Full Text Available The Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS assesses disability in four domains of home management, work responsibilities, close relationships and social life. The main objective of this study was to develop the Persian version of the SDS.Two steps of field work followed the Persian translation and cultural adaptation of the tool: First, the internal consistency and convergent validity was examined in 104 clinical cases recruited from inpatient and outpatient psychiatric services, using 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. Then 88 individuals were randomly selected from the adult general population to assess internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and known group validity.In the clinical settings, Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.88 and item-total correlation ranged from 0.71 to 0.78 in various domains. The correlation between SDS and SF-36 (P< 0.001 was significant in all the areas of the performance; and neither of the correlations was statistically significant when SDS and GAF were compared. In the general population study, the SDS met a good internal consistency (α = 0.81 and known group validity, and the inter-rater reliability was perfect for "school/work responsibility ."The Persian translation of the SDS is a simple and short scale, and it seems to be a valid scale for the measurement of disability in clinical settings and in the Iranian general population.
Full Text Available Theresa Coles,1 Cheryl Coon,1 Carla DeMuro,1 Lori McLeod,1 Ari Gnanasakthy21Patient-Reported Outcomes, RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USAAbstract: Inattention and impulsivity symptoms are common among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, which can lead to difficulty concentrating, restlessness, difficulty completing tasks, disorganization, impatience, and impulsiveness. Many adults with ADHD find it difficult to focus and prioritize. Resulting outcomes, such as missed deadlines and forgotten engagements, may ultimately impact the ability to function at work, school, home, or in a social environment. The European Medicines Agency guidelines for evaluating medicinal products for ADHD recommend inclusion of both functional outcomes, such as school, social, or work functioning, and outcomes related to symptoms of ADHD in clinical studies of novel medication primary efficacy endpoints. Due to its performance in other disease areas and the relevance of its items as evidenced by content validity analyses, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS was chosen to assess functional impairment in ADHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the SDS, used as a brief measure of functional impairment in a number of psychiatric disorders, in adult patients with ADHD. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the reliability of the SDS (based on Cronbach's coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability, its validity (construct and known-groups validity, and its ability to detect change in this patient population. This study also established a preliminary responder definition for the SDS in this study population to determine when change can be considered clinically beneficial in a clinical trial setting. The psychometric results support the use of the SDS subscales (items 1–3 and total score (sum of items 1–3 in an ADHD
Preti, Antonio; Sheehan, David V; Coric, Vladimir; Distinto, Marco; Pitanti, Mirko; Vacca, Irene; Siddi, Alessandra; Masala, Carmelo; Petretto, Donatella Rita
The Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale (S-STS) is a patient self-report or clinician-administered rating scale that tracks spontaneous and treatment-emergent suicidal ideation and behaviors. This study set out to evaluate the reliability, convergent and divergent validity of the S-STS in a sample of college students, a population with a high risk of completed and attempted suicide. Cross-sectional, survey design. Participants (303 undergraduate students; males: 42%) completed several measures assessing psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire; GHQ); self-esteem (Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale; RSES); social support (Modified Social Support Survey; MOSSS); and suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts (S-STS). Both internal consistency and test-retest stability were excellent for the S-STS-global score. The S-STS subscale on suicide ideation also showed good reliability, while the subscale on suicidal behavior showed some inconsistency at retest. Convergent and divergent validity of S-STS was confirmed. All S-STS items loaded on a single factor, which had an excellent fit for the unidimensional model, thus justifying the use of the S-STS as a screening tool. In a mediation model, self-esteem and social support explained 45% of the effects of psychological distress on suicide ideation and behavior as measured by the S-STS-global score. This study provided promising evidence on the convergent, divergent, internal consistency and test-retest stability of the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale. The cross-sectional design and lack of measures of hopelessness and helplessness prevent any conclusion about the links of suicidal behavior with self-esteem and social support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Melchardt, Thomas; Namberger, Konrad; Weiss, Lukas; Egle, Alexander; Faber, Viktoria; Greil, Richard
Ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum haemorrhage called Sheehan's syndrome is a rare cause of hypopituitarism in the western world, but much more common in developing countries. A 45-year-old female patient being a war refugee from Chechnya with severe anaemia and fatigue was diagnosed at our outpatient department with Sheehan's syndrome after severe postpartum haemorrhage and emergency hysterectomy 15 years ago. Panhypopituitarism was adequately treated with substitution of hydrocortisone, thyroxine and transdermal oestrogen which resulted in haemoglobin increase to nearly normal levels and symptoms improved immediately. Severe anaemia caused by panhypopituitarism shows the importance of the hormonal system for erythropoiesis. Clinical and basic scientific evidence indicates thyroidal hormones to be the main cause.
Full Text Available We report the case of a young woman with Sheehan's syndrome who presented with ventricular arrhythmia and congestive heart failure. The patient was admitted because of postpartum hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock; a massive blood transfusion was required to restore blood volume. After initial stabilization, the patient developed acute respiratory distress and congestive heart failure accompanied by hemodynamic instability 2 weeks after delivery. Episodes of ventricular tachycardia of the torsade de pointes type and a prolonged QT interval were noted on baseline electrocardiogram. A low cortisol level was found incidentally, which led to the suspicion of hypopituitarism. The diagnosis was later supported by laboratory findings of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. After administration of corticosteroids and thyroxine, the patient's clinical condition improved dramatically. A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging scan 32 days after delivery revealed a diminished and flattened pituitary gland with prominent intrasellar cerebrospinal fluid loculation, which was compatible with the clinical diagnosis of empty sella with panhypopituitarism. The syndrome of acute anterior pituitary necrosis secondary to postpartum hemorrhage and shock was first described by Sheehan in 1939. Although the occurrence of Sheehan's syndrome is now rare, it should still be considered in any woman with a history of peripartum hemorrhage who develops manifestations of pituitary hormone deficiency. Appropriate hormone replacement therapy is essential and always results in dramatic clinical improvement.
Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hartvigsen, Jan
Questionnaire (RMQ) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), however, only few studies have tested these questionnaires using Rasch analysis. This study used Rasch scaling to test the construct validity of the Danish versions of the RMQ (23-item Patrick version) and the ODI (version 2.1a) in a heterogeneous...... on an ordinal scale into interval scaling in addition to optimising the fit of instrument items to the target population. In low back pain research the two most commonly used and well-validated questionnaires to assess functional status in patients with low back pain are the Roland-Morris Disability...
Full Text Available Sheehan's syndrome is caused by pregnancy-related hemorrhage leading to ischemic necrosis of the anterior pituitary gland and hypopituitarism. Spontaneous pregnancy in Sheehan's syndrome is very rare. We report the case of a patient with Sheehan's syndrome who suffered from anterior pituitary insufficiency, but with sparing of gonadotropic function. The patient became pregnant spontaneously and, after her second delivery, thyrotropic function recovered. However, the patient's growth hormone and cortisol levels remained unresponsive to an insulin-tolerance test. This case demonstrates that pituitary function may recover from less extensive pituitary ischemia. We emphasize the importance of early identification of pregnancy in such cases. It is crucial to institute adequate hormone-replacement therapy during pregnancy, since hypopituitarism is associated with high fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality.
Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.
Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…
Tung, Esther S; Flessner, Christopher A; Grant, Jon E; Keuthen, Nancy J
Limited research has investigated disability and functional impairment in trichotillomania (TTM) subjects. This study examined the relationships between hair pulling (HP) style and severity and disability while controlling for mood severity. Disability was measured in individual life areas (work, social, and family/home life) instead of as a total disability score as in previous studies. One hundred fifty three adult hair pullers completed several structured interviews and self-report instruments. HP style and severity, as well as depression, anxiety, and stress were correlated with work, social, and family/home life impairment on the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine significant predictors of life impairment. Depressive severity was a significant predictor for all SDS life areas. In addition, interference/avoidance associated with HP was a predictor for work and social life disability. Distress from HP was a significant predictor of social and family/home life disability. Focused HP score and anxiety were significant predictors of family/home life disability. As expected, depression in hair pullers predicted disability across life domains. Avoiding work and social situations can seriously impair functioning in those life domains. Severity of distress and worry about HP may be most elevated in social situations with friends and family and thus predict impairment in those areas. Finally, since HP often occurs at home, time spent in focused hair pulling would have a greater negative impact on family and home responsibilities than social and work life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cummins, Robert A.; And Others
A study of 59 Australian people with an intellectual disability and 69 university students evaluated a new scale to measure the life quality of people with an intellectual disability. The Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale--Intellectual Disability was found to be a useful instrument to measure comparative life quality. (Author/CR)
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sheehan's syndrome is defined by varying degrees of anterior pituitary deficiency due to postpartum ischemic necrosis of the pituitary gland after massive bleeding. It is a rare disorder in western countries and even in Tunisia. Hematologic abnormalities such as normochromic anemia have been reported in these patients. However, pancytopenia is rarely observed. Case presentation We describe the case of a 48-year-old Tunisian woman with features of hypopituitarism. Laboratory tests showed pancytopenia that was completely reversed after adequate hormone replacement. Conclusion Clinicians should consider the possibility of hypopituitarism as a cause of pancytopenia. This is an original case report that is of interest to hematologists, who should be aware of Sheehan's syndrome as a treatable etiology of pancytopenia for women.
Caroline A. Bonham
Full Text Available Background. Anxiety disorders are associated with considerable disability in the domains of (1 work, (2 social, and (3 family and home interactions. Psychiatric comorbidity is also known to be associated with disability. Methods. Data from the Cross-National Collaborative Panic Study was used to identify rates of comorbid diagnoses, anxiety and depression symptom ratings, and Sheehan disability scale ratings from a clinical sample of 1165 adults with panic disorder. Results. Comorbid diagnoses of agoraphobia, major depression, and social phobia were associated with disability across the three domains of work, social, and family and home interactions. The symptom of agoraphobic avoidance makes the largest contribution to disability but there is no single symptom cluster that entirely predicts impairment and disability. Limitations. The findings about the relative contributions that comorbid diagnoses make to disability only apply to a population with panic disorder. Conclusions. Although panic disorder is not generally considered to be among the serious and persistent mental illnesses, when it is comorbid with other diagnoses, it is associated with considerable impairment. In particular, the presence of agoraphobic avoidance should alert the clinician to the likelihood of important functional impairment. When measuring the functional impact of comorbid anxiety disorders, both the categorical and the dimensional approaches to diagnosis make valuable contributions.
Mahmud, Ilias; Clarke, Lynda; Ploubidis, George B
Bangladesh has an estimated 17 million adults with disabilities. A significant proportion of them are believed to have locomotor disabilities. There are over 300 non-governmental organizations providing different types of rehabilitation services to them. However, there is no locally developed and validated locomotor disability measurement scale in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to develop a locomotor disability scale with disability indicators suitable for adults in Bangladesh. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 purposively selected adults with locomotor disabilities to generate scale items. At the second stage, cognitive interviews were conducted with 12 purposively selected adults with locomotor disabilities in order to refine the measurement questions and response categories. Data were analysed using the framework technique- identifying, abstracting, charting and matching themes across the interviews. For a locomotor disability scale, 70 activities (disability indicators) were identified: 37 mobility activities, 9 activities of daily living, 17 work/productivity activities and 7 leisure activities. Cognitive interviews revealed that when asking the respondents to rate their difficulty in performing the activities, instead of just mentioning the activity name, such as taking a bath or shower, a detailed description of the activity and response options were necessary to ensure consistent interpretation of the disability indicators and response options across all respondents. Identifying suitable disability indicators was the first step in developing a locomotor disability scale for adults in Bangladesh. Interviewing adults with locomotor disabilities in Bangladesh ensured that the locomotor disability scale is of relevance to them and consequently it has excellent content validity. Further research is needed to evaluate the psychometric properties of this scale.
Burton GJ, Sibley CP, Jauniaux ERM. Placental anatomy and physiology. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 1. ...
Javadian, Pouya; Shobeiri, S Abbas
The aim of this study was to investigate disability impact in patients and cost to the families of patients who have had complications of transvaginal prolapse mesh kits and underwent surgical revision. Patients who developed complications of transvaginal mesh kits for prolapse and who had undergone vaginal prolapse mesh surgical revision/removal in 2009 to 2014 at a single institution were identified by Current Procedural Terminology codes. The group was invited to complete a phone survey pertaining to the initial vaginal mesh used for prolapse surgery utilizing Sheehan Disability Scale (scale 0-10) and Years of life Lived with Disability (YLDs) questionnaires. The data collected were used to estimate the disability and cost analysis. We used our data to estimate the economic and quality-of-life impact of vaginal mesh complications on patients in the United States RESULTS: Sixty-two patients (62/198 [31.2%]) were consented to participate and completed the questionnaires by phone. Extremely disabled patients were 18 (29%) of 62 of whole cases, and 5 (8%) of 62 reported that they had no disability after vaginal mesh surgery. The median for overall disability score after vaginal mesh procedure was 8 (which reflects marked disability on a scale of 0-10). The majority of patients missed a median of 12 months of their school or work because of their mesh complications. Thirty-seven (59.6%) of 62 did not improve after mesh removal. Twenty-one (33.9%) of 62 stated that their family income dropped because of productivity loss related to mesh complications. The mean time between vaginal mesh surgery and mesh removal procedure was 4.7 years. Sheehan Disability Scale scores are significantly correlated with YLDs outcomes. Patients' overall disability score showed a significant correlation with YLDs scores (P mesh for prolapse reduction complications had a sustained disability impact that continued despite mesh removal. Likewise, the complications were associated with
Vaughan, Elizabeth; Woodruffe-Burton, Helen
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically test a new disabled service user-specific service quality model ARCHSECRET against a modified SERVQUAL model in the context of disabled students within higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The application of SERVQUAL in the voluntary sector had raised serious issues on its portability…
Kumar, S G; Premarajan, K C; Kattimani, S; Kar, S S
There is paucity of information on epidemiology of mental disability in India. The objective of this study was to assess mental disability, and to study the association between sociodemographic and comorbid chronic conditions with mental disability. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among ≥5 years age group in an urban area attached to a Tertiary Care Medical Institute in Puducherry, India. Mental disability was assessed using Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale. Chronic morbid conditions and other associated factors were collected using pretested questionnaire. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. About 2537 subjects were covered with a response rate of 94.1%. Overall, the prevalence of mental disability was found to be 7.1% (181/2537). Among them, majority had mild mental disability (151, 83.4%), followed by moderate (21, 11.6%), severe (8, 4.4%), and profound (1, 0.6%) mental disability. Univariate analysis showed that age group status, marital status, education level, occupation, family type, religion, hypertension, joint pain, backache, current smoking, current alcohol use, and conflicts were associated with mental disability (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that male gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.064), widowed status (AOR = 27.022), separated/divorced status (AOR = 16.674), currently married status (AOR = 18.487), being illiterate (AOR = 4.352), having 1st-10th standard education (AOR = 2.531), being in an unskilled (AOR = 0.287) or semiskilled/skilled occupation (AOR = 0.025), belonging to a nuclear family (AOR = 1.816), and absence of family conflicts (AOR = 0.259) were significantly associated with mental disability compared to their counterparts. Mental disability is more common in this area. Males, lesser education level, skilled or unskilled occupation, nuclear family, and conflicts were associated with mental disability after adjusting other variables. Multicentric
S G Kumar
Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of information on epidemiology of mental disability in India. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess mental disability, and to study the association between sociodemographic and comorbid chronic conditions with mental disability. Materials and Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among ≥5 years age group in an urban area attached to a Tertiary Care Medical Institute in Puducherry, India. Mental disability was assessed using Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale. Chronic morbid conditions and other associated factors were collected using pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: About 2537 subjects were covered with a response rate of 94.1%. Overall, the prevalence of mental disability was found to be 7.1% (181/2537. Among them, majority had mild mental disability (151, 83.4%, followed by moderate (21, 11.6%, severe (8, 4.4%, and profound (1, 0.6% mental disability. Univariate analysis showed that age group status, marital status, education level, occupation, family type, religion, hypertension, joint pain, backache, current smoking, current alcohol use, and conflicts were associated with mental disability (P < 0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that male gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.064, widowed status (AOR = 27.022, separated/divorced status (AOR = 16.674, currently married status (AOR = 18.487, being illiterate (AOR = 4.352, having 1st–10th standard education (AOR = 2.531, being in an unskilled (AOR = 0.287 or semiskilled/skilled occupation (AOR = 0.025, belonging to a nuclear family (AOR = 1.816, and absence of family conflicts (AOR = 0.259 were significantly associated with mental disability compared to their counterparts. Conclusion: Mental disability is more common in this area. Males, lesser education level, skilled or unskilled occupation, nuclear family, and
Hatipoglu, Hasan; Canbaz Kabay, Sibel; Gungor Hatipoglu, Mujgan; Ozden, Hilmi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between different disability states in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) as determined by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and dental-periodontal measures. Eighty patients with MS (64 females and 16 males) were included in this study. Data on MS types, attack frequency, disease duration, EDSS scores and orofacial complaints prior to an MS attack were obtained from medical records. The plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival index (GI), decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) index and number of present teeth were measured during one dental examination for each subject. The MS patients were divided into the following 2 groups based on their EDSS scores: low physical disability (L-DS) and high physical disability (H-DS). Differences in dental parameters between groups of low and high disability were investigated. p disability in MS patients. In addition, some maxillofacial-oral complaints prior to an MS attack were observed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Holler, Roni; Werner, Shirli
Over the last decades, the disability movement has been advocating for a paradigmatic shift in how disability is perceived and managed: from a medical or individual perspective focusing on the person's body and mind to a social perspective emphasizing the context and barriers of disability. However, we still know little about the perceptions of helping professionals, particularly social workers who work closely with disabled people. Thus, the aim of the current study is to develop and validate a scale-Perceptions Toward Disability Scale (PTDS)-to measure how social workers view disability: as an individual or social category. This paper describes the three phases of the scale's construction. First, scale items were formulated and its content validity was examined. Next, a pilot of 30 social workers completed a questionnaire and an initial exploratory factor analysis was conducted. In the third and main phase, the final draft was completed in 2016 by 565 Israeli social work students to assess its psychometric properties. Both exploratory and confirmatory factorial validity and discriminant validity analyses were conducted. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis revealed two distinct factors: an individual perspective of disability comprised of eight items (α = 0.77) and a social perspective of disability comprised of ten (α = 0.66). Subsequent analyses supported the scale's discriminant validity as indicated by the lack of an association between the Attitude Toward Disabled Persons Scale (ATDP) and the social model subscale (r = .13, p = .19) and by the weak negative relation with the individual model subscale (r = -.25, p = .01). These findings show that the PTDS possesses promising construct validity and provide support for its utility. This easy-to-administer instrument offers several practical benefits and can serve as a framework for further empirical research regarding social work practice with disabled people. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons
Luna, Alberto D.
