. Nevertheless, grazing appeared to be too intensive as spider species richness decreased. We discuss the implications of management practices in terms of nature conservation and their application in the particular area of intertidal salt marshes.

  3. Aspects of the uptake of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh

    Howard, B.J.; Lindley, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    The transfer of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, sup(239/240)Pu and 241 Am to sheep which graze a saltmarsh in the Esk estuary, 7 km south of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in west Cumbria (UK), has been estimated. The concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides and of 238 Pu, sup(239/240)Pu and 241 Am were measured in liver, lung, muscle, kidney and bone from saltmarsh ewes and lambs. 137 Cs concentrations in the soft tissues were similar in liver, lung and muscle but were consistently higher in kidney and much lower in bone. The highest concentration of the transuranics was found in liver. Transfer coefficients and concentration factors were calculated for both ewes and lambs. The concentration of 137 Cs in the tissues of 5-month old lambs was higher than in those of their mothers. Therefore, a higher transfer coefficient was obtained for lamb muscle (1.8 x 10 -1 d kg -1 ) than for ewe muscle (6.4 x 10 -2 d kg -1 ). Concentration factors were consistently higher for 137 Cs than for the transuranics. (author)

  4. Changes in plant functional groups, litter quality, and soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization with sheep grazing in an Inner Mongolian Grassland

    Barger, N.N.; Ojima, D.S.; Belnap, J.; Shiping, W.; Yanfen, W.; Chen, Z.

    2004-01-01

    This study reports on changes in plant functional group composition, litter quality, and soil C and N mineralization dynamics from a 9-year sheep grazing study in Inner Mongolia. Addressed are these questions: 1) How does increasing grazing intensity affect plant community composition? 2) How does increasing grazing intensity alter soil C and N mineralization dynamics? 3) Do changes in soil C and N mineralization dynamics relate to changes in plant community composition via inputs of the quality or quantity of litter? Grazing plots were set up near the Inner Mongolia Grassland Ecosystem Research Station (IMGERS) with 5 grazing intensities: 1.3, 2.7, 4.0, 5.3, and 6.7 sheep ha -1??yr-1. Plant cover was lower with increasing grazing intensity, which was primarily due to a dramatic decline in grasses, Carex duriuscula, and Artemisia frigida. Changes in litter mass and percentage organic C resulted in lower total C in the litter layer at 4.0 and 5.3 sheep ha-1??yr-1 compared with 2.7 sheep ha -1??yr-1. Total litter N was lower at 5.3 sheep ha-1??yr-1 compared with 2.7 sheep ha -1??yr-1. Litter C:N ratios, an index of litter quality, were significantly lower at 4.0 sheep ha-1??yr -1 relative to 1.3 and 5.3 sheep ha-1??yr -1. Cumulative C mineralized after 16 days decreased with increasing grazing intensity. In contrast, net N mineralization (NH4+ + NO3-) after a 12-day incubation increased with increasing grazing intensity. Changes in C and N mineralization resulted in a narrowing of CO2-C:net Nminratios with increasing grazing intensity. Grazing explained 31% of the variability in the ratio of CO 2-C:net Nmin. The ratio of CO2-C:net N min was positively correlated with litter mass. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between litter mass and A. frigida cover. Results suggest that as grazing intensity increases, microbes become more C limited resulting in decreased microbial growth and demand for N.

  5. Bacterial community in the rumen of Tibetan sheep and Gansu alpine fine-wool sheep grazing on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Huang, Jinqiang; Li, Yongjuan; Luo, Yuzhu

    2017-05-12

    The rumen microbiome plays a vital role in ruminant nutrition and health, and its community is affected by environmental factors. However, little is known about the rumen bacterial community of ruminants living in the special ecological environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) of China. The objectives of this study were to investigate the rumen bacterial community of the typical plateau sheep (Tibetan sheep, TS, and Gansu alpine fine-wool sheep, GS) grazing on the QTP, using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and to evaluate the relationship between the rumen bacterial community and the QTP environment. A total of 116 sequences (201 clones) were examined and divided into 53 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the TS library and 46 OTUs in the GS library. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequences that belonged to the Firmicutes were the most predominant bacteria in both TS and GS libraries, representing 79.4% and 62.8% of the total clones, respectively. The remaining sequences belonged to Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, or were unclassified bacteria. Sequence analysis revealed that the TS and GS rumens harbored many novel sequences associated with uncultured bacteria that accounted for 63.6% and 46.8% of the total clones, respectively. Comparison of the composition and diversity of the TS and GS rumen bacteria revealed few overlapping known bacteria between the two breeds, and a higher diversity in TS. The rumen bacteria of the plateau sheep showed higher percentages of bacteria that belonged to Firmicutes and novel species compared with the low-elevation sheep. The unique bacterial community in the plateau sheep rumens is perhaps one of the major reasons that they can adapt to the harsh plateau environment. These results can help identify the rumen bacterial community of the ruminants in the QTP, and provide bacteria resources and basic data to improve ruminant productivity.

  6. Geographic variation in tissue accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in grazing sheep

    Rhind, S.M., E-mail: s.rhind@macaulay.ac.u [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Kyle, C.E.; Mackie, C.; Yates, K. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Duff, E.I. [Biomathematics and Statistics, Scotland, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Muscle tissue was collected from ewes and lambs derived from farms throughout Scotland and sample concentrations of five endocrine disrupting compound groups were determined. Farms of origin were categorised according to geographic region. There were few statistically-significant differences with region or distance from cities. However, the magnitude of the difference between the highest and lowest mean values in ewe muscle from different regions exceeded 30% for 13 of the 15 compounds that were consistently detected in muscle, with animals derived from the industrialised region having the highest mean values for 11 of the 13 compounds. A less marked trend was apparent in the lamb muscle (8 of 13 highest were in the industrialised region). The physiological effects of such small differences in exposure to mixtures of pollutants remain to be determined. - Research highlights: Muscle tissue collected from sheep from different regions of Scotland. Concentrations of selected endocrine disrupting compounds measured. Few significant differences in concentrations, with region. Highest concentrations in sheep from industrialised areas and near to cities. - Muscle concentrations of few of the endocrine disrupting compounds, measured in the muscle of sheep from regions exposed to greater pollution, were elevated.

  7. Phosphorus and the grazing ruminant. 1. The effect of ...

    M.Sc.-tesis,. Universiteit Stellenbosch. DUDZINSKI, M.L. & ARNOLD, G.W., 1973. Comparison of diets of sheep and cattle grazing together on sown pastures on the southern tablelands of New South Wales by principal components analysis. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 24, 899. DU TOlT, P.J., MALAN, AI. & ROSSOUW, S.D., 1930.

  8. Effects of rainfall, competition and grazing on flowering of ...

    Birds, hares and small antelope consumed 10-50% of the flowers. Size-class distributions indicated that little recent recruitment had taken place on a ranch where palatable plants were scarce and where O. sinuatum flower production was severely depressed by grazing sheep.Language: English. Keywords: Asteraceae ...

  9. Predicted risk of cobalt deficiency in grazing sheep from a geochemical survey; communicating uncertainty with the IPCC verbal scale.

    Lark, R. M.; Ander, E. L.; Cave, M. R.; Knights, K. V.; Glennon, M. M.; Scanlon, R. P.

    2014-05-01

    Deficiency or excess of certain trace elements in the soil causes problems for agriculture, including disorders of grazing ruminants. Farmers and their advisors in Ireland use index values for the concentration of total soil cobalt and manganese to identify where grazing sheep are at risk of cobalt deficiency. We used cokriging with topsoil data from a regional geochemical survey across six counties of Ireland to form local cokriging predictions of cobalt and manganese concentrations with an attendant distribution which reflects the joint uncertainty of these predictions. From this distribution we then computed conditional probabilities for different combinations of cobalt and manganese index values, and so for the corresponding inferred risk to sheep of cobalt deficiency and the appropriateness of different management interventions. The challenge is to communicate these results effectively to an audience comprising, inter alia, farmers, agronomists and veterinarians. Numerical probabilities are not generally well-understood by non-specialists. For this reason we presented our results as maps using a verbal scale to communicate the probability that a deficiency is indicated by local soil conditions, or that a particular intervention is indicated. In the light of recent research on the effectiveness of the verbal scale used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to communicate probabilistic information we reported the geostatistical predictions as follows. First, we use the basic IPCC scale with intensifiers, but we also indicate the corresponding probabilities (as percentages) as recommended by Budescu et al. (2009). Second, we make it clear that the source of uncertainty in these predictions is the spatial variability of soil Co and Mn. The outcome under consideration is therefore that a particular soil management scenario would be indicated if the soil properties were known without error, possible uncertainty about the implications of particular soil

  10. Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06 ± 1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake.

  11. The extent of anthelmintic Resistance on Nematodes in communally grazed sheep and goats in a Semi-Arid area of North-west Province (RSA) / Tebogo Stanely Ramotshwane

    Ramotshwane, Tebogo Stanely

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed sheep and goat herds in the Zeerust area of the North-West Province, Republic of South Africa. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECR%) tests were used to assess the sheep and goat small holder farmers. Efficacy of albendazole, ivermectin and closantel was done on both the treatment and control animals. Anthelmintic efficacy of 80% was considered a threshold for ...

  12. Modeling the grazing effect on dry grassland carbon cycling with modified Biome-BGC grazing model

    Luo, Geping; Han, Qifei; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Liao

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the factors that determine the carbon source/sink strength of ecosystems is important for reducing uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. Arid grassland ecosystems are a widely distributed biome type in Xinjiang, Northwest China, covering approximately one-fourth the country's land surface. These grasslands are the habitat for many endemic and rare plant and animal species and are also used as pastoral land for livestock. Using the modified Biome-BGC grazing model, we modeled carbon dynamics in Xinjiang for grasslands that varied in grazing intensity. In general, this regional simulation estimated that the grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang acted as a net carbon source, with a value of 0.38 Pg C over the period 1979-2007. There were significant effects of grazing on carbon dynamics. An over-compensatory effect in net primary productivity (NPP) and vegetation carbon (C) stock was observed when grazing intensity was lower than 0.40 head/ha. Grazing resulted in a net carbon source of 23.45 g C m-2 yr-1, which equaled 0.37 Pg in Xinjiang in the last 29 years. In general, grazing decreased vegetation C stock, while an increasing trend was observed with low grazing intensity. The soil C increased significantly (17%) with long-term grazing, while the soil C stock exhibited a steady trend without grazing. These findings have implications for grassland ecosystem management as it relates to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation, e.g., removal of grazing should be considered in strategies that aim to increase terrestrial carbon sequestrations at local and regional scales. One of the greatest limitations in quantifying the effects of herbivores on carbon cycling is identifying the grazing systems and intensities within a given region. We hope our study emphasizes the need for large-scale assessments of how grazing impacts carbon cycling. Most terrestrial ecosystems in Xinjiang have been affected by disturbances to a greater or lesser extent in the past

  13. Assessing the usefulness of mineral licks containing herbal extracts with anti-parasitic properties for the control of gastrointestinal helminths in grazing sheep – a field trial

    Nosal P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the alternative methods of parasite control, of particular importance in sustainable farming, is the use of medicinal plants. The specific aim of the present field trial was to assess the anti-parasitic effects of herbal extracts contained in a commercially available lick formulation for sheep. At the outset of this study conducted during the grazing season, all animals were de-wormed and then randomly assigned to one of the two separately kept groups (treatment and control, each consisting of 25 animals (11 ewes and 14 lambs. The treatment group received mineral licks containing the extracts of the plants with anti-parasitic properties, while control animals received standard mineral licks ad libitum. Rectal fecal samples were collected monthly from all animals for the McMaster analyses. There were no significant differences in the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections between the treatment and control groups. Thus, we were not able to ascertain the efficacy of the commercial herbal de-wormer tested for the control of gastrointestinal helminths in grazing ewes and their lambs.

  14. Ecological Effects of Grazing in the Northern Tianshan Mountains

    Xiaotao Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the effects of grazing is critical for the conservation, protection and sustainable use of arid grassland ecosystems. However, research regarding the ecological effects of grazing along mountainous elevation gradients is limited in arid areas, particularly at the regional scale. Using the Biome-BGC grazing model, we explored the effects of grazing on grassland net primary productivity (NPP, evapotranspiration (ET and water use efficiency (WUE from 1979 to 2012 along an elevation gradient in the northern Tianshan Mountains. The NPP, ET and WUE values were generally lower under the grazing scenario than under the ungrazed scenario; the differences between the grazing and ungrazed scenarios showed increasing trends over time; and distinct spatial heterogeneity in these differences was observed. Distinct decreases in NPP and WUE under the grazing scenario mainly occurred in regions with high livestock consumption. The decrease in ET was greater in mountainous areas with high grazing intensity due to decreased transpiration and increased surface runoff. This study contributes to a better understanding of the ecological effects of grazing along an elevation gradient in the northern Tianshan Mountains and provides data to support the scientific management of grassland ecosystems.

  15. Effect of mowing and grazing on ramet emergence of Leymus ...

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... experiment was conducted in the spring of 2004 to investigate the effects on the surface soil temperature caused by mowing, grazing and grazing exclusion, and the influence of these factors on the ramets emergence characteristics. The primary effect of the treatments was significant changes in.

  16. Seasonal changes in water content and turnover in cattle, sheep and goats grazing under humid tropical conditions in Ghana

    Aggrey, E.K.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of seasonal changes on water content and water turnover of cattle, sheep and goats at pasture under humid tropical conditions was studied. Measurement of total body water and water turnover was based on the tritium dilution technique. Total body water was significantly higher in all three species of animal during the dry season, while water turnover was significantly lower in the dry season than in the wet season. In all seasons water turnover was highest in cattle, followed by sheep and then goat. Changes in body weight, body water, body solids and water turnover were associated with seasonal variations in nutrition. The indication was that the goat would be a more suitable animal for production under dry conditions than cattle and sheep. (author)

  17. The importance of ingested soils in supplying fluorine and lead to sheep grazing contaminated pastures in the Peak District mining area of Derbyshire, UK.

    Abrahams, Peter W; Blackwell, Nia L

    2013-12-01

    For sheep grazing pastures in areas of mineralisation and former metalliferous mining activity, an excessive intake of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) such as fluorine (F) and lead (Pb) can result in clinical and subclinical toxicity. The prime aim of our work was to calculate the intakes of both of these PHEs by sheep grazing pastures in the mineralised/mined Peak District area of Derbyshire. The bi-monthly sampling of topsoils (0-15 cm depth) and the faeces of sheep from fields at seven farms was undertaken for a 1-year period. These samples were analysed for titanium that allowed the rates of soil ingestion (and hence also herbage ingestion since we assume that the sheep have an overall diet of 1 kg dry matter (DM)/day) to be determined. Our findings were then combined with previously published soil and soil-free pasture herbage F and Pb concentrations determined from the seven farms to calculate the intakes of both PHEs. The results show seasonal variations of soil ingestion at the seven farms ranging from toxic impact. Because the soil concentrations are greater than those associated with soil-free pasture herbage, ingested soils are the main dietary source of Pb and (especially) F to sheep. However, subjecting freshly sampled topsoils to sequential extraction procedures undertaken in the laboratory indicates that the majority of Pb and (especially) F may not be readily soluble in the ovine digestion system, so reducing the quantities of both PHEs available for absorption.

  18. Some effects of winter grazing of Dohne sour veld | PF | African ...

    The utilisation of spared sour veld poses practical problems. As a result of the development of high level protein or nitrogen supplements it has however become possible to efficiently graze spared veld. Results of experiments during three winters where spared sour veld was grazed off either by sheep or by cattle are given.

  19. Morphologic and morphometric analysis of adrenal gland cortex of sheep grazing on pastures with the ground of electrofilter ash

    Juntes, P.; Pestevsek, U.; Pogacnik, M. [University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-07-01

    Electrofilter ash is a side product of power plants using coal as a fuel. Trials for transforming ash covered areas into cultivated landscape are ongoing e.g., efforts to form grasslands that would be usable for animal breeding and production. However the question of how safe grazing is on such surfaces in relation to animal health and the use of animal products, produced on such surfaces, for human consumption has not been truly resolved yet. The main goal of our work is a systematic search for the possible negative effects on animals grazing on such surfaces. In this work we present the results of morphologic and morphometric analyses that were made to evaluate the potential toxic or some other impact of electrofilter ash constituents on the adrenal gland cortex. No conclusive evidence of such effects was determined in this study.

  20. Phosphorus and the grazing ruminant. 2. The effects of ...

    Department of Animal Science, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch. The effects of .... rosis, severely impaired locomotion and therefore grazing behaviour ..... Studies in mineral metabolism. XXXVII. The influence of variations in the dietary ...

  1. Assessment of the Effects of Emerging Grazing Policies on Land ...

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: This study examines the effects of the emerging grazing policies on land degradation in Nigeria using soil, vegetation ... imposed land use controls divorced from economic and demographic ... may be either positive or negative.

  2. Effects of grazing strategy on limiting nitrate leaching in grazed grass-clover pastures on coarse sandy soil

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Eriksen, Jørgen; Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    -term mean. The experiment was initiated in a 4-yr-old grass-clover sward in south Denmark. Three treatments were as follows grazing only (G), spring cut followed by grazing (CG) and both spring and autumn cuts with summer grazing (CGC). Nitrate leaching was calculated by extracting water isolates from 80 cm......Urinations of ruminants on grazed pastures increase the risk of nitrate leaching. The study investigated the effect of reducing the length of the grazing season on nitrate leaching from a coarse sandy, irrigated soil during 2006–2007 and 2007–2008. In both years, precipitation was above the long...... depth using ceramic suction cups. Because of considerable variation in measured nitrate concentrations, the 32 installed suction cups per treatment were insufficient to reveal differences between treatments. However, weighted nitrate leaching estimations for G, CG and CGC showed estimated mean nitrate N...

  3. The effect of grazing on cow mortality in Danish dairy herds

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2011-01-01

    The effect of summer grazing in large Danish dairy herds and certain management characteristics of grazing were studied for their impact on dairy cow mortality. Mortality data (from the Danish Cattle Database) from 391 Danish dairy herds (>100 cows) were combined with information from...... a questionnaire survey of grazing procedures on these herds in 2008. In all, 131 of the herds were identified as summer grazing and 260 as zero-grazing herds. The mortality was affected by an interaction of summer grazing and milking system. The risk of a cow dying was reduced to 46% in a grazing compared...... and pasture was associated with increased cow mortality....

  4. White clover regenerative ability under N fertilizing and grazing

    Josip Leto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, ecological and economic factors in milk and meat production stimulate use of legumes and grass-legumes mixtures, with zero or minimum mineral N as alternative to grass monoculture with high rate of mineral N. Research objective was to examine the effect of N application (0-N0 and 150 kg ha-1 year-1-N150 and rotational grazing by cattle (C and sheep (S on white clover: growing points number, stolon lenght, stolon dry weight, dry matter yield and clover contribution to total annual herbage production. N150 significantly reduced the growing points number, stolon length and stolon dry weight for more than 70 % compared to N0. Grazing treatment affected stolon population density only in interaction with N application because of N150 significantly reduced white clover population density only in sheep grazing. S-treatment had higher clover DM yield (0.21 t ha-1 than C-treatment (0.13 t ha-1. N0 had higher clover DM yield (0.25 t ha-1 than N150 (0.09 t ha-1. However, the interaction grazing management x N rate was significant for clover DM yield and clover contribution to total DM yield. N150 reduced both parameters for 80 % only in sheep grazing while difference in DM yield and clover contribution to total DM yield between grazing treatment was recorded only in N0 Sheep grazing increased DM yield for 150 % and clover contribution for 99 % compared to cattle grazing.

  5. Prediction of 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation in milk of horses and sheep grazing the area adjacent to the 'Experimental Field' technical area of the Semipalatinsk test site

    Gontarenko, I.A.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Mukusheva, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes mathematical models for 137 Cs and 90 Sr behavior in body of horses and sheep grazing the area adjacent to the 'Experimental Field' Technical Area of the Semipalatinsk test site. The models were parametrized on the basis of experimental data for those breeds of animals that are currently encountered within the Semipalatinsk test area. The predictive conclusions using devised models have shown that 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentration in milk of horses and sheep grazing the Experimental field are can exceed the adopted standards during a long period of time. (author)

  6. Biomassa e atividades microbianas em solo sob pastagem com diferentes lotações de ovinos Biomass and microbial activity in pasture soil under different sheep grazing pressure

    Martha Regina Lucizano Garcia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da lotação de animais na produção de ovinos têm sido bastante estudados. No entanto, informações sobre seus efeitos na biomassa e nas atividades microbianas e, em conseqüência, na fertilidade do solo de pastagens são escassas. Neste trabalho, os efeitos da lotação de ovinos (LO na biomassa e nas atividades microbianas responsáveis pela transformação dos compostos do C e N em solo de clima subtropical foram avaliados. As amostras de solo foram coletadas nas camadas de 0-10 e 10-20 cm de pastos com baixa LO (5 animais ha-1, alta LO (40-50 animais ha-1 e com ausência de animais, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas, com seis repetições. Os maiores valores de biomassa microbiana e das atividades respiratória, nitrificante e enzimática (urease e protease foram encontrados nos solos dos pastos com baixa LO. Estes pastos também acumularam as maiores quantidades de matéria orgânica e N total. Essas variáveis foram reduzidas nos pastos sem animais ou com alta LO. Vegetação descontínua e intensa mineralização podem ter acarretado a diminuição dessas variáveis nos pastos com alta LO. Alta correlação foi obtida entre matéria orgânica, C orgânico e N total com as quantidades de biomassa microbiana e a atividade enzimática. A camada de 0-10 cm apresentou valores maiores das variáveis estudadas do que os encontrados na camada de 10-20 cm.The effect of grazing pressure in sheep production has been studied, but not in relation to soil microbiological parameters or the consequences on soil fertility. The effect of grazing pressure (GP by sheep on biomass and microbial activity related to C and N compounds cycling in subtropical region soil was studied. Soil samples were collected from the 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm layers in pastures with low GP (5 animals ha-1, high GP (40-50 animals ha-1 and in absence of animals, in a completely randomized design with 6 replicates. The highest values

  7. Livestock grazing has minimal effect on the species richness and ...

    The Succulent Karoo, one of two arid biodiversity hotspots in the world, is known for its high plant species richness, but little is known about the influence of topography and how it mediates the potentially deleterious effects of grazing. Changes in vegetation species composition, cover and species diversity were examined ...

  8. Effects of UV-B irradiated algae on zooplankton grazing

    Lange, de H.J.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the effects of UV-B stressed algae on grazing rates of zooplankton. Four algal species ( Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Cryptomonas sp., Scenedesmus obliquus and Microcystis aeruginosa) were used as food and fed to three zooplankton species ( Daphnia galeata, Bosmina longirostris and

  9. Effects of past and present livestock grazing on herpetofauna in a landscape-scale experiment.

    Kay, Geoffrey M; Mortelliti, Alessio; Tulloch, Ayesha; Barton, Philip; Florance, Daniel; Cunningham, Saul A; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-04-01

    Livestock grazing is the most widespread land use on Earth and can have negative effects on biodiversity. Yet, many of the mechanisms by which grazing leads to changes in biodiversity remain unresolved. One reason is that conventional grazing studies often target broad treatments rather than specific parameters of grazing (e.g., intensity, duration, and frequency) or fail to account for historical grazing effects. We conducted a landscape-scale replicated grazing experiment (15,000 km 2 , 97 sites) to examine the impact of past grazing management and current grazing regimes (intensity, duration, and frequency) on a community of ground-dwelling herpetofauna (39 species). We analyzed community variables (species richness and composition) for all species and built multiseason patch-occupancy models to predict local colonization and extinction for the 7 most abundant species. Past grazing practices did not influence community richness but did affect community composition and patch colonization and extinction for 4 of 7 species. Present grazing parameters did not influence community richness or composition, but 6 of the 7 target species were affected by at least one grazing parameter. Grazing frequency had the most consistent influence, positively affecting 3 of 7 species (increased colonization or decreased extinction). Past grazing practice affected community composition and population dynamics in some species in different ways, which suggests that conservation planners should examine the different grazing histories of an area. Species responded differently to specific current grazing practices; thus, incentive programs that apply a diversity of approaches rather than focusing on a change such as reduced grazing intensity should be considered. Based on our findings, we suggest that determining fine-scale grazing attributes is essential for advancing grazing as a conservation strategy. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. The Effects of Timing of Grazing on Plant and Arthropod Communities in High-Elevation Grasslands

    Davis, Stacy C.; Burkle, Laura A.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Cutting, Kyle A.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock grazing can be used as a key management tool for maintaining healthy ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of using grazing to modify habitat for species of conservation concern depends on how the grazing regime is implemented. Timing of grazing is one grazing regime component that is less understood than grazing intensity and grazer identity, but is predicted to have important implications for plant and higher trophic level responses. We experimentally assessed how timing of cattle grazing affected plant and arthropod communities in high-elevation grasslands of southwest Montana to better evaluate its use as a tool for multi-trophic level management. We manipulated timing of grazing, with one grazing treatment beginning in mid-June and the other in mid-July, in two experiments conducted in different grassland habitat types (i.e., wet meadow and upland) in 2011 and 2012. In the upland grassland experiment, we found that both early and late grazing treatments reduced forb biomass, whereas graminoid biomass was only reduced with late grazing. Grazing earlier in the growing season versus later did not result in greater recovery of graminoid or forb biomass as expected. In addition, the density of the most ubiquitous grassland arthropod order (Hemiptera) was reduced by both grazing treatments in upland grasslands. A comparison of end-of-season plant responses to grazing in upland versus wet meadow grasslands revealed that grazing reduced graminoid biomass in the wet meadow and forb biomass in the upland, irrespective of timing of grazing. Both grazing treatments also reduced end-of-season total arthropod and Hemiptera densities and Hemiptera biomass in both grassland habitat types. Our results indicate that both early and late season herbivory affect many plant and arthropod characteristics in a similar manner, but grazing earlier may negatively impact species of conservation concern requiring forage earlier in the growing season. PMID:25338008

  11. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    Burow, E.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than...... out to be more beneficial than few daily grazing hours (range average above 9 to 21 h) for the welfare of the dairy herds. In conclusion, this study reports a positive within-herd effect of summer grazing on dairy cow welfare, where many daily grazing hours were more beneficial than few daily grazing...

  12. Reductions of plant cover induced by sheep grazing change the above-belowground partition and chemistry of organic C stocks in arid rangelands of Patagonian Monte, Argentina.

    Larreguy, C; Carrera, A L; Bertiller, M B

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the size and chemical quality of the total organic C stock and its partition between above-belowground plant parts and soil at sites with different plant cover induced by sheep grazing in the arid Patagonian Monte. This study was conducted at six representative sites with increasing signs of canopy disturbance attributed to grazing pressure. We used faeces density as a proxy of grazing pressure at each site. We assessed the total plant cover, shrub and perennial grass cover, total standing aboveground biomass (AGB), litter mass and belowground biomass (BGB) at each site. We further estimated the content of organic C, lignin and soluble phenols in plant compartments and the content of organic C, organic C in humic substances (recalcitrant C) and water soluble C (labile C) in soil at each site. Total plant cover was significantly related to grazing pressure. Standing AGB and litter mass decreased with increasing canopy disturbance while BGB did not vary across sites. Total organic C stock and the organic C stock in standing AGB increased with increasing total plant, shrub, and perennial grass cover. The organic C stock in litter mass increased with increasing total plant and shrub cover, while the organic C stock in BGB did not vary across sites. Lignin content in plant compartments increased with increasing total and shrub cover, while soluble phenols content did not change across sites. The organic C stock and the water soluble C content in soil were positively associated with perennial grass cover. Changes in total plant cover induced by grazing pressure negatively affected the size of the total organic C stock, having minor impact on the size of belowground than aboveground components. The reduction of perennial grass cover was reflected in decreasing chemical quality of the organic C stock in soil. Accordingly, plant managerial strategies should not only be focused on the amount of organic C sequestered but also on the

  13. Dry grassland biodiversity conservation using low-intensity sheep and goat grazing management: case study in Prague (Czech republic)

    Dostálek, J.; Frantík, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2008), s. 1439-1454 ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : dry grassland * grazing * plant diversity conservation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2008

  14. Effect of grazing frequency and intensity on Lolium perenne L ...

    ) system. Low frequency, low intensity grazing produced lower CDMD and herbage N levels than higher grazing frequencies and intensities. These differences were, however, generally small. Overall, levels of herbage digestibility (estimated ...

  15. Reduced fine-scale spatial genetic structure in grazed populations of Dianthus carthusianorum.

    Rico, Y; Wagner, H H

    2016-11-01

    Strong spatial genetic structure in plant populations can increase homozygosity, reducing genetic diversity and adaptive potential. The strength of spatial genetic structure largely depends on rates of seed dispersal and pollen flow. Seeds without dispersal adaptations are likely to be dispersed over short distances within the vicinity of the mother plant, resulting in spatial clustering of related genotypes (fine-scale spatial genetic structure, hereafter spatial genetic structure (SGS)). However, primary seed dispersal by zoochory can promote effective dispersal, increasing the mixing of seeds and influencing SGS within plant populations. In this study, we investigated the effects of seed dispersal by rotational sheep grazing on the strength of SGS and genetic diversity using 11 nuclear microsatellites for 49 populations of the calcareous grassland forb Dianthus carthusianorum. Populations connected by rotational sheep grazing showed significantly weaker SGS and higher genetic diversity than populations in ungrazed grasslands. Independent of grazing treatment, small populations showed significantly stronger SGS and lower genetic diversity than larger populations, likely due to genetic drift. A lack of significant differences in the strength of SGS and genetic diversity between populations that were recently colonized and pre-existing populations suggested that populations colonized after the reintroduction of rotational sheep grazing were likely founded by colonists from diverse source populations. We conclude that dispersal by rotational sheep grazing has the potential to considerably reduce SGS within D. carthusianorum populations. Our study highlights the effectiveness of landscape management by rotational sheep grazing to importantly reduce genetic structure at local scales within restored plant populations.

  16. Traditional cattle grazing in a mosaic alkali landscape: effects on grassland biodiversity along a moisture gradient.

    Péter Török

    Full Text Available Extensively managed pastures are of crucial importance in sustaining biodiversity both in local- and landscape-level. Thus, re-introduction of traditional grazing management is a crucial issue in grassland conservation actions worldwide. Traditional grazing with robust cattle breeds in low stocking rates is considered to be especially useful to mimic natural grazing regimes, but well documented case-studies are surprisingly rare on this topic. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional Hungarian Grey cattle grazing as a conservation action in a mosaic alkali landscape. We asked the following questions: (i How does cattle grazing affect species composition and diversity of the grasslands? (ii What are the effects of grazing on short-lived and perennial noxious species? (iii Are there distinct effects of grazing in dry-, mesophilous- and wet grassland types? Vegetation of fenced and grazed plots in a 200-ha sized habitat complex (secondary dry grasslands and pristine mesophilous- and wet alkali grasslands was sampled from 2006-2009 in East-Hungary. We found higher diversity scores in grazed plots compared to fenced ones in mesophilous- and wet grasslands. Higher cover of noxious species was typical in fenced plots compared to their grazed counterparts in the last year in every studied grassland type. We found an increasing effect of grazing from the dry- towards the wet grassland types. The year-to-year differences also followed similar pattern: the site-dependent effects were the lowest in the dry grassland and an increasing effect was detected along the moisture gradient. We found that extensive Hungarian Grey cattle grazing is an effective tool to suppress noxious species and to create a mosaic vegetation structure, which enables to maintain high species richness in the landscape. Hungarian Grey cattle can feed in open habitats along long moisture gradient, thus in highly mosaic landscapes this breed can be the most suitable

  17. Population Dynamics and Transcriptomic Responses of Chorthippus albonemus (Orthoptera: Acrididae to Herbivore Grazing Intensity

    Xinghu Qin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Livestock grazing can trigger outbreaks of insect pests in steppe ecosystems of Inner Mongolia in China. However, the physiological responses of the grasshopper Chorthippus albonemus to grazing are not well-understood. Here we investigated the effects of sheep grazing on the population dynamics and transcriptomic response of C. albonemus. We collected the insects three times (about 20 days apart in 1.33-ha plots in which there were no grazing, light grazing, moderate grazing, heavy grazing, or overgrazing. Our results showed that continuous grazing significantly decreased plant biomass and influenced plant succession. Total insect species diversity significantly declined along the grazing intensity gradient and over time. Results of the first two collections of C. albonemus indicated that moderate grazing significantly increased the abundance of C. albonemus. However, abundance was significantly decreased in plots that were overgrazed, possibly because of food stress and environmental pressures. Under moderate grazing, betA and CHDH genes were significantly upregulated in C. albonemus. In response to higher grazing intensity, upregulated genes included those involved in serine-type peptidase activity, anatomical structure development, and sensory organ development; downregulated genes included those involved in the structural constituents of the ribosome and ribosome processes. Genes strongly upregulated in response to heavy grazing pressure included adaptive genes such as those encoding ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein and HSP. These findings improve our understanding of the role of the transcriptome in C. albonemus population response to livestock grazing and may provide useful targets for grasshopper control.

  18. Effect of chronic copper poisoning on the kidneys of sheep

    Gopinath, C; Hall, G A; Howell, J M.C.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of copper poisoning on kidneys was studied in 16 housed sheep given a daily drench of copper sulfate at the rate of 20 mg CuSO/sub 4/5H/sub 2/O per kg body weight. Seven similar sheep were kept as controls. All sheep were bled and weighed at weekly intervals, urine was collected via a catheter from groups of sheep at varying times and animals were killed in groups throughout the experiment. Nine sheep were allowed to develop the hemolytic crisis. Prior to hemolysis copper levels in the liver and copper and iron levels in the kidneys rose significantly, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic granules became numerous in the epithelium of the proximal convoluted tubules (PCT), but significant changes were not detected by the histochemical methods used nor was kidney function impaired. In the animals that developed hemolysis there was degeneration, necrosis and loss of enzyme activity from the cells of the PCT. The tubule cells contained large amounts of hemoglobin, copper and iron and much of this material seemed to be localized in intracytoplasmic granules that were probably lysosomes. There was marked functional impairment at this time and blood urea levels began to rise. These lesions, an interstitial fibroblastic and inflammatory cell response together with changes suggestive of tubular regeneration were seen in the posthemolytic group of sheep.

  19. Effect of the Silica Content of Diatoms on Protozoan Grazing

    Shuwen Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect that silica content in diatom cells has on the behavior of protists. The diatoms Thalassiosira weissflogii and T. pseudonana were cultured in high or low light conditions to achieve low and high silica contents, respectively. These cells were then fed to a heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and a ciliate Euplotes sp. in single and mixed diet experiments. Our results showed that in general, N. scintillans and Euplotes sp. both preferentially ingested the diatoms with a low silica content rather than those with a high silica content. However, Euplotes sp. seemed to be less influenced by the silica content than was N. scintillans. In the latter case, the clearance and ingestion rate of the low silica diatoms were significantly higher, both in the short (6-h and long (1-d duration grazing experiments. Our results also showed that N. scintillans required more time to digest the high silica-containing cells. As the high silica diatoms are harder to digest, this might explain why N. scintillans exhibits a strong preference for the low silica prey. Thus, the presence of high silica diatoms might limit the ability of the dinoflagellate to feed. Our findings suggest that the silica content of diatoms affects their palatability and digestibility and, consequently, the grazing activity and selectivity of protozoan grazers.

  20. 137Cs uptake by sheep grazing tidally-inundated and inland pastures near the Sellafield reprocessing plant

    Howard, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Field investigations into the transfer of 137 Cs from pasture to sheep tissues have been made at two contrasting sites in west Cumbria, close to the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield. These were a saltmarsh bordering on the Esk estuary in 1982 and inland pastures close to the perimeter of the works in 1984. 137 Cs concentrations of sampled vegetation from the saltmarsh were generally two orders of magnitude greater than from the inland pasture due to its inundation with 137 Cs associated with silt. The relatively high 137 Cs content of soil/silt compared to that of vegetation at each site meant that soil contamination of vegetation sometimes accounted for a substantial proportion of its 137 Cs activity (up to 99% on the saltmarsh and 67% on the inland pastures). Considerable seasonal changes occurred in the extent of 137 Cs contamination on the inland pastures, with late winter and early spring levels being up to 20-fold higher than those of the summer. 137 Cs concentrations in tissues of lambs from the saltmarsh were consistently higher than for ewes; this was not true for sheep from the inland pastures. 137 Cs concentrations in kidney were found to be higher than in all other tissues, both in the study flocks and in one of the controls. Transfer coefficients (calculated by dividing the 137 Cs concentration of fresh tissue by the daily intake of 137 Cs) were significantly (P 137 Cs activity due to soil/silt contamination was removed from the estimates of daily intake leaving 137 Cs associated with the vegetation only to contribute to the transfer coefficients. Further studies are required to determine the availability of 137 Cs associated with soil/silt particles which are ingested by animals. (author)

  1. Supplemental energy sources for Santa Inês sheep grazing on urochloa grass in the dry season Fontes energéticas suplementares para ovinos Santa Inês em pastagens de capim urocloa na época seca

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The trial aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding of 1% body weight of concentrate supplementation, formulated with different ingredients (mesquite pod meal , sorghum meal or wheat bran, or without concentrate supplementation on behavioral parameters and cost of production of sheep kept in grazing urocloa grass. We used 24 Santa Inês sheep, non-castrated, weaned with body weight averaging 20 ± 2kg and an average of 120 days of age. The animals were assigned in the four treatments consisting by animals fed forage under deferred grazing of Urochloa grass (Urochloa mosambicensis. The dry matter intake was significant and the values were higher to the animals what receive concentrate supplement. The differences in the dry matter intake did not affect the feeding activity, already the time of grazing had a higher value for the animals without concentrate supplementation, in compared with other. The time of rumination was higher for treating without concentrate supplementation . The number of ruminated bolus (nº/day and chewing time/bolus (sec were not affected. The feeding efficiency (g DM/hours and rumination efficiency (g DM/hours were lower for the treatment without concentrate supplementation . The economic result was positive for all treatments with concentrate supplementation, however, the without concentrate supplementation treatment showed negative revenue. The concentrate supplementation positively influences the efficiency of feeding that reflects in minor time grazing, being that the economic return depends on the price and availability of fed.Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos do fornecimento de 1% do peso corporal de suplementação concentrada, formulada com diferentes ingredientes (farelo da vagem de algaroba, farelo de sorgo ou farelo de trigo, ou sem suplementação concentrada sobre os parâmetros comportamentais e custo de produção de ovinos mantidos em pastagem de capim urocloa. Foram utilizados 24 ovinos Santa Inês, n

  2. Effect of season on the quality of forages selected by sheep in citrus plantations in Ghana

    Leonard K. Adjorlolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the effects of season on chemical composition of forages selected by sheep grazing in a citrus plantation. Forage species growing in a sweet orange (Citrus sinensis plantation were identified and sampled monthly for 2 years. Samples were bulked on monthly basis for chemical analysis. The average dry matter content of the forages increased from the rainy to the dry season but effects of season on the chemical components were inconsistent. Some species, such as Asystasia gangetica, had a higher crude protein concentration in the dry season, whereas for others, such as Panicum repens, the reverse occurred. However, average concentrations of crude protein, detergent fiber and components of fiber for all species for the rainy season were not significantly different from the dry season values. It was concluded that there were differences among forage species in their responses to changing seasons, such that grazing ruminants may select a diet to enable them to meet their nutritional requirements, provided forage biomass is adequate.Keywords: Crop-livestock integration, tree plantations, chemical composition, seasonal effects, forage quality.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2271-277

  3. Grazing effects on species composition in different vegetation types (La Palma, Canary Islands)

    Arévalo, J. R.; de Nascimento, L.; Fernández-Lugo, S.; Mata, J.; Bermejo, L.

    2011-05-01

    Grazing management is probably one of the most extensive land uses, but its effects on plant communities have in many cases been revealed to be contradictory. Some authors have related these contradictions to the stochastic character of grazing systems. Because of that, it is necessary to implement specific analyses of grazing effects on each community, especially in natural protected areas, in order to provide the best information to managers. We studied the effects of grazing on the species composition of the main vegetation types where it takes place (grasslands, shrublands and pine forests) on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands. We used the point-quadrat intersect method to study the species composition of grazed and ungrazed areas, which also were characterized by their altitude, distance to farms, distance to settlements, year of sampling, herbaceous aboveground biomass and soil organic matter. The variables organic matter, productivity and species richness were not significantly affected by grazing. The species composition of the analyzed plant communities was affected more by variables such as altitude or distance to farms than by extensive grazing that has been traditionally carried out on the island of La Palma involving certain practices such as continuous monitoring of animals by goat keepers, medium stocking rates adjusted to the availability of natural pastures, supplementation during the dry season using local forage shrubs or mown pastures and rotating animals within grazing areas Although some studies have shown a negative effect of grazing on endangered plant species, these results cannot be freely extrapolated to the traditional grazing systems that exert a low pressure on plant communities (as has been found in this study). We consider extensive grazing as a viable way of ensuring sustainable management of the studied ecosystems.

  4. Long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures

    High grazing pressure can lead to soil erosion in pastures by compacting soil and increasing runoff and sediment delivery to waterways. Limited information exists on the effects of grazing management and best management practices (BMPs), such as buffer strips, on soil erosion from pastures. The obje...

  5. Effects of grazing intensity on small mammal population ecology in wet meadows

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Olsen, Henrik; Bildsøe, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    Livestock grazing is common management practice in wet grasslands. However, knowledge of its effects on small mammals is limited. We studied the influence of grazing intensity on small mammals in general and field voles Microtus agrestis in particular in two Danish wet meadows, 1998-2000. General...

  6. The effect of seasonal grazing on the infiltration capacity of soils in a ...

    The infiltration measurements were determined by means of a flood type concentric ring infiltrometer. The results showed that grazing during any one of the seasons reduced the infiltration capacity of the soils. The detrimental effects of summer and autumn grazing were, however, larger titan those of winter and spring ...

  7. Effects of buffer strips and grazing management on soil loss from pastures

    Intensive grazing pressure can cause soil erosion from pastures causing increased sediment loading to aquatic systems. The objectives of this work were to determine the long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures fertilized with broiler litter. Field stud...

  8. Ingestive Behaviour of Grazing Ewes Given Two Levels of Concentrate

    It was expected that concentrate supplementation would reflect directly on forage intake owing to the substitution effect, which causes sheep where the supplement supplied a small proportion of net energy requirement, to have a greater grazing intensity. The two breeds differed in the time spent ruminating or lying, with the ...

  9. Dietary phosphorus depletion in sheep: Longterm effects on bone structure

    Breves, G.; Prokop, M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 6 sheep from 8 months old to study effects of dietary phosphorus depletion on bone structure. Sheep were given a semisynthetic diet of chopped straw and pellets for 38 weeks. Mean daily P in the diet was 0.97 g and 3 sheep were given additional NaH2PO4.H2O, increasing daily P supply to 4.5 g (controls). Bone density was estimated photometrically within the laterodistal metaphysis of the foreleg and standardized by a copper step wedge. Metacarpal cortical thickness was also measured. Cortical thickness and bone density started to decrease about 4 weeks after start of P depletion. The trabecular structure of the distal radius was coarser and less dense with reduced cross-linking between trabeculae

  10. Genetic strain and diet effects on grazing behavior, pasture intake, and milk production.

    Sheahan, A J; Kolver, E S; Roche, J R

    2011-07-01

    Understanding how dairy cows adjust their grazing behavior in response to feed supplements is important for the development of management strategies that optimize profit from supplementation. New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows have been selected for milk production on a predominantly pasture-based diet; in comparison, HF cows of North American (NA) ancestry have been selected almost exclusively for milk yield and fed diets high in nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC). We hypothesized, therefore, that supplementation would have differing effects on grazing behavior, pasture dry matter intake (DMI), and milk production in these genetic strains at peak, mid, and late lactation. A study was conducted over 2 consecutive lactations, with NA and NZ cows randomly allocated at calving to 0, 3, or 6 kg of dry matter/day concentrate plus unrestricted access to pasture. Pasture DMI, milk production, and grazing behavior were recorded at peak, mid, and late lactation. Concentrates were fed in equal amounts at morning and afternoon milking. The NA cows produced more milk and milk components, and had a greater pasture DMI, despite spending less time grazing. Declines in time spent grazing and pasture DMI were associated with increasing concentrate DMI. Grazing behavior following morning supplementation was different from that recorded following afternoon supplementation. Grazing ceased following morning supplementation before rumen fill could be a limiting factor, and the length of the grazing interval was inversely proportional to the amount of concentrate offered; these results suggest that physiological rather than physical stimuli were responsible for grazing cessation. The decrease in time spent grazing with increasing concentrate DMI is consistent with changes in neuroendocrine factors secreted in response to the presence of food in the digestive tract or with circulating products of digestion. After afternoon supplementation, sunset signaled the end of grazing irrespective of

  11. In silico exploration of the impact of pasture larvae contamination and anthelmintic treatment on genetic parameter estimates for parasite resistance in grazing sheep.

    Laurenson, Y C S M; Kyriazakis, I; Bishop, S C

    2012-07-01

    A mathematical model was developed to investigate the impact of level of Teladorsagia circumcincta larval pasture contamination and anthelmintic treatment on genetic parameter estimates for performance and resistance to parasites in sheep. Currently great variability is seen for published correlations between performance and resistance, with estimates appearing to vary with production environment. The model accounted for host genotype and parasitism in a population of lambs, incorporating heritable between-lamb variation in host-parasite interactions, with genetic independence of input growth and immunological variables. An epidemiological module was linked to the host-parasite interaction module via food intake (FI) to create a grazing scenario. The model was run for a population of lambs growing from 2 mo of age, grazing on pasture initially contaminated with 0, 1,000, 3,000, or 5,000 larvae/kg DM, and given either no anthelmintic treatment or drenched at 30-d intervals. The mean population values for FI and empty BW (EBW) decreased with increasing levels of initial larval contamination (IL(0)), with non-drenched lambs having a greater reduction than drenched ones. For non-drenched lambs the maximum mean population values for worm burden (WB) and fecal egg count (FEC) increased and occurred earlier for increasing IL(0), with values being similar for all IL(0) at the end of the simulation. Drenching was predicted to suppress WB and FEC, and cause reduced pasture contamination. The heritability of EBW for non-drenched lambs was predicted to be initially high (0.55) and decreased over time with increasing IL(0), whereas drenched lambs remained high throughout. The heritability of WB and FEC for all lambs was initially low (∼0.05) and increased with time to ∼0.25, with increasing IL(0) leading to this value being reached at faster rates. The genetic correlation between EBW and FEC was initially ∼-0.3. As time progressed the correlation tended towards 0, before

  12. Revealing livestock effects on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat ETM+ data across a grazing season

    Jansen, Vincent S.

    Remote sensing provides monitoring solutions for more informed grazing management. To investigate the ability to detect the effects of cattle grazing on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data, we conducted a study on the Zumwalt Prairie in northeastern Oregon across a gradient of grazing intensities. Biophysical vegetation data was collected on vertical structure, biomass, and cover at three different time periods during the grazing season: June, August, and October 2012. To relate these measures to the remotely sensed Landsat ETM+ data, Pearson's correlations and multiple regression models were computed. Using the best models, predicted vegetation metrics were then mapped across the study area. Results indicated that models using common vegetation indices had the ability to discern different levels of grazing across the study area. Results can be distributed to land managers to help guide grassland conservation by improving monitoring of bunchgrass vegetation for sustainable livestock management.

  13. The response of spider (Araneae assemblages to structural heterogeneity and prey abundance in sub-montane vegetation modified by conservation grazing

    Peter Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of experimental livestock grazing regimens (4 treatments×6 replicates on spiders via habitat structure and prey abundance was investigated on sub-montane habitats in the Southern Highlands of Scotland. The study, 2002–2004 included a baseline survey under the prior, commercial sheep grazing regimen and two assessments of spider assemblages post-treatment: commercial stocking density of sheep; 1/3 stocking density with sheep; 1/3 stocking density cattle with sheep; and no grazing. Spiders were sampled with a suction sampler, five sucks at each of 25 sample units by 24 plots (600 samples in 2003 and 2004, ca. 320 in 2002. Spider abundance and species richness increased under reduced stocking density, mixed herbivore and ungrazed treatments indirectly via changes in vegetation structure and prey abundance. The results refuted a meta-analysis that concluded species richness of spiders is unaffected by grazing. Grazing regimens caused turnover in species composition more than the net difference in species richness suggested, implying that no single, optimal grazing regimen will support as many species as a patchwork under varied grazing management. Conservation grazing benefits spiders and will have significant benefits for food webs in sub-montane ecosystems but the period to equilibrium after changes to grazing requires further investigation.

  14. Bloat in sheep (Ovis aries).

    Colvin, H W; Backus, R C

    1988-01-01

    1. Most of the field studies on bloat are conducted with cattle and most of the laboratory experiments seeking to explain the various parameters associated with bloat are done with sheep. 2. Based on grazing behaviour, it would be expected that sheep might bloat more severely than cattle because they selectively choose to eat leaves over stems and chew what they ingest more frequently than cattle. Furthermore, sheep appear to select legumes over grasses because the legumes can be eaten more rapidly. However, because they are selective, sheep eat more slowly than cattle. Despite a higher bloat expectation, bloating in sheep is reported to be less of a problem than in cattle. 3. Although frothing of rumen ingesta was described earlier in cattle as the cause of acute legume bloat, experiments with frothy bloat in sheep preceded those in cattle. 4. Anti-frothing agents were used in sheep before cattle to treat acute legume bloat. 5. Experiments devoted to the study of eructation in ruminants were carried out on sheep, then cattle. 6. Convincing evidence that rumen motility does not cease during acute legume bloat was gathered using sheep. 7. Although the transected tracheal technique for the determination of the volume of eructated gas was developed with cattle, the pathway of eructated gas was confirmed with sheep. 8. All the current evidence accumulated from experiments with sheep supports the hypothesis that death due to legume bloat is caused by acute neural, respiratory, and cardiovascular insult resulting from the effect of the distended rumen on thoracic viscera, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and the abdominal vena cava. 9. Experiments with sheep and cattle being fed scabrous and nonscabrous diets similar in chemical composition show that sheep are more resistant than cattle to the increase in intrarumen pressure, decline in rumen contraction amplitude, and decrease in rumen contraction frequency caused by nonscabrous diets. 10. The sequence of events in the

  15. Mixed grazing systems benefit both upland biodiversity and livestock production.

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21(st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously.Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management 'systems' we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years.We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity, suggesting a 'win-win' solution for farmers and

  16. Effects of livestock grazing on grasshopper abundance on a native rangeland in Montana.

    O'Neill, Kevin M; Olson, Bret E; Wallander, Roseann; Rolston, Marni G; Seibert, Catherine E

    2010-06-01

    Livestock grazing can affect habitat quality for grasshoppers through effects on food and oviposition site availability, microclimate, and other factors. Because of this, some authors have suggested that grazing programs can be used to help manage pest grasshopper populations. In a 6-yr study, we controlled access of cattle to replicated experimental plots on an Agropyron spicatum/Poa sandbergii pasture to create consistent year-to-year differences in postgrazing plant cover, with resultant affects on microclimate. After sampling grasshoppers multiple times after grazing treatments each summer, we found evidence of between-treatment differences in grasshopper abundance for the entire assemblage during 4 of the 6 yr. Some species, including Melanoplus sanguinipes (perhaps the worse rangeland grasshopper pest in the western United States), tended to be more abundant on ungrazed plots, whereas Melanoplus gladstoni often had greater densities on heavily-grazed plots. The effect of grazing on grasshopper densities in this study was lower in magnitude and less consistent among years than in a study we conducted simultaneously at a nearby site where the vegetation was dominated by the exotic species crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). Our results generally support proposals that grazing could be used to reduce pest grasshopper densities, although the effectiveness of a particular grazing scheme may vary among sites, years, and grasshopper and vegetation assemblages.

  17. Chronic intoxication with copper in sheep: prophylaxis and treatment

    Tomov, A

    1964-01-01

    In the period 1961-1962 chronic intoxication of sheep with copper was observed on 7 farms, the number of sheep totaling about 9000. In one of the flocks intoxication occurred after feeding the sheep for a long time with aftermath collected from orchards which had been sprinkled with copper compounds. The aftermath was proven to contain from 11 to 17 mg. per cent of copper. The other flocks were put to pasture in vineyards after the grapes had been gathered. Intoxication in these flocks was caused by vineleaves. No accumulation of copper through the soil was established in the investigated fresh grass found in the vineyards and which the sheep had also grazed. From 36 to 81 mg. per cent of copper was established in the livers of dead sheep. In order to protect the sheep from this intoxication, 100-200 mg. of ammonium or sodium molybdate and 5-10 g. of sodium sulfate were used in the case of each sheep daily for 2-3 weeks. The concentrated fodder of the sheep was moistened with an aqueous solution of these compounds. A very good prophylactic effect was obtained. At the same time oats, maize, oilcakes and others, which constitute a fodder rich in fats, were eliminated from the food rations of the sheep. The above substances, given at larger doses simultaneously with vitamin B/sub 12/ were also used for the treatment of diseased sheep, and of 10 ill sheep, 7 recovered.

  18. Assessment of the Effects of Emerging Grazing Policies on Land ...

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... policies on land degradation in Nigeria using soil, vegetation and sustainability as variables for the assessment. ... animals per kilometer square of land and 15,000 persons and 12,500 grazing animals per kilometer square of water. ... OTHER RESOURCES.

  19. Assessment of the Effects of Emerging Grazing Policies on Land ...

    ADOWIE PERE

    carbon sequestration and water filtration. ... temperature of 13oc in the north during the harmattan in ... vegetation cover is removed with the view to obtain ... data concerning environmental degradation mitigation ... in terrestrial ecosystems and driving processes that .... Grazing systems, ecosystem response, and global.

  20. Nitrate movement and removal along a shallow groundwater flow path in a riparian wetland within a sheep-grazed pastoral catchment : result of a tracer study

    Burns, D.A.; Nguyen, L.

    2002-01-01

    The movement and removal of nitrate (NO 3 ) along a groundwater flow path within a riparian wetland was investigated during a 24-day period in late autumn-early winter, using a lithium bromide (LiBr)-potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ) tracer solution containing 19 200 mg/litre as Br - and 193.8 mg/litre as NO 3 -N. The tracer solution was added as an instantaneous dose of tracer solution at a depth of 10-20 cm to four injection wells in two 1 m 2 plots within a sheep-grazed pastoral catchment at the Whatawhata Agricultural Research Centre near Hamilton, New Zealand. Bromide and NO 3- N concentrations were measured periodically in: (1) wetland groundwater samples from piezometers installed at 15 and 30 cm depths and located at 30, 60, and 100 cm down gradient from the injection wells; and (2) surface flow samples. Peak concentrations of 50-250 mg/litre of Br - and 0.2-1.1 mg/litre of NO 3 -N were reached within 1-2 days after application at most piezometers. Nitrate concentrations decreased thereafter more sharply than did those of Br - , resulting in decreased NO 3 -N/Br - ratios from Days 2 through 7. More than 99% of groundwater samples collected after the tracer application had NO 3 -N/Br - less than the value in the tracer solution indicating removal of NO 3 -N during transport. Mass flux estimates indicated removal of >90% of added NO 3 -N along the 100 cm flow path from the injection, with essentially all of the NO 3 - removed within the first 30 cm of transport. On Days 10 and 24, just after rain events, surface flow from the experimental plots had greatly elevated NO 3 -N concentrations that were not accompanied by correspondingly elevated Br - concentrations, indicating that NO 3 -N originating from the surrounding catchment was transported over the wetland surface with little penetration or mixing with wetland groundwater. Despite a significant capacity for NO 3 -N removal from shallow groundwater equivalent to an annualised value of 50 kg/ha in these wetland

  1. Grazing effects on forage production and botanical composition in a Quercus ithaburensis subs. macrolepis silvopastoral system

    Pantera, A.; Papanastasis, V. P.

    2009-04-01

    Grazing is considered as a major factor affecting forage production as well as botanical composition of many silvopastoral systems. In order to study these effects, three pairs of grazed and protected plots were established in a Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis silvopastoral system. The experiment was carried out in western Greece, 15 km west of the city of Agrinion. Data were collected for two continuous years and included the determination of palatable and unpalatable to animals plant species as well as the botanical composition. The results suggest that heavy grazing decreased biomass production approximately threefold. Grazing also affected number of acorns, botanical composition as well as vegetation cover whereas had no effect on natural regeneration in the study period.

  2. Effect of water-soluble carbohydrate content in orchardgrass pasture on grazing time and rumen fermentation in dairy cows.

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to clarify the effect of water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content in orchardgrass pasture on the diurnal distribution of grazing time. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating dairy cows were grazed on either of two pastures with different orchardgrass cultivars containing low WSC (LWSC; cultivar: 'Hokkai 28') or high WSC (HWSC; cultivar: 'Harunemidori'). The cows were grazed in morning and evening sessions in experiment 1, whereas the cows were grazed throughout the day in experiment 2. In experiment 1, grazing time of the cows on HWSC was longer than that of the cows on LWSC (P content. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Effects of grazing system on production and parasitism of dairy breed heifers and steers grazing wet marginal grasslands

    Kristensen, Troels; Thamsborg, S.M.; Andersen, Refsgaard

    2006-01-01

    Production and endoparasitism of first grazing season Holstein heifers and steers were investigated over two grazing seasons. Studies were conducted on low-lying peaty soil. In year 2000, 40 animals were included in a 2x2 factorial, replicated experiment with two sexes (steers v. heifers) and two...

  4. The effects of grazing intensity on soil processes in a Mediterranean protected area.

    Panayiotou, Evaggelia; Dimou, Maria; Monokrousos, Nikolaos

    2017-08-08

    We investigated the temporal and among-site differentiation of soil functionality properties in fields under different grazing intensities (heavy and light) and compared them to those found in their adjacent hedgerows, consisting either of wooden shrubs (Rubus canescens) or of high trees (Populus sp.), during the cold and humid seasons of the year. We hypothesized that greater intensity of grazing would result in higher degradation of the soil system. The grazing factor had a significant effect on soil organic C and N, microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, microbial activity, and β-glucosidase, while acid phosphatase and urease activity were not found to differ significantly among the management systems. The intensity of grazing affected mostly the chemical properties of soil (organic C and N) and altered significantly the composition of the soil microbial community, as lower C:N ratio of the microbial biomass indicates the dominance of bacteria over fungi in the heavily grazed fields. All estimated biological variables presented higher values in the humid period, although the pattern of differentiation was similar at both sampling times, revealing that site-specific variations were more pronounced than the time-specific ones. Our results indicate that not all C, N, and P dynamics were equally affected by grazing. Management plans applied to pastures, in order to improve soil quality properties and accelerate passive reforestation, should aim at the improvement of soil parameters related primarily to C and secondly to N cycle.

  5. Effects of livestock species and stocking density on accretion rates in grazed salt marshes

    Nolte, Stefanie; Esselink, Peter; Bakker, Jan P.; Smit, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems, such as salt marshes, are threatened by accelerated sea-level rise (SLR). Salt marshes deliver valuable ecosystem services such as coastal protection and the provision of habitat for a unique flora and fauna. Whether salt marshes in the Wadden Sea area are able to survive accelerated SLR depends on sufficient deposition of sediments which add to vertical marsh accretion. Accretion rate is influenced by a number of factors, and livestock grazing was recently included. Livestock grazing is assumed to reduce accretion rates in two ways: (a) directly by increasing soil compaction through trampling, and (b) indirectly by affecting the vegetation structure, which may lower the sediment deposition. For four years, we studied the impact of two livestock species (horse and cattle) at two stocking densities (0.5 and 1.0 animal ha-1) on accretion in a large-scale grazing experiment using sedimentation plates. We found lower cumulative accretion rates in high stocking densities, probably because more animals cause more compaction and create a lower canopy. Furthermore, a trend towards lower accretion rates in horse-compared to cattle-grazed treatments was found, most likely because (1) horses are more active and thus cause more compaction, and (2) herbage intake by horses is higher than by cattle, which causes a higher biomass removal and shorter canopy. During summer periods, negative accretion rates were found. When the grazing and non-grazing seasons were separated, the impact of grazing differed among years. In summer, we only found an effect of different treatments if soil moisture (precipitation) was relatively low. In winter, a sufficiently high inundation frequency was necessary to create differences between grazing treatments. We conclude that stocking densities, and to a certain extent also livestock species, affect accretion rates in salt marshes. Both stocking densities and livestock species should thus be taken into account in management

  6. Effects of previous grazing nutrition and management on feedlot performance of cattle.

    Drouillard, J S; Kuhl, G L

    1999-01-01

    Management strategies designed to improve grazing animal performance can influence feedlot performance and carcass traits both positively and negatively. In spite of the economic relevance of potential interactions between grazing and finishing performance, controlled experiments evaluating integrated production systems are limited in number. Effects of grazing treatments can result from, or be overshadowed by, changes in gut fill, thus making it difficult to assign precise costs to different phases of production. Published reports have considered the effects of stocking rate, duration of grazing, forage characteristics, supplementation, and growth-promoting implants on subsequent finishing performance. Improvements in cattle performance attributed to changes in stocking rate generally have been neutral to positive with respect to effects on finishing performance. Comparisons among forages have led to the suggestion that forage species may contribute to differences in gastrointestinal fill of grazing cattle, thereby influencing gain and efficiency during the subsequent finishing phase. Creep-feeding suckling calves generally has increased preweaning performance but has had relatively little influence on performance during the subsequent finishing phase. Grain supplementation of stocker cattle during the grazing period has improved grazing performance, but effects on subsequent feedlot performance have been inconsistent. Potential carryover effects from protein and mineral supplementation also have been inconclusive. Lack of congruence among studies is puzzling but may be the consequence of highly varied production systems, differences in experimental procedures, and changes in gut fill or mass of internal organs. Based on the studies reviewed, the expression or absence of compensatory growth during the finishing phase appears to be related to the nutritional quality of forages utilized in the grazing period, with higher quality forages tending to yield greater

  7. Biological soil crusts across disturbance–recovery scenarios: effect of grazing regime on community dynamics.

    Concostrina-Zubiri, L; Huber-Sannwald, E; Martínez, I; Flores Flores, J L; Reyes-Agüero, J A; Escude, A; Belnap, J

    Grazing represents one of the most common disturbances in drylands worldwide, affecting both ecosystem structure and functioning. Despite the efforts to understand the nature and magnitude of grazing effects on ecosystem components and processes, contrasting results continue to arise. This is particularly remarkable for the biological soil crust (BSC) communities (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichens, and bryophytes), which play an important role in soil dynamics. Here we evaluated simultaneously the effect of grazing impact on BSC communities (resistance) and recovery after livestock exclusion (resilience) in a semiarid grassland of Central Mexico. In particular, we examined BSC species distribution, species richness, taxonomical group cover (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichen, bryophyte), and composition along a disturbance gradient with different grazing regimes (low, medium, high impact) and along a recovery gradient with differently aged livestock exclosures (short-, medium-, long-term exclusion). Differences in grazing impact and time of recovery from grazing both resulted in slight changes in species richness; however, there were pronounced shifts in species composition and group cover. We found we could distinguish four highly diverse and dynamic BSC species groups: (1) species with high resistance and resilience to grazing, (2) species with high resistance but low resilience, (3) species with low resistance but high resilience, and (4) species with low resistance and resilience. While disturbance resulted in a novel diversity configuration, which may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning, we observed that 10 years of disturbance removal did not lead to the ecosystem structure found after 27 years of recovery. These findings are an important contribution to our understanding of BCS dynamics from a species and community perspective placed in a land use change context.