Given the paucity of research on factors associated with motivation in learning disabled college students, the present study investigated the motivation levels in college students with learning disabilities. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) has been validated cross-nationally and across all educational age groups of students having various…
Boonstra, Anne M.; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Posthumus, Jitze B.; Stewart, Roy E.
To determine the reliability and concurrent validity of a visual analogue scale (VAS) for disability as a single-item instrument measuring disability in chronic pain patients was the objective of the study. For the reliability study a test-retest design and for the validity study a cross-sectional
Lindeboom, R.; de Haan, R.; Aramideh, M.; Speelman, J. D.
Assessment of the functional status in patients with blepharospasm is of major importance for clinical practice and outcome studies. The Blepharospasm Disability Scale (BDS) is specifically directed to measure the disability in these patients. The metric properties of this instrument were evaluated.
Koriakin, Taylor A; McCurdy, Mark D; Papazoglou, Aimilia; Pritchard, Alison E; Zabel, T Andrew; Mahone, E Mark; Jacobson, Lisa A
We examined the implications of using the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6-16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, second edition (ABAS-II). GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making may be of limited value. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.
Rajati, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Masoud; Hasandokht, Tolou; Hosseini, Seyed Younes; Akbarzadeh, Rasool; Ashtarian, Hossein
Self-efficacy plays a key role in varying areas of human conditions which can be measured by different scales. The present study was aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES) in Iranian Subjects with Physical Disability (SWPD). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and self-report surveys from 214 subjects. The face and content validity, and reliability were evaluated. Discriminates were evaluated between the sub-groups of disability levels, physical activity, and health condition levels. The concurrent, convergent, divergent, and construct validity were assessed by short form health survey scale (SF-36), general self-efficacy scale (GSES), hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), respectively. Replaceable exploratory factor analysis was evaluated. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. There were acceptable face and content validity, and reliability. Furthermore, significant correlation was found between PSES and SF-36 (p disability levels (p = 0.02), physical activity levels (p disability problems. Implications for rehabilitation Psychometric properties of the Persian version of self-Efficacy scale (PSES) appear to be similar to original, English version. The PSES has been shown to have validity and reliability in Persian physical disables and can be used for patients with more different types of physical disability than individuals suffering from only Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). The PSES can be used in clinical practice and research work to evaluate the patients' confidence in performing daily activities.
Norin, H; Krafft, M; Korner, J; Nygren, A; Tingvall, C
Injury classification and assessment is one of the most important fields of injury prevention. At present, injury assessment focuses primarily on the risk of fatalities, in spite of the fact that most people who are injured survive the trauma. The net result of a fatality-based approach is that safety and vehicle engineers must make decisions with an incomplete, and sometimes misleading, picture of the traffic safety problem. By applying disability scaling reflecting long-term consequences to injury data, the most significant disabling injuries can be identified. The priorities change with the level of disability used in the scaling. In this study, the risk of permanent medical disability due to different injuries was derived and linked to abbreviated injury scale (AIS) values for 24,087 different injured body regions. This material is based on insurance data. To study how the importance of different bodily injuries changes with different severity assessments in a realistic real-world injury distribution, Swedish insurance industry disability scaling was applied to 3066 cases of belted Volvo drivers involved in frontal collisions. Crash severity was included in the study by using equivalent barrier speed (EBS). When lower levels of disability are included, injuries to the neck and the extremities become the most important, while brain and skull injuries become the most prominent at higher levels of disability. The results presented in this article should be regarded as a contribution to the development of a suitable disability scaling method. The results can also be utilized to further injury research and vehicle design aimed at reducing injuries which have the most important long-term disability consequences.
Zaidi, Sahar; Verma, Shalini; Moiz, Jamal Ali; Hussain, Mohammed E
To transculturally adapt the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale for Hindi-speaking population and examine its psychometric properties in patients with low back pain. The Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale was translated and cross-culturally adapted into Hindi following international guidelines. Hindi version of the scale was completed by 120 patients with low back pain and 60 healthy controls. Patients with low back pain were also administered the Hindi-Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scale. Psychometric evaluation included test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminative validity. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out to determine the factor structure. The factorial analysis revealed a four-factor solution (bending/carrying, ambulation/reach, prolonged postures and rest). Convergent validity was confirmed by high correlation of Hindi Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale to the Hindi version of Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (r = 0.77 and p Visual Analog Scale (r = 0.682 and p Disability Scale has good test-retest reliability, discriminative and convergent validity and is appropriate for clinical and research use in Hindi-speaking low back pain patients. Implications for rehabilitation Linguistically and culturally adapted questionnaires help researchers make adequate inferences about instruments measuring health and quality of life. The translated version would serve as a valid research tool allowing comparability of data across cultures thus, providing opportunities for large multicenter, multicountry trials. A Hindi Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale version will help to improve the quality and efficacy of assessment of low back pain by developing in patients, a better understanding of the items which can be easily correlated with the activities of daily living.
Full Text Available Sheehan’s syndrome, which is pituitary necrosis after severe postpartum hemorrhage and hypovolemia, may cause hypopituitarism immediately or several years later, depending on the degree of tissue destruction. We report an unusual case, in which a 55-year-old woman with Sheehan's syndrome got worse symptoms after spontaneous labor. In 1998, she had severe postpartum hemorrhage and pituitary necrosis during the third delivery, thus it was diagnosed as Sheehan’s syndrome by clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and magnetic resonance imaging. She was treated by replacement therapy including hydrocortisone and levothyroxine sodium. However, she had the fourth spontaneous pregnancy in 2000 and got worse symptoms after delivery. We carefully concluded that pregnancy provided no evidence against the diagnosis of Sheehan’s syndrome because pregnancy might improve hypopituitarism by stimulating the pituitary remnant to undergo hyperplasia and irritating the placenta to secrete hormone. However, pregnancy might aggravate the symptoms by inducing autoimmunity as well. All in all, early diagnosis and adequate medical treatment are important to provide a good prognosis of Sheehan’s syndrome.
Mokta, Jatinder; Ranjan, Asha; Thakur, Surinder; Bhawani, Rajesh; Mokta, Kiran K; Sharma, Jai Bharat; Kumar, Manish
Panhypopituitarism is a rare disorder with varied clinical presentation having various etiologies. Sheehan's syndrome (SS) is decreasing in frequency worldwide and is a rare cause of panhypopituitarism in developed nations. A retrospective study done between May 2011 and May 2015 in tertiary care hospital. We reviewed the records of patients with hypopituitarism. Clinical features, hormonal profile and radiological investigations noted. Total 14 patients of panhypopituitarism included with average duration of symptoms 1.93± 1.96 years. four (28.57%) were males and ten (71.43%) were females with mean age of diagnosis 37.78± 13.68 years. Sheehan's syndrome (SS) was the most common cause of panhypopituitarism in 57.14%(8 patients), followed by post surgery in 14.28% (2 patients). 80% of women had SS with a mean duration of symptoms 2.39±1.54 years. Sheehan's syndrome is not uncommon in developing countries, High degree of clinical suspicion is desired as clinical features are most often subtle.
Valasek, Tamás; Varga, Peter Paul; Szövérfi, Zsolt; Kümin, Michelle; Fairbank, Jeremy; Lazary, Aron
Patient-reported outcome measurements (PROMs) are widely used in spine care. The development of reliable and valid National versions of spine-related disability questionnaires is strongly recommended from both the clinical and scientific points-of-view. The aims of this study were to adapt and validate the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Quebec back pain disability scale (QDS) for use with the Hungarian language. After translating and culturally adapting the ODI and QDS, 133 patients with lumbar degenerative spinal disorder filled in the questionnaire booklet twice within 2 weeks. Subjects completed the Hungarian versions of the two PROMs as well as the WHOQoL-BREF validated as a general life quality questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scale of pain. Internal consistency, reliability and construct validity of the questionnaires were determined, as were the standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) scores. The Hungarian ODI consisted of one factor that showed good internal consistency (Cronbach-α 0.890). The QDS showed a four-factor structure with Cronbach-α values between 0.788 and 0.917. No significant floor or ceiling effects were observed. The test-retest analysis showed excellent reliability of the Hungarian ODI and QDS. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.927 and 0.923, respectively. SEM values of 4.8 and 5.2 resulted in a MDC of 13 and 14 points in the Hungarian ODI and QDS, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) between pain and ODI was 0.680 (p 0.4, p disability measured by the Hungarian ODI and QDS was significantly higher in the surgical subgroup than in non-surgically treated patients (p < 0.001). Translation and cultural adaptation of the ODI and QDS were successful. Hungarian versions of the ODI and QDS proved to be reliable, valid PROMs confirming that they can be used in future clinical and scientific work with Hungarian-speaking spine patients.
Di Nuovo, Santo F; Buono, Serafino
The results of previous studies on the factorial structure of Wechsler Intelligence Scales are somewhat inconsistent across normal and pathological samples. To study specific clinical groups, such as developmentally disabled persons, it is useful to examine the factor structure in appropriate samples. A factor analysis was carried out using the principal component method and the Varimax orthogonal rotation on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R) in a sample of 203 developmentally disabled persons, with a mean age of 25 years 4 months. Developmental disability ranged from mild to moderate. Partially contrasting with previous studies on normal samples, results found a two-factor solution. Wechsler's traditional Verbal and Performance scales seems to be more appropriate for this sample than the alternative three-factor solution.
Lin, Chen-Ping; Wang, Chia-Chiang; Fujikawa, Mayu; Brooks, Jessica; Eastvold-Walton, Lissa; Maxwell, Kristin; Chan, Fong
Purpose: To examine the measurement structure of the Brief Adaptation to Disability Scale-Revised (B-ADS-R). Measure: A 12-item measure of disability acceptance based on the four value changes (enlarging the scope of values, containing the effects of the disability, subordinating the physique, and transforming comparative-status values to asset…
Mousavi, Sayed Javad; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Mehdian, Hossein; Montazeri, Ali; Mobini, Bahram
Cross-cultural translation and psychometric testing were performed. To cross-culturally translate the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ), and Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QDS) into Persian, and then investigate the psychometric properties of the Persian versions produced. To the authors' knowledge, there is no validated instrument to measure functional status in Persian-speaking patients with low back pain (LBP) in Iran. To our knowledge, the widely used back-specific measures, the ODI, RDQ, and QDS, have not been translated and validated for Persian-speaking patients with LBP. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original questionnaires were performed in accordance with published guidelines. A total of 100 patients with chronic LBP were asked to complete a questionnaire booklet (the Persian versions of the ODI, RDQ, QDS, Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and visual analog scale measure of pain). There were 31 randomly select patients with chronic LBP asked to complete the second questionnaire booklet 24 hours later. The Cronbach-alpha for the ODI, RDQ, and QDS was 0.75, 0.83, and 0.92, respectively. The ODI, RDQ, and QDS showed excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91, 0.86, and 0.86, respectively) (P < 0.01). The correlation among the ODI, RDQ, QDS and physical functioning scales of the SF-36 was -0.66, -0.62, and -0.69, respectively (P < 0.001). The correlation among the ODI, RDQ, and QDS and visual analog scale was 0.54, 0.36, and 0.46, respectively (P < 0.001). The Persian versions of the ODI, RDQ, and QDS are reliable and valid instruments to measure functional status in Persian-speaking patients with LBP. They are simple and fast scales, and the use of them can be recommended in a clinical setting and future outcome studies in Iran.
Maenner, Matthew J; Smith, Leann E; Hong, Jinkuk; Makuch, Renee; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R
Background Activity limitations are an important and useful dimension of disability, but there are few validated measures of activity limitations for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. Objective/Hypothesis To describe the development of the Waisman Activities of Daily Living (W-ADL) Scale for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities, and systematically evaluate its measurement properties according to an established set of criteria. Methods The W-ADL was administered among four longitudinally-studied groups of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities: 406 with autism; 147 with fragile-X syndrome; 169 with Down syndrome, and 292 with intellectual disability of other or unknown origin. The W-ADL contains 17 activities and each is rated on a 3-point scale (0=“does not do at all”, 1=“does with help”, 2=“independent”), and a standard set of criteria were used to evaluate its measurement properties. Results Across the disability groups, Cronbach’s alphas ranged from 0.88 to 0.94, and a single-factor structure was most parsimonious. The W-ADL was reliable over time, with weighted kappas between 0.92 and 0.93. Criterion and construct validity were supported through substantial associations with the Vineland Screener, need for respite services, caregiving burden, and competitive employment. No floor or ceiling effects were present. There were significant group differences in W-ADL scores by maternally-reported level of intellectual disability (mild, moderate, severe, profound). Conclusions The W-ADL exceeded the recommended threshold for each quality criterion the authors evaluated. This freely-available tool is an efficient measure of activities of daily living for surveys and epidemiological research concerning adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. PMID:23260606
Full Text Available Background: Shifting paradigms regarding the ways to assess the support needs of people with intellectual disability in 1980 necessitates the design and development of appropriate tools more than ever. In this regard, American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD developed Supports Intensity Scale (SIS to respond the lack of an appropriate measurement tool. The aim of this study is the cultural adaptation and evaluation of psychometric properties of Supports Intensity Scale in adults with intellectual disability. Methods: Validity of Persian version of SIS was assessed by Content validity. The reliability of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha and test–retest reliability with a 3-week interval. In this study, the sample contained 43 adults (29 men and 14 women with intellectual disability. Results: The content of the Persian version of SIS was approved by the experts. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients for the subscales ranged between 0.80 and 0.99. Also, Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged between 0.90 and 0.99 (P<0.001. Furthermore, all Pearson correlation coefficients among the SIS subscales ranged between 0.63 and 0.98 (P<0.01. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the validity and reliability of the equivalent Persian version of SIS for identifying pattern and required supports intensity in adults with intellectual disability is acceptable.
Boonstra, Anne M; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R; Reneman, Michiel F; Posthumus, Jitze B; Stewart, Roy E
To determine the reliability and concurrent validity of a visual analogue scale (VAS) for disability as a single-item instrument measuring disability in chronic pain patients was the objective of the study. For the reliability study a test-retest design and for the validity study a cross-sectional design was used. A general rehabilitation centre and a university rehabilitation centre was the setting for the study. The study population consisted of patients over 18 years of age, suffering from chronic musculoskeletal pain; 52 patients in the reliability study, 344 patients in the validity study. Main outcome measures were as follows. Reliability study: Spearman's correlation coefficients (rho values) of the test and retest data of the VAS for disability; validity study: rho values of the VAS disability scores with the scores on four domains of the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and VAS pain scores, and with Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores in chronic low back pain patients. Results were as follows: in the reliability study rho values varied from 0.60 to 0.77; and in the validity study rho values of VAS disability scores with SF-36 domain scores varied from 0.16 to 0.51, with Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores from 0.38 to 0.43 and with VAS pain scores from 0.76 to 0.84. The conclusion of the study was that the reliability of the VAS for disability is moderate to good. Because of a weak correlation with other disability instruments and a strong correlation with the VAS for pain, however, its validity is questionable.
Zhang, Qin-Ting; Pang, Yan-Xia; Cai, Wei-Xiong; Tang, Tao; Huang, Fu-Yin
To create civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients, and explore its feasibility during the forensic psychiatric expertise. The civil capacity-related items were determined after discussion and consultation. The civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients was established and the manual was created according to the logistic sequence of the assessment. The rating scale was used during the civil assessment in four institutes. There were 14 items in civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients. Two hundred and two subjects were recruited and divided into three groups according to the experts' opinion on their civil capacities: full civil capacity, partial civil capacity and no civil capacity. The mean score of the three groups were 2.32 +/- 2.45, 11.62 +/- 4.01 and 25.02 +/- 3.90, respectively, and there was statistical differences among the groups. The Cronbach alpha of the rating scale was 0.9724, and during the split-reliability test, the two-splited part of the rating scale were highly correlated (r = 0.9729, P = 0.000). The Spearman correlative coefficient between each item and the score of the rating scale was from 0.643 to 0.882 (P = 0.000). There was good correlation between the conclusion according to the rating scale and the experts' opinion (kappa = 0.841, P = 0.000). When the discriminate analysis was used, 7 items were included into the discrimination equation, and 92.6% subjects were identified as the correct groups using the equation. There is satisfied reliability and validity on civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients. The rating scale can be used as effective tools to grade their civil capacity during the forensic expertise.
Buck, Deborah; Smith, Monica; Appleton, Richard; Baker, Gus A; Jacoby, Ann
Few suitable instruments exist for use with people, especially children, with both epilepsy and learning disabilities. One such measure is the Epilepsy and Learning Disabilities Quality of Life scale (ELDQOL), which has recently undergone revision following feedback from relevant users. This article reports on the final psychometric testing phase of this scale. ELDQOL consists of 70 items covering seizure severity, seizure-related injuries, antiepileptic drug side effects, behavior, mood, physical, cognitive, and social functioning, parental concern, communication, overall quality of life, and overall health. Revalidation involved a qualitative phase, to ascertain users' opinions on the wording, coverage, and layout of the questionnaire, and a quantitative phase, to examine internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and validity. There is very good evidence of the reliability and validity of the final version of ELDQOL, making it a promising instrument for assessing quality of life in children/young adults with epilepsy and learning disabilities.
Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees; Waninge, Aly
BACKGROUND: A modified version of the Berg Balance Scale (mBBS) was developed for individuals with intellectual and visual disabilities (IVD). However, the concurrent and predictive validity has not yet been determined. AIM: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the concurrent and
Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Krijnen, Wim P.; van der Schans, Cees P.; Waninge, Aly
Background: A modified version of the Berg Balance Scale (mBBS) was developed for individuals with intellectual and visual disabilities (IVD). However, the concurrent and predictive validity has not yet been determined. Aim: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the concurrent and
Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.
High incidence of falls and increased risk of fall-related injuries are seen in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) is a reliable instrument for balance assessment in the population of (older) adults with ID. The aims of this study were to assess the balance
Biemans, M.A.J.E.; Dekker, J.; Woude, L.H.V. van der
OBJECTIVE: To test the consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease living at home. DESIGN: Patients with Parkinson's disease responded to a set of questionnaires. In addition, an observation of the performance of daily
Dekker, J.; Biemans, M.A.J.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der
OBJECTIVE: To test the consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease living at home. DESIGN: Patients with Parkinson's disease responded to a set of questionnaires. In addition, an observation of the performance of daily
Full Text Available Background & objectives: The Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS has been recommended for assessment and certification of disability by the Government of India (GOI. However, the psychometric properties of IDEAS as adopted by GOI remain understudied. Our aim, thus, was to study the internal consistency and validity of IDEAS in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 103 consenting patients with residual schizophrenia were assessed for disability, quality of life (QOL and psychopathology using the IDEAS, WHO QOL-100 and Positive and Negative symptom scale (PANSS respectively. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach′s alpha. For construct validity, relations between IDEAS, and psychopathology and QOL were studied. Results: The inter-item correlations for IDEAS were significant with a Cronbach′s alpha of 0.721. All item scores other than score on communication and understanding; total and global IDEAS scores correlated significantly with the positive, negative and general sub-scales, and total PANSS scores. Communication and understanding was significantly related to negative sub-scale score only. Total and global disability scores correlated negatively with all the domains of WHOQOL-100 (ρ<0.01. The individual IDEAS item scores correlated negatively with various WHOQOL-100 domains (ρ0< 0.01. Interpretation & conclusions: This study findings showed that the GOI-modified IDEAS had good internal consistency and construct validity as tested in patients with residual schizophrenia. Similar studies need to be done with other groups of patients.
Fountoulakis Konstantinos N
Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of functioning and disability is an important part of the clinical evaluation, since it measures disease burden and reflects the effectiveness of therapeutic planning and interventions. The aim of the current study was to develop such a self-report instrument on the basis of a review of the literature, and compatible with the WHO approach. Material and methods The review of the literature led to the development of the Global Disability Scale (Glo.Di.S with 25 items assessing different aspects of disability. The study sample included 728 persons from vulnerable populations (homeless, jobless, very low income, single parent families etc.; (29.12% males and 70.88% females; aged 55.96 ± 15.22 years. The protocol included also the STAI and the CES-D. The statistical analysis included factor analysis item analysis and ANCOVA. Results The factor analysis revealed the presence of 4 factors explaining 71% of total variance (Everyday functioning, Social and interpersonal functioning, Severity and Mental disability. Chronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was 0.95 and for subscales were 0.74–0.94. Discussion The results of the current study suggest that the Glo.Di.S. has the potential to serve as a reliable and valid tool for assessing functioning and disability. Further research is needed to prove that it could be useful across countries, populations and diseases, and whether it provides data that are culturally meaningful and comparable. It can be used in surveys and in clinical research settings and it can generate information of use in evaluating health needs and the effectiveness of interventions to reduce disability and improve health.
Sánchez-Pérez, Alicia; López-Roig, Sofia; Pampliega Pérez, Ana; Peral Gómez, Paula; Pastor, María Ángeles; Hurtado-Pomares, Miriam
Functional assessment is especially relevant in patients with cognitive impairment (CI). The Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) scale assesses functional ability and its use is becoming increasingly popular. This study aims to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the DAD scale in order to create a Spanish version: DAD-E. A double translation/back-translation process was developed, as well as a pilot study with 14 caregivers of patients with CI, and 3 review meetings to achieve general agreement. The DAD-E includes the 40 original items. Four response options and 8 scores were added in order to detect functional disability induced by CI independently of other possible causes. More detailed instructions for administration and scoring of the scale have been provided in order to improve the reliability of the content. The DAD-E was shown to be a cultural and linguistic adaptation equivalent of the original scale, which allows it to be applied to the Spanish population. It may be a useful instrument in clinical practice since it provides a more accurate assessment of functional disability due to cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wani, Abdul Majid; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Al Mejally, Mousa Ali; Banjar, Abdulhakeem Amroon; Ali, Khaled Shawkat; Khoujah, Amer Mohd; Raja, Sadeya Hanif; Bafaraj, Mazen G; Al Miamini, Wail; Akhtar, Mubeena
Sheehan's syndrome, first described in 1937, is characterised by postpartum haemorrhage, pituitary necrosis, lactational failure and hypopitutarism. Presentation is variable and late presentations are not unusual due to partial ischaemic injury of the pituitary and gradual loss of endocrine function. A history of postpartum haemorrhage is usual but in some cases it is not elicited. Presentations such as malaise, fatigue, hypoglycaemia, decline in cognition, hyponatraemia, pancytopoenia, osteoporosis, secondary infertility, confusion and coma have all been reported. Two interesting cases of Sheehan's syndrome are presented that were diagnosed in the eighth decade; one due to atypical presentation of recurrent hyponatraemia and confusion, another from hypoglycaemic coma and symptoms of malaise and lethargy.
Waninge, Aly; van Wijck, R.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, Cees
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and reliability of the modified Berg Balance Scale (mBBS) in persons with severe intellectual and visual disabilities (severe multiple disabilities, SMD) assigned Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) grades I and
Waninge, A.; van Wijck, R.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, C. P.
Background The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and reliability of the modified Berg Balance Scale (mBBS) in persons with severe intellectual and visual disabilities (severe multiple disabilities, SMD) assigned Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) grades I and II.
Alpak, Gokay; Coskun, Erol; Erbagci, Ibrahim; Bez, Yasin; Okumus, Seydi; Oren, Burak; Gurler, Bulent
Corrective surgery is done for ocular alignment and disrupted facial expression in some cases of adult strabismus patients. The effects of corrective surgery on the presence of social phobia (SP) diagnosis, the severity of social anxiety symptoms, the disease-related disability and the quality of life (QoL) among strabismus patients have not been thoroughly studied yet. The study sample was composed of patients who had undergone corrective surgery for strabismus. Preoperative and postoperative evaluations made by using standardised measures of social phobia diagnosis (DSM-IV-TR) and severity (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS)), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), disability (Sheehan Disability Scale) and quality of life (short form-36). Preoperatively, SP diagnosis was detected in 17 of 31 (54.8%) patients, whereas postoperatively 6 of 31 (19.4%) patients had SP (p=0.001). Participants showed a significant decrease in all subscale scores and total score of both LSAS and HADS compared with their preoperative scores. Significant improvements were observed in QoL and disability scores as well. Adult strabismus patients seem to gain benefits from corrective surgery not only for their ocular misalignment but also for social anxiety levels that may be associated with improvements in their QoL and disability levels.
van Nes, S I; Vanhoutte, E K; van Doorn, P A; Hermans, M; Bakkers, M; Kuitwaard, K; Faber, C G; Merkies, I S J
To develop a patient-based, linearly weighted scale that captures activity and social participation limitations in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and gammopathy-related polyneuropathy (MGUSP). A preliminary Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale (R-ODS) containing 146 activity and participation items was constructed, based on the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, literature search, and patient interviews. The preliminary R-ODS was assessed twice (interval: 2-4 weeks; test-retest reliability studies) in 294 patients who experienced GBS in the past (n = 174) or currently have stable CIDP (n = 80) or MGUSP (n = 40). Data were analyzed using the Rasch unidimensional measurement model (RUMM2020). The preliminary R-ODS did not meet the Rasch model expectations. Based on disordered thresholds, misfit statistics, item bias, and local dependency, items were systematically removed to improve the model fit, regularly controlling the class intervals and model statistics. Finally, we succeeded in constructing a 24-item scale that fulfilled all Rasch requirements. "Reading a newspaper/book" and "eating" were the 2 easiest items; "standing for hours" and "running" were the most difficult ones. Good validity and reliability were obtained. The R-ODS is a linearly weighted scale that specifically captures activity and social participation limitations in patients with GBS, CIDP, and MGUSP. Compared to the Overall Disability Sum Score, the R-ODS represents a wider range of item difficulties, thereby better targeting patients with different ability levels. If responsive, the R-ODS will be valuable for future clinical trials and follow-up studies in these conditions.
Burns, Joshua; Ouvrier, Robert; Estilow, Tim; Shy, Rosemary; Laurá, Matilde; Pallant, Julie F.; Lek, Monkol; Muntoni, Francesco; Reilly, Mary M.; Pareyson, Davide; Acsadi, Gyula; Shy, Michael E.; Finkel, Richard S.
Objective Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a common heritable peripheral neuropathy. There is no treatment for any form of CMT although clinical trials are increasingly occurring. Patients usually develop symptoms during the first two decades of life but there are no established outcome measures of disease severity or response to treatment. We identified a set of items that represent a range of impairment levels and conducted a series of validation studies to build a patient-centered multi-item rating scale of disability for children with CMT. Methods As part of the Inherited Neuropathies Consortium, patients aged 3–20 years with a variety of CMT types were recruited from the USA, UK, Italy and Australia. Initial development stages involved: definition of the construct, item pool generation, peer review and pilot testing. Based on data from 172 patients, a series of validation studies were conducted, including: item and factor analysis, reliability testing, Rasch modeling and sensitivity analysis. Results Seven areas for measurement were identified (strength, dexterity, sensation, gait, balance, power, endurance), and a psychometrically robust 11-item scale constructed (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Pediatric Scale: CMTPedS). Rasch analysis supported the viability of the CMTPedS as a unidimensional measure of disability in children with CMT. It showed good overall model fit, no evidence of misfitting items, no person misfit and it was well targeted for children with CMT. Interpretation The CMTPedS is a well-tolerated outcome measure that can be completed in 25-minutes. It is a reliable, valid and sensitive global measure of disability for children with CMT from the age of 3 years. PMID:22522479
van den Berg-Emons, Rita J; L'Ortye, Annemiek A; Buffart, Laurien M; Nieuwenhuijsen, Channah; Nooijen, Carla F; Bergen, Michael P; Stam, Henk J; Bussmann, Johannes B
To determine the criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) by means of daily physical activity levels measured by using a validated accelerometry-based activity monitor in a large group of persons with a physical disability. Cross-sectional. Participants' home environment. Ambulatory and nonambulatory persons with cerebral palsy, meningomyelocele, or spinal cord injury (N=124). Not applicable. Self-reported physical activity level measured by using the PASIPD, a 2-day recall questionnaire, was correlated to objectively measured physical activity level measured by using a validated accelerometry-based activity monitor. Significant Spearman correlation coefficients between the PASIPD and activity monitor outcome measures ranged from .22 to .37. The PASIPD overestimated the duration of physical activity measured by using the activity monitor (mean ± SD, 3.9±2.9 vs 1.5±0.9h/d; PPASIPD correlated poorly with objective measurements using an accelerometry-based activity monitor in people with a physical disability. However, similar low correlations between objective and subjective activity measurements have been found in the general population. Users of the PASIPD should be cautious about overestimating physical activity levels. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Houston, Megan N; Hoch, Johanna M; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Hoch, Matthew C
The Disablement in the Physically Active scale (DPA) is a generic patient-reported outcome designed to evaluate constructs of disability in physically active populations. The purpose of this study was to analyze the DPA scale structure for summary components. Four hundred and fifty-six collegiate athletes completed a demographic form and the DPA. A principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted with oblique rotation. Factors with eigenvalues >1 that explained >5 % of the variance were retained. The PCA revealed a two-factor structure consistent with paradigms used to develop the original DPA. Items 1-12 loaded on Factors 1 and Items 13-16 loaded on Factor 2. Items 1-12 pertain to impairment, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Items 13-16 address psychosocial and emotional well-being. Consideration of item content suggested Factor 1 concerned physical function, while Factor 2 concerned mental well-being. Thus, items clustered around Factor 1 and 2 were identified as physical (DPA-PSC) and mental (DPA-MSC) summary components, respectively. Together, the factors accounted for 65.1 % of the variance. The PCA revealed a two-factor structure for the DPA that resulted in DPA-PSC and DPA-MSC. Analyzing the DPA as separate constructs may provide distinct information that could help to prescribe treatment and rehabilitation strategies.
Cheatham, Leah P.; Abell, Neil; Kim, Hyejin
Disability scholars have recently highlighted social work professional organizations' lagging pace in adopting disability advocacy within diversity agendas and have questioned the adequacy of disability content within accredited social work curricula. Amid growing concerns, measures to assess attitudes of social workers toward disability and…
Washburn, Richard A; Zhu, Weimo; McAuley, Edward; Frogley, Michael; Figoni, Stephen F
To evaluate the construct validity of a new 13-item physical activity survey designed to assess physical activity in individuals with physical disabilities. Mail survey requesting information on physical activity, basic demographic characteristics, self-rated health, and self-rated physical activity. In February 2000, surveys were sent to 1176 individuals who had used rehabilitative services at a major midwestern university between 1950 and 1999. Two hundred twenty-seven men and 145 women with disabilities responded to the mail survey (80%, spinal cord or other locomotor injuries; 13%, visual and auditory injuries; 7%, other; 92%, white; mean age +/- standard deviation, 49.8 +/- 12.9y; mean length of disability, 36.9 +/- 14.9y). Not applicable. Physical activity was assessed with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). The PASIPD requests the number of days a week and hours daily (categories) of participation in recreational, household, and occupational activities over the past 7 days. Total scores were calculated as the average hours daily times a metabolic equivalent value and summed over items. Pearson correlations between each survey item and the total PASIPD score were all statistically significant (P or= .20 (range, .20- .67). Factor analysis with principal component extraction and varimax orthogonal rotations revealed 5 latent factors (eigenvalues >or= 1, factor loadings >or= .40): home repair and lawn and garden, housework, vigorous sport and recreation, light sport and recreation, and occupation and transportation. These 5 factors accounted for 63% of the total variance. Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from.37 to.65, indicating low-to-moderate internal consistency within factors. Those who reported being "active/highly active" had higher total and subcategory scores compared with those "not active at all." Those in "excellent" health had higher total, vigorous sport and recreation, and occupation and
Badr, H E; Mourad, H
To study the role of gender in coping with disability in young visually impaired students attending two schools for blindness. The WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS II), 36-Item Interviewer Administered translated Arabic version was used. It evaluates six domains of everyday living in the last 30 days. These domains are: understanding and communicating, getting around, self care, getting along with people, household activities and participation in society. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 200 students who represented the target population of the study. Binary logistic regression analysis of the scores of the six domains revealed that in all of the domains except getting along with people and coping with school activities, females significantly faced more difficulties in coping with daily life activities than did their male counterparts. Increasing age significantly increased difficulties in coping with school activities. Genetic causes of blindness were associated with increased difficulties. Females face more difficulties in coping with visual disability. Genetic counselling is needed to decrease the prevalence of visual disability. Girls with blindness need additional inputs to help cope with blindness. Early intervention facilitates dealing with school activities of the visually impaired.
Sideridis, Georgios; Padeliadu, Susana
The purpose of the present studies was to provide the means to create brief versions of instruments that can aid the diagnosis and classification of students with learning disabilities and comorbid disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). A sample of 1,108 students with and without a diagnosis of learning disabilities took part in study 1. Using information from modern theory methods (i.e., the Rasch model), a scale was created that included fewer than one third of the original battery items designed to assess reading skills. This best item synthesis was then evaluated for its predictive and criterion validity with a valid external reading battery (study 2). Using a sample of 232 students with and without learning disabilities, results indicated that the brief version of the scale was equally effective as the original scale in predicting reading achievement. Analysis of the content of the brief scale indicated that the best item synthesis involved items from cognition, motivation, strategy use, and advanced reading skills. It is suggested that multiple psychometric criteria be employed in evaluating the psychometric adequacy of scales used for the assessment and identification of learning disabilities and comorbid disorders.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Work Instability Scale for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA-WIS is established and is used by physicians to identify patients at risk of job loss for rapid intervention. The study objective was to explore the concept of Work Instability (a mismatch between an individual's abilities and job demands in Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS and develop a Work Instability Scale specific to this population. Methods New items generated from qualitative interviews were combined with items from the RA-WIS to form a draft AS-WIS. Rasch analysis was used to examine the scaling properties of the AS-WIS using data generated through a postal survey. The scale was validated against a gold standard of expert assessment, a test-retest survey examined reliability. Results Fifty-seven participants who were in work returned the postal survey. Of the original 55 items 38 were shown to fit the Rasch model (χ2 37.5; df 38; p 0.494 and free of bias for gender and disease duration. Following analysis for discrimination against the gold standard assessments 20 items remained with good fit to the model (χ2 24.8; df 20; p 0.21. Test-retest reliability was 0.94. Conclusion The AS-WIS is a self-administered scale which meets the stringent requirements of modern measurement. Used as a screening tool it can identify those experiencing a mismatch at work who are at risk of job retention problems and work disability. Work instability is emerging as an important indication for the use of biologics, thus the AS-WIS has the potential to become an important outcome measure.