  8. Biological soil crusts across disturbance-recovery scenarios: effect of grazing regime on community dynamics

    Concostrina-Zubiri, L.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Martínez, I.; Flores Flores, J. L.; Reyes-Agüero, J. A.; Escudero, A.; Belnap, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Grazing represents one of the most common disturbances in drylands worldwide, affecting both ecosystem structure and functioning. Despite the efforts to understand the nature and magnitude of grazing effects on ecosystem components and processes, contrasting results continue to arise. This is particularly remarkable for the biological soil crust (BSC) communities (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichens, and bryophytes), which play an important role in soil dynamics. Here we evaluated simultaneously the effect of grazing impact on BSC communities (resistance) and recovery after livestock exclusion (resilience) in a semiarid grassland of Central Mexico. In particular, we examined BSC species distribution, species richness, taxonomical group cover (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichen, bryophyte), and composition along a disturbance gradient with different grazing regimes (low, medium, high impact) and along a recovery gradient with differently aged livestock exclosures (short-, medium-, long-term exclusion). Differences in grazing impact and time of recovery from grazing both resulted in slight changes in species richness; however, there were pronounced shifts in species composition and group cover. We found we could distinguish four highly diverse and dynamic BSC species groups: (1) species with high resistance and resilience to grazing, (2) species with high resistance but low resilience, (3) species with low resistance but high resilience, and (4) species with low resistance and resilience. While disturbance resulted in a novel diversity configuration, which may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning, we observed that 10 years of disturbance removal did not lead to the ecosystem structure found after 27 years of recovery. These findings are an important contribution to our understanding of BCS dynamics from a species and community perspective placed in a land use change context.

  9. Effect of day or night grazing on behaviour of swamp buffalo heifers

    Somparn, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of day or night grazing on behaviour by swamp buffaloes. A grazing trial was conducted over 42 days in the late rainy season, during September to November2005 at Surin Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Surin province. The experimental period was divided into two 21-day periods. Twelve 2-year-old swamp buffalo heifers were allocated to four groups, eachcontaining three heifers, with the mean group weights being as similar as possible. Each group was allowed to graze either from 06:20 to 18:00 h (daytime treatment or from 18:20 to 06:00 h (nighttime treatment infour separate paddocks, each of 5 rai, using a cross-over design. When not at pasture the animals in each group were kept in the common corral with free access to fresh drinking water and mineral blocks. Individualanimal activity was recorded by visual observation at 1-min intervals during the period at pasture. Individual groups within each period were treated as replicates. Differences between group means weretested using MIXED procedure of SAS.The buffaloes on daytime treatment spent longer (P<0.05 grazing than those on nighttime treatment (423 vs 332 min. The number of meals differed (P<0.05 between treatments, but overall mean meal durationswere similar (73 min. Buffaloes allowed to graze during daylight had a tendency (P<0.10 toward a higher bite and step rates than those grazing during the night. With the reduction in grazing activity duringthe night on nighttime treatment, the animals ruminated for longer during the period at pasture (327 and 191 min, P<0.001. Live-weight change over periods of 20 days did not differ significantly. The difference intemporal behaviour patterns between treatments indicated that animals have to adapt foraging strategies appropriate for different situations in order to maintain feed intake and subsequently production.

  10. Effect of summer grazing on welfare of dairy cows reared in mountain tie-stall barns

    Simonetta Dovier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mountain farms have an important economic, social and environmental role. The Alps management system for dairy cows consists of animals kept indoors from autumn to spring, mostly in tie-stalls, and moved to mountain pasture in summer. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of mountain summer grazing on the welfare of dairy cows housed in tie-stall barns. Twenty-four farms were considered. In twelve of them, animals were reared in tie-stalls and moved to mountain pasture for three months in summer; they were visited three times: (i four weeks before grazing during the indoor period in the stall; (ii about three weeks after the start of grazing; and (iii in the stall, in autumn, at least three weeks after returning from grazing. The other twelve farms kept the animals in tie-stalls all year; they were visited once in autumn. Data were collected following a protocol that considers animal-based measures and structure information on the basis of Quality Welfare Consortium® indications. Data allowed the calculation of both the Animal Needs Index score (ANI 35L and an overall assessment of the cows’ welfare obtained from three general aspects: housing, animal’s physical condition, and animal’s behaviour. Summer grazing had a significant positive effect on injuries, lameness and animal’s rising duration but a negative effect on faeces consistency. Moreover, a reduction of tongue playing was observed. The ANI 35L and the overall assessment did not show significant differences linked to summer grazing, which tended to have a positive but temporary effect on animal behaviour.

  11. Effects of a perfusion bioreactor activated novel bone substitute in spine fusion in sheep

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Koroma, Kariatta Ester; Ding, Ming

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model.......To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model....

  12. Phosphorus fertilizer and grazing management effects on phosphorus in runoff from dairy pastures.

    Dougherty, Warwick J; Nicholls, Paul J; Milham, Paul J; Havilah, Euie J; Lawrie, Roy A

    2008-01-01

    Fertilizer phosphorus (P) and grazing-related factors can influence runoff P concentrations from grazed pastures. To investigate these effects, we monitored the concentrations of P in surface runoff from grazed dairy pasture plots (50 x 25 m) treated with four fertilizer P rates (0, 20, 40, and 80 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) for 3.5 yr at Camden, New South Wales. Total P concentrations in runoff were high (0.86-11.13 mg L(-1)) even from the control plot (average 1.94 mg L(-1)). Phosphorus fertilizer significantly (P pasture biomass (P dairy pastures should be the maintenance of soil P at or near the agronomic optimum by the use of appropriate rates of P fertilizer.

  13. Optimising stocking rate and grazing management to enhance environmental and production outcomes for native temperate grasslands

    Badgery, Warwick; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Broadfoot, Kim; Kemp, David; Mitchell, David

    2015-04-01

    Stocking rate and grazing management can be altered to enhance the sustainable production of grasslands but the relative influence of each has not often been determined for native temperate grasslands. Grazing management can range from seasonal rests through to intensive rotational grazing involving >30 paddocks. In large scale grazing, it can be difficult to segregate the influence of grazing pressure from the timing of utilisation. Moreover, relative grazing pressure can change between years as seasonal conditions influence grassland production compared to the relative constant requirements of animals. This paper reports on two studies in temperate native grasslands of northern China and south eastern Australia that examined stocking rate and regionally relevant grazing management strategies. In China, the grazing experiment involved combinations of a rest, moderate or heavy grazing pressure of sheep in spring, then moderate or heavy grazing in summer and autumn. Moderate grazing pressure at 50% of the current district average, resulted in the better balance between maintaining productive and diverse grasslands, a profitable livestock system, and mitigation of greenhouse gases through increased soil carbon, methane uptake by the soil, and efficient methane emissions per unit of weight gain. Spring rests best maintained a desirable grassland composition, but had few other benefits and reduced livestock productivity due to lower feed quality from grazing later in the season. In Australia, the grazing experiment compared continuous grazing to flexible 4- and 20-paddock rotational grazing systems with sheep. Stocking rates were adjusted between systems biannually based on the average herbage mass of the grassland. No treatment degraded the perennial pasture composition, but ground cover was maintained at higher levels in the 20-paddock system even though this treatment had a higher stocking rate. Overall there was little difference in livestock production (e.g. kg

  14. THE RUMINANT EFFECT OF VEGETAL LECITHIN AT SHEEP AND GOATS

    H. SĂRĂNDAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the extraction process of the vegetable soy oils and sun-flower oils results in large quantities a waste that contains approximately 45% fat from which 58% is lecithin. This waste called “dreg” creates problems of environment pollution because we didn’t find a use for it. We tested this waste in the food of small ruminants, at sheep and goat, watching the ruminant effect and the apparent digestibility of the nutritive substances in the food. The tested doses of “dregs” were of 100 g and 200 g per day. The food supplementation in sheep and goats with dregs up to 7% fat in the dry substance of the ration has favourable and proportional effects with the dose of fat on the digestibility of the nutritive substances from the food. The growth of ruminant bacteria is favoured at the 100 g dose of dregs but is depressed at the 200 g dose of dregs. On the ruminant protozoa the supplementation with fat from dregs leads to the reducing of the number of protozoa and even at defaunation. It is possible that the fat from the dregs to be a source of YATP and to protect the alimentary proteins of the degrading with proteolytic enzymes and therefore to make the protein ruminant by-pass.

  15. Investigations on the effect of grazing intensity on the transfer of radionuclides to cow`s milk

    Voigt, G. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Schotola, C. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Crout, N.M.J. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physiology and Environmental Science; Absalom, J. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physiology and Environmental Science

    1997-03-01

    For these investigations two farms were chosen. Farm A carries out a rotational grazing regime with 4 grazed pastures which is the more commonly used farm practice in Bavaria, farm B practises a continuous grazing regime with one grazed pasture only. In farm B a tenfold lower Cs-137 activity concentration was observed in milk though activity concentrations in soil and pasture grass were the same as that at farm A, indicating the same transfer rate soil-plant at both locations. It could be shown under normal agricultural conditions that with a higher grazing pressure lower activity concentrations in milk (in this case a factor of about 2 to 3) were obtained. Therefore changing stock density in combination with a continuous grazing regime on a given pasture after a major nuclear accident can be considered as a possible countermeasure which can be easily applied. Mainly to get more synchronised growth rates and a homogeneous distribution of radiocontamination plot experiments were performed to simulate the influence of grazing intensity. Under the experimental design used here no effect of grazing intensity on the transfer of radionuclides to vegetation could be found. Effects of grazing intensity as found for the farm experiment, therefore must be due to other sources than vegetation activities, and are presumably due to soil ingestion preventing uptake of soluble plant incorporated radiocaesium in the animal rumen. (orig./MG)

  16. Effect of supplemental sericea lespedeza pellets on internal parasite infection and nutritional status of grazing goats

    Feeding supplemental Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) leaf meal pellets has been shown to reduce the effects of infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and coccidia (Eimeria spp.) in sheep and goats, but effects on nutritional status of parasitized small ruminants are unclear. A 14...

  17. Effect of Grazing Intensity on Some Soil Chemical Characteristics in Gardaneh Zanburi Rangeland of Arsanjan

    zeinab khademolhosseini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Changes caused by grazing on range ecosystem are generally assessed based on the soil conditions and vegetation. Livestock as one of the major elements in range land ecosystems has different effects on different parts of this ecosystem. One of these impacts is excessive livestock grazing capacity which can have different effects on soils and plants in various intensities. Materials and Methods:Gardaneh ZanbooriRangelandis located in Arsanjan in Fars province. This isanareaof mountains, hillsandplains with the maximum height of 2280 meters and minimum height of 1640 meters above sea level. Related areas were separated under three different management methods of enclosure, moderate grazing and heavy grazing. These three areas are considered as symbolic areas of grazing intensity including the reference area where no grazing intensity was observed, the key area where medium to heavy grazing was applied and critical area where heavy grazing was used. These areas were similar in all characteristics such as topography, soil type and rainfall and differed only in their grazing intensity factor. Then, soil samples were collected. Random systematic soil sampling was conducted at two horizons of 0 -15 and 15 -30 cm. Therefore, five profiles in each area (enclosure, moderate grazing and heavy grazing, a total of 15 soil profiles, were excavated and two samples were taken in each profile (one sample from each horizon. Finally, the thirty soil samples were transported to the laboratory. Samples were dried in the air laboratory and passed a two millimeter sieve after smashing. Factors such as N, P, K, OM, EC and PH were measured in each sample In the laboratory, the percentage of P was determined by the Olsen method while the percentage of K was determined using the flamephotometry method. Moreover, N was measured using the Kjeldhal method. C was measured by the Walkley and Black method. The percentage of OM was found by carbon multiplying

  18. Monitoring of livestock grazing effects on Bureau of Land Management land

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Public land management agencies, such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), are charged with managing rangelands throughout the western United States for multiple uses, such as livestock grazing and conservation of sensitive species and their habitats. Monitoring of condition and trends of these rangelands, particularly with respect to effects of livestock grazing, provides critical information for effective management of these multiuse landscapes. We therefore investigated the availability of livestock grazing-related quantitative monitoring data and qualitative region-specific Land Health Standards (LHS) data across BLM grazing allotments in the western United States. We then queried university and federal rangeland science experts about how best to prioritize rangeland monitoring activities. We found that the most commonly available monitoring data were permittee-reported livestock numbers and season-of-use data (71% of allotments) followed by repeat photo points (58%), estimates of forage utilization (52%), and, finally, quantitative vegetation measurements (37%). Of the 57% of allotments in which LHS had been evaluated as of 2007, the BLM indicated 15% had failed to meet LHS due to livestock grazing. A full complement of all types of monitoring data, however, existed for only 27% of those 15%. Our data inspections, as well as conversations with rangeland experts, indicated a need for greater emphasis on collection of grazing-related monitoring data, particularly ground cover. Prioritization of where monitoring activities should be focused, along with creation of regional monitoring teams, may help improve monitoring. Overall, increased emphasis on monitoring of BLM rangelands will require commitment at multiple institutional levels.

  19. truncatula pasture bY sheeP

    The amounts of amino acids derived by sheep on ... Keywords: Intake, digestion, Medicago truncatula, grazing, sheep ... low productivity based on studies of intake and digestion ... salivary content of extrusa was measured by tritiated water.

  20. Equine Grazing in Managed Subalpine Wetlands: Effects on Arthropods and Plant Structure as a Function of Habitat

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Haultain, Sylvia A.

    2013-12-01

    Grazing management necessarily emphasizes the most spatially extensive vegetation assemblages, but landscapes are mosaics, often with more mesic vegetation types embedded within a matrix of drier vegetation. Our primary objective was to contrast effects of equine grazing on both subalpine vegetation structure and associated arthropods in a drier reed grass ( Calamagrostis muiriana) dominated habitat versus a wetter, more productive sedge habitat ( Carex utriculata). A second objective was to compare reed grass and sedge as habitats for fauna, irrespective of grazing. All work was done in Sequoia National Park (CA, USA), where detailed, long-term records of stock management were available. We sampled paired grazed and control wet meadows that contained both habitats. There were moderate negative effects of grazing on vegetation, and effects were greater in sedge than in reed grass. Conversely, negative grazing effects on arthropods, albeit limited, were greater in the drier reed grass, possibly due to microhabitat differences. The differing effects on plants and animals as a function of habitat emphasize the importance of considering both flora and fauna, as well as multiple habitat types, when making management decisions. Sedge supported twice the overall arthropod abundance of reed grass as well as greater diversity; hemipteran and dipteran taxa were particularly abundant in sedge. Given the greater grazing effects on sedge vegetation, greater habitat provision for terrestrial arthropods, and value as aquatic arthropod habitat, the wetter sedge assemblage is worthy of additional consideration by managers when planning for grazing and other aspects of land usage.

  1. Culicoides species associated with sheep in The Netherlands and the effect of a permethrin insecticide

    Griffioen, K.; Gemst, D.B.J.; Pieterse, M.C.; Jacobs, F.H.H.; Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Culicoides spp. act as vectors for a number of viral diseases of animals including bluetongue in sheep. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) which Culicoides spp. are associated with sheep in The Netherlands; (2) the time of the day when they are most active; and (3) the effect of treatment

  2. Effects of herbivore grazing on the physiognomy of the coralline alga ...

    Effects of herbivore grazing on the physiognomy of the coralline alga Spongites yendoi and on associated competitive interactions. ... overlapping distributions between strongly interacting species along a broad geographical gradient is not just a significant feature of the ecology of terrestrial, but also of marine ecosystems.

  3. Effect of Grazing on Forage Quality and Quantity for Ungulates of ...

    This study examined the effect of grazing as simulated by clipping on forage quality and quantity in terms of above ground biomass, live, total production and nutrients content of forages utilized by ungulates of Kainji Lake National Park. Three 2.5m by 2.5m plots were constructed in the three main vegetation communities in ...

  4. Growth and grazing responses of two chloroplast-retaining dinoflagellates: effect of irradiance and prey species

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Hansen, P.J.; Larsen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of irradiance on growth and grazing responses of 2 phagotrophic dinoflagellates, Gymnodinium gracilentum Campbell 1973 and Amphidinium poecilochroum Larsen 1985, was studied. While G. gracilentum belongs to the plankton, A. poecilochroum is a benthic species that primarily feeds on prey...

  5. Effects of grazing management and buffer strips on metal runoff from pastures fertilized with poultry litter

    Metal runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter may pose a threat to aquatic systems. Buffer strips have been added to fields to reduce nutrients and solids runoff. However, scant information exists on the effects of buffer strips combined with grazing management strategies on metal runoff f...

  6. Effects of cattle grazing, glyphosate, and prescribed burning on fountaingrass fuel loading in Hawai`i

    J.M. Castillo; G. Enriques; M. Nakahara; D. Weise; L. Ford; R. Moraga; R. Vihnanek

    2007-01-01

    Crimson fountaingrass (Pennisetum setaceum) is a nonnative invasive grass that has occupied a significant portion of the western side of the island of Hawai`i. As a result, several fires in excess of 4,049 ha have occurred in the area over the past 20 y. We are studying the effectiveness of cattle grazing, aerial application of glyphosate herbicide, and prescribed...

  7. Methods for assessing the impact of avermectins on the decomposer community of sheep pastures.

    King, K L

    1993-06-01

    This paper outlines methods which can be used in the field assessment of potentially toxic chemicals such as the avermectins. The procedures focus on measuring the effects of the drug on decomposer organisms and the nutrient cycling process in pastures grazed by sheep. Measurements of decomposer activity are described along with methods for determining dry and organic matter loss and mineral loss from dung to the underlying soil. Sampling methods for both micro- and macro-invertebrates are discussed along with determination of the percentage infection of plant roots with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. An integrated sampling unit for assessing the ecotoxicity of ivermectin in pastures grazed by sheep is presented.

  8. Feeding Value of Silybum marianum for Sheep and its Effect on Fiber and Protein Digestion

    Ali Mojadam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to scarcity of forage and water resources and high feed prices in Iran, it seems that the utilization of native and cheap forage resources for ruminants is important. The Milk thistle (Silybum marianum is distributed in different regions of Iran included: Gonbad Kavoos, Gorgan, Nodeh Kalardasht, Dareh Hezareh, Dasht Mugan, Poshtkoh, Mollassani, Shush, Hamidieh, Ramhormuz, Izeh and Kazeroon. The Silybum marianum seed extract and whole plant contain many compounds including Silybin A and B, Silychristin, Apigenin, deoxy silydianin (flavonolignans. Seeds of this plant has about 20 to 25 percent oil, which oleic acids (31.85 %, linoleic acid (45.36 % percent and palmitic acid (8.25 % are the major fatty acids of Silybum marianum seed. Also, the Silybum marianum contains flavonoids and anti-nutritional compounds such as tannins and nitrates. Tannins, unsaturated oils and other anti-nutritional compounds may have negative effects on the digestion of fiber and protein fractions. Tannins can make complexes with large number of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, bacterial cell membrane protein and carbohydrates, and even digestive enzymes. The Silybum marianum plants are native to northern areas of Ahvaz and abundantly growth as self-propelled. The farm animals in these area (sheep, goats, camels, water buffalo and native cows, etc. graze this plant as well as the manual feeding, but there is little known about its effects on the health, performance and digestibility of nutrients (in particular on the fiber and protein, due to existing the tannin and unsaturated oils in it in those animals, and no research work has been done about Silybum marianum. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to determine the feeding value of Silybum marianum and to measure its effects on rumen fermentation and digestion of fiber (straw and protein constituents (soybean meal feedstuff in Arabi sheep. Materials and Methods Twelve male Arabi sheep

  9. Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality ...

    Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality of sheep without enhancing environmental benefits. ... This experiment was established to compare three intensive rotational grazing strategies (fast rotation [FR], average 57-day rest; slow rotation [SR], average 114-day rest; and flexible grazing [FX], based ...

  10. Effects of cultivar and grazing initiation date on fall-grown oat for replacement dairy heifers.

    Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Esser, N M; Cavadini, J S

    2015-09-01

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise for extending the grazing season in Wisconsin, but the optimum date for initiating grazing has not been evaluated. Our objectives for this project were (1) to assess the pasture productivity and nutritive value of 2 oat cultivars [Ogle and ForagePlus (OG and FP, respectively)] with late-September (EG) or mid-October (LG) grazing initiation dates; and (2) to evaluate growth performance by heifers grazing these oat forages compared with heifers reared in confinement (CON). A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/yr) were assigned to 10 research groups (8 heifers/group). Mean initial body weight was 509±40.5 kg in 2013 and 517±30.2 kg in 2014. Heifer groups were assigned to specific pastures arranged as a 2×2 factorial of oat cultivars and grazing initiation dates. Grazing heifer groups were allowed to strip-graze oat pastures for 6 h daily before returning to the barn, where they were offered a forage-based basal total mixed ration. Main effects of oat cultivar and sampling date interacted for forage characteristics in 2013, but not in 2014. During 2013, oat forage mass increased until early November before declining in response to freezing weather conditions, thereby exhibiting linear and quadratic effects of sampling date, regardless of oat cultivar. Similar trends over time were observed in 2014. For 2013, the maximum forage mass was 5,329 and 5,046 kg/ha for FP and OG, respectively, whereas the mean maximum forage mass for 2014 was 4,806 kg/ha. ForagePlus did not reach the boot stage of growth during either year of the trial; OG matured more rapidly, reaching the late-heading stage during 2013, but exhibited only minor maturity differences from FP in 2014. For 2013, average daily gain for CON did not differ from grazing heifer groups (overall mean=0.63 kg/d); however, average daily gain from FP was greater than OG (0.68 vs. 0.57 kg/d), and greater from EG compared with LG (0.82 vs. 0.43 kg/d). For 2013, advantages in

  11. Effects of environmental factors on growth traits in Ghezel sheep ...

    ... growth traits in Ghezel sheep breed. Growth related data (birth weight, weaning weight, month 6 weight, average daily gain from birth to weaning and weaning to month 6) were collected from lambs that have been born during 1994 - 2006 at Ghezel sheep breeding station in west Azerbaijan and data was analyzed using

  12. Bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration in freshly isolated sheep lungs.

    Wong, William D; Wang, Lu; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y

    2017-02-01

    Taking a big breath is known to reverse bronchoconstriction induced by bronchochallenge in healthy subjects; this bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration (DI) is diminished in asthmatics. The mechanism underlying the DI effect is not clear. Observations from experiments using isolated airway smooth muscle (ASM) preparations and airway segments suggest that straining of ASM due to DI could lead to bronchodilation, possibly due to strain-induced reduction in ASM contractility. However, factors external to the lung cannot be excluded as potential causes for the DI effect. Neural reflex initiated by stretch receptors in the lung are known to inhibit the broncho-motor tone and enhance vasodilatation; the former directly reduces airway resistance, and the latter facilitates removal of contractile agonists through the bronchial circulation. If the DI effect is solely mediated by factors extrinsic to the lung, the DI effect would be absent in isolated, nonperfused lungs. Here we examined the DI effect in freshly isolated, nonperfused sheep lungs. We found that imposition of DI on isolated lungs resulted in significant bronchodilation, that this DI effect was present only after the lungs were challenged with a contractile agonist (acetylcholine or histamine), and that the effect was independent of the difference in lung volume observed pre- and post-DI. We conclude that a significant portion of the bronchodilatory DI effect stems from factors internal to the lung related to the activation of ASM. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Effects of Cysteamine on Sheep Embryo Cleavage Rates

    Sinem Ö. ENGİNLER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress during in vitro culture leads to defects in development of gametes and embryos. Several antioxidants such as cysteamine, L-ascorbic acid, beta mercaptoethanol, cysteine, glutathione, proteins, vitamins have been used to supplement culture media to counter the oxidative stress. This study was conducted to detect the effect of adding cysteamine to the maturation medium to subsequent cleavage rates of sheep embryos. Totally 604 ovaries were obtained by ten replica and 2060 oocytes were collected. The cumulus oocyte complexes were recovered by the slicing method. A total of 1818 selected oocytes were divided into two groups and used for maturation (88.25%. The first group was created as supplemented with cysteamine (Group A and second group (Group B, control without cysteamine in TCM-199. The two groups were incubated for 24 h at 38.8 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 in humidified air for in vitro maturation (IVM. After IVM, oocytes were fertilized with 50 x 107 / mL fresh ram semen in BSOF medium for 18 h. After fertilization, maturation groups were divided into two subgroups with different culture media: Group AI-SOF (Synthetic Oviduct Fluid medium, Group AII-CR1aa (Charles Rosencrans medium, Group BI-SOF and Group BII-CR1aa were achieved. Cleavage rates were evaluated at day 2. post insemination. The rates of cleavage were detected as 59.54% (184/309, 55.44% (173/312, 65.34% (215/329, 59.34% (200/337 respectively, with showing no statistically significant difference between the groups at the level of P>0.05. In conclusion, supplementing cysteamine to maturation media in TCM-199 did not affect the cleavage rates of sheep embryos in SOF and CR1aa culture media.

  14. Transitions and coexistence along a grazing gradient in the Eurasian steppe

    Ren, Haiyan; Taube, Friedelm; Zhang, Yingjun; Bai, Yongfei; Hu, Shuijin

    2017-04-01

    Ecological resilience theory has often been applied to explain species coexistence and range condition assessment of various community states and to explicate the dynamics of ecosystems. Grazing is a primary disturbance that can alter rangeland resilience by causing hard-to-reverse transitions in grasslands. Yet, how grazing affects the coexistence of plant functional group (PFG) and transition remains unclear. We conducted a six-year grazing experiment in a typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, using seven grazing intensities (0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5 and 9.0 sheep/ hectare) and two grazing systems (i.e. a continuous annual grazing as in the traditional grazing system, and a mixed grazing system combining grazing and haymaking), to examine grazing effects on plant functional group shifts and species coexistence in the semi-arid grassland system. Our results indicate that the relative richness of dominant bunchgrasses and forbs had a compensatory coexistence at all grazing intensities, and the richness of rhizomatous grasses fluctuated but was persistent. The relative productivity of dominant bunchgrasses and rhizomatous grasses had compensatory interactions with grazing intensity and grazing system. Dominant bunchgrasses and rhizomatous grasses resist grazing effects by using their dominant species functional traits: high specific leaf area and low leaf nitrogen content. Our results suggest that: 1. Stabilizing mechanisms beyond grazing management are more important in determining plant functional group coexistence and ecological resilience. 2. Plant functional group composition is more important in influencing ecosystem functioning than diversity. 3. Ecosystem resilience at a given level is related to the biomass of dominant PFG, which is determined by a balanced shift between dominant species biomass. The relatively even ecosystem resilience along the grazing gradient is attributed to the compensatory interactions of dominant species in their biomass variations

  15. Crystal-associated cholangiopathy in sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens containing the saponin protodioscin Colangiopatia associada a cristais em ovinos alimentados com Brachiaria decumbens que contém a saponina protodioscina

    Karine B. Brum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of hepatogenous photosensitization is reported in a flock of 28 sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Central-Western Brazil. Seven lambs and an adult sheep were affected and 6 of them died. Two surviving affected lambs and one lamb without clinical signs had increased serum values of gamma glutamyltransferase, bilirubin, and cholesterol. In two adult unaffected sheep those parameters were within normal values. An adult sheep submitted to necropsy presented moderate body condition, unilateral corneal opacity, drying of the muzzle, moderate jaundice, increased lobular pattern of the liver, and a distended gallbladder. Histological lesions were epithelial degeneration, necrosis, and hyperplasia of small bile ducts. Mild amounts of foamy macrophages were observed, mainly in the centroacinar zone. Diffuse swelling and vacuolation were observed in hepatocytes. Crystal negative images were found within bile ducts, foamy macrophages, and the lumen of some renal tubules. The heart showed multifocal areas of degeneration and necrosis of the muscle fibers. Pasture samples (Brachiaria decumbens contained 2.36% of protodioscin. No Pithomyces chartarum spores were found in the pasture. Samples from a similar neighboring B. decumbens pasture grazed by cattle without photosensitization contained 1.63% of protodioscin isomers. Outbreaks of photosensitization caused by Brachiaria spp. are common in cattle in the Brazilian Cerrado (savanna with about 51 million hectares of Brachiaria spp pastures. Sheep farming has been recently developed in this region, and the number of sheep is increasing significantly. Because sheep are more susceptible than cattle to lithogenic saponins, poisoning by Brachiaria should be an important limiting factor for the sheep industry.Um surto de fotossensibilização hepatógena é descrito em um rebanho de 28 ovinos mantidos em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, regi

  16. Effects of nitrogen deposition and cattle grazing on productivity, invasion impact, and soil microbial processes in a serpentine grassland

    Pasari, J.; Hernandez, D.; Selmants, P. C.; Keck, D.

    2010-12-01

    In recent decades, human activities have vastly increased the amount of biologically available nitrogen (N) in the biosphere. The resulting increase in N availability has broadly affected ecosystems through increased productivity, changes in species composition, altered nutrient cycles, and increases in invasion by exotic plant species, especially in systems that were historically low in N. California serpentine grasslands are N-limited ecosystems historically dominated by native species including several threatened and endangered plants and animals. Cattle grazing has emerged as the primary tool for controlling the impact of nitrophilic exotic grasses whose increased abundance has paralleled the regional traffic-derived increase in atmospheric N deposition. We examined the interactive effects of cattle grazing and N deposition on plant community composition, productivity, invasion resistance, and microbial processes in the Bay Area's largest serpentine grassland to determine the efficacy of current management strategies as well as the biogeochemical consequences of exotic species invasion. In the first two years of the study, aboveground net primary productivity decreased in response to grazing and increased in response to nitrogen addition. However, contrary to our hypotheses the change in productivity was not due to an increase in exotic species cover as there was little overall effect of grazing or N addition on species composition. Microbial activity was more responsive to grazing and N. Potential net N mineralization rates increased with N addition, but were not affected by grazing. In contrast, soil respiration rates were inhibited by grazing, but were not affected by N addition; suggesting strong carbon-limitation of soil microbial activity, particularly under grazing. Site differences in soil depth and grazing intensity were often more important than treatment effects. We suspect that the unusually dry conditions in the first two growing seasons inhibited

  17. The effects of burning and grazing on soil carbon dynamics in managed Peruvian tropical montane grasslands

    Oliver, Viktoria; Oliveras, Imma; Kala, Jose; Lever, Rebecca; Arn Teh, Yit

    2017-12-01

    Montane tropical soils are a large carbon (C) reservoir, acting as both a source and a sink of CO2. Enhanced CO2 emissions originate, in large part, from the decomposition and losses of soil organic matter (SOM) following anthropogenic disturbances. Therefore, quantitative knowledge of the stabilization and decomposition of SOM is necessary in order to understand, assess and predict the impact of land management in the tropics. In particular, labile SOM is an early and sensitive indicator of how SOM responds to changes in land use and management practices, which could have major implications for long-term carbon storage and rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of grazing and fire history on soil C dynamics in the Peruvian montane grasslands, an understudied ecosystem, which covers approximately a quarter of the land area in Peru. A density fractionation method was used to quantify the labile and stable organic matter pools, along with soil CO2 flux and decomposition measurements. Grazing and burning together significantly increased soil CO2 fluxes and decomposition rates and reduced temperature as a driver. Although there was no significant effect of land use on total soil C stocks, the combination of burning and grazing decreased the proportion of C in the free light fraction (LF), especially at the lower depths (10-20 and 20-30 cm). In the control soils, 20 % of the material recovered was in the free LF, which contained 30 % of the soil C content. In comparison, the burnt-grazed soil had the smallest recovery of the free LF (10 %) and a significantly lower C content (14 %). The burnt soils had a much higher proportion of C in the occluded LF (12 %) compared to the not-burnt soils (7 %) and there was no significant difference among the treatments in the heavy fraction (F) ( ˜ 70 %). The synergistic effect of burning and grazing caused changes to the soil C dynamics. CO2 fluxes were increased and the dominant

  18. Use of labelled water in studies on the nutrition and physiology of grazing ruminants in New Zealand

    Wright, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of isotopic water in animal production studies on grazing ruminants in New Zealand are described. These include the seasonal and nutritional effects on water metabolism of dairy cattle and meat breeds of sheep, milk intakes of calves and lambs, and individual intakes of dietary supplements to control diseases such as hypomagnesaemia, bloat and facial eczema. (author)

  19. Channeling effect in electronic spectra produced by grazing impact of fast protons on insulator surfaces

    Archubi, C D; Gravielle, M S, E-mail: archubi@iafe.uba.a, E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-11-01

    Electron emission due to grazing scattering of fast protons from LiF and KCl surfaces is studied under axial incidence conditions. The differential emission probability is calculated within a distorted-wave formalism, taking into account axial channeled trajectories. For different emission angles, electronic spectra for proton incidence along the two principal crystal axes ([100] and [110]) are compared with those corresponding to an impact velocity in a random direction, finding effects associated with the channeling conditions.

  20. Effects of Grazing and Fire Frequency on Floristic Quality and its Relationship to Indicators of Soil Quality in Tallgrass Prairie.

    Manning, George C; Baer, Sara G; Blair, John M

    2017-12-01

    Fire and grazing are widely used to manage grasslands for conservation purposes, but few studies have evaluated the effects of these drivers on the conservation value of plant communities measured by the floristic quality index (FQI). Further, the influence of fire and grazing on soil properties and functions are difficult for land managers and restoration practitioners to assess. The objectives of this study were to: (1) quantify the independent and interactive effects of grazing and fire frequency on floristic quality in native tallgrass prairie to provide potential benchmarks for community assessment, and (2) to explore whether floristic quality can serve as an indicator of soil structure and function for more holistic ecosystem assessments. A factorial combination of fire frequencies (1-2, 4, and 20 years return intervals) and grazing (by bison or ungrazed) treatments were sampled for plant species composition, and for several indicators of soil quality in lowland tallgrass prairie. Floristic quality, diversity, and richness were higher in grazed than ungrazed prairie over all fire frequencies (P soil bulk density were also higher in grazed prairie soil over all fire frequencies (P soil N were positively correlated with FQI (P soil N pools are more strongly influenced by grazing than fire and that floristic quality can be an indicator of total soil C and N stocks in never cultivated lowland prairie.

  1. Effects of Grazing and Fire Frequency on Floristic Quality and its Relationship to Indicators of Soil Quality in Tallgrass Prairie

    Manning, George C.; Baer, Sara G.; Blair, John M.

    2017-12-01

    Fire and grazing are widely used to manage grasslands for conservation purposes, but few studies have evaluated the effects of these drivers on the conservation value of plant communities measured by the floristic quality index (FQI). Further, the influence of fire and grazing on soil properties and functions are difficult for land managers and restoration practitioners to assess. The objectives of this study were to: (1) quantify the independent and interactive effects of grazing and fire frequency on floristic quality in native tallgrass prairie to provide potential benchmarks for community assessment, and (2) to explore whether floristic quality can serve as an indicator of soil structure and function for more holistic ecosystem assessments. A factorial combination of fire frequencies (1-2, 4, and 20 years return intervals) and grazing (by bison or ungrazed) treatments were sampled for plant species composition, and for several indicators of soil quality in lowland tallgrass prairie. Floristic quality, diversity, and richness were higher in grazed than ungrazed prairie over all fire frequencies ( P total N, and soil bulk density were also higher in grazed prairie soil over all fire frequencies ( P total organic C, and total soil N were positively correlated with FQI ( P quality and soil N pools are more strongly influenced by grazing than fire and that floristic quality can be an indicator of total soil C and N stocks in never cultivated lowland prairie.

  2. Effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep and on in vitro gas production kinetics

    EL-WAZIRY, Ahmed; AL-HAIDARY, Ahmed; OKAB, Aly; SAMARA, Emad; ABDOUN, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep, in vitro gas production, estimated energy, and microbial protein synthesis. A total of 18 Naimey male sheep with average live weight of 22.78 ± 0.24 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups. Sheep in group 1 were fed a diet containing commercial feed without seaweed as a control diet, sheep in group 2 were fed the control diet with 3% seaweed, and sheep in group 3...

  3. Dinámica de las larvas infestantes de estrongílidos gastrointestinales en ovinos en pastoreo Dynamics of gastrointestinal strongyle infesting larvae in grazing sheep

    J Arece

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un estudio durante dos años, con el objetivo de caracterizar la dinámica de las poblaciones larvarias en «refugio» de nemátodos gastrointestinales, así como su interrelación con las variables meteorológicas, en tres unidades de producción ovina de la provincia de Matanzas (Dos Mercedes, LABIOFAM y la EEPF «Indio Hatuey». Con una frecuencia mensual se recolectaron e identificaron las larvas de estrongílidos gastrointestinales, mediante una técnica de lavado del pasto proveniente de cuartones centinelas previamente seleccionados. La dinámica de las poblaciones larvarias de tercer estadio tuvo un comportamiento similar en las unidades en estudio; sin embargo, hubo diferencias en las cantidades de L3 por kg de MS de pasto. Se registró un efecto de los meses y la época del año en la disponibilidad de larvas. En el período lluvioso (PLL se recolectó una mayor cantidad de L3 como producto de los efectos favorables de las precipitaciones y la temperatura. En el pasto se encontró un predominio de L3 de Haemonchus spp. y, en menor cuantía, Trichostrongylus colubriformis y Oesophagostomum columbianum. Las poblaciones larvarias aparecieron en mayor cuantía durante el PLL y su dinámica se relacionó con las variables ambientales y con los factores vinculados al sistema de producción en cada unidad.A study was conducted for two years, with the objective of characterizing the dynamics of the larval populations in «refuge» of gastrointestinal nematodes, as well as its interrelation with the meteorological variables in three sheep production farms in Matanzas province, Cuba (Dos Mercedes, LABIOFAM and the EEPF «Indio Hatuey». Larvae of gastrointestinal strongyles were monthly collected from pasture and identified by means of a pasture washing technique from previously selected sentinel paddocks. The third stage larval population's dynamics in pasture showed a similar trend in the three farms; however, there were

  4. Biological fire prevention method: Evaluating the effects of goat grazing on the fire-prone mediterranean scrub

    Mancilla-Leyton, J. M.; Martin Vicente, A.

    2012-11-01

    The effect of goat grazing on the shrubby under story of a pine forest in Donana Natural Park was evaluated using non-destructive measures of vegetation volume over a period of twenty-four months. After establishing grazing exclusion fenced plots 350 adult Payoyas goats were introduced. Vegetation was sampled before the introduction of goats and afterwards twice a year, using the point intercept method and thereby obtaining data of height, frequency, cover and biovolume of species. After two years the total biovolume of the vegetation of the un grazed area had increased significantly by 32.9%, while at grazed area, vegetation bio volume decreased significantly by 23.1%, leading to a significant decrease in mean height of the species. Although the number of species remained unchanged throughout the study, significant changes in their relative abundance were found in grazed area. The different responses of scrub species to grazing can be used as a tool to control species sensitive to grazing in shrubby forested areas. Significant reduction of total bio volume due to a reduction in vegetation height will help to reduce fire risk, thus contributing to the conservation of Mediterranean woodlands and forests while also fulfilling an important role in the economic and social lives of the rural population of Mediterranean countries. (Author) 15 refs.

  5. A review of Melophagus ovinus (L.), the sheep ked.

    Small, Richard W

    2005-06-10

    The sheep ked Melophagus ovinus is a member of the parasitic Dipteran family Hippoboscidae; it was a widespread ectoparasite of sheep that was of veterinary importance until the introduction of effective pesticides. Since then it has become of less concern and may have become a relatively uncommon species through much of its former range. Changes in agricultural practice, both greater intensification and development of more extensive systems (including organic farming and conservation grazing), may allow resurgence and a review of existing knowledge of M. ovinus may be timely. This paper reviews the biology, annual population cycles, natural causes of mortality, veterinary and economic significance and control of, and host resistance to, M. ovinus.

  6. Controlling Within-Field Sheep Movement Using Virtual Fencing.

    Marini, Danila; Llewellyn, Rick; Belson, Sue; Lee, Caroline

    2018-02-26

    Virtual fencing has the potential to greatly improve livestock movement, grazing efficiency, and land management by farmers; however, relatively little work has been done to test the potential of virtual fencing with sheep. Commercial dog training equipment, comprising of a collar and GPS hand-held unit were used to implement a virtual fence in a commercial setting. Six, 5-6 year-old Merino wethers, which were naïve to virtual fencing were GPS tracked for their use of a paddock (80 × 20 m) throughout the experiment. The virtual fence was effective at preventing a small group of sheep from entering the exclusion zone. The probability of a sheep receiving an electrical stimulus following an audio cue was low (19%), and declined over the testing period. It took an average of eight interactions with the fence for an association to be made between the audio and stimulus cue, with all of the animals responding to the audio alone by the third day. Following the removal of the virtual fence, sheep were willing to cross the previous location of the virtual fence after 30 min of being in the paddock. This is an important aspect in the implementation of virtual fencing as a grazing management tool and further enforces that the sheep in this study were able to associate the audio with the virtual fence and not the physical location itself.

  7. Antioxidant Effects of Sheep Whey Protein on Endothelial Cells

    Efthalia Kerasioti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS may cause endothelial dysfunction and consequently vascular disease. In the present study, the possible protective effects of sheep whey protein (SWP from tert-butyl hydroperoxide- (tBHP- induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells (EA.hy926 were assessed using oxidative stress biomarkers. These oxidative stress biomarkers were glutathione (GSH and ROS levels determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, protein carbonyls (CARB, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG were determined spectrophotometrically. The results showed that SWP at 0.78, 1.56, 3.12, and 6.24 mg of protein mL−1 increased GSH up to 141%, while it decreased GSSG to 46.7%, ROS to 58.5%, TBARS to 52.5%, and CARB to 49.0%. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time that SWP protected endothelial cells from oxidative stress. Thus, SWP may be used for developing food supplements or biofunctional foods to attenuate vascular disturbances associated with oxidative stress.

  8. Effect of forage supplements on the incidence of bloat in dairy cows grazing high clover pastures.

    Phillips, C J; James, N L; Murray-Evans, J P

    1996-08-17

    The effect of offering forage supplements of different compositions was examined in two experiments with cows grazing high clover swards. In the first experiment strawmix supplements of high or low energy content (11 and 9 MJ metabolisable energy/kg dry matter [DM]) and high or low crude protein content (17 and 4 g/kg DM) were offered for periods of three weeks. The energy and protein contents were varied by the content of molasses and soyabean meal, respectively. The high energy, high protein supplement increased the incidence of bloat, and the low energy, high protein supplement reduced it, compared with grazing alone. Bloat was most evident in the first two weeks of each feeding period, suggesting that the cows partially adapted to the diets within three weeks. In the second experiment silage supplements reduced the incidence of bloat among cows grazing both tall and short swards. The most suitable forages to feed when there is a risk of bloat are those that are slowly fermented in the rumen but are eaten in sufficient quantity to reduce periods of rapid herbage intake.

  9. Eddy covariance methane flux measurements over a grazed pasture: effect of cows as moving point sources

    Felber, R.; Münger, A.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.

    2015-06-01

    Methane (CH4) from ruminants contributes one-third of global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Eddy covariance (EC) technique has been extensively used at various flux sites to investigate carbon dioxide exchange of ecosystems. Since the development of fast CH4 analyzers, the instrumentation at many flux sites has been amended for these gases. However, the application of EC over pastures is challenging due to the spatially and temporally uneven distribution of CH4 point sources induced by the grazing animals. We applied EC measurements during one grazing season over a pasture with 20 dairy cows (mean milk yield: 22.7 kg d-1) managed in a rotational grazing system. Individual cow positions were recorded by GPS trackers to attribute fluxes to animal emissions using a footprint model. Methane fluxes with cows in the footprint were up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than ecosystem fluxes without cows. Mean cow emissions of 423 ± 24 g CH4 head-1 d-1 (best estimate from this study) correspond well to animal respiration chamber measurements reported in the literature. However, a systematic effect of the distance between source and EC tower on cow emissions was found, which is attributed to the analytical footprint model used. We show that the EC method allows one to determine CH4 emissions of cows on a pasture if the data evaluation is adjusted for this purpose and if some cow distribution information is available.

  10. Effects of nutritional supplement of ginger root on antioxidant status in sheep

    majid fartashvand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a medicinal plant and pungent food spice, which has antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ginger on antioxidant status of blood in healthy sheep. In this study, dried ginger root powder was added to the ration of 10 male yearling sheep (treatment group, at the rate of 1g/head/day for a period of 2 months. In the second group (n = 10 sheep, a single dose of vitamin E+selenium injection was administered intramuscularly (positive control group and the control group (n=10 sheep received no medication or special additives. Blood samples were collected regularly at 2 week intervals and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT and total antioxidant levels were measured. Ginger increased total antioxidant capacity of serum and blood levels of SOD, GPX and CAT, which was significant compared to the control group (p

  11. Effect of mowing and grazing on ramet emergence of Leymus ...

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... the ramets emergence characteristics. The primary effect of the treatments was significant changes in .... calcicorthic aridisol (US soil taxonomy classification system). .... tative growth and the geographical distribution of plants. This paper shows .... Spatial pattern changes in aboveground plant biomass in a ...

  12. Effects of Prescribed Burning on Grazed Shortgrass Steppe

    Over the past century, fire has been widely suppressed in the western Great Plains, in part due to potential negative effects on forage production for livestock. Interest in the use of prescribed fire in shortgrass steppe has increased recently due to applications for wildlife management, control of...

  13. Effects of Seasonal and Perennial Grazing on Soil Fauna Community and Microbial Biomass Carbon in the Subalpine Meadows of Yunnan, Southwest China

    LIU Shengjie; YANG Xiaodong; Anthony R.IVES; FENG Zhili; SHA Liqing

    2017-01-01

    Grazing and over-grazing may drive changes in the diversity and functioning of below-ground meadow ecosystems.A field soil survey was conducted to compare microbial biomass carbon (Cmin) and soil fauna communities in the two main grassland management systems in subalpine regions of Yunnan Province,China:perennial grazing currently practiced due to increasing herd sizes and traditional seasonal grazing.A three-year exclosure experiment was then conducted to further compare the effects of different grazing practices,including treatments of no mowing,perennial grazing (NM + G),mowing followed by seasonal grazing (M + G),mowing and no grazing (M + NG),and no mowing or grazing (NM + NG).The comparative survey result revealed that Cmin and total density of soil fauna were significantly lower at a perennially grazed site than at a seasonally grazed site.The experiment results showed that in comparison to non-grazing treatments (M + NG and NM + NG),grazing (NM + G and M + G) reduced total fauna density (by 150 individuals m-2) and the number of taxonomic groups present (by 0.32 taxa m-2).Mowing decreased Cmin (by 0.31 mg g-1).Furthermore,the NM + G treatment (perennial grazing) had the lowest density of Collembola (16.24 individuals m-2),one of the two most common taxonomic groups,although other taxonomic groups responded differently to the treatments.Treatment effects on soil fauna were consistent with those on above-ground grasses,in which C:N ratios were greatly reduced by grazing,with this effect being the greatest for the NM + G treatment.In contrast,different grazing treatments had little effect on C:N ratio of soil.Furthermore,the traditional grazing method (mowing followed by seasonal grazing) may have less severe effects on some taxonomic groups than perennial grazing.Therefore,an appropriate management should aim to protect soil fauna and microbes in this area from over-grazing and against further degradation.

  14. Direct and carryover effect of post-grazing sward height on total lactation dairy cow performance.

    Ganche, E; Delaby, L; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Kennedy, E

    2013-08-01

    Grazing pastures to low post-grazing sward heights (PGSH) is a strategy to maximise the quantity of grazed grass in the diet of dairy cows within temperate grass-based systems. Within Irish spring-calving systems, it was hypothesised that grazing swards to very low PGSH would increase herbage availability during early lactation but would reduce dairy cow performance, the effect of which would persist in subsequent lactation performance when compared with cows grazing to a higher PGSH. Seventy-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (mean calving date, 12 February) were randomly assigned post-calving across two PGSH treatments (n = 36): 2.7 cm (severe; S1) and 3.5 cm (moderate; M1), which were applied from 10 February to 18 April (period 1; P1). This was followed by a carryover period (period 2; P2) during which cows were randomly reassigned within their P1 treatment across two further PGSH (n = 18): 3.5 cm (severe, SS and MS) and 4.5 cm (moderate, SM and MM) until 30 October. Decreasing PGSH from 3.5 to 2.7 cm significantly decreased milk (-2.3 kg/cow per day), protein (-95 g/day), fat (-143 g/day) and lactose (-109 g/day) yields, milk protein (-1.2 g/kg) and fat (-2.2 g/kg) concentrations and grass dry matter intake (GDMI; -1.7 kg dry matter/cow per day). The severe PGSH was associated with a lower bodyweight (BW) at the end of P1. There was no carryover effect of P1 PGSH on subsequent milk or milk solids yields in P2, but PGSH had a significant carryover effect on milk fat and lactose concentrations. Animals severely restricted at pasture in early spring had a higher BW and slightly higher body condition score in later lactation when compared with M1 animals. During P2, increasing PGSH from 3.5 to 4.5 cm increased milk and milk solids yield as a result of greater GDMI and resulted in higher mean BW and end BW. This study indicates that following a 10-week period of feed restriction, subsequent dairy cow cumulative milk production is unaffected. However, the substantial

  15. Spatial distribution patterns of sheep following manipulation of feeding motivation and food availability.

    Freire, R; Swain, D L; Friend, M A

    2012-05-01

    We hypothesised that (i) increased feeding motivation will cause sheep to move further apart as a result of individuals trying to find food and (ii) in conditions of high food availability, sheep will move less and show greater social attraction. The effects of both feeding motivation and food availability on spatial distribution was examined in eight groups of food-deprived (high feeding motivation) and satiated (low feeding motivation) sheep in good or poor food resource plots in a 2 × 2 design. Distance travelled was assessed using Global Positioning System collars, grazing time using scan sampling and social cohesion using proximity collars that record the number and duration of encounters within 4 m. Food-deprived sheep in the good-resource plots grazed the most, whereas satiated sheep in the poor-resource plots grazed the least (P = 0.004). Food deprivation had no significant effect on the number or duration of encounters and feeding motivation appeared to have little effect on spatial distribution. Contrary to expectation, sheep had more encounters (P = 0.04) of a longer total duration (P = 0.02) in poor-resource plots than in good-resource plots, indicating that sheep were showing more social cohesion if food was scarce. Our findings suggest that when food is scarce, animals may come together in an attempt to share information on food availability. However, when a highly preferred food is abundant and well dispersed, they may move apart in order to maximise the intake. It is concluded that the particular details of our experiment, namely the even distribution or absence of a highly preferred food, affected spatial distribution patterns as sheep tried to find this food and maximise the intake.

  16. Herbivore grazing?or trampling? Trampling effects by a large ungulate in cold high?latitude ecosystems

    Heggenes, Jan; Odland, Arvid; Chevalier, Tomas; Ahlberg, J?rgen; Berg, Amanda; Larsson, H?kan; Bjerketvedt, Dag K.

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian herbivores have important top-down effects on ecological processes and landscapes by generating vegetation changes through grazing and trampling. For free-ranging herbivores on large landscapes, trampling is an important ecological factor. However, whereas grazing is widely studied, low-intensity trampling is rarely studied and quantified. The cold-adapted northern tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is a wide-ranging keystone herbivore in large open alpine and Arctic ecosystems. Re...

  17. Effects of dietary protein intake on responses of young sheep to infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    van Houtert, M F; Barger, I A; Steel, J W; Windon, R G; Emery, D L

    1995-01-01

    The effects of protein supplementation and infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis on production responses and immune function in young sheep and on nematode population dynamics were assessed. Eighty-four 3-month-old Merino wether sheep were housed in individual pens and fed ad libitum chopped oaten hay containing 0.5% urea, together with 50 g day-1 lucerne meal. Fish meal (FM) was given as a source of protected protein at 0, 50 or 100 g day-1 (FM0, FM50, FM100; from Days --28 to 140). From Days 1 to 140, 0 or 1000 T. colubriformis infective larvae were given on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. Infected sheep were slaughtered after 35, 70, 105, or 140 days of infection. Live-weight gain was reduced significantly by infection with T. colubriformis in sheep given FM0, but not in sheep given FM50 or FM100. Greasy wool production and fibre diameter were increased by FM, whereas the effects of infection with T. colubriformis on wool measurements depended on the level of FM given. Worm egg concentrations in faeces were significantly lower for sheep given FM100 than for those given FM0 or FM50 during the last 28 days of infection. Similarly, the apparent rate of worm expulsion was considerably higher in sheep given FM than in those not given FM. The rate of expulsion of T. colubriformis correlated with levels of circulating eosinophils as well as with the concentration of intestinal sheep mast cell proteases. Levels of parasite-specific and non-specific circulating antibodies were either unaffected or reduced as a result of supplementation with FM, although lymphocyte stimulation in vitro in response to T. colubriformis third stage larval antigen was enhanced significantly in infected animals given FM100. It was concluded that supplementary feeding with FM substantially reduced the production losses attributable to infection with T. colubriformis and was associated with enhanced expulsion of the parasite burden.

  18. Evaluation the effect of albendazole against nematodes in sheep

    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Six sheep farms in Mosul city, Iraq randomly selected, were surveyed for gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to Albendazole. On each of 6 sheep farms, 20 lambs were randomly distributed into two equal groups untreated control group, and albendazole (benzimidazole group (10 mg/kg BW. Faecal egg counts and larval cultures were done at 7, 14, and 21 days after anthelmintic treatment. Resistance was apparent for albendazole on 4 farms out of 6 (66.7%. Post-treatment larval cultures indicated: Strongyloides papillosus, Marshalligia marshalli, Nematodirus spathiger and Haemonchus contortus.

  19. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus response to feces and urine from sheep (Ovis aries and reindeer

    Stein R. Moe

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available In many Norwegian alpine and tundra areas sheep and reindeer graze sympatrically. Areas covered with dung or urine may have consequences for reindeer pasture utilization. Experiments were conducted on 5 stall fed male reindeer calves where animals were individually presenred with two troughs (experimental and control containing 200 g of concentrate. Fresh and dry sheep and reindeer pellets (50 g wet weight were mixed with the concentrate in the experimental trough and the aversive response was tested against the control. Both fresh sheep (P < 0.0001 and reindeer (P < 0.0001 pellets were associated with aversive response by reindeer. A similar response was found for dry sheep (P = 0.006 and dry reindeer (P = 0.0009 pellets. Similar trials were conducted using sheep and reindeer urine (20 g sprayed evenly on the food and the aversive response by reindeer was tested against the control (sprayed with 20 g of water. Both sheep and reindeer urine stimulated an aversive response by reindeer {P = 0.03 for both tests. The differences in the aversive response of reindeer ro fresh sheep and reindeer pellets, dry sheep and reindeer pellets and sheep and reindeer urine were also tested. No differences by reindeer were found between sheep and reindeer pellets, either for fresh (P = 0.28 or dry (P = 0.07, or between food treated with sheep and reindeer urine (P = 0.28. Possible habituation to sheep and reindeer pellets was tested using 8 consecutive trials with dry pellets, followed by 2 additional trials when dry pellets were soaked in water. This was done to simulate natural dry periods followed by rain showers. Habituation effects were found in trials with dry sheep and reindeer pellets. Subsequent trials with fecal pellets soaked in water significantly reduced food intake when compared with the last habituation trial with dry pellets (P < 0.05.

  20. Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis induced by anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody. II. Effects of injecting heterologous, homologous, or autologous glomerular basement membranes and complete Freund's adjuvant into sheep.

    Steblay, R. W.; Rudofsky, U. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of injecting human, rabbit, rat, or single-kidney homologous glomerular basement membrane (GBM) or autologous GBM, each in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), into 15- to 18-month-old sheep are compared. All sheep receiving heterologous GBM and 3 of 6 sheep receiving homologous GBM had anti-GBM nephritis, but such sheep did not bind autoantibodies or have Goodpasturelike lesions in their lungs. Sheep given injections of human GBM had autoantibodies to antigenic determinants shared b...

  1. The Effect of Crude Protein Content on Meat and Fat Production in Sheep

    Mawati, S.; Restitrisnani, V.; Soedarsono

    2018-02-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) content on meat protein and fat production in sheep. Twenty four male thin tail sheep aged 6-7 months with average body weight of 13±1.56 kg were used in this study. The sheep were fed 10-14% CP. Sheep with the average body weight amount 16.75 kg were slaughter after 4 months rising. Parameters observed in this study were carcass weight, meat weight and fat weight of thin tail sheep. The data were analyzed using correlation analysis. The result of this study showed that CP content on diet had weak and negative correlation with meat production (r = -0.06) (y = -0.148x + 62.54) but had weak and possitive correlation with fat production (r = 0.3) (y = 0.807x2 -18.40x + 119.1). Based on the result, it can be concluded that the optimum CP content for sheep is 12.5% CP.

  2. Combined effects of nitrogen content in media and Ochromonas sp. grazing on colony formation of cultured Microcystis aeruginosa

    Zhou YANG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the combined effects of nitrogen content in media and flagellate grazing on colony formation of Microcystis aeruginosa, we added Ochromonas sp. to M. aeruginosa cultured in different nitrogen content media for 7 days. Results showed that M. aeruginosa could be efficiently ingested by Ochromonas sp., no matter what nitrogen content media M. aeruginosa was cultured in. Colony formation was observed in M. aeruginosa in all Ochromonas sp. grazing treatments during the experiment. In contrast, M. aeruginosa populations in the controls were strongly dominated by unicellular and paired cell forms, and no colonies were observed. Among all Ochromonas sp. grazing treatments, the mean numbers of cells per particle of M. aeruginosa increased with decreased nitrogen concentration (except 0% N, therefore colony formation of M. aeruginosa can be enhanced under lower nitrogen conditions. This suggests that both nitrogen content and Ochromonas sp. grazing combine to affect M. aeruginosa colony formation. Three-way ANOVA showed a statistically significant interaction between time (day 1, 3, 5, and 7, treatment (with and without Ochromonas sp. grazing and N content (0%, 10%, 25%, and 100% N on the mean numbers of cells per particle, i.e. the extent of colony formation. At the end of the experiment, the influence of nitrogen content (except 0% N on the numbers of cells per particle followed a rectangular hyperbolic response. The experiments demonstrated that there exists a combined effect of nitrogen concentration and flagellate grazing on colony formation of M. aeruginosa under laboratory conditions.

  3. Effects of co-grazing dairy heifers with goats on animal performance, dry matter yield, and pasture forage composition.

    Dennis, T S; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Neary, M K; Nennich, T D

    2012-12-01

    Mixed livestock grazing can offer an alternative management system for rearing dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus). A 2-yr study was conducted during 2009 (yr 1) and 2010 (yr 2) to determine the effects of co-grazing Holstein heifers under rotational stocking with Boer × Kiko goats on animal performance, pasture DM yield, and botanical composition. Each year, 24 heifers (134 ± 6 d of age and 147.4 ± 31.2 kg BW in yr 1; 166 ± 11 d of age and 168.0 ± 27.6 kg BW in yr 2) and 6 goats (2 yr old and 39.7 ± 16.2 kg BW in yr 1; 1 yr old and 33.7 ± 7.4 kg BW in yr 2) were divided into 6 paddocks with 4 heifers and 2 goats, where applicable, per group. Low endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures were used to evaluate 2 grazing strategies (heifers grazed alone [HO] or heifers co-grazed with goats [HG]). In addition, 6 goats were assigned to 2 paddocks and grazed alone (GO) each year to estimate goat pasture forage intake and compare Haemonchus contortus infection to co-grazed goats. Forage samples were taken monthly to assess DM yield and botanical composition. Samples collected for botanical composition were manually sorted into grass, legume, and weed species. Forage DMI was estimated using a rising plate meter before and after grazing. Heifer BW at the conclusion of yr 1 and yr 2 did not differ between HO and HG (P = 0.40 and P = 0.12, respectively). Likewise, overall ADG did not differ between HO and HG, averaging 0.65 kg/d and 0.63 kg/d over both grazing seasons (P = 0.70). Grazing strategy did not affect forage or total DMI in yr 1; however, HO consumed 2.3 kg/d more forage DM than HG (P pastures (P dairy heifers can be co-grazed with goats without negative effects on ADG or feed efficiency.