Carmona, Nicole E; Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Cha, Danielle S; Lee, Yena; Fus, Dominika; McIntyre, Roger S
The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences in discrete domains of psychopathology as mediators of functional disability among individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Adults (ages 18-65) with moderate-to-severe MDD (n = 100) and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (HC; n = 100) participated in a clinical trial validating the THINC-integrated tool, a newly developed cognitive assessment tool for patients with MDD. Variables assessed as possible mediators included depression symptom severity, anxiety symptoms, sleep disturbance, perceived cognitive deficits, and objective cognitive performance. Functional disability was assessed using the total score on the Sheehan Disability Scale. Separate mediation analyses were conducted for men and women. No significant differences were detected between men and women on the assessed domains of psychopathology or functional disability (ps > 0.05). However, the mediation analyses demonstrated different patterns with respect to determinants of functional disability in MDD between men and women. Functional disability was mediated by anxiety (95% CI: -3.17, -0.28) and sleep disturbance (95% CI: -0.69, -0.05) among men and by depressive symptom severity (95% CI: -7.82, -0.32) among women. These preliminary results instantiate the need to dimensionalize psychopathology in MDD. Our results at least in part support the hypothesis that, consistent with the sex differences in the prevalence and illness presentation of MDD, determinants of functional outcomes also differ between men and women, underscoring the need to consider sex differences in order to improve functional outcomes in the treatment of MDD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Streppel, Kitty R M; van der Beek, Allard J; van der Woude, Luc H V; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Woude, Lucas
BACKGROUND: The objective was to determine the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). METHODS: Forty-five non-wheelchair dependent subjects were recruited from three Dutch rehabilitation centers. Subjects'
Bosma, L.V.A.E.; Kragt, J.J.; Polman, C.H.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.
Objective: To study the relationships between 1-2 year changes in well-known physician-rated measurements (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW), 9-Hole Peg Test (9HPT)) and the long-term (= 5 years) outcome in patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures (Multiple Sclerosis
Maiano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Begarie, Jerome
The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total sample of 189 adolescents (121 boys and 68 girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old, with mild to moderate ID were…
Zuna, Nina I.; Selig, James P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Turnbull, Ann P.
Recently, within the field of special education, attention has been accorded to the conceptualization and measurement of family outcomes. The Family Quality of Life (FQOL) Scale is an instrument that can be used to measure family outcomes for families who have children with disabilities, and it has been demonstrated to have psychometric validity.…
Pruett, Steven R.; Deiches, Jon; Pfaller, Joseph; Moser, Erin; Chan, Fong
Objective: To determine the factorial validity of the Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice toward People with Disabilities Scale (D-IMS/EMS). Design: A quantitative descriptive design using factor analysis. Participants: 233 rehabilitation counseling and rehabilitation services students. Results: Both exploratory and…
Wygant, Dustin B.; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Stafford, Kathleen P.; Freeman, David B.; Heilbronner, Robert L.
The present study extends the validation of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) Response Bias Scale (RBS; R. O. Gervais, Y. S. Ben-Porath, D. B. Wygant, & P. Green, 2007) in separate forensic samples composed of disability claimants and…
de Groot, S.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Niezen, A.; Smit, C. A. J.; Post, M. W. M.
Study design: Cross-sectional study. Objectives: To evaluate the physical activity scale for individuals with physical disabilities (PASIPD) in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: Eight Dutch rehabilitation centers with a specialized SCI unit. Methods: The PASIPD was examined by comparing
Langeskov-Christensen, D; Feys, P; Baert, I
BACKGROUND: The severity of walking impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) at different levels on the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) is unclear. Furthermore, it is unclear if the EDSS is differently related to performed- and perceived walking capacity tests. AIMS: To quantify...
Peterson, Jana J.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe, John B.; Nothwehr, Faryle K.
Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities are not sufficiently active for availing health benefits. Little is known about correlates of physical activity among this population on which to build health promotion interventions. Materials and Methods: We developed scales for measurement of self-efficacy and social support for…
Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.
The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…
Brenton, Beatrice White; Gilmore, Doug
An operational index of discrepancy between ability and achievement using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) was tested with 50 male and 10 female legally identified learning disabled (LD) children (mean age 9 years 2 months). Use of the index identified 74% of the males and 30% of the…
Angela Del Rosso
Full Text Available Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119 SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS. Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ≥8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV, hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening, global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT. Results. Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (. HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (. By multiple regression, HADS-D is independently associated with FACIT-F (, RSES (, and MHISS total score (, together explaining 50% of variance. HADS-A is independently associated with RSES (, COPE-NIV SA (, COPE-NIV SS (, FACIT-F (, and MHISS mouth opening (, explaining 41% of variance. Conclusions. In SSc depression and anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms.
Ruiz, Ferrin K; Bohl, Daniel D; Webb, Matthew L; Russo, Glenn S; Grauer, Jonathan N
Lumbar pathology is often associated with axial pain or neurologic complaints. It is often presumed that such pain is associated with decreased lumbar motion; however, this correlation is not well established. The utility of various outcome measures that are used in both research and clinical practice have been studied, but the connection with range of motion (ROM) has not been well documented. The current study was performed to assess objectively the postulated correlation of lumbar complaints (based on standardized outcome measures) with extremes of lumbar ROM and functional ROM (fROM) with activities of daily living (ADLs) as assessed with an electrogoniometer. This study was a clinical cohort study. Subjects slated to undergo a lumbar intervention (injection, decompression, and/or fusion) were enrolled voluntarily in the study. The two outcome measures used in the study were the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for axial extremity, lower extremity, and combined axial and lower extremity, as well as the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Pain and disability scores were assessed with the VAS score and ODI. A previously validated electrogoniometer was used to measure ROM (extremes of motion in three planes) and fROM (functional motion during 15 simulated activities of daily living). Pain and disability scores were analyzed for statistically significant association with the motion assessments using linear regression analyses. Twenty-eight men and 39 women were enrolled, with an average age of 55.6 years (range, 18-79 years). The ODI and VAS were associated positively (p<.001). Combined axial and lower extremity VAS scores were associated with lateral and rotational ROM (p<.05), but not with flexion/extension or any fROM. Similar findings were noted for separately analyzed axial and lower extremity VAS scores. On the other hand, the ODI correlated inversely with ROM in all planes, and fROM in at least one plane for 10 of 15 ADLs (p<.05). Extremes of lumbar motion and
Young, Ian A; Dunning, James; Butts, Raymond; Cleland, Joshua A; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César
Background Self-reported disability and pain intensity are commonly used outcomes in patients with cervicogenic headaches. However, there is a paucity of psychometric evidence to support the use of these self-report outcomes for individuals treated with cervicogenic headaches. Therefore, it is unknown if these measures are reliable, responsive, or result in meaningful clinically important changes in this patient population. Methods A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial (n = 110) examining the effects of spinal manipulative therapy with and without exercise in patients with cervicogenic headaches. Reliability, construct validity, responsiveness and thresholds for minimal detectable change and clinically important difference values were calculated for the Neck Disability Index and Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Results The Neck Disability Index exhibited excellent reliability (ICC = 0.92; [95 % CI: 0.46-0.97]), while the Numeric Pain Rating Scale exhibited moderate reliability (ICC = 0.72; [95 % CI: 0.08-0.90]) in the short term. Both instruments also exhibited adequate responsiveness (area under the curve; range = 0.78-0.93) and construct validity ( p numeric pain rating scale and a 5.5-point reduction on the neck disability index after 4 weeks of intervention to be considered clinically meaningful.
Mahmud, Ilias; Clarke, Lynda; Nahar, Nazmun; Ploubidis, George B
Disability does not only depend on individuals' health conditions but also the contextual factors in which individuals live. Therefore, disability measurement scales need to be developed or adapted to the context. Bangladesh lacks any locally developed or validated scales to measure disabilities in adults with mobility impairment. We developed a new Locomotor Disability Scale (LDS) in a previous qualitative study. The present study developed a shorter version of the scale and explored its factorial structure. We administered the LDS to 316 adults with mobility impairments, selected from outpatient and community-based settings of a rehabilitation centre in Bangladesh. We did exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to determine a shorter version of the LDS and explore its factorial structure. We retained 19 items from the original LDS following evaluation of response rate, floor/ceiling effects, inter-item correlations, and factor loadings in EFA. The Eigenvalues greater than one rule and the Scree test suggested a two-factor model of measuring locomotor disability (LD) in adults with mobility impairment. These two factors are 'mobility activity limitations' and 'functional activity limitations'. We named the higher order factor as 'locomotor disability'. This two-factor model explained over 68% of the total variance among the LD indicators. The reproduced correlation matrix indicated a good model fit with 14% non-redundant residuals with absolute values > 0.05. However, the Chi-square test indicated poor model fit (p Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure (KMO) of sampling adequacy was .94 and the individual diagonal elements in the anti-correlation matrix were > .91. Among the retained 19 items, there was no correlation coefficient > .9 or a large number of correlation coefficients .3) cross loadings and the correlation between the two factors was .657. The 'mobility activity limitations' and 'functional activity limitations' sub-scales demonstrated excellent internal
Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, autoimmune and progressive multifocal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis using BI (Barthel index and EDDS (Expanded Disability Status Scale.Methods: A clinical observational study was made at the clinic for physical medicine and rehabilitation in Sarajevo. We analyzed 49 patients with MS in relation of gender, age and level of disability at admission and discharge, patient disability were estimated using EDDS scale. The ability of patients in their activities of daily living were also analyzed according to the BI at admission and discharge.Results: Of the total number of patients (n=49 there were 15 men and 34 women. The average age of female patient was 42.38±13.48 and male patient 46.06±9.56. EDDS values were significantly different at the beginning and at the end of the therapy (p=0.001 as was the value of BI (p=0.001.Conclusion: MS patients, after the rehabilitation in hospital conditions show significant recovery and a reduced level of disability; they show higher independence in activities but rehabilitation demands individual approach and adjustment with what patients are currently capable of achieving.
Lai, Hsien-Tang; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Su, Hsun-Pi; Tsai, Wen-Chen
Limited studies with large samples have been conducted on the utilization of dental calculus scaling among people with physical or mental disabilities. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of dental calculus scaling among the national disabled population. This study analyzed the utilization of dental calculus scaling among the disabled people, using the nationwide data between 2006 and 2008. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed to analyze related influential factors for dental calculus scaling utilization. The dental calculus scaling utilization rate among people with physical or mental disabilities was 16.39%, and the annual utilization frequency was 0.2 times. Utilization rate was higher among the female and non-aboriginal samples. Utilization rate decreased with increased age and disability severity while utilization rate increased with income, education level, urbanization of residential area and number of chronic illnesses. Related influential factors for dental calculus scaling utilization rate were gender, age, ethnicity (aboriginal or non-aboriginal), education level, urbanization of residence area, income, catastrophic illnesses, chronic illnesses, disability types, and disability severity significantly influenced the dental calculus scaling utilization rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Ramzan, Mahroosa; Allai, Mohd Sultan; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad
= postpartum hemorrhage PWd = posterior wall diameter SS = Sheehan syndrome SV = stroke volume T3 = triiodothyronine T4 = thyroxine TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Sheehan, George A.
This book is both a personal and technical account of the experience of running by a heart specialist who began a running program at the age of 45. In its seventeen chapters, there is information presented on the spiritual, psychological, and physiological results of running; treatment of athletic injuries resulting from running; effects of diet…
... of your pituitary include: Growth hormone (GH). This hormone controls bone and tissue growth and maintains the right balance of muscle and fat tissue. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This hormone stimulates your thyroid gland to ...
Del Rosso, A; Mikhaylova, S; Baccini, M; Lupi, I; Matucci Cerinic, M; Maddali Bongi, S
Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119?SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ?8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV), hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening) and face d...
Mariana Boaro Fernandez Canon
Full Text Available Introduction: There are no functional assessment tools for elderly with dementia available in the literature that will assess all occupations. Objective: To develop a Long Version of Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale (DADL-Br, covering all occupations provided by the American Association of Occupational Therapy (AOTA and the activities that compose them and evaluate its content validity. Method: With the permission of the original version main author (DAD, Isabelle Gélinas PhD, the new items of the Long Version (DADL-Br were developed based on the classification proposed by AOTA for occupations, considering the gaps in the original instrument. We reviewed the Cultural and Conceptual Equivalence by the Expert Committee and Multidisciplinary Committee. The suggestions of the Committees were accepted and the process followed for the pre-test and author analysis. Results: The first version of the instrument received 10 new fields and 64 new items, which after seven reviews of Cultural Equivalence (average concordance 89.2%, six reviews of Conceptual Equivalence (average concordance 81.2%, tree pre-tests and analysis of the original version main author, has resulted in the development of five versions, addition of twelve items and exclusion of seven items, and the final version consists of 20 fields and 109 items, being 10 new fields and 69 new items. Conclusion: This process conferred the content validity of DADL-Br, which includes all occupations proposed by AOTA and can be a useful tool to evaluate the profile of occupational performance of elderly with dementia.
Full Text Available Background and aim: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic and debilitating nervous system, leading to demyelination of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord. Regular exercise and general physical activity is important to maintain health and prevent disease, already well known. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of combined exercises (strength training, Strengthening Exercises, cardio respiratory endurance, a variety of static and dynamic balance exercises, exercises of the trunk (pilates training and walking on the treadmill training with body weight support on interferon gamma and Expanded Disability Status Scale women with multiple sclerosis. Methods: In the present experimental rsearch, female patients who were admitted to the MS Society of Shahrekord, Iran, were divided into three groups based on physical disability scores. In the first group (physical disability scale less than 4.5, 44 people were randomly selected to one experimental group (22 patients and control group (n = 22. In the second group (scale physical disability between 5 and 5.6, 26 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 13 and control group (n = 13. The third (Physical Disability Scale-up to 6.5, 26 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 13 and control group (n = 13. A total of 96 patients were participated in this study. Experimental groups of first, second and third were done its own intervention separately. While the control group received stretching exercises, workout schedule for the experimental group was of 12 weeks, three sessions of lasted one hour. Anthropometric factors and interferon-gamma were measured before and after training with the appropriate tools. Serum levels of INF-γ was determind using a commercial ELISA kit and EDSS scores were measured using the measure of disability in patients with MS. Data analysis was performed using descriptive
Koç, Meltem; Bayar, Banu; Bayar, Kılıçhan
A comparison study of Back Pain Functional Scale (BPFS) with Roland Morris Questionnaire (RMQ), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form 36-Health Survey (SF-36). The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation of BPFS with RMQ, ODI and SF-36. The primary goal in the treatment of patients with low back pain is to improve the patients' levels of activities and participation. Many questionnaires focusing on function have been developed in patients with low back pain. BPFS is one of these questionnaires. No studies have investigated the correlation of BPFS with ODI and SF-36. This study was conducted with 120 patients receiving outpatient and inpatient treatment in physiotherapy and rehabilitation units of a state hospital. BPFS, RMQ, ODI, SF-36 questionnaires were used to assess the disability in low back pain. Spearman and Pearson Correlation were used to compare the data obtained in the study. There was a good correlation among the five functional outcome measures (correlation r = -0.693 for BPFS/RMQ, r = -0.794 for BPFS/ODI, r = 0.697 for BPFS/SF-36 Physical function and r = 0.540 for BPFS/SF-36 Pain). BPFS demonstrated good correlation with RMQ, ODI, SF-36 physical function and SF-36 pain. 2.
Cuskelly, Monica; Moni, Karen; Lloyd, Jan; Jobling, Anne
The study reported here was an examination of the reliability of a method for determining acquiescent responding and the capacity to respond to items using a Likert scale response format by adults with an intellectual disability. Reliability of the outcomes of these procedures was investigated using a test-retest design. Associations with receptive vocabulary were examined. The majority of the participants did not demonstrate acquiescent responding. Individuals' responses to the Likert-type discrimination tasks were consistent, although this varied somewhat depending upon the abstractness of the task. There was some association between receptive language age equivalence scores and respondent performance. It is recommended that the pretest protocol (a) be modified to improve its reliability, and (b) this modified version be used with study participants who have an intellectual disability to ascertain the appropriate level of choice to be used for items that use a Likert response format.