  4. Effect of pre-grazing herbage mass on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures.

    Wims, C M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2014-01-01

    A grazing study was undertaken to examine the effect of maintaining three levels of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM) on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter (DM) production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three pre-grazing HM treatments: 1150 - Low HM (L), 1400 - Medium HM (M) or 2000 kg DM/ha - High HM (H). Herbage accumulation under grazing was lowest (Ppastures required more grass silage supplementation during the grazing season (+73 kg DM/cow) to overcome pasture deficits due to lower pasture growth rates (Ppasture intake, although cows grazing the L pastures had to graze a greater daily area (Ppasture reduces pasture DM production and at a system level may increase the requirement for imported feed.

  5. Complementary effects of red clover inclusion in ryegrass-white clover swards for grazing and cutting

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Askegaard, Margrethe; Søegaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Increasing plant species diversity in grasslands may improve productivity and stability of yields. In a field experiment, we investigated the herbage dry-matter (DM) yield and crude protein content of two-species swards of perennial ryegrass–white clover (Lolium perenne L.–Trifolium repens L...... clover in sown swards are discussed. These may include higher nitrogen-use efficiency in ruminants, increased soil fertility and improved sward flexibility to cope with changing managements. The findings also suggest positive yield effects of alternating between cutting and grazing within the season...

  6. A Systematic Review of Wild Burro Grazing Effects on Mojave Desert Vegetation, USA

    Abella, Scott R.

    2008-06-01

    Wild burros ( Equus asinus), protected by the 1971 Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act on some federal lands but exotic animals many ecologists and resource mangers view as damaging to native ecosystems, represent one of the most contentious environmental management problems in American Southwest arid lands. This review synthesizes the scattered literature about burro effects on plant communities of the Mojave Desert, a center of burro management contentions. I classified 24 documents meeting selection criteria for this review into five categories of research: (i) diet analyses directly determining which plant species burros consume, (ii) utilization studies of individual species, (iii) control-impact comparisons, (iv) exclosure studies, and (v) forage analyses examining chemical characteristics of forage plants. Ten diet studies recorded 175 total species that burros consumed. However, these studies and two exclosure studies suggested that burros preferentially eat graminoid and forb groups over shrubs. One study in Death Valley National Park, for example, found that Achnatherum hymenoides (Indian ricegrass) was 11 times more abundant in burro diets than expected based on its availability. Utilization studies revealed that burros also exhibit preferences within the shrub group. Eighty-three percent of reviewed documents were produced in a 12-year period, from 1972 to 1983, with the most recent document produced in 1988. Because burros remain abundant on many federal lands and grazing may interact with other management concerns (e.g., desert wildfires fueled by exotic grasses), rejuvenating grazing research to better understand both past and present burro effects could help guide revegetation and grazing management scenarios.

  7. Effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on the alterations in lung mechanics caused by endotoxemia in the unanesthetized sheep.

    Snapper, J R; Hutchison, A A; Ogletree, M L; Brigham, K L

    1983-01-01

    The effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin on lung mechanics, hemodynamics, gas exchange, and lung fluid and solute exchange were studied in 12 chronically instrumented unanesthetized sheep. A possible role for cyclooxygenase products of arachidonate metabolism as mediators of the endotoxin-induced alterations in lung mechanics was investigated by studying sheep before and after cyclooxygenase inhibition with sodium meclofenamate and ibuprofen. Sheep were studied three times in random order: (...

  8. Effect of concentrate feed level on methane emissions from grazing dairy cows.

    Jiao, H P; Dale, A J; Carson, A F; Murray, S; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P

    2014-11-01

    Although the effect of nutrition on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from confined dairy cattle has been extensively examined, less information is available on factors influencing CH4 emissions from grazing dairy cattle. In the present experiment, 40 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (12 primiparous and 28 multiparous) were used to examine the effect of concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/cow per day; fresh basis) on enteric CH4 emissions from cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based swards (10 cows per treatment). Methane emissions were measured on 4 occasions during the grazing period (one 4-d measurement period and three 5-d measurement periods) using the sulfur hexafluoride technique. Milk yield, liveweight, and milk composition for each cow was recorded daily during each CH4 measurement period, whereas daily herbage dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated for each cow from performance data, using the back-calculation approach. Total DMI, milk yield, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased with increasing concentrate feed level. Within each of the 4 measurement periods, daily CH4 production (g/d) was unaffected by concentrate level, whereas CH4/DMI decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in period 4, and CH4/ECM yield decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in periods 2 and 4. When emissions data were combined across all 4 measurement periods, concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/d; fresh basis) had no effect on daily CH4 emissions (287, 273, 272, and 277 g/d, respectively), whereas CH4/DMI (20.0, 19.3, 17.7, and 18.1g/kg, respectively) and CH4-E/gross energy intake (0.059, 0.057, 0.053, and 0.054, respectively) decreased with increasing concentrate feed levels. A range of prediction equations for CH4 emissions were developed using liveweight, DMI, ECM yield, and energy intake, with the strongest relationship found between ECM yield and CH4/ECM yield (coefficient of determination = 0.50). These results demonstrate that

  9. The effects of burning and grazing on soil carbon dynamics in managed Peruvian tropical montane grasslands

    V. Oliver

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Montane tropical soils are a large carbon (C reservoir, acting as both a source and a sink of CO2. Enhanced CO2 emissions originate, in large part, from the decomposition and losses of soil organic matter (SOM following anthropogenic disturbances. Therefore, quantitative knowledge of the stabilization and decomposition of SOM is necessary in order to understand, assess and predict the impact of land management in the tropics. In particular, labile SOM is an early and sensitive indicator of how SOM responds to changes in land use and management practices, which could have major implications for long-term carbon storage and rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of grazing and fire history on soil C dynamics in the Peruvian montane grasslands, an understudied ecosystem, which covers approximately a quarter of the land area in Peru. A density fractionation method was used to quantify the labile and stable organic matter pools, along with soil CO2 flux and decomposition measurements. Grazing and burning together significantly increased soil CO2 fluxes and decomposition rates and reduced temperature as a driver. Although there was no significant effect of land use on total soil C stocks, the combination of burning and grazing decreased the proportion of C in the free light fraction (LF, especially at the lower depths (10–20 and 20–30 cm. In the control soils, 20 % of the material recovered was in the free LF, which contained 30 % of the soil C content. In comparison, the burnt–grazed soil had the smallest recovery of the free LF (10 % and a significantly lower C content (14 %. The burnt soils had a much higher proportion of C in the occluded LF (12 % compared to the not-burnt soils (7 % and there was no significant difference among the treatments in the heavy fraction (F ( ∼  70 %. The synergistic effect of burning and grazing caused changes to the soil C dynamics. CO2

  10. Reaction of cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L. in grass-clover mixture on N fertilization and grazing

    Marcela Andreata-Koren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Grazing is the most common way of using a hill and mountain areas because of their specific agro-ecological conditions. Cocksfoot is a grass with high productivity and quality, and it is very good for sowing in the sward for grazing. Because of its good adaptability to different growing conditions, especially in very dry and cold areas, it is excellent in relation to some other good grasses, which can not be raised in such areas. The aim of the experiment was to determine effect of N application (0-N0 and 150 kg ha-1 year-1-N150 and rotational grazing by cattle (C and sheep (S, and their interaction on the cocksfoot sown in a mixture of smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratensis L. and white clover (Trifolium repens L. in hill mountain areas. In a three-year average, the application of 150 kg ha-1 N had significant impact on cocksfoot population density (number of tillers m-2, and it was 51.4 % higher than the recorded one before grazing (P<0.05 and 42.2 % higher after grazing (P<0.01 in comparison to N0. The application of 150 kg ha-1 N resulted in significantly higher cocksfoot dry matter (DM yield for 38.6 % (P<0.01 and 15.3 % higher cocksfoot share in the total mixture in relation to N0 (P<0.01. Grazing management and grazing management interaction with N rate did not significantly affect the population density of individual years. However, in the three-year average, grazing management significantly affected cocksfoot DM (P<0.01 and its percentage in the total DM mixture (P<0.01. Cattle grazing resulted in 9.9 % higher cocksfoot DM yield and 15.2 % higher cocksfoot percentage in pasture. Interaction of grazing management and N-level had significant influence on the percentage of cocksfoot DM in grass-clover mixture. On cattle grazed areas fertilized with 150 kg ha-1 N, the percentage of cocksfoot DM was the highest (74. 07%, while the lowest percentage of cocksfoot DM was recorded on the sheep grazed areas without N (55.12%.

  11. Investigating the Effect of Livestock Grazing and Associated Plant Community Shifts on Carbon and Nutrient Cycling in Alberta, Canada

    Hewins, D. B.; Chuan, S.; Stolnikova, E.; Bork, E. W.; Carlyle, C. N.; Chang, S. X.

    2015-12-01

    Grassland ecosystems are ubiquitous across the globe covering an estimated 40 % of Earth's terrestrial landmass. These ecosystems are widely valued for providing forage for domestic livestock and a suite of important ecosystem goods and services including carbon (C) storage. Despite storing more than 30 % of soil C globally, the effect of both livestock grazing and the associated change in plant community structure in response to grazing on C and nutrient cycling remains uncertain. To gain a quantitative understanding of the direct and indirect effects of livestock grazing on C and nutrient cycling, we established study sites at 15 existing site localities with paired long-term grazing (ca. 30 y) and non-grazed treatments (totaling 30 unique plant communities). Our sites were distributed widely across Alberta in three distinct grassland bioclimatic zones allowing us to make comparisons across the broad range of climate variability typical of western Canadian grasslands. In each plant community we decomposed 5 common plant species that are known to increase or decrease in response to grazing pressure, a unique plant community sample, and a cellulose paper control. We measured mass loss, initial lignin, C and N concentrations at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of field incubation. In addition we assayed hydrolytic and oxidative extracellular enzymes associated with for C (n= 5 hydrolytic; phenoloxidase and peroxidase) and nutrients (i.e. N and P; n=1 ea.) cycling from each litter sample at each collection. Our results suggest that by changing the plant community structure, grazing can affect rates of decomposition and associated biogeochemical cycling by changing plant species and associated litter inputs. Moreover, measures of microbial function are controlled by site-specific conditions (e.g. temperature and precipitation), litter chemistry over the course of our incubation.

  12. Direct anthelmintic effects of Cereus jamacaru (Cactaceae) on trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep: in vivo studies.

    Vatta, A F; Kandu-Lelo, C; Ademola, I O; Eloff, J N

    2011-08-25

    Following claims of anthelmintic activity of Cereus jamacaru DC (Cactaceae) by a commercial farmer, in vivo studies were conducted to determine the possible direct anthelmintic effects of the plant on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes. Eighteen sheep were infected with 4000 Haemonchus contortus and 6000 Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae given in three divided doses over a period of three days. Once the infections were patent, the sheep were allocated to three groups and were drenched once a week for six weeks with fresh blended C. jamacaru plant material at a single (32.3g/sheep) or double dose (64.6g/sheep) or they remained as undrenched controls. Faeces were collected from individual animals on the day of treatment and three days thereafter on a weekly basis for seven weeks for faecal egg count. While there were no statistically significant differences in the egg counts between the groups, a double dose of C. jamacaru was effective in reducing the egg counts in the sheep by 18-65% over the 49 days of the experiment. Given that all animals remained in good health throughout the course of the experiment, with no adverse events occurring during the study, further experiments using higher doses or administering the plant material for a longer period of time than in the present study would be warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulating the effects of soil organic nitrogen and grazing on arctic tundra vegetation dynamics on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia

    Yu Qin; Epstein, Howard [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Walker, Donald [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Sustainability of tundra vegetation under changing climate on the Yamal Peninsula, northwestern Siberia, home to the world's largest area of reindeer husbandry, is of crucial importance to the local native community. An integrated investigation is needed for better understanding of the effects of soils, climate change and grazing on tundra vegetation in the Yamal region. In this study we applied a nutrient-based plant community model-ArcVeg-to evaluate how two factors (soil organic nitrogen (SON) levels and grazing) interact to affect tundra responses to climate warming across a latitudinal climatic gradient on the Yamal Peninsula. Model simulations were driven by field-collected soil data and expected grazing patterns along the Yamal Arctic Transect (YAT), within bioclimate subzones C (high arctic), D (northern low arctic) and E (southern low arctic). Plant biomass and NPP (net primary productivity) were significantly increased with warmer bioclimate subzones, greater soil nutrient levels and temporal climate warming, while they declined with higher grazing frequency. Temporal climate warming of 2 deg. C caused an increase of 665 g m{sup -2} in total biomass at the high SON site in subzone E, but only 298 g m{sup -2} at the low SON site. When grazing frequency was also increased, total biomass increased by only 369 g m{sup -2} at the high SON site in contrast to 184 g m{sup -2} at the low SON site in subzone E. Our results suggest that high SON can support greater plant biomass and plant responses to climate warming, while low SON and grazing may limit plant response to climate change. In addition to the first order factors (SON, bioclimate subzones, grazing and temporal climate warming), interactions among these significantly affect plant biomass and productivity in the arctic tundra and should not be ignored in regional scale studies.

  14. Simulating the effects of soil organic nitrogen and grazing on arctic tundra vegetation dynamics on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia

    Yu Qin; Epstein, Howard; Walker, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability of tundra vegetation under changing climate on the Yamal Peninsula, northwestern Siberia, home to the world's largest area of reindeer husbandry, is of crucial importance to the local native community. An integrated investigation is needed for better understanding of the effects of soils, climate change and grazing on tundra vegetation in the Yamal region. In this study we applied a nutrient-based plant community model-ArcVeg-to evaluate how two factors (soil organic nitrogen (SON) levels and grazing) interact to affect tundra responses to climate warming across a latitudinal climatic gradient on the Yamal Peninsula. Model simulations were driven by field-collected soil data and expected grazing patterns along the Yamal Arctic Transect (YAT), within bioclimate subzones C (high arctic), D (northern low arctic) and E (southern low arctic). Plant biomass and NPP (net primary productivity) were significantly increased with warmer bioclimate subzones, greater soil nutrient levels and temporal climate warming, while they declined with higher grazing frequency. Temporal climate warming of 2 deg. C caused an increase of 665 g m -2 in total biomass at the high SON site in subzone E, but only 298 g m -2 at the low SON site. When grazing frequency was also increased, total biomass increased by only 369 g m -2 at the high SON site in contrast to 184 g m -2 at the low SON site in subzone E. Our results suggest that high SON can support greater plant biomass and plant responses to climate warming, while low SON and grazing may limit plant response to climate change. In addition to the first order factors (SON, bioclimate subzones, grazing and temporal climate warming), interactions among these significantly affect plant biomass and productivity in the arctic tundra and should not be ignored in regional scale studies.

  15. Grass species selection patterns on rotationally-grazed Dohne ...

    Herbaceous species preference was studied during autumn and winter periods of occupation, on rotationally-grazed Dohne Sourveld, at four different stocking rates. Reports on species selection by cattle and sheep grazing together. Illustrates with graphsLanguage: English. Keywords: Grass species; Herbage availibility; ...

  16. Environmental Assessment of Beale AFB Grazing Lease Program

    2012-12-01

    Beale AFB will use livestock (cattle, sheep and goats ) on its properties throughout the year as needed for the control of noxious weeds, reduction...initiating a wildfire. California Farm Bureau Federation policy recognizes that grazing is the most practical and environmentally acceptable way to...Site Monitoring Well Installation and Annual Targeted Goat Grazing Project, Placer County, California. 21 September 2011.  

  17. The effect of polyethylene glycol on intake of Mediterranean shrubs by sheep and goats.

    Rogosic, J; Pfister, J A; Provenza, F D; Pavlicevic, J

    2008-12-01

    Poor nutritional quality and increased content of secondary compounds can reduce consumption of Mediterranean shrubs by herbivores. In 2 sequential trials, we examined the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and number of shrub species offered on daily intake of Mediterranean shrubs by 12 sheep and 12 goats. The PEG (25 g) was fed to experimental animals with barley. In trial 1 (6 shrubs), goats ate more (P = 0.0008) daily total shrub biomass than did sheep (60.7 vs. 45.9 +/- 2.6 g/kg of BW). There was a trend (P = 0.08) toward a positive PEG effect on total shrub intake, with PEG-supplemented animals consuming more total shrubs than controls (56.7 vs. 50.0 +/- 2.6 g/kg of BW). Trial 2 (using 3 shrubs) was a continuation of trial 1, except that animals were given less barley and treatment animals were given more PEG (50 g). Both sheep and goats showed a numerical decrease in total shrub intake from trial 1 to trial 2. Sheep receiving PEG ate more (P = 0.002) total shrubs than did controls, but no PEG effect was found for goats. Thus, PEG had a greater influence on sheep than goats when only 3 shrubs were offered, a result that may be related to the fact that fewer shrubs with complementary secondary compounds were offered and that goats appear to have a greater ability to consume and detoxify secondary compounds from Mediterranean shrubs. Overall, as the number and diversity of shrubs offered increased, supplemental PEG had less effect on increasing intake for both goats and sheep.

  18. Effects of chicory/perennial ryegrass swards compared with perennial ryegrass swards on the performance and carcass quality of grazing beef steers.

    Christina L Marley

    Full Text Available An experiment investigated whether the inclusion of chicory (Cichorium intybus in swards grazed by beef steers altered their performance, carcass characteristics or parasitism when compared to steers grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne. Triplicate 2-ha plots were established with a chicory/ryegrass mix or ryegrass control. Forty-eight Belgian Blue-cross steers were used in the first grazing season and a core group (n = 36 were retained for finishing in the second grazing season. The experiment comprised of a standardisation and measurement period. During standardisation, steers grazed a ryegrass/white clover pasture as one group. Animals were allocated to treatment on the basis of liveweight, body condition and faecal egg counts (FEC determined 7 days prior to the measurement period. The measurement period ran from 25 May until 28 September 2010 and 12 April until 11 October 2011 in the first and second grazing year. Steers were weighed every 14 days at pasture or 28 days during housing. In the first grazing year, faecal samples were collected for FEC and parasite cultures. At the end of the first grazing year, individual blood samples were taken to determine O. ostertagi antibody and plasma pepsinogen levels. During winter, animals were housed as one group and fed silage. In the second grazing year, steers were slaughtered when deemed to reach fat class 3. Data on steer performance showed no differences in daily live-weight gain which averaged 1.04 kg/day. The conformation, fat grade and killing out proportion of beef steers grazing chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were not found to differ. No differences in FEC, O. ostertagi antibody or plasma pepsinogen levels of beef steers grazing either chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were observed. Overall, there were no detrimental effects of including chicory in swards grazed by beef cattle on their performance, carcass characteristics or helminth parasitism, when compared with steers grazing ryegrass.

  19. Effect of acute irradiation on the development of limbs in sheep

    Rajtova, V [Institut fuer Normale Anatomie der Hochschule fuer Veterinaermedizin, Kosice, Czechoslovakia; Horak, J

    1976-01-01

    The effect of acute irradiation on the limb development in sheep was studied. The pelvic area of a pregnant sheep was irradiated locally on the 28th, 29th and 30th days after fertilization. The fetus was removed on the 15th day after irradiation and treated histologically. A single exposure with 250 R (higher exposures killed the fetus) was found to cease the limb development on the 28th day after irradiation (the critical period of the sheep limb development), to induce persistence of the intermedial ray on the 29th and 30th days, an early disappearance of the side finger rays, an early disappearance, fusion or deformation of some carpal and tarsal elements on the 29th and the 30th days after irradiation.

  20. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl C; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone – Validation of large animal model for tissue engineering and biomaterial research Ming Ding,1* Carl Christian Danielsen,2 Søren Overgaard1 1Orthopaedic Research Laboratory......, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark 2Department of Connective Tissue Biology, Institute of Anatomy, University of Aarhus, Aarhus C, Denmark Osteopenia in sheep has been successfully induced...... by glucocorticoid treatment and the changes in properties of cancellous bone were comparable with those observed in humans after long-term glucocorticoid treatment. However, the influence on cortical bone has not been thoroughly elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the influence of glucocorticoid on sheep...

  1. The effect of acute irradiation on the development of limbs in sheep

    Rajtova, V.; Horak, J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of acute irradiation on the limb development in sheep was studied. The pelvic area of a pregnant sheep was irradiated locally on the 28th, 29th and 30th days after fertilization. The fetus was removed on the 15th day after irradiation and treated histologically. A single exposure with 250 R (higher exposures killed the fetus) was found to cease the limb development on the 28th day after irradiation (the critical period of the sheep limb development), to induce persistence of the intermedial ray on the 29th and 30th days, an early disappearance of the side finger rays, an early disappearance, fusion or deformation of some carpal and tarsal elements on the 29th and the 30th days after irradiation. (author)

  2. Assessing the effects of different prebiotic dietary oligosaccharides in sheep milk ice cream.

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Vieira, A H; Neto, R P C; Cappato, L P; Coimbra, P T; Moraes, J; Andrade, M M; Calado, V M A; Granato, D; Freitas, M Q; Tavares, M I B; Raices, R S L; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different prebiotic dietary oligosaccharides (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide, galacto-oligossacaride, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide, resistant starch, corn dietary oligosaccharide and polydextrose) in non-fat sheep milk ice cream processing through physical parameters, water mobility and thermal analysis. Overall, the fat replacement by dietary prebiotic oligosaccharides significantly decreased the melting time, melting temperature and the fraction and relaxation time for fat and bound water (T 22 ) while increased the white intensity and glass transition temperature. The replacement of sheep milk fat by prebiotics in sheep milk ice cream constitutes an interesting option to enhance nutritional aspects and develop a functional food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Contrast Media on Blood Rheology: Comparison in Humans, Pigs, and Sheep

    Laurent, Alexandre; Durussel, Jean Jacques; Dufaux, Jacques; Penhouet, Laurence; Bailly, Anne Laure; Bonneau, Michel; Merland, Jean Jacques

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To compare whole blood viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation in humans, pigs, and sheep, before and after adding water-soluble iodinated contrast medium (CM). Methods: Two CMs were studied: iopromide (nonionic) and ioxaglate (ionic). The blood-CM viscosity was measured with a Couette viscometer. Erythrocyte aggregation was measured with an erythroaggregometer. Results: The blood-CM viscosity was increased up to +20% (relative to pure blood) with a CM concentration of 0%-10%. At CM concentrations from 10% to 50%, the viscosity decreased. The disaggregation shear stress was increased (relative to pure blood) at low CM concentration (0%-10%). When the CM concentration increased from 10% to 20%, the disaggregation shear stress was decreased, except with the pig blood-ioxaglate mixture. Conclusion: At low CM concentration the blood viscosity was increased in pig, sheep, and humans and the disaggregation shear stress was increased in pig and humans. The aggregation of sheep blood was too low to be detected by the erythroaggregometer. This rise can be explained by the formation of poorly deformable echinocytes. At higher CM concentration, the viscosity and the disaggregation shear stress decreased in relation to the blood dilution. We conclude that pig blood and sheep blood can both be used to study the effect of CM injection on blood viscosity. Nevertheless, the rheologic behavior of pig blood in terms of erythrocyte aggregation is closer to that of human blood than is sheep blood when mixed with CM. Pigs could thus be more suitable than sheep for in vivo studies of CM miscibility with blood during selective cannulation procedures

  4. Fluxo de biomassa em capim-tanzânia pastejado por ovinos sob três períodos de descanso Biomass flow in tanzaniagrass pasture under three resting periods grazed by sheep

    Magno José Duarte Cândido

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o fluxo de biomassa em Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia pastejado por ovinos com três períodos de descanso (PD, definidos pela expansão de 1,5; 2,5 e 3,5 novas folhas por perfilho, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições (piquetes. Estimaram-se as taxas de alongamento de lâmina foliar total (TAlF, de senescência de lâminas foliares remanescentes do pastejo anterior (TSFA, de senescência das novas folhas formadas no PD (TSFP e de senescência total (TSFT=TSFA+TSFP, a taxa de alongamento das hastes (TAlH, a razão entre as TAlF das folhas 1 e 2 (razão TAlF1/TAlF2, a densidade populacional de perfilhos (DPP, o filocrono e as taxas de crescimento (TCC e de acúmulo (TAC da cultura. A razão TAlF1/2 não foi afetada pelos PD, mas reduziu ao longo dos ciclos na pastagem sob PD 3,5. A TAlF não foi afetada pelos PD. A TAlH, a TSFA e a TSFT na pastagem sob PD 1,5 foram menores que nas demais. Houve TSFP somente na pastagem sob PD 3,5. O filocrono da pastagem sob PD 1,5 foi superior ao observado nas demais. A densidade populacional de perfilhos (DPP da pastagem sob o PD 2,5 foi similar à verificada na pastagem sob PD 1,5 e superior à verificada sob PD 3,5. Houve redução na DPP ao longo dos ciclos na pastagem sob PD 3,5. As taxas de crescimento (TCC e de acúmulo (TAC foram superiores na pastagem sob PD 2,5. O prolongamento do PD elevou as TAlH e TSFT e reduziu a DPP e a TAC. Portanto, o PD do capim-tanzânia pastejado por ovinos não deve exceder o tempo necessário à expansão de 2,5 novas folhas por perfilho.The biomass flow in Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia pasture grazed by sheep under three resting periods (PD, defined by the expansion of 1.5; 2.5 and 3.5 new leaves per tiller (1.5F; 2.5F and 3.5F, respectively was evaluated in a randomized completely design with two replicates (paddocks. It was determined the leaf elongation rate (TAlF, the residual leaf senescence rate (TSFA, the post-grazing leaf

  5. Effect of supplement level on herbage intake and feeding behaviour of Italian Brown cows grazing on Alpine pasture

    D. Villa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Summer grazing of dairy cows on mountain pastures often leads to a fall in production or in body condition when the pasture is not adequately supplemented with concentrate feeds (Malossini et al., 1992; Bovolenta et al., 1998. An abundant use of concentrates may result into a reduction of herbage intake according to a substitution rate mechanism (Faverdin et al., 1991. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation level on herbage intake, milk yield and feeding behaviour (time spent grazing and ruminating of dairy cows at pasture, combining the use of an electronic bitemeter and a double marker method for the estimation of intake.

  6. Effect of supplementation of Sesbania sesban on reproductive performance of sheep

    Mekoya, A.; Oosting, S.J.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Tamminga, S.; Tegegne, A.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Two successive experiments were conducted to investigate the long-term effects of supplementation of Sesbania sesban on reproductive performance of Ethiopian Menz sheep. Forty ewes and 40 rams ranging in weight and age between 16¿20 kg and 14¿15 months respectively were fed a teff straw basal diet

  7. Effect of water intake on the nitrogen balance of sheep fed a low or a ...

    Effect of water intake on the nitrogen balance of sheep fed a low or a medium protein diet. JG van der Walt, EA Boomker, A Meintjes, WA Schultheiss. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Effects of livestock grazing on neotropical migratory landbirds in western North America

    Carl E. Bock; Victoria A. Saab; Terrell D. Rich; David S. Dobkin

    1993-01-01

    Livestock grazing is a widespread and important influence on neotropical migratory birds in four major ecosystems in western North America: grasslands of the Great Plains and Southwest, riparian woodlands, Intermountain shrubsteppe, and open coniferous forests. We have reviewed available literature on avian responses to grazing in these habitats. Among 35 plains...

  9. Voluntary automatic milking in combination with grazing of dairy cows : Milking frequency and effects on behaviour

    Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C.; Ipema, A.H.; Ouwerkerk, van E.N.J.; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) enable cows to be milked without human interference. Such systems are more acceptable to consumers and from the animal welfare point of view if they can be combined with grazing in the summer season. In this study, grazing was combined with fully automatic milking for

  10. Chronic copper poisoning. III. Effects of copper acetate injected into the bloodstream of sheep

    Todd, J R; Thompson, R H

    1964-01-01

    A study was made of the clinical and biochemical effects of injections of copper (as acetate) into the bloodstream of sheep of 100 to 130 lb. liveweight. Copper in a dose of 160 mg. caused death in 3 sheep in a few hours, and 80 mg. caused death in 3 out of 4 sheep, 2 after 2 days and 1 after 11 days. Symptoms, biochemical lesions and post-mortem appearances did not resemble those of chronic copper poisoning, but rather those of gastro-enteritis. Blood glutathione concentrations were not markedly reduced, but haemoconcentration was a prominent feature. Post-mortem examination showed gross congestion of blood vessels and marked inflammatory reactions in the abomasum and small intestine. Single injections of smaller amounts (25 to 40 mg. copper) were tolerated without effect, but repeated injections, twice daily for 2 to 3 days, caused haemolytic episodes in 3 sheep similar to the crisis of chronic copper poisoning in that a marked reduction in blood glutathione concentration and accumulation of methaemoglobin occurred. No other clinical effects were produced, however, and all three animals recovered uneventfully.

  11. Mirror and grating surface figure requirements for grazing incidence synchrotron radiation beamlines: Power loading effects

    Hulbert, S.L.; Sharma, S.

    1987-01-01

    At present, grazing incidence mirrors are used almost exclusively as the first optical element in VUV and soft x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. The performance of these mirrors is determined by thermal and mechanical stress-induced figure errors as well as by figure errors remaining from the grinding and polishing process. With the advent of VUV and soft x-ray undulators and wigglers has come a new set of thermal stress problems related to both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of power from these devices. In many cases the power load on the entrance slits and gratings in these beamlines is no longer negligible. The dependence of thermally-induced front-end mirror figure errors on various storage ring and insertion device parameters (especially those at the National Synchrotron Light Source) and the effects of these figure errors on two classes of soft x-ray beamlines are presented.

  12. The Occurrence and Toxicity of Indospicine to Grazing Animals

    Mary T. Fletcher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indospicine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid which occurs in Indigofera species with widespread prevalence in grazing pastures across tropical Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Americas. It accumulates in the tissues of grazing livestock after ingestion of Indigofera. It is a competitive inhibitor of arginase and causes both liver degeneration and abortion. Indospicine hepatoxicity occurs universally across animal species but the degree varies considerably between species, with dogs being particularly sensitive. The magnitude of canine sensitivity is such that ingestion of naturally indospicine-contaminated horse and camel meat has caused secondary poisoning of dogs, raising significant industry concern. Indospicine impacts on the health and production of grazing animals per se has been less widely documented. Livestock grazing Indigofera have a chronic and cumulative exposure to this toxin, with such exposure experimentally shown to induce both hepatotoxicity and embryo-lethal effects in cattle and sheep. In extensive pasture systems, where animals are not closely monitored, the resultant toxicosis may well occur after prolonged exposure but either be undetected, or even if detected not be attributable to a particular cause. Indospicine should be considered as a possible cause of animal poor performance, particularly reduced weight gain or reproductive losses, in pastures where Indigofera are prevalent.

  13. Nelson's big horn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) trample Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) burrow at a California wind energy facility

    Agha, Mickey; Delaney, David F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on interactions between Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and ungulates has focused exclusively on the effects of livestock grazing on tortoises and their habitat (Oldemeyer, 1994). For example, during a 1980 study in San Bernardino County, California, 164 desert tortoise burrows were assessed for vulnerability to trampling by domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Herds of grazing sheep damaged 10% and destroyed 4% of the burrows (Nicholson and Humphreys 1981). In addition, a juvenile desert tortoise was trapped and an adult male was blocked from entering a burrow due to trampling by domestic sheep. Another study found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) trampled active desert tortoise burrows and vegetation surrounding burrows (Avery and Neibergs 1997). Trampling also has negative impacts on diversity of vegetation and intershrub soil crusts in the desert southwest (Webb and Stielstra 1979). Trampling of important food plants and overgrazing has the potential to create competition between desert tortoises and domestic livestock (Berry 1978; Coombs 1979; Webb and Stielstra 1979).

  14. Nitrous oxide production and consumption by denitrification in a grassland: Effects of grazing and hydrology.

    Hu, Jing; Inglett, Kanika S; Clark, Mark W; Inglett, Patrick W; Ramesh Reddy, K

    2015-11-01

    Denitrification is generally recognized as a major mechanism contributing to nitrous oxide (N2O) production, and is the only known biological process for N2O consumption. Understanding factors controlling N2O production and consumption during denitrification will provide insights into N2O emission variability, and potentially predict capacity of soils to serve as sinks or sources of N2O. This study investigated the effects of hydrology and grazing on N2O production and consumption in a grassland based agricultural watershed. A batch incubation study was conducted on soils (0-10 cm) collected along a hydrological gradient representing isolated wetland (Center), transient zone (Edge) and pasture upland (Upland), from both grazed and ungrazed areas. Production and consumption potentials of N2O were quantified on soils under four treatments, including (i) ambient condition, and amended with (ii) NO3(-), (iii) glucose-C, and (iv) NO3(-) +glucose-C. The impacts of grazing on N2O production and consumption were not observed. Soils in hydrologically distinct zones responded differently to N2O production and consumption. Under ambient conditions, both production and consumption rates of Edge soils were higher than those observed for Center and Upland soils. Results of amended incubations suggested NO3(-) was a key factor limiting N2O production and consumption rates in all hydrological zones. Over 5-d incubation with NO3(-) amendment, cumulative production and consumption of N2O for Center soils were 1.6 and 3.3 times higher than Edge soils, and 3.6 and 7.6 times higher than Upland soils, respectively. However, cumulative N2O net production for Edge soils was the highest, with 2 to 3 times higher than Upland and Center soils. Our results suggest that the transient areas between wetland and upland are likely to be "hot spots" of N2O emissions in this ecosystem. Wetlands within agricultural landscapes can potentially function to reduce both NO3(-) leaching and N2O emissions

  15. Contrasting Effects of Cattle Grazing Intensity on Upland-Nesting Duck Production at Nest and Field Scales in the Aspen Parkland, Canada

    Jeffrey M. Warren

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Aspen Parkland of Canada is one of the most important breeding areas for temperate nesting ducks in North America. The region is dominated by agricultural land use, with approximately 9.3 million ha in pasture land for cattle grazing. However, the effects of using land for cattle grazing on upland-nesting duck production are poorly understood. The current study was undertaken during 2001 and 2002 to investigate how nest density and nesting success of upland-nesting ducks varied with respect to the intensity of cattle grazing in the Aspen Parkland. We predicted that the removal and trampling of vegetation through cattle grazing would reduce duck nest density. Both positive and negative responses of duck nesting success to grazing have been reported in previous studies, leading us to test competing hypotheses that nesting success would (1 decline linearly with grazing intensity or (2 peak at moderate levels of grazing. Nearly 3300 ha of upland cover were searched during the study. Despite extensive and severe drought, nest searches located 302 duck nests. As predicted, nest density was higher in fields with lower grazing intensity and higher pasture health scores. A lightly grazed field with a pasture score of 85 out of a possible 100 was predicted to have 16.1 nests/100 ha (95% CI = 11.7-22.1, more than five times the predicted nest density of a heavily grazed field with a pasture score of 58 (3.3 nests/100 ha, 95% CI = 2.2-4.5. Nesting success was positively related to nest-site vegetation density across most levels of grazing intensity studied, supporting our hypothesis that reductions in vegetation caused by grazing would negatively affect nesting success. However, nesting success increased with grazing intensity at the field scale. For example, nesting success for a well-concealed nest in a lightly grazed field was 11.6% (95% CI = 3.6-25.0%, whereas nesting success for a nest with the same level of nest-site vegetation in a heavily grazed

  16. Effect of nocturnal grazing and supplementation on diet selection, eating time, forage intake and weight changes of cattle

    Ayantunde, A.A.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Hiernaux, P.H.Y.; Keulen, van H.; Udo, H.M.J.; Chanono, M.

    2000-01-01

    Sixty-four Azawak male calves were used to study the effect of nocturnal grazing (NG) and supplementation (S) in the dry season on forage and water intake, faecal output, eating time and weight changes of cattle in the Sahel. Treatments were factorial combinations of four levels of NG (0, 2, 4 and 6

  17. Pen size and parity effects on maternal behaviour of Small-Tail Han sheep.

    Lv, S-J; Yang, Y; Dwyer, C M; Li, F-K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of pen size and parity on maternal behaviour of twin-bearing Small-Tail Han ewes. A total of 24 ewes were allocated to a 2×2 design (six per pen), with parity (primiparous or multiparous) and pen size (large: 6.0×3.0 m; small: 6.0×1.5 m) as main effects at Linyi University, Shandong Province, China. Behaviour was observed from after parturition until weaning. All ewes were observed for 6 h every 5 days from 0700 to1000 h and from 1400 to 1700 h. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviours: sucking, grooming and following as well as the frequency of udder accepting, udder refusing and low-pitched bleating. Oestradiol and cortisol concentrations in the faeces (collected in the morning every 5 days) were detected using EIA kits. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at weaning at 35 days of age. The small pen size significantly reduced following (Pbehaviour in sheep during lactation. The study is also the first to report on the maternal behaviour of Chinese native sheep breeds (Small-Tail Han sheep), with implications for the production of sheep in China.

  18. Effect of urea-molasses block supplementation on grazing weaner goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    R.M. Waruiru

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of feeding urea-molasses blocks (UMB on growth and gastrointestinal (GI nematode parasitism of weaner goats grazing the same pasture was investigated on a farm in Nyandarua District, Kenya. Thirty female Small East African goat kids at an average age of 5 months were initially treated with albendazole orally (5 mg kg-1 body mass and randomly assigned into one of two groups: group I were fed UMB prepared using a cold process and group II kids (controls received no block supplementation (NBS. The UMB were given in the evening when the animals returned from grazing and were consumed during the night at a rate of 95.0 g head-1 day-1. Supplementation was undertaken for 3 consecutive months from July to September 2001 and January to March 2002. Body mass of the kids and faecal egg counts were measured monthly and larval cultures were performed on positive faecal samples of kids of each group. Five goats from each group were randomly selected for slaughter and total counts and identification of worms at the end of June 2002. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were found in cumulative mass gains of kids in group I from September compared with those in group II. On termination of the study kids in group I had gained an average of (+ SD 20.4 ± 1.4 kg while those in group II had gained 11.8 + 1.1 kg. From January 2002, faecal egg counts of the kids in the UMB group differed significantly (P < 0.05 from those of the NBS group and at slaughter, the mean (+ SD worm counts for the UMB group was 482 + 299 while that of the NBS group was 1 302 + 410. In all the goats, Haemonchus contortus was the predominant nematode recovered. These results indicate that UMB had significant effects in the control of GI nematode parasitism and enhanced growth of the young goats.

  19. Effect of adrenal hormones on thyroid secretion and thyroid hormones on adrenal secretion in the sheep.

    Falconer, I R; Jacks, F

    1975-01-01

    1. Previous work has shown that after stressful stimuli, sheep initially secrete increased amounts of thyroid hormone, at a time when adrenal secretion is also elevated. 2. This study was designed to evaluate (a) any short-term activation or inhibition of thyroid secretion by exogenous cortisol or ACTH administered in quantities comparable to those secreted after stress in sheep and (b) any short-term effect that exogenous thyroxine or triiodothyronine may have on the concentration of plasma cortisol in the sheep. 3. Thyroid activity was measured by determination of plasma protein bound 125I (PB125I) and total 125I in thyroid vein and mixed venous (jugular) blood. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine concentrations were measured by a competitive protein-binding assay at intervals for up to 5 hr after commencement of the experiment. 4. No evidence of an activation of thyroid secretion was found during cortisol or ACTH infusion, as monitored by thyroid vein PB125I. Similarly there was no evidence of any inhibition of thyroid function, as measured by continued secretion of thyroid hormones into thyroid vein blood. 5. No effect on plasma cortisol concentration due to thyroid hormone treatment was observed. 6. It was concluded that (a) elevated circulating corticosteroids in physiological concentrations have no short-term effects on thyroid activity in the sheep and (b) the short-term alterations in thyroid and adrenal cortical secretion observed during stress in the sheep could not be attributed to direct interaction of elevated thyroid hormone concentrations with adrenal cortical secretion. PMID:170400

  20. Effect of Grazing Behavior on Weight Regain Post-Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review

    Nathalia Pizato

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grazing, a type of maladaptive eating behavior, has been associated with poor weight outcomes in bariatric patients. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the association between grazing behavior and weight regain post-bariatric surgery. Literature searches, study selection, design of the method, and quality appraisal were carried out by two independent authors. The search strategy was performed until October 2017 in Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ProQuest Dissertation & Theses, and Open Grey. Of a total of 3764 articles, five papers met the inclusion criteria (four original articles and one thesis, comprising 994 subjects, mostly women. The prevalence of grazing behavior ranged from 16.6 to 46.6%, and the highest prevalence of significant weight regain was 47%. The association between grazing and weight regain was observed in four of the five evaluated studies. Our findings support an association between grazing behavior and weight regain after bariatric surgery, regardless of surgery type and contextual concept of grazing. Further studies are needed to confirm the clarity of the real prevalence and interfering factors related to grazing behavior and weight outcomes.

  1. Effects of progestagens and prostaglandin analogues on ovarian function and embryo viability in sheep.

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Veiga-Lopez, A; Garcia, P; Garcia-Garcia, R M; Ariznavarreta, C; Sanchez, M A; Tresguerres, J A F; Cocero, M J; Flores, J M

    2005-06-01

    Current study assessed differences in the response of sheep to estrus synchronization either by the administration of two doses of prostaglandin or by the insertion of an intravaginal progestagen sponge. The preovulatory follicular dynamics and estradiol secretion, the ovulatory response and progesterone secretion and the number and quality of embryos were studied in 27 ewes treated with two doses of 100 microg of cloprostenol, 10 days apart, and in 29 sheep treated with progestagen sponges for 14 days. Percentage of sheep responding to the synchronization treatments with signs of estrus behaviour was similar between both groups (81.5% versus 72.4%, respectively). The use of progestagen resulted in a higher diameter of the largest follicle (6.6+/-0.2 versus 5.9+/-0.2, Psheep (Pprogesterone concentration during the early luteal phase was again higher in sheep treated with cloprostenol (P<0.05). The mean number of retrieved oocytes/embryos was very similar in both treatments (1.2+/-0.2 versus 1.4+/-0.2) and showed similar fertilization rates (70.6% versus 66.7%), but, although differences did not reach statistical significance, final viability rate was higher in cloprostenol than in progestagen treated ewes (58.9% versus 46.1%, P=0.07). Current results give new evidences supporting the negative effects of progestagens on the functionality of ovulatory follicles and support the development of new protocols for assisted reproduction including the use of prostaglandin analogues.

  2. The effect of plane of nutrition on the urinary purine derivative excretion in sheep and goats

    Poshiwa, X.; Tigere, A.; Ngongoni, N.T.; Manyuchi, B.; Chakoma, C.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of plane of nutrition on purine derivative excretion and to develop a set of model equations that relate intake to the purine derivative (PD) excretion in sheep and goats. Four male Sabi sheep and four male Small-East African goats (four months old) were used. The trial was a 4 x 4 Latin square cross-over design to examine the response of PD excretion to feed intake. The four diets consisted of star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) hay fed ad libitum, and at 85, 70 or 55% of ad libitum. Total PD excretion increased with the increase in feed intake for both sheep and goats. However, the increase did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). The model equations relating digestible organic matter intake (X) to PD excretion (Y) were Y = 2.97 X + 0.15 (R 2 =0.72) and Y = 5.86 X - 0.33 (R 2 =0.99) for sheep and goats respectively. (author)

  3. Effects of seasonal changes in feeding management under part-time grazing on the evolution of the composition and coagulation properties of raw milk from ewes.

    Abilleira, E; Virto, M; Nájera, A I; Salmerón, J; Albisu, M; Pérez-Elortondo, F J; Ruiz de Gordoa, J C; de Renobales, M; Barron, L J R

    2010-09-01

    Ewe raw milk composition, rennet coagulation parameters, and curd texture were monitored throughout the milk production season in 11 commercial flocks reared under a part-time grazing system. Milking season lasted from February to July. During that period, the diet of the animals shifted from indoor feeding, consisting of concentrate and forage, to an outdoor grazing diet. Lean dry matter, fat, protein, calcium, and magnesium contents increased throughout the milking season, as did rennet coagulation time, curd firmness, and curd resistance to compression. However, lean dry matter, protein content, and curd resistance to compression stabilized when sheep started to graze. Principal component analysis correlated curd resistance to compression and proteins, whereas curd firmness was highly correlated with fat content and minerals. Discriminant analysis distributed milk samples according to the feeding management. Curd firmness, fat, and magnesium turned out to be discriminant variables. Those variables reflected the evolution of the composition and coagulation parameters when fresh pasture prevailed over other feeds in the diet of the flocks. The present study shows that seasonal changes associated with feeding management influence milk technological quality and that milk of good processing quality can be obtained under part-time grazing. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF VEGETABLE LECITHIN ON SOME SANGUINE BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT LACTATING SHEEP AND GOATS

    D. DRINCEANU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available From a complex experiment of establishing the effects of lecithin supplemented in the diet of small ruminants, in this paper we present the influence of lecithin on some sanguine biochemical parameters at lactating sheep and goat. The researches were made on a experimental group formed by 5 sheep from łurcana breed and 5 goats from Crapatina breed, which were fed in the first experimental period with a base ratio (Br formed by 1.5 kg of hill hay and 0.2 kg concentrate forage mixture, in the second experimental period the Br was supplemented with 100 g lecithin/day/animal. At the end of each experimental period were taken blood samples to establish some biochemical parameters from sanguine serum. The supplementation of base ration with 100 g lecithin/day/animal at lactating sheep and goats did not produced significant changes to values of total proteins (TS, albumin, creatinine, urea and total bilirubins (TB from sanguine serum. Contrary to expectation the cholesterol and triglycerides were higher than normal both in sheep (from 82 mg/dl to 83 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 23 mg/dl to 45 mg/dl for triglycerides but specially in goats (from 59 mg/dl to 68 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 24 mg/dl to 55 mg/dl for triglycerides. Were registered significant increment of activity of alkaline phosphatase and in γ – GT and a decrease of plasmatic activity of pancreatic α-amylase both in sheep and goats.

  5. Effects of the morphine-lidocaine-ketamine combination on cardiopulmonary function and isoflurane sparing in sheep

    Suzane Lilian Beier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the isoflurane sparing and clinical effects of a constant rate infusion of morphine – lidocaine – ketamine (MLK in healthy sheep undergoing experimental gastrointestinal surgery. Twelve adult female sheep (Texel breed were used, weighing 36.5 ± 8.1 kg. The sheep were anesthetized for the implantation of duodenal cannulas. The sheep were premedicated with 0.3 mg kg-1 intramuscular (IM morphine and 20 ?g kg-1 intravenous (IV detomidine. After premedication, anesthesia was induced using 5 mg kg-1 ketamine and 0.5 mg kg-1 diazepam IV and maintained using isoflurane in 100% oxygen. After the induction of anesthesia, the animals were allocated into two groups (each n=6; the GMLK (MLK group – 10 mg morphine, 150 mg lidocaine, 30 mg de ketamine were added in 500 mL saline received a 10 mL kg-1h-1 MLK infusion during the maintenance of anesthesia, and GCON (control group received 10 mL kg-1h-1 of 0.9% sodium chloride. The animals were mechanically ventilated. Cardiopulmonary variables and end-tidal isoflurane concentration (FE´Iso were measured at baseline (immediately before the surgery and 15, 30 and 45 minutes after initiation of surgery. In GMLK, there was a decrease in the FE´Iso at 15, 30 and 45 minutes, a reduction of up to 75.6% during the surgery. The HR was lower in GMLK compared with GCON at 30 minutes, and the MAP was at during baseline in GCON compared with GMLK. The standing time was less in GMLK than in GCON. The use of intravenous MLK was demonstrated to offer great efficiency as part of a balanced anesthesia protocol in sheep, with a 75.6% reduction in the need for isoflurane, providing stability of the cardiovascular parameters and blood gases with a shortened recovery period.

  6. Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of detomidine constant rate infusion in sheep.

    de Moura, Rauane Sousa; Bittar, Isabela Plazza; da Silva, Luiz Henrique; Villela, Ana Carolina Vasquez; Dos Santos Júnior, Marcelo Borges; Borges, Naida Cristina; Franco, Leandro Guimarães

    2018-02-01

    The use of sheep in experiments is widespread and is increasing worldwide, and so is the need to develop species-specific anaesthetic techniques to ensure animal safety. Previous studies have mentioned several protocols involving the administration of alpha-2 adrenergic agonists in sheep; however, assessment of the efficacy and safety of these infusion techniques is still relatively new. Thus, the aim of the present study is to assess the effectiveness of detomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) in sheep by measuring the cardiovascular and respiratory parameters, blood gas variables and sedation scores. Eight adult female Santa Inês sheep received 20 µg/kg of detomidine hydrochloride intravenously as a bolus loading dose, followed by an infusion rate of 60 µg/kg/h. The heart rates and respiratory rates changed continuously during the CRI period. No arrhythmias were observed. The reduction in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2 ) was not significant, but one animal showed signs of hypoxaemia (minimum PaO 2 of 66.9 mmHg). The arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ) increased, but the animals did not become hypercapnic. The bicarbonate (HCO 3- ), pH and base excess (BE) tended towards metabolic alkalosis. The cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), cardiac index (CI) and ejection fraction (EF%) showed no significant changes. The fractional shortening (FS%) decreased slightly, starting at T 45min . Sedation scores varied between 3 (0/10) after sedation and during recovery and 7 (0/10) during CRI. We concluded that administering detomidine at an infusion rate of 60 µg/kg/h in Santa Inês sheep is a simple technique that produces satisfactory sedation for minimally invasive procedures.

  7. Grazing management effects on sediment, phosphorus, and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures.

    Schwarte, Kirk A; Russell, James R; Kovar, John L; Morrical, Daniel G; Ensley, Steven M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Cornick, Nancy A; Cho, Yong Il

    2011-01-01

    Erosion and runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. A 2-yr grazing study was conducted to quantify the effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (P), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. Six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisected by a stream in central Iowa were divided into three treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (CSR), and rotational stocking (RS). Rainfall simulations on stream banks resulted in greater ( CSR pastures. Bovine enterovirus was shed by an average of 24.3% of cows during the study period and was collected in the runoff of 8.3 and 16.7% of runoff simulations on bare sites in CSU pastures in June and October of 2008, respectively, and from 8.3% of runoff simulations on vegetated sites in CSU pastures in April 2009. Fecal pathogens (bovine coronavirus [BCV], bovine rotavirus group A, and O157:H7) shed or detected in runoff were almost nonexistent; only BCV was detected in feces of one cow in August of 2008. Erosion of cut-banks was the greatest contributor of sediment and P loading to the stream; contributions from surface runoff and grazing animals were considerably less and were minimized by grazing management practices that reduced congregation of cattle by pasture streams. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    Beresford, N.A

    2002-07-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to {sup 137}Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding

  9. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    Beresford, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg -1 fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the 137 Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the 137 Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to 137 Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding of protein-dry matter

  10. Assessing the effects of abiotic stress and livestock grazing disturbance on an alpine grassland with CSR model

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Peng; Mou, Chengxiang; Yang, Hao; Mo, Li; Luo, Chuan; Kattge, Jens

    2016-04-01

    How the abiotic factors represented by cold environment and biotic factors represented by livestock grazing will affect the vegetation structure of alpine grassland is a core issue in understanding the cause of biodiversity change on Tibetan Plateau. Past studies on changes of floristic composition, growth forms did not adequately answer question. Given the fact that the response of plant to environment change depend on its life strategy, a synthetical method that based on plant life strategy may deepen our understanding of the mechanism. Using Grime's concept of CSR plant classification, we carried out a vegetation survey along a gradient (three levels) of graze intensity on the south-east of Tibet Plateau, in order to evaluate the role and mechanism of abiotic stress and grazing disturbance in driving plant diversity change, by analyzing the plant life strategy compositions in each of the community and by comparing the characteristic of the strategy compositions along the graze gradient. When the graze intensity was relative low, the dominant plant life strategy gathered in the stress tolerance corner, which conformed the theory of environmental filter, indicating that the ideal top plant community may be dominated by the species with stress tolerant strategy. We also found that the response of strategy dominance to graze intensity increase is positively correlated with the competitive capacity (R 2=0.671; Pstrategy (R 2=0.047; P=0.42). This reflected a general shift of plant strategy from stress tolerant to competitive (rather than ruderal as expected) and suggested that the mechanism of graze to affect plant community is different from that of other disturbance like fire, clipping, till, etc. The particular selective foraging and escaping from feces may provide more opportunities for competitive than ruderal strategy to dominant the community. This study demonstrated that CSR plant strategy be a useful tool to evaluate the effects of abiotic and biotic factors

  11. Grazing effects of the periwinkle Echinolittorina peruviana at a central Peruvian high rocky intertidal

    Hidalgo, Fernando J.; Firstater, Fausto N.; Fanjul, Eugenia; Bazterrica, M. Cielo; Lomovasky, Betina J.; Tarazona, Juan; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2008-03-01

    Echinolittorina peruviana is the most common gastropod in the high intertidal zone of Peru, representing more than 80% of the individuals present at that zone. Experimental removal of snails was used to evaluate their effects on (a) abundance of epilithic biofilm, (b) barnacle recruitment, and (c) abundance of macroalgae under “normal” conditions of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Experiments were carried out from October 2005 to April 2007 at two intertidal levels of a semi-protected rocky shore of central Peru. Results demonstrated that E. peruviana is able to control biofilm abundance and barnacle recruitment at both heights investigated, with marked effects in the lower zone. Erect macroalgae ( Ulva spp. and Gelidium spp.) were less affected by grazing; but negative effects were observed on macroalgal crusts. Season and physical stress seem to play a more important role in the abundance of macroalgae in the high intertidal. Our results are similar to those reported elsewhere for high shore littorinids and represent baseline data to understand how the role of intertidal consumers will vary under the cold (La Niña) and warm (El Niño) phases of ENSO on these shores.

  12. Effects of nitrogen fertilization and grazing on the emission of nitrous oxide from grassland

    Velthof, G.L.; Oenema, O. [Nutrient Management Institute NMI, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the trace gases that possibly contribute to the depletion of stratospheric ozone and to global warming. Soils are a major source of N2O. Thus far, the contribution of agricultural soils and practises in The Netherlands to the total N2O burden of the atmosphere is largely unknown, because in-situ field measurements are scarce. In the research project reported here, effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization, grazing animals and soil type on N2O emission from grassland in The Netherlands were investigated. The aim of these investigations was to provide insight into the major factors that contribute to N2O emission from managed grassland and to provide quantitative N2O emission rates, obtained from field measurements. The research programme was split in three parts. First, a monitoring study, in which fluxes of N2O were measured weekly at four contrasting grassland sites with three different management practices each, during a period of two years. Secondly, field and greenhouse studies, in which the temporal and spatial variability of N2O fluxes, the effects of type and level of N fertilizer application and the effect of groundwater level on N2O emissions from grassland were assessed in detail. Thirdly, model calculations in which the possibilities were assessed of the use of improved nutrient management as tool to reduce N2O losses from dairy farming systems in The Netherlands, using a whole-farm approach. figs., tabs., refs.

  13. Effects of a long-term disturbance on arthropods and vegetation in subalpine wetlands: manifestations of pack stock grazing in early versus mid-season.

    Jeffrey G Holmquist

    Full Text Available Conclusions regarding disturbance effects in high elevation or high latitude ecosystems based solely on infrequent, long-term sampling may be misleading, because the long winters may erase severe, short-term impacts at the height of the abbreviated growing season. We separated a long-term effects of pack stock grazing, manifested in early season prior to stock arrival, from b additional pack stock grazing effects that might become apparent during annual stock grazing, by use of paired grazed and control wet meadows that we sampled at the beginning and end of subalpine growing seasons. Control meadows had been closed to grazing for at least two decades, and meadow pairs were distributed across Sequoia National Park, California, USA. The study was thus effectively a landscape-scale, long-term manipulation of wetland grazing. We sampled arthropods at these remote sites and collected data on associated vegetation structure. Litter cover and depth, percent bare ground, and soil strength had negative responses to grazing. In contrast, fauna showed little response to grazing, and there were overall negative effects for only three arthropod families. Mid-season and long-term results were generally congruent, and the only indications of lower faunal diversity on mid-season grazed wetlands were trends of lower abundance across morphospecies and lower diversity for canopy fauna across assemblage metrics. Treatment x Season interactions almost absent. Thus impacts on vegetation structure only minimally cascaded into the arthropod assemblage and were not greatly intensified during the annual growing season. Differences between years, which were likely a response to divergent snowfall patterns, were more important than differences between early and mid-season. Reliance on either vegetation or faunal metrics exclusively would have yielded different conclusions; using both flora and fauna served to provide a more integrative view of ecosystem response.

  14. Effects of a long-term disturbance on arthropods and vegetation in subalpine wetlands: manifestations of pack stock grazing in early versus mid-season.

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Haultain, Sylvia A

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions regarding disturbance effects in high elevation or high latitude ecosystems based solely on infrequent, long-term sampling may be misleading, because the long winters may erase severe, short-term impacts at the height of the abbreviated growing season. We separated a) long-term effects of pack stock grazing, manifested in early season prior to stock arrival, from b) additional pack stock grazing effects that might become apparent during annual stock grazing, by use of paired grazed and control wet meadows that we sampled at the beginning and end of subalpine growing seasons. Control meadows had been closed to grazing for at least two decades, and meadow pairs were distributed across Sequoia National Park, California, USA. The study was thus effectively a landscape-scale, long-term manipulation of wetland grazing. We sampled arthropods at these remote sites and collected data on associated vegetation structure. Litter cover and depth, percent bare ground, and soil strength had negative responses to grazing. In contrast, fauna showed little response to grazing, and there were overall negative effects for only three arthropod families. Mid-season and long-term results were generally congruent, and the only indications of lower faunal diversity on mid-season grazed wetlands were trends of lower abundance across morphospecies and lower diversity for canopy fauna across assemblage metrics. Treatment x Season interactions almost absent. Thus impacts on vegetation structure only minimally cascaded into the arthropod assemblage and were not greatly intensified during the annual growing season. Differences between years, which were likely a response to divergent snowfall patterns, were more important than differences between early and mid-season. Reliance on either vegetation or faunal metrics exclusively would have yielded different conclusions; using both flora and fauna served to provide a more integrative view of ecosystem response.

  15. Effect of Transportation and Low Voltage Electrical Stimulation on Meat Quality Characteristics of Omani Sheep

    Isam T. Kadim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of road transportation during the hot season (36 oC and low voltage electrical stimulation on meat quality characteristics of Omani sheep. Twenty intact male sheep (1-year old were divided into two equal groups: 3 hrs transported or non-transported. The transported group was transferred to the slaughterhouse the day of slaughter in an open truck covering a distance of approximately 300 km. The non-transported group was kept in a lairage of a commercial slaughterhouse with ad libitum feed and water for 3 days prior to slaughter. Blood samples were collected from the animals before loading and prior to slaughter in order to assess their physiological response to stress in terms of hormonal levels. Fifty percent of the carcasses from each group were randomly assigned to low voltage (90 V at 20 min postmortem. Muscle ultimate pH, expressed juice, cooking loss percentage, WB-shear force value, sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index and colour L*, a*, b* were measured on samples from Longissimus dorsi muscles collected 24 hrs postmortem at 2-4 oC. The transported sheep had significantly (P<0.05 higher cortisol adrenaline, nor-adrenaline, and dopamine levels than the non-transported group. Muscles from electrically-stimulated carcasses had significantly (P<0.05 lower pH values, longer sarcomere length, lower shear force value, higher expressed juice, myofibrillar fragmentation index and L* values than those from non-stimulated ones. Transportation significantly influenced meat quality characteristics of the Longissimus dorsi muscle. Muscle ultimate pH and shear force values were significantly higher, while CIE L*, a*, b*, expressed juice and cooking loss were lower in transported than non-transported sheep. This study indicated that pre-slaughter transportation at high ambient temperatures can cause noticeable changes in muscle physiology in sheep. Nevertheless, meat quality of transported

  16. Grazing effects on ecosystem CO2 fluxes differ among temperate steppe types in Eurasia.

    Hou, Longyu; Liu, Yan; Du, Jiancai; Wang, Mingya; Wang, Hui; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-07-01

    Grassland ecosystems play a critical role in regulating CO2 fluxes into and out of the Earth's surface. Whereas previous studies have often addressed single fluxes of CO2 separately, few have addressed the relation among and controls of multiple CO2 sub-fluxes simultaneously. In this study, we examined the relation among and controls of individual CO2 fluxes (i.e., GEP, NEP, SR, ER, CR) in three contrasting temperate steppes of north China, as affected by livestock grazing. Our findings show that climatic controls of the seasonal patterns in CO2 fluxes were both individual flux- and steppe type-specific, with significant grazing impacts observed for canopy respiration only. In contrast, climatic controls of the annual patterns were only individual flux-specific, with minor grazing impacts on the individual fluxes. Grazing significantly reduced the mean annual soil respiration rate in the typical and desert steppes, but significantly enhanced both soil and canopy respiration in the meadow steppe. Our study suggests that a reassessment of the role of livestock grazing in regulating GHG exchanges is imperative in future studies.

  17. Effect of grazing intensity and applied fertilizers on pasture production and animal gain

    Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Gudmundsson, O.; Arnalds, A.; Thorsteinsson, I.; Eiriksson, T.