Binda, D; Vanhoutte, E K; Cavaletti, G; Cornblath, D R; Postma, T J; Frigeni, B; Alberti, P; Bruna, J; Velasco, R; Argyriou, A A; Kalofonos, H P; Psimaras, D; Ricard, D; Pace, A; Galiè, E; Briani, C; Dalla Torre, C; Lalisang, R I; Boogerd, W; Brandsma, D; Koeppen, S; Hense, J; Storey, D; Kerrigan, S; Schenone, A; Fabbri, S; Rossi, E; Valsecchi, M G; Faber, C G; Merkies, I S J; Galimberti, S; Lanzani, F; Mattavelli, L; Piatti, M L; Bidoli, P; Cazzaniga, M; Cortinovis, D; Lucchetta, M; Campagnolo, M; Bakkers, M; Brouwer, B; Boogerd, W; Grant, R; Reni, L; Piras, B; Pessino, A; Padua, L; Granata, G; Leandri, M; Ghignotti, I; Plasmati, R; Pastorelli, F; Heimans, J J; Eurelings, M; Meijer, R J; Grisold, W; Lindeck Pozza, E; Mazzeo, A; Toscano, A; Russo, M; Tomasello, C; Altavilla, G; Penas Prado, M; Dominguez Gonzalez, C; Dorsey, S G
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common neurological side-effect of cancer treatment and may lead to declines in patients' daily functioning and quality of life. To date, there are no modern clinimetrically well-evaluated outcome measures available to assess disability in CIPN patients. The objective of the study was to develop an interval-weighted scale to capture activity limitations and participation restrictions in CIPN patients using the Rasch methodology and to determine its validity and reliability properties. A preliminary Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale (pre-R-ODS) comprising 146 items was assessed twice (interval: 2-3 weeks; test-retest reliability) in 281 CIPN patients with a stable clinical condition. The obtained data were subjected to Rasch analyses to determine whether model expectations would be met, and if necessarily, adaptations were made to obtain proper model fit (internal validity). External validity was obtained by correlating the CIPN-R-ODS with the National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) neuropathy scales and the Pain-Intensity Numeric-Rating-Scale (PI-NRS). The preliminary R-ODS did not meet Rasch model's expectations. Items displaying misfit statistics, disordered thresholds, item bias or local dependency were systematically removed. The final CIPN-R-ODS consisting of 28 items fulfilled all the model's expectations with proper validity and reliability, and was unidimensional. The final CIPN-R-ODS is a Rasch-built disease-specific, interval measure suitable to detect disability in CIPN patients and bypasses the shortcomings of classical test theory ordinal-based measures. Its use is recommended in future clinical trials in CIPN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bacon, Ansley; Walker, Hill M.; Schwartz, Allen A.; O'Hara, David M.; Calkins, Carl; Wehmeyer, Michael L.
The public's increasing demands for greater accountability and a better return on investment from research supported by federal funding requires that organizations studying and solving problems in areas like health, education, disability, and child mental health document the impact of their work. Human service and educational professionals agree…
Novakovic, A.M.; Krekels, E.H.; Munafo, A.; Ueckert, S.; Karlsson, M.O.
In this study, we report the development of the first item response theory (IRT) model within a pharmacometrics framework to characterize the disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS), as measured by Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS). Data were collected quarterly from a 96-week phase III
Novakovic, A M; Krekels, E H J; Munafo, A; Ueckert, S; Karlsson, M O
In this study, we report the development of the first item response theory (IRT) model within a pharmacometrics framework to characterize the disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS), as measured by Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS). Data were collected quarterly from a 96-week phase III clinical study by a blinder rater, involving 104,206 item-level observations from 1319 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), treated with placebo or cladribine. Observed scores for each EDSS item were modeled describing the probability of a given score as a function of patients' (unobserved) disability using a logistic model. Longitudinal data from placebo arms were used to describe the disease progression over time, and the model was then extended to cladribine arms to characterize the drug effect. Sensitivity with respect to patient disability was calculated as Fisher information for each EDSS item, which were ranked according to the amount of information they contained. The IRT model was able to describe baseline and longitudinal EDSS data on item and total level. The final model suggested that cladribine treatment significantly slows disease-progression rate, with a 20% decrease in disease-progression rate compared to placebo, irrespective of exposure, and effects an additional exposure-dependent reduction in disability progression. Four out of eight items contained 80% of information for the given range of disabilities. This study has illustrated that IRT modeling is specifically suitable for accurate quantification of disease status and description and prediction of disease progression in phase 3 studies on RRMS, by integrating EDSS item-level data in a meaningful manner.
Topolska, Marta; Sapuła, Rafał; Topolski, Adam; Marczewski, Krzysztof
60-80% of the population experience chronic low back pain at some point in their lives , with women suffering more frequently . Low back pain-related ailments lead to long-term or recurrent disability [3, 4]. Rehabilitation based on physiotherapy provides a viable alternative and is rightly regarded as safer for patients. However, finding an effective method of rehabilitation is a difficult task [5, 6]. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of rehabilitation in women with chronic low back pain using the Oswestry and Roland-Morris Disability Scales and to identify factors influencing the degree of functional disability in patients with chronic low back pain. The study involved 319 women aged 18-75 years (mean age = 45 years, SD ± 16. 3). The participants were undergoing treatment at the Rehabilitation Centre of Zamość University of Management and Administration on account of chronic low back pain, following two or more episodes lasting longer than three months. The outcomes of rehabilitation were assessed with ODI and RMDQ. We obtained comparable results with the ODI and RMDQ and found statistically significant improvement in functional status after rehabilitation (ODI: p disability and age (ODI: p disability vs. place of residence (ODI: p disability, as demonstrated both by the Oswestry Disability Index and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. 2. The relationship between the degree of functional disability and age, BMI, WHR, and hypertension was also confirmed by both questionnaires.
Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Vochten, Christine
The teaching of imitation skills is often the first step in interventions for young learners with intellectual disabilities. The main goal of this study was to determine the smallest detectable difference (SDD) at 95% confidence of the Preschool Imitation and Praxis Scale(PIPS) in preschoolers with intellectual disabilities. Two raters independently scored videotapes of the imitation performance of 44 preschoolers (27 with Down syndrome, 10 with Non-Specific Mental Retardation and 7 with Low-...
Speksnijder, Caroline M; Koppenaal, Tjarco; Knottnerus, J André; Spigt, Mark; Staal, J Bart; Terwee, Caroline B
The Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QBPDS) has been translated into different languages, and several studies on its measurement properties have been done. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise and compare the measurement properties, when possible, of all language versions of the QBPDS by systematically reviewing the methodological quality and results of the available studies. Bibliographic databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) were searched for articles with the key words "Quebec," "back," "pain," and "disability" in combination with a methodological search filter for finding studies on measurement properties concerning the development or evaluation of the measurement properties of the QBPDS in patients with nonspecific low back pain. Assessment of the methodological quality was carried out by the reviewers using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist for both the original language version of the QBPDS in English and French and all translated versions. The results of the measurement properties were rated based on criteria proposed by Terwee et al. The search strategy resulted in identification of 1,436 publications, and 27 articles were included in the systematic review. There was limited-to-moderate evidence of good reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the QBPDS for the different language versions, but for no language version was evidence available for all measurement properties. For research and clinical practice, caution is advised when using the QBPDS to measure disability in patients with nonspecific low back pain. Strong evidence is lacking on all measurement properties for each language version of the QBPDS. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.
Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale, Low Back Outcome Score and revised Oswestry low back pain disability scale for patients with low back pain due to degenerative disc disease: evaluation of Polish versions.
Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; Glowacki, Maciej
Evaluation and comparison of translated and culturally adapted self-reported measurements. The aim of this prospective study was to cross-culturally adapt the Polish versions of Revised Oswestry Disability Index (RODI-PL), Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QDS-PL), and the Low Back Outcome Score (LBOS-PL). The application of instruments in English, which have undergone translation must be subjected to validation studies. Such studies are necessary above all for instruments that have been adapted to establish their value and usefulness in studies of patient populations where English is not the native language. The translation was carried out according to International Quality of Life Association (IQOLA) Project and consisted of the following stages: translation, synthesis of the translations, back translation, expert committee, and testing of the prefinal versions of questionnaires. Eighty-five consecutive patients with low back pain due to spinal disc herniation and degenerative changes completed the QDS-PL, RODI-PL, LBOS-PL, and a Visual Analogue Scale twice within 2-day intervals. Mean duration of LBP was 45.9 months SD 55.5. The evaluation of degenerative changes in the lumbar region was carried out according to the Modic scale. Twenty-nine patients were categorized at type I, 4 patients were registered as type II, and 52 patients were type III. Cronbach α values for the LBOS-PL equaled 0.77, for the RODI-PL 0.85, and 0.95 for the QDS-PL. Item-total correlation confirmed that all scales are internally consistent. Test-retest reliability was excellent for RODI-PL and QDS-PL, but poor for LBOS-PL (0.88, 0.93, and 0.34, respectively). All questionnaires were significantly intercorrelated. We identified the strongest correlation between QDS-PL and RODI-PL (0.823, P < 0.001). The statistically significant correlation was identified between the QDS-PL and Modic Classification (rS = 0.226 P = 0.038). QBPDS-PL and RODI-PL are reliable and valid. Furthermore
van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Streppel, Kitty R M; van der Beek, Allard J; van der Woude, Luc H V; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam; van Mechelen, Willem
The objective was to determine the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). Forty-five non-wheelchair dependent subjects were recruited from three Dutch rehabilitation centers. Subjects' diagnoses were: stroke, spinal cord injury, whiplash, and neurological-, orthopedic- or back disorders. The PASIPD is a 7-d recall physical activity questionnaire that was completed twice, 1 wk apart. During this week, physical activity was also measured with an Actigraph accelerometer. The test-retest reliability Spearman correlation of the PASIPD was 0.77. The criterion validity Spearman correlation was 0.30 when compared to the accelerometer. The PASIPD had test-retest reliability and criterion validity that is comparable to well established self-report physical activity questionnaires from the general population.
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Dachez, Julie; Ndobo, Andre; Ameline, Anaïs
This research investigates the renewed interest in autism, the stigmatization of persons with autism and the need to better measure such stigmatization. Two studies were thus conducted on 101 and 104 participants in order to validate the French version of the Multidimensional Attitude Scale toward persons with disabilities, and examine the…
Dyrborg, J; Larsen, F W; Nielsen, S
Studies on the inter-rater reliability on the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and the Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) involving different subgroups of 145 outpatients from 4 to 16 years of age showed fair to substantial intraclass correlations of 0.59 to 0.90. Raters...
The present investigation explored the stability of scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) over approximately a three-year period. Previous research has suggested that some children with Learning Disabilities (LD) do not demonstrate long-term stability of intelligence. Legally, school districts are no longer required…
Deepika, Akhil; Devi, B Indira; Shukla, Dhaval
Most patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are discharged when they have still not recovered completely. Many such patients are not available for follow up. We conducted this study to determine whether the condition at discharge from acute care setting, as assessed with disability rating scale (DRS), correlates with functional outcome at follow up. This study was conducted at a Neurosurgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care referral center. This was a prospective observational study. Patients admitted to ICU with a diagnosis of severe TBI were enrolled for the study. On the day of discharge, all patients underwent DRS assessment. A final assessment was performed using Glasgow outcome scale extended (GOSE) at 6 months after discharge from the hospital. The correlation between the DRS scores at the time of discharge with DRS scores and GOSE categories at 6 months after discharge was determined using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient. A total of 88 patients were recruited for the study. The correlation coefficient of DRS at discharge for DRS at 6 months was 0.536 and for GOSE was -0.553. The area under the curve of DRS score at discharge for predicting unfavorable outcome and mortality at 6 months was 0.770 and 0.820, respectively. The predictive validity of DRS is fair to good in determining GOSE at follow-up. Pending availability of a more accurate outcome assessment tool, DRS at discharge can be used as a surrogate outcome for GOSE at follow up.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop and validate a scale on the Quality of Life (QoL of people with intellectual disabilities as assessed by family members (external perspective. The instrument measures improvement in QoL due to actions by organizations delivering services to individuals with intellectual disabilities (organization-oriented measure. In order to design the items for the scale, focus groups were set up with professionals dedicated to attending to individuals with intellectual disabilities. An initial scale of 20 items was constructed by consensus. A total of 1195 family members answered the questionnaire. In order to assess the structure of the scale, EFA recommended deleting 3 overlapping items. The final scale consisted of 17 items (α=95 and was composed of four main dimensions: self-determination (SD, social inclusion (SI, rights (RI and overall improvement (OI, which explained 74.83% of the variance. Finally, the consistency and validity were assessed. Convergent validity and discriminant validity were satisfactory. Moreover, CFA confirmed the structure of the scale. Main conclusions, limitations and practical implications are discussed.
Review: Margaret A. Morrison, Eric Haley, Kim Bartel Sheehan & Ronal E. Taylor (2002. Using Qualitative Research in Advertising: Strategies, Techniques, and Applications / Shay Sayre (2001. Qualitative Methods for Marketplace Research
Full Text Available The review discusses two books, both covering very similar contents and addressing more or less the same audience. The book by SAYRE is about the use of qualitative method in marketplace research in general and is aimed at marketing students and practitioners; the book by MORRISON, HALEY, SHEEHAN and TAYLOR focuses more specifically on one area of marketing, namely advertising research. MORRISON et al. provide the more practical perspective, a fact that is also reflected in the writing style of the book. It is stimulating to read, even for readers familiar with qualitative methods. It provides insights from the perspective of advertising agency planners and demonstrates how qualitative methods are applied in a commercial context. SAYRE, in comparison, provides more details and builds her book around five theoretical perspectives. It is written by an academic for a largely academic audience, containing all the basics that one needs to know when embarking on a qualitative research project. It differs from other qualitative method books in that the various steps along the way are illustrated by examples from the field of marketing. The book will, therefore, resonate well with marketing students. Nonetheless, both books can be recommended as text books for qualitative method courses in marketing—SAYRE's book for marketing students in general, and MORRISON et al.'s book for students specializing in the field of advertising. When used in a course where students conduct a small scale research project on their own, both books need to be supplemented by further readings or teacher input. Specifically, the sections on qualitative data analysis are too thin in MORRISON et al. and too broad in SAYRE in order to be useful to students without further explanation and training. Nonetheless, the two books are the best I have seen so far when it comes to selecting a book to be used in a qualitative method course for marketing students. URN
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Wu, Chia-Ling
Little scientific research has focused on the measure of how positive wellbeing of people caring for people with disabilities. The purposes of the present study are to explore the wellbeing perception and its determinants of caregivers who caring for people with disability. We employed a cross-sectional, self-administrative structured…
Measuring symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in people with intellectual disabilities: the development and psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale-Intellectual Disabilities (IES-IDs).
Hall, James C; Jobson, Laura; Langdon, Peter E
The aims of the study were to (1) revise the Impact of Event Scale-Revised for use with people with intellectual disabilities (IDs), creating the Impact of Event Scale-Intellectual Disabilities (IES-IDs), (2) assess the reliability of the IES-IDs, and (3) compare the IES-IDs to an existing measure trauma-related symptomatology, namely the Lancaster and Northgate Trauma Scale (LANTS), along with measures of anxiety and depression. Forty adults with IDs who had experienced at least one traumatic event were recruited and completed the IES-IDs and the LANTS on two occasions, separated by 2 weeks. Participants also completed the Glasgow Depression Scale and the Glasgow Anxiety Scale, along with the Trauma Information Form which was used to collect information about trauma history. Fifteen per cent of the sample had encountered five or more traumatic events. The IES-IDs and the LANTS had good to excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Both measures correlated with self-report measures of depression and anxiety, although the strength of this correlation was greater with the LANTS. There was a significant positive correlation between trauma frequency and the IES-IDs, while trauma frequency did not correlate with the LANTS. Both the IES-IDs and the LANTS appear to have good reliability. There is a lack of well-developed questionnaires that can be used to assess symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people with intellectual disabilities. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised was augmented creating the Impact of Event Scale-Intellectual Disabilities (IES-IDs). The IES-IDs was shown to have good psychometric properties. The IES-IDs was compared to the Lancaster and Northgate Trauma Scale (LANTS), but the LANTS did not correlate with trauma frequency. However, this study had a small sample size, and a much larger study is needed to examine the factor structure of both the IES-IDs and the LANTS. Future studies should attempt to recruit people with
Levett-Jones, Tracy; Lapkin, Samuel; Govind, Natalie; Pich, Jacqueline; Hoffman, Kerry; Jeong, Sarah Yeun-Sim; Norton, Carol Anne; Noble, Danielle; Maclellan, Lorna; Robinson-Reilly, Melissa; Everson, Naleya
Although empathy is an integral component of professional practice and person-centred care, a body of research has identified that vulnerable patients groups frequently experience healthcare that is less than optimal and often lacking in empathy. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of an immersive point-of-view simulation on nursing students' empathy towards people with an Acquired Brain Injury. A convenience sample of 390 nursing students from a cohort of 488 participated in the study, giving a response rate of 80%. Students undertook the simulation in pairs and were randomly allocated to the role of either a person with Acquired Brain Injury or a rehabilitation nurse. The simulated 'patients' wore a hemiparesis suit that replicated the experience of dysphasia, hemianopia and hemiparesis. Characteristics of the sample were summarised using descriptive statistics. A two-group pre-test post-test design was used to investigate the impact of the simulation using the Comprehensive State Empathy Scale. t-Tests were performed to analyse changes in empathy pre post and between simulated 'patients' and 'rehabilitation nurses'. On average, participants reported significantly higher mean empathy scores post simulation (3.75, SD=0.66) compared to pre simulation (3.38 SD=0.61); t (398)=10.33, pempathy towards people with a disability. Research with other vulnerable patient groups, student cohorts and in other contexts would be beneficial in taking this work forward. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Groot, S; van der Woude, L H V; Niezen, A; Smit, C A J; Post, M W M
Cross-sectional study. To evaluate the physical activity scale for individuals with physical disabilities (PASIPD) in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Eight Dutch rehabilitation centers with a specialized SCI unit. The PASIPD was examined by comparing group scores of people with different personal (age, gender and body mass index) and lesion characteristics (level (paraplegia/tetraplegia), completeness, time since injury (TSI)) in 139 persons with SCI 1 year after discharge from in-patient rehabilitation. Relationships between PASIPD scores and measures of activities (wheelchair skills, Utrecht Activity List, mobility range and social behavior subscales of the SIP68) and fitness (peak oxygen uptake, peak power output and muscular strength) were determined. Persons with tetraplegia had significantly lower PASIPD scores than those with paraplegia (PPASIPD scores than persons with shorter TSI (PPASIPD scores showed moderate correlations with activities (0.36-0.51, PPASIPD showed weak-to-moderate relationships with activity and fitness parameters. There seems to be a limited association between self-reported activity level and fitness in people with SCI.