    1983-01-01

    A 5-year study was conducted to determine the effect of grazing intensity and fertilizers on the production of twin lambs in Iceland. Three sites were selected: dry highland, dry lowland and lowland bog. Although increasing the stocking rate reduced the daily gain and carcass weight per lamb, these factors were markedly increased per unit area. Tritiated water was used to establish the body composition and water turnover rates in the lambs. The criteria for optimum use of a pasture could best be established by considering the condition of the sward. Fertilizer (78 to 92 kg N/ha and 18 to 80 kg P/ha) increased the carcass weight by a factor of three on the lowland bog, but by a factor of ten on the less productive highlands. Fertilizer increased standing vegetation by a factor of 11 to 18 and also increased forage quality by markedly increasing the protein and phosphorus content and the digestibility. Fertilizer restored and improved the species composition of the pasture in addition to its productivity. (author)

  18. Multiple exposure routes of a pesticide exacerbate effects on a grazing mayfly.

    Pristed, Mathias Joachim Skov; Bundschuh, Mirco; Rasmussen, Jes Jessen

    2016-09-01

    Hydrophobic pesticides such as pyrethroid insecticides tend to occur in their soluble form mainly as transient pulses in streams. In addition, they are regularly detected in significant quantities adsorbed to stream sediments and other organic in-stream structures. Consequently, stream biota is likely subjected to pesticide exposure via multiple routes. In this study we aimed at investigating the influence of exposure routes for the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on the grazing mayfly Heptagenia sulphurea. Therefore, H. sulphurea was exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin via single- (water or biofilm) or biphasic exposure (water and biofilm) at environmentally realistic concentrations (0, 0.1, 1μgL(-1)) and exposure duration (2h) in a full factorial design (n=5). Mortality, moulting frequency, and biofilm accrual (proxy for feeding rate) were recorded subsequent to a 7 d post exposure period. Mortality significantly increased and moulting frequency significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin in the water phase whereas exposure via biofilm prompted no significant effects on these endpoints (α=0.05). Effect predictions systematically underestimated and overestimated effects for mortality and moulting frequency, respectively. Similarly, mayfly feeding rate was significantly reduced by water phase exposure whereas pre-exposed biofilm did not significantly affect this variable. However, we found a significant but non-systematic interaction between water phase and biofilm exposure on mayfly feeding rate. Our results show that exposure to the same pesticide via multiple exposure routes may increase the magnitude of effects beyond the level predicted from single phase exposures which has clear implications for the aquatic risk assessment of hydrophobic pesticides. However, our results additionally reveal that interactions between pesticide exposure routes may vary between selected dependent variables. We emphasize that unravelling the

  19. Effectiveness of Ivermectin and Albendazole against Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in West Java, Indonesia

    Puspitasari, Silvia; Farajallah, Achmad; Sulistiawati, Erni; Muladno

    2016-01-01

    Administering a half dose of an anthelmintic is a simple method for detecting resistance in parasites infesting small ruminants. When a single anthelmintic fails in native sheep from Indonesia, a combination of anthelmintics from different chemical classes with different modes of action are administered as an alternative parasite-control strategy. This study compared the anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ABZ) given either separately as a single dose or half dose or co-administered to sheep naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Twelve sheep from Bogor, West Java, Indonesia were divided into the following six treatment groups: half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, combined IVM + ABZ, and control. The treatment efficacy was determined using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) at day 0 (pre-treatment) and post-treatment at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. The efficacies of half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, and the combination treatment ranged from −1900% to 100%, 99% to 100%, −167% to 100%, −467% to 89%, and −200% to 100%, respectively. The FECRT for the half-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ showed that H. contortus is resistant to half-dose IVM and ABZ. Full-dose IVM was effective against H. contortus. The combined treatment was more effective against H. contortus than ABZ alone. PMID:27019686

  20. Effectiveness of Ivermectin and Albendazole against Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in West Java, Indonesia.

    Puspitasari, Silvia; Farajallah, Achmad; Sulistiawati, Erni; Muladno

    2016-02-01

    Administering a half dose of an anthelmintic is a simple method for detecting resistance in parasites infesting small ruminants. When a single anthelmintic fails in native sheep from Indonesia, a combination of anthelmintics from different chemical classes with different modes of action are administered as an alternative parasite-control strategy. This study compared the anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ABZ) given either separately as a single dose or half dose or co-administered to sheep naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Twelve sheep from Bogor, West Java, Indonesia were divided into the following six treatment groups: half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, combined IVM + ABZ, and control. The treatment efficacy was determined using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) at day 0 (pre-treatment) and post-treatment at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. The efficacies of half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, and the combination treatment ranged from -1900% to 100%, 99% to 100%, -167% to 100%, -467% to 89%, and -200% to 100%, respectively. The FECRT for the half-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ showed that H. contortus is resistant to half-dose IVM and ABZ. Full-dose IVM was effective against H. contortus. The combined treatment was more effective against H. contortus than ABZ alone.

  1. Effect of high ambient temperature on behavior of sheep under semi-arid tropical environment.

    De, Kalyan; Kumar, Davendra; Saxena, Vijay Kumar; Thirumurugan, Palanisamy; Naqvi, Syed Mohammed Khursheed

    2017-07-01

    High environmental temperature is a major constraint in sheep production under semi-arid tropical environment. Behavior is the earliest indicator of animal's adaptation and responses to the environmental alteration. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of high ambient temperature on the behavior of sheep under a semi-arid tropical environment. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks on 16 Malpura cross (Garole × Malpura × Malpura (GMM)) rams. The rams were divided equally into two groups, designated as C and T. The rams of C were kept in comfortable environmental conditions served as control. The rams of T were exposed to a different temperature at different hours of the day in a climatic chamber, to simulate a high environmental temperature of summer in semi-arid tropic. The behavioral observations were taken by direct instantaneous observation at 15-min intervals for each animal individually. The feeding, ruminating, standing, and lying behaviors were recorded twice a week from morning (0800 hours) to afternoon (1700 hours) for 6 weeks. Exposure of rams to high temperature (T) significantly (P behavior of sheep which is directed to circumvent the effect of the stressor.

  2. Effect of Musa spp. extract on eggs and larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes from infected sheep

    Natalie Neuwirt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helminthes are listed as one of the main problems facing the development of goat and sheep production. Haemonchus contortus is the specie that causes greatest negative impact in ranching. Resistance to anti-parasitic drugs and demand for residue-free animal-derived food products has elevated the importance of herbal treatments. The aim of this study was to develop an extract of Musa spp. and assess by in vitro testing, the anthelmintic effect on eggs and larvae in the gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Stool samples from sheep naturally infected were used to obtain eggs and larvae and was then followed by a test of hatchability and a larval migration inhibition test. In vitro tests on the inhibition of larval hatchability at concentrations of 160 and 180 mg mL-1 of larval extracts and inhibition of migration at concentrations of 800 and 1000 mg mL-1 were observed. The results indicate that the use of banana leaf has an anthelmintic effect and that in vivo studies on the applicability of this technology to the field should be made to further understanding and bring more information to what has already been revealed in this study.

  3. Effect of high ambient temperature on behavior of sheep under semi-arid tropical environment

    De, Kalyan; Kumar, Davendra; Saxena, Vijay Kumar; Thirumurugan, Palanisamy; Naqvi, Syed Mohammed Khursheed

    2017-07-01

    High environmental temperature is a major constraint in sheep production under semi-arid tropical environment. Behavior is the earliest indicator of animal's adaptation and responses to the environmental alteration. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of high ambient temperature on the behavior of sheep under a semi-arid tropical environment. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks on 16 Malpura cross (Garole × Malpura × Malpura (GMM)) rams. The rams were divided equally into two groups, designated as C and T. The rams of C were kept in comfortable environmental conditions served as control. The rams of T were exposed to a different temperature at different hours of the day in a climatic chamber, to simulate a high environmental temperature of summer in semi-arid tropic. The behavioral observations were taken by direct instantaneous observation at 15-min intervals for each animal individually. The feeding, ruminating, standing, and lying behaviors were recorded twice a week from morning (0800 hours) to afternoon (1700 hours) for 6 weeks. Exposure of rams to high temperature (T) significantly ( P animals of T spent significantly ( P behavior of sheep which is directed to circumvent the effect of the stressor.

  4. Effects of Grazing Management in Brachiaria grass-forage Peanut Pastures on Canopy Structure and Forage Intake.

    Gomes, F K; Oliveira, M D B L; Homem, B G C; Boddey, R M; Bernardes, T F; Gionbelli, M P; Lara, M A S; Casagrande, D R

    2018-06-13

    Maintenance of mixed grass-legume pastures for stand longevity and improved animal utilization is a challenge in warm-season climates. The goal of this study was to assess grazing management on stand persistence, forage intake, and N balance of beef heifers grazing mixed pastures of Brachiaria brizantha and Arachis pintoi. A two-year experiment was carried out in Brazil, where four grazing management were assessed: rest period interrupted at 90%, 95%, and 100% of light interception (LI) and a fixed rest period of 42 days (90LI, 95LI, 100LI, and 42D, respectively). The LI were taken at 50 points at ground level and at five points above the canopy for each paddock using a canopy analyzer. For all treatments, the post-grazing stubble height was 15 cm. Botanical composition and canopy structure characteristics such as canopy height, forage mass, and vertical distribution of the morphological composition were evaluated pre-and post-grazing. Forage chemical composition, intake, and microbial synthesis were also determined. A randomized complete block design was used, considering the season of the year as a repeated measure over time. Grazing management and season were considered fixed, while block and year were considered random effects. In the summer, legume mass accounted for 19% of the canopy at 100LI, which was less than other treatments (a mean of 30%). The 100LI treatment had a greater grass stem mass compared with other treatments. In terms of vertical distribution for 100LI, 38.6% of the stem mass was above the stubble height, greater than the 5.7% for other treatments. The canopy structure limited neutral detergent fiber intake (P = 0.007) at 100LI (1.02% of BW/d), whereas 42D, 90LI, and 95LI treatments had NDF intake close to 1.2% of BW/d. The intake of digestible organic matter (OM; P = 0.007) and the ratio of crude protein/digestible OM (P < 0.001) were less at 100LI in relation to the other treatments. The production of microbial N (P < 0.001) and efficiency

  5. Effect of supplementation of Zn-biocomplex in ration on the growth of young sheep

    Supriyati

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementation of graded levels of Zn-bio-complex in concentrate on the growth of young sheep was studied. Fourty young Thin Tailled sheeps were devided into 4 groups of Zn-bio complex treatments. Zink-bio-complex was produced by IRIAP’s laboratory. King grass powder (CP = 10.4% and concentrate (CP=15.5% were given as a basal diet. King grass powder and drinking water were given ad libitum. The concentrate was given daily at 200 g h-1d-1 supplemented with 0 mg Zn kg-1 of DM (R1, 50 mg Zn kg-1 of DM (R2, 100 mg Zn kg-1 of DM (R3, and 200 mg Zn kg-1 of DM (R4. The initial live weight of sheep was 11.99 ± 0.17kg h-1. Live weight were measured fortnightly and feed consumption were measured daily. The experiment was carried out for 12 weeks with 4 weeks prior adaptation periods. Data obtained were analyzed statistically based on Completely Randomized Design. The results of experiment showed that the supplementation of Zn-bio-complex improved the live weight from 57.60 g h-1d-1 (R1 to 85.47, 72.14 and 67.86 g h-1d-1 with the feed conversion ratio improvement from 11.9 (R1 to 8.0, 9.6 and 10.5 for treatment R2, R3 and R4 respectively (P0.05 for R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively. It can be concluded that the supplementation of Zn-bio-complex at the level of 50 mg Zn kg-1 in daily concentrate resulted in the best response on live weight gain and feed conversion ratio of young sheep.

  6. The effect of hierarchical micro/nanosurface titanium implant on osseointegration in ovariectomized sheep.

    Xiao, J; Zhou, H; Zhao, L; Sun, Y; Guan, S; Liu, B; Kong, L

    2011-06-01

    Hydrofluoric etching and anodized hierarchical micro/nanotextured surface titanium implant was placed in mandibles of ovariectomized sheep for 12 weeks, and it showed improved osseointegration by resonance frequency analysis (RFA), microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) evaluation, histomorphometry, and biomechanical test. This study aimed to investigate the effects of micro/nanotextured titanium implant on osseointegration in ovariectomized (OVX) sheep. The hierarchical micro/nanotextured surface of titanium implant was fabricated by acid in 0.5% (w/v) hydrofluoric (HF) and anodized in HF acid electrolytes with a DC power of 20 V, and the machined surface implants with no treatment served as control group. The implants were placed in mandibles of OVX sheep, respectively. Twelve weeks after implantation, RFA, microcomputed tomography, histomorphometry, and biomechanical tests were applied to detect the osseointegration of the two groups. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) values, the maximum pull-out forces, and the bone-implant contact (BIC) were 65.5 ± 6.3, 490.6 ± 72.7 N, and 58.31 ± 5.79% in the micro/nanogroup and 58.3 ± 8.9, 394.5 ± 54.5 N, and 46.85 ± 5.04% in the control group, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups in ISQ values (p > 0.05), but in the micro/nanogroup, the maximal pull-out force and the BIC were increased significantly (p Micro-CT analysis showed that the bone volume ratio and the trabecular number increased significantly (p micro/nanogroup. Implant modification by HF acid etching and anodization to form a hierarchical micro/nanotextured surface could improve titanium implant osseointegration in OVX sheep 12 weeks after implantation.

  7. The effect of ammonium ferric hexacyanoferrate on reducing radiocaesium transfer from grass silage to sheep

    A. PAASIKALLIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to examine the effect of ammonium ferric hexacyanoferrate (AFCF on the transfer of radiocaesium from grass silage to the tissues of male lambs. During ensiling, a formic acid based additive and AFCF were sprayed on grass contaminated with 134Cs and the mixture was allowed to incubate for 45 days. A dose of 21 mg AFCF d-1, fed to sheep offered contaminated silage for fourteen days, reduced 134Cs transfer to muscle by 45% compared to that of control sheep. An equivalent dose of AFCF administered in a capsule reduced transfer by only 3%. In another experiment, AFCF intake of 50, 100 and 150 mg d-1 for ten days reduced 134Cs transfer to sheep muscle by 75, 82 and 86%, respectively. In control lambs, of average live weight 38 and 47 kg, the feed to muscle 134Cs transfer coefficient averaged 0.15 d kg-1, but equilibrium between tissue and feed 134Cs had probably not been reached due to the short feeding period. Increasing doses of AFCF from 0 to 150 mg d-1 increased the faecal/urinary 134Cs ratio from 2 to 42.;

  8. Effects of sudden melon intake on ruminal parameters of non-adapted sheep

    Francisco L.C. Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of varying amounts of melon with high sugar content offered to sheep without prior melon experience and that were not adapted to consuming it. We used 12 eight-month-old, rumen-cannulated crossbred sheep weighing 25 kg each. The animals received a base diet of roughage, and then half were randomly selected to have 25% of their diet replaced with melon (G25% and the other half had 75% of their diet replaced with melon (75%. Ruminal fluid was collected before administration of melon and at 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after the administration of the fruit. Sheep from the G25% group presented volatile fatty acid ruminal acidosis (sub-acute between 3 and 6 h after consumption. This acidosis was characterized by a rumen pH slightly lower than 5.6, increased discrete L-lactic acid content, and increased redox potential (RP and methylene blue redox (MBR time of the ruminal fluid. The G75% group presented lactic ruminal acidosis at T6h, characterized by a rumen pH lower than 5.0, high lactate-L content, increased RP and MBR time, and increased ruminal fluid osmolarity. Therefore, offering large amounts of melon (75% of dry matter (DM is not recommended but 25% of DM of this fruit can be used safely.

  9. Complex effects of mammalian grazing on extramatrical mycelial biomass in the Scandes forest-tundra ecotone.

    Vowles, Tage; Lindwall, Frida; Ekblad, Alf; Bahram, Mohammad; Furneaux, Brendan R; Ryberg, Martin; Björk, Robert G

    2018-01-01

    Mycorrhizal associations are widespread in high-latitude ecosystems and are potentially of great importance for global carbon dynamics. Although large herbivores play a key part in shaping subarctic plant communities, their impact on mycorrhizal dynamics is largely unknown. We measured extramatrical mycelial (EMM) biomass during one growing season in 16-year-old herbivore exclosures and unenclosed control plots (ambient), at three mountain birch forests and two shrub heath sites, in the Scandes forest-tundra ecotone. We also used high-throughput amplicon sequencing for taxonomic identification to investigate differences in fungal species composition. At the birch forest sites, EMM biomass was significantly higher in exclosures (1.36 ± 0.43 g C/m 2 ) than in ambient conditions (0.66 ± 0.17 g C/m 2 ) and was positively influenced by soil thawing degree-days. At the shrub heath sites, there was no significant effect on EMM biomass (exclosures: 0.72 ± 0.09 g C/m 2 ; ambient plots: 1.43 ± 0.94). However, EMM biomass was negatively related to Betula nana abundance, which was greater in exclosures, suggesting that grazing affected EMM biomass positively. We found no significant treatment effects on fungal diversity but the most abundant ectomycorrhizal lineage/cortinarius, showed a near-significant positive effect of herbivore exclusion ( p  = .08), indicating that herbivory also affects fungal community composition. These results suggest that herbivory can influence fungal biomass in highly context-dependent ways in subarctic ecosystems. Considering the importance of root-associated fungi for ecosystem carbon balance, these findings could have far-reaching implications.

  10. Effect of total mixed ration composition and daily grazing pattern on milk production, composition and fatty acids profile of dairy cows.

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; González, Amelia; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M; Argamentería, Alejandro; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña; Vicente, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of using high quality pastures in conjunction with total mixed ration (TMR) during the grazing season have been examined. An experiment with sixteen Holstein cows blocked and randomly assigned to four treatments in a factorial arrangement was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of grazing time of day (day or night) and type of silage (maize or Italian ryegrass) included in the TMR of dairy cows grazing 12 h daily on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile. The silage type had no effect on the dry matter intake, milk yield and fat and protein proportions. However, cows grazing during the night ate more grass than cows grazing during the day (8·53 vs. 5·65 kg DM/d; Pdairy cows grazing at night-time than grazing at day-time, especially 18:2n-6 (2·37 vs. 2·12 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05) and 18:2cis9trans11 (2·08 vs. 1·74 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05).

  11. Top-down impact through a bottom-up mechanism: the effect of limpet grazing on growth, productivity and carbon allocation of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass).

    Zimmerman, Richard C; Kohrs, Donald G; Alberte, Randall S

    1996-09-01

    The unusual appearance of a commensal eelgrass limpet [Tectura depicta (Berry)] from southern California at high density (up to 10 shoot -1 ) has coincided with the catastrophic decline of a subtidal Zostera marina L. meadow in Monterey Bay, California. Some commensal limpets graze the chloroplast-rich epidermis of eelgrass leaves, but were not known to affect seagrass growth or productivity. We evaluated the effect on eelgrass productivity of grazing by limpets maintained at natural densities (8±2 shoot -1 ) in a natural light mesocosm for 45 days. Growth rates, carbon reserves, root proliferation and net photosynthesis of grazed plants were 50-80% below those of ungrazed plants, but biomass-specific respiration was unaffected. The daily period of irradiance-saturated photosynthesis (H sat ) needed to maintain positive carbon balance in grazed plants approached 13.5 h, compared with 5-6 h for ungrazed plants. The amount of carbon allocated to roots of ungrazed plants was 800% higher than for grazed plants. By grazing the chlorophyll-rich epidermis, T. depicta induced carbon limitation in eelgrass growing in an other-wise light-replete environment. Continued northward movement of T. depicta, may have significant impacts on eelgrass production and population dynamics in the northeast Pacific, even thought this limpet consumes very little plant biomass. This interaction is a dramatic example of top-down control (grazing/predation) of eelgrass productivity and survival operating via a bottom-up mechanism (photosynthesis limitation).

  12. Effectiveness of copper oxide wire particles for Haemonchus contortus control in sheep.

    Knox, M R

    2002-04-01

    To assess the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) for the control of H contortus infections in grazing sheep. In experiment 1, 40 worm-free Merino hoggets (11 to 12 months of age) were divided into four equal groups and allocated to separate 0.8 ha pasture plots. Two groups then received 2.5 g COWP whereas the other two groups were untreated. From 1 week after COWP treatment all lambs received a weekly infection of 2000 H contortus larvae. At week 8, six sheep from the untreated group were then allocated to two groups and treated with either 2.5 or 5.0 g of COWP to establish therapeutic efficacy of treatment. Experiment 2 followed a similar protocol but was conducted with 40 worm-free Merino lambs (3 to 4 months of age) and no assessment of therapeutic efficacy was made. In experiment 1 no significant difference in faecal worm egg counts was observed between treatments and faecal worm egg counts remained less than 3000 epg in all animals. Total worm counts were reduced by 37% by COWP treatment (P = 0.055). Both 2.5 g and 5.0 g doses of COWP at 8 weeks of infection reduced faecal worm egg counts by > 85% with the higher dose giving an earlier response to treatment. In experiment 2, faecal worm egg counts at 4 and 6 weeks were reduced by more than 90% in the COWP treated lambs and worm numbers were 54% lower after 6 weeks when all remaining untreated lambs had to be treated for haemonchosis. Mean faecal worm egg counts in the COWP lambs remained below 3500 epg and clinical disease did not develop in the majority of lambs before the end of the experiment at 10 weeks. Treatment with COWPs appears to have the potential to reduce establishment and worm fecundity of Haemonchus spp for an extended period and may offer livestock producers a supplementary means of reducing larval contamination of pasture particularly in areas where anthelmintic resistance is a problem and copper supplementation is likely to be beneficial.

  13. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: effects of cultivar on herbage intake during grazing

    Smit, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne , sward morphology, sward cutting, n-alkanes, herbage intake, selection, preference.Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) is the most important species for feeding dairy cows. The majority of the farmers in the Netherlands graze their

  14. The effect of prolonged heavy grazing pressure on the regrowth of ...

    A clipping experiment was done in the field using T. triandra and U. mosambicensis tufts. Regrowth was lower (P0.01) in the heavy grazing sites for both species. This was more a function of tiller production rate, in terms of numbers of tillers, than of tiller extension rate. Rate of regrowth was not strongly affected by tuft ...

  15. Effects of multiple disturbances in seagrass meadows : shading decreases resilience to grazing

    Eklof, Johan S.; McMahon, Kathryn; Lavery, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem shifts are often associated with multiple disturbances, but limited knowledge on the mechanisms involved hampers management. This study investigated how short-term shading affected the resilience of the seagrass Halophila ovalis to grazing by black swans (Cygnus atratus) - a historically

  16. Effects of cattle and rabbit grazing on clonal expansion of spiny shrubs in wood-pastures

    Smit, Christian; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Apol, M. Emile F.; Olff, Han

    2010-01-01

    Spiny shrubs protect non-defended plants against herbivores. Therefore, they play a role for the diversity in grazed ecosystems. While the importance of these keystone nurse shrubs is presently recognized, little is known about the factors controlling them. This knowledge is required to understand

  17. Effect of grazing seedhead-suppressed tall fescue pasture on the vasoactivity of serotonin receptors

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to ergot alkaloids reduces vasoactivity of serotonin (5HT) receptors. Chemical suppression of tall fescue seedhead production is a tool to reduce the level of exposure to ergot alkaloids by a grazing animal. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate co...

  18. Effects of using winter grazing as a fuel treatment on Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities

    More frequent wildfires and incidences of mega-fires have increased the pressure for fuel treatments in sagebrush (Artemisia) communities. Winter grazing has been one of many fuel treatments proposed for Wyoming big sagebrush (A. tridentata Nutt. subsp. wyomingensis Beetle and A. Young) communitie...

  19. Effect of grazing-mediated dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production on the swimming behavior of the copepod Calanus helgolandicus.

    Breckels, Mark N; Bode, Nikolai W F; Codling, Edward A; Steinke, Michael

    2013-07-15

    Chemical interactions play a fundamental role in the ecology of marine foodwebs. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a ubiquitous marine trace gas that acts as a bioactive compound by eliciting foraging behavior in a range of marine taxa including the copepod Temora longicornis. Production of DMS can rapidly increase following microzooplankton grazing on phytoplankton. Here, we investigated whether grazing-induced DMS elicits an increase in foraging behavior in the copepod Calanus helgolandicus. We developed a semi-automated method to quantify the effect of grazing-mediated DMS on the proportion of the time budget tethered females allocate towards slow swimming, typically associated with feeding. The pooled data showed no differences in the proportion of the 25 min time budget allocated towards slow swimming between high (23.6 ± 9.74%) and low (29.1 ± 18.33%) DMS treatments. However, there was a high degree of variability between behavioral responses of individual copepods. We discuss the need for more detailed species-specific studies of individual level responses of copepods to chemical signals at different spatial scales to improve our understanding of chemical interactions between copepods and their prey.

  20. Effect of supplementation on the performance of grazing Belgian Blue double-muscled heifers.

    Fiems, L O; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2013-11-01

    Six experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of a feed supplement on the performance of grazing Belgian Blue double-muscled (BBDM) heifers with an initial weight and age of 195 ± 43 kg and 190 ± 52 days. Treatments included were: Exp. 1: supplementation with beet pulp (BP): 2 kg/day per head v. ad libitum intake; Exp. 2: supplementation ad libitum with BP v. a mixture of BP and soybean meal (SBM; BP/SBM ratio of 80/20; FW (fresh weight) basis); Exp. 3: supplementation with 4 kg/day per head of a mixture of BP/SBM (80/20; FW basis) v. BP/formaldehyde-treated SBM (BP/FSBM); Exp. 4: supplementation with 4 kg/day per head of a mixture with a similar protein content (125 g DVE per kg dry matter (DM)), consisting of 80/20 BP/SBM v. 92/8 BP/FSBM; Exp. 5: supplementation with 3 kg/day per head of a mixture of BP/SBM (80/20; FW basis) v. BP/DDGS (dried distillers grains and solubles; 70/30, FW basis); and Exp. 6: supplementation with 3 kg/day per head of 80/20 BP/SBM v. maize silage (MS) and SBM, on the basis of a similar protein concentration in the DM as the 80/20 BP/SBM supplement, and fed at a similar amount of DM as in the BP/SBM group. Supplementing BP ad libitum did not affect daily gain (0.54 v. 0.48 kg) and partial feed conversion (3.62 kg on average) compared with 2 kg/day. Supplying SBM besides BP increased growth rate compared with BP (0.87 v. 0.62 kg/day; P 0.10), but blood urea levels were reduced by FSBM (P < 0.05). DDGS tended to increase growth rate (0.77 v. 0.59 kg/day; P < 0.10) compared with BP/SBM, without effect on partial feed conversion. Replacing BP by MS did not affect daily gain, but partial feed conversion tended to be higher (3.21 v. 3.60 kg/kg body weight (BW) gain; P = 0.062). Increasing the supplement (80/20 BP/SBM) level from 3 to 4 kg daily, corresponding to 1.02% and 1.18% of the mean BW, respectively, resulted in a tendency (P = 0.121) for an increased growth rate. Grazing BBDM heifers of <1 year of age necessitate extra

  1. The intake of lead and associated metals by sheep grazing mining-contaminated floodplain pastures in mid-Wales, UK: I. Soil ingestion, soil-metal partitioning and potential availability to pasture herbage and livestock

    Smith, K.M.; Abrahams, P.W.; Dagleish, M.P.; Steigmajer, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper first evaluates the relative importance of the soil-plant-animal and soil-animal pathways of Zn, Cu and (especially) Pb investigated over a 15-month study period at 12 floodplain sites located within and downstream of the mineralised and historic mining area of mid-Wales, and secondly considers the implications of a sequential extraction procedure (SEP) undertaken on soils of varying particle size sampled from the study locations. Generally, very good agreement was found between the chemical partitioning of the three metals for each of the physical soil fractions subjected to the SEP. The availability of Pb to pasture vegetation, especially at the contaminated sites, is indicated with its associations with the more soluble (i.e. exchangeable and Fe/Mn oxide) soil phases, yet soil and/or plant barriers effectively restrict above-ground herbage concentrations of this metal. Consequently, with sheep ingesting soil at rates varying according to season from 0.1% to 44% or more of dry matter intake, the soil-animal pathway accounts for the majority of Pb consumption through most of the year, and at moderately and highly contaminated sites significant quantities of relatively soluble soil-Pb can be ingested at rates exceeding safety threshold limits.

  2. Soil contamination of plant surfaces from grazing and rainfall interactions

    Hinton, T.G.; Stoll, J.M.; Tobler, L.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminants often attach to soil particles, and their subsequent environmental transport is largely determined by processes that govern soil movement. We examined the influence of grazing intensity on soil contamination of pastures. Four different grazing densities of sheep were tested against an ungrazed control plot. Scandium concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis and was used as a tracer of soil adhesion on vegetation. Soil loadings ( g soil kg -1 dry plant) increased 60% when grazing intensity was increased by a factor of four (p 0.003). Rain and wind removed soil from vegetation in the ungrazed control plots, but when grazing sheep were present, an increase in rain from 0.3 to 9.7 mm caused a 130% increase in soil contamination. Multiple regression was used to develop an equation that predicts soil loadings as a function of grazing density, rainfall and wind speed (p = 0.0001, r 2 = 0.78). The model predicts that if grazing management were to be used as a tool to reduce contaminant intake from inadvertent consumption of resuspended soil by grazing animals, grazing densities would have to be reduced 2.5 times to reduce soil loadings by 50%. (author)

  3. Effects of growth hormone administration on the body composition and hormone levels of genetically fat sheep

    Francis, S.M.; Jopson, N.B.; Littlejohn, R.P.; Stuart, S.K.; Veenvliet, B.A.; Young, M.J.; Suttie, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    distribution of subcutaneous fat and eye muscle dimensions. It is concluded that sheep from the fat genotype show physiological responses to exogenous GH. Increasing plasma GH levels of fat sheep increased plasma IGF-1 and had variable effects on carcass fatness. The change in body composition may be affected by the mode of administration of exogenous GH

  4. The analgesic effects of intrathecal xylazine and detomidine in sheep and their antagonism with systemic atipamezole.

    Christina Haerdi-Landerer, M; Schlegel, Urs; Neiger-Aeschbacher, Gina

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate the analgesic and adverse side effects of intrathecal (IT) xylazine (XYL) and detomidine (DET) and the subsequent effects of two doses of intravenous (IV) atipamezole (ATI). Prospective, randomized, cross-over. Five adult healthy female sheep with mean body mass of 55 +/- 2.3 kg. Material and methods Each sheep underwent four treatments: 1) 50 microg kg(-1) XYL IT and 5 microg kg(-1) ATI IV, 2) 50 microg kg(-1) XYL IT and 2.5 microg kg(-1) ATI IV, 3) 10 microg kg(-1) DET IT and 5 microg kg(-1) ATI IV, 4) 10 microg kg(-1) DET IT and 2.5 microg kg(-1) ATI IV. Pain threshold (TH) was tested by applying pulsed and stepwise incremental direct current to the skin overlying the pastern. The current at the point of foot lift was recorded as the TH. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure, arterial oxygen (PO(2)) and carbon dioxide (PCO(2)) tensions were monitored. Outcomes were derived as differences between baseline assessment and measurements after treatment. Two-way anova was used to analyse drug effects, treatment differences between groups were examined with an F-test or Wilcoxon's rank sum test in case of non-parametric data distribution. p was set at 0.05. Both drugs increased the pain TH, caused small increases in PCO(2), and small decreases in HR, the latter was only significant for XYL recipients. Xylazine produced a significantly higher TH, more rapidly and for longer than DET. Atipamezole only significantly affected PaCO(2) in the XYL group 2. The pain TH was not affected in either group after IV ATI. At the doses used, IT XYL, and to a lesser extent DET, induced pastern analgesia. Atipamezole 5 microg kg(-1) IV antagonized some side effects without affecting analgesia. Intrathecal XYL may be useful as an analgesic in sheep. Its safety is increased because IV ATI antagonizes side effects, but not analgesia.

  5. Open-field behaviour in sheep following treatment with the neuroleptics azaperone and acetylpromazine.

    Hughes, R N; Syme, L A; Syme, G J

    1977-03-23

    The behavior of individual Romney ewes in an open field was observed after intramuscular injection of isotonic saline or two doses of azaperone (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg) or acetylpromazine (0.1, 0.25 mg/kg). Azaperone significantly reduced the distance travelled, urination, and the time spent walking. However it increased nosing of the walls and floor (investigation). Azaperone also increased the numbers of sheep seen grazing and pawing and decreased the number heart vocalizing at least once. The only effect acetylpromazine had was to reduce the number of sheep heart vocalizing. The main results were interpreted as supporting a superior reduction of emotional behaviour by azaperone. It was therefore suggested that, as with pigs, azaperone might be useful for treating stress in sheep.

  6. Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats

    Antonio Pazzona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking

  7. Short- to medium-term effects of consumption of quebracho tannins on saliva production and composition in sheep and goats.

    Salem, A Z M; López, S; Ranilla, M J; González, J S

    2013-03-01

    Eight Merino sheep (49.4 ± 4.23 kg BW) and 8 Alpine goats (53.2 ± 2.51 kg BW) were used to study the effect of ingestion of quebracho tannins on salivation. Four sheep and 4 goats were individually fed a daily allotment of 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW (Control). Another 4 sheep and 4 goats were also given 20 g DM of alfalfa hay/kg BW supplemented with 50 g of quebracho/kg DM (Tannin) for a period of 64 d. The saliva secretion from the left parotid gland was collected by insertion of a polyvinyl chloride catheter into the parotid duct and the amount of parotid saliva produced recorded over three 48-h periods on d 1 and 2 (P1), d 31 and 32 (P2), and d 61 and 62 (P3) after the tannin feeding was initiated. The total amount of saliva produced was estimated from rumen water kinetics determined on d 4, d 34, and d 64 of the experiment. Experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures on each experimental unit, performing separate analysis for sheep and goats. Parotid saliva production was not affected by the sampling period in either animal species receiving the Control diet. Corresponding values for sheep were 2.04, 2.12, and 2.27 L/d (P = 0.89) and for goats 1.65, 1.79, and 1.86 L/d (P = 0.95). Sheep fed the Tannin diet produced 55, 73, and 107% of the amount of saliva recorded in sheep fed the Control diet on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Corresponding values in goats were 88, 130, and 134% on P1, P2, or P3, respectively. Estimated total saliva production was not affected (P = 0.50 for sheep and P = 0.97 for goats) by the ingestion of quebracho. There was no difference (P > 0.10) in osmotic pressure, P, Mg, Ca, urea, and protein concentrations in parotid saliva. There were, however, differences in Na and K concentrations in response to the ingestion of quebracho tannins, with Na concentrations increasing (P = 0.05) and K concentrations decreasing (P = 0.04) in sheep saliva and pH increasing (P = 0.05) in goat saliva. In conclusion, the inclusion

  8. EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS ENZYMES ON NUTRIENTS DIGESTIBILITY AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE IN SHEEP AND GOATS

    Abdel-Fattah Z.M. Salem

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Six crossbred sheep (32.00±0.603 kg BW and 6 Baladi goats (18.00±0.703 kg BW were used in 2×2 factorial design to evaluate the effect of exogenous enzymes of ZADO® (i.e., ENZ and on digestibility and growth performance. Animals were fed on wheat straw ad libitum and restricted amount of commercial concentrate with (+ENZ or without (-ENZ 10 g/animal/day of ZADO to cover 120% of their maintenance requirements. Nutrients digestibilities were increased (P

  9. Effects of past logging and grazing on understory plant communities in a montane Colorado forest

    Fornwalt, P.J.; Kaufmann, M.R.; Huckaby, L.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout Pinus ponderosa-Pseudotsuga menziesii forests of the southern Colorado Front Range, USA, intense logging and domestic grazing began at the time of Euro-American settlement in the late 1800s and continued until the early 1900s. We investigated the long-term impacts of these settlement-era activities on understory plant communities by comparing understory composition at a historically logged and grazed site to that of an environmentally similar site which was protected from past use. We found that species richness and cover within functional groups rarely differed between sites in either upland or riparian areas. Multivariate analyses revealed little difference in species composition between sites on uplands, though compositional differences were apparent in riparian zones. Our findings suggest that settlement-era logging and grazing have had only minor long-term impacts on understories of upland Front Range P. ponderosa-P. menziesii forests, though they have had a greater long-term influence on riparian understories, where these activities were likely the most intense. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Acute and long-term effects of exposure to sodium monofluoroacetate (1080 in sheep

    S. R. Gooneratne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute and long-term effects of a single, relative lyhigh oral dose (0.25a nd 0.30 mg/kg of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080 on the survival and productivity of sheep were evaluated to establish a better understanding of 1080 poisoning and identify more specific changes diagnostic of toxicosis. In survivors, clinical signs of acute 1080 toxicosis such as salivation and lethar gywere generally very mild. Fasted animals were more prone to 1080 toxicity. In animals that died, more severe signs, including tachypnoea, dyspnoea, and tremors occurred for 15-20 min prior to death. 1080 concentrations were highest in the blood> heart> skeletal muscle> liver. 1080 could not be detected in any of these organs of the animals that survived. Serum citratec oncentratione were elevated for 4 days after dosing. No clinical or biochemical abnormalities were found in any animal after 4 days. Histopathological lesions were most marked in the heart and lung with inflammation, necrosis, and scattered foci of fibrous tissue in the myocardium, pulmonary oedema and inflammation of the lung. No adverse longterm effects on general health or reproductive performance were observed in any sheep that survived the first 4 days following exposure to 1080. The most reliable diagnostic in dicators of 1080 exposure in sheep were measurement of its residues in blood, skeletal muscle and ruminal contents, increased serum citratec oncentratione; l evated heart rate,and characteristic electrocardiograpchh anges(up to 4 days after exposure. Death from 1080 is most likely to occur within 96 h, and animals that survived this period appeared normal.

  11. Fire and grazing influence site resistance to Bromus tectorum through their effects on shrub, bunchgrass and biocrust communities in the Great Basin (USA)

    Condon, Lea A.; Pyke, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Shrubs, bunchgrasses and biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are believed to contribute to site resistance to plant invasions in the presence of cattle grazing. Although fire is a concomitant disturbance with grazing, little is known regarding their combined impacts on invasion resistance. We are the first to date to test the idea that biotic communities mediate the effects of disturbance on site resistance. We assessed cover of Bromus tectorum, shrubs, native bunchgrasses, lichens and mosses in 99 burned and unburned plots located on similar soils where fires occurred between 12 and 23 years before sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships between environmental and disturbance characteristics, the biotic community and resistance to B. tectorum cover. Characteristics of fire and grazing did not directly relate to cover of B. tectorum. Relationships were mediated through shrub, bunchgrass and biocrust communities. Increased site resistance following fire was associated with higher bunchgrass cover and recovery of bunchgrasses and mosses with time since fire. Evidence of grazing was more pronounced on burned sites and was positively correlated with the cover of B. tectorum, indicating an interaction between fire and grazing that decreases site resistance. Lichen cover showed a weak, negative relationship with cover of B. tectorum. Fire reduced near-term site resistance to B. tectorum on actively grazed rangelands. Independent of fire, grazing impacts resulted in reduced site resistance to B. tectorum, suggesting that grazing management that enhances plant and biocrust communities will also enhance site resistance.

  12. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Direct and Maternal Effects in Growth Traits of Sangsari Sheep Using Gibbs Sampling

    Zohreh Yousefi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Small ruminants, especially native breed types, play an important role in livelihoods of a considerable part of human population in the tropics from socio-economic aspects. Therefore, integrated attempt in terms of management and genetic improvement to enhance production is of crucial importance. Knowledge of genetic variation and co-variation among traits is required for both the design of effective sheep breeding programs and the accurate prediction of genetic progress from these programs. Body weight and growth traits are one of the economically important traits in sheep production, especially in Iran where lamb sale is the main source of income for sheep breeders while other products are in secondary importance. Although mutton is the most important source of protein in Iran, meat production from the sheep does not cover the increasing consumer demand. On the other hand, increase in sheep number to increase meat production has been limited by low quality and quantity of forage range. Therefore, enhancing meat production should be achieved by selecting the animals that have maximum genetic merit as next generation parents. To design an efficient improvement program and genetic evaluation system for maximization response to selection for economically important traits, accurate estimates of the genetic parameters and the genetic relationships between the traits are necessary. Studies of various sheep breeds have shown that both direct and maternal genetic influences are of importance for lamb growth. When growth traits are included in the breeding goal, both direct and maternal genetic effects should be taken into account in order to achieve optimum genetic progress. The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components and heritability, for growth traits, by fitting six animal models in the Sangsari sheep using Gibbs sampling. Material and Method Sangsari is a fat-tailed and relatively small sized breed of sheep

  13. Characterization and typification of small ruminant farms providing fuelbreak grazing services for wildfire prevention in Andalusia (Spain).

    Mena, Y; Ruiz-Mirazo, J; Ruiz, F A; Castel, J M

    2016-02-15

    Several wildfire prevention programs in Spain are using grazing livestock to maintain fuelbreaks with low levels of biomass. Even though shepherds are remunerated for these services, many of their farms are hardly viable in the current socio-economic context. By analyzing 54 small ruminant farms participating in the Grazed Fuelbreak Network in Andalusia (southern Spain), this research aimed to identify the main types and characteristics of such farms and, considering the challenges they are facing, propose strategies to improve both their economic viability and their effectiveness in fuelbreak grazing. Based on data collected through a survey on key farm management aspects, a multivariate analysis was performed and four main types of farm were identified: two clusters of dairy goat farms and two composed mostly of meat-purpose sheep farms. Farms in all clusters could benefit from improvements in the feeding and reproductive management of livestock, either to enhance their productivity or to make better use of the pasture resources available. Dairy goat farms remain more dependent on external animal feed to ensure a better lactation, therefore they should either diminish their workforce costs per animal or sell transformed products directly to consumers to improve their economic viability. Best fuelbreak grazing results were related to larger flocks combining sheep and goats, lower ratios of fuelbreak surface area per animal, and longer (year-long) grazing periods on fuelbreaks. Therefore, such farm features and adjusted fuelbreak assignments should be favored in wildfire prevention programs using grazing services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Litter Size on Maternal – Offspring Interactions in Sheep

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current research was to evaluate the effects that litter size (single vs. twin born lambs has on maternal – offspring interactions in Turcana mountain sheep breed during the first 4 weeks after lambing. Behavioural patterns such as dam – lamb(s contact, suckling (duration and periods and vocalization frequency were studied. During first 24 hours after lambing, ewes spend on average 40.9±3.15 minutes in close contact with their lambs, while the following weeks they have spent significantly (p≤0.05 less time in contact with the lambs i.e. 20.6±3.17 in day 7, 16.8±2.15 in day 14 and 14.5±1.26 minutes in day 21. Litter size had no significant effect (p≥0.05 on the frequency of vocalizations or the time spent in contact with their lamb(s in Turcana ewes. Results of the current research shown that litter size in multiparous Turcana mountain sheep breed had limited effects on the ewe-lamb interactions. The experienced ewes, based on the excellent mothering ability and strong maternal instincts, can rear with minimal stress twin litters when winter lambing occurs indoors and under proper management. Further comparative studies are planned in order to study the effects of triplet births and parity on maternal-offspring interactions in Turcana ewes.

  15. Treatment of heartwater : potential adverse effects of furosemide administration on certain homeostatic parameters in normal sheep

    A.S. Shakespeare

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Diuretics, in particular furosemide, are generally recommended as a supportive treatment in the advanced stages of heartwater in ruminants. However, after what appeared to be possible adverse effects accompanying its use in field cases of heartwater, the effects of this drug on certain blood and urine parameters were investigated in normal sheep at the same dose rates. Diuresis with concomitant natriuresis was significant after furosemide administration, as was the expected plasma volume decrease. Other significant changes included metabolic alkalosis, hypokalaemia and reduced blood ionised calcium. The difference in duration of the diuretic effect and the duration of the changes in blood parameters from c. 3 h and c. 6 h respectively make it difficult to determine a time interval between successive treatments with furosemide. It appears that the probable cause of death of sheep with heartwater is a drastic reduction in blood volume and decreased cardiac output that leads to general circulatory failure. A therapeutic approach that involves further loss of plasma volume due to diuresis appears contradictory. The added effects of potentiating respiratory alkalosis and the terminal drop in blood ionised calcium seen in heartwater-affected animals indicate that the use of furosemide in supportive treatment of this disease is not warranted.

  16. [Effects of grazing disturbance on soil active organic carbon in mountain forest-arid valley ecotone in the upper reaches of Minjiang River].

    Liu, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Xing-Hua; Gong, Yuan-Bo; Li, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Yin, Yan-Jie; Ma, Jin-Song; Guo, Ting

    2014-02-01

    Effects of grazing disturbance on the soil carbon contents and active components in the four vegetations, i.e., artificial Robinia pseudoacacia plantation, artificial poplar plantation, Berberis aggregate shrubland and grassland, were studied in the mountain forest-arid valley ecotone in the upper Minjiang River. Soil organic carbon and active component contents in 0-10 cm soil layer were greater than in 10-20 cm soil layer at each level of grazing disturbance. With increasing the grazing intensity, the total organic carbon (TOC), light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and easily oxidized carbon (LOC) contents in 0-10 cm soil layer decreased gradually in the artificial R. pseudoacacia plantation. The LFOC content decreased, the POC content increased, and the TOC and LOC contents decreased initially and then increased with increasing the grazing intensity in the artificial poplar plantation. The POC content decreased, and the TOC, LFOC and LOC contents decreased initially and then increased with increasing the grazing intensity in the B. aggregate shrubland. The POC and TOC contents decreased, and the LFOC and LOC contents decreased initially and then increased with increasing the grazing intensity in the grassland. The decreasing ranges of LOC, LFOC and POC contents were 0.1-7.9 times more than that of TOC content. There were significant positive relationships between TOC and LOC, LFOC and POC, suggesting that the active organic carbon components could reflect the change of soil total carbon content.

  17. Effects of heat stress on the physiological parameters and productivity of hair sheep in tropical and coastal environments

    Antonio Gesualdi Júnior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with sheep during the finishing phase in a partial confinement system to evaluate the following physiological parameters: rectal temperature (RT, respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR, productive performance and carcass characteristics. Fourteen uncastrated sheep with an average initial age of 90 days belonging to two genetic groups were used. There were seven Santa Inês animals, whose average initial live weight (ILW was 23.65 kg, and seven F1 Dorper × St. Inês animals, with an ILW of 20.02 kg. The treatments were the two genetic groups and two times for the collection of the physiological parameters, at 09.00 h and 15.00 h. Evaluation took place once a week, in a shared stall, always following a 20-min grazing activity. The animals had daily access to a Megathyrsus maximus(Jacquin pasture, cultivar Masai, from 08.00 h to 17.00 h and their feed was placed in a trough, at a forage:concentrate ratio of 51:49 in the total dry matter. The concentrate consisted of 900 g/kg of ground corn and 100 g/kg of soybean meal, and the roughage supplied was alfalfa hay. There was no interaction between treatments for the studied variables. The physiological parameters were affected only by the time of day. The variables RR and RT were higher at 15.00 h, while the highest HR values were observed at 09.00 h. Neither of the two genetic groups differed for performance and carcass characteristics. Hair sheep belonging to close genetic groups show no differences in performance, carcass characteristics and physiological responses when subjected to heat stress.

  18. Effects of ginger extract on smooth muscle activity of sheep reticulum and rumen

    Amin Mamaghani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reticulorumen hypomotility leads to the impaired physiologic functions of the digestive tract. Prokinetic action of ginger has been demonstrated in the laboratory animals and human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger on contraction and motility of reticulum and rumen of ruminants. Collected samples of reticulum and rumen from eight sheep were investigated in vitro. The extract at the concentration of 0.1 and 1.0 mg L-1 had no effect on any preparations. Contraction of reticulum and rumen preparations was occurred at 10.0 and 100 mg L-1 concentrations (p < 0.05. Concentration of 1000 mg L-1 caused a relaxation in preparations contracted with 10.0 and 100 mg L-1. Likewise, the concentration of 1000 mg L-1 significantly (p < 0.05 inhibited ACh-induced contraction in both tissues. Six sheep were involved in electromyographic study. Administration of 40 mg kg-1 of the extract increased the overall frequency of contractions of the reticulum and rumen at the subsequent three days with the prominent increase at the second day (p < 0.05. Results of in vitro study indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of ginger contained spasmogenic and spasmolytic constituents. The results in vivo study represented evidences that the extract may have stimulant effect on reticulorumen motility in 40 mg kg-1 concentration.

  19. The treatment effect of porous titanium alloy rod on the early stage talar osteonecrosis of sheep.

    Xiao-Kang Li

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the talus (ONT may severely affect the function of the ankle joint. Most orthopedists believe that ONT should be treated at an early stage, but a concise and effective surgical treatment is lacking. In this study, porous titanium alloy rods were prepared and implanted into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT (IM group. The curative effect of the rods was compared to treatment by core decompression (DC group. No significant differences in bone reconstruction were observed between the two groups at 1 month after intervention. After 3 months, the macroscopic view of gross specimens of the IM group showed ordinary contours, but the specimens of the DC group showed obvious partial bone defects and cartilage degeneration. Quantitative analysis of the reconstructed trabeculae by micro-CT and histological study suggested that the curative effect of the IM group was superior to that of the DC group at 3 months after intervention. These favorable short-term results of the implantation of porous titanium alloy rods into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT may provide insight into an innovative surgical treatment for ONT.

  20. Effects of Deer Grazing on Vegetation and Ground-Dwelling Insects in a Larch Forest in Okutama, Western Tokyo

    Hodaka Yamada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sika deer (Cervus nippon have experienced a rapid increase in the Japanese archipelago. Although the effects of deer grazing have been widely studied, the indirect effects have received little attention. Using an eight-year-old deer exclosure in western Tokyo (Japan, we studied the direct effects on plants and the indirect effects on insects and microenvironments. Plant biomass was 14 times higher inside the exclosure than outside. Shrubs (e.g., Aralia elata and Hydrangea paniculata and trees (e.g., Symplocos sawafutagi and Clethra barbinervis were more abundant inside, whereas only unpalatable trees in poor condition grew outside (e.g., Pterostyrax hispida and Cynanchum caudatum. In the summer months, the maximum temperature was 8–10°C higher outside the exclosure and humidity was lower. Soil movement was 80 times more pronounced outside than inside. These results suggest that the abiotic environment became less stable for ground-dwelling insects. Carabid beetles were less abundant outside than inside, suggesting that deer grazing reduced plants and subsequently lowered habitat quality for these beetles. In contrast, carrion beetles, dung beetles, and camel crickets were more abundant outside. The increase in these insects is attributed to the availability of deer feces and carcasses and is a direct effect of deer presence.

  1. Magnetoviscous effect in ferrofluids diluted with sheep blood

    Nowak, J.; Borin, D.; Haefner, S.; Richter, A.; Odenbach, S.

    2017-11-01

    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles in suitable carrier liquids, denoted as ferrofluids, are in the focus of current research in the biomedical area. Those fluids can be potentially used for the treatment of cancer by coupling chemotherapeutic agents and accumulating them in the diseased region with the help of external magnetic fields or by artificially local induced heating. Those applications rely on the help of external magnetic fields, which are well known to drastically influence the physical behaviour of ferrofluids. This study investigates the changing viscosity of a biocompatible ferrofluid in a flow situation close to the situation found in a biomedical application. For this purpose blood as diluting agent and thin capillaries have been utilised. The strong magnetoviscous effects found lead to the assumption of quite big changes of the microstructure due to the external magnetic fields, which was investigated and quantified using a microscopic setup. In the result an increases of the structure size as well as faster structure formation in the stronger magnetic fields were observed. Moreover, with increasing duration of the applied magnetic field the size of the structures increases too. The observed process of the structure formation is reversible.

  2. Linking cascading effects of fish predation and zooplankton grazing to reduced cyanobacterial biomass and toxin levels following biomanipulation.

    Mattias K Ekvall

    Full Text Available Eutrophication has been one of the largest environmental problems in aquatic ecosystems during the past decades, leading to dense, and often toxic, cyanobacterial blooms. In a way to counteract these problems many lakes have been subject to restoration through biomanipulation. Here we combine 13 years of monitoring data with experimental assessment of grazing efficiency of a naturally occurring zooplankton community and a, from a human perspective, desired community of large Daphnia to assess the effects of an altered trophic cascade associated with biomanipulation. Lake monitoring data show that the relative proportion of Daphnia spp. grazers in June has increased following years of biomanipulation and that this increase coincides with a drop in cyanobacterial biomass and lowered microcystin concentrations compared to before the biomanipulation. In June, the proportion of Daphnia spp. (on a biomass basis went from around 3% in 2005 (the first year of biomanipulation up to around 58% in 2012. During months when the proportion of Daphnia spp. remained unchanged (July and August no effect on lower trophic levels was observed. Our field grazing experiment revealed that Daphnia were more efficient in controlling the standing biomass of cyanobacteria, as grazing by the natural zooplankton community never even compensated for the algal growth during the experiment and sometimes even promoted cyanobacterial growth. Furthermore, although the total cyanobacterial toxin levels remained unaffected by both grazer communities in the experimental study, the Daphnia dominated community promoted the transfer of toxins to the extracellular, dissolved phase, likely through feeding on cyanobacteria. Our results show that biomanipulation by fish removal is a useful tool for lake management, leading to a top-down mediated trophic cascade, through alterations in the grazer community, to reduced cyanobacterial biomass and lowered cyanobacterial toxin levels. This

  3. Effect of salting and ripening on the physicochemical and sensory quality of goat and sheep cured legs.

    Teixeira, Alfredo; Fernandes, Aline; Pereira, Etelvina; Manuel, Aristides; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2017-12-01

    Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat cured legs were evaluated. The pH values (5.7-5.8) and aw (0.87 and 0.83) found to be adequate to control meat deterioration, promoting safety and stability to shelf life of products with respect to microbial growth. The high protein (46.2 and 38.4%) and low fat (5.3 and 8.7%) percentages of the goat and sheep cured legs were the main evidence of the effect of salting and ripening processes. A low cholesterol content of 4.5% is particularly evident in sheep cured legs. Curing process produced a slight increase in the P/S ratio 0.23 and 0.17 for goat and sheep cured legs, respectively. TBARS values are much lower than the value of 2mg of MDA/Kg which is the upper limit of rancidity. Physico-chemical and sensory characteristics indicate that producing cured goat and sheep legs from cull animals can be an interesting way of adding value to animals with very low commercial prices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo and in vitro effects of imidacloprid on sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus): a light and electron microscopic study.

    Mehlhorn, H; D'Haese, J; Mencke, N; Hansen, O

    2001-04-01

    The effects of imidacloprid (Advantage) on sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus Linne 1758) were studied in vivo and in vitro by means of direct observation (monitored on video tape) and by light and electron microscopy. It was found that: 1. Imidacloprid acted rapidly on all motile stages of the sheep keds. Within 3-4 min after exposure they became immobile and their legs and the abdomen started tetanic trembling movements for 15-30 min, leading to death. 2. The compound is apparently taken up by the body, since it also acted on those sheep keds that had been exclusively exposed to imidacloprid-contaminated filter papers. 3. The compound is available and active for more than 1 month in the wool of sheep; even rainfall does not reduce its efficacy. Body contact between treated mother sheep and their lambs protects them from infestation with these ectoparasites. 4. The compound initiates an ultimately lethal destruction of the ganglia, nerve chords and related muscle fibers, as can be seen in electron micrographs.

  5. Myostatin gene (MSTN polymorphism with a negative effect on meat productivity in Dzhalginsky Merino sheep breed

    VLADIMIR TRUKHACHEV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important negative regulator of muscle grow in mammalians is myostatin. Some mutations in myostatin gene (MSTN can decrease the effect of protein and play role in meat quality of sheep. Therefore, in genome selection, knowledge of MSTN gene structure is very important. We investigated the polymorphism of the MSTN gene and its influence on body parameters in Russian sheep breed Dzhalginsky Merino. To detect alleles, we use NimbleGen sequencing technolog. In this breed, we found 20 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP. That is SNP in promoter: с.-1866, с.-1404, с.-1401, с.-1213, с.-1128, с.-958, с.-783; 5'UTR: с.-40; exon I: с.101; intron 1-2: c.373+18, c.373+241, c.373+243, c.373+259, c.373+563; intron 2-3: с.747+164, с.747+309, с.748-810, с.748-229G>A, с.748-475; 3'UTR: с.*1232. Three of detected SNP (c.-1128, c.-958, c.-40 have a negative effect on the body parameters – decrease weight, height and other. Other three SNP (c.101, c.373+18, с.*1232 have not significant influence on this parameters. Our investigation is a base of next research of affection of different MSTN gene alleles on meat quality and can be used to prepare a PCR test-system for genomic selection.

  6. Effects of dietary fermented spent coffee ground on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep.

    Choi, Yongjun; Rim, Jong-Su; Na, Youngjun; Lee, Sang Rak

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of fermented spent coffee ground (FSCG) on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Fermentation of spent coffee ground (SCG) was conducted using Lactobacillus plantrum . Fermentation was performed at moisture content of 70% and temperature of 39°C with anaerobic air tension for 48 h. Four adult rams (initial body weight = 56.8±0.4 kg) were housed in a respiration-metabolism chamber and the treatments were: i) control (Basal diet; 0% SCG or FSCG), ii) 10% level of SCG, iii) 10% level of FSCG, and iv) 20% level of FSCG in 4×4 Latin square design. Each dietary experiment period lasted for 18-d with a 14-d of adaptation period and a 4-d of sample collection period. In SCG fermentation experimental result, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) concentration of FSCG (64.5% of total N) was lower than that of non-fermented SCG (78.8% of total N). Digestibility of dry matter and organic matter was similar among treatment groups. Although crude protein (CP) digestibility of the control was greater than FSCG groups (pdigestibility and nitrogen retention than non-fermented 10% SCG group (pdigestibility, thereby increasing CP digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Fermentation using microorganisms in feed ingredients with low digestibility could have a positive effect on improving the quality of raw feed.

  7. Anthelmintic effect of thymol and thymol acetate on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes and their toxicity in mice

    Weibson Paz Pinheiro André

    Full Text Available Abstract Thymol is a monoterpene and acetylation form of this compound can reduce the toxicity and enhance its biological effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of thymol and thymol acetate (TA on egg, larva and adult Haemonchus contortus and the cuticular changes, acute toxicity in mice and the efficacy on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. In vitro tests results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and followed by comparison with Tukey test or Bonferroni. The efficacy of in vivo test was calculated by the BootStreet program. In the egg hatch test (EHT, thymol (0.5 mg/mL and TA (4 mg/mL inhibited larval hatching by 98% and 67.1%, respectively. Thymol and TA (8 mg/mL inhibited 100% of larval development. Thymol and TA (800 µg/mL reduced the motility of adult worms, by 100% and 83.4%, respectively. Thymol caused cuticular changes in adult worm teguments. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 of thymol and TA were 1,350.9 mg/kg and 4,144.4 mg/kg, respectively. Thymol and TA reduced sheep egg count per gram of faeces (epg by 59.8% and 76.2%, respectively. In in vitro tests thymol presented better anthelmintic activity than TA. However TA was less toxic and in in vivo test efficacy was similar.

  8. Effects of ewes grazing sulla or ryegrass pasture for different daily durations on forage intake, milk production and fatty acid composition of cheese.

    Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Mazza, F; De Pasquale, C; Giosuè, C; Vitale, F; Alabiso, M

    2016-12-01

    Sulla (Sulla coronarium L.) forage is valued for its positive impact on ruminant production, in part due to its moderate content of condensed tannin (CT). The duration of daily grazing is a factor affecting the feed intake and milk production of ewes. In this study, the effects of grazing sulla pasture compared with annual ryegrass, and the extension of grazing from 8 to 22 h/day, were evaluated with regard to ewe forage intake and milk production, as well as the physicochemical properties and fatty acid (FA) composition of cheese. During 42 days in the spring, 28 ewes of the Comisana breed were divided into four groups (S8, S22, R8 and R22) that grazed sulla (S) or ryegrass (R) for 8 (0800 to 1600 h) or 22 h/day, and received no feeding supplement. In six cheese-making sessions, cheeses were manufactured from the 48 h bulk milk of each group. Compared with ewes grazing ryegrass, those grazing sulla had higher dry matter (DM) intake, intake rate and milk yield, and produced milk that was lower in fat and higher in casein. Ewes grazing for 22 h spent more time eating, which reduced the intake rate, increased DM and nutrient intake and milk yield, and reduced milk fat. Due to the ability of CT to inhibit the complete ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the FA composition of sulla cheese was more beneficial for consumer health compared with ryegrass cheese, having lower levels of saturated fatty acids and higher levels of PUFA and n-3 FA. The FA profile of S8 cheese was better than that of S22 cheese, as it was higher in branched-chain FA, monounsaturated FA, PUFA, rumenic acid (c9,t11-C18:2), and had a greater health-promoting index. The effect of short grazing time on sulla was attributed to major inhibition of PUFA biohydrogenating ruminal bacteria, presumably stimulated by the higher accumulation of sulla CT in the rumen, which is related to a higher intake rate over a shorter eating time. Thus, grazing sulla improved the performance of

  9. The relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem services and the effects of grazing cessation in semi-natural grasslands

    S. Wehn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use change can affect biodiversity, and this has an impact on ecosystem services (ESs, but the relationships between biodiversity and ESs are complex and poorly understood. Biodiversity is declining due to the abandonment of extensively grazed semi-natural grasslands.We therefore aim to explore relationships between biodiversity and ESs provided by extensively managed semi-natural grasslands. Focusing on vascular plant species richness, as well as the ESs fodder quantity, quality, and stability, allergy control, climate regulation, nutrient cycling, pollination, and aesthetic appreciation, we carried out botanical field surveys of 28 paired extensively grazed and abandoned semi-natural grassland plots, with four subplots of 4 m2 in each plot. The management of the semi-natural grasslands is and has been at low intensity. We calculated the influence of abandonment on the ES indicators, measured the correlation between the biodiversity measure of vascular plant species richness and ES indicators, and finally determined how the relationships between plant species richness and the ES indicators were affected by the cessation of the extensive management.ES indicators are often, but not always, positively correlated with species richness. Cessation of extensive grazing has both negative and positive effects on ES indicators but the relationships between species richness and ES indicators are often different in extensively managed and abandoned semi-natural grasslands. The relationships between species richness and ES indicators are less pronounced in the extensively managed semi-natural grassland than for the abandoned. One possible reason for this outcome is high functional redundancy in the extensively managed semi-natural grasslands.