Ponomarenko, Natalia A; Durova, Oxana M; Vorobiev, Ivan I; Belogurov, Alexey A; Telegin, Georgy B; Suchkov, Sergey V; Misikov, Victor K; Morse, Herbert C; Gabibov, Alexander G
Autoantibodies toward myelin basic protein (MBP) evidently emerge in sera and cerebrospinal fluid of the patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as in a MS rodent model, i.e., experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The studies of the last two decades have unveiled somewhat controversial data on the diagnostic applicability of anti-MBP autoantibodies as a disease' marker. Here, we present the results of new functional analysis of the anti-MBP autoantibodies isolated from MS (in patients) and EAE (in mice) sera, based on their proteolytic activity against the targeted autoantigen. The activity was shown to be the intrinsic property of the IgG molecule. No activity was found in the sera-derived antibody fraction of healthy donors and control mice. Sera of 24 patients with clinically proven MS at different stages of the disease, and 20 healthy controls were screened for the anti-MBP antibody-mediated proteolytic activity. The activity correlated with the scores on the MS expanded disability status scale (EDSS) (r(2)=0.85, P<0.001). Thus, the anti-MBP autoantibody-mediated proteolysis may be regarded as an additional marker of the disease progression.
Carreon, Leah Y; Glassman, Steven D; McDonough, Christine M; Rampersaud, Raja; Berven, Sigurd; Shainline, Michael
Cross-sectional cohort. The purpose of this study is to provide a model to allow estimation of utility from the Short Form (SF)-6D using data from the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Back Pain Numeric Rating Scale (BPNRS), and the Leg Pain Numeric Rating Scale (LPNRS). Cost-utility analysis provides important information about the relative value of interventions and requires a measure of utility not often available from clinical trial data. The ODI and numeric rating scales for back (BPNRS) and leg pain (LPNRS), are widely used disease-specific measures for health-related quality of life in patients with lumbar degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study is to provide a model to allow estimation of utility from the SF-6D using data from the ODI, BPNRS, and the LPNRS. SF-36, ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS were prospectively collected before surgery, at 12 and 24 months after surgery in 2640 patients undergoing lumbar fusion for degenerative disorders. Spearman correlation coefficients for paired observations from multiple time points between ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS, and SF-6D utility scores were determined. Regression modeling was done to compute the SF-6D score from the ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS. Using a separate, independent dataset of 2174 patients in which actual SF-6D and ODI scores were available, the SF-6D was estimated for each subject and compared to their actual SF-6D. In the development sample, the mean age was 52.5 +/- 15 years and 34% were male. In the validation sample, the mean age was 52.9 +/- 14.2 years and 44% were male. Correlations between the SF-6D and the ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) with correlation coefficients of 0.82, 0.78, and 0.72, respectively. The regression equation using ODI, BPNRS,and LPNRS to predict SF-6D had an R of 0.69 and a root mean square error of 0.076. The model using ODI alone had an R of 0.67 and a root mean square error of 0.078. The correlation coefficient between the observed and estimated
Leboeuf, C; Love, A; Crisp, T C
The subjective complaints of 41 chronic low back pain sufferers attending a chiropractic clinic were assessed twice prior to therapy with a widely used psychological self-report assessment tool, the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ) and a newly developed VAS Disability Scales Questionnaire (DISQ), both of which investigate various aspects of certain basic positions and activities. Reliability was generally acceptable with these two questionnaires. Subjects participating in the study were commonly found to score within the normal range on the MHQ, indicating that psychological disturbance was not a major feature of their presentation. However, mild mood disturbance was commonly reported, and a more sensitive tool may need to be developed for this type of mildly affected chronic low back pain sufferers. The DISQ generally indicated subjects were mildly to moderately affected by their low back trouble and that sitting and leisure activities were the most pain provoking. Recommendations for further development of the disability scale are made.
MacLean, Hannah Ng On-Nar
Background: Support for the four factor construct validity of the third edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) has been found in clinical and non clinical populations but some studies question whether more complex models consistent with the concepts of fluid and crystallised intelligence provide a better explanation of the data. The WAIS-III is frequently used in the diagnosis of learning disability, however, previous exploratory factor analysis of data from a population ...
Carreon, Leah Y; Bratcher, Kelly R; Das, Nandita; Nienhuis, Jacob B; Glassman, Steven D
Cross-sectional cohort. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the EuroQOL-5D (EQ-5D) can be derived from commonly available low back disease-specific health-related quality of life measures. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and numeric rating scales (0-10) for back pain (BP) and leg pain (LP) are widely used disease-specific measures in patients with lumbar degenerative disorders. Increasingly, the EQ-5D is being used as a measure of utility due to ease of administration and scoring. The EQ-5D, ODI, BP, and LP were prospectively collected in 14,544 patients seen in clinic for lumbar degenerative disorders. Pearson correlation coefficients for paired observations from multiple time points between ODI, BP, LP, and EQ-5D were determined. Regression modeling was done to compute the EQ-5D score from the ODI, BP, and LP. The mean age was 53.3 ± 16.4 years and 41% were male. Correlations between the EQ-5D and the ODI, BP, and LP were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) with correlation coefficients of -0.77, -0.50, and -0.57, respectively. The regression equation: [0.97711 + (-0.00687 × ODI) + (-0.01488 × LP) + (-0.01008 × BP)] to predict EQ-5D, had an R2 of 0.61 and a root mean square error of 0.149. The model using ODI alone had an R2 of 0.57 and a root mean square error of 0.156. The model using the individual ODI items had an R2 of 0.64 and a root mean square error of 0.143. The correlation coefficient between the observed and estimated EQ-5D score was 0.78. There was no statistically significant difference between the actual EQ-5D (0.553 ± 0.238) and the estimated EQ-5D score (0.553 ± 0.186) using the ODI, BP, and LP regression model. However, rounding off the coefficients to less than 5 decimal places produced less accurate results. Unlike previous studies showing a robust relationship between low back-specific measures and the Short Form-6D, a similar relationship was not seen between the ODI, BP, LP, and the EQ-5D. Thus, the EQ-5D cannot be
Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD): First psychometric evaluation of a new child and parenting assessment tool for children with a developmental disability.
Emser, Theresa S; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Christiansen, Hanna; Sanders, Matthew R
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD), a brief inventory for assessing emotional and behavioral problems of children with developmental disabilities aged 2- to 16-years, as well as caregivers' self-efficacy in managing these problems. A sample of 636 parents participated in the study. Children's ages ranged from 2 to 15. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 21-item, three-factor model of CAPES-DD child adjustment with 13 items describing behavioral (10 items) and emotional (3 items) problems and 8 items describing prosocial behavior. Three additional items were included due to their clinical usefulness and contributed to a Total Problem Score. Factor analyses also supported a 16-item, one factor model of CAPES-DD self-efficacy. Psychometric evaluation of the CAPES-DD revealed scales had satisfactory to very good internal consistency, as well as very good convergent and predictive validity. The instrument is to be in the public domain and free for practitioners and researchers to use. Potential uses of the measure and implications for future validation studies are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Waninge, A.; Rook, R. A.; Dijkhuizen, A.; Gielen, E.; van der Schans, C. P.
Caregivers of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) often describe the quality of the daily movements of these persons in terms of flexibility or stiffness. Objective outcome measures for flexibility and stiffness are muscle tone or level of spasticity. Two instruments used to grade muscle tone and spasticity are the…
Waninge, A.; Rook, R.A.; Dijkhuizen, A.; Gielen, E.; van der Schans, C.P.
Caregivers of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) often describe the quality of the daily movements of these persons in terms of flexibility or stiffness. Objective outcome measures for flexibility and stiffness are muscle tone or level of spasticity. Two instruments
de Kuijper, Gerda M.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.
Drug-associated extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in people with intellectual disability (ID) may be difficult to recognize, and clinicians' assessments may be hampered by lack of patients' capacities to adequately cooperate and by lack of reliable instruments to measure EPS in this population.
Nishi, Daisuke; Uehara, Ritei; Kondo, Maki; Matsuoka, Yutaka
The clinical relevance of resilience has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale (RS) and short version of the RS (RS-14). The original English version of RS was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version was confirmed by back-translation. Participants were 430 nursing and university psychology students. The RS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) were administered. Internal consistency, convergent validity and factor loadings were assessed at initial assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed using data collected from 107 students at 3 months after baseline. Mean score on the RS was 111.19. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Both the RS and RS-14 were negatively correlated with the CES-D and SDS, and positively correlated with the RSES, SSQ and PSS (all p reliability, and relatively low concurrent validity. RS-14 was equivalent to the RS in internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Low scores on the RS, a positive correlation between the RS and perceived stress, and a relatively low correlation between the RS and depressive symptoms in this study suggest that validity of the Japanese version of the RS might be relatively low compared with the original English version.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical relevance of resilience has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale (RS and short version of the RS (RS-14. Findings The original English version of RS was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version was confirmed by back-translation. Participants were 430 nursing and university psychology students. The RS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS were administered. Internal consistency, convergent validity and factor loadings were assessed at initial assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed using data collected from 107 students at 3 months after baseline. Mean score on the RS was 111.19. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Both the RS and RS-14 were negatively correlated with the CES-D and SDS, and positively correlated with the RSES, SSQ and PSS (all p Conclusions This study demonstrates that the Japanese version of RS has psychometric properties with high degrees of internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, and relatively low concurrent validity. RS-14 was equivalent to the RS in internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Low scores on the RS, a positive correlation between the RS and perceived stress, and a relatively low correlation between the RS and depressive symptoms in this study suggest that validity of the Japanese version of the RS might be relatively low compared with the original English version.
Hudson, Alan; Cameron, Christine; Matthews, Jan
Background: While there have been several evaluations of programs to help parents manage difficult behaviour of their child with an intellectual disability, little research has focused on the evaluation of such programs when delivered to large populations. Method: The benchmarks recommended by Wiese, Stancliffe, and Hemsley (2005) were used to…
Roeden, J.M.; Maaskant, M.A.; Koomen, H.M.Y.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Curfs, L.M.G.
Improvements in client-caregiver relationships may lead to improvements in the quality of life of clients with intellectual disabilities (ID). For this reason, interventions aimed at influencing these relationships are important. To gain insight into the nature and intention of these relationships
White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.
Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…
Kohara, Aiko; Han, ChangWan; Kwon, HaeJin; Kohzuki, Masahiro
The improvement of the quality of life (QOL) of children with disabilities has been considered important. Therefore, the Special Needs Education Assessment Tool (SNEAT) was developed based on the concept of QOL to objectively evaluate the educational outcome of children with disabilities. SNEAT consists of 11 items in three domains: physical functioning, mental health, and social functioning. This study aimed to verify the reliability and construct validity of SNEAT using 93 children collected from the classes on independent activities of daily living for children with disabilities in Okinawa Prefecture between October and November 2014. Survey data were collected in a longitudinal prospective cohort study. The reliability of SNEAT was verified via the internal consistency method and the test-pretest method; both the coefficient of Cronbach's α and the intra-class correlation coefficient were over 0.7. The validity of SNEAT was also verified via one-way repeated-measures ANOVA and the latent growth curve model. The scores of all the items and domains and the total scores obtained from one-way repeated-measures ANOVA were the same as the predicted scores. SNEAT is valid based on its goodness-of-fit values obtained using the latent growth curve model, where the values of comparative fit index (0.983) and root mean square error of approximation (0.062) were within the goodness-of-fit range. These results indicate that SNEAT has high reliability and construct validity and may contribute to improve QOL of children with disabilities in the classes on independent activities of daily living for children with disabilities.
Starr John M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in measuring functional status among nondisabled older adults has increased in recent years. This is, in part, due to the notion that adults identified as 'high risk' for functional decline portray a state that is potentially easier to reverse than overt disability. Assessing relatively healthy older adults with traditional self-report measures (activities of daily living has proven difficult because these instruments were initially developed for institutionalised older adults. Perhaps less evident, are problems associated with change scores and the potential for 'construct under-representation', which reflects the exclusion of important features of the construct (e.g., disability. Furthermore, establishing a formal hierarchy of functional status tells more than the typical simple summation of functional loss, and may have predictive value to the clinician monitoring older adults: if the sequence task difficulty is accelerated or out of order it may indicate the need for interventions. Methods This review identified studies that employed item response theory (IRT to examine or revise functional status scales. IRT can be used to transform the ordinal nature of functional status scales to interval level data, which serves to increase diagnostic precision and sensitivity to clinical change. Furthermore, IRT can be used to rank items unequivocally along a hierarchy based on difficulty. It should be noted that this review is not concerned with contrasting IRT with more traditional classical test theory methodology. Results A systematic search of four databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsychInfo resulted in the review of 2,192 manuscripts. Of these manuscripts, twelve met our inclusion/exclusion requirements and thus were targeted for further inspection. Conclusions Manuscripts presented in this review appear to summarise gerontology's best efforts to improve construct validity and content validity (i.e., ceiling
Wong, P K S; Wong, D F K; Zhuang, X Y; Liu, Y
The construct of self-determination has received considerable attention in the international field of intellectual disabilities (ID). Recently, there has been a rapid development of this construct in Chinese societies including Hong Kong. However, there is no locally validated instrument to measure self-determination in people with ID. This article explains the validation process of the AIR Self-Determination Scale - Chinese version (AIR SDS-C) adapted from the 24-item AIR Self-Determination Scale, developed by Wolman and his colleagues, which is used in school setting. People with mild/moderate ID aged 15 years or above were recruited from special schools and social services units in different regions of Hong Kong. Factor analysis and reliability tests were conducted. Data for a total of 356 participants were used for the analysis. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test the factorial construct, and Mplus 7.0 was used for the analysis. The factor structure proposed in the original English version was supported by the data, and all factor loadings were between 0.42 and 0.76. The whole scale achieved good reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.88 and ω = 0.90). The AIR SDS-C appears to be a valid and reliable scale. This study examined adult groups as well as student groups. The application of the scale can thus be extended to a wider population. The implications for theory building and practice are discussed. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Havelaar, A H; De Hollander, A E; Teunis, P F; Evers, E G; Van Kranen, H J; Versteegh, J F; Van Koten, J E; Slob, W
To evaluate the applicability of disability adjusted life-years (DALYs) as a measure to compare positive and negative health effects of drinking water disinfection, we conducted a case study involving a hypothetical drinking water supply from surface water. This drinking water supply is typical in The Netherlands. We compared the reduction of the risk of infection with Cryptosporidium parvum by ozonation of water to the concomitant increase in risk of renal cell cancer arising from the produc...
Jimenez-Pardo, J; Holmes, J D; Jenkins, M E; Johnson, A M
Physical activity is generally thought to be beneficial to individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). There is, however, limited information regarding current rates of physical activity among individuals with PD, possibly due to a lack of well-validated measurement tools. In the current study we sampled 63 individuals (31 women) living with PD between the ages of 52 and 87 (M = 70.97 years, SD = 7.53), and evaluated the amount of physical activity in which they engaged over a 7-day period using a modified form of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). The PASIPD was demonstrated to be a reliable measure within this population, with three theoretically defensible factors: (1) housework and home-based outdoor activities; (2) recreational and fitness activities; and (3) occupational activities. These results suggest that the PASIPD may be useful for monitoring physical activity involvement among individuals with PD, particularly within large-scale questionnaire-based studies.
Novakovic, A M; Thorsted, A; Schindler, E; Jönsson, S; Munafo, A; Karlsson, M O
The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), and disability (as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) and occurrence of relapses, 2 efficacy endpoints, respectively, in patients with remitting-relasping multiple sclerosis. Data for ALC, EDSS, and relapse rate were available from 1319 patients receiving placebo and/or cladribine tablets. Pharmacodynamic models were developed to characterize the time course of the endpoints. ALC-related measures were then evaluated as predictors of the efficacy endpoints. EDSS data were best fitted by a model where the logit-linear disease progression is affected by the dynamics of ALC change from baseline. Relapse rate data were best described by the Weibull hazard function, and the ALC change from baseline was also found to be a significant predictor of time to relapse. Presented models have shown that once cladribine exposure driven ALC-derived measures are included in the model, the need for drug effect components is of less importance (EDSS) or disappears (relapse rate). This simplifies the models and theoretically makes them mechanism specific rather than drug specific. Having a reliable mechanism-specific model would allow leveraging historical data across compounds, to support decision making in drug development and possibly shorten the time to market. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
Shin, Young Jun; Kim, Won Hyo; Kim, Seong Gil
This study investigated the correlation between the neck disability index (NDI) and visual analogue scale (VAS), which are indicators of neck pain, shoulder joint range of motion (ROM), and muscle strength in women with a slight forward head posture. This study was carried out on 42 female college students attending Uiduk University in Gyeongju, Korea. The neck pain and disability index for each subject was measured using VAS and NDI, respectively. Two physiotherapists measured the shoulder joint ROM and muscle strengths of the subjects using a goniometer and a dynamometer, respectively. External rotation, internal rotation, and abduction of the shoulder joint were measured for each subject. A significant negative correlation between neck pain and shoulder joint ROM in external rotation and the muscle strength of the shoulder joint in abduction was found in the subjects. In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between ROM in external rotation and muscle strength in abduction. This study showed a significant negative correlation between neck pain and ROM in external rotation as well as between neck pain and the muscle strength in abduction.
Irene Hierro Zorrilla
Full Text Available The San Martín Scale is an instrument used to measure the quality of life of people with significant disabilities with adequate levels reliability and validity. In 2012, the San Martín Scale was administered to 85 adults with intellectual disabilities who were provided supports at Obra San Martin Foundation (Santander. In this article, we describe the results obtained at the mesosystem level, an example at the microsystem level, and future areas of work identified from the results.
Cross-cultural adaptation of the Neck Disability Index and Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale for patients with neck pain due to degenerative and discopathic disorders. Psychometric properties of the Polish versions
Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though there are several region-specific functional outcome questionnaires measuring neck disorders that have been developed in English-speaking countries, no Polish version has ever been validated. The purpose of our study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Neck Disability Index (NDI and Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CDS for Polish-speaking patients with neck pain. Methods The translation was carried out according to the International Quality of Life Association (IQOLA Project. Sixty patients were treated due to degenerative and discopathic disorders in the cervical spine filled out the NDI-PL and the CDS-PL. The pain level was evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale. The mean age of the assessed group was 47.1 years (SD 8.9. We used Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency. We assessed the test-retest reliability using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rS was used to determine dependency between quantitative characteristics. The Mann-Whitney test was applied to determine dependency between quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Results The Cronbach's alpha values were excellent for the NDI-PL in the test and in the retest (0.84, 0.85, respectively, and for the CDS-PL (0.90 in the test and in the retest. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients were excellent for the CDS-PL and NDI-PL and equalled 0.93 (95% CI from 0.89 to 0.95 and 0.87 (95% CI from 0.80 to 0.92, respectively The concurrent validity was good in the test and in the retest (rs = 0.42 p Conclusions The present versions of the NDI-PL and CDS-PL, the first to be published in Polish, have proven to be reliable and valid for patients with degenerative changes in the cervical spine. The NDI-PL and CDS-PL have excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and good concurrent validity. The adapted questionnaires showed a strong inter-correlation both
Havelaar, A H; De Hollander, A E; Teunis, P F; Evers, E G; Van Kranen, H J; Versteegh, J F; Van Koten, J E; Slob, W
To evaluate the applicability of disability adjusted life-years (DALYs) as a measure to compare positive and negative health effects of drinking water disinfection, we conducted a case study involving a hypothetical drinking water supply from surface water. This drinking water supply is typical in The Netherlands. We compared the reduction of the risk of infection with Cryptosporidium parvum by ozonation of water to the concomitant increase in risk of renal cell cancer arising from the production of bromate. We applied clinical, epidemiologic, and toxicologic data on morbidity and mortality to calculate the net health benefit in DALYs. We estimated the median risk of infection with C. parvum as 10(-3)/person-year. Ozonation reduces the median risk in the baseline approximately 7-fold, but bromate is produced in a concentration above current guideline levels. However, the health benefits of preventing gastroenteritis in the general population and premature death in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome outweigh health losses by premature death from renal cell cancer by a factor of > 10. The net benefit is approximately 1 DALY/million person-years. The application of DALYs in principle allows us to more explicitly compare the public health risks and benefits of different management options. In practice, the application of DALYs may be hampered by the substantial degree of uncertainty, as is typical for risk assessment.
Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...
Copay, Anne G; Glassman, Steven D; Subach, Brian R; Berven, Sigurd; Schuler, Thomas C; Carreon, Leah Y
The impact of lumbar spinal surgery is commonly evaluated with three patient-reported outcome measures: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the physical component summary (PCS) of the Short Form of the Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36), and pain scales. A minimum clinically important difference (MCID) is a threshold used to measure the effect of clinical treatments. Variable threshold values have been proposed as MCID for those instruments despite a lack of agreement on the optimal MCID calculation method. This study has three purposes. First, to illustrate the range of values obtained by common anchor-based and distribution-based methods to calculate MCID. Second, to determine a statistically sound and clinically meaningful MCID for ODI, PCS, back pain scale, and leg pain scale in lumbar spine surgery patients. Third, to compare the discriminative ability of two anchors: a global health assessment and a rating of satisfaction with the results of the surgery. This study is a review of prospectively collected patient-reported outcomes data. A total of 454 patients from a large database of surgeries performed by the Lumbar Spine Study Group with a 1-year follow-up on either ODI or PCS were included in the study. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative scores for ODI, PCS, back pain scale, leg pain scale, health transition item (HTI) of the SF-36, and Satisfaction with Results scales. ODI, SF-36, and pain scales were administered before and 1 year after spinal surgery. Several candidate MCID calculation methods were applied to the data and the resulting values were compared. The HTI of the SF-36 was used as the anchor and compared with a second anchor (Satisfaction with Results scale). Potential MCID calculations yielded a range of values: fivefold for ODI, PCS, and leg pain, 10-fold for back pain. Threshold values obtained with the two anchors were very similar. The minimum detectable change (MDC) appears as a statistically and clinically appropriate MCID value. MCID values
Hale, Leigh; McIlraith, Lucy; Miller, Clare; Stanley-Clarke, Terri; George, Rebecca
Background: Researching falls in persons with ID is limited by difficulties in applying standardised balance outcome measures. The modified Gait Abnormality Rating Scale (GARS-M), developed to identify falls risk in older adults, requires only that the participant walks and thus may be a feasible falls research tool to use with people with ID. In…
Peñaloza López, Yolanda Rebeca; Orozco Peña, Xóchitl Daisy; Pérez Ruiz, Santiago Jesús
To evaluate the central auditory processing disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis, emphasizing auditory laterality by applying psychoacoustic tests and to identify their relationship with the Multiple Sclerosis Disability Scale (EDSS) functions. Depression scales (HADS), EDSS, and 9 psychoacoustic tests to study CAPD were applied to 26 individuals with multiple sclerosis and 26 controls. Correlation tests were performed between the EDSS and psychoacoustic tests. Seven out of 9 psychoacoustic tests were significantly different (P<.05); right or left (14/19 explorations) with respect to control. In dichotic digits there was a left-ear advantage compared to the usual predominance of RDD. There was significant correlation in five psychoacoustic tests and the specific functions of EDSS. The left-ear advantage detected and interpreted as an expression of deficient influences of the corpus callosum and attention in multiple sclerosis should be investigated. There was a correlation between psychoacoustic tests and specific EDSS functions. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Saltychev, Mikhail; Bärlund, Esa; Laimi, Katri
The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between pain severity measured on a numeric rating scale and restrictions of functioning measured with the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0). This was a cross-sectional study of 1207 patients with musculoskeletal pain conditions. Correlation was assessed using Spearman's and Pearson tests. Although all the Spearman's rank correlations between WHODAS 2.0 items and pain severity were statistically significant, they were mostly weak, with only a few moderate associations for 'S2 household responsibilities', 'S8 washing', 'S9 dressing', and 'S12 day-to-day work'. The correlation between the WHODAS 2.0 total score and pain severity was also moderate: 0.41 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.45] for average pain and 0.42 (95% CI: 0.37-0.46) for worst pain. The correlation between the WHODAS 2.0 total score and pain level was also assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation, yielding figures that were similar to Spearman's correlation: 0.42 (Pcorrelation between pain severity measured by numeric rating scale and functioning level measured by WHODAS 2.0 was weak to moderate, with slightly stronger associations in physical domains of functioning.
Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Because of limited efficacy and adverse side effects, identifying novel therapeutic and protective agents is important. The aim of this study is to examine the correlations between expanded disability status scale (EDSS and cytokines after intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils and hot-natured diet in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS. Methods: We studied a group of 23 patients with clinically definite RRMS, with EDSS<6 who received co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with advising hot-natured diet. Clinically EDSS and immunological factors (plasma cytokines of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17 were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. Results: Mean follow-up was 180±2.9 days (N=23, 7 Male and 16 Females aged 25.0±7.5 years with disease duration 6.26±3.9 years. After 6 months, significant improvements in extended disability status score were found in the patients in agreement with decrease cytokines of IFN-γ and IL-17 and increase cytokines of IL-4. Clinical and immunological parameters showed improvement in the patients after the intervention. Conclusion: Our study shows that co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with hot-natured diet can have beneficial effects in improving clinical symptoms in relapsing remitting MS patients and significant correlation was found between EDSS and immunological findings.
... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...
... of illnesses and disabilities Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities affect how you ... ADHD. Learning disabilities Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disabilities top Having a learning disability does not ...
This Article argues that the practice of holding so many adjudicative proceedings related to disability in private settings (e.g., guardianship, special education due process, civil commitment, and social security) relative to our strong normative presumption of public access to adjudication may cultivate and perpetuate stigma in contravention of the goals of inclusion and enhanced agency set forth in antidiscrimination laws. Descriptively, the law has a complicated history with disability--initially rendering disability invisible; later, underwriting particular narratives of disability synonymous with incapacity; and, in recent history, promoting the full socio-economic visibility of people with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the marquee civil rights legislation for people with disabilities (about to enter its twenty-fifth year), expresses a national approach to disability that recognizes the role of society in its construction, maintenance, and potential remedy. However, the ADA’s mission is incomplete. It has not generated the types of interactions between people with disabilities and nondisabled people empirically shown to deconstruct deeply entrenched social stigma. Prescriptively, procedural design can act as an "ntistigma agent"to resist and mitigate disability stigma. This Article focuses on one element of institutional design--public access to adjudication--as a potential tool to construct and disseminate counter-narratives of disability. The unique substantive focus in disability adjudication on questions of agency provides a potential public space for the negotiation of nuanced definitions of disability and capacity more reflective of the human condition.
Azimi, Parisa; Benzel, Edward C
The Low-Back Outcome Scale (LBOS) of Greenough and Fraser and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) were compared to the patient satisfaction index (PSI) in lumbar disc herniation (LDH) surgery. A total of 134 patients who underwent discectomy were followed through assessment of pre- and post-surgical satisfaction by the PSI, the LBOS, and the ODI. The LBOS were rated as satisfied if the outcomes were excellent or good and as dissatisfied if fair and poor. Considering the ODI, clinically satisfied was defined as a 13-point improvement from the baseline ODI scores. Phi (Φ) correlation analysis was used to study the correlation among the PSI, the LBOS and the ODI scores as proxy for patients' satisfaction. Mean age of patients was 48.9 years. Significant improvement from the pre- to post-operative ODI scores was observed. Post-surgical satisfaction based on the PSI, the ODI, and the LBOS were 70.9%, 76.8%, and 81.3%, respectively. Regarding patient satisfaction, there were weak associations between LBOS vs. PSI and ODI vs. PSI (Φ=-0.054, P=0.533) and (Φ=-0.129, P=0.136), respectively. Our study showed that the ODI and the LBOS were not reflective of patients' satisfaction after discectomy.
Full Text Available Background: Aging is associated with both physical impairment and functional disability. One of the areas of concerns is a derangement in the activities of daily living (ADL where the elderly people are unable to perform their basic personal care tasks. The present study was planned with the aim to evaluate functional impairment among rural elderly using ADL scale. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted as a cross-sectional population-based survey using multistage randomized sampling technique from August 2015 to October 2015 in Miran Sahib Health Zone of R S Pura health block in Jammu District in North-West India. The study involved 418 elderly individuals above 60 years of age. Results: A higher proportion of elderly (378/418; 90.43% were classified as functionally independent. Among the study participants 9.54% (40/418 were found to have some had some impairment. Among the elderly impaired individuals, 5.26% (22/418 were moderately impaired while 2.64% (11/418 were severely impaired. However, importantly only a small proportion (7/418; 1.67% of elderly individuals was completely dependent on others. Conclusion: The total impairment prevalence reported among the geriatrics in the current study was 9.5%. With the increase in the geriatric population expected in near future, this number will be significant. Policies with a clear focus on geriatric health-care need to be developed to reduce the dependency among elderly.
Görtelmeyer, Roman; Schmidt, Jürgen; Suckfüll, Markus; Jastreboff, Pawel; Gebauer, Alexander; Krüger, Hagen; Wittmann, Werner
To evaluate the reliability, dimensionality, predictive validity, construct validity, and sensitivity to change of the THI-12 total and sub-scales as diagnostic aids to describe and quantify tinnitus-evoked reactions and evaluate treatment efficacy. Explorative analysis of the German tinnitus handicap inventory (THI-12) to assess potential sensitivity to tinnitus therapy in placebo-controlled randomized studies. Correlation analysis, including Cronbach's coefficient α and explorative common factor analysis (EFA), was conducted within and between assessments to demonstrate the construct validity, dimensionality, and factorial structure of the THI-12. N = 618 patients suffering from subjective tinnitus who were to be screened to participate in a randomized, placebo-controlled, 16-week, longitudinal study. The THI-12 can reliably diagnose tinnitus-related impairments and disabilities and assess changes over time. The test-retest coefficient for neighboured visits was r > 0.69, the internal consistency of the THI-12 total score was α ≤ 0.79 and α ≤ 0.89 at subsequent visits. Predictability of THI-12 total score and overall variance increased with successive measurements. The three-factorial structure allowed for evaluation of factors that affect aspects of patients' health-related quality of life. The THI-12, with its three-factorial structure, is a simple, reliable, and valid instrument for the diagnosis and assessment of tinnitus and associated impairment over time.
Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Altarelli, Irene; Monzalvo Lopez, Ana Karla; van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Grande, Marion; Grabowska, Anna; Heim, Stefan; Ramus, Franck
The neural basis of specific reading disability (SRD) remains only partly understood. A dozen studies have used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate gray matter volume (GMV) differences between SRD and control children, however, recent meta-analyses suggest that few regions are consistent across studies. We used data collected across three countries (France, Poland, and Germany) with the aim of both increasing sample size (236 SRD and controls) to obtain a clearer picture of group differences, and of further assessing the consistency of the findings across languages. VBM analysis reveals a significant group difference in a single cluster in the left thalamus. Furthermore, we observe correlations between reading accuracy and GMV in the left supramarginal gyrus and in the left cerebellum, in controls only. Most strikingly, we fail to replicate all the group differences in GMV reported in previous studies, despite the superior statistical power. The main limitation of this study is the heterogeneity of the sample drawn from different countries (i.e., speaking languages with varying orthographic transparencies) and selected based on different assessment batteries. Nevertheless, analyses within each country support the conclusions of the cross-linguistic analysis. Explanations for the discrepancy between the present and previous studies may include: (1) the limited suitability of VBM to reveal the subtle brain disruptions underlying SRD; (2) insufficient correction for multiple statistical tests and flexibility in data analysis, and (3) publication bias in favor of positive results. Thus the study echoes widespread concerns about the risk of false-positive results inherent to small-scale VBM studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Evaluation of Quality of Life, Functioning, Disability, and Work/School Productivity Following Treatment with an Extended-Release Hydrocodone Tablet Formulated with Abuse-Deterrence Technology: A 12-month Open-label Study in Patients with Chronic Pain.
Hale, Martin E; Zimmerman, Thomas R; Ma, Yuju; Malamut, Richard
This phase 3 study evaluated quality of life, functioning, and productivity after treatment with extended-release (ER) hydrocodone formulated with CIMA ® Abuse-Deterrence Technology platform. Patients with chronic pain were rolled over from a 12-week placebo-controlled hydrocodone ER study or were newly enrolled. Hydrocodone ER doses were titrated (15 to 90 mg every 12 hours) to an analgesic dose, and patients received up to 52 weeks of open-label treatment. Assessments included Clinician Assessment of Patient Function (CAPF), Patient Assessment of Function (PAF), Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF), 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire-Short Form (HPQ-SF). Of 330 enrolled patients, 291 composed the full analysis population. By week 4, ≥ 50% of patients showed improvement from baseline in all 5 CAPF domains (general activities, walking, work/daily living, relationships, and enjoyment of life) and 6 of 7 PAF domains (work attendance, work performance, walking, exercise, socializing, and enjoying life). Mean decreases from baseline of 2 to 3 points were noted for BPI-SF pain interference questions from week 4 through endpoint. Mean improvements from baseline to endpoint in SF-36 subscales ranged from 3.3 to 22.3, and SDS scores improved from moderate (4.8 to 5.1) to mild (2.5 to 2.8) disruptions in work/school, social life, and family life. At endpoint, mean HPQ-SF absolute absenteeism scores decreased from 13.6 to 10.0 hours lost/month and absolute presenteeism scores improved from 67.0 to 77.1. Patients receiving hydrocodone ER showed early numeric improvements in functioning that continued throughout this 12-month study. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.
The comparative capacity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) validity scales to detect suspected malingering in a disability claimant sample.