  10. Immunohistochemical characterization of tuberculous lesions in sheep naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Vallejo, Raquel; García Marín, Juan Francisco; Juste, Ramón Antonio; Muñoz-Mendoza, Marta; Salguero, Francisco Javier; Balseiro, Ana

    2018-05-04

    Sheep have been traditionally considered as less susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis (Mbovis) infection than other domestic ruminants such as cattle and goats. However, there is increasing evidence for the role of this species as a domestic Mbovis reservoir, mostly when sheep share grazing fields with infected cattle and goats. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the pathogenesis and the immune response of Mbovis infection in sheep. The goals of this study were to characterize the granuloma stages produced by the natural infection of Mbovis in sheep, to compare them with other species and to identify possible differences in the sheep immune response. Samples from bronchial lymph nodes from twelve Mbovis-naturally infected sheep were used. Four immunohistochemical protocols for the specific detection of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages were performed to study the local immune reaction within the granulomas. Differences were observed in the predominant cell type present in each type of granuloma, as well as differences and similarities with the development of tuberculous granulomas in other species. Very low numbers of T-lymphocytes were observed in all granuloma types indicating that specific cellular immune response mediated by T-cells might not be of much importance in sheep in the early stages of infection, when macrophages are the predominant cell type within lesions. Plasma cells and mainly B lymphocytes increased considerably as the granuloma developed being attracted to the lesions in a shift towards a Th2 response against the increasing amounts of mycobacteria. Therefore, we have proposed that the granulomas could be defined as initial, developed and terminal. Results showed that the study of the lymphoid tissue granulomata reinforces the view that the three different types of granuloma represent stages of lesion progression and suggest an explanation to the higher resistance of sheep based on a higher effective innate

  11. Cattle grazing and its long-term effects on sedge meadows

    Middleton, Beth

    2004-01-01

    Most people think that wetlands are temporary, that they fill in by natural processes, and eventually become dry land. Some of these outdated ideas have come from the way that this subject has been covered in introductory textbooks in schools (Gibson, 1996). From these texts, we learned incorrectly that over time a lake fills with sediment or organic matter to become a wetland, which dries out to support shrubs and trees, and eventually it is no longer a wetland (Middleton, 1999; Middleton and others, 2004). These old ideas of how vegetation changes (succession) are no longer accepted. Wetland succession should be thought of as a cycle, with natural disturbance driving the changes, depending on the needs of the species. Succession is not something that changes a wetland into something that is not a wetland (Egler, 1978; van der Valk, 1981; Middleton and others, 1991; Klinger, 1996; Middleton, 1999).As an example of how disturbance changes wetlands, I have studied sedge meadows that have become invaded by shrubs after cattle (Bos sp.) have grazed them, in the Lodi Marsh State Natural Area, Wisconsin. Cattle disturbances allowed shrubs to invade sedge meadows, but the cattle also grazed on the shrubs, which kept them small. After the cows were removed, the plant species changed in the sedge meadow from the original sedges (fig. 1), to sedges mixed with growing small shrubs, and eventually to tall shrubs with very small amounts of sedge, called “shrub carr” (Middleton, 2002a). Even though there has been a succession of plant types, the meadows, which began as wetlands, have remained wetlands. The settlers originally found the sedge meadows to be open “sedge” lands and not shrubby. The settlers cut the sedges by hand to feed the cattle. Whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), though probably not bison (Bison bison), grazed these sedge meadows (Middleton 2002a).Subsequent studies have explored methods to control invasive shrubs to restore the biodiversity of

  12. The impact of grazing on forage quality of the herbaceous ...

    Reports on research conducted in the Mamoro cork oak forest of Morocco to describe the impacts of sheep grazing in March, April, May and June of 1987 and 1988 on seasonal changes in forage quality of the herbaceous vegetation. The study showed that trends in herbage quality were related mainly to plant maturity.

  13. Grazing animal husbandry based on sustainable nutrient management

    Hermans, C.; Vereijken, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Sustainable husbandry systems for grazing animals (cattle and sheep) can be achieved by sustainable nutrient management (SNM). This implies the tuning of inputs to outputs of nutrients, to achieve and maintain optimum ranges of agronomically wanted and ecologically acceptable reserves of single

  14. Production response of lambs receiving creep feed while grazing ...

    The aim of the study was to determine the production responses of lambs receiving either creep feed or not while grazing two different pastures. The production of ewes within each treatment was also recorded. The study was conducted at both the Kromme Rhee and Langgewens Research Farms. At Kromme Rhee, sheep ...

  15. Effect of creep-fed supplement on the susceptibility of pasture-grazed suckling lambs to gastrointestinal helminths.

    de Melo, Gleice Kelli Ayardes; Ítavo, Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira; Monteiro, Kedma Leonora Silva; da Silva, Jonilson Araújo; da Silva, Pâmila Carolini Gonçalves; Ítavo, Luís Carlos Vinhas; Borges, Dyego Gonçalves Lino; de Almeida Borges, Fernando

    2017-05-30

    This study evaluated the effect of creep feeding a protein supplement on the susceptibility of suckling lambs to infection with gastrointestinal helminths. Male and female lambs were grazed on Brachiaria spp. pastures next to their mothers. Animals were allocated to one of two treatments: creep feeding (261g/d) and control (no supplementation). The trial period was the suckling of lambs during two years of study: May-October 2013 and March-July 2014. Supplementary creep feeding of lambs improved animal performance (PCreep-fed lambs reached 18kg body weight in 64 d, but unsupplemented lambs required 77 d to reach the same weight. Lambs were susceptible to helminth infection during lactation; lambs in both treatments had high fecal egg counts (FECs), with means >1000 eggs per gram, as early as 45days of age, when the daily grazing time per animal increased. Creep feeding reduced the FECs of suckling lambs >60days of age in infections dominated by Haemonchus contortus. Totals of 20 and 48 anthelmintic treatments were administered to the supplemented and unsupplemented animals, respectively. The effect of this variable, however, was significant (P0.05) between the two treatments, indicating similar challenges by infective larvae to both groups. The supplementation of lambs by creep feeding can thus be a strategy for the sustainable control of helminth infection, because it reduces the dependence on anthelmintic treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effects of nitrogen fertilization and grazing on the emission of nitrous oxide from grassland

    Velthof, G.L.; Brader, A.B.; Oenema, O. [NMI, Dept. of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    In the Netherlands, managed grasslands are potentially a large source of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), because of the large nitrogen (N) input and the relatively high ground water levels. To provide insight into the major factors that contribute to N{sub 2}O emission from grassland and to provide quantitative N{sub 2}O emission rates, a monitoring study was carried out on four sites, during March 1992 to March 1994. Fluxes of N{sub 2}O increased after N fertilizer application and grazing, especially during wet conditions. Fluxes were higher from peat soils than from sand and clay soils. Fluxes were low during the winter periods. Total N{sub 2}O losses were 2 to 4.5 times higher on grassland fertilized with 160-460 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} than on unfertilized grassland. Losses from grazed grasslands were 1.5 to 3.5 times higher than losses from mown grassland. This study shows that management practice of grassland and soil type are major factors controlling N{sub 2}O emission from grasslands. 2 figs., 3 refs.

  17. How grazing affects soil quality of soils formed in the glaciated northeastern United States.

    Cox, Alissa H; Amador, José A

    2018-02-21

    Historically, much of the New England landscape was converted to pasture for grazing animals and harvesting hay. Both consumer demand for local sustainably produced food, and the number of small farms is increasing in RI, highlighting the importance of characterizing the effects livestock have on the quality of pasture soils. To assess how livestock affect pasture on Charlton and Canton soils series in RI, we examined soil quality in farms raising beef cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), and horses (Equus ferus caballus), using hayed pastures as a control. We sampled three pastures per livestock type and three control hayed pastures in May, August, and October 2012. Hay fields and pastures grazed by sheep had statistically significant (P soil quality than pastures grazed by beef cattle or horses. This was driven by parameters including penetration resistance, bulk density, aggregate stability, and infiltration rate. Hayfields also showed higher soil quality measures than grazed pastures for organic matter content and active C. In addition, significant differences in nitrate and phosphate concentrations were observed among livestock types. Respiration and infiltration rates, pH, and ammonium concentrations, on the other hand, did not differ significantly among pasture types. When all soil quality indicators in this study were weighed equally, soil quality scores followed the order: hay > sheep > beef cattle > horses. The results of our study provide baseline data on the effect different types of livestock have on pasture soil quality in RI, which may be useful in making sound land use and agricultural management decisions.

  18. Effect of delayed wrapping and wrapping source on nitrogen balance and blood urea nitrogen in gestating sheep offered alfalfa silage

    Exposing ensiled forage to oxygen can result in DM deterioration and reduce silage intake by animals. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 different wrapping sources and time intervals between baling and wrapping on N balance and blood urea N in gestating sheep offered alfalfa si...

  19. Reactions to ingroup and outgroup deviants: an experimental group paradigm for black sheep effect.

    Marika Rullo

    Full Text Available In the classic black sheep effect (BSE an ingroup deviant member is usually evaluated more negatively than the corresponding outgroup deviant. This effect is usually obtained by using scenarios and asking people to imagine the situation as vividly as possible. The present study proposes a new method to investigate the BSE by considering the behavioral and physiological reactions to unfair behavior (aggressive game behavior in a realistic experimental group-setting. The study involved 52 university students in a minimal group setting who performed a modified version of the competitive reaction time (CRT task adapted to be played in groups of four people. The classic BSE was replicated for evaluation but not for the behavioral reactions (retaliate to aggression to deviants. More interestingly, a negative relationship emerged in the ingroup deviant condition between the level of behavioral derogation and the systolic blood pressure level.

  20. Effect of corn dry distiller grains plus solubles supplementation level on performance and digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during forage growing season.

    Martínez-Pérez, M F; Calderón-Mendoza, D; Islas, A; Encinias, A M; Loya-Olguín, F; Soto-Navarro, S A

    2013-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of corn dry distiller grains plus condensed solubles (DDGS) supplementation level on performance digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during the forage growing season. In the performance study, 72 (206 ± 23.6 kg; 2008) and 60 (230 ± 11.3 kg; 2009) English crossbred steer calves were used in a randomized complete block design replicated over 2 yr. The grazing periods lasted 56 and 58 d and started on August 11 and 18 for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Each year, steers were blocked by BW (light, medium, and heavy), stratified by BW within blocks, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 grazing groups. Each grazing group (6 steers in 2008 and 5 in 2009) was assigned to a DDGS supplementation levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW). Grazing group served as the experimental unit with 12 groups per year receiving 1 of 4 treatments for 2 yr (n = 6). In the metabolism study, 16 English crossbred steers (360 ± 28.9 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulas grazing native range during the summer growing season were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate treatment effects on forage intake and digestion. The experiment was conducted during the first and second weeks of October 2008. Steers were randomly assigned to supplement level (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW; n = 4) and grazed a single native range pasture with supplements offered individually once daily at 0700 h. In the performance study, ADG (0.64, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.86 ± 0.03 kg/d for 0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW, respectively) increased linearly (P = 0.01) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. In the metabolism study, forage OM, NDF, CP, and ether extract (EE) intake decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Total CP and EE intake increased (P ≤ 0.002) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Digestibility of OM, NDF, and EE increased (linear; P ≤ 0.008) whereas the soluble CP fraction of forage masticate sample

  1. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid......, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. Objective: To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. Design: In a double......-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed...

  2. Soil compaction related to grazing and its effects on herbaceous roots frequency and soil organic matter content in rangelands of SW Spain

    Pulido, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Miralles Mellado, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Rangelands in SW Spain occupy a total surface area of approximately 6 million ha and constitute the most representative extensive ranching system of the Iberian Peninsula gathering more than 13 million livestock heads. They are characterised by an herbaceous layer, mostly composed of therophytic species, with a disperse tree cover, mainly holm oak and cork oak (Quercus ilex rotundifolia and Q. suber), interspersed with shrubs in many places. This type of land system is of ancient origin and experienced frequent changes in land use in the past, since agricultural, livestock and forestry activities have coexisted within the same farms. In recent decades, livestock farming has become dominant due, in part, to the subsidies of the Common Agriculture Policy. Since Spain joined the European Union in 1986 until the year 2000, the number of domestic animals doubled, particularly cattle, and consequently animal stocking rates have increased on average from 0.40 AU ha-1 up to 0.70 AU ha-1. This increase in animal stocking rates, along with a progressive substitution of cattle instead of sheep in many farms, has led to the occurrence of land degradation processes such as the reduction of grass cover or soil compaction in heavily grazed areas. Previous research has evidenced higher values of soil bulk density and resistance to penetration as well as larger bare surface areas in spring in fenced areas with animal stocking rates above 1 AU ha-1. However, a better understanding of how increasing bulk density or resistance to penetration influence the frequency of herbaceous roots and how a reduction in the frequency of roots affects soil organic matter content in rangelands is still unknown. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine possible relationships between the frequencies of herbaceous roots and soil organic matter content in order to understand the effect of excessive animal numbers on the depletion of soil fertility by reducing progressively the quantity of

  3. Estimation of Inbreeding Coefficient and Its Effects on Lamb Survival in Sheep

    mohammad almasi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The mating of related individuals produces an inbred offspring and leads to an increased homozygosity in the progeny, genetic variance decrease within families and increase between families. The ration of homozygosity for individuals was calculated by inbreeding coefficient. Inbred individuals may carry two alleles at a locus that are replicated from one gene in the previous generations, called identical by descent. The inbreeding coefficient should be monitored in a breeding program, since it plays an important role at decreasing of homeostasis, performance, reproduction and viability. The trend of inbreeding is an indicator for determining of inbreeding level in the herd. Inbreeding affects both phenotypic means of traits and genetic variances within population, thus it is an important factor for delimitations of genetic progress in a population. Reports showed an inbreeding increase led to decrease of phenotypic value in some of the productive and reproductive traits. Materials and Methods In the current study, the pedigree data of 14030 and 6215 records of Baluchi and Iranblack lambs that collected from 1984 to 2011 at the Abbasabad Sheep Breeding Station in Mashhad, Iran, 3588 records of Makoei lambs that collected from 1994 to 2011 at the Makoei sheep breeding station and 6140, records of Zandi lambs that collected from 1991 to 2011 at the Khejir Sheep Breeding Station in Tehran, Iran were used to estimating the inbreeding coefficient and its effects on lamb survival in these breeds. Lamb survival trait was scored as 1 and 0 for lamb surviving and not surviving at weaning weight, respectively. Inbreeding coefficient was estimated by relationship matrix algorithm (A=TDT' methodology using the CFC software program. Effects of inbreeding coefficient on lamb survival were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML method under 12 different animal models using ASReml 3.0 computer programme. Coefficient of inbreeding for each

  4. MINERAL COMPONENTS OF BLOOD SERUM AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF MILK AND CHEESE OF SHEEP

    Amina Hrković-Porobija

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Plan of research included two Pramenka sheep-breeding family farms producing Livno and Travnik cheese in the traditional ways. The experiment included 117 animals of the Pramenka strain. The serum concentrations of the minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were followed over time. Based on the physical-chemical analysis of the sheep milk, we evaluated the milk parameters (milk fat, protein and lactose and cheese parameters (dry matter, moisture, grease and pH that can be indicative of the cheese milk quality. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the serum minerals to the sheep milk quality, and the Livno and Travnik cheese quality, being the final products. Blood, milk and cheese samples were taken in the summer during the summer grazing of sheep. The results were analyzed using the software package/Program SPSS 15.00. Differences were considered statistically significant at p <0.05. Influence of serum minerals on the quality of milk and cheese was determined by calculating the correlation factor.Analysis of mineral blood components and basic milkand cheese parameters showed variations, wich may be acceptable considering the influence of lactation, climate and botanic quality.Keywords: sheep, mineral components of serum, milk, cheese, correlation

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin

    Singh, B.P.; Dhar, D.N.

    1988-06-01

    In vitro and in vivo effects of varying levels of gamma irradiation on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin were studied. Radiation doses of 100 Gy onwards caused a decrease in the viability of protoscoleces in vitro. However, infectivity of protoscoleces was not affected at radiation doses of 300 Gy in golden hamsters and 200 Gy in mice although number and size of cysts developing from infections with irradiated protoscoleces in these animals was small in comparison to cysts developing from infections with normal protoscoleces. Four hundred E. granulosus protoscoleces, normal or 100 Gy irradiated, proved fatal for mice. A significant progressive decline in worm establishment was observed in pups given an infection of E. granulosus protoscoleces exposed to increasing levels of gamma irradiation from 100 to 600 Gy. No worms established in pups infected with protoscoleces irradiated at 400 and 600 Gy, respectively. Worms developing from irradiated infections in pups were stunted and showed developmental abnormalities.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin

    Singh, B.P.; Dhar, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo effects of varying levels of gamma irradiation on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin were studied. Radiation doses of 100 Gy onwards caused a decrease in the viability of protoscoleces in vitro. However, infectivity of protoscoleces was not affected at radiation doses of 300 Gy in golden hamsters and 200 Gy in mice although number and size of cysts developing from infections with irradiated protoscoleces in these animals was small in comparison to cysts developing from infections with normal protoscoleces. Four hundred E. granulosus protoscoleces, normal or 100 Gy irradiated, proved fatal for mice. A significant progressive decline in worm establishment was observed in pups given an infection of E. granulosus protoscoleces exposed to increasing levels of gamma irradiation from 100 to 600 Gy. No worms established in pups infected with protoscoleces irradiated at 400 and 600 Gy, respectively. Worms developing from irradiated infections in pups were stunted and showed developmental abnormalities. (author)

  7. Efficacy of copper oxide wire particles against gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats.

    Soli, F; Terrill, T H; Shaik, S A; Getz, W R; Miller, J E; Vanguru, M; Burke, J M

    2010-02-26

    Profitable sheep and goat production in the USA is severely limited by gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism, particularly by Haemonchus contortus. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) have anti-parasitic properties in the diet of small ruminants, but efficacy of COWP may differ between sheep and goats. In a study with weaned kids (Kiko x Spanish cross, 6 months old) and lambs (Katahdin or Dorper x Blackface crosses, 5 months old), grazing the same pasture area in Central Georgia, 2g of COWP in a gel capsule was given to half the animals of each species, while the other half were given no COWP. Fecal and blood samples were taken weekly to determine GIN fecal egg counts (FEC) and blood packed cell volume (PCV). After COWP treatment, animals were grazed for 4 weeks and then slaughtered, with adult GIN recovered from the abomasum and small intestines for counting and identification to species. For both sheep and goats, COWP treatment reduced EPG (P<0.05), increased PCV (P<0.05), and lowered abomasal GIN numbers (P<0.05). For EPG, these differences were 82.5 and 90.5% for sheep and goats, respectively, 26 days after treatment, while adult H. contortus were 67.2 and 85.8% lower for COWP-treated sheep and goats, respectively. In this study, COWP treatment was equally effective against H. contortus infection in lambs and kids and appears to be an effective method of controlling H. contortus infection for up to 6 weeks in small ruminants following weaning.

  8. Acute effects of thoracic irradiation on lung function and structure in awake sheep

    Loyd, J.E.; Bolds, J.M.; Sheller, J.R.; Duke, S.S.; Gillette, A.W.; Malcolm, A.W.; Meyrick, B.O.; Brigham, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the acute physiological and structural changes after lung irradiation, the effects of whole-lung irradiation were investigated in fourteen sheep. Ten sheep were prepared with vascular and chronic lung lymph catheters, then a week later were given 1,500 rad whole-lung radiation and monitored for 2 days. Four sheep were given the same dose of radiation and were killed 4 h later for structural studies. Lung lymph flow increased at 3 h after radiation (14.6 +/- 2.1 ml/h) to twice the base-line flow rate (7.5 +/- 1.3), with a high lymph-to-plasma protein concentration. Pulmonary arterial pressure increased twofold from base line (18 +/- 1.6 cmH2O) at 2 h after radiation (33 +/- 3.8). Cardiac output and systemic pressure in the aorta did not change after lung radiation. Arterial O 2 tension decreased from 85 +/- 3 to 59 +/- 4 Torr at 1 day after radiation. Lymphocyte counts in both blood and lung lymph decreased to a nadir by 4 h and remained low. Thromboxane B2 concentration in lung lymph increased from base line (0.07 +/- 0.03 ng/ml) to peak at 3 h after radiation (8.2 +/- 3.7 ng/ml). The structural studies showed numerous damaged lymphocytes in the peripheral lung and bronchial associated lymphoid tissue. Quantitative analysis of the number of granulocytes in peripheral lung showed no significant change (base line 6.2 +/- 0.8 granulocytes/100 alveoli, 4 h = 10.3 +/- 2.3). The most striking change involved lung airways. The epithelial lining of the majority of airways from intrapulmonary bronchus to respiratory bronchiolus revealed damage with the appearance of intracellular and intercellular cell fragments and granules. This new large animal model of acute radiation lung injury can be used to monitor physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes after lung radiation. It is relevant to the investigation of diffuse oxidant lung injury as well as to radiobiology per se

  9. The effect of phosphorus level in the sheep diet on the element uptake by the erythrocytes

    Silva Filho, J.C. da; Vitti, D.M.S.S.

    1995-01-01

    A trial with sheep was carried out to investigate the effect of the level of phosphorus in the diet on the 32 P uptake by the red blood cells. Twenty four male sheep were kept in individual cages, during two periods of 45 days each. In the first one the animals received a basal diet without phosphorus supplementation. In the second period the animals were divided in four groups and different amounts of bone meal were offered to supply 1,2 and 3 gP/head/day. The control group received only the basal diet. An in vitro technique was used to incubate total blood and 32 P solution as Na HP O 4 . After 3 hours incubation, the red blood cells were washed thrice with an isotonic saline solution. The solid material was transferred to crucibles, dried at 100 0 C and reduced to ash 500 0 C. Diggestion with 6N H 2 SO 4 solution was followed and radioactivity was detected by Cherenkov effect. The average 32 P uptake were: 6.04± 0.40 and 6.56 ±- 1.94, 6.18± 0.36 and 5.53 ± 1.06, 5.84 ± 0.48 and 6.31 ± 1.32, 6.0 ± 0.80 and 6.03 ± 1.50 at the first and second periods in treatments 0, 1, 2 and 3gP/head/day, respectively. There was no differences between treatments. (author). 22 refs, 1 tab

  10. Sheep model for osteoporosis: The effects of peripheral hormone therapy on centrally induced systemic bone loss in an osteoporotic sheep model.

    Oheim, Ralf; Simon, Maciej J K; Steiner, Malte; Vettorazzi, Eik; Barvencik, Florian; Ignatius, Anita; Amling, Michael; Clarke, Iain J; Pogoda, Pia; Beil, F Timo

    2017-04-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary disconnection (HPD) leads to low bone turnover followed by bone loss and reduced biomechanical properties in sheep. To investigate the role of peripheral hormones in this centrally induced systemic bone loss model, we planned a hormone replacement experiment. Therefore, estrogen (OHE), thyroxin (OHT) or a combination of both (OHTE) was substituted in ovariectomized HPD sheep, as both hormones are decreased in HPD sheep and are known to have a significant but yet not fully understood impact on bone metabolism. Bone turnover and structural parameters were analyzed in comparison to different control groups - untreated sheep (C), ovariectomized (O) and ovariectomized+HPD sheep (OH). We performed histomorphometric and HR-pQCT analyses nine months after the HPD procedure, as well as biomechanical testing of all ewes studied. In HPD sheep (OH) the low bone turnover led to a significant bone loss. Treatment with thyroxin alone (OHT) mainly increased bone resorption, leading to a further reduction in bone volume. In contrast, the treatment with estrogen alone (OHE) and the combined treatment with estrogen and thyroxin (OHTE) prevented HPD-induced bone loss completely. In conclusion, peripheral hormone substitution was able to prevent HPD-induced low-turnover osteoporosis in sheep. But only the treatment with estrogen alone or in combination with thyroxin was able to completely preserve bone mass and structure. These findings demonstrate the importance of peripheral hormones for a balanced bone remodeling and a physiological bone turnover. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EFFECTS OF FERTILIZER TYPE (CHICKEN LITTER VS. INORGANIC FERTILIZER) AND CATTLE GRAZING ON THE SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY

    Pasture plots included unharvested, hayed, light and heavy cattle grazing pressure, fertilized with either inorganic N-P-K or broiler litter. Total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) followed a seasonal trend and were higher in grazed plots than hayed & unharvested plots. Fungi a...

  12. Do changes in grazing pressure and the degree of shrub encroachment alter the effects of individual shrubs on understorey plant communities and soil function?

    Soliveres, Santiago; Eldridge, David J

    2014-04-01

    Shrub canopies in semi-arid environments often produce positive effects on soil fertility, and on the richness and biomass of understorey plant communities. However, both positive and negative effects of shrub encroachment on plant and soil attributes have been reported at the landscape-level. The contrasting results between patch- and landscape-level effects in shrublands could be caused by differences in the degree of shrub encroachment or grazing pressure, both of which are likely to reduce the ability of individual shrubs to ameliorate their understorey environment.We examined how grazing and shrub encroachment (measured as landscape-level shrub cover) influence patch-level effects of shrubs on plant density, biomass and similarity in species composition between shrub understories and open areas, and on soil stability, nutrient cycling, and infiltration in two semi-arid Australian woodlands.Individual shrubs had consistently positive effects on all plant and soil variables (average increase of 23% for all variables). These positive patch-level effects persisted with increasing shrub cover up to our maximum of 50% cover. Heavy grazing negatively affected most of the variables studied (average decline of 11%). It also altered, for some variables, how individual shrubs affected their sub-canopy environment with increasing shrub cover. Thus for species density, biomass and soil infiltration, the positive effect of individual shrubs with increasing shrub cover diminished under heavy grazing. Our study refines predictions of the effects of woody encroachment on ecosystem structure and functioning by showing that heavy grazing, rather than differences in shrub cover, explains the contrasting effects on ecosystem structure and function between individual shrubs and those in dense aggregations. We also discuss how species-specific traits of the encroaching species, such as their height or its ability to fix N, might influence the relationship between their patch

  13. A preliminary report on the effects of paclitaxel-impregnated stents on sheep nasal mucosa.

    Herrmann, Brian W; Citardi, Martin J; Vogler, George; Gardner, Laura; Smith, Greg; Javer, Amin R; Burt, Helen M; Jackson, John; Kuhn, Frederick A

    2004-01-01

    Traditional frontal sinus stents serve only as mechanical devices. It has been proposed that stents also may serve as drug-delivery systems for the topical application of drugs that minimize postoperative scarring. Paclitaxel (Taxol), which has recognized antiscarring effects, may be incorporated via a polymeric formulation into standard rubber stents. The impact of topically applied paclitaxel on the morphology of the nasal mucosa is unknown. An adult sheep model was used for this study. A modified rubber T-tube stent (incorporating paclitaxel at varying dosages) was secured to each side of the septum in four animals (eight sides). An unmodified T-tube was placed on each side of one animal, a T-tube with the drug carrier (but no paclitaxel) was placed on each side of the second animal, and T-tubes with varying paclitaxel were placed on each side of the final two animals. After 4 weeks, animals were killed and the nasal mucosa was harvested. The nasal mucosa was sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. A pathologist then assessed the nasal mucosa for vascular congestion, glandular atrophy, chronic inflammation, mucosal metaplasia, and mucosal ulceration. No consistent histopathological differences were noted in the specimens. All specimens showed varying degrees of vascular congestion, glandular atrophy, chronic inflammation, and mucosal metaplasia; the paclitaxel-impregnated stents were not consistently associated with more severe mucosal injury. Finally, mucosal ulceration was noted to be very rare in all specimens. This preliminary report describes the impact of paclitaxel-impregnated stents on sheep nasal mucosa, which tolerated these stents very well. Because paclitaxel minimizes scarring reactions at very low concentrations, paclitaxel-impregnated stents may prove useful in clinical situations in which frontal sinus stenting is deemed necessary. Additional investigations with animal models, as well as clinical trials, may be warranted.

  14. Effect of bioaugmentation by cellulolytic bacteria enriched from sheep rumen on methane production from wheat straw.

    Ozbayram, E Gozde; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of bioaugmentation with cellulolytic rumen microbiota to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. An anaerobic cellulolytic culture was enriched from sheep rumen fluid using wheat straw as substrate under mesophilic conditions. To investigate the effects of bioaugmentation on methane production from straw, the enrichment culture was added to batch reactors in proportions of 2% (Set-1) and 4% (Set-2) of the microbial cell number of the standard inoculum slurry. The methane production in the bioaugmented reactors was higher than in the control reactors. After 30 days of batch incubation, the average methane yield was 154 mL N CH 4 g VS -1 in the control reactors. Addition of 2% enrichment culture did not enhance methane production, whereas in Set-2 the methane yield was increased by 27%. The bacterial communities were examined by 454 amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, while terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of mcrA genes was applied to analyze the methanogenic communities. The results highlighted that relative abundances of Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae increased during the enrichment. However, Cloacamonaceae, which were abundant in the standard inoculum, dominated the bacterial communities of all batch reactors. T-RFLP profiles revealed that Methanobacteriales were predominant in the rumen fluid, whereas the enrichment culture was dominated by Methanosarcinales. In the batch rectors, the most abundant methanogens were affiliated to Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales. Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with sheep rumen enrichment cultures can enhance the performance of digesters treating lignocellulosic feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of vertebral number variations on carcass traits and genotyping of Vertnin candidate gene in Kazakh sheep

    Zhifeng Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The vertebral number is associated with body length and carcass traits, which represents an economically important trait in farm animals. The variation of vertebral number has been observed in a few mammalian species. However, the variation of vertebral number and quantitative trait loci in sheep breeds have not been well addressed. Methods In our investigation, the information including gender, age, carcass weight, carcass length and the number of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 624 China Kazakh sheep was collected. The effect of vertebral number variation on carcass weight and carcass length was estimated by general linear model. Further, the polymorphic sites of Vertnin (VRTN gene were identified by sequencing, and the association of the genotype and vertebral number variation was analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance model. Results The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number in Kazakh sheep (18 to 20 was smaller than that in Texel sheep (17 to 21. The individuals with 19 thoracolumbar vertebrae (T13L6 were dominant in Kazakh sheep (79.2%. The association study showed that the numbers of thoracolumbar vertebrae were positively correlated with the carcass length and carcass weight, statistically significant with carcass length. To investigate the association of thoracolumbar vertebrae number with VRTN gene, we genotyped the VRTN gene. A total of 9 polymorphic sites were detected and only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (rs426367238 was suggested to associate with thoracic vertebral number statistically. Conclusion The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number positively associated with the carcass length and carcass weight, especially with the carcass length. VRTN gene polymorphism of the SNP (rs426367238 with significant effect on thoracic vertebral number could be as a candidate marker to further evaluate its role in influence of thoracolumbar vertebral number.

  16. Effects of vertebral number variations on carcass traits and genotyping of Vertnin candidate gene in Kazakh sheep.

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Yawei; Du, Wei; He, Sangang; Liu, Mingjun; Tian, Changyan

    2017-09-01

    The vertebral number is associated with body length and carcass traits, which represents an economically important trait in farm animals. The variation of vertebral number has been observed in a few mammalian species. However, the variation of vertebral number and quantitative trait loci in sheep breeds have not been well addressed. In our investigation, the information including gender, age, carcass weight, carcass length and the number of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 624 China Kazakh sheep was collected. The effect of vertebral number variation on carcass weight and carcass length was estimated by general linear model. Further, the polymorphic sites of Vertnin ( VRTN ) gene were identified by sequencing, and the association of the genotype and vertebral number variation was analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance model. The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number in Kazakh sheep (18 to 20) was smaller than that in Texel sheep (17 to 21). The individuals with 19 thoracolumbar vertebrae (T13L6) were dominant in Kazakh sheep (79.2%). The association study showed that the numbers of thoracolumbar vertebrae were positively correlated with the carcass length and carcass weight, statistically significant with carcass length. To investigate the association of thoracolumbar vertebrae number with VRTN gene, we genotyped the VRTN gene. A total of 9 polymorphic sites were detected and only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs426367238) was suggested to associate with thoracic vertebral number statistically. The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number positively associated with the carcass length and carcass weight, especially with the carcass length. VRTN gene polymorphism of the SNP (rs426367238) with significant effect on thoracic vertebral number could be as a candidate marker to further evaluate its role in influence of thoracolumbar vertebral number.

  17. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J; Carriquiry, Miguel; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F; Dong, Fengxia; Du Xiaodong; Martin, Pamela A; Mulik, Kranti

    2012-01-01

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO 2 -equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

  18. Herbage intake and milk yield in Comisana ewes as effect of 4 vs 7 h of grazing during late lactation.

    Valenti, Bernardo; Marletta, Donata; De Angelis, Anna; Di Paola, Fortunato; Bordonaro, Salvatore; Avondo, Marcella

    2017-06-01

    Thirty-two Comisana ewes at late lactation were used in two trials carried out during late spring in 2 consecutive years, with the aim to evaluate the effect of the duration of grazing on herbage intake and performance. In each trial, 16 pluriparous Comisana lactating ewes were equally divided into two groups which grazed in two separate areas of natural pasture from 11:00 to 15:00 h (group 4H) or from 10:00 to 17:00 (group 7H). A concentrate mixture (500 g/day) was also offered to each ewe. The mean maximum temperature was, respectively, 23.5 ± 3.8 °C during experiment 1 and 27.0 ± 3.1 °C during experiment 2. Probably as a consequence of the differences in climatic conditions, the results on herbage intake and milk production were different during the two trials. Herbage dry matter intake was not affected by the duration of grazing during trial 1, whereas it was significantly lower in 4H group compared to that in 7H group (0.67 vs 1.02 kg/day; P ewes were able to reach good intake levels despite grazing during the hottest hours; with higher temperatures throughout the trial (trial 2), the 4H ewes reduced ingestion. Milk production was higher in 4H group during trial 1 (778 vs 707 g/day; P = 0.006), whereas it was not affected by the number of hours of grazing during trial 2, despite the higher intake levels reached by the 7H group. In conclusion, 3 extra hours of grazing for ewes at late lactation on a low quality pasture could be nullified in terms of yield response.

  19. Effect of feeding urea-molasses blocks with incorporated fenbendazole on grazing dairy heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    R.M. Waruiru

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Between June 1999 and August 2000, the effects of feeding medicated urea-molasses supplement blocks on the growth of dairy heifers in a marginal area of central Kenya were assessed by comparing the live-weight gain of supplemented and unsupplemented heifers grazing the same pasture. Thirty-nine heifers with an average age of 9.6 months were initially treated orally with albendazole (10 mg / kg body weight and assigned to 3 groups : group I was fed urea-molasses blocks with incorporated fenbendazole (MUMB, group II was fed urea-molasses blocks (UMB and group III heifers (control received no block supplementation (NBS. Body weights of the heifers and faecal egg counts (FECs were measured monthly and larval cultures were made of positive faecal samples of each group. The mean cumulative live-weight responses of the MUMB and UMB groups were significantly greater than the NBS group (P 0.05. The FECs were moderate to low in all groups and decreased progressively with increasing age of the animals; FECs for the urea-molasses-supplemented groups remained significantly lower than those of the NBS group throughout the experimental period (P <0.05. Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus were the predominant nematode genera found in the heifers, but Cooperia, Bunostomum and Oesophagostomum were also present. These results indicate that feeding of urea-molasses blocks substantially reduced production losses attributable to nematode infection of young grazing cattle, and confirms previous observations that well-fed animals are better able to overcome the effects of helminth infections.

  20. Effect of strategies regarding concentrate supplementation and day-time grazing on N utilization at both field and dairy cow level

    Lund, Peter; Søegaard, Karen; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2008-01-01

    N utilization at cow and field level was examined over two grazing periods of 30 days with 64 Holstein dairy cows. At cow and field level the effect of sward type (diploid vs. tetraploid perennial ryegrass, both mixed with white clover) and compressed sward height (6 vs. 10 cm) was examined....

  1. Effect of daily movement of dairy cattle to fresh grass in morning or afternoon on intake, grazing behaviour, rumen fermentation and milk production

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty Holstein cows were split into two equal groups to test the effect of daily move to a previously ungrazed strip after morning milking (MA) or afternoon milking (AA) on herbage intake, grazing behaviour, rumen characteristics and milk production using a randomized block design with three

  2. Efeito do sistema de manejo sobre o comportamento em pastejo, desempenho ponderal e infestação parasitária em ovinos Suffolk Effect of a management system on grazing behaviour, ponderal growth and parasitic infestation of Suffolk ewes

    Eduardo Antonio da Cunha

    1997-07-01

    the pastures at 9:50 a.m. and confined at 5:30 p.m., and 24 hour grazing, where the animals were maintained all the time in the paddocks, but with access to shelters. Thirty-four adult ewes were used in the summer period (17 under restricted grazing and 17 full-time grazing, and 42 ewes in the winter period (21 with restricted grazing and 21 full-time grazing. Also, for both seasons, 12 tracer animals, six in each grazing system, were used to obtain worm counts from their digestive tracts. For three consecutive days, grazing behaviour, that is, whether grazing or not, was observed in January/February (summer and July/August (winter at 30 minute intervals from 7:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., also whether the animals stayed in the sun or shade, irrespective of whether they were grazing or not. The level of parasitic infestation was evaluated under each system by eggs per gram countings (EPG of the herd and the tracer animals, as well as by larvae count. It was concluded that restriction of grazing time by itself does not provide any effective control of parasitic infestation in sheep, however a better control was obtained in the summer period. Restricted grazing time was compensated by the greater activity of the animals during the hotter hours of the day, however, this behaviour affected the animal performance, resulting in lower weight gains. Greater forage availability in relation to estimated consumption may explain the similarity between the grazing times observed in both management systems, either in the summer or in the winter.

  3. Effect of livestock grazing in the partitions of a semiarid plant-plant spatial signed network

    Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L.

    2014-08-01

    In recent times, network theory has become a useful tool to study the structure of the interactions in ecological communities. However, typically, these approaches focus on a particular kind of interaction while neglecting other possible interactions present in the ecosystem. Here, we present an ecological network for plant communities that consider simultaneously positive and negative interactions, which were derived from the spatial association and segregation between plant species. We employed this network to study the structure and the association strategies in a semiarid plant community of Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park, SE Spain, and how they changed in 4 sites that differed in stocking rate. Association strategies were obtained from the partitions of the network, built based on a relaxed structural balance criterion. We found that grazing simplified the structure of the plant community. With increasing stocking rate species with no significant associations became dominant and the number of partitions decreased in the plant community. Independently of stocking rate, many species presented an associative strategy in the plant community because they benefit from the association to certain ‘nurse’ plants. These ‘nurses’ together with species that developed a segregating strategy, intervened in most of the interactions in the community. Ecological networks that combine links with different signs provide a new insight to analyze the structure of natural communities and identify the species which play a central role in them.

  4. Effect of tropical browse leaves supplementation on rumen enzymes of sheep and goats fed Dichanthium annulatum grass-based diets.

    Singh, Sultan; Kundu, S S

    2010-08-01

    In a switch-over experiment, eight male animals, four each of sheep and goats of local breeds with mean body weight of 26. 8 +/- 2.0 and 30.0 +/- 2.1 kg, were fed Dichanthium annulatum (DA) grass and four browse species viz. Helictris isora, Securengia virosa, Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and Hardwickia binnata (HB) in four feeding trials to assess their supplementary effect on activity of rumen enzymes. The sheep and goats were offered DA grass with individual browse in 75:25 and 50:50 proportions, respectively, for more than 3 months during each feeding trial, and rumen liquor samples were collected twice at 0 and 4 h post feeding after 60 and 90 days of feeding. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymes were determined in the bacteria and protozoa fractions of rumen liquor, while cellulase enzyme activity was measured in mixed rumen liquor. LL and HB had the highest and lowest contents of CP, while fibre contents were lower in early than later browse leaves. Supplementation of browse leaves significantly (P goats on all DA grass-browse-supplemented diets except DA-HB (42.8 units/mg protein), where activity was significantly (P Goat exhibited higher activities of GOT and GPT than sheep in both bacteria and protozoa fraction of rumen liquor, while cellulase activity was similar between the animal species on the grass-browse leaves diets. Results indicate that browse leaves supplementation affect the enzyme activities of sheep and goats rumen, while the goats rumen liquor had higher activities of GOT, GPT and GDH enzyme than sheep.

  5. The effect of intraosseous injection of calcium sulfate on microstructure and biomechanics of osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae in sheep

    Da LIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of calcium sulfate (CS on improvement of microstructure and biomechanical performance of osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae in sheep. Methods Osteoporosis model was reproduced in 8 female sheep by bilateral ovariectomy and methylprednisolone administration. Then the lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4 in each sheep were randomly divided into CS group and blank group (2 vertebrae in each sheep. CS was injected into the vertebral bodies through the pedicle in CS group, and no treatment was given in blank group. All of the animals were sacrificed 3 months later, and vertebrae L1-L4 were harvested. The microstructure and biomechanical performance of vertebral bodies were assessed by micro-CT scanning, histological observation and biomechanical test. Results After ovariectomy and methylprednisolone administration, the mean bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebrae in the sheep was significantly decreased (>25% compared with that before induction (P<0.05, demonstrating a successful reproduction of osteoporosis model. Three months after injection, it was shown that CS was completely degraded without any remnant in the bone tissue. The quality of the bone tissue (trabecular number and tissue mineral density in CS group was significantly better than that in blank group (P<0.05, and the biomechanical performance in CS group was significantly superior to that in blank group (P<0.05. Conclusions  Local injection of CS could significantly improve the microstructure and biomechanical performance of osteoporotic vertebrae, and it may decrease the risk of fracture of patients with osteoporosis. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.09.02

  6. Feeding Aspergillus oryzae Fermentation Culture (AOFC to Growing Sheep: 1. The Effect of AOFC on Rumen Fermentation

    Darwinsyah Lubis

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Cultures of fungi, especially Aspergillus oryzae, have been of interest to animal nutritionists to increase feed efficiency. Many experiments have been done and showed positive results on rumen fermentation and productivity of ruminants. This paper reports the results of an in vivo study on feeding Aspergillus oryzae, fermentation culture (AOFC to growing sheep. ‘Onggok’ (tapioca processing waste was used as media for AO cultivation after being enriched with a mineral mixture. Commercial concentrate (GT-03 was fed to 15 growing sheep supplemented with 0% (C0, 5% (C1, and 10% (C2 AOFC (w/w. Chopped fresh King grass was used as a basal diet. The 3 treatments were randomly allotted to the sheep according to randomized block design with 5 replications. The study was carried out for 14 weeks. Digestion trial was conducted in the last 10 days of experiment. All feed and fecal samples were analyzed for nutrients. Rumen fluid was sampled at the mid experimental period. Analyses were done on rumen pH, ammonia content, (VFA volatile fatly acids concentration, and also total digestive tract digestibility of dry and organic matter, crude protein, and total fiber (NDF. Differences in treatment means were analyzed by Duncan’s MRT. Feeding AOFC resulted in increased (P<0.05 digestibility of crude protein from 59.6% in control sheep to 65.5% in sheep fed concentrate with 10% AOFC supplementation. The same pattern also occurred for NDF, but no effect was found on dry and organic matter. Higher fiber digestibility with AOFC supplementation was in line with an increase (P<0.05 in cellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen. VFA produced also increased (P<0.05, as well as individual acids content, primarily acetate and propionate. No differences (P<0.05 were detected in rumen pH and ammonia content. It appears that AOFC is more suitable for the purpose of meat production.

  7. Herbage intake of dairy cows in mixed sequential grazing with breeding ewes as followers.

    Jiménez-Rosales, Juan Daniel; Améndola-Massiotti, Ricardo Daniel; Burgueño-Ferreira, Juan Andrés; Ramírez-Valverde, Rodolfo; Topete-Pelayo, Pedro; Huerta-Bravo, Maximino

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that mixed sequential grazing of dairy cows and breeding ewes is beneficial. During the seasons of spring-summer 2013 and autumn-winter 2013-2014, 12 (spring-summer) and 16 (autumn-winter) Holstein Friesian cows and 24 gestating (spring-summer) and lactating (autumn-winter) Pelibuey ewes grazed on six (spring-summer) and nine (autumn-winter) paddocks of alfalfa and orchard grass mixed pastures. The treatments "single species cow grazing" (CowG) and "mixed sequential grazing with ewes as followers of cows" (MixG) were evaluated, under a completely randomized design with two replicates per paddock. Herbage mass on offer (HO) and residual herbage mass (RH) were estimated by cutting samples. The estimate of herbage intake (HI) of cows was based on the use of internal and external markers; the apparent HI of ewes was calculated as the difference between HO (RH of cows) and RH. Even though HO was higher in CowG, the HI of cows was higher in MixG during spring-summer and similar in both treatments during autumn-winter, implying that in MixG the effects on the cows HI of higher alfalfa proportion and herbage accumulation rate evolving from lower residual herbage mass in the previous cycle counteracted that of a higher HO in CowG. The HI of ewes was sufficient to enable satisfactory performance as breeding ewes. Thus, the benefits of mixed sequential grazing arose from higher herbage accumulation, positive changes in botanical composition, and the achievement of sheep production without negative effects on the herbage intake of cows.

  8. The effect of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor on water and electrolyte balance in water-restricted sheep

    R.A. Meintjies

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of angiotensin II in the regulation of water and electrolyte balance in sheep is questionable. In this trial the effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor were quantified in sheep on restricted water intake. Comparing the phase of water restriction only with that of water restriction plus ACE inhibition, significant increases were observed during the latter phase in urine volume, sodium and potassium excretion via the urine, sodium concentration in the plasma and osmolar clearance. Urine osmolarity decreased with inhibition of angiotensin II formation while variables such as water, sodium and potassium loss via the faeces were unaffected. Most of the renal effects of ACE inhibition, except the increase in urinary potassium excretion, were explicable in terms of the established functions of angiotensin II. Furthermore, results of this trial indicate that angiotensin II has no significant effect on the intestine in regulating water and electrolyte excretion via the faeces.

  9. Do Welsh hill farmers dream of radioactive sheep?

    Roberts, Gwyn; Williams, Aled; Last, D.

    1993-01-01

    A low-power portable device is being used successfully in North Wales to provide precise position-logging of sheep grazing on upland hill pastures following irradiation by fallout from the Chernobyl reactor. This follows the discovery that radiation levels appear to vary significantly among sheep from the same flock, suggesting hot-spots of radiation. The design and execution of the system is described. (UK)

  10. Grazing Effects on Water Use Efficiency on a Mongolian Desert Steppe

    Shao, C.; Chen, J.; Li, L.; John, R.; Ouyang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Ecosystem-level water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary production (GPP) to evapotranspiration (ET), was assessed by continuous and simultaneous direct eddy-covariance (EC) measurements of carbon and water fluxes on adjacent pastures of grazed (DS) and ungrazed steppes (FS) in the Mongolia Plateau for a two-year period from 2010 to 2012. We found that the WUE was well positively linear correlated (r2=0.90) with the GEP both in the DS and FS. Due to our desert steppe was very sensitive to the precipitation, WUE was co-varied with the precipitation. WUE increased with the GEP increase under good water conditions, when the GEP reached its maximal value (DS: 3 g C m-2, FS: 2 g C m-2), the WUE was suppressed and kept a stable value during the peak growing season. Both GEP and WUE was near zero when the soil moisture was lower. We also found that the WUE was negatively correlated with ET. The WUE was higher in GS than that in FS. The mean seasonal WUE was 0.93 in GS and 0.54 g C kg-1 H2O in FS, with a peak monthly WUE of 1.32 in GS and 0.73 g C kg-1 H2O in FS, respectively. The difference between GS and FS mainly caused by that the ET was changed with the GEP during the entire growing season. This suggests the importance of both plant population dynamics and water statues should be considered in WUE studies.

  11. Non-genetic factors influencing growth and fleece traits in Afrino sheep

    Since selection in Afrino sheep is partially based on body weights ... The offi- cial grazing capacity is 5.5 ha/small stock unit. Animals ..... Selection criteria for intensive market lamb poduction: Growth traits. J. Anim. 5ci.43,78-89. SCHOEMAN, S.i., 1990. Production parameters for Dohne Merino sheep under an accelerated ...

  12. Effects of grazing intensity and the use of veterinary medical products on dung beetle biodiversity in the sub-mountainous landscape of Central Italy

    Mattia Tonelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grazing extensification and intensification are among the main problems affecting European grasslands. We analyze the impact of grazing intensity (low and moderate and the use of veterinary medical products (VMPs on the dung beetle community in the province of Pesaro-Urbino (Italy. Grazing intensity is a key factor in explaining the diversity of dung beetles. In the case of the alpha diversity component, sites with a low level of grazing activity—related in a previous step to the subsequent abandonment of traditional farming—is characterized by a loss of species richness (q = 0 and a reduction in alpha diversity at the levels q = 1 and q = 2. In the case of beta diversity, sites with a different grazing intensity show remarkable differences in terms of the composition of their species assemblages. The use of VMPs is another important factor in explaining changes in dung beetle diversity. In sites with a traditional use of VMPs, a significant loss of species richness and biomass is observed, as is a notable effect on beta diversity. In addition, the absence of indicator species in sites with a historical use of VMPs corroborates the hypothesis that these substances have a ubiquitous effect on dung beetles. However, the interaction between grazing activity and VMPs when it comes to explaining changes in dung beetle diversity is less significant (or is not significant than the main effects (each factor separately for alpha diversity, biomass and species composition. This may be explained if we consider that both factors affect the various species differently. In other words, the reduction in dung availability affects several larger species more than it does very small species, although this does not imply that the former are more susceptible to injury caused by the ingestion of dung contaminated with VMPs. Finally, in order to prevent negative consequences for dung beetle diversity, we propose the maintenance of a moderate grazing intensity and

  13. EFFECT OF INBREEDING ON PRE-WEANING GROWTH TRAITS IN THALLI SHEEP

    A. HUSSAIN, P. AKHTAR, S. ALI, M. YOUNAS1 AND M. SHAFIQ2

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Pedigree records of 17250 Thalli sheep with 17030 lambings maintained at the Livestock Experiment Station, Rakh Ghulaman, Distt. Bhakkar, Pakistan during the period from 1975 to 2004 were utilized in the present study. Average values for birth weight, weights at 60 and 90 days of age, weaning weight and pre-weaning average daily gain were 4.11 ± 0.82, 11.58 ± 3.57, 14.92 ± 4.56, 18.95 ± 4.56 and 0.12 ± 0.04 kg, respectively. Coefficients of inbreeding ranged from 10.15 to 37.50 percent for 295 animals, being 1.70 percent of the flock. Inbreeding significantly (P<0.01 affected birth and 60 days weight. Birth weight and 60 days weight decreased by 0.051 and 0.048 kg for each 1 percent increase in the level of inbreeding. However, inbreeding had non significant effect on weight at 90 days of age, weaning weight and pre-weaning average daily gain. The regression values for these traits were 0.010, 0.083 and 0.105, respectively. It was concluded that inbreeding showed deleterious effects only in early stages of life but as the lambs grew older the effect of inbreeding on pre-weaning traits diminished.

  14. Efectos del pastoreo sobre el suelo y la vegetación en la Estepa Patagónica Grazing effects on soil and vegetation in the Patagonian Steppe

    Juan José Gaitán

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La ganadería ovina durante más de 100 años produjo grandes cambios en los ecosistemas y es una de las principales causas de la desertificación en la estepa patagónica. Este trabajo tiene por objetivo evaluar los efectos del pastoreo sobre el suelo y la vegetación mediante la aplicación de una versión modificada de la metodología «Landscape Function Analysis» desarrollada en Australia. El estudio se realizó en siete sitios con distintos niveles de degradación por pastoreo en Pilcaniyeu (noroeste de Río Negro: tres clausurados al pastoreo (CLA, tres bajo pastoreo moderado (PM y uno bajo pastoreo intenso (PI. Se evaluaron indicadores de la composición florística y estructura espacial de la vegetación, del estado de la superficie del suelo en los interparches, los cuales fueron integrados en tres Índices de Función (Estabilidad -EST-, Infiltración -INFy Reciclaje de nutrientes -NUT- y el stock de carbono orgánico (CO. Al incrementarse la intensidad de pastoreo se observó una disminución en la cobertura basal de la vegetación (47,4; 23,2 y 17,4% en CLA, PM y PI, respectivamente, parches vegetados más distanciados entre sí (61,9; 117,9 y 181,7 cm, menor cobertura de gramíneas palatables (26,3; 3,4 y 2,1% y mayor de no palatables (4,4; 15,8 y 17,6%. También se observó una tendencia a disminuir en los Índices de Función del suelo (EST: 43,0; 42,3 y 36,2; INF: 48,3; 41,7 y 36,2; NUT: 33,1; 23,5 y 18,1 y del CO (33,8; 26,5 y 7,9 t/ha al incrementarse la intensidad de pastoreo. Se requieren más estudios para adaptar esta metodología a las condiciones de Patagonia y testear con datos experimentales de que manera los índices reflejan adecuadamente los procesos y funciones de estos ecosistemas.More than 100 years of sheep breeding has caused profound changes to ecosystems and is one of the main causes of desertification in the Patagonian steppe. The aim of this study was to evaluate sheep grazing effects on soils and

  15. Metabolic and endocrine profiles and reproductive parameters in dairy cows under grazing conditions: effect of polymorphisms in somatotropic axis genes

    Pereira Isabel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study hypothesized that GH-AluI and IGF-I-SnabI polymorphisms do change the metabolic/endocrine profiles in Holstein cows during the transition period, which in turn are associated with productive and reproductive parameters. Methods Holstein cows (Farm 1, primiparous cows, n = 110, and Farm 2, multiparous cows, n = 76 under grazing conditions were selected and GH and IGF-I genotypes were determined. Blood samples for metabolic/endocrine determinations were taken during the transition period and early lactation in both farms. Data was analyzed by farm using a repeated measures analyses including GH and IGF-I genotypes, days and interactions as fixed effects, sire and cow as random effects and calving date as covariate. Results and Discussion Frequencies of GH and IGF-I alleles were L:0.84, V:0.16 and A:0.60, B:0.40, respectively. The GH genotype was not associated with productive or reproductive variables, but interaction with days affected FCM yield in multiparous (farm 2 cows (LL yielded more than LV cows in early lactation. The GH genotype affected NEFA and IGF-I concentrations in farm 1 (LV had higher NEFA and lower IGF-I than LL cows suggesting a better energy status of LL cows. There was no effect of IGF-I genotype on productive variables, but a trend was found for FCM in farm 2 (AB cows yielded more than AA cows. IGF-I genotype affected calving first service interval in farm 1, and the interaction with days tended to affect FCM yield (AB cows had a shorter interval and yielded more FCM than BB cows. IGF-I genotype affected BHB, NEFA, and insulin concentrations in farm 1: primiparous BB cows had lower NEFA and BHB and higher insulin concentrations. In farm 2, there was no effect of IGF-I genotype, but there was an interaction with days on IGF-I concentration, suggesting a greater uncoupling somatropic axis in AB and BB than AA cows, being in accordance with greater FCM yield in AB cows. Conclusion The GH and

  16. Metabolic and endocrine profiles and reproductive parameters in dairy cows under grazing conditions: effect of polymorphisms in somatotropic axis genes

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study hypothesized that GH-AluI and IGF-I-SnabI polymorphisms do change the metabolic/endocrine profiles in Holstein cows during the transition period, which in turn are associated with productive and reproductive parameters. Methods Holstein cows (Farm 1, primiparous cows, n = 110, and Farm 2, multiparous cows, n = 76) under grazing conditions were selected and GH and IGF-I genotypes were determined. Blood samples for metabolic/endocrine determinations were taken during the transition period and early lactation in both farms. Data was analyzed by farm using a repeated measures analyses including GH and IGF-I genotypes, days and interactions as fixed effects, sire and cow as random effects and calving date as covariate. Results and Discussion Frequencies of GH and IGF-I alleles were L:0.84, V:0.16 and A:0.60, B:0.40, respectively. The GH genotype was not associated with productive or reproductive variables, but interaction with days affected FCM yield in multiparous (farm 2) cows (LL yielded more than LV cows) in early lactation. The GH genotype affected NEFA and IGF-I concentrations in farm 1 (LV had higher NEFA and lower IGF-I than LL cows) suggesting a better energy status of LL cows. There was no effect of IGF-I genotype on productive variables, but a trend was found for FCM in farm 2 (AB cows yielded more than AA cows). IGF-I genotype affected calving first service interval in farm 1, and the interaction with days tended to affect FCM yield (AB cows had a shorter interval and yielded more FCM than BB cows). IGF-I genotype affected BHB, NEFA, and insulin concentrations in farm 1: primiparous BB cows had lower NEFA and BHB and higher insulin concentrations. In farm 2, there was no effect of IGF-I genotype, but there was an interaction with days on IGF-I concentration, suggesting a greater uncoupling somatropic axis in AB and BB than AA cows, being in accordance with greater FCM yield in AB cows. Conclusion The GH and IGF-I genotypes had no

  17. Comparison of inhibition effects of some benzoic acid derivatives on sheep heart carbonic anhydrase

    Kiliç, Deryanur; Yildiz, Melike; Şentürk, Murat; Erdoǧan, Orhan; Küfrevioǧlu, Ömer Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a family of metalloenzymes that requires Zn as a cofactor and catalyze the quick conversion of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. Inhibitors of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have medical usage of significant diseases such as glaucoma, epilepsy, gastroduodenal ulcers, acid-base disequilibria and neurological disorders. In the present study, inhibition of CA with some benzoic derivatives (1-6) were investigated. Sheep heart CA (shCA) enzyme was isolated by means of designed affinity chromatography gel (cellulose-benzyl-sulfanylamide) 42.45-fold in a yield of 44 % with 564.65 EU/mg. Purified shCA enzyme was used in vitro studies. In the studies, IC50 values were calculated for 3-aminobenzoic acid (1), 4-aminobenzoic acid (2), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), 2-benzoylbenzoic acid (4), 2,3-dimethoxybenzoic acid (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (6), showing the inhibition effects on the purified enzyme. Such molecules can be used as pioneer for discovery of novel effective CA inhibitors for medicinal chemistry applications.

  18. Microbial effect of steam vacuum pasteurisation implemented after slaughtering and dressing of sheep and lamb.

    Hassan, Ammar Ali; Skjerve, Eystein; Bergh, Claus; Nesbakken, Truls

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of steam vacuum pasteurisation on carcass contamination with focus on Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae and total plate count (TPC). Additionally, the effect of an additional tryptone soy agar (TSA) step for resuscitation of Enterobacteriaceae after steam vacuum pasteurisation was investigated. Steam vacuum pasteurisation was applied at a temperature of >82°C for a duration of 10s on sheep and lamb carcasses (n=120). Samples were taken immediately: i) after trimming just before the use of steam vacuum and ii) after use of steam vacuum. Nordic Committee on Food Analysis methods were used in microbial analyses. The differences in log reduction were found significant for all of the three microorganisms (psteam vacuum pasteurisation was higher in samples where TSA+violet red bile glucose agar (VRBGA) was used compared to samples where only VRBGA was used (pSteam vacuum pasteurisation was found efficient in reducing the total count, read as TPC, as well as the level of E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute behavioral effects of intrapleural OK-432 (Picibanil) administration in preterm fetal sheep.

    Cowie, Rosalind V; Stone, Peter R; Parry, Emma; Jensen, Ellen C; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    To develop a model to study the fetal effects of intrapleural infusion of OK-432 (Picibanil), a pleurodesis agent derived from killed Gram-positive streptococci. OK-432 (0.1 mg, n = 5), or normal saline (n = 5) were infused over 20 min into the pleural space of chronically instrumented preterm fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation. Fetal physiological parameters, including breathing and nuchal activity were monitored in utero from 6 h before infusion until 12 h afterward, and fetuses were killed after 7 days recovery. OK-432 was associated with transient suppression of fetal EEG activity, breathing and body movements from 3-6 h after infusion. Hypotension and hypoxia did not occur. At postmortem, local pleural adhesions were seen around the site of OK-432 infusion but not in saline treated fetuses. Intrapleural administration of OK-432 is associated with marked but transient fetal behavioral effects. This model will enable preclinical investigation of the neural and cardiovascular safety of OK-432 at a clinical relevant stage of development. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. MAC-sparing effect of nitrous oxide in sevoflurane anesthetized sheep and its reversal with systemic atipamezole administration

    Scanu, Antonio; Melosu, Valentino; Careddu, Giovanni Mario; Sotgiu, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an anesthetic gas with antinociceptive properties and reduces the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for volatile anesthetic agents, potentially through mechanisms involving central alpha2-adrenoceptors. We hypothesized that 70% N2O in the inspired gas will significantly reduce the MAC of sevoflurane (MACSEVO) in sheep, and that this effect can be reversed by systemic atipamezole. Materials and methods Animals were initially anesthetized with SEVO in oxygen (O2) and exposed to an electrical current as supramaximal noxious stimulus in order to determine MACSEVO (in duplicates). Thereafter, 70% N2O was added to the inspired gas and the MAC re-determined in the presence of N2O (MACSN). A subgroup of sheep were anesthetized a second time with SEVO/N2O for re-determination of MACSN, after which atipamezole (0.2 mg kg-1, IV) was administered for MACSNA determinations. Sheep were anesthetized a third time, initially with only SEVO/O2 to re-determine MACSEVO, after which atipamezole (0.2 mg kg-1, IV) was administered for determination of MACSA. Results MACSEVO was 2.7 (0.3)% [mean (standard deviation)]. Addition of N2O resulted in a 37% reduction of MACSEVO to MACSN of 1.7 (0.2)% (p <0.0001). Atipamezole reversed this effect, producing a MACSNA of 3.1 (0.7)%, which did not differ from MACSEVO (p = 0.12). MACSEVO did not differ from MACSA (p = 0.69). Cardiorespiratory variables were not different among experimental groups except a lower ETCO2 in animals exposed to SEVO/N2O. Conclusions N2O produces significant MACSEVO-reduction in sheep; this effect is completely reversed by IV atipamezole confirming the involvement of alpha2-adrenoreceptors in the MAC-sparing action of N2O. PMID:29315308

  1. Effect of Free Fatty Acids Supplementation on Digestibility, Nutritive Value and Rumen Fermentation in Local Sheep

    El-Foly, H.A.; Mohamed, A.K.; Mustafa, M.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Twelve mature local sheep, with a mean body weight of 49.2±3 kg were randomly distributed into three digestibility trail groups to evaluate the effects of inclusion some oils industry by-products, soft fatty acid (SFA) and hard fatty acid (HFA) on dry matter intake, digestibility coefficients, nutritive values, nitrogen and energy utilization and some rumen and blood parameters. The experimental diets were basal diet un-supplemented (control) or supplemented 3% SFA (T1) and 3% HFA (T2). The results showed that non-significant differences in total dry matter intake and water consumption among the tested diets were observed.The digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and nitrogen free extract (NFE) were significantly increased (P<0.05) by addition of SFA while digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) was significantly increased (P<0.05) by addition of HFA as compared with control. However, digestibility of crude fiber (CF) was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in T2 as compared with control and T1. Fatty acids supplementation significantly increased (P<0.05) the nutritive values such as TDN, SV and DCP as compared with control.The nitrogen utilization was significantly improved (P<0.05) by the addition of both additives. The values of total volatile fatty acid concentrations (TVFA) and pH values after feeding were significantly increased (P<0.05) with HFA supplementation as compared with the values of other groups. However, the rumina l ammonia-N concentrations after feeding significantly decreased (P<0.05) with fatty acids supplementation as compared with control. The results of digestible and metabolizable energy showed non-significant differences between the tested groups. Blood serum urea, albumen, cholesterol, triglycerides and phosphorus values were significantly increased (P<0.05) with HFA as compared with the values of other groups.The mean values of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST

  2. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season.

    Murillo, M; Herrera, E; Ruiz, O; Reyes, O; Carrete, F O; Gutierrez, H

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  3. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season

    M. Murillo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW] were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers, which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May. Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size. Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G, urea-nitrogen (UN and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05.The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05. In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW, and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI, apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, crude protein (ADCP and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05. The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP, NDF (kdNDF and passage rate (kp also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05. Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and propionate concentrations also increased with

  4. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season

    Murillo, M.; Herrera, E.; Ruiz, O.; Reyes, O.; Carrete, F. O.; Gutierrez, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  5. Vicinage effects in energy loss and electron emission during grazing scattering of heavy molecular ions from a solid surface

    Song Yuanhong; Wang Younian; Miskovic, Z.L.

    2005-01-01

    Vicinage effects in the energy loss and the electron emission spectra are studied in the presence of Coulomb explosion of swift, heavy molecular ions, during their grazing scattering from a solid surface. The dynamic response of the surface is treated by means of the dielectric theory within the specular reflection model using the plasmon pole approximation for the bulk dielectric function, whereas the angle-resolved energy spectra of the electrons emitted from the surface are obtained on the basis of the first-order, time-dependent perturbation theory. The evolution of the charge states of the constituent ions in the molecule during scattering is described by a nonequilibrium extension of the Brandt-Kitagawa model. The molecule scattering trajectories and the corresponding Coulomb explosion dynamics are evaluated for the cases of the internuclear axis being either aligned in the beam direction or randomly oriented in the directions parallel to the surface. Our calculations show that the vicinage effect in the energy loss is generally weaker for heavy molecules than for light molecules. In addition, there is clear evidence of the negative vicinage effect in both the energy loss and the energy spectra of the emitted electrons for molecular ions at lower speeds and with the axis aligned in the direction of motion

  6. Evaluation of Copper Supplementation to Control Haemonchus contortus Infections of Sheep in Sweden

    Rydzik A

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A pen study was conducted to assess the effect of providing daily copper mineral supplement, or copper wire particle (COWP capsules, on established or incoming mixed nematode infections in young sheep. For lambs with established (6 week old infections, COWP resulted in 97% and 56% reduction of the adult and early L4 stages of H. contortus, respectively, compared with controls (p Teladorsagia circumcincta infections in the COWP lambs compared with controls (p H. contortus infections, but lack of parasites during the grazing season prevented an adequate assessment from being made. These results indicate that there is little, if any, benefit from a parasite control standpoint in recommending copper therapy, specifically to control parasites in Swedish sheep flocks.

  7. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    Matt Bell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteric methane (CH 4 is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288, beef cattle ( n = 71 and dairy cows ( n = 284 to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH 4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK and Australia, which measured enteric CH 4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level, whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME requirement (i.e., production level. A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH 4 yield (g CH 4 /kg dry matter intake from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH 4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD, ether extract (EE (both g/kg DM and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH 4 (g/kg DM intake = 0.046 (±0.001 × DOMD − 0.113 (±0.023 × EE − 2.47 (±0.29 × (feeding level − 1, with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH 4 yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information.

  8. The effect of estrus and pregnant sheep serum on in vitro ovine embryo production

    J Mattimena

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to observe the influence of estrus sheep serum (ESS and pregnant sheep serum (PSS on in vitrous ovine embryo development. The research was carried out in Animal Reproduction Laboratory, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran university. Oocyte and ovary of local sheep were collected from slaughter house. Maturation, fertilization and embryo culture media were supplemented with 10, 15 and 20% ESS or PSS respectively. Results show that supplementation of 20% ESS had significantly (P<0.05 better maturation rate than those of 10-20% PSS (79.98% vs 58.89-68.97%. However, increasing ESS into 15-20% did not affect the maturation rate (71.86-74.98%. Therefore, 10% estrus sheep serum (ESS can be used as an alternative serum in the ovine maturation media. The supplementation of ESS or PSS did not significantly increas the fertilization rate and in vitrous ovine embryo development, however, it was suggested to add 10% pregnant sheep serum (PSS at in vitrous ovine embryo culture.

  9. The sheep growth hormone gene polymorphism and its effects on milk traits.

    Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Pira, Emanuela; Paschino, Pietro; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo

    2015-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is encoded by the GH gene, which may be single copy or duplicate in sheep. The two copies of the sheep GH gene (GH1/GH2-N and GH2-Z) were entirely sequenced in one 106 ewes of Sarda breed, in order to highlight sequence polymorphisms and investigate possible association between genetic variants and milk traits. Milk traits included milk yield, fat, protein, casein and lactose percentage. We evidenced 75 nucleotide changes. Transcription factor binding site prediction revealed two sequences potentially recognised by the pituitary-specific transcription factor POU1FI at the GH1/GH2-N gene, which were lost at the promoter of GH2-Z, which might explain the different tissues of expression of GH1/GH2-N (pituitary) and GH2-Z (placenta). Significant differences in milk traits were observed among genotypes at polymorphic loci only for the GH2-Z gene. Sheep with homozygote genotype ss748770547 CC had higher fat percentage (P < 0.01) than TT. SNP ss748770547 was part of a potential transcription factor binding site for C/EBP alpha (CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein), which is involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and adipoblast differentiation. SNP ss748770547, located in the GH2-Z gene 5' flanking region, may be a causal mutation affecting milk fat content. These findings might contribute to the knowledge of the sheep GH locus and might be useful in selection processes in sheep.

  10. EFFECT OF FERMENTED CACAO POD SUPPLEMENTATION ON SHEEP RUMEN MICROBIAL FERMENTATION

    S. Wulandari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to improve beneficial value of cacao pod as sheep feedingredients comprising up to 50% total feed. This research was conducted in two stages. Stage 1 wascacao pod fermentation. Completely randomized design with 3x3 factorial patterns was used in thisstage, in which factor I was microbial inoculum dosage of 0%, 0.05% and 0.1% and factor II wasincubation period of 0, 3 and 6 days. Result demonstrated that six-day fermentation with 0.05%microbial inoculum could lower cacao NDF, ADF and theobromine. The optimum inoculum dosage andfermentation time from stage 1 was applied to stage 2. Stage 2 was rumen microbial fermentation test.This research administrated 3x3 of latin square design. In period I sheep were fed with CF0 (nonfermentedcomplete feed, in period II sheep were given CF 1 (complete feed containing fermentedcacao pod and in period III sheep were given CF2 (fermented complete feed based cacao pod. Resultdemonstrated that pH value of sheep microbial liquid in treatment of CF0, CF1 and CF2 was in normalpH range and did not affect volatile fatty acids (VFA and ammonia. In conclusion, supplementing up to 50% of feed with complete feed containing fermented or non-fermented cacao pod did not affect theprocess of rumen microbial fermentation.

  11. Knowledge, attitude, and practices on usage, disposal, and effect of plastic bags on sheep and goats.

    Otsyina, H R; Nguhiu-Mwangi, J; Mogoa, E G M; Mbuthia, P G; Ogara, W O

    2018-02-08

    The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in the Nairobi and Kajiado Counties, Kenya, on the usage, disposal, and effect of plastic waste on sheep and goats (shoats). A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 384 respondents in four communities in the two counties. Most of the people irrespective of their age, occupation, and educational status used plastic bags of some type on a daily basis. A high proportion of the respondents (37.0%, 142) used plastic bags because of the low cost. Approximately, 79.1% (304) disposed used plastic bags in open dumps. A total of 147 (38.3%) households kept shoats. Out of these, 38.1% (56) purchased feed and also allowed their animals to roam. Most of them (45.3%, 174) thought that lack of feed for the animals was the main reason why shoats roam and scavenge at refuse dump sites and road sides. A large proportion of the respondents (44.5%, 143) mentioned death of animals as the ultimate consequence of ingestion of waste plastic bags. Though, the respondents were aware that indiscriminate disposal of used plastic bags could result in death of the animals from which they derive their livelihoods, they nevertheless continued with the practice. There is a need for a paradigm shift in the way and manner plastic bags are used and disposed.

  12. Effect of mammalian kidney osmolytes on the folding pathway of sheep serum albumin.

    Dar, Mohammad Aasif; Islam, Asimul; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Ahmad, Faizan

    2017-04-01

    Recently, we had published that urea-induced denaturation curves of optical properties of sheep serum albumin (SSA) are biphasic with a stable intermediate that has characteristics of molten globule (MG) state. In this study, we have extended the work by carrying out urea- and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl)-induced denaturations of SSA in the presence of naturally occurring mammalian kidney osmolytes, namely, sorbitol, myo-inositol and glycine betaine. We have observed that all these osmolytes (i) transform this biphasic transition into a co-operative, two-state transition and (ii) increase the stability of the protein in terms of midpoint of denaturation (C m ) and Gibbs free energy change in the absence of both denaturants (ΔG D 0 ). The relative effectiveness of different osmolytes on the stability of SSA follows the order: glycine betaine>myo-inositol>sorbitol. In this paper, we also report that kidney osmolytes destabilize MG state by shifting the equilibrium, native state↔MG state toward the left. This study will be helpful in understanding the existence of osmolytes in kidney and their role in folding of kidney proteins soaked with urea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of heat stress and genotype on water turnover in pregnant and lactating sheep

    Benlamlih, S.

    1988-01-01

    Studies on the effect of acute heat stress and on the influence of genotype on water turnover of pregnant and lactating ewes are described. Ewes exposed to acute heat stress during pregnancy and lactation maintained their body temperature within the same range as during the subsequent post-lactation period, but paradoxically the polypneic response was reduced during pregnancy. The drinking response to acute heat stress was markedly increased during pregnancy with a corresponding water diuresis. Thus, during acute heat stress, body temperature is maintained during pregnancy by the loss of heat to ingested water and probably also via increased sweating. Under natural environmental conditions, water turnover was higher in the sheep genotypes from the mountains (Timahdit) and the desert oases (Dman) than in the breeds from the Moroccan arid lands (Sardi and Beniguil). In all these genotypes, water turnover was lower during pregnancy than during lactation and the post-lactation period which occurred respectively in winter, spring and summer. Thus, the water demands during the summer are much higher than those for pregnancy during the winter months. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  14. Induction of photosensitivity in sheep with Erodium moschatum (L. L'Hérit

    J.C. Stroebel

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Erodium moschatum is an exotic weed in the southern and southwestern coastal areas of the Western Cape Province (WCP, South Africa. It has been suspected as the cause of photosensitivity in sheep. However, attempts to induce photosensitivity by dosing it to sheep have thus far been unsuccessful. During August 1999, 2 sheep suffering from severe photosensitivity were presented for clinical examination to the Western Cape Provincial Veterinary Laboratory (WCPVL. One sheep was sacrificed for autopsy. Except for skin lesions associated with photosensitivity, no icterus or other lesions were present. Histopathological examination of affected skin revealed epidermal necrosis while the liver had no microscopic lesions. It was therefore concluded that the sheep might have been suffering from primary photosensitivity. The farmfrom which the sheep came, situated in the Malmesbury district, WCP, was visited to determine the source of the photodynamic agent. The flock from which the sheep originated had been grazing in a camp where E. moschatum was growing abundantly and had been heavily grazed. Some remaining Erodium in the camp was collected, pulped and dosed over a period of 7 days to an adult sheep. Another sheep was dosed simultaneously with Erodium growing on the premises of the WCPVL. Both sheep developed mild photosensitivity, which was confirmed by histopathological examination of skin biopsies. It was concluded that E. moschatum can induce photosensitivity (probably the primary type in sheep if ingested in large quantities.

  15. Effects of gossypol from cottonseed cake on the blood profile in sheep.

    Câmara, Antônio Carlos Lopes; do Vale, André Menezes; Mattoso, Cláudio Roberto Scabelo; Melo, Marília Martins; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2016-06-01

    Cottonseed cake contains gossypol, a potentially toxic compound that, when consumed by sheep, can affect reproduction, the immune system, and the liver. Changes in hematologic and serum biochemical parameters were monitored for 63 days in 12 Santa Inês ewes, six of which received ration containing 400 g kg(-1) of cottonseed cake. Blood samples were collected at the start of the experiment and weekly thereafter for hematologic assessment and determination of serum urea, creatinine, total protein, and albumin concentrations and for measurement of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transferase activities. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed. Evaluation of the erythron showed that sheep consuming cottonseed cake had an increased packed cell volume (p sheep for 63 days may induce changes in the erythron but no consistent changes in serum biochemical parameters, indicating no damage to the liver or kidneys.

  16. The effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma on the skin wound healing process: A comparative experimental study in sheep

    Daikh Badis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The therapeutic evaluation of the biological effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP used as a surgical adjunct to maintain the inflammatory process and to potentiate tissue healing, make the subject of recent research in regenerative medicine. This study was designed to evaluate the healing activity of PRP by its topical application on the skin experimentally injured in a sheep model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 9 adult and clinically healthy males sheep. PRP was obtained by a protocol of double centrifugation of whole blood from each animal. After sterile skin preparation, full-thickness excisional wounds (20 mm x 20 mm were created on the back of each animal. The animals were randomly divided into three equal groups of three sheep for each. In Group I, the wounds were treated with PRP, in Group II; wounds were treated with Asiaticoside; in Group III, wounds were treated with saline solution. The different treatments were administered topically every 3 days. Morphometric measurements of the contraction surface of the wounds and histopathological biopsies were carried out at the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days of healing. Results: The results of the morphometric data obtained revealed that it was significant differences recorded at the 7th and 14th day of healing in favor for animals of Group I. Semi-quantitative histopathological evaluation showed that PRP reduces inflammation during 3 first days post-surgical and promotes epithelialization in 3 weeks of healing. Conclusion: We concluded that topical administration of PRP obtained by double centrifugation protocol could potentially improve the skin healing process in sheep.

  17. Effect of time of maize silage supplementation on herbage intake, milk production, and nitrogen excretion of grazing dairy cows.

    Al-Marashdeh, O; Gregorini, P; Edwards, G R

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding maize silage at different times before a short grazing bout on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, and N excretion of dairy cows. Thirty-six Friesian × Jersey crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked in 9groups of 4 cows by milk solids (sum of protein and fat) production (1.26±0.25kg/d), body weight (466±65kg), body condition score (4±0.48), and days in milk (197±15). Groups were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 replicates of 3 treatments: control; herbage only, supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage after morning milking approximately 9h before pasture allocation (9BH); and supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage before afternoon milking approximately 2h before pasture allocation (2BH). Herbage allowance (above the ground level) was 22kg of DM/cow per day for all groups of cows. Cows were allocated to pasture from 1530 to 2030 h. Maize silage DM intake did not differ between treatments, averaging 3kg of DM/cow per day. Herbage DM intake was greater for control than 2BH and 9BH, and greater for 9BH than 2BH (11.1, 10.1, and 10.9kg of DM/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). The substitution rate (kilograms of herbage DM per kilograms of maize silage DM) was greater for 2BH (0.47) than 9BH (0.19). Milk solids production was similar between treatments (overall mean 1.2kg/cow per day). Body weight loss tended to be less for supplemented than control cows (-0.95, -0.44, and -0.58kg/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). Nitrogen concentration in urine was not affected by supplementation or time of supplementation, but estimated urinary N excretion tended to be greater for control than supplemented cows when urinary N excretion estimated using plasma or milk urea N. At the time of herbage meal, nonesterified fatty acid concentration was greater for control than supplemented cows and greater for 9BH than 2BH (0.58, 0.14, and 0.26mmol/L for

  18. Effect of preventive Chlamydia abortus vaccination in offspring development in sheep challenged experimentally

    Teresa García-Seco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ovine enzootic abortion, caused by Chlamydia abortus, leads to important economic losses worldwide. In addition to reproductive failures, infection may impact lamb growth during the first weeks after birth, yet this effect has not been well characterized. Vaccination can help to control the disease but variable efficacy values have been described, possibly related with factors associated with the host, the vaccine, the parameter used for efficacy determination and the challenge conditions. In this context, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated standard commercial vaccine and a 1/2 diluted dose in pregnant sheep challenged with C. abortus by examining multiple indicators ofvaccine effect (including incidence of reproductive failures, bacterial excretion, and evolution of weight gain of viable lambs during the first month of life. Three groups of ewes [control non-vaccinated, C (n = 18; vaccinated with standard dose, SV (n = 16 and vaccinated with 1/2 dose, DV (n = 17], were challenged approximately 90 days post-mating and tested using direct PCR (tissue samples and vaginal swabs and ELISA (serum until 31 days post-reproductive outcome. There were not significant differences in the proportions of reproductive failures or bacterial shedding after birth/abortion regardless the vaccination protocol. However, a beneficial effect of vaccination on offspring growth was detected in both vaccinated groups compared with the controls, with a mean increase in weight measured at 30 days of life of 1.5 and 2.5 Kg (p = 0.056 and an increase in the geometric mean of the daily gain of 8.4 and 9.7% in lambs born from DV and SV ewes compared to controls, respectively. Our results demonstrate the effect of an inactivated vaccine in the development of the offspring of C. abortus-infected ewes at a standard and a diluted dose, an interesting finding given the difficulty in achieving sufficient antigen concentration in the production of EAE-commercial vaccines.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF SYNCHRONIZATION OF CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN SUPPLY IN SUGARCANE BAGASSE BASED RATION ON BODY COMPOSITION OF SHEEP

    N. E. Wati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of synchronization of carbohydrate and protein supply in sugarcane bagasse based ration on the body composition of sheep. The study was consisted of two steps of experiment. The first step of experiment used two rumen cannulated adult rams to create formulation of three diets with different synchronization index, namely 0.37; 0.50 and 0.63 respectively. The experimental diets were designed to be iso-energy, iso-nitrogenous and iso-neutral detergent fibre (iso-NDF. The second step of experiment was to determine the body composition of sheep fed the experimental diets, which were created in the first experiment. The body composition of fifteen rams were determined on week 0; 4; and 8 of experimental period, these were accomplished using the technique of urea dilution. The alteration of synchronization index did not affect on feed intake, ratio of ruminal acetate to propionate and serum glucose concentration, but dry matter (DM digestibility was affected (P<0.05 by the treatment of synchronization index in the diet. The alteration of synchronization index in the diet did not affect on the percentage of body protein, fat and water significantly, though body weight of sheep gained slightly during the experimental period.

  20. Effect of different pastures on CLA content in milk and sheep cheese

    G. Piredda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that milk composition included conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is affected by animal feeding system (Cabiddu et al., 2001. In Sardinia dairy sheep feeding is mainly based on pastures. Most of them are characterised by self-regenerating species, like annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.. Non conventional species belonging to the Compositae family such as (Chrysanthemum coronarium L. seem interesting for sheep feeding when other herbages decrease in quality (late spring- early summer...

  1. Effect of mercuric chloride intoxication on urinary. gamma. -glutamyl transpeptidase excretion in the sheep

    Shaw, F D

    1976-01-01

    The activity of the enzyme ..gamma..-glutamyl transpeptidase (..gamma..-GT) was measured in the urine of sheep. In clinically normal animals the mean value was 6.3 +/- 0.6 mU/ml. In sheep with kidney damage induced by the administration of mercuric chloride there were marked increases in urinary concentrations of ..gamma..-GT, in some cases values in excess of 1000 mU/ml were recorded. This enzyme may be of value in the diagnosis of certain forms of renal disease. 13 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  2. Increases of Chamber Height and Base Diameter Have Contrasting Effects on Grazing Rate of Two Cladoceran Species: Implications for Microcosm Studies

    Pan, Ying; Zhang, Yunshu; Peng, Yan; Zhao, Qinghua; Sun, Shucun

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic microcosm studies often increase either chamber height or base diameter (to increase water volume) to test spatial ecology theories such as “scale” effects on ecological processes, but it is unclear whether the increase of chamber height or base diameter have the same effect on the processes, i.e., whether the effect of the shape of three-dimensional spaces is significant. We orthogonally manipulated chamber height and base diameter and determined swimming activity, average swimming velocity and grazing rates of the cladocerans Daphnia magna and Moina micrura (on two algae Scenedesmus quadricauda and Chlorella vulgaris; leading to four aquatic algae-cladoceran systems in total) under different microcosm conditions. Across all the four aquatic systems, increasing chamber height at a given base diameter significantly decreased the duration and velocity of horizontal swimming, and it tended to increase the duration but decrease the velocity of vertical swimming. These collectively led to decreases in both average swimming velocity and grazing rate of the cladocerans in the tall chambers (at a given base diameter), in accordance with the positive relationship between average swimming velocity and grazing rate. In contrast, an increase of base diameter at a given chamber height showed contrasting effects on the above parameters. Consistently, at a given chamber volume increasing ratio of chamber height to base diameter decreased the average swimming velocity and grazing rate across all the aquatic systems. In general, increasing chamber depth and base diameter may exert contrasting effects on zooplankton behavior and thus phytoplankton-zooplankton interactions. We suggest that spatial shape plays an important role in determining ecological process and thus should be considered in a theoretical framework of spatial ecology and also the physical setting of aquatic microcosm experiments. PMID:26273836

  3. Impact of processing on in vitro digestion of milk from grazing organic and confined conventional herds

    Debate on differences between milk from grazing and non-grazing cows has not addressed the effects that standard processing may have on milk digestibility. In this study, raw milk from grazing organic (ORG) and non-grazing conventional (CONV) herds was adjusted to 0 and 3.25% fat and processed as fo...

  4. PRESENT AND FUTURE SITUATION OF SHEEP PRODUCTION IN ...

    autumn to produce winter lambs on hay and barley and, if the weather is mild, the same grazing is used as that for the mothers. This, in general, is the Mediter- ranean type of sheep husbandry. There are of course a whole range of situations in between: Percentage of national flock in different husbandry systems. Numbers ...

  5. Structural stability of naphthyl end-capped oligothiophenes in organic field-effect transistors measured by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction in operando

    Huss-Hansen, Mathias K.; Lauritzen, Andreas E.; Bikondoa, Oier

    2017-01-01

    We report on microstructural durability of 5,5′-bis(naphth-2-yl)-2,2′-bithiophene (NaT2) in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in operando monitored by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). NaT2 maintains its monoclinic bulk motif in operating OFETs with a=20.31±0.06 Å, b=6.00±0.01 Å...

  6. Risk Factors Associated with Brucella Seropositivity in Sheep and Goats in Duhok Province, Iraq

    Ali. G. Alhamada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 432 small ruminants (335 sheep and 97 goats from 72 farms in Duhok Province, northern Iraq, were collected to investigate risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity. Serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA. Using parallel interpretation, RBT and iELISA results showed that 31.7% (95% confidence interval (CI: 26.1, 36.3 of sheep and 34.0% (95% CI: 24.7, 44.3 of goats had antibodies against Brucella in the study area. A random-effects multivariable logistic regression model indicated that a higher chance of being seropositive (odds ratio (OR = 1.7; 95% 1.4; 2.2 was associated with an increase in the age of animals. The odds of Brucella seropositivity in flocks where sheep and goats grazed together was 2.0 times higher (95% CI: 1.08; 3.9 compared to flocks where sheep and goats grazed separately. The odds of Brucella seropositivity in small ruminants was 2.2 higher (95% CI: 1.2; 4.3 for animals originating from farms with a history of goat abortion in the preceding 12 months. In contrast, for every 1000 Iraqi Dinars (~0.85 US Dollar spent by the farmers on control of Brucella in their flocks, the odds of Brucella seropositivity decreased significantly (OR = 0.9, p-value = 0.021. The final model also indicated significant differences in Brucella seropositivity between the different districts of Duhok Province. This study provides a contribution to the epidemiology of brucellosis in small ruminants in northern Iraq.

  7. Effects of sheep breed and soybean meal supplementation on rumen environment and degradation kinetics

    Lourenco, A.; Cone, J.W.; Fontes, P.; Dias-Da-Silva, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the in vivo digestibility and intake differences, observed in previous studies, between Ile-de-France (IF) and Churra-da-Terra-Quente (CTQ) sheep breeds, were due to rumen environment and degradability differences. The intake, digestibility, rumen environment

  8. Effects of different dietary cation-anion balance and cellulase on blood biochemical indexes in sheep

    Niu Xuejia; Sun Yongqiang; Zheng Guoping; Li Mangxue; Liu Dasen

    2007-01-01

    Five sheep with average live weight of 38 kg were selected and fitted with permanent ruminal fistulae for the study of the influence of DCAB and cellulase on blood biochemical indexes in sheep. With the design of 5 x 5 Latin square, the goats were undergone four groups of treatments. As sheep in control group were only fed with basic feed, other treatments were fed with basic feed and additives. Those additives were: treatment 1 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary), treatment 2 with DCAB1 (20 mEq/100g DM), treatment 3 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary) and DCAB1 (20 mEq/100g DM) and treatment 4 with cellulase (0.2% of dietary) and DCAB2 (40 mEq/100 g DM). The results show that different DCAB and cellulase had no apparent influence on the concentrations of T 3 and T 4 (P>0.05), but they had significant influence on the concentration of insulin (P 0.05). The study indicated that addition of 0.2% cellulase to dietary while adjusting DCAB to 0.2-40 mEq/100 g DM respectively did not destroy tissues and organs of sheep. (authors)

  9. The effects of sheep manure application time and rates on yield and ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... 2Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ondokuz Mayis University, 55139, Samsun, Turkey. 3Department of Field Crops, ... Succession starts immediately after the abandonment. (Gokkus, 1994; Gokkus ... Sheep manure obtained from Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Agriculture, was used ...

  10. The effects of sheep manure application time and rates on yield and ...

    This experimental study was conducted in Samsun/Turkey on a secondary succession rangeland during 2006 - 2008. Botanical composition of the experimental area consists of 28% legumes, 64% grasses, and 8% of other species. Target rates of sheep manure were 0, 25.0, 50.0, 75.0, and 100 kg total N ha–1, based on ...

  11. Effects of grazing and feedlot finishing duration on the performance of three beef cattle genotypes in Uganda

    Asizua, Denis; Mpairwe, Denis; Kabi, Fred

    2017-01-01

    genotype (212±35 kg). The bulls were allotted to two feeding systems and three finishing durations. The feeding systems comprised sole grazing as the control where animals only grazed natural pastures and feedlot finishing where animals were fed a locally formulated total mixed ration containing 200 maize...... stover, 300 maize bran, 447 brewers’ spent grain, 50 molasses and 3 salt (NaCl) as g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis. The three durations were 60, 90 and 120 days excluding 14 days of adaptation period. Data was collected on feed intake, growth, slaughter and carcass characteristics. The Boran consumed less....... However, carcass quality grade scores were higher (Pcarcass...

  12. Endocrine responses to water restriction in desert sheep

    Ahmed, Muna M.M.

    1994-01-01

    For ruminants grazing in semi-arid areas, the maintenance of balanced water and energy metabolism is challenging to productivity.The metabolic effects of water restriction usually stimulate endocrine which control metabolic activity depending on the thermal environment.Radioimmunoasay technique was used to determine the level of endocrine hormones, namely thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH),thyroxine(T4) and cortisol in desert sheep.Intermittent watering every 24h, 48h and 72h increased TSH level during the morning but decreased it during the afternoon.T4 level decreased during both morning and afternoon.The cortisol level was depressed by water restriction during the morning and afternoon but showed an overlapping pattern with that of the control during the afternoon. (Author)

  13. Effect of muscle restraint on sheep meat tenderness with rigor mortis at 18°C.

    Devine, Carrick E; Payne, Steven R; Wells, Robyn W

    2002-02-01

    The effect on shear force of skeletal restraint and removing muscles from lamb m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LT) immediately after slaughter and electrical stimulation was undertaken at a rigor temperature of 18°C (n=15). The temperature of 18°C was achieved through chilling of electrically stimulated sheep carcasses in air at 12°C, air flow 1-1.5 ms(-2). In other groups, the muscle was removed at 2.5 h post-mortem and either wrapped or left non-wrapped before being placed back on the carcass to follow carcass cooling regimes. Following rigor mortis, the meat was aged for 0, 16, 40 and 65 h at 15°C and frozen. For the non-stimulated samples, the meat was aged for 0, 12, 36 and 60 h before being frozen. The frozen meat was cooked to 75°C in an 85°C water bath and shear force values obtained from a 1 × 1 cm cross-section. Commencement of ageing was considered to take place at rigor mortis and this was taken as zero aged meat. There were no significant differences in the rate of tenderisation and initial shear force for all treatments. The 23% cook loss was similar for all wrapped and non-wrapped situations and the values decreased slightly with longer ageing durations. Wrapping was shown to mimic meat left intact on the carcass, as it prevented significant prerigor shortening. Such techniques allows muscles to be removed and placed in a controlled temperature environment to enable precise studies of ageing processes.

  14. Effect of acute maternal starvation on tyrosine metabolism and protein synthesis in fetal sheep

    Krishnamurti, C.R.; Schaefer, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the effects of acute maternal starvation on intrauterine growth, tyrosine concentration and specific activity values in plasma, intracellular free and protein bound pools were determined in catheterized ovine fetuses following an 8 h continuous infusion of L-[2,3,5,6 3 H] or L-[U- 14 C] tyrosine into the ewe and fetus respectively at 115-125 days of gestation. From the kinetic data the rates of whole body and tissue fractional protein synthesis were calculated. Although placental protein synthesis was not significantly changed as a result of acute maternal starvation, fetal whole body protein synthesis was reduced from 63 g/d/kg in the fed to 25 g/d/kg in the starved condition. There was also a 10 fold reduction in the net placental transfer of tyrosine to the fetus in the starved ewes. In addition, a three fold increase was observed in the quantity of tyrosine used for oxidation by the fetuses of starved ewes, changing from 5.2% of tyrosine net utilization in the fed to 13.7% in the starved condition. Significant reductions in tissue fractional protein synthesis rates were also seen in the liver, brain, lung kidney and GIT tissues from 78, 37, 65, 45 and 71%/d respectively in the fed to 12, 10, 23, 22 and 35%/d in the fetuses of starved ewes. The data indicate that during acute maternal starvation the sheep fetus utilizes more tyrosine for oxidation and less for anabolic purposes which is reflected in a decrease both in whole body and tissue fractional rates of protein synthesis

  15. Response of mountain meadows to grazing by recreational pack stock

    Cole, David N.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Moore, Peggy E.; McDougald, Neil K.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of recreational pack stock grazing on mountain meadows in Yosemite National Park were assessed in a 5-year study. Yosemite is a designated wilderness, to be managed such that its natural conditions are preserved. Studies were conducted in 3 characteristic meadow types: shorthair sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.), Brewer's reed grass (Calamagrostis breweri Thurber), and tufted hairgrass [Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv.]. Horses and mules grazed experimental plots at intensities of 15 to 69% utilization for 4 seasons. In all 3 meadows, grazing caused decreases in productivity. The mean reduction after 4 years of grazing was 18% in the shorthair sedge meadow, 17% in the Brewer's reed grass meadow, and 22% in the tufted hairgrass meadow. Grazing also caused shifts in basal groundcover (usually a reduction in vegetation cover and increase in bare soil cover), and changes in species composition. Productivity and vegetation cover decreased as percent utilization increased, while bare soil cover increased as utilization increased. Changes in species composition were less predictably related to differences in grazing intensity. Passive management of grazing is insufficient in wilderness areas that are regularly used by groups with recreational stock. Wilderness managers need to monitor meadow conditions and the grazing intensities that occur. Our study suggests that biomass and ground cover are more sensitive indicators of grazing impact than species composition. Managers must make decisions about maximum acceptable levels of grazing impact and then develop guidelines for maximum use levels, based on data such as ours that relates grazing intensity to meadow response.

  16. Soil Microbial Community Changes in Wooded Mountain Pastures due to Simulated Effects of Cattle Grazing

    Kohler, F.; Hamelin, J.; Gillet, F.; Gobat, J.M.; Buttler, A.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of cattle activity on pastures can be subdivided into three categories of disturbances: herbage removal, dunging and trampling. The objective of this study was to assess separately or in combination the effect of these factors on the potential activities of soil microbial communities and

  17. Grazing disturbance increases transient but decreases persistent soil seed bank.

    Ma, Miaojun; Walck, Jeffrey L; Ma, Zhen; Wang, Lipei; Du, Guozhen

    2018-04-30

    Very few studies have examined whether the impacts of grazing disturbance on soil seed banks occur directly or indirectly through aboveground vegetation and soil properties. The potential role of the seed bank in alpine wetland restoration is also unknown. We used SEM (structural equation modeling) to explore the direct effect of grazing disturbance on the seed bank and the indirect effect through aboveground vegetation and soil properties. We also studied the role of the seed bank on the restoration potential in wetlands with various grazing intensities: low (fenced, winter grazed only), medium (seasonally grazed), and high (whole-year grazed). For the seed bank, species richness and density per plot showed no difference among grazing intensities for each depth (0-5, 5-10, 10-15 cm) and for the whole depth (0-15 cm) in spring and summer. There was no direct effect of grazing disturbance on seed bank richness and density both in spring and summer, and also no indirect effect on the seed bank through its direct effect on vegetation richness and abundance. Grazing disturbance indirectly increased spring seed bank density but decreased summer seed bank density through its direct effect (negative correlation) on soil moisture and total nitrogen and its indirect effect on vegetation abundance. Species composition of the vegetation changed with grazing regime, but that of the seed bank did not. An increased trend of similarity between the seed bank and aboveground vegetation with increased grazing disturbance was found in the shallow depth and in the whole depth only in spring. Although there was almost no change in seed bank size with grazing intensities, grazing disturbance increased the quantity of transient seeds but decreased persistent seeds. Persistent seeds stored in the soil could play a crucial role in vegetation regeneration and in restoration of degraded wetland ecosystems. The seed bank should be an integral part of alpine wetland restoration programs.

  18. Evaluation of Themeda triandra as an indicator for monitoring the effects of grazing and fire in the Bontebok National Park

    Peter Novellie

    2010-07-01

    Conservation implications: The conservation objectives of maintaining (1 large mammal herbivory as an ecological process and (2 plant species diversity may be difficult to reconcile with each other in the highly fragmented renosterveld and lowland fynbos ecosystems. This paper explores a rapid approach to monitoring impacts of bontebok and other grazing ungulates.

  19. Interactive effects of soil-dwelling ants, ant mounds and simulated grazing on local plant community composition

    Veen, G.F.; Olff, H.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between aboveground vertebrate herbivores and subterranean yellow meadow ants (Lasius flavus) can drive plant community patterns in grassland ecosystems. Here, we study the relative importance of the presence of ants (L. flavus) and ant mounds under different simulated grazing regimes

  20. Effects of protozoan grazing on colony formation in Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae) and the potential costs and benefits

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Tang, K.W.

    2002-01-01

    . scintillans increased the mean colony size by up to 50 % relative to the controls, whereas grazing by G. dominans enhanced the mean colony size by up to 3-fold. Microscopic observations confirmed that N. scintillans was also able to ingest small colonies. In contrast, G. dominans apparently did not ingest...

  1. Effects of seasonal changes in feeding management under part-time grazing on terpene concentrations of ewes' milk.

    Abilleira, Eunate; Virto, Mailo; Nájera, Ana Isabel; Albisu, Marta; Pérez-Elortondo, Francisco José; Ruiz de Gordoa, Juan Carlos; de Renobales, Mertxe; Barron, Luis Javier R

    2011-05-01

    Terpene composition of ewes' raw milk from nine commercial flocks was analysed from February to July. Ewes' diet consisted of concentrate and conserved forage in winter (indoor feeding) and part-time grazing from spring (transition and outdoor feeding). Regardless of the feeding, limonene and β-phellandrene were the most abundant monoterpenes and β-caryophyllene showed the highest concentrations among sesquiterpenes. Terpene content increased in the milks of commercial flocks when animals were reared under grazing management. Monoterpenes were detected in the milks of all the commercial flocks throughout the season, whereas sesquiterpenes were only detected in the milks from flocks grazing on non-cultivated community-owned grasslands in which a higher biodiversity of plant species grew. These preliminary results indicated that β-caryophyllene could be a potential pasture-diet marker in the case of milks from animals grazing a higher biodiversity of plant species but in-depth studies including information on terpene composition of plants ingested by the animals are necessary to evaluate the suitability of β-caryophyllene or another terpenoid compound as pasture biomarker.

  2. Effect of Preventive Chlamydia abortus Vaccination in Offspring Development in Sheep Challenged Experimentally.

    García-Seco, Teresa; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Salinas, Jesús; Navarro, Alejandro; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; García, Nerea; Pozo, Pilar; Goyache, Joaquín; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Ovine enzootic abortion, caused by Chlamydia abortus, leads to important economic losses worldwide. In addition to reproductive failures, infection may impact lamb growth during the first weeks after birth, yet this effect has not been well characterized. Vaccination can help to control the disease but variable efficacy values have been described, possibly related with factors associated with the host, the vaccine, the parameter used for efficacy determination, and the challenge conditions. In this context, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated standard commercial vaccine and a 1/2 diluted dose in pregnant sheep challenged with C. abortus by examining multiple indicators of vaccine effect (including incidence of reproductive failures, bacterial excretion, and evolution of weight gain of viable lambs during the first month of life). Three groups of ewes [control non-vaccinated, C (n = 18); vaccinated with standard dose, SV (n = 16); and vaccinated with 1/2 dose, DV (n = 17)], were challenged approximately 90 days post-mating and tested using direct PCR (tissue samples and vaginal swabs) and ELISA (serum) until 31 days post-reproductive outcome. There were not significant differences in the proportions of reproductive failures or bacterial shedding after birth/abortion regardless the vaccination protocol. However, a beneficial effect of vaccination on offspring growth was detected in both vaccinated groups compared with the controls, with a mean increase in weight measured at 30 days of life of 1.5 and 2.5 kg (p = 0.056) and an increase in the geometric mean of the daily gain of 8.4 and 9.7% in lambs born from DV and SV ewes compared with controls, respectively. Our results demonstrate the effect of an inactivated vaccine in the development of the offspring of C. abortus-infected ewes at a standard and a diluted dose, an interesting finding given the difficulty in achieving sufficient antigen concentration in the production of enzootic

  3. The effects of first gestation and lactation on bone metabolism in dairy goats and milk sheep.

    Liesegang, A; Risteli, J; Wanner, M

    2006-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare mobilization rate of calcium (Ca) from bone in pregnant and lactating goats and sheep. Blood samples were collected from goats and sheep monthly during pregnancy and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postpartum (pp) and monthly during lactation until 6 months after parturition. Total bone mineral content (BMC) and total bone mineral density (BMD) were quantified using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the same intervals as the blood was taken. Bone resorption was assessed by immunoassays quantitating two epitopes of the carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, CTX). Bone formation was estimated by quantifying serum osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP). In addition, Ca and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-VITD) concentrations were determined in serum. Mean ICTP and CTX concentrations of both animal species increased the first week after parturition. By the second week pp, the concentrations of both markers had decreased toward early gestation levels. In contrast, mean OC concentrations continually decreased until the 1st week pp. By the 2nd week pp, the mean concentrations of OC started to increase again. Mean bAP activities decreased during gestation and reached a nadir in the first week pp in goats and 4 weeks pp in sheep. Afterwards, mean bAP activities increased again in goats and sheep. 1,25-VITD concentrations peaked the first week pp and returned to early gestation values thereafter. Total BMC and BMD decreased from the 4th month of pregnancy until the 1st week pp in both species. Afterwards, BMC increased throughout the first month pp in goats and the first 3 months pp in sheep. BMD levels of sheep and goats returned to prepartum levels during lactation. The resorptive phase of bone remodeling is accelerated at parturition and in early lactation and is uncoupled from the process of bone formation. This allows the animal to achieve Ca homeostasis at the expense of bone. Increased

  4. Short communication. Effect of forage source (grazing vs. silage) on conjugated linoleic acid content in milk fat of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from Galicia (NW Spain)

    Roca-Fernandez, A. I.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A.; Vazquez-Yanez, O. P.; Fernandez-Casado, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different feeding proportions of forage ?grazing vs. silage? on milk fatty acids (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of autumn calving Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 61) at CIAM (Galicia, NW Spain). Three treatments (S, 100% silage; G/S, 50% grazing + 50% silage; G, 100% grazing) were set and milk FA profile of dairy cows was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The G group showed a decrease in short (p < 0.05) and medium chain FA (p < 0.001), with an increase in long chain FA (p < 0.001) in comparison to the G/S and S groups, which showed the lowest levels (p < 0.001) of mono- and polyunsaturated FA. The CLA content in milk fat increased (p < 0.001) linearly in relation to the increased proportion of fresh grass in the diet of dairy cows from 0.49 and 0.82 to 1.14 g/100 g FA for the treatments S, G/S and G, respectively. During spring and summer, the levels of CLA were three times higher (p < 0.001, +0.76 g/100 g FA) in milk from dairy cows at the G group than in cows at the S group and twice higher (p < 0.001, +0.40 g/100 g FA) than in cows at the G/S group. High proportion of grass in the diet of cows increased CLA content, with the highest levels of unsaturated FA and the lowest levels of saturated FA, increasing the added value of milk on grazing systems using available farm resources. (Author) 20 refs.

  5. Effect of timing and type of supplementary grain on herbage intake, nitrogen utilization and milk production in dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture from evening to morning.

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effect of timing and type of supplementary grain in grazing dairy cows on herbage dry matter intake (HDMI), nitrogen utilization and milk production. Eight lactating cows were allowed to graze from evening to morning during three seasonal periods (spring, summer, autumn). They were randomly allocated to four treatments (timing: pre- (Pre) or post-grazing (Post), for large grain allotments consisting of 75% of daily grain offered; grain type: barley or corn) in 4 × 4 Latin square designs in each period. In the spring period, HDMI was greater for cows fed corn than those fed barley (P = 0.005), whereas cows in the Pre treatment had a similar HDMI, higher (P = 0.049) urinary purine derivative concentration and greater (P = 0.004) milk yield compared with cows in the Post treatment. In the summer and autumn periods, timing treatments did not affect HDMI, nitrogen utilization or milk production, but cows supplemented with barley had higher urinary purine derivatives concentration (P production without reducing HDMI regardless of grain type. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Effects of energy supplementation on productivity of dual-purpose cows grazing in a silvopastoral system in the tropics.

    Tinoco-Magaña, Juan Carlos; Aguilar-Pérez, Carlos Fernando; Delgado-León, Roger; Magaña-Monforte, Juan Gabriel; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos; Herrera-Camacho, Jose

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate milk yield, postpartum (pp) ovarian activity and pregnancy rate in dual-purpose cows grazing Cynodon nlemfuensis and browsing L. leucocephala, with or without energy supplementation. Twenty-four Bos taurus × B. indicus cows were divided in two groups from calving to 70 days post-calving: supplemented group (SG) with ground sorghum grain offered at 0.4% of live weight at calving and control group (CG) without supplement. There was a trend for milk yield (kg day(-1)) to be greater (p = 0.08) for SG (10.55 ± 0.51) compared to CG (9.53 ± 0.61), although without differences in fat (0.42 ± 0.02 vs. 0.38 ± 0.03 kg day(-1)), protein (0.29 ± 0.02 vs. 0.29 ± 0.02 kg day(-1)) or lactose (0.49 ± 0.02 vs. 0.49 ± 0.03 kg day(-1)) concentration. Populations of large, medium and small follicles were similar between treatments. Percentage of cows which showed corpus luteum tended to be greater in SG (50%), compared to CG (33%). Supplemented cows tended to have a shorter calving-first corpus luteum interval (40 ± 10 vs. 51 ± 10 days) and had a significantly higher (χ (2) = 0.03) pregnancy rate (42% vs. 0%). It is concluded that energy supplementation helped to improve ovarian activity and pregnancy rate. Since supplementation did not avoid loss of body condition, the higher pregnancy rate in SG suggests beneficial effects of supplementation probably mediated by metabolic hormones.

  7. Cultivar effects of perennial ryegrass on herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    Smit, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass is the most abundant grass species in temperate climates. An increased herbage intake of dairy cows by breeding new cultivars could have a large potential impact on agriculture. The effects of cultivars on sward structure, nutritive value, physical characteristics and disease

  8. Assessment of Grewia oppositifolia leaves as crude protein supplement to low-quality forage diets of sheep

    Khan, N.A.; Habib, G.

    2012-01-01

    In the tropical arid and semi-arid regions of many developing countries, sheep are predominantly grazed on low-quality pastures and stall-fed on crop residues. This study evaluated the potential of Grewia oppositifolia tree leaves as crude protein (CP) supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep in

  9. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a laboratory germination experiment of V. angustifolia L., which is a main companion species of Leguminosae family in alpine grassland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, using Yak and Tibetan sheep rumen ...

  10. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Overgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    of 3 months without treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as controls. All sheep received a restricted diet with low calcium and phosphorus. At sacrifice, cortical bone samples from the femur midshaft of each sheep were harvested, micro-CT scanned and subjected to three-point bending...... and tensile strength testing. Bone collagen and mineral were determined. Cortical porosity was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Apparent density was significantly decreased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 group....... Collagen content was significantly increased in the glucocorticoid-2 compared with the glucocorticoid-1 and control groups. Bone mineral content did not differ between the groups. Neither the three-point bending mechanical properties nor the tensile mechanical properties differed significantly between...

  11. Effects of sintering temperature on electrical properties of sheep enamel hydroxyapatite

    Dumludag, F.; Gunduz, O.; Kılıc, O.; Kılıc, B.; Ekren, N.; Kalkandelen, C.; Oktar, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    Bioceramics, especially calcium phosphate based bioceramics, whose examples are hydroxyapatite, and calcium phosphate powders have been widely used in the biomedical engineering applications. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the most promising biomaterials, which are derived from natural sources, chemical method, animal like dental enamel and corals. The influence of sintering temperature on the electrical properties (i.e. DC conductivity, AC conductivity) of samples of sintered sheep enamel (SSSE) was studied in air and in vacuum ambient at room temperature. The sheep enamel were sintered at varying temperatures between 1000°C and 1300°C. DC conductivity results revealed that while dc conductivity of the SSSE decreases with increasing the sintering temperature in air ambient the values increased with increasing the sintering temperature in vacuum ambient. AC conductivity measurements were performed in the frequency range of 40 Hz - 105 Hz. The results showed that ac conductivity values decrease with increasing the sintering temperature.

  12. The effect of temperate or tropical pasture grazing state and grain-based concentrate allocation on dairy cattle production and behavior.

    Clark, C E F; Kaur, R; Millapan, L O; Golder, H M; Thomson, P C; Horadagoda, A; Islam, M R; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2018-06-01

    Grain-based concentrate (GBC) supplement is of high cost to dairy farmers as a feed source as opposed to grazed pasture. Milk production response to GBC is affected by the composition and nutritive value of the remainder of the diet, animal factors, and interactions between forage type and level of GBC. In grazing systems, dairy cattle encounter contrasting pasture states, primarily because the social structure of the herd affects the timing of when each animal accesses a paddock after milking as a result of a relatively consistent cow milking order. However, the effect of feed management, namely pasture state and GBC allocation, on dairy cattle production and behavior is unknown. We examined the effect of varying GBC allocation for dairy cattle grazing differing states of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum, a tropical pasture species; experiment 1) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L., a temperate pasture species; experiment 2) on dry matter intake, milk production and composition, and grazing behavior. For each experiment, 90 lactating dairy cattle were randomly allocated to 2 consistent (fresh-fresh and depleted-depleted) and 2 inconsistent (fresh-depleted and depleted-fresh pasture state treatments (defined as sequences of pasture state allocation for the morning and afternoon grazing events) and 3 GBC treatments [2.7, 5.4, and 8.1 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day], giving 12 treatment combinations for each experiment. The duration of each experiment was 14 d, with the first 7 d used as adaptation to treatment. In each experiment, 3 cattle were selected from each of the 12 pasture type × GBC treatment groups within the experimental herd to determine herbage intake and total DM digestibility using the n-alkanes method (n = 36). There was no interaction between kikuyu grass or ryegrass pasture state and GBC level for intake, digestibility, or milk yield or components. Dairy cattle offered fresh-fresh and depleted-fresh ryegrass produced 9% more milk

  13. Effect of Duddingtonia flagrans against Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle grazing at different stocking rates

    Fernández, A.S.; Larsen, M.; Henningsen, E.

    1999-01-01

    divided into 3 comparable groups and allocated to 3 similar paddocks in each of the 2 trials. Two of the 3 groups received fungal material once per day during the initial 2 months, either at high dose (10(6) fungal spores/kg body weight) or low dose (5 x 10(5) or 2.5 x 10(5) fungal spores/kg body weight......The efficacy of an isolate of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle was examined at 2 dose levels on 2 permanent pastures, with high and low stocking rates, respectively. Thirty calves, experimentally infected with Ostertagia ostertagi, were...... seemed not to be very heavy, and a conclusive effect of the fungi at the dose-level used could not be detected....

  14. The effect of grazing on soil and water losses under arid and mediterranean climates. Implications for desertification

    Cerdà, A.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Two sites, both affected by grazing but under different climatic conditions, were selected in Israel to study the effect of grazing on soil degradation. One site was selected in the Judean Desert, a dry environment (260 mm mean annual rainfall with a long history of overgrazing and very little vegetative cover. The second site was selected in the Galilee Mountains where the climate is of Mediterranean type (650 mm mean annual rainfall and the vegetative cover is much greater in spite of the grazing. Simulated rain experiments were performed in the field and in the laboratory in order to evaluate differences in hydrological and erosional response to rainfall between the two sites. The results show a clear difference between these two ecosystems. In the Judean Desert, where vascular plant cover is sparse, a crust was developed which enhanced overland flow and erosion. In the Mediterranean environment the overland flow and erosion were negligible under shrubs and relatively high at the intershrub corridors. At the hillslope scale a mosaiclike pattern of water and soil contributing and accepting patches was developed. Such a pattern usually protect the hillslope from being eroded. Runoff and erosion rates luere very high in the Judean Desert and negligible in the Galilee Mountains.

    [fr] Afin d'étudier l'effet du pâturage sur la dégradation des sols, deux zones de caractéristiques climatiques différentes soumises au pâturage ont été sélectionnées en Israel. L'une de ces zones se trouve située dans le désert de Judée, un milieu très aride (260 mm de précipitation annuelle moyenne avec un couvert végétal peu dense et une longue influence du surpâturage. La deuxième zone se trouve sur les montagnes de Galilée, caractérisées par un climat méditerranéen (650 mm de précipitation annuelle moyenne et un couvert végétal bien plus dense et ce malgré l'influence du pâturage. Afin d'évaluer le comportement hydrologique et

  15. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    's family ownerships. These poor livestockeepers could maintain their livestock regimen on the basis of low cash-income earnings and crops self-consumption in extremely poor family living conditions. In this state woodlands, social an environmental goals -as they were noted above- could generate high trade off between family basic needs and soil degradation because woodlands and crops operations. As result, grazing rent is pending on the low opportunity cost for family labour. In this context, Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands maintain the highest livestock rate population, which woodland economy could be called for poor people subsistence and environmentally unsustainable because soil erosion, forest degradation and over/under grazing. These study present three study cases where Mediterranean basin grazing resources economies are analyzed in the contexts of Tunisian developing economy (Iteimia woodlands, North West of Tunisia) and Spanish developed economy (Jerez de la Frontera and Monfragüe woodlands, South and West of Spain). The results show the crucial role that livestock (goat, sheep and cattle) play in maintaining the working Mediterranean woodlands landscape. People, woodlands and livestock grazing dependences are changing so fast in Mediterranean basin that they appear too complex for being accurately forecasting by rangeland economists. In this context, perhaps a question might be a more suitable concluding remark: ¿will does woodlands extensive livestock become a quasi-wild management for urban landowners pleasure aims in rich Mediterranean basin countries?

  16. Effects of human proximity and nomadic grazing on the diversity of medicinal plants in temperate hindukush

    Adnan, M.; Tariq, A.

    2015-01-01

    Over exploitation and overgrazing are considered major factors for decreasing plant species diversity. However, we do need some more exploration on the types of anthropogenic disturbances responsible for variation in species decline among different regions. Therefore, the current study was conducted in a temperate Hindukush region of Pakistan with the aim to assess human settlements pressure on the diversity of medicinal plants. Field data was collected from 15 plots, of which 5 plots each were randomly selected at three distant locations in derived woodland forest. Near to community plots were heavily disturbed due to natives proximity, 2 kilometer away plots from the native community were moderately disturbed, while 4 kilometer away plots were under the disturbance regime from temporary settlers (Nomads). We have found all 10 studied medicinal plant species at 2 Km distance followed by 8 species found at 4 km distance. Economically important species such as Bergenia ciliata, Paeonia emodi, Podophyllum emodi, Valeriana jatamansi and Viola canescens were completely absent near village. Similarly, density (8.72 n m-2) and species richness (8.2 n 40 m-2) were found significantly highest at 2 km distance than other locations. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) showed that among forest stand structural variables, slope was the influencing variable related to the density of only Bergenia ciliata. In conclusions, moderate disturbance is associated to increase in the diversity of medicinal plants, while high anthropogenic pressures the otherwise. Hence, effective management strategies may be adopted to conserve such precious eroding flora. (author)

  17. The Spatial Pattern and Interactions of Woody Plants on the Temperate Savanna of Inner Mongolia, China: The Effects of Alternating Seasonal Grazing-Mowing Regimes.

    Xiao Wang

    Full Text Available Ulmus pumila tree-dominated temperate savanna, which is distributed widely throughout the forest-steppe ecotone on the Mongolian Plateau, is a relatively stable woody-herbaceous complex ecosystem in northern China. Relatively more attention has been paid to the degradation of typical steppe areas, whereas less focus has been placed on the succession of this typical temperate savanna under the present management regime. In this study, we established 3 sample plots 100 m×100 m in size along a gradient of fixed distances from one herder's stationary site and then surveyed all the woody plants in these plots. A spatial point pattern analysis was employed to clarify the spatial distribution and interaction of these woody plants. The results indicated that old U. pumila trees (DBH ≥ 20 cm showed a random distribution and that medium U. pumila trees (5 cm ≤ DBH < 20 cm showed an aggregated distribution at a smaller scale and a random distribution at a larger scale; few or no juvenile trees (DBH < 5 cm were present, and seedlings (without DBH formed aggregations in all 3 plots. These findings can be explained by an alternate seasonal grazing-mowing regime (exclosure in summer, mowing in autumn and grazing in winter and spring; the shrubs in all 3 plots exist along a grazing gradient that harbors xerophytic and mesophytic shrubs. Of these shrubs, xerophytic shrubs show significant aggregation at a smaller scale (0-5.5 m, whereas mesophytic shrubs show significant aggregation at a larger scale (0-25 m, which may be the result of the dual effects of grazing pressure and climate change. Medium trees and seedlings significantly facilitate the distributions of xerophytic shrubs and compete significantly with mesophytic shrubs due to differences in water use strategies. We conclude that the implementation of an alternative grazing-mowing regime results in xerophytic shrub encroachment or existence, breaking the chain of normal succession in a U. pumila

  18. Effect of supplementation of concentrates or selenium on production and reproduction in cows grazing pastures of high protein degradability

    Mongiardino, M E; Humaran, M; Corbellini, C N; Baldan, A M; Cuneo, M; Balbiani, G [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, Moron, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Inst. de Patobiologia

    1996-05-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine whether the deleterious effects of high amounts of degradable protein on reproduction and production of dairy cows could be minimized by a supplemental source of undergradable protein, or grain supplementation while grazing; and to study the effect of selenium supplementation before calving on the incidence of stillbirths, mastitis, puerperal and metabolic disorders. In a first experiment, 24 Holstein cows fed on red and white clover pasture, paired by previous milk production, calving data and body condition, were supplemented with corn silage and one of two concentrates differing only in the proportion of degradable protein (Group H: 71.5% and Group L: 51.5%). The degradable protein intake from pasture supplied 93% of the requirements in both groups. The addition of undergradable protein in the concentrate of Group L did not improve reproductive performance nor milk, butterfat or solids non-fat production. In a second experiment, 132 Holstein cows and heifers were paired likewise. Both animals in each pair were fed similar forage resources, but each one was supplemented with 2 kg/cow corn grain four times a day (Herd 1) or 4 kg/cow tow times a day (Herd 2). One animal in each pair was randomly assigned to receive a barium selenate injection before calving. Rumen ammonia was higher in Herd 1 in both sampling dates (17 vs 4.2 mg/100 ml and 12 vs 9 mg/100 ml), as well as serum urea up to 50 days post-partum (26 vs 19 mg/100 ml, P<0.02). Body condition scores were similar at calving but significantly lower in Herd 1 during the lactation period (P<0.05). Total milk and butterfat production were higher in Herd 2 (6406.2 vs 6893.8 kg and 190.4 vs 203.5 kg, respectively). Selenium improved pregnancy rate to first artificial insemination in Herd 2 (71 vs 50%), and decreased the frequency of downer cows in both herds (5 vs 0%), but had not effect regarding the Wisconsin Mastitis Test results. (author). 36 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  19. The effect of Hydroxyapatite/collagen I composites, bone marrow aspirate and bone graft on fixation of bone implants in sheep

    Babiker, Hassan

      The effect of Hydroxyapatite/collagen I composites, bone marrow aspirate and bone graft on fixation of bone implants IN SHEEP   Ph.D. Student, Hassan Babiker; Associate Professor, Ph.D. Ming Ding; Professor, dr.med., Soren Overgaard. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Odense University Hospital......, Odense, Denmark   Background: Hydroxyapatite and collagen composites (HA/coll) have the potential in mimicking and replacing skeletal bones. This study attempted to determine the effect of newly developed HA/coll-composites with and without bone marrow aspirate (BMA) in order to enhance the fixation...... of bone implants.   Materials and Methods: Titanium alloy implants were inserted into bilateral femoral condyles of 8 skeletally mature sheep, four in each sheep. The implant has a circumferential gap of 2 mm. The gap was filled with: HA/coll; HA/coll-BMA; autograft or allograft. Allograft was served...

  20. Comparative efficacy of allopathic, herbal, homeopathic and effective micro-organisms for the control of haemochosis in sheep and goats

    Qamar, M.F.; Maqbool, A.; Ahmad, N.

    2011-01-01

    Haemonchosis caused by Haemonchus contortus causes great economic losses in terms of weight loss, poor quality meat and loss of wool in sheep and goats. Therapeutical trials were conducted by using various allopathic, homeopathic, herbal and biological products. For this purpose total of 120 sheep and goats were randomly divided into groups A, B, C, D, E and F and animals in group A, B, C and D were treated with Ivermectin, Azedarachta indica (neem Leaves) Powder, Trematox (a homeopathic drug), EM-Biovet (Effective micro-organisms) respectively. Whereas E and F were kept as infected untreated and control respectively. Efficacy of drugs was measured based on reduction in EPG count, it was found that ivermectin at recommended dose rate is found more effective; Azedarachta Indica (Neem) found second and Trematox third drug of choice in combating the infection against haemonchosis, whereas EM Biovet was inferior to other drugs. In these studies it was found that Azedarachta Indica (Neem) is cheapest and easily available drug than others. Comparison based on reduction in EPG count indicated that Azedarachta indica and Trematox were fairly affective in combating haemonchosis but EM Bio-vet fail to cure all cases of haemonchosis. It was also noted that all drugs were more affective at two-dose level as compared to one dose level. Ivermectin proved to be best drug against haemonchosis. Efficacy of Azedarachta indica (neem) found to be closer to Ivermectin and EM Bio-vet was inferior as compared to Ivermectin. (author)

  1. Effects of Photoperiod Extension on Clock Gene and Neuropeptide RNA Expression in the SCN of the Soay Sheep.

    Hugues Dardente

    Full Text Available In mammals, changing daylength (photoperiod is the main synchronizer of seasonal functions. The photoperiodic information is transmitted through the retino-hypothalamic tract to the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN, site of the master circadian clock. To investigate effects of day length change on the sheep SCN, we used in-situ hybridization to assess the daily temporal organization of expression of circadian clock genes (Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Fbxl21 and neuropeptides (Vip, Grp and Avp in animals acclimated to a short photoperiod (SP; 8h of light and at 3 or 15 days following transfer to a long photoperiod (LP3, LP15, respectively; 16h of light, achieved by an acute 8-h delay of lights off. We found that waveforms of SCN gene expression conformed to those previously seen in LP acclimated animals within 3 days of transfer to LP. Mean levels of expression for Per1-2 and Fbxl21 were nearly 2-fold higher in the LP15 than in the SP group. The expression of Vip was arrhythmic and unaffected by photoperiod, while, in contrast to rodents, Grp expression was not detectable within the sheep SCN. Expression of the circadian output gene Avp cycled robustly in all photoperiod groups with no detectable change in phasing. Overall these data suggest that synchronizing effects of light on SCN circadian organisation proceed similarly in ungulates and in rodents, despite differences in neuropeptide gene expression.

  2. Características estruturais do dossel de pastagens de capim-tanzânia mantidas sob três períodos de descanso com ovinos Canopy structural traits of tanzaniagrass pastures under three resting periods and grazed by sheep

    Rodrigo Gregório da Silva

    2007-10-01

    tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv Tanzania pastures under three resting periods (PDs, defined as the time to complete the expansion of 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 new leaves per tiller, along several grazing cycles (CPs, were evaluated. The following response variables were evaluated: green leaf dry matter mass (MSLV, green stem dry matter mass (MSCV, dead forage dry mass (MSFM, canopy height, leaf/stem and live/dead material ratios at pre- and post- grazing, crop growth rate (TCC and net accumulation rate (TAC, tiller populational density (DPP before grazing, and the residual leaf area index (IAFr. Differences among the PDs were acentuated toward the end of the experimental period for the variables canopy height, MSLV, and MSCV. The MSFM was not modified during the CPs in each PDs, but, averaging all the cycles, the 3.5 leaves PD pastures showed higher MSFM than the others. The leaf/stem and the live/dead material ratios were higher at the 1.5 and 2.5 leaves PDs pastures, than at the 3.5 leaves PD pasture. The 2.5 and 3.5 leaves PD pastures showed the highest TCC and TAC values. The DPP was higher at the 2.5 leaves PD pastures, than at the 3.5 leaves PD pasture. The PD for the expansion of 2.5 leaves per tiller is the better indication to manage Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia pastures with sheep, because it promotes higher proportion of leaves, without decreasing the tiller population density. However, this management decision leads to higher post-grazing stubble height, which may need to be controled by manual or mechanical mowing.

  3. Forage patch use by grazing herbivores in a South African grazing ecosystem

    Venter, J.A.; Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Prins, H.H.T.; Slotow, R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how different herbivores make forage patch use choices explains how they maintain an adequate nutritional status, which is important for effective conservation management of grazing ecosystems. Using telemetry data, we investigated nonruminant zebra (Equus burchelli) and ruminant red

  4. The burying and grazing effects of plateau pika on alpine grassland are small: a pilot study in a semiarid basin on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    S. Yi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable controversy about the effects of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae, hereafter pika on alpine grassland on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP. On the one hand, pika is considered a keystone species. On the other hand, it is being poisoned. Although significant efforts have been made to study the effects of pika at a quadrat scale ( ∼  m2, our knowledge about its distribution and effects at a larger scale is very limited. In this study, we investigated the direct effects, i.e., burying and grazing, of pika by upscaling field sampling at a quadrat scale to a plot scale ( ∼  1000 m2 by aerial photographing. Altogether 168 plots were set on four different types of alpine grassland in a semiarid basin on the QTP. Results showed that (1 the effects of pika pile burying on the reduction of vegetation cover, biomass, soil carbon, and nitrogen were less than 10 %, which was much smaller than the effects of bald patches; and (2 pika consumed 8–21 % of annual net primary production of grassland. We concluded that the direct burying and grazing effects of pika on alpine grassland were minor in this region. The quadcopter is an efficient and economic tool for long-term repeated monitoring over large regions for further understanding the role of pika.

  5. The burying and grazing effects of plateau pika on alpine grassland are small: a pilot study in a semiarid basin on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Yi, Shuhua; Chen, Jianjun; Qin, Yu; Xu, Gaowei

    2016-11-01

    There is considerable controversy about the effects of plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae, hereafter pika) on alpine grassland on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). On the one hand, pika is considered a keystone species. On the other hand, it is being poisoned. Although significant efforts have been made to study the effects of pika at a quadrat scale ( ˜ m2), our knowledge about its distribution and effects at a larger scale is very limited. In this study, we investigated the direct effects, i.e., burying and grazing, of pika by upscaling field sampling at a quadrat scale to a plot scale ( ˜ 1000 m2) by aerial photographing. Altogether 168 plots were set on four different types of alpine grassland in a semiarid basin on the QTP. Results showed that (1) the effects of pika pile burying on the reduction of vegetation cover, biomass, soil carbon, and nitrogen were less than 10 %, which was much smaller than the effects of bald patches; and (2) pika consumed 8-21 % of annual net primary production of grassland. We concluded that the direct burying and grazing effects of pika on alpine grassland were minor in this region. The quadcopter is an efficient and economic tool for long-term repeated monitoring over large regions for further understanding the role of pika.

  6. Comparative aspects of ruminants and camels grazing on a thornbush savannah pasture

    Engelhardt, W. von; Rutagwenda, T.; Lechner-Doll, M.; Kaske, M.; Schultka, W.

    1989-01-01

    A factor limiting animal production in a savannah pasture is the ability of the animals to adapt and survive during the harsh dry season. Survival strategies for the various species are different. Compared to cattle and sheep, camels, and to a lesser extent goats, have the advantage of being able to select high quality plant species. Camels and goats compete very little for forage that is predominantly grazed by cattle, donkeys and sheep. As a result, camels and goats are less subject to the grazing pressures experienced by other animals. During the harsh dry season, cattle, and also sheep, eat mostly low quality forage. When doing this, they are able to increase the retention time of feed particles in the forestomach by increasing forestomach volume. This strategy allows the digestion of poor quality, fibre rich diets to be improved. Camels are superior because they are able to use two different strategies. When fed a very poor quality diet they selectively retain feed particles in the forestomach for a considerable length of time. When grazing in the thornbush savannah, on the other hand, they select medium or high quality plants, which are not used by cattle, donkeys and sheep and are only partly used by goats. A multispecies grazing system may help to improve livestock productivity on a semiarid pasture because the available plant biomass is utilized more efficiently. At the same time overgrazing and its consequences are diminished. (author). 11 refs

  7. Effects of intramammary infection on whey proteinograms of sheep during lactation

    Vânia F. Lemos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify potential biomarkers of mammary gland infection in Santa Inês sheep. Commercial flocks of sheep provided the same hygiene, sanitary, and nutritional management under semi-intensive production systems were monitored during the lactation stage-and assessed 15, 30, 60, and 90 days after delivery (through the end of lactation and weaning. The California Mastitis Test (CMT was performed on the mammary glands. Milk was collected for bacterial examination and protein analysis. Bacterial culture and biochemical characterization of the samples were performed. Forty-two milk samples from healthy glands (negative CMT and bacterial testing and 43 milk samples from infected glands (positive CMT and bacterial testing taken at the predefined time points were assessed. A rennin solution was used to obtain the whey. The proteins analysis was performed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, which allowed for the quantification of nine whey proteins produced in healthy glands: serum albumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgG heavy-chain (IgG HC, IgG light-chain (IgG LC, total IgG (IgG HC + IgG LC, α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, protein with MW 15.000 Da, protein with MW 29.000 Da and eleven whey proteins secreted by infected glands, including haptoglobin and α-1-acid glycoprotein. A comparison of whey proteins between healthy and infected glands showed increases (P<0.05 in the secreted and total contents of all proteins, except for IgG LC and α-lactoalbumin. The most significant changes were observed in α-1-acid glycoprotein, lactoferrin and haptoglobin, which showed three-, five-, and seven-fold increases in secretion, respectively. This study showed that haptoglobin, α-1-acid glycoprotein, lactoferrin, albumin, and the IgA and IgG immunoglobulins may serve as potential biomarkers for mammary gland infection in sheep.

  8. Effect of low temperatures on in vivo digestibility in buffalo compared with sheep

    S. Bartocci

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In vivo digestibility (eight animals for each species were determined on Mediterranean buffalo bulls and Delle Langhe rams, given four diets, at maintenance level (50 g/kg LW0.75 per day of dry matter, according to a Latin-square design, composed of a factorial combination of two different energy/crude protein ratios (0.78 MilkFU/kg DM; 138.0 g/kg DM and 0.68 MilkFU/kg DM; 128.0 g/kg DM with high and low protein undegradability (40 and 30%. The external air temperatures, at the experimental site, were measured hourly during the period of the collection of the faeces; average, minimum and maximum temperatures were as follows: 1st period = 11.3oC (7.8/16.2; 2nd = 5.0oC (0.6/11.9; 3rd= 0.9oC (-3.7/6.7; 4th = 7.1oC (2.0/12.4. Taking into consideration the four trial periods within species, significant differences emerge in the digestibility of the organic matter: 69.04 (lst period v. 66.19 (2nd, 64.21% (3rd, P<0.05 for buffalo; 66.25 (1st vs 63.70 (4th, 62.18% (3rd, P<0.05 for sheep. Comparing the two species within each period, the buffalo has a better digestibility of organic matter in periods of least cold (1stperiod: 69.04 vs 66.25%, P<0.05; 4th: 67.26 vs 63.70%, P<0.05; in the colder period (3rd there is an uniformity between the species (64.21% for buffalo and 62.18% for sheep and buffalo, as much as sheep, does not seem to suffer from a decrease in temperatures.

  9. Nutraceutic effect of free condensed tannins of Lysiloma acapulcensis (Kunth) benth on parasite infection and performance of Pelibuey sheep.

    García-Hernández, Cesar; Arece-García, Javier; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Mendoza-Martínez, German David; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito; Vázquez-Armijo, José Fernando; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Olmedo-Juárez, Agustín; Marie-Magdeleine, Carine; López-Leyva, Yoel

    2017-01-01

    Forty-five Pelibuey sheep were experimentally infested with nematodes to evaluate the effect of three free condensed tannin (FCT) levels of Lysiloma acapulcensis on fecal egg counts (FECs), packed cell volumes (PCV), ocular mucosa colors (OMC), average daily gain (ADG), and adult nematode count. Five treatments were used: 12.5, 25.0, and 37.5 mg of FCT kg -1 of body weight (BW); sterile water (control); and ivermectine (0.22 mg kg -1 of BW) as chemical group. The data were processed through repeated measurement analysis. Even though the three FCT doses decreased (P < 0.05) the FEC, the highest reduction was obtained with 37.5 mg kg -1 of BW. No differences were observed in PCV and OMC. Higher ADG (P < 0.05) was observed with 37.5 mg kg -1 of BW of FCT. The count of adult nematodes (females and males) in the higher dose of FCT was similar to chemical treatment. Dose of 37.5 mg kg -1 of BW decreased the parasite infection and improved the lamb performance. Therefore, this dose could be used as a nutraceutic product in sheep production.

  10. Effect of Borax and cysteamine compound on finishing sheep growth performance, nitrogen retention, serum biochemical indices and body protein motabolism

    Chang Xinyao' Xie Hongbing; Wei Gangcai; Wang Hong

    2009-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of borax, cysteamine and the mixture of two compounds on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, protein turn-over and nitrogen aggradation of sheep by using isotope ( 15 N-Gly) technique, nitrogen balance trial and serum testing. The results showed that both borax and cysteamine could increase the growth performance of sheep, especially the cysteamine and its mixture with borax, which increased average daily feed intake (P 3 ) and levothyroxine (T 4 ) of mixture were higher than that of control group (P<0.05), and the concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1) were also significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference of insulin (INS) between experiment groups and control group (P<0.05). Both mixture and borax contributed to increasing nitrogen retention, net nitrogen utilization, digestibility and biological value. Both borax and cysteamine accelerated protein degradation rate, apparent amino acid utilization rate and net amino acid utilization rate as well as biological value, body protein and oxidation rate, but the former was greater than the later. (authors)

  11. Direct and indirect effects of high pCO2 on algal grazing by coral reef herbivores from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea)

    Borell, E. M.; Steinke, M.; Fine, M.

    2013-12-01

    Grazing on marine macroalgae is a key structuring process for coral reef communities. However, ocean acidification from rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations is predicted to adversely affect many marine animals, while seaweed communities may benefit and prosper. We tested how exposure to different pCO2 (400, 1,800 and 4,000 μatm) may affect grazing on the green alga Ulva lactuca by herbivorous fish and sea urchins from the coral reefs in the northern Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea), either directly, by changing herbivore behaviour, or indirectly via changes in algal palatability. We also determined the effects of pCO2 on algal tissue concentrations of protein and the grazing-deterrent secondary metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Grazing preferences and overall consumption were tested in a series of multiple-choice feeding experiments in the laboratory and in situ following exposure for 14 d (algae) and 28 d (herbivores). 4,000 μatm had a significant effect on the biochemical composition and palatability of U. lactuca. No effects were observed at 1,800 relative to 400 μatm (control). Exposure of U. lactuca to 4,000 μatm resulted in a significant decrease in protein and increase in DMSP concentration. This coincided with a reduced preference for these algae by the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla and different herbivorous fish species in situ (Acanthuridae, Siganidae and Pomacanthidae). No feeding preferences were observed for the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus under laboratory conditions. Exposure to elevated pCO2 had no direct effect on the overall algal consumption by T. gratilla and S. rivulatus. Our results show that CO2 has the potential to alter algal palatability to different herbivores which could have important implications for algal abundance and coral community structure. The fact that pCO2 effects were observed only at a pCO2 of 4,000 μatm, however, indicates that algal-grazer interactions may be resistant to predicted pCO2 concentrations in the

  12. Comparing methane emissions from different sheep-keeping systems in semiarid regions: A case study of Syria

    Omar Hijazi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep husbandry represents a significant source of methane (CH4 in semiarid grassland regions such as Syria. However, the contribution of sheep to CH4 emissions in Syria is still unknown. This study was designed to quantify CH4 emissions and identify possible mitigation strategies for their reduction. Methodology developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC was used to estimate CH4 emissions. A survey was conducted on 64 farms from different locations in Syria in 2009. Data were collected concerning sheep-keeping systems (SKSs, body mass, milk and wool yield, farm locations, feed rations, periods of grazing on the Steppe, the duration of pasturing on agricultural residuals and time periods when sheep were kept in stables. Using a linear statistical model, the influence of SKS, geographical region and sheep body mass on emitted CH4 were analysed. The results showed that the geographical region, SKS and sheep body mass had significant effects (P < 0.05 on CH4 emissions. According to the model, the mean values of estimated CH4 emissions from extensive, semi-intensive and intensive SKSs were 26 ± 0.9, 22.5 ± 1.3 and 13.5 ± 1.7 kg/sheep year, respectively. In comparing differences between the least square means of CH4 emissions, the extensive and semi-intensive SKSs produced 92% and 66% higher CH4 emissions compared to intensive SKS. The differences in CH4 emissions within the distinct SKSs were attributed to dietary composition. Extensive SKS used a less concentrated feeding regime (98 ± 17 day/year than semi-intensive SKS (114 ± 47 day/year, and intensive SKS employed concentrated feeding year round. Furthermore, it was observed that sheep with the same body mass produced higher CH4 emissions in extensive SKS than in semi-intensive and intensive SKSs. Moreover, the semi-intensive SKS occupied more natural pastures than extensive SKS, which caused an overuse of the Steppe. Therefore, an effective mitigation

  13. Effect of Ar9+ irradiation on Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.1Fe alloy characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray diffraction technique

    Dutta, Argha; Das, Kalipada; Gayathri, N.; Menon, Ranjini; Nabhiraj, P. Y.; Mukherjee, Paramita

    2018-03-01

    The microstructural parameters such as domain size and microstrain have been estimated from Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) data for Ar9+ irradiated Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.1Fe sample as a function of dpa (dose). Detail studies using X-ray Diffraction Line Profile Analysis (XRDLPA) from GIXRD data has been carried out to characterize the microstructural parameters like domain size and microstrain. The reorientation of the grains due to effect of irradiation at high dpa (dose) has been qualitatively assessed by the texture parameter P(hkl).

  14. EFFECTS OF INTRAUTERINE NUTRITION ON FETAL PROGRAMMING OF REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS AND THE FUTURE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN SHEEP

    Pérez-Clariget R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of uterine undernutrition during the embryonic and fetal development has been of concern in human medicine due to the consequences on the health and welfare of the people it causes. However, in animal production it is in just the past two decades that the issue has gained interest from researchers. Animal production based on native pasture grazing systems often presets periods of under nutrition during gestation, so the topic is of particular interest to our region. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the effects of nutrition, with special emphasis on undernutrition of the pregnant ewe on the intrauterine development of the reproductive tract of both male and female offspring, and the reproductive performance of the adult ewe and ram.

  15. Livestock grazing and the desert tortoise in the Mojave Desert

    Oldemeyer, John L.

    1994-01-01

    A large part of the Mojave Desert is not in pristine condition, and some current conditions can be related to past grazing-management practices. No information could be found on densities of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) or on vegetative conditions of areas that had not been grazed to allow managers a comparison of range conditions with data on tortoises. Experimental information to assess the effect of livestock grazing on tortoises is lacking, and researchers have not yet examined whether the forage that remains after grazing is sufficient to meet the nutritional needs of desert tortoises.

  16. Modeling impacts of climate change and grazing effects on plant biomass and soil organic carbon in the Qinghai-Tibetan grasslands

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Feng; Qi, Jiaguo; Hou, Fujiang

    2017-12-01

    The Qinghai Province supports over 40 % of the human population of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) but occupies about 29 % of its land area, and thus it plays an important role in the plateau. The dominant land cover is grassland, which has been severely degraded over the last decade due to a combination of increased human activities and climate change. Numerous studies indicate that the plateau is sensitive to recent global climate change, but the drivers and consequences of grassland ecosystem change are controversial, especially the effects of climate change and grazing patterns on the grassland biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in this region. In this study, we used the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model and two climate change scenarios (representative concentration pathways: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) to understand how the grassland biomass and SOC pools might respond to different grazing intensities under future climate change scenarios. More than 1400 grassland biomass sampling points and 46 SOC points were used to validate the simulated results. The simulated above-ground biomass and SOC concentrations were in good agreement with the measured data (R2 0.71 and 0.73 for above-ground biomass and SOC, respectively). The results showed that climate change may be the major factor that leads to fluctuations in the grassland biomass and SOC, and it explained 26.4 and 47.7 % of biomass and SOC variation, respectively. Meanwhile, the grazing intensity explained 6.4 and 2.3 % variation in biomass and SOC, respectively. The project average biomass and SOC between 2015 and 2044 was significantly smaller than past 30 years (1985-2014), and it was 191.17 g C m-2, 63.44 g C kg-1 and 183.62 g C m-2, 63.37 g C kg-1 for biomass and SOC under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. The RCP8.5 showed the more negative effect on the biomass and SOC compared with RCP4.5. Grazing intensity had a negative relationship with biomass and positive relationship with SOC

  17. Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet

    Kaitho, R.J.; Tegegne, A.; Umunna, N.N.; Nsahlai, I.V.; Tamminga, S.; Bruchem, J. van; Arts, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150

  18. Effects of volatile fatty acid supply on their absorption and on water kinetics in the rumen of sheep sustained by intragastric infusions

    Lopez, S.; Hovell, F.D.D.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.

    2003-01-01

    Three sheep fitted with a ruminal cannula and an abomasal catheter were used to study water kinetics and absorption of VFA infused continuously into the rumen. The effects of changing VFA concentrations in the rumen by shifting VFA infusion rates were investigated in an experiment with a 3 x 3 Latin

  19. Sheep laterality.

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  20. Sheep production as a Senecio spp. control tool

    Paulo Mota Bandarra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since poisoning by Senecio spp. is one of the main causes of cattle death in southern Brazil, control of these plants is a priority for the local livestock production. After the pasture has been mowed, grazing by 16 sheep was efficient for controlling Senecio brasiliensis and Senecio madagascariensis populations in a 5.5-hectare area that had long been severely infested with these species. A total of 28,629 plants among S. brasiliensis (flower-of-souls, 10,122 and S.madagascariensis (fireweed, 18,507 were almost completely eliminated in a two-year period. The number of sheep was kept at 3.0 stock units/ha, but a variable number of cattle were temporarily stocked according to pasture availability. The major sanitary practice applied to the sheep was anthelmintic administration. Liver biopsies taken from sheep and cattle before and after experimental period didn't reveal any change associable with seneciosis. The performance levels of the sheep were comparable to those observed in flocks managed under traditional extensive grazing systems in southern Brazil.

  1. Effect of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows.

    de Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2017-02-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids (FA) on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows. Treatment diets were offered from 3 to 16 wk postpartum (the treatment period), in which all cows grazed elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum 'Cameroon') and treatments were added to a concentrate supplement. The treatments were (1) control (concentrate without supplemental fat); (2) concentrate with calcium salts of soybean FA (CSSO); and (3) concentrate with calcium salts of palm FA (CSPO). From 17 to 42 wk postpartum (the carryover period), all cows received a common diet fed as a total mixed ration. During the treatment period, CSPO increased milk yield, milk fat yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and cumulative milk yield compared with control and CSSO. Treatment CSSO increased the yield of milk but did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk or energy-corrected compared with control. Also, CSSO decreased milk fat yield, dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, and body weight and body condition loss. Compared with control, both CSSO and CSPO increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk:dry matter intake), and CSPO increased feed efficiency compared with CSSO. When considering energy partitioning (as % energy intake), CSPO increased energy partitioning toward milk and increased energy mobilized from body reserves compared with control and CSSO. Furthermore, CSSO tended to reduce the mobilization of energy from body reserves compared with control. In the carryover period, no differences in milk composition were observed among treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed during the carryover period for milk yield because cows on CSPO maintained higher production compared with control and CSSO cows until 30 wk postpartum; CSSO had a lower carryover effect sustaining higher milk yield compared with

  2. Vegetation changes following sheep grazing in abandoned mountain meadows

    Krahulec, František; Skálová, Hana; Herben, Tomáš; Hadincová, Věroslava; Wildová, Radka; Pecháčková, Sylvie

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2001), s. 97-102 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA507/94/1306; GA ČR GA521/97/0499; GA ČR GA206/98/0727; GA AV ČR KSK2005601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : grassland * management * nature conservation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  3. Chernobyl derived activity in sheep: variation within a single flock and with time

    Walters, B.

    1988-01-01

    The continuous monitoring of the caesium contents of sheep grazing a high fell in Cumbria, UK, is described. The technique of in-vivo monitoring, using portable NaI crystal detectors, is shown to be robust and capable of producing accurate quantitative data. Results are presented from the monitoring of 100 sheep at fortnightly intervals over a period of 13 weeks. The peak average activity (1300 Bq kg -1 ) was reached five weeks after introduction of the sheep to grazing land with up to 2000 Bq kg -1 in herbage. Activity had fallen, on average, to 68% of the peak value after eight weeks. The variation in activity between individual sheep is large and usually symmetrically distributed. The temporal trend of activity in the whole flock is a combination of the many disparate individual trends. The technique has allowed the variation between animals and individual time trends to be followed. (author)

  4. Serological and molecular survey of sheep infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

    Cheng, Chen; Jun, Qiao; Qingling, Meng; Zhengxiang, Hu; Yu, Ma; Xuepeng, Cai; Zibing, Cheng; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases that threaten sheep production. In order to investigate the epidemic status of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in sheep, indirect hemagglutination assay was used to analyze 1679 serum samples collected from four different breeds of sheep (Kazak sheep, Hu sheep, Merino sheep, and Duolang sheep) in six regions in Xinjiang between 2012 and 2014. One thousand one hundred sixty-nine sheep nasal swabs and 180 lungs were PCR analyzed. The results showed that the average positive rates of the serum samples were 17.75 %. The positive rates were between 9.76 and 30.61 % in the four breeds. Among them, the Hu sheep had a significantly higher rate than other breeds (P sheep imported from inland, and effective immunization should be implemented in sheep susceptible to M. ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

  5. Effect of hygiene and medication on preweaning survival and growth of Djallonké sheep in Atacora, Benin

    Doko, S.Y.; Edoun, G.O.; Gbedonou, E.J.; Degla, P.; Bosma, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Low sheep productivity in North Benin hampers economic development, and improvement can contribute to reduction of rural poverty and food insecurity. To reduce one of the constraints to the productivity of Djallonké sheep, high mortality during suckling in full rainy and start dry season, we tested

  6. Developmental instability and fitness in Periploca laevigata experiencing grazing disturbance

    Alados, C.L.; Giner, M.L.; Dehesa, L.; Escos, J.; Barroso, F.; Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of developmental instability measurements (leaf fluctuating asymmetry, floral radial asymmetry, and shoot translational asymmetry) to a long‐standing natural stress (grazing) in a palatable tannin‐producing shrub (Periploca laevigata Aiton). We also assessed the relationship between these measures of developmental instability and fitness components (growth and floral production). Developmental instability, measured by translational asymmetry, was the most accurate estimator of a plant’s condition and, consequently, environmental stress. Plants with less translational asymmetry grew more and produced more flowers. Plants from the medium‐grazed population were developmentally more stable, as estimated by translational and floral asymmetry, than either more heavily or more lightly grazed populations. Leaf fluctuating asymmetry was positively correlated with tannin concentration. The pattern of internode growth also responded to grazing impact. Plants under medium to heavy grazing pressure accelerated early growth and consequently escaped herbivory later in the season, i.e., at the beginning of the spring, when grazing activity was concentrated in herbaceous plants. Periploca laevigata accelerated growth and finished growing sooner than in the other grazing treatment. Thus, its annual growth was more mature and less palatable later in the season when grazers typically concentrate on shrubs. The reduction of developmental instability under medium grazing is interpreted as a direct effect of grazing and not as the release from competition.

  7. The effects of saline water consumption on the ultrasonographic and histopathological appearance of the kidney and liver in Barki sheep.

    Ghanem, Mohamed; Zeineldin, Mohamed; Eissa, Attia; El Ebissy, Eman; Mohammed, Rasha; Abdelraof, Yassein

    2018-03-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of varying degrees of water salinity on the ultrasonographical and histopathological appearance of the liver and kidneys in Barki sheep. Thirty Barki sheep (initial weight, 29.48 ± 0.81 kg) were allocated into three groups (n=10 per group) based on the type of drinking water for 9 months: the tap water (TW) group (350 ppm total dissolved solids [TDS]); the moderate saline water (MSW) group (4557 ppm TDS); and the high saline water (HSW) group (8934 ppm TDS). After 9 months, the body weight was significantly decreased in sheep subjected to MSW (P=0.0347) and HSW (P=0.0424). Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, urea, and creatinine were significantly increased (Pinfiltration and vacuolar changes of hepatocytes in both MSW and HSW groups. In conclusion, water salinity negatively affects the body weight, liver and kidney appearance of Barki sheep and thus sheep production.

  8. Effect of Using Melatonin Implants on Postpartum Reproductive Indices in Tigaia Sheep Breed

    Ioan Padeanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in a commercial farm from Turnu, Arad County, on a number of 110 indigenous adultewes from the Tigaia breed. It is estimated by some authors that administration of subcutaneous melatonin implantsduring a period of 30 days, in lactating or dry ewes, would improve the reproductive performances in some sheepbreeds. Subcutaneous melatonin implants (Melovin were inserted to the ewes in doses of 18 mg. Current research,emphasized treated that from indigenous Tigaia breed, can be obtained superior reproduction indexes if the animalsare treated with melatonin implants with 35 days before the mating season, differences from the untreated groupbeing significantly (p<0.001. However, in sheep treated used melatonin implants, the lambing interval were reducedwith 40 to 50%. It seems that use of melatonin implants Melovin type near the beginning of normal breeding season,increases the reproductive performance of adult ewes from the Tigaia breed.

  9. The effect of radioactive radiation of the neurotransmitter levels in the hypothalamus, pituitary and pineal glands of sheeps

    Pastorova, B.; Maracek, I.; Stanikova, A.; Halagan, J.; Sopkova, D.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the exposure of the whole body to continuous radiation was studied of catecholamines (epinephrine and unepinephrine) in the hypothalamus, pineal and pituitary glands of ewes during the anestric period with synchronized oestrus. The radiation was provided at the rate 0.020 Gy per hour. Catecholamines were separated from the tissue supernatants by the absorption chromatographic method and the catecholamine contents in the eluates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Protracted exposure to gamma radiation and hormone stimulation with SG reduces the concentration of unepinephrine (P<0.001) in the whole hypothalamus of the sheep. A statistically significant decrease (P<0.001) was recorded in the medial and caudal hypothalamus of ewes. If is assumed that the decrease in catecholamine concentration after irradiation (2.4 Gy) is associated with the destroyed metabolism of catecholamines in nervous tissue and activity its degradation enzyme monoaminooxidase. (authors)

  10. Estimation of the effect of increased doses of UV-radiation on functional state and productivity of sheep

    Ivanov, V.L.; Ipatova, A.G.; Zejnalov, A.A.; Kozlov, V.A.; Sarukhanov, V. Ya.

    2000-01-01

    The results of evaluation of sensitivity and adaptive possibilities of the sheep organism by long impact of increased doses of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of the UV-range in the experiment by clinical-physiological indices modeling the 25 and 50 % depletion of the Earth ozone layer are presented. It is established that the character of changes in the animals organism depends on the irradiation dose sensitivity of the individual living system organism to the EMR and physiological peculiarities of its protection. However, the functional changes in the cardiovascular, immune and reproduction systems, homeostasis system and substance exchange in the period of chronic irradiation do not effect the development of irreversible pathological changes [ru

  11. Evaluations of and reasoning about normative and deviant ingroup and outgroup members: development of the black sheep effect.

    Abrams, Dominic; Palmer, Sally B; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Van de Vyver, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Research with adults has demonstrated a "black sheep effect" (BSE) whereby, relative to evaluations of normative group members, ingroup deviants are derogated more than outgroup deviants. The developmental subjective group dynamics (DSGD) model holds that the BSE should develop during middle childhood when children apply wider social norms. Three hundred and thirty-eight children who were between 5 and 12 years old judged a normative (socially desirable) and a deviant (socially undesirable) member from an ingroup or an outgroup school. Results confirmed a developmental increase in the BSE, the first time this has been demonstrated. Children's own evaluations of group members were mediated by their expectations about ingroup peers' evaluations. In line with DSGD and social domain theories, with age, children's explanations of peer evaluations for ingroup deviance focused relatively more on loyalty. Practical and theoretical implications for peer inclusion and exclusion are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. The effect of prolonged intrauterine hyperinsulinemia on iron utilization in fetal sheep.

    Georgieff, M K; Widness, J A; Mills, M M; Stonestreet, B S

    1989-11-01

    Newborn infants of poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetic mothers demonstrate a redistribution of iron from serum and tissue stores into red blood cells. These changes may be due to increases in iron utilization during augmented Hb synthesis, which compensates for chronic intrauterine hypoxemia induced by prolonged fetal hyperinsulinemia. We tested this hypothesis by measuring plasma iron, total iron-binding capacity, percent iron-binding capacity saturation (total iron-binding capacity saturation), Hb concentration, total red cell Hb, and total red cell iron in the arterial blood of 11 chronically instrumented fetal sheep after 7-12 d of infusion with 15 U/day of insulin (n = 5) or placebo (n = 6). The insulin-infused fetal sheep had higher mean +/- SD plasma insulin concentrations (448 +/- 507 versus 11 +/- 8 mU/L; p less than 0.001) and lower arterial oxygen saturations (38 +/- 7 versus 54 +/- 9%; p less than 0.02). The insulin-infused group had a lower mean plasma iron concentration (20.8 +/- 10.9 versus 42.1 +/- 14.7 microM/L; p less than 0.02) and total iron-binding capacity saturation (36 +/- 20 versus 64 +/- 22%; p less than 0.02) and a higher total red cell Hb (45.4 +/- 8.7 versus 32.6 +/- 8.8 g; p less than 0.02) and total red cell iron content (154 +/- 29 versus 111 +/- 29 mg; p less than 0.02) when compared with the placebo group. Seven to 12 d of intrauterine hyperinsulinemia decreases serum iron and increases total red cell iron, most likely by stimulating increased Hb synthesis in response to low arterial oxygen saturation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The effects of a hind-gut fermentation on urea kinetics in sheep

    Oncuer, A.

    1988-01-01

    Four female sheep were fitted with rumen cannulas and abomasal and ileal infusion catheters; one of the sheep was also fitted with a cannula at the caecum. All animals were nourished wholly by intragastric infusion of nutrients to the rumen and abomasum and received in addition three levels of nutrient infusion into the terminal ileum in order to achieve different levels of hind-gut fermentation. The ileal infusion treatments were (1) water infusion; (2) 25 g/d starch and 50 g/d cellulose infusion; (3) 50 g/d starch and 50 g/d cellulose infusion. In each 2 week period, the first 7 days served as the preliminary period infusion. Days 8-12 inclusive were used for quantitative collection of faeces and urine for digestibility and nitrogen balance measurement and on day 14 an injection of ( 14 C)-urea was given into a jugular vein for measurement of urea kinetics. Hind-gut fermentation did not significantly affect any parameters of urea metabolism. Although degradation of urea did not differ significantly between treatments an increase of over 2 g/d was observed in progressing from the lowest to the highest level of hind-gut infusion. Faecal nitrogen excretion increased significantly from 21.8 to 74.7 mg N/kg 0.75 /d (P 0.01) and urinary urea-N decreased significantly from 278.9 to 252.3 mg/kg 0.75 /d (P 0.05) in the presence of a hind-gut fermentation. Close relationships were observed between various parameters of urea metabolism

  14. The effects of dexamethasone on post-asphyxial cerebral oxygenation in the preterm fetal sheep

    Lear, Christopher A; Koome, Miriam E; Davidson, Joanne O; Drury, Paul P; Quaedackers, Josine S; Galinsky, Robert; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to clinical doses of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone increases brain activity and causes seizures in normoxic preterm fetal sheep without causing brain injury. In contrast, the same treatment after asphyxia increased brain injury. We hypothesised that increased injury was in part mediated by a mismatch between oxygen demand and oxygen supply. In preterm fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation we measured cerebral oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, and carotid blood flow (CaBF) from 24 h before until 72 h after asphyxia induced by 25 min of umbilical cord occlusion. Ewes received dexamethasone intramuscularly (12 mg 3 ml–1) or saline 15 min after the end of asphyxia. Fetuses were studied for 3 days after occlusion. During the first 6 h of recovery after asphyxia, dexamethasone treatment was associated with a significantly greater fall in CaBF (P < 0.05), increased carotid vascular resistance (P < 0.001) and a greater fall in cerebral oxygenation as measured by the difference between oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin (delta haemoglobin; P < 0.05). EEG activity was similarly suppressed in both groups. From 6 to 10 h onward, dexamethasone treatment was associated with a return of CaBF to saline control levels, increased EEG power (P < 0.005), greater epileptiform transient activity (P < 0.001), increased oxidised cytochrome oxidase (P < 0.05) and an attenuated increase in [delta haemoglobin] (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dexamethasone treatment after asphyxia is associated with greater hypoperfusion in the critical latent phase, leading to impaired intracerebral oxygenation that may exacerbate neural injury after asphyxia. PMID:25384775

  15. Pneumonia in bighorn sheep: Risk and resilience

    Cassirer, E. Frances; Manlove, Kezia R.; Almberg, Emily S.; Kamath, Pauline; Cox, Mike; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Roug, Annette; Shannon, Justin M.; Robinson, Rusty; Harris, Richard B.; Gonzales, Ben J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew; Besser, Thomas E.

    2018-01-01

    Infectious disease was an important driver of historic declines and extirpations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in North America and continues to impede population restoration and management. Domestic sheep have long been linked to pneumonia outbreaks in bighorn sheep and this association has now been confirmed in 13 captive commingling experiments. However, ecological and etiological complexities still hinder our understanding and control of the disease. We provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about the biology and management of respiratory disease in bighorn sheep and propose strategies for moving forward. Epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep is polymicrobial. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, a bacterium host-specific to Caprinae and commonly carried by healthy domestic sheep and goats appears to be a necessary primary agent. All-age epizootics following introduction of M. ovipneumoniae along with other pathogens into bighorn sheep populations are usually severe (median mortality 47%) but fatality rates vary widely, from 15 – 100%. Disease severity may be influenced by the strain of M. ovipneumoniae, by secondary bacterial and viral pathogens, and by factors affecting transmission and host immunity. Once introduced, M. ovipneumoniae can persist in bighorn sheep populations for decades. Carrier dams transmit the pathogen to their susceptible lambs, triggering fatal pneumonia outbreaks in nursery groups, which limits recruitment and slows or prevents population recovery. The result is that demographic costs of pathogen persistence often outweigh the impacts of the initial invasion and die-off. There is currently no effective vaccine or antibiotic for domestic or wild sheep and to date, no management actions have been successful in reducing morbidity, mortality, or disease spread once pathogen invasion has occurred. Molecular-based strain typing suggests that spillover of M. ovipneumoniae into bighorn sheep populations from domestic small ruminants

  16. Effect of feeding a by-product feed-based silage on nutrients intake, apparent digestibility, and nitrogen balance in sheep.

    Seok, J S; Kim, Y I; Lee, Y H; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2016-01-01

    Literature is lacking on the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on rumen fermentation parameters, nutrient digestion and nitrogen (N) retention in sheep. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of replacing rye straw with BF-based silage as a roughage source on ruminal parameters, total-tract apparent nutrient digestibility, and N balance in sheep. The by-product feed silage was composed of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) (45 %), recycled poultry bedding (RPB) (21 %), rye straw (11 %), rice bran (10.8 %), corn taffy residue (10 %), protected fat (1.0 %), bentonite (0.6 %), and mixed microbial additive (0.6 %). Six sheep were assigned randomly to either the control (concentrate mix + rye straw) or a treatment diet (concentrate mix + BF-based silage). Compared with the control diet, feeding a BF-based silage diet resulted in similar ruminal characteristics (pH, acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations, and acetate: propionate ratio), higher (p < 0.05) ruminal NH3-N, higher (p < 0.05) ether extract digestibility, similar crude protein digestibility, lower (p < 0.05) dry matter, fiber, and crude ash digestibilities, and higher (p < 0.05) N retention (g/d). The BF-based silage showed similar energy value, higher protein metabolism and utilization, and lower fiber digestion in sheep compared to the control diet containing rye straw.

  17. Influence of altitude on vitamin D and bone metabolism of lactating sheep and goats.

    Kohler, M; Leiber, F; Willems, H; Merbold, L; Liesegang, A

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of alpine grazing on vitamin D (vitD) and bone metabolism in sheep and goats. Two groups of five adult lactating East Friesian milk sheep and Saanen dairy goats were kept on pastures at 2,000 to 2,600 m a.s.l. (SA: sheep alpine; GA: goats alpine) and 400 m a.s.l. (SL: sheep lowland; GL: goats lowland). The animals were milked twice daily and the milk yield was measured. Blood, milk, skin, and forage samples were collected and the left metatarsi were measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography. The relative humidity and air temperature were recorded and the ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation was measured with a solar meter at both research stations. In addition, animals from the alpine group were equipped with a global positioning system receiver. The UVB radiation was higher at the alpine station (Psheep compared to goats and the 25(OH)D3 concentration in serum increased in all four groups but was higher in the alpine groups during the experiment. In addition, no differences in 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) concentrations in the skin at high altitude and lowland groups were detectable. However the 7-DHC concentrations in the skin of sheep were less than a tenth of the concentrations in the skin of goats and were nearly not detectable. In both groups SA and SL bone strength index increased during the trial (P=0.043). Bone strength index was lower in GA compared to GL at wk 12 (P=0.047). Mean serum Ca concentrations were higher and P concentrations were lower in the alpine groups than in the lowland groups (P=0.047). In both groups SA and GA the distance travelled increased during the trial. In conclusion, no effect of altitude on vitD status, vitD milk concentration and bone strength could be detected. Both sheep and goats are able to produce vitD in the skin, but sheep depend more on vitD intake with feedstuff, whereas goats rely more on cutaneous vitD production.

  18. Effect of silage from ryegrass intercropped with winter or common vetch for grazing dairy cows in small-scale dairy systems in Mexico.

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Heredia-Nava, Darwin; Espinoza-Ortega, Angelica; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

    2011-06-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of including silages of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) intercropped with winter vetch (Vicia villosa) (ARG-VV) or with common vetch (Vicia sativa) (ARG-VS) compared with maize silage (MS) on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows grazing cultivated perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures with supplemented concentrate during the dry season. Six Holstein dairy cows with a mean yield of 19.0 kg/cow/day at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 repeated Latin square. Treatments were: 8 h/day intensive grazing, 3.6 kg of dry matter (DM) per cow per day of concentrate plus MS, and ARG-VV or ARG-VS ad libitum at a stocking rate of 3.0 cows/ha for three experimental periods of 3 weeks each. Milk yield (MY) and milk composition, live weight and body condition score as well as silage and concentrate intakes were recorded during the third week of each experimental period, and pasture intake was estimated indirectly from utilised metabolisable energy. Economic analysis was obtained by preparing partial budgets. There were no statistical differences (P > 0.10) in MY, milk fat or protein content nor for live weight, but there was significant difference (P dairy production systems in the dry season as it is comparable to MS in animal performance and slightly better in economic terms.

  19. Effect of yearling steer sequence grazing of perennial and annual forages in an integrated crop and livestock system on grazing performance, delayed feedlot entry, finishing performance, carcass measurements, and systems economics.

    Sentürklü, Songul; Landblom, Douglas G; Maddock, Robert; Petry, Tim; Wachenheim, Cheryl J; Paisley, Steve I

    2018-06-04

    In a 2-yr study, spring-born yearling steers (n = 144), previously grown to gain <0.454 kg·steer-1·d-1, following weaning in the fall, were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to three retained ownership rearing systems (three replications) in early May. Systems were 1) feedlot (FLT), 2) steers that grazed perennial crested wheatgrass (CWG) and native range (NR) before FLT entry (PST), and 3) steers that grazed perennial CWG and NR, and then field pea-barley (PBLY) mix and unharvested corn (UC) before FLT entry (ANN). The PST and ANN steers grazed 181 d before FLT entry. During grazing, ADG of ANN steers (1.01 ± SE kg/d) and PST steers (0.77 ± SE kg/d) did not differ (P = 0.31). But even though grazing cost per steer was greater (P = 0.002) for ANN vs. PST, grazing cost per kg of gain did not differ (P = 0.82). The ANN forage treatment improved LM area (P = 0.03) and percent i.m. fat (P = 0.001). The length of the finishing period was greatest (P < 0.001) for FLT (142 d), intermediate for PST (91 d), and least for ANN (66 d). Steer starting (P = 0.015) and ending finishing BW (P = 0.022) of ANN and PST were greater than FLT steers. Total FLT BW gain was greater for FLT steers (P = 0.017), but there were no treatment differences for ADG, (P = 0.16), DMI (P = 0.21), G: F (P = 0.82), and feed cost per kg of gain (P = 0.61). However, feed cost per steer was greatest for FLT ($578.30), least for ANN ($276.12), and intermediate for PST ($381.18) (P = 0.043). There was a tendency for FLT steer HCW to be less than ANN and PST, which did not differ (P = 0.076). There was no difference between treatments for LM area (P = 0.094), backfat depth (P = 0.28), marbling score (P = 0.18), USDA yield grade (P = 0.44), and quality grade (P = 0.47). Grazing steer net return ranged from an ANN system high of $9.09/steer to a FLT control system net loss of -$298 and a PST system that was slightly less than the ANN system (-$30.10). Ten-year (2003 to 2012) hedging and net return

  20. Transformation of a savanna grassland by drought and grazing | O ...

    The relative effects of drought and heavy grazing on the floristic composition, population size and and structure, and basal cover of an African savanna grassland were differentiated by comparing changes over eight years over eight years, which included a severe drought year, across a gradient of grazing history. Drought ...

  1. Effect of supplementation of Simada sheep with graded levels of concentrate meal on feed intake, digestibility and body-weight parameters.

    Dessie, Jemberu; Melaku, Solomon; Tegegne, Firew; Peters, Kurt J

    2010-06-01

    The experiment consisting of 7 days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trial was conducted at Wogda (Ethiopia) to determine the effect of supplementation of graded levels of concentrate mix (CM) on feed intake, digestibility, and body weight (BW) change in hay-based feeding of Simada sheep. Twenty-yearling Simada sheep with a mean initial BW of 17.9 +/- 0.81 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in randomized complete block design arranged into five blocks of four animals. The four dietary treatments that consisted of hay alone (T1), hay +150 g dry matter (DM; T2, low), hay +250 g DM (T3, medium), and hay +350 g DM (T4, high) CM were randomly assigned to each sheep within a block. The CM consisted of wheat bran (WB), noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) meal and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seed meal at the ratio of (2:1:1), respectively. Supplementation with T2 and T3 increased (P profitability compared to the control, whereas sheep on the high than the low and medium level of supplementation performed better in these parameters among the supplemented treatments. From the results of this study, T4 is recommended as the best level of supplementation since it resulted in better nutrient utilization, animal performance, and profitability.

  2. Application of sheep manure and potassium fertilizer to contaminated soil and its effect on zinc, cadmium and lead accumulation by alfalfa plants

    Zouheir Elouear

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Jebel Ressas mining area (Southern of Tunisia, the dispersion of particles that contain Pb, Zn and Cd results in the contamination of the surrounding agricultural soils. These soils have high concentrations of Pb (970 mg kg−1, Zn (9641 mg kg−1 and Cd (53 mg kg−1. This glasshouse study examined the effect of application of fertilizers, i.e., organic fertilizer as local sheep manure and inorganic fertilizer as potassium chloride (KCl, on the growth, uptake and translocation of Cd, Pb, and Zn of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. grown on a contaminated soil. Obtained results showed that alfalfa could tolerate high Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in soil and had very good growth performance. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, that plant growth is not affected in the treated soil compared with blanks sown in an untreated control soil; improvement ranged from 80% for the KCl to 97% for sheep manure. Application of sheep manure increased electrical conductivity and reduced DTPA-extractable metal concentrations in the soils. But KCl fertilizer favored their accumulation in plants. So, KCl could be a useful amendment for phytoextraction of metals by accumulator species, while sheep manure can be very useful for phytostabilisation.

  3. Horse grazing systems: understory biomass and plant biodiversity of a Pinus radiata stand

    Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Horse grazing systems may affect productivity and biodiversity of understory developed under Pinus radiata D. Don silvopastoral systems, while acting as a tool to reduce the risk of fire. This study compared continuous and rotational grazing systems effect upon biomass, fractions of stem, sprouts, leaves and woody parts of Ulex europaeus L. and alpha (Species Richness, Shannon-Wiener and beta (Jaccard and Magurran biodiversity for a period of four years in a P. radiata silvopastoral system. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design of two treatments (continuous and rotational grazing. Biomass, and species abundances were measured - biodiversity metrics were calculated based on these results for a two years of grazing and two years of post-grazing periods. Both continuous and rotational grazing systems were useful tools for reducing biomass and, therefore, fire risk. The rotational grazing system caused damage to the U. europaeus shrub, limiting its recovery once grazing was stopped. However, the more intensive grazing of U. europaeus plants under rotational had a positive effect on both alpha and beta biodiversity indexes due to the low capacity of food selection in the whole plot rather than continuous grazing systems. Biomass was not affected by the grazing system; however the rotational grazing system is more appropriate to reduce U. europaeus biomass and therefore forest fire risk at a long term and to enhance pasture biodiversity than the continuous grazing system.

  4. Effect of vaccination against pneumonia on the survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with carrier animals.

    Raghavan, Bindu; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Kugadas, Abirami; Haldorson, Gary J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2017-05-01

    Leukotoxin producing (lkt+) members of Pasteurellaceae, particularly Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi are important pathogens of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis), causing fatal disease. Predisposing or concurrent infection with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae enhances the severity of the disease, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Several studies have investigated the effectiveness of vaccines against lkt+ members of Pasteurellaceae in preventing fatal pneumonia in BHS. In all of these studies, however, vaccinated animals were challenged experimentally, by direct inoculation of the pathogens, rather than by natural challenge. Moreover, none has investigated the efficacy of the vaccines under conditions of concurrent infection with M. ovipneumoniae. We immunized three bighorn rams and one pregnant ewe with an experimental multivalent vaccine along with a commercial vaccine. The immunized animals were then commingled with two bighorn ewes known to be carriers of lkt+ members of Pasteurellaceae, to simulate natural infection or disease transmission. All vaccinated animals remained healthy. We then inoculated the two carrier ewes with nasal washings from domestic sheep containing M. ovipneumoniae. Within a week, all animals developed mild to moderate signs of pneumonia. While the rams died within two-three months post-inoculation (p.i.), the vaccinated ewe and her lamb died five and eight months p.i., respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that vaccination of BHS against lkt+ members of Pasteurellaceae alone can protect them from natural challenge by these pathogens. However, it may not be adequate to protect them against pneumonia compounded by concurrent infection with M. ovipneumoniae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Grazing Management and Cattle on Aquatic Habitat Use by the Anuran Pseudopaludicola mystacalis in Agro-Savannah Landscapes.

    Rodolfo M Pelinson

    Full Text Available Because of their strong dependence on the environment, the spatial distribution of pond-breeding amphibians can be greatly influenced by anthropogenic habitat alteration. In some agricultural landscapes in Brazil, the anuran Pseudopaludicola mystacalis appears to be highly influenced by land use. Because adult males and tadpoles of this species are usually found in marshy areas with cattle hoof prints, we hypothesized that P. mystacalis preferentially occupies aquatic habitats with marshy areas that are trampled by cattle. To test our hypothesis, we assessed whether the occurrence of P. mystacalis is associated with the presence of cattle and trampled marshy areas, and which environmental features best explain the spatial distribution and abundance of P. mystacalis. To do so, we sampled 38 aquatic habitats in an area intensely used for livestock in southeastern Brazil. We found that the presence of cattle and trampled marshy areas in aquatic habitats are positively associated to P. mystacalis occurrence. Additionally, the abundance of calling males is better predicted by variables of landscape and local habitat structure. Specifically, the size of trampled marshy areas and the proportion of herbaceous vegetation within the aquatic habitat are positively associated with abundance, while distance to nearest aquatic habitat are negatively associated with abundance of calling males. All three of these variables can be directly or indirectly linked to the presence of cattle or grazing management. Therefore, this work shows evidence that Pseudopaludicola mystacalis is positively influenced by grazing management with cattle, and draws attention to other unknown potential consequences of different land use to fresh water diversity.

  6. Application of Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration as a Proxy for Estimating the Energy Expenditure of Grazing Farm Animals: Relationship with Heart Rate

    Miwa, Masafumi; Oishi, Kazato; Nakagawa, Yasuhiro; Maeno, Hiromichi; Anzai, Hiroki; Kumagai, Hajime; Okano, Kanji; Tobioka, Hisaya; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the energy expenditure of farm animals at pasture is important for efficient animal management. In recent years, an alternative technique for estimating energy expenditure by measuring body acceleration has been widely performed in wildlife and human studies, but the availability of the technique in farm animals has not yet been examined. In the present study, we tested the potential use of an acceleration index, overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), as a new proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals (cattle, goats and sheep) at pasture with the simultaneous evaluation of a conventional proxy, heart rate. Body accelerations in three axes and heart rate for cows (n = 8, two breeds), goats (n = 6) and sheep (n = 5) were recorded, and the effect of ODBA calculated from the body accelerations on heart rate was analyzed. In addition, the effects of the two other activity indices, the number of steps and vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA), on heart rate were also investigated. The results of the comparison among three activity indices indicated that ODBA was the best predictor for heart rate. Although the relationship between ODBA and heart rate was different between the groups of species and breeds and between individuals (Panimals, and the results indicated that ODBA is a good proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals across species and breeds. The utility and simplicity of the procedure with acceleration loggers could make the accelerometry technique a worthwhile option in field research and commercial farm use. PMID:26030931

  7. The Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Administration Following Hypoxia-Ischemia in Preterm Fetal Sheep

    Tamara Yawno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (MLT is an endogenous hormone that controls circadian cycle. MLT has additional important properties that make it appealing as a neuroprotective agent—it is a potent anti-oxidant, with anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. MLT is safe for administration during pregnancy or to the newborn after birth, and can reduce white matter brain injury under conditions of chronic fetal hypoxia. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined whether an intermediate dose of MLT could restore white matter brain development when administered after an acute hypoxic ischemic (HI insult in preterm fetal sheep. Fifteen fetal sheep at 95–98 days gestation were instrumented with femoral artery and vein catheters, and a silastic cuff placed around the umbilical cord. At 102 days gestation, the cuff was inflated, causing complete umbilical cord occlusion for 25 min in 10 fetuses, to induce acute severe HI. Five HI fetuses received intravenous MLT for 24 h beginning at 2 h after HI. The remaining five fetuses were administered saline alone. Ten days after HI, the fetal brain was collected from each animal and white and gray matter neuropathology assessed. HI caused a significant increase in apoptotic cell death (TUNEL+, activated microglia (Iba-1+, and oxidative stress (8-OHdG+ within the subventricular and subcortical white matter. HI reduced the total number of oligodendrocytes and CNPase+ myelin density. MLT administration following HI decreased apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress within the white matter. MLT had intermediate benefits for the developing white matter: it increased oligodendrocyte cell number within the periventricular white matter only, and improved CNPase+ myelin density within the subcortical but not the striatal white matter. MLT administration following HI was also associated with improved neuronal survival within the cortex. Neuropathology in preterm infants is complex and mediated by multiple mechanisms

  8. Anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed goats in a semi-arid area of South Africa

    F.R. Bakunzi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted on the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed goats in a semi-arid area in SouthAfrica. In herds belonging to 10 smallholder goat farmers, the efficacies of fenbendazole, levamisole and rafoxanide were tested by faecal egg count reduction (FECR tests. Efficacies of 80 % were considered a threshold for anthelmintic resistance. The FECR tests showed that all drugs tested more than 80 % effective in most instances, but there were notable exceptions. In 1 case, rafoxanide was only 31 % effective and in another case fenbendazole was only 47 % effective. The occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in this farming sector is of concern. Steps should be taken to prevent its further spread and to avoid the development of a situation as onnumerous commercial sheep farms in South Africa where resistance is very common.

  9. THE TREATMENT EFFECT OF OXYTETRACYCLINE AND VITAMIN C IN AN EPISODE OF PARAINFLUENZA SHEEP IN TIMIS COUNTY

    Stancu, A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep parainfluenza It is a disease with high diffusibility, sometimes with fatal serious, especially youth. It is caused by parainfluenza 3 virus (PI-3, identical to the bovine parainfluenza virus isolate, in combination with certain bacteria. PI-3 virus was firstly isolated from Hore et al. (1966 in the lungs and nasal mucus of sheep with pneumopathies and Gilmour et al (1968 successfully experimenting with an inactivated vaccine for the prophylaxis of diseases. In our country, parainfluenza sheep was diagnosed in 1977 by pathological examinations. Also by pathological examination was differentiated by Maedi-visna disease and pulmonary adenomatosis.

  10. Effects of supplementing endophyte-infected tall fescue with sainfoin and polyethylene glycol on the physiology and ingestive behavior of sheep.

    Catanese, F; Distel, R A; Villalba, J J

    2014-02-01

    Tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) may bind to alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue [E+; Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] and attenuate toxicosis. If so, supplementing E+ with sainfoin will increase use of E+ by sheep, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-a polymer that selectively binds to tannins-will reduce such response. To test these predictions, thirty-six 2-mo-old lambs were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (12 lambs/treatment). During exposure, all lambs were individually penned and fed E+ supplemented with beet pulp (CTRL), fresh-cut sainfoin and beet pulp (SAIN), or fresh-cut sainfoin plus PEG mixed in beet pulp (SAIN+PEG). Feed intake was measured daily. Rectal temperatures and jugular blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of exposure. After exposure, all lambs were offered choices between endophyte-free tall fescue (E-) and orchardgrass, and preference for E- was assessed. Then, all lambs were allowed to graze a choice of E+ and sainfoin or a monoculture of E+. The foraging behavior of lambs was recorded. When sainfoin was in mid-vegetative stage, lambs in SAIN ingested more E+ than lambs in CTRL (P = 0.05), but no differences were detected between lambs in SAIN+PEG and CTRL (P = 0.12). Sainfoin supplementation improved some physiological parameters indicative of fescue toxicosis. Lambs in SAIN had lower rectal temperatures (P = 0.02), greater numbers of leukocytes (P 0.05). On the other hand, when they grazed on a monoculture of E+, lambs in SAIN+PEG showed greater acceptance of E+ than lambs in SAIN or in CTRL (P < 0.05). In summary, sainfoin supplementation alleviated several of the classic signs of fescue toxicosis and increased intake of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Tannins in sainfoin partially accounted for this benefit since feeding a polymer that selectively binds to tannins (PEG) attenuated some these responses. However, sainfoin supplementation during initial exposure to E+ did not lead to an increased

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cystic echinococcosis and sheep herding in Peru: a mixed-methods approach.

    Merino, Veronika; Westgard, Christopher M; Bayer, Angela M; García, Patricia J

    2017-07-06

    The parasitic disease, cystic echinococcosis (CE), is prevalent in low-income, livestock-raising communities and 2000 new people will be diagnosed this year in South America alone. The disease usually passes from livestock to dogs to humans, making it a zoonotic disease and part of the One Health Initiative. Control of CE has been infamously difficult; no endemic areas of South America have succeeded in maintaining sustainable eradication of the parasite. For the current study, we aimed to gain a better understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of rural sheep farmers and other community leaders regarding their sheep herding practices and perspectives about a control program for CE. We also hope to identify potential barriers and opportunities that could occur in a control program. The authors conducted Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) surveys and semi-structured interviews in rural communities in the highlands of Peru. The KAP surveys were administered to 51 local shepherds, and the semi-structured interviews were administered to 40 individuals, including shepherds, community leaders, and health care providers. We found that the shepherds already deworm their sheep at a median of 2 times per year (N = 49, range 2-4) and have a mean willingness-to-pay of U.S. $ 0.60 for dog dewormer medication (N = 20, range = 0.00- $2.00 USD). We were not able to learn the deworming agent or agents that were being used, for neither sheep nor dogs. Additionally, 90% of shepherds slaughter their own sheep (N = 49). We also learned that the main barriers to an effective control program include: lack of education about the cause and control options for CE, accessibility to the distant communities and sparse grazing pastures, and a lack of economic incentive. Findings suggest it may be feasible to develop an effective CE control program which can be used to create an improved protocol to control CE in the region.

  12. Methane Emission By Grazing Livestock. A Synopsis Of 1000 Direct Measurements

    Lassey, K.R. [National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington (New Zealand); Ulyatt, M.J. [New Zealand Pastoral Agriculture Research Institute (AgResearch), Palmerston North (New Zealand)

    2000-07-01

    In a series of field campaigns since 1995, a team of atmospheric and ruminant-nutrition scientists have measured methane emissions directly from individual ruminant livestock freely grazing representative New Zealand pastures. The technique collects integrated 'breath' samples during grazing, using an implanted SF6 source as a conservative calibrated tracer, an approach pioneered by Johnson et al. [1994]. Most of these measurements have been on grazing sheep (942 animal-days to Aug 1999), others on grazing dairy cows (283), with some measurements also on sheep under controlled feeding conditions (305) [eg, Lassey et al., 1997; Ulyatt et al., 1999]. The aim is to characterise the variability of emission rates, including their dependence on pasture quality and physiological condition. The research goal is two-fold: (1) to provide a better scientific basis for assessing the national emissions inventory; and (2) to investigate options for mitigating livestock emissions. Here, we discuss the research strategy and overview the principal research findings. We note in particular, that as a source of enterically fermented methane, sheep may not be merely 'small cattle'. 5 refs.

  13. Factors determining the reproductive potential of Pelibuey sheep: Effects of season and parturition on reproductive performance

    Gonzalez Reyna, A.; Ortega Rivas, E.; Murphy, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Pelibuey sheep in Mexico are known for their hardiness and reproductive capacity: as a result they represent a reliable source of animal protein especially at the village level. Although their reproductive parameters have been studied, little endocrinological information is available. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the annual reproductive cycle in the Pelibuey ram and ewe, and to study methods of shortening the interval from parturition to first oestrus in lactating post-partum ewes. Under conditions of nutrition and management prevailing in this study, season affected levels of testosterone and LH in the male and LH in the female. Season also influenced oestrous activity, the proportion of ewes ovulating per month and the mean ovulation rate per month. The results indicated that the majority of Pelibuey ewes cycle throughout the year but exhibit reduced gonadal activity during late winter. Pelibuey rams appear to have longer periods of reduced activity (during late autumn and winter), although testosterone levels suggest that rams return to their full reproductive activity earlier (late winter) than ewes. (author). 30 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Steers grazing of a rye cover crop influences growth of rye and no-till cotton

    Small grain cover crops offer opportunities for grazing but effects on following row crops are not well understood. From 1999 through 2008, stocker steers sequence grazed small grains in a 2-paddock rye-cotton-wheat-fallow- rye rotation. Treatments imposed on rye included 1) zero-grazing from 1999; ...

  15. Effect of processed cereal grains as a supplement on grass intake, rumen pool sizes, ruminal kinetics and the performance of grazing lactating dairy cows

    Tothi, R.; Zhang, R.H.; Chilibroste, P.; Boer, H.; Tamminga, S.

    2003-01-01

    Five multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows fitted with rumen cannula were allowed to graze perennial ryegrass swards. Next to a control treatment of grazing only, pelleted barley (PB), pelleted maize (PM), toasted and subsequently pelleted barley (TPB), and toasted and subsequently

  16. Solid-state 13C NMR experiments reveal effects of aggregate size on the chemical composition of particulate organic matter in grazed steppe soils

    Steffens, M.; Kölbl, A.; Kögel-Knabner, I.

    2009-04-01

    Grazing is one of the most important factors that may reduce soil organic matter (SOM) stocks and subsequently deteriorate aggregate stability in grassland topsoils. Land use management and grazing reduction are assumed to increase the input of OM, improve the soil aggregation and change species composition of vegetation (changes depth of OM input). Many studies have evaluated the impact of grazing cessation on SOM quantity. But until today little is known about the impact of grazing cessation on the chemical quality of SOM in density fractions, aggregate size classes and different horizons. The central aim of this study was to analyse the quality of SOM fractions in differently sized aggregates and horizons as affected by increased inputs of organic matter due to grazing exclusion. We applied a combined aggregate size, density and particle size fractionation procedure to sandy steppe topsoils with different organic matter inputs due to different grazing intensities (continuously grazed = Cg, winter grazing = Wg, ungrazed since 1999 = Ug99, ungrazed since 1979 = Ug79). Three different particulate organic matter (POM; free POM, in aggregate occluded POM and small in aggregate occluded POM) and seven mineral-associated organic matter fractions were separated for each of three aggregate size classes (coarse = 2000-6300 m, medium = 630-2000 m and fine =

  17. Effects of clam size, food type, sediment characteristic, and seawater carbonate chemistry on grazing capacity of Venus clam Cyclina sinensis (Gmelin, 1791)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhou, Kai; Liu, Xin; Lai, Qifang; Zhang, Dong; Shi, Liyan

    2017-09-01

    Aquaculture in saline-alkaline water has a major problem: microalgal blooming causes the pH of water to increase dramatically, thereby causing damage to the reared organisms. To solve this problem, we set out to find a candidate filter-feeding bivalve species suitable for saline-alkaline water to graze on microalgae and to control the pH. In the current study, we investigated the effect of carbonate alkalinity (CA, 2.5, 10.0, and 20.0 meq/L) and pH (8.0, 8.5, and 9.0) on the grazing capacity (GC) of the clam Cyclina sinensis. Additionally, the effect of clam size (small, medium, and large) and microalgae species ( Nannochloropsis oculata, Chaetoceros müelleri, and Isochrysis galbana), and the effect of bottom sediment characteristic (mud, sandy mud, and muddy sand) and thickness (3 and 6 cm) were analyzed as well. The results show that the GC on I. galbana was the highest and small size had the maximum GC/ W ( W: wet weight including body and shells). No significant differences were observed between sediment type and thickness. Regarding CA and pH, a significant decrease in GC by the pH or by their interaction was found. The GC of C. sinensis was not greatly reduced in the treatments of pH≤8.5 and CA≤20.0, and also not affected by bottom sediment type, indicating that this clam is capable to manage microalgal concentrations and might be a candidate species for pH reduction in saline-alkaline water ponds.

  18. Dorper sheep utilizing feed resources efficiently: a Mediterranean case study

    Sezen Ocak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the effect varying feeding systems would have on meat quality and production. The study looked at 45 Dorper lambs which were subjected to three different feeding protocols representing three alternate production systems: extensive grazing system (Group G, an intensive feedlot system being fed concentrate + alfalfa hay (Group C, and a semi-intensive production system comprising grazing + concentrate (Group GC. The lambs were slaughtered 62 days after weaning at approximately four months of age and meat quality factors such as pH, colour, shear force, cooking and water loss, as well as carcass characteristics; back fat thickness, muscle depth, muscle width, and muscle area were measured instrumentally on the longissimus dorsi muscle. A new measuring index was used to assess feed cost against weight gain to determine performance for profitability. In calculating cost kg-1 live weight gain, the extensive grass-fed production was significantly lower, approximately 70% less than the intensive feedlot system. Very little significant effect on meat quality was seen among the three systems. Slaughter weight had a significant effect on hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, and drip loss. The lean carcass trait of the Dorper breed was a major positive attribute, but minor benefits gained in meat quality with the feedlot production system did not justify the substantial additional cost of production. Dorper sheep can be considered efficient feed converters on pasture, and thus a suitable breed for lamb meat production in countries like Turkey, where feed costs are the main contributor to farm outgoing.

  19. Effects of condensed tannins supplementation level on weight gain and in vitro and in vivo bloat precursors in steers grazing winter wheat.

    Min, B R; Pinchak, W E; Anderson, R C; Fulford, J D; Puchala, R

    2006-09-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of level of supplementation with quebracho condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro ruminal fluid gas production, in vivo ruminal fluid protein fractions, bloat dynamics, and ADG of steers grazing winter wheat. Two experiments were conducted to 1) enumerate the effect of ruminal fluid from steers fed quebracho CT (0, 1, and 2% CT/kg of DMI) on in vitro gas and methane production from minced fresh wheat forage; and 2) quantify the influence of CT supplementation on ruminal protein characteristics, biofilm complexes, bloat potential, and ADG of steers grazing wheat pasture. Eighteen ruminally cannulated steers (386 +/- 36 kg of BW) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments that included a control (water infusion) and 2 CT treatment levels (1 or 2% CT/kg of DMI). Treatments were administered daily (63 d) through the rumen cannula as pre-mixes with warm water (approximately 30 degrees C). Rumen contents were collected 2 h postinfusion (at 1030 to 1130) on d 0, 20, 40, 50, and 60. Bloat was visually scored daily for 5 d each wk. In Exp. 1, supplementation of CT decreased the rate of in vitro gas production in a dose-dependent response. In Exp. 2, ADG increased (P bloat score across stage of growth and replicates decreased linearly with increasing CT supplementation; bloat scores were greater (P rumen fluid protein fractions varied among CT treatments and stage of growth. Addition of CT reduced the severity of bloat, principally through reducing microbial activities, biofilm production, and ruminal gas production. Quebracho CT is potentially a value-added supplement that can decrease the impacts of frothy bloat and increase BW gains in stocker cattle-wheat systems.

  20. High and low rigor temperature effects on sheep meat tenderness and ageing.

    Devine, Carrick E; Payne, Steven R; Peachey, Bridget M; Lowe, Timothy E; Ingram, John R; Cook, Christian J

    2002-02-01

    Immediately after electrical stimulation, the paired m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LT) of 40 sheep were boned out and wrapped tightly with a polyethylene cling film. One of the paired LT's was chilled in 15°C air to reach a rigor mortis (rigor) temperature of 18°C and the other side was placed in a water bath at 35°C and achieved rigor at this temperature. Wrapping reduced rigor shortening and mimicked meat left on the carcass. After rigor, the meat was aged at 15°C for 0, 8, 26 and 72 h and then frozen. The frozen meat was cooked to 75°C in an 85°C water bath and shear force values obtained from a 1×1 cm cross-section. The shear force values of meat for 18 and 35°C rigor were similar at zero ageing, but as ageing progressed, the 18 rigor meat aged faster and became more tender than meat that went into rigor at 35°C (Prigor at each ageing time were significantly different (Prigor were still significantly greater. Thus the toughness of 35°C meat was not a consequence of muscle shortening and appears to be due to both a faster rate of tenderisation and the meat tenderising to a greater extent at the lower temperature. The cook loss at 35°C rigor (30.5%) was greater than that at 18°C rigor (28.4%) (P<0.01) and the colour Hunter L values were higher at 35°C (P<0.01) compared with 18°C, but there were no significant differences in a or b values.

  1. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry ( Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS. The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05 among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75 and DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP. The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber was significantly lower (p<0.05 for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively. Nitrogen (N intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05 higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d. In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05 in T1 (120.3 mM, whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%. However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05 higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  2. Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma USA

    Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma, USA J.P.S. Neel USDA ARS, El Reno, OK A reduction in enteric CH4 production in ruminants is associated with improved production effic...

  3. Effect of wood waste on the digestibility of carbohydrates and the level of volatile fatty acids in sheep

    Zelanak, I; Cerny, I; Apalovic, R; Doskova, E

    1977-01-01

    In sheep, the use of steam-treated beech sawdust and thickened aqueous hydrolyzate of beech wood (xylocel) as a replacer for ground barley straw favorably influenced the digestibility of monosaccharides, cellulose, lignin, and total dry matter of the diet. Sawdust reduced the concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the rumen content, but the ratio of HOAc to EtCO/sub 2/H (A:P) was lower and the energetic efficiency of the VFA produced was higher in the diet containing sawdust. The addition of urea to the diet with beech sawdust conditioned less effectively, and did not give a clear effect. Urea increased the digestibility of pentosans, glucose, and cellulose, but reduced the energetic efficiency of the VFA produced. Xylocel had no clear effect on the digestibility of sugars, either. The higher A:P ratio and the lower energetic efficiency of the VFA produced testify to the fact that xylocel in combination with beet molasses was not a sufficient replacer of sugar beet carbohydrates.

  4. Radioactivity and countermeasures like clean feeding of sheep

    2011-01-01

    It's been 25 years since the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, but there is still radioactivity remaining in the Norwegian nature. The radioactive cesium-137 is taken up by plants and fungi and transferred to animals on rangelands. In the grazing season of 2010 had 20 000 sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding to reduce radioactivity levels in the meat before slaughter. Oppland had most sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding with almost 12 000 animals. Total was paid 2.2 million in compensation to livestock owners in 2010. In the period 1986-2010 is about 2.2 million sheep have been suspended with a charge of approximately NOK 227 million. (AG)

  5. Forage selection by teddy goats versus sheep on thal ranges

    Jasra, A.W.; Hanjra, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Grazing behaviours of Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were studied on rangelands of ThaI. Bite count method was used to determine the dietary composition of both animal species. The overall preference of Teddy goats was higher for Khabble grass (Cynodon dactylon), which was 40.57% of the total number of bite made on different plant species during the study period (March-July). Teddy goats utilized a wide range of browsing plant species like Wan (Salvadora oleoides), Phog (Calligonum polygonoides), Babil (Acacia jacquemontii), Jandi (Prosopis spicigera) etc. Browsing species were major component (>50%) of goat diets dur- ing March through June. Whereas Thalli sheep had been consistent in their heavy use of Khabble grass (overall 89.27%). Browsing plant species were not an important component of their diets. Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were competitive for Khabble grass particularly at its vegetative growth stage. (author)

  6. Copper intoxication in sheep

    Gazaryan, V.S.; Sogoyan, I.S.; Agabalov, G.A.; Mesropyan, V.V.

    1966-01-01

    Of 950 sheep fed hay from a vineyard sprayed regularly with copper sulfate, 143 developed clinical copper poisoning and 103 died. The Cu content of the hay was 10.23 mg%, of the liver of dead sheep 17-52 mg%, and of the blood serum of affected sheep 0.86 mg%. The symptoms and the histological findings in kidneys and liver are described.

  7. The Effects of Amofer Palm Oil Waste-based Complete Feed to Blood Profiles and Liver Function on Local Sheep

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Amoniation-Fermentation (amofer technology should be conducted in order to improve the low quality of by product produced from palm oil plantations and mills (palm oil waste which is used for constituent of feed ingredients in complete feed (CF. This technology also reforms the feed material into edible form. Before broadly applicable, it must be ensured that the feed does not have toxic effects on livestock. This research was peformed to evaluate the effects of amofer palm oil waste-based CF to blood profile and liver function on local sheep. Completely Randomly Design (CRD was used with 4 treaments and 4 replications. The observed variables were the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood glucose, ALT and AST was analyzed by ANOVA. The average value of blood glucose levels at T1= 80.68 mg/dl, T2=79.08 mg/dl, T3=81.18 mg/dl and T4=73.70 mg/dl. The average value of hemoglobin levels at T1=10.80 g/dl, T2=10.30 g/dl, T3=11.23 g/dl and T4=10.25 g/dl. The average value of hematocrit levels at T1=31.00%, T2=31.00%, T3=33.75% and T4=30%. The average value of ALT levels at T1=17.90 ml, T2=13.83 ml, T3=18.75 ml and, T4=13.40 ml. The average value of AST level at T1=106.20 ml, T2=88.98 ml, T3=104.40 ml and T4=91.25 ml. There was no significant difference among four treatments (p>0.05. The administration CF did not cause hematological disorders which showed by the blood profiles and liver function were in normal range, so that suggested the CF was appropriate and safe for local sheep. [Keywords––amofer, complete feed, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, liver function

  8. Assessment of Grewia oppositifolia leaves as crude protein supplement to low-quality forage diets of sheep.

    Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Habib, Ghulam

    2012-10-01

    In the tropical arid and semi-arid regions of many developing countries, sheep are predominantly grazed on low-quality pastures and stall-fed on crop residues. This study evaluated the potential of Grewia oppositifolia tree leaves as crude protein (CP) supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep in comparison with cottonseed cake (CSC). Changes in the chemical composition of the leaves with progressive maturation (December to March) were studied. The leaves maintained a high CP content (>164 g/kg dry matter (DM)) during the prolonged maturation in the winter feed scarcity period. The leaves were rich in Ca (41 g/kg DM) and K (89 g/kg DM). The rate of degradation and effective degradability of CP were consistently higher (P < 0.001) in CSC than in G. oppositifolia. A balance trial in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four mature Ramghani wethers showed that DM intake, DM and CP digestibility, and N retention did not differ with the substitution of CSC with G. oppositifolia leaves, as a supplement to a basal diet of sorghum hay. Body weight (BW) gain and wool yield responses to the supplements were examined with 36 lambs (27 ± 3 kg BW; age 11 ± 1 months) for 15 weeks. The lambs were only grazed on local pasture (control group) or supplemented with CSC, G. oppositifolia leaves, and their mixture on iso-N basis. Addition of the supplements increased (P < 0.05) BW gain and wool yield, and the leaves were as effective as CSC. These results demonstrated that G. oppositifolia leaves provide good quality green fodder during the prolonged winter feed scarcity period, and that the leaves can be efficiently utilized as a CP supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep.

  9. Pasture size effects on the ability of off-stream water or restricted stream access to alter the spatial/temporal distribution of grazing beef cows.

    Bisinger, J J; Russell, J R; Morrical, D G; Isenhart, T M

    2014-08-01

    For 2 grazing seasons, effects of pasture size, stream access, and off-stream water on cow distribution relative to a stream were evaluated in six 12.1-ha cool-season grass pastures. Two pasture sizes (small [4.0 ha] and large [12.1 ha]) with 3 management treatments (unrestricted stream access without off-stream water [U], unrestricted stream access with off-stream water [UW], and stream access restricted to a stabilized stream crossing [R]) were alternated between pasture sizes every 2 wk for 5 consecutive 4-wk intervals in each grazing season. Small and large pastures were stocked with 5 and 15 August-calving cows from mid May through mid October. At 10-min intervals, cow location was determined with Global Positioning System collars fitted on 2 to 3 cows in each pasture and identified when observed in the stream (0-10 m from the stream) or riparian (0-33 m from the stream) zones and ambient temperature was recorded with on-site weather stations. Over all intervals, cows were observed more (P ≤ 0.01) frequently in the stream and riparian zones of small than large pastures regardless of management treatment. Cows in R pastures had 24 and 8% less (P cows in or near pasture streams regardless of pasture size. In 2011, the probability of cow presence in the stream and riparian zones increased at greater (P cow presence in the stream and riparian zones increased at greater (P cow presence in the stream and riparian zone increased less (P cow presence in shade (within 10 m of tree drip lines) in the total pasture with increasing temperatures did not differ between treatments. However, probability of cow presence in riparian shade increased at greater (P cows in or near pasture streams with unrestricted access.

  10. Effect of body condition score at mating on the reproductive performance of Kivircik sheep under an extensive production system.

    Yilmaz, Murat; Altin, Tufan; Karaca, Orhan; Cemal, Ibrahim; Bardakcioglu, Husnu Erbay; Yilmaz, Onur; Taskin, Turgay

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the body condition score (BCS) of ewes before and during the mating season on their reproductive performance under an extensive production system. In this study, 240 Kivircik sheep from the flocks of two breeders were used for over a 2-year period. The flocks were fed under extensive conditions on natural pastures throughout the year. The ewes were synchronized in two different periods, one of which was 45 days before the other. Before the introduction of rams to the ewes, the ewes were weighed after measuring their BCS. Detailed records were kept for every flock in each year. We found significant effects of BCS on pregnancy rate, lambing rate (P < 0.05) and fecundity (P < 0.05). The BCS for the highest pregnancy, lambing rate, and fecundity was determined between 2.01 and 3.00, while the lowest rates for these traits were ≤ 1.50. The highest rates of the pregnancy rate, lambing rate, and fecundity and gestation productivity were 75.9%, 70.9%, 1.11 and 3.34 kg, respectively.

  11. Developmental programming: effect of prenatal steroid excess on intraovarian components of insulin signaling pathway and related proteins in sheep.

    Ortega, Hugo H; Rey, Florencia; Velazquez, Melisa M L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess increases ovarian follicular recruitment, follicular persistence, insulin resistance, and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Considering the importance of insulin in ovarian physiology, in this study, using prenatal T- and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen)-treated female sheep, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal androgen excess alters the intraovarian insulin signaling cascade and metabolic mediators that have an impact on insulin signaling. Changes in ovarian insulin receptor (INSRB), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG), and adiponectin proteins were determined at fetal (Days 90 and 140), postpubertal (10 mo), and adult (21 mo) ages by immunohistochemistry. Results indicated that these proteins were expressed in granulosa, theca, and stromal compartments, with INSRB, IRS1, PPARG, and adiponectin increasing in parallel with advanced follicular differentiation. Importantly, prenatal T excess induced age-specific changes in PPARG and adiponectin expression, with increased PPARG expression evident during fetal life and decreased antral follicular adiponectin expression during adult life. Comparison of developmental changes in prenatal T and DHT-treated females found that the effects on PPARG were programmed by androgenic actions of T, whereas the effects on adiponectin were likely by its estrogenic action. These results suggest a role for PPARG in the programming of ovarian disruptions by prenatal T excess, including a decrease in antral follicular adiponectin expression and a contributory role for adiponectin in follicular persistence and ovulatory failure.

  12. Seasonal changes in water metabolism of Sudan desert sheep and goats

    El Hadi, H.M.; Hassan, Y.M.

    1982-01-01

    Seasonal changes that occur in body weight, body temperature, total body water and water turnover were investigated in grazing sheep and goats at different times of the year to understand how different breeds adapt to the environmental conditions in Sudan. (author)

  13. Progress Report: Stratton Ecological Research Site - An Experimental Approach to Assess Effects of Various Grazing Treatments on Vegetation and Wildlife Communities Across Managed Burns and Habitat Controls

    Erickson, Heidi J.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Hobbs, N. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how management practices affect wildlife is fundamental to wise decisions for conservation of public lands. Prescribed fire and grazing timing are two management tools frequently used within publicly owned sagebrush ecosystems. We conducted a variety of surveys in order to assess the impacts of grazing timing strategies (early summer before peak green-up, mid-summer at peak green-up, and late summer after peak green-up) in conjunction with prescribed fire on avian and small mammal populations in a high-elevation sagebrush ecosystem. Avian surveys resulted in a large detection sample size for three bird species: Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri), horned lark (Eremophila alpestris), and vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus). Brewer's sparrows had the lowest number of detections within the mid-summer grazing treatment compared to early and late summer grazing treatments, while horned larks and vesper sparrows had higher detection frequencies within the late summer grazing treatment. Summer and fall sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) pellet counts revealed that the greatest over-winter and over-summer use by sage-grouse occurred within the early summer grazing treatment with minimal use of burn treatment areas across all grazing treatments. Deer-mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) represented approximately 90 percent of small mammals captured and were most prevalent within the mid-summer grazing treatment. Sagebrush cover was greatest within the mid-summer grazing treatment. We monitored 50 and 103 nests in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The apparent success rate for shrub-obligate nesting species was 58 percent in 2007 and 63 percent in 2008. This research will support management of sagebrush ecosystems by providing public land managers with direct comparisons of wildlife response to management regimes.

  14. The effects of dietary nitrogen to water-soluble carbohydrate ratio on isotopic fractionation and partitioning of nitrogen in non-lactating sheep.

    Cheng, L; Nicol, A M; Dewhurst, R J; Edwards, G R

    2013-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between partitioning and isotopic fractionation of nitrogen (N) in sheep consuming diets with varying ratios of N to water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC). Six non-lactating sheep were offered a constant dry matter (DM) allowance with one of three ratios of dietary N/WSC, achieved by adding sucrose and urea to lucerne pellets. A replicated 3 dietary treatments (Low, Medium and High N/WSC) × 3 (collection periods) and a Latin square design was used, with two sheep assigned to each treatment in each period. Feed, faeces, urine, plasma, wool, muscle and liver samples were collected and analysed for ¹⁵N concentration. Nitrogen intake and outputs in faeces and urine were measured for each sheep using 6-day total collections. Blood urea N (BUN) and urinary excretion of purine derivative were also measured. Treatment effects were tested using general ANOVA; the relationships between measured variables were analysed by linear regression. BUN and N intake increased by 46% and 35%, respectively, when N/WSC increased 2.5-fold. However, no indication of change in microbial protein synthesis was detected. Results indicated effects of dietary treatments on urinary N/faecal N, faecal N/N intake and retained N/N intake. In addition, the linear relationships between plasma δ¹⁵N and urinary N/N intake and muscle δ¹⁵N and retained N/N intake based on individual measurements showed the potential of using N isotopic fractionation as an easy-to-use indicator of N partitioning when N supply exceeds that required to match energy supply in the diet.

  15. THE EFFECTIVITY TEST OF SHEEP RUMEN LIQUOR ENZYME ADDED TO PALM KERNEL MEAL ON ITS DECREASE OF CRUDE FIBER AND APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENT FOR CATFISH Pangasius hypophthalmus DIET

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the hydrolysis of fiber content in palm kernel meal (PKM by sheep rumen liquor enzyme and to know the apparent digestibility coefficient of hydrolyzed PKM for catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus. The first trial examined effectivity of sheep rumen liquor enzyme to decrease crude fiber content of PKM. The added volume of sheep rumen liquor enzyme was 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mL/kg PKM and then it was incubated for 0, 12, and 24 hours. A factorial completely randomized experimental design consisted of 2 variables and triplicates were selected. The second trial was conducted to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of hydrolized PKM for catfish. Apparent digestibility coefficients were determined using chromic oxide indicator added to both reference and test diets. The feed ingredients used in the trial were hydrolyzed PKM (PKMe and unhydrolyzed PKM (PKM. Ten fishes with weighing around 20 g were used in the trial and held in 80 l tanks. Feces were collected from three replicate groups of fish using a fecal collection column attached to fish rearing tank. PKM hydrolyzed with 100 mL/kg and incubated for 24 hour showed the lowest crude fiber content (6.99% among the treatments (P<0.05. Apparent digestibility coefficient of hydrolyzed PKM was 57.57% compared with unhydrolyzed PKM 15.31%. Based on the evaluation in those parameters it was concluded that sheep rumen liquor enzyme added to PKM was effective to decrease crude fiber content of PKM and improve apparent digestibility coefficient of PKM for catfish.

  16. EFFECTS OF MAIZE GRAIN ADDED IN A DIET BASED ON ALFALFA HAYLAGE ON THE RATION QUALITY IN WETHER SHEEP

    Marina Vranić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of interactions between alfalfa haylage (AH and maize grain (MG (5 vs. 10 g d-1 kg-1 body weight on ad libitum intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. The AH and MG contained 534.7 and 915.1g DM kg-1 fresh sample respectively, while crude protein (CP concentration was 141 and 106.0 g kg-1DM. Adding of MG (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in linear increase in diet DM intake (g kg-1 M0,75, linear decrease in water intake (P<0.01 and linear increase in diet DM digestibility (P<0,001. A positive associative response of MG supplementation to AH based ration was observed for DM intake (P<0.001 and DM digestibility (P<0.001. No improvements in DM intake were recorded with 10 g MG added kg-1 body weight d-1 in comparison with 5 g MG added kg-1 body weight d-1.

  17. The effect of maternal body condition score before and during pregnancy on the glucose tolerance of adult sheep offspring.

    Cripps, Roselle L; Green, Lucy R; Thompson, John; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Monk, Melanie; Sheldon, I Martin; Hanson, Mark A; Hales, C N; Ozanne, Susan E

    2008-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of diet-induced changes in maternal body condition on glucose tolerance in sheep. Welsh Mountain ewes were established, by dietary manipulation, at a body condition score of 2 (lower body condition [LBCS], n = 17) or >3 (higher body condition [HBCS], n = 19) prior to and during pregnancy. Birth weight and postnatal growth were similar in LBCS and HBCS offspring. In young adulthood, LBCS offspring had increased fasting glucose levels (3.8 +/- 0.07 vs 3.6 +/- 0.05 mM, P < .05), poorer glucose tolerance (2274 +/- 22.6 vs 2161 +/- 33 min/mM, P < .01), and reduced insulin secretion (0.58 +/- 0.05 vs 0.71 +/- 0.07 nM/min, P = .07). Increased fasting glycemia, mild glucose intolerance, and impaired initial insulin secretory response, as observed in LBCS offspring, are indictors of increased diabetes risk in humans. These findings suggest that altered maternal body composition and an imbalance between the fetal and postnatal environment influence offspring glucose tolerance.

  18. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales.

    Monroe, Adrian P; Aldridge, Cameron L; Assal, Timothy J; Veblen, Kari E; Pyke, David A; Casazza, Michael L

    2017-06-01

    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004-2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. BIO-ECOLGICAL PHENOMENON OF POLY-PARASITISM – ACTUAL MAJOR PROBLEM IN BREEDING OF SHEEP AND GOATS

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a extensive study concerning the parasites andcomplexe problems of the poly-parasitism on sheep and goats in Dobrudja. In thispaper we proposed ourselves to establish the sheep and goats endoparasites, thedistribution and frequency of these function to age, sex and maintenance conditions.The increase of morbidity through parasitical diseases, as well as the ecological andeconomic consequences of poly-parasitism represent a important problem in theintegration conditions of Romania in UE and imposes to apply some efficientmethods of prophylaxis and control of parasitosis and parasito- zoonozis. Thedrawing of copro-parazitologic samples was effected directly from rectum of sheepand goats, testing 10% of each lot, during grazing season and in period of keepingin sheds. The copro-parasitological examinations were carried out ovoscopicaly(flotation, by next methods: Willis, Mc. Master and sediment, by Benedect-Nemesseri and polyvalent methods, as well as larvoscopicaly by Baermann method.After copro-parasitological examinations of samples which were harvested fromthese animals it comes out that both sheep and goats presents poly-parasitism withsporozoa (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. , cestodae (Moniezia expansa and Monieziabenedeni, gastro-intestinal nematodes (Nematodirus spp. ,Trichostrongylidae,Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nematodes (Protostrongylus rufescens,Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellerius capillaris, the degree of parasitical infestationdepending on species, age, sex, maintenance conditions and environmental factors.

  20. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  1. Grazing Affects Exosomal Circulating MicroRNAs in Cattle

    Muroya, Susumu; Ogasawara, Hideki; Hojito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are associated with physiological adaptation to acute and chronic aerobic exercise in humans. To investigate the potential effect of grazing movement on miRNA circulation in cattle, here we profiled miRNA expression in centrifugally prepared exosomes from the plasma of both grazing and housed Japanese Shorthorn cattle. Microarray analysis of the c-miRNAs resulted in detection of a total of 231 bovine exosomal miRNAs in the plasma, with a constant expression level of let-7g across the duration and cattle groups. Expression of muscle-specific miRNAs such as miR-1, miR-133a, miR-206, miR-208a/b, and miR-499 were undetectable, suggesting the mildness of grazing movement as exercise. According to validation by quantitative RT-PCR, the circulating miR-150 level in the grazing cattle normalized by the endogenous let-7g level was down-regulated after 2 and 4 months of grazing (P cattle equalized when the grazing cattle were returned to a housed situation. Likewise, the levels of miR-19b, miR-148a, miR-221, miR-223, miR-320a, miR-361, and miR-486 were temporarily lowered in the cattle at 1 and/or 2 month of grazing compared to those of the housed cattle (P cattle at 2 months of grazing (P = 0.044). The elevation of miR-451 level in the plasma was coincident with that in the biceps femoris muscle of the grazing cattle (P = 0.008), which suggests the secretion or intake of miR-451 between skeletal muscle cells and circulation during grazing. These results revealed that exosomal c-miRNAs in cattle were affected by grazing, suggesting their usefulness as molecular grazing markers and functions in physiological adaptation of grazing cattle associated with endocytosis, focal adhesion, axon guidance, and a variety of intracellular signaling, as predicted by bioinformatic analysis. PMID:26308447

  2. Parturition difficulties in sheep

    Grommers, F. J.; Elving, L.; Eldik, P. van

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of difficult parturition was recorded in Texel Sheep lambs (224), Milk Sheep lambs (273) and various crossbreeds (1043) in ten spring lambing seasons. at lambing time the ewes were under 24-hour observation. Difficult parturition is defined as necessity for obstetrical assistance as

  3. Behavior of [185W]thiotungstates injected into sheep and the influence of copper: their fate and the effect of the compounds upon plasma copper

    Mason, J.; Mulryan, G.; Lamand, M.; LaFarge, C.

    1989-01-01

    [185W]trithio- and tetrathiotungstates (0.5 mg W) were injected intravenously into sheep. The compounds circulated in plasma bound reversibly to plasma proteins, particularly to albumin. After the first few minutes, levels declined exponentially with a T 1/2 of 12-14 hr. The initial movement of [185W]trithiotungstate from the plasma compartment was delayed transiently by the immediate injection of copper (2-6 mg); the longer-term metabolism was unaffected. The final fate of the compounds appeared to be hydrolysis and excretion in urine as [185W]tungstate. 185W from [185W]trithiotungstate appeared more rapidly than from [185W]tetrathiotungstate, but in both the rate was unaffected by copper injections. Since the appearance in urine did not correspond to the disappearance from plasma, it was suggested that the hydrolysis occurred in extravascular tissues and that the liver might be the site. A control experiment showed that [185W]tungstate in plasma was very rapidly cleared (and appeared in urine). At higher W levels (25-50 mg W per sheep per day), systematic copper metabolism was perturbed since plasma copper levels rose. The experiments demonstrated that in sheep the behavior and the effects of thiotungstates and thiomolybdates are sufficiently similar for 185W to be used as a more convenient alternative to 99Mo for longer-term studies on the interaction of the compounds with copper metabolism in animals

  4. Efeito de métodos e intensidades de pastejo sobre a ressemeadura natural de azevém anual = Effect of grazing methods and intensities on annual ryegrass under natural reseedling

    Cristina Maria Pacheco Barbosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido na E.E.A da UFRGS/RS (30°05’S e 51°39’W com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de métodos e intensidades de pastejo na dinâmica populacional de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. em ressemeadura natural. Conduziu-se a pastagem em dois métodos de pastejo (lotação contínua e rotacionada e duas intensidades de pastejo (moderada e baixa, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial com três repetições (2x2x3. No ano seguinte, após um ciclo de lavoura de soja no verão, foi contado o número de perfilhos de azevém estabelecidos via essemeadura natural. Os resultados demonstraram não ter havido interação (p > 0,05 entre os métodos e as intensidades de pastejo, e seus efeitos foram analisados de forma independente. Enquanto os diferentes métodos de pastejo não afetaram a ressemeadura do azevém (p = 0,4636, asdiferentes intensidades de pastejo a influenciaram significativamente (p = 0,0003. O número de perfilhos de azevém estabelecidos via ressemeadura natural, na intensidade de pastejo baixa, foi maior (6.776 perfilhos m-2 do que na intensidade de pastejo moderada(211 perfilhos m-2. O controle da intensidade de pastejo é um fator determinante para a manutenção do azevém em sistemas de produção baseados na persistência dessa forrageira via ressemeadura natural.This work was conducted at EEA/UFRGS, in Eldorado do Sul, RioGrande do Sul state, Brazil (30°05’S e 51°39’W, to evaluate the effects of different grazing intensities and methods on the population dynamics of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. under natural reseedling. Two grazing intensities (moderate and low were used, under continuous and rotational grazing. The experimental design included randomized blocks with 2x2x3 factorial arrangements (2 grazing intensities x 2 grazing methods x 3 replicates.The following year, the fields were desiccated with herbicides and a soybean plant crop cycle was established during the

  5. Bivalve grazing can shape phytoplankton communities

    Lucas, Lisa; Cloern, James E.; Thompson, Janet K.; Stacey, Mark T.; Koseff, Jeffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of bivalve filter feeders to limit phytoplankton biomass in shallow waters is well-documented, but the role of bivalves in shaping phytoplankton communities is not. The coupled effect of bivalve grazing at the sediment-water interface and sinking of phytoplankton cells to that bottom filtration zone could influence the relative biomass of sinking (diatoms) and non-sinking phytoplankton. Simulations with a pseudo-2D numerical model showed that benthic filter feeding can interact with sinking to alter diatom:non-diatom ratios. Cases with the smallest proportion of diatom biomass were those with the fastest sinking speeds and strongest bivalve grazing rates. Hydrodynamics modulated the coupled sinking-grazing influence on phytoplankton communities. For example, in simulations with persistent stratification, the non-sinking forms accumulated in the surface layer away from bottom grazers while the sinking forms dropped out of the surface layer toward bottom grazers. Tidal-scale stratification also influenced vertical gradients of the two groups in opposite ways. The model was applied to Suisun Bay, a low-salinity habitat of the San Francisco Bay system that was transformed by the introduction of the exotic clam Potamocorbula amurensis. Simulation results for this Bay were similar to (but more muted than) those for generic habitats, indicating that P. amurensis grazing could have caused a disproportionate loss of diatoms after its introduction. Our model simulations suggest bivalve grazing affects both phytoplankton biomass and community composition in shallow waters. We view these results as hypotheses to be tested with experiments and more complex modeling approaches.

  6. Protein turnover in sheep

    Buttery, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)

  7. Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission

    Timm eKonold

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Classical scrapie is an environmentally transmissible prion disease of sheep and goats. Prions can persist and remain potentially infectious in the environment for many years and thus pose a risk of infecting animals after re-stocking. In vitro studies using serial Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (sPMCA have suggested that objects on a scrapie-affected sheep farm could contribute to disease transmission. This in vivo study aimed to determine the role of field furniture (water troughs, feeding troughs, fencing and other objects that sheep may rub against used by a scrapie-infected sheep flock as a vector for disease transmission to scrapie-free lambs with the prion protein genotype VRQ/VRQ, which is associated with high susceptibility to classical scrapie. When the field furniture was placed in clean accommodation sheep became infected when exposed to either a water trough (four out of five or to objects used for rubbing (four out of seven. This field furniture had been used by the scrapie-infected flock eight weeks earlier and had previously been shown to harbor scrapie prions by sPMCA. Sheep also became infected (20 out of 23 through exposure to contaminated field furniture placed within pasture not used by scrapie-infected sheep for 40 months, even though swabs from this furniture tested negative by PMCA. This infection rate decreased (1 out of 12 on the same paddock after replacement with clean field furniture. Twelve grazing sheep exposed to field furniture not in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for 18 months remained scrapie-free.The findings of this study highlight the role of field furniture used by scrapie-infected sheep to act as a reservoir for disease re-introduction although infectivity declines considerably if the field furniture has not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. PMCA may not be as sensitive as VRQ/VRQ sheep to test for environmental contamination.

  8. Influence of different forages on gastrointestinal namatode infections in grazing lambs

    Thamsborg, S.M.; Mejer, H.; Bandier, M.; Larsen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Nematode infections of sheep may be influenced by secondary compounds in the diet, e.g. condensed tannins. A study was performed with 7 groups of lambs experimentally infected with Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostronglylus vitrinus. All groups were grazed on clean clover-grass pasture and then moved to paddocks with bioactive forages with either sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) (groups Pre-S and Post-S), chicory (Cichorium intybus, cv. Grasslands Puna) (Pre-C and Post-C) or clover-grass...

  9. Effects of orthopedic implants with a polycaprolactone polymer coating containing bone morphogenetic protein-2 on osseointegration in bones of sheep.

    Niehaus, Andrew J; Anderson, David E; Samii, Valerie F; Weisbrode, Steven E; Johnson, Jed K; Noon, Mike S; Tomasko, David L; Lannutti, John J

    2009-11-01

    To determine elution characteristics of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 from a polycaprolactone coating applied to orthopedic implants and determine effects of this coating on osseointegration. 6 sheep. An in vitro study was conducted to determine BMP-2 elution from polycaprolactone-coated implants. An in vivo study was conducted to determine the effects on osseointegration when the polycaprolactone with BMP-2 coating was applied to bone screws. Osseointegration was assessed via radiography, measurement of peak removal torque and bone mineral density, and histomorphometric analysis. Physiologic response was assessed by measuring serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity and uptake of bone markers. Mean +/- SD elution on day 1 of the in vitro study was 263 +/- 152 pg/d, which then maintained a plateau at 59.8 +/- 29.1 pg/d. Mean peak removal torque for screws coated with polycalprolactone and BMP-2 (0.91 +/- 0.65 dN x m) and screws coated with polycaprolactone alone (0.97 +/- 1.30 dN.m) did not differ significantly from that for the control screws (2.34 +/- 1.62 dN x m). Mean bone mineral densities were 0.535 +/- 0.060 g/cm(2), 0.596 +/- 0.093 g/cm(2), and 0.524 +/- 0.142 g/cm(2) for the polycaprolactone-BMP-2-coated, polycaprolactone-coated, and control screws, respectively, and did not differ significantly among groups. Histologically, bone was in closer apposition to the implant with the control screws than with either of the coated screws. BMP-2 within the polycaprolactone coating did not stimulate osteogenesis. The polycaprolactone coating appeared to cause a barrier effect that prevented formation of new bone. A longer period or use of another carrier polymer may result in increased osseointegration.

  10. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    Schmidt, Niels M; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. Conclusion No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were found compared to the ungrazed control. Low intensity grazing thus seems a suitable management regime for Common shrews, when grazing is needed as part of the meadow management scheme. High intensity grazing on the other hand is not a suitable management tool. PMID:19152713

  11. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus in two meadows in Denmark

    Olsen Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. Conclusion No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were found compared to the ungrazed control. Low intensity grazing thus seems a suitable management regime for Common shrews, when grazing is needed as part of the meadow management scheme. High intensity grazing on the other hand is not a suitable management tool.

  12. Lucerne varieties for continuous grazing

    Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    severe grazing with heifers in two cutting/grazing managements. Two new varieties, Verbena and Camporegio, and an older variety Luzelle were established in 2009 in pure stands and in two different mixtures with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Camporegio had the lowest yield, the lowest competitive...... strength, the lowest plant density in spring, and the density was most reduced during grazing. The results could not confirm significant differences between the new and the older varieties. The results for Luzelle were generally between Verbena and Camporegio. The varieties did not differ in herbage...

  13. Effect of field pea-based creep feed on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and performance by nursing calves grazing native range in western North Dakota.

    Gelvin, A A; Lardy, G P; Soto-Navarro, S A; Landblom, D G; Caton, J S

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated digestive and performance effects of field pea-based creep feed in nursing calf diets. In Exp.1, eight nursing steer calves (145 +/- 27 kg initial BW) with ruminal cannulas were used to evaluate effects of supplementation and advancing season on dietary composition, intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Treatments were unsupplemented control (CON) and field pea-based creep (SUP; 19.1% CP, DM basis) fed at 0.45% BW (DM basis) daily. Calves grazed native range with their dams from early July through early November. Periods were 24 d long and occurred in July (JUL), August (AUG), September (SEP), and October (OCT). Experiment 2 used 80 crossbred nursing calves, 48 calves in yr 1 and 32 calves in yr 2 (yr 1 = 144 +/- 24 kg; yr 2 = 121 +/- 20 kg initial BW), to evaluate effects of field pea-based creep on calf performance. Treatments included unsupplemented control (CON); field pea-based creep feeds containing either 8% (LS); or 16% (HS) salt; and soybean meal/field pea-based creep containing (as-fed basis) 16% salt (HIPRO). Masticate samples from SUP calves in Exp.1 had greater CP (P = 0.05) than those from CON calves. Forage CP and ADIN decreased linearly with advancing season (P = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). In vitro OM digestibility of diet masticate decreased from JUL to OCT (P feed to increase calf weight gain without negatively affecting ruminal fermentation and digestion.

  14. A comparison of the effects of carbon dioxide and medical air for abdominal insufflation on respiratory parameters in xylazine-sedated sheep undergoing laparoscopic artificial insemination.

    Haan, J D; Hay Kraus, B L; Sathe, S R

    2018-07-01

    To determine if abdominal insufflation with medical air will improve oxygenation and ventilation parameters when compared to insufflation with CO 2 in xylazine-sedated sheep undergoing laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI). Forty-seven sheep underwent oestrus synchronisation and were fasted for 24 hours prior to laparoscopic AI. Each animal was randomised to receive either CO 2 or medical air for abdominal insufflation. An auricular arterial catheter was placed and utilised for serial blood sampling. Respiratory rates (RR) and arterial blood samples were collected at baseline, after xylazine (0.1 mg/kg I/V) sedation, 2 minutes after Trendelenburg positioning, 5 minutes after abdominal insufflation, and 10 minutes after being returned to a standing position. Blood samples were collected in heparinised syringes, stored on ice, and analysed for arterial pH, partial pressure of arterial O 2 (PaO 2 ), and CO 2 (PaCO 2 ). The number of ewes conceiving to AI was also determined. Repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated temporal effects on RR, PaO 2 , PaCO 2 and arterial pH during the laparoscopic AI procedure (p0.01). No sheep experienced hypercapnia (PaCO 2 >50 mmHg) or acidaemia (pH<7.35). Hypoxaemia (PaO 2 <70 mmHg) was diagnosed during the procedure in 14/22 (64%) ewes in the CO 2 group compared with 8/23 (35%) ewes in the medical air group (p=0.053). Overall, 15/20 (75%) ewes in the CO 2 group conceived to AI compared with 16/22 (72.7%) in the medical air group (p=0.867). There were no statistical or clinical differences in RR, PaO 2 , PaCO 2 , pH, or conception to AI when comparing the effects of CO 2 and medical air as abdominal insufflation gases. None of the sheep experienced hypercapnia or acidaemic, yet 42% (19/45) of sheep developed clinical hypoxaemia, with a higher percentage of ewes in the CO 2 group developing hypoxaemia than in the medical air group. Based on the overall analysis, medical air could be utilised as a comparable alternative for

  15. The influence of grazing on surface climatological variables of tallgrass prairie. Final Technical Report

    Seastedt, T.R.; Dyer, M.I.; Turner, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Mass and energy exchange between most grassland canopies and the atmosphere are mediated by grazing activities. Ambient temperatures can be increased or decreased by grazers. Data have been assembled from simulated grazing experiments on Konza Prairie Research Natural Area and observations on adjacent pastures grazed by cattle show significant changes in primary production, nutrient content, and bidirectional reflectance characteristics as a function of grazing intensity. The purpose of this research was to provide algorithms that would allow incorporation of grazing effects into models of energy budgets using remote sensing procedures. The approach involved: (1) linking empirical measurements of plant biomass and grazing intensities to remotely sensed canopy reflectance, and (2) using a higher resolution, mechanistic grazing model to derive plant ecophysiological parameters that influence reflectance and other surface climatological variables

  16. Effect of temperament on milk production, somatic cell count, chemical composition and physical properties in Lacaune dairy sheep breed

    Gábor Tóth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of temperament on milk yield, lactation length, physico-chemical properties and somatic cell count of Lacaune ewes were evaluated. The investigation was carried out at a sheep farm in the county of Győr-Moson-Sopron. The temperament of 106 Lacaune ewes was measured by the temperament 5-point-scale test (1=very nervous, 5=very quiet during milking. Furthermore, 42 ewes were randomly selected from a herd of 106 animals for the analysis of milk composition (fat, protein and lactose, pH, electrical conductivity as well as somatic cell count. It was found that the temperament had a significant effect on lactation length and lactation milk production, lactose, electrical conductivity and somatic cell count. Calm ewes had significantly longer lactation (4 score: 220.7 day; 5 score: 201.4 day as well as higher milk production (4 score: 207.9 kg; 5 score: 193.3 kg compared to more temperamental animals (2+3 scores: 166.5 day and 135.5 kg; P<0.05. The content of lactose was significantly lower (4.32 in the more temperamental group, while electrical conductivity was higher (4.81 mS cm-1 compared to calmer animals (4.69 % and 4.16 mS cm-1. Additionally, significant differences were found in milk somatic cell count among the temperament categories. Calmer ewes had a lower somatic cell count in milk (5.17 log cm-3 than more temperamental ones (5.67 log cm-3; P<0.05.

  17. Effect of altering the type of dietary carbohydrate early postpartum on reproductive performance and milk production in pasture-grazed dairy cows.

    McDougall, S; Leane, S; Butler, S T; Roche, J R; Burke, C R

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of increasing dietary starch for approximately 30 d postpartum on reproduction outcomes in pasture-grazed, seasonal-calving dairy cows. Cows (n = 948) from 3 commercial herds were blocked by age (2, 3, and >3 yr), breed, and expected calving date and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 postpartum treatment groups: high starch (34.7 ± 1.9% nonstructural carbohydrate; mean ± SD) or low starch (22.5 ± 0.4% nonstructural carbohydrate). The high-starch group in all 3 farms received 4.0 to 4.5 kg/d of a 75:25 cracked corn:barley grain mixture in the dairy parlor, split evenly between the morning and afternoon milkings. The low-starch cows received 5.0 to 5.5 kg/d of a 50:50 mixture of palm kernel meal:soy hulls (herds 1 and 3) fed in the parlor; low-starch cows in the remaining herd (herd 2) did not receive a concentrate feed. Cows were cograzed on ryegrass-white clover dominant pastures and were offered corn silage (herds 1 and 3) and canola, corn distillers grain, and palm kernel meal (herd 1) throughout the study. At 1 mo before the start of the seasonal breeding period, the high-starch supplement was removed, and within each herd treatment groups were managed similarly through breeding. Presence of purulent vaginal discharge was assessed at 28 DIM, and tail paint was assessed weekly from 2 to 6 wk postpartum for signs of estrus. The interval to first observed estrus was unaffected by treatment (32.7 vs. 33.5 ± 2 d for high and low starch, respectively), but there were tendencies for a herd × treatment interaction for proportion of cows pregnant to first service and for pregnancy within 6 wk. This interaction was significant for the proportion of cows finally pregnant; a lower proportion of high-starch cows were pregnant to first service, pregnant by 6 wk, and pregnant by the end of the seasonal breeding period in herd 1, but diet did not affect these outcomes in the other herds. Our results do not support a positive

  18. Developing an Ethically Acceptable Virtual Fencing System for Sheep

    Danila Marini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To ensure animal welfare isn’t compromised when using virtual fencing, animals must be able to associate a benign conditioned stimulus with an aversive stimulus. This study used an associative learning test to train 30, four-year-old, Merino x Suffolk ewes, to associate an audio cue with an electric stimulus. Collars manually controlled by a GPS hand-held unit were used to deliver the audio and electric stimuli cues. For the associative learning, when sheep approached an attractant at a distance of three m from the trough, an audio cue was applied for one s. If the sheep stopped or changed direction, the audio cue ceased immediately and no electrical stimulus was applied. If the sheep did not respond to the audio cue it was followed by a low-level electrical stimulus. Approaches to the attractant significantly decreased from day one to day two. It took a mean of three pairings of the audio cue and electrical stimulus for a change in behaviour to occur, after which sheep that approached the attractant had a 52% probability of avoiding the electrical stimulus and responding to the audio cue alone. Further research is required to determine whether sheep can be trained to associate an audio cue with a negative stimulus for use in group grazing situations.

  19. ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF SHEEP MILK

    Juan Carlos Ángeles Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic production systems are based on natural processes, leveraging local resources and decreasing in soil degradation. Effectiveness of milk production of organic systems vs. conventional production systems is a subject open to debate. There are various studies in which there is a positive effect of organic systems in relation to the welfare and animal health, product quality and environmental impact. However, some authors report lower milk yields production and increased susceptibility to environmental conditions compared with those obtained in conventional systems. The lower milk yields in organic systems in Dairy sheep's production, are related to the limited nutritional value, low genetic potential, and the changing environmental conditions. These systems are mainly a production method for a specific market with premium quality products and high standards in their production processes. Thus, a company organic Dairy sheep production should be considered viable when present a positive global sustainability level, that is socially beneficial, economically viable and environmentally responsible.

  20. The effect of vasopressin on hormone secretion and blood flow from the thyroid vein in sheep with exteriorized thyroids.

    Falconer, I R

    1968-12-01

    1. Vasopressin has been shown to activate the thyroid in some species, and also to be released into the bloodstream after emotional and other stresses.2. Emotional stimuli applied to sheep have previously been shown to increase thyroid secretion and the possible influence of vasopressin in this process has been investigated. Sheep bearing exteriorized thyroid glands were used, so that thyroid vein blood could be collected in undisturbed conscious animals.3. (125)I or (131)I (50 muc) was injected I.M. into the sheep; 4-7 days later, samples of thyroid vein blood were collected at 10 min intervals for 4 hr, and the concentration of total and protein bound (125)I or (131)I was measured. Intravenous infusions of 0.3, 3.0 or 31 m-u./min arginine or lysine vasopressin, or close arterial infusions of 3.0 or 31 m-u./min arginine vasopressin were administered 1.5 hr after commencement of blood sampling. Blood flow from the thyroid was measured by a plethysmographic technique during similar experiments.4. No significant changes in thyroid hormone secretion were observed as a result of vasopressin infusion, and it was concluded that vasopressin release does not play a part in the activation of the thyroid resulting from emotional stimulus in the sheep.

  1. Effects of herbivore species richness on the niche dynamics of blue sheep Pseudois nayaur in the Indian Trans-Himalaya

    Namgail, T.; Mishra, C.; Jong, de C.B.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Aim To understand the community structure of mountain ungulates by exploring their niche dynamics in response to sympatric species richness. Location Ladakh and Spiti Regions of the Western Indian Trans-Himalaya. Methods We used the blue sheep Pseudois nayaur, a relatively widely distributed

  2. Encephalitic Sarcocystosis and its Prophylactic Treatment in Sheep

    ÖZMEN, Özlem; ŞAHİNDURAN, Şima; HALIGÜR, Mehmet; YUKARI, Bayram Ali; DORRESTEIN, Gerry M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and pathological findings in sheep naturally infected with severe encephalitic sarcocystosis and to evaluate the prophylactic effect of amprolium on the disease. From a flock of approximately 350 animals, 10 sheep were referred to the Veterinary Faculty Clinic with neurological symptoms that developed during the previous 2 weeks. These 10 sheep were clinically and pathologically examined, and the remaining animals in the flock without neurolog...

  3. Effect of ovariectomy on BMD, micro-architecture and biomechanics of cortical and cancellous bones in a sheep model.

    Wu, Zi-xiang; Lei, Wei; Hu, Yun-yu; Wang, Hai-qiang; Wan, Shi-yong; Ma, Zhen-sheng; Sang, Hong-xun; Fu, Suo-chao; Han, Yi-sheng

    2008-11-01

    Osteoporotic/osteopenia fractures occur most frequently in trabeculae-rich skeletal sites. The purpose of this study was to use a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and dual energy X-ray absorptionmeter (DEXA) to investigate the changes in micro-architecture and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sheep model resulted from ovariectomy (OVX). Biomechanical tests were performed to evaluate the strength of the trabecular bone. Twenty adult sheeps were randomly divided into three groups: sham group (n=8), group 1 (n=4) and group 2 (n=8). In groups 1 and 2, all sheep were ovariectomized (OVX); in the sham group, the ovaries were located and the oviducts were ligated. In all animals, BMD for lumbar spine was obtained during the surgical procedure. BMD at the spine, femoral neck and femoral condyle was determined 6 months (group 1) and 12 months (group 2) post-OVX. Lumbar spines and femora were obtained and underwent BMD scan, micro-CT analysis. Compressive mechanical properties were determined from biopsies of vertebral bodies and femoral condyles. BMD, micro-architectural parameters and mechanical properties of cancellous bone did not decrease significantly at 6 months post-OVX. Twelve months after OVX, BMD, micro-architectural parameters and mechanical properties decreased significantly. The results of linear regression analyses showed that trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (r=0.945, R2=0.886) and bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (r=0.783, R2=0.586) had strong (R2>0.5) correlation to compression stress. In OVX sheep, changes in the structural parameters of trabecular bone are comparable to the human situation during osteoporosis was induced. The sheep model presented seems to meet the criteria for an osteopenia model for fracture treatment with respect to morphometric and mechanical properties. But the duration of OVX must be longer than 12 months to ensure the animal model can be established successfully.

  4. Effects of time of weaning, supplement, and sire breed of calf during the fall grazing period on cow and calf performance.

    Short, R E; Grings, E E; MacNeil, M D; Heitschmidt, R K; Haferkamp, M R; Adams, D C

    1996-07-01

    A 4-yr experiment was conducted to determine effects of protein supplementation, age at weaning, and calf sire breed on cow and calf performance during fall grazing. Each year 48 pregnant, crossbred cows nursing steer calves (mean calving date = April 8) were assigned to a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment replicated in three native range pastures. Treatment factors were: 1) no supplement (NS) or an individually fed supplement (S, 3 kg of a 34% protein supplement fed to cows every 3rd d); 2) calves weaned at the beginning (W, mid to late September) or at the end (NW, mid to late December) of the trial each year; or 3) calves sired by Hereford or Charolais bulls. Data were adjusted for cow size (initial hip height and initial and final weights and condition scores) by analyses of covariance using principal component coefficients as covariates. Change in cow weight and condition score were increased by S and W (P Forage intake was decreased (P intake (forage+supplement) was not affected by S but was decreased by W (P effects of treatments were observed the next spring in cow weight, condition score, and birth weight (NW decreased birth weight by 2 kg, P effects by the next fall on weaning weights or pregnancy rates. Milk yield decreased during the experimental period, and S maintained higher milk production in late lactation (P Calf ADG was increased by S and Charolais sires (P effects of feeding a 34% protein supplement to cows were to increase calf gains and improve persistency of lactation and efficiency; 2) delaying weaning decreased cow weight and condition score; 3) effects of weaning age and protein supplementation were highly dependent on forage and environmental conditions in any given year; and 4) whatever effects existed in a given year did not carry over to effects on next year's production as measured by pregnancy rates and weaning weights.

  5. Effects of finishing period length with vitamin E supplementation and alfalfa grazing on carcass color and the evolution of meat color and the lipid oxidation of light lambs.

    Ripoll, G; González-Calvo, L; Molino, F; Calvo, J H; Joy, M

    2013-04-01

    Indoor-kept concentrate-fed light lambs (n=54) were supplemented with 500 mg of dl-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg concentrate for 0, 10, 20 and 30 d before slaughtering at 22-24 kg BW. Simultaneously, 8 lambs with their dams were alfalfa-grazed and the lambs were slaughtered at the same weight. The age at slaughter and carcass characteristics were more affected by grazing than by supplementation with α-tocopherol. The grazing lambs had similar α-tocopherol levels to the lambs fed concentrate with dl-α-tocopheryl acetate for 10 days before slaughter. The length of the feeding period affected the evolution of the color, delaying the blooming and discoloration of the meat. Feeding lambs α-tocopherol enriched concentrate during the last 10 days of life or grazing them on alfalfa drastically diminished the lipid oxidation of the meat. Alfalfa grazing is a feasible alternative to increase light lamb meat shelf life without using additives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  7. Effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus following natural exposure in sheep.

    Leymaster, K A; Chitko-McKown, C G; Clawson, M L; Harhay, G P; Heaton, M P

    2013-11-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) adversely affect production and well-being of sheep and goats throughout much of the world. The SRLV, including ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in North America, cause lifetime infections, and management procedures to eradicate or reduce disease prevalence are costly. Variants of ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) affect susceptibility to OPPV. The primary experimental objective was to estimate additive and dominance effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility to OPPV infection following natural exposure. A group of 187 trial lambs was born and raised by mature, infected ewes to ensure natural exposure to OPPV. Parents of trial lambs were heterozygous for haplotypes 1 and 3, producing lambs with diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3." A group of 20 sentinel lambs was born and raised by mature, uninfected ewes that were diplotype "1 1." Sentinel lambs had diplotypes "1 1" and "1 3," being sired by the same set of rams as trial lambs. Trial and sentinel lambs were comingled during the experiment. Lambs were weaned at 60 d of age, bled 1 wk after weaning, and thereafter at intervals of 4 or 5 wk until 9 mo of age when OPPV infection status was determined by use of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Only 1 sentinel lamb became infected. Infection status of trial lambs was analyzed using logistic regression procedures to account for the binary nature of infection status and random effects of sires. Effects of sex, type of birth, type of rearing, age of dam, breed type of dam, and sires were not detected (P>0.20). Infection status was affected by diplotype of lamb (P=0.005), with additive (P=0.002) and dominance (P=0.052) effects identified. Predicted probabilities of infection for lambs with diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" were 0.094, 0.323, and 0.346, respectively. Confidence intervals for probabilities of infection for diplotypes "1 3" and "3 3" were similar, but distinct from diplotype

  8. Effect of sheep manure and phosphorus application on growth, yield, and N2 - fixation of inoculated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) grown on Syrian arid soils using the 15N isotopic dilution technique

    Khalifa, Kh.; Al-Ain, F.; Al-Shamma'a, M.

    2003-10-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Syrian arid soils at Deir Al-Hajar research station to study the effect of different rates of sheep manure (0, 20, and 40 ton/ha) and levels of P- fertilizer (0, 40 and 80 kg P 2 O 5 /ha) on dry matter production and N 2 fixation by Soybean [(Glycine max) (SB171 variety)], of which seeds were inoculated by Bradyrhizobium japonicum-FA3 bacterial. Sorghum bicolor L. was employed as a reference crop ti evaluate N 2 -fixation using the 15 N-isotope dilution technique. In general, results indicated that, a positive effects were found to adding Sheep Manure or P-fertilizer on D.M production in different plants parts of soybean (shoots, roots, pods). This effect was more pronounced when adding sheep manure and phosphorus together especially under the optimum M40P80 treatment. Quantity of N-fixed by Soybean responds positively to sole application of Sheep Manure or P-fertilizer. Moreover, the optimum combined treatment showed significant increases in the quantity of nitrogen derived from the atmosphere (Qndfa), which were (3.29, 25.54, 53.49 kg N/ha) in roots, shoots, and pods respectively. P-fertilization resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) with increasing phosphorus levels added to Sorghum plants; However, an adverse effect was noticed for the NUE when using sheep manure solely or in combination with P-fertilizer. (author)

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation with selenium-enriched yeast or sodium selenite on ruminal enzyme activities and blood chemistry in sheep

    Zita Faixová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding a diet supplemented with different forms of selenium on the rumen fluid, blood and serum enzyme activity and osmotic fragility of red blood cells in sheep. The experiment was carried out on 18 sheep of the Valashka breed at the age of 18 months, divided into 3 groups. The first group was given basal diet (BD with a Se content of 0.17 mg/kg of dry matter (DM. The second group received BD supplemented with 0.4 mg Se/kg of (DM in the form of sodium selenite. The third group received BD supplemented with 0.4 mg Se/kg of (DM in the form of Se-yeast extract. Duration of the trial was 12 weeks. Selenium concentration in blood and total rumen fluid were elevated in both supplemented groups with the highest values in Se-yeast-treated sheep. Blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity was significantly increased, regardless of the source of selenium. Osmotic resistance of red blood cells was not affected by selenium supplementation. The results indicate that feeding a diet supplemented with selenium from Se-yeast or selenite improved selenium status in blood and total rumen fluid. Selenium from sodium selenite was as effective as selenium from Se-yeast in the availability of selenium for the blood GPx activity. The effect of selenium supplementation on the ruminal enzyme activity depends on the selenium form; GGT and GDH were significantly higher in the Se-yeast supplement group, AST and ALP were significantly higher in the selenite supplement group.

  10. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to trichostrongylid infection in Spanish Churra sheep

    Primitivo Fermin San

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For ruminants reared on grazing systems, gastrointestinal nematode (GIN parasite infections represent the class of diseases with the greatest impact on animal health and productivity. Among the many possible strategies for controlling GIN infection, the enhancement of host resistance through the selection of resistant animals has been suggested by many authors. Because of the difficulty of routinely collecting phenotypic indicators of parasite resistance, information derived from molecular markers may be used to improve the efficiency of classical genetic breeding. Methods A total of 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed along the 26 sheep autosomes were used in a genome scan analysis performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to detect chromosomal regions associated with parasite resistance. Following a daughter design, we analysed 322 ewes distributed in eight half-sib families. The phenotypes studied included two faecal egg counts (LFEC0 and LFEC1, anti-Teladorsagia circumcincta LIV IgA levels (IgA and serum pepsinogen levels (Peps. Results The regression analysis revealed one QTL at the 5% genome-wise significance level on chromosome 6 for LFEC1 within the marker interval BM4621-CSN3. This QTL was found to be segregating in three out of the eight families analysed. Four other QTL were identified at the 5% chromosome-wise level on chromosomes 1, 10 and 14. Three of these QTL influenced faecal egg count, and the other one had an effect on IgA levels. Conclusion This study has successfully identified segregating QTL for parasite resistance traits in a commercial population. For some of the QTL detected, we have identified interesting coincidences with QTL previously reported in sheep, although most of those studies have been focused on young animals. Some of these coincidences might indicate that some common underlying loci affect parasite resistance traits in different sheep breeds. The

  11. Effects of sodium chloride on sheep. 2. Voluntary feed intake and ...

    protein (CP) had alleviated these detrimental effects to some extent. This was a ... feed intake and changes in certain rumen parameters of young Merino ..... in saliva, with a commensurate increase in the K ... its relation to feeding in cattle. 1.

  12. Efeito residual da silicatagem no solo e na produtividade do capim-marandu sob pastejo Residual effect of silicate application on soil and brachiaria grass yield under grazing

    Letícia de Abreu Faria

    2008-06-01

    calcium silicate and is an alternative for soil acidity correction. This study evaluated the residual effects of calcium silicate application on the chemical properties of a Rhodic Hapludox in a rotation system with Brachiaria grass under different grazing intensities. The experiment was a complete randomized block design, wh