Chmielewski, Michael; Zhu, Jiani; Burchett, Danielle; Bury, Alison S; Bagby, R Michael
The current study expands on past research examining the comparative capacity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher et al., 2001) and MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) overreporting validity scales to detect suspected malingering, as assessed by the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST; Miller, 2001), in a sample of public insurance disability claimants (N = 742) who were considered to have potential incentives to malinger. Results provide support for the capacity of both the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-2-RF overreporting validity scales to predict suspected malingering of psychopathology. The MMPI-2-RF overreporting validity scales proved to be modestly better predictors of suspected psychopathology malingering-compared with the MMPI-2 overreporting scales-in dimensional predictive models and categorical classification accuracy analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this research was to compare the body image between disabled athletes with disabled and non-disabled non- athletes. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional and comparative study, fifty disabled athletes from the handicapped sports club, fifty disabled non athletes from Kahrizak disabled rest house and fifty non athlete healthy persons from governmental administrations were selected randomly by classified clustered method and their body image were compared. Data collection tools included a personal information questionnaire and a physical self description questionnaire (PSDQ which included 11 sub-scales such as power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, fat, body appearance, body activity and the global physical. The statistical procedures used in this study comprised one way ANOVA and the Newman-keuls test. Results: Body image of disabled athletes in the sub-scales of power, endurance, coordination, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, body activity were higher than disabled and non-disabled individuals who were not athletes (P&le0.001. In addition the sub-scales of the body fat (P=0.012, body appearance (P=0.002 and general health (P=0.001, the results showed that a higher significance for the disabled athletes, however, there wasn’t significant difference for the non-disabled athletes. Conclusion: Thus the result showed that the attitude of the disabled and non-disabled individual in due to their continuous physical activity in that the disabled athletes have got better body images as compared to the disabled and non-disabled individual who have not physical activity.
Palic, Sabina; Kappel, Michelle; Nielsen, Monica
. Insufficient acknowledgment of the collective load of bio-psycho-social problems in this patient group hinders effective psychiatric and social service utilization outside the specialized clinics for traumatized refugees. METHODS: The level of psychiatric disability in traumatized refugees from Danish......BACKGROUND: Currently, the mental health issues of traumatized refugees are mainly documented in terms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, there are no reports of the level of psychiatric disability in treatment seeking traumatized refugees resettled in the West...... collected data indicated that despite their outpatient status, traumatized refugees had higher levels of psychiatric disability at pre-treatment compared to most inpatients. Moreover, the traumatized refugees had a HoNOS profile characterized by an overall high problem level in various psychiatric...
Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Brown, Derek; Lopez, Dominique; Gall, Fiona
The capability approach pioneered by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum offers a new paradigm to examine disability, poverty and their complex associations. Disability is hence defined as a situation in which a person with an impairment faces various forms of restrictions in functionings and capabilities. Additionally, poverty is not the mere absence of income but a lack of ability to achieve essential functionings; disability is consequently the poverty of capabilities of persons with impairment. It is the lack of opportunities in a given context and agency that leads to persons with disabilities being poorer than other social groups. Consequently, poverty of people with disabilities comprises of complex processes of social exclusion and disempowerment. Despite growing evidence that persons with disabilities face higher levels of poverty, the literature from low and middle-income countries that analyzes the causal link between disability and poverty, remains limited. Drawing on data from a large case control field survey carried out between December 24th , 2013 and February 16th , 2014 in Tunisia and between November 4th , 2013 and June 12th , 2014 in Morocco, we examined the effect of impairment on various basic capabilities, health related quality of life and multidimensional poverty - indicators of poor wellbeing-in Morocco and Tunisia. To demonstrate a causal link between impairment and deprivation of capabilities, we used instrumental variable regression analyses. In both countries, we found lower access to jobs for persons with impairment. Health related quality of life was also lower for this group who also faced a higher risk of multidimensional poverty. There was no significant direct effect of impairment on access to school and acquiring literacy in both countries, and on access to health care and expenses in Tunisia, while having an impairment reduced access to healthcare facilities in Morocco and out of pocket expenditures. These results suggest that
Lotan, M.; Moe-Nilssen, R.; Ljunggren, A. E.; Strand, L. I.
The 18 items' Non-Communicating Adult Pain Checklist (NCAPC) has been developed from the 27 items Non-Communicating Children Pain Checklist to better capture pain behavior of adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD). As part of the NCAPC's measurement properties, internal consistency, reliability and sensitivity to pain have…
Fernández Faúndez, Eva María
Introduction: The focus of our research converges on the analysis of attitudes and the prediction of the behavior of university students towards the inclusion of students with disabilities in university. The evaluation of attitudes and the prediction of behavior are complex, but it is fundamental because of the decisive impact they have on the…
Buskermolen, M.; Hoekman, J.; Aldenkamp, A.P.
Background and Objective: Studies on people with both Hearing Impairments (HI) and an Intellectual Disability (ID) are rare, although in clinical practice aggressive incidents such as destructive behaviour aimed at objects or other people and self-harming behaviour are mentioned as common problems.
La Malfa, G.; Lassi, S.; Bertelli, M.; Pallanti, S.; Albertini, G.
There is an increasing interest in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. It is also thought that ADHD is more prevalent in the field of intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population, but there are not many experimental studies. Since ADHD diagnosis in adults is more difficult, specific rating…
... below average Development way below that of peers Intelligence quotient (IQ) score below 70 on a standardized ... Social. Nutrition programs can reduce disability associated with malnutrition. Early intervention in situations involving abuse and poverty ...
... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Patient Organizations CHADD - Children and ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Definition Learning disabilities are disorders ...
... books. While his friends were meeting for pickup soccer games after school, he was back home in ... sometimes thought to contribute to learning disabilities. Poor nutrition early in life also may lead to learning ...
Full Text Available The usual approach in disability surveys is to screen persons with disability upfront and then ask questions about everyday problems. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the impact of screeners on disability rates, to challenge the usual exclusion of persons with mild and moderate disability from disability surveys and to demonstrate the advantage of using an a posteriori cut-off. Using data of a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey (MDS in Cambodia and the polytomous Rasch model, metric scales of disability were built. The conventional screener approach based on the short disability module of the Washington City Group and the a posteriori cut-off method described in the World Disability Report were compared regarding disability rates. The screener led to imprecise rates and classified persons with mild to moderate disability as non-disabled, although these respondents already experienced important problems in daily life. The a posteriori cut-off applied to the general population sample led to a more precise disability rate and allowed for a differentiation of the performance and needs of persons with mild, moderate and severe disability. This approach can be therefore considered as an inclusive approach suitable to monitor the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
Kittler, P; Krinsky-McHale, S J; Devenny, D A
The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports concerning individuals with ID. Sex differences are of current relevance to actively debated issues such as cognitive changes during menopause and risk for Alzheimer's disease. Given that hormonal effects on cognition have been observed in the general population, particularly in areas such as visuospatial processing, and individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) have been reported to be hormonally and reproductively atypical, we analysed our data to allow for the possibility of an aetiology-specific profile of sex differences for these adults. The WISC-R subtests were administered in a longitudinal study, as part of a more comprehensive test battery, at least twice within 7 years. Participants were 18 females with ID without DS [age at first test time (time 1): mean = 40.5; IQ: mean = 59.3], 10 males with ID without DS (age at time 1: mean = 42.4; IQ: mean = 59.4), 21 females with DS (age at time 1: mean = 37.9; IQ: mean = 51.6), and 21 males with DS (age at time 1: mean = 40.3; IQ: mean = 54.3). All participants were in the mild to moderate range of ID and were displaying no changes suggestive of early dementia. Females, regardless of aetiology of ID, exhibited a robust superiority on the coding subtest, which parallels the widely reported difference among adults in the general population. Additionally, there was a decline in overall performance during the 7-year study interval, particularly on the verbal subscale subtests, but there was no evidence of sex-differentiated decline. There were also marginal sex by aetiology interactions on the object assembly and block design subtests, suggesting that males with unspecified ID
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Full Text Available Sport was used to complement therapy in original form, improve of motor patterns and reeducate functions of people with disabilities. With a passing of time, sport evolved to integrated part of rehabilitation as an element of improvement. Moreover, he became as a tool to improve the social integration of people which finished the treatment or/and have deficits. We can notice the huge sport development of people with disabilities, which was initiated by Sir Ludwig Guttmann’s who claimed that view of sport is equal for people with disabilities and able-bodied people. The quality of physical activity of people with disabilities is indicated by motor preparation, training and sport (wellness, nutritionist, sport and exercise psychologist which currently is all the same except individual approach to particular dysfunction of the person with disability. Sport allow to develop not only physical sphere, but also teaches social integration, teamwork skills, self-discipline, improves the quality of life and outcome of the ADL scale (activities of daily living scale of people with disabilities which do sport actively. The variety of sports disciplines and ability to use appropriate orthopedic stuff allows to activate people with every kind of disabilities and dysfunction.
Francescutti, Carlo; Gongolo, Francesco; Simoncello, Andrea; Frattura, Lucilla
There is a connection between the definition of disability in a person-environment framework, the development of appropriate assessment strategies and instruments, and the logic underpinning the organization of benefits and services to confront disability. The Italian Ministry of Health and Ministry of Labor and Social Policies supported a three-year project for the definition of a common framework and a standardised protocol for disability evaluation based on ICF. The research agenda of the project identified 6 phases: 1) adoption of a definition of disability; 2) analytical breakdown of the contents of disability definition, so as to indicate as clearly as possible the core information essential to guide the evaluation process; 3) definition of a data collection protocol; 4) national implementation of the protocol and collection of approximately 1,000 profiles; 5) proposal of a profile analysis and definition of groups of cases with similar functioning profiles; 6) trial of the proposal with the collected data. The data was analyzed in different ways: descriptive analysis, application of the person-environment interactions classification tree, and cluster analysis. A sample of 1,051 persons from 8 Italian regions was collected that represented different functioning conditions in all the phases of the life cycle. The aggregate result of the person-environment interactions was summarized. The majority of activities resulted with no problems in all of the A&P chapters. Nearly 50.000 facilitators codes were opened. The main frequent facilitators were family members, health and social professionals, assistive devices and both health and social systems, services and politics. The focus of the person-environment interaction evaluation was on the A&P domains, differentiating those in which performance presented limitations and restrictions from those in which performance had no or light limitations and restrictions. Communication(d3) and Learning and Applying Knowledge
This booklet uses hypothetical case examples to illustrate the definition, causal theories, and specific types of learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive and language performance of students with LD is compared to standard developmental milestones, and common approaches to the identification and education of children with LD are outlined.…
Full Text Available There are many clinical and objectively defined parameters that are used to evaluate a person's disability. Since the World Health Organisation has presented the WHODAS II as a means of objectively measuring subjectively defined functions, greater attention has been focused on self-rated health. Only a few studies, however, have been conducted about differences between self-rated health and objectively defined parameters. The survey for this study was conducted on the basis of WHODAS II and the population in Latvia with spinal cord injury. Respondents were between 18 and 65, and 98 questionnaires were analysed. The results show that people with spinal cord injury on average rate their functioning as limited (33–40 points of 100. Most respondents have been declared to be disabled, which is defined as very serious or severe functional disorders. More than 40% have paid jobs, while one-third do not work for reasons of health. The research shows that there is a close coherence (p< 0.05 between individual, objectively and clinically defined indicators on the one hand and the aspects of the questionnaire in which physical functioning was an important factor on the other hand. In order to understand the real functional abilities of patients and the individual factors that influence those abilities, it is necessary to define functional self-rated health in addition to objectively defined indicators.
Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Grande-Alonso, Mónica; López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; López-López, Almudena; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; La Touche, Roy
The objective was to compare and correlate disability, pain intensity, the impact of headache on daily life and the fear of movement between subgroups of patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD). A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients diagnosed with chronic painful TMD. Patients were divided into: 1) joint pain (JP); 2) muscle pain (MP); and 3) mixed pain. The following measures were included: Craniomandibular pain and disability (Craniofacial pain and disability inventory), neck disability (Neck Dsiability Index), pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), impact of headache (Headache Impact Test 6) and kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-11). A total of 154 patients were recruited. The mixed pain group showed significant differences compared with the JP group or MP group in neck disability (p craniomandibular pain and disability (p Neck disability was a significant covariate (37 % of variance) of craniomandibular pain and disability for the MP group (β = 0.62; p neck disability (β = 0.40; p craniomandibular pain and disability. Mixed chronic pain patients show greater craniomandibular and neck disability than patients diagnosed with chronic JP or MP. Neck disability predicted the variance of craniofacial pain and disability for patients with MP. Neck disability and kinesiophobia predicted the variance of craniofacial pain and disability for those with chronic mixed pain.
Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje
To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...
Alphin, Henry C., Jr., Ed.; Lavine, Jennie, Ed.; Chan, Roy Y., Ed.
Education is the foundation to almost all successful lives. It is vital that learning opportunities are available on a global scale, regardless of individual disabilities or differences, and to create more inclusive educational practices. "Disability and Equity in Higher Education Accessibility" is a comprehensive reference source for…
Hurley, Anne D
This article examines reviews and research on the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders in people with intellectual disability published from September 2004 to December 2005. Patients with intellectual disability have limitations in verbal ability, and with increasing levels of disability may have an atypical clinical presentation. Thus, methods to diagnose mood disorders were a major research focus. Informant-rating scales and two self-report instruments provided data on thought patterns, aberrant behavior, appetite, and suicidality. Behavioral symptoms such as aggression were frequently associated with mood disorders. Pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy were found to be effective treatments. Mood disorders were frequently identified in people with intellectual disability, although suicide was still quite rare. Patients with milder levels of disability can use self-report measures and can be diagnosed using standard criteria with little modification. For those with more severe disability, diagnosis is challenging and often requires the use of residual categories. Atypical clinical presentation, including maladaptive behaviors, lent support for 'behavioral equivalent' substitutes of standard criteria. Typical pharmacological agents were effective for depression and electroconvulsive therapy for treatment-resistant bipolar disorder.
Maiano, Christophe; Begarie, Jerome; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Garbarino, Jean-Marie; Ninot, Gregory
The purpose of this study was to test the reliability (i.e. internal consistency and test-retest reliability) and construct validity (i.e. content validity, factor validity, measurement invariance, and latent mean invariance) of the Nutrition and Activity Knowledge Scale (NAKS) in a sample of French adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual…
Full Text Available This paper aims to question the living conditions of disabled people in the 21st century from the framework of social justice. The concept of “social justice” has a long history, influenced by the works of numerous writers including Rawls (1971, Miller (1999, Reeves (2005, Fainstein (2009, Marcuse (2009 and Harvey (1992, 2009 and by the recent debates on inequality, diversity, segregation, exclusion, and discrimination. The debates on segregation, exclusion and discrimination are generally focused on inequalities in terms of economic, ethnic and gender dimensions; however, in these debates, there is very little reference to unequal opportunities of disabled people. On the other hand, the diversity issue is generally discussed with respect to ethnic and cultural elements, again with very little concern for the rights of disabled people. In many developing countries, including Turkey, a legal framework for addressing disability issues has started to be put in place. Awareness among governments and society of the needs and rights of people with disabilities is growing. In the last decade in Turkey, the difficulties faced by disabled people have started to be taken into consideration seriously. Before that, the only information about the disabled population could be obtained from General Population Census in Turkey. In 2002 “Turkey Disability Survey” was carried out collectively by the State Institute of Statistics and the Presidency of Administration on Disabled People. In this survey, it has been targeted to estimate the number of disabled people and comprehend their socio-economic characteristics, their problems in social life, expectations, types and causes of disability, regional differences and also the proportion of population having chronic illnesses. After this survey, many projects have started to be realized in order to propose strategies for eliminating discrimination in Turkey. In this paper, we will
Tsheringla, Sherab; Simon, Aby; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar; Shankar, SatyaRaj; Russell, Sushila; Mammen, Priya; Nair, M K C
There is no validated measure for assessing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in India, and therefore, the authors validated the ADD-H Comprehensive Teacher's Rating Scale (ACTeRS). Teachers/parents/clinicians of 110 children with ADHD completed the ACTeRS. The diagnosis of ADHD was confirmed by an independent multi-disciplinary team using ICD-10 diagnosis for diagnostic accuracy and criterion validity. The convergent and divergent validity were assessed by another rater. The data was analyzed for diagnostic accuracy, reliability and validity appropriately. An ACTeRS score of ≥61 [Sensitivity (Sn) =85.51%; Specificity (Sp) = 90.24%; Area under the curve (AUC) = 0.94] is appropriate for the diagnosis of ADHD. The test-re-test reliability [Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.87], internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.80; range of 0.89-0.93), section-total correlation, face and content validity for the ACTeRS were good. Convergent validity of attention deficit, hyperactivity and oppositional subscales of ACTeRS with the corresponding subscales of Swanson, Nolan & Pelham Rating Scale-Revised (SNAP-IV) was moderate (r = 0.60, P = 0.005; r = 0.49, P = 0.02; r = 0.58, P = 0.008 respectively), and negative correlation with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (r = -0.36; P =0.1) for divergent validity was found. The criterion validity analysis showed a high concordance rate of 82.52% between ACTeRS and International Classification of Diseases, Edition10 (ICD-10) diagnosis of ADHD. A 4-factor structure was replicated. The ACTeRS has adequate psychometric properties for use in the Indian population for identifying ADHD.
Ways of thinking about and responding to disability have radically changed in recent decades. Traditionally, disability was regarded in terms of sin, karma, or divine punishment. More recently, disability was made a medical issue and defined in terms of shortcomings of body or mind, which had to be prevented or cured at all costs. In the late 20th century, people with disabilities worldwide became more organised and created national and international disabled people’s organisations. They succ...
Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Hason-Shaked, Meiran; Silberg, Tamar; Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa; Roe, David
Women with disabilities may face social negative attitudes with regard to their being mothers. In addition, attitudes toward different disabilities form a hierarchy, with more positive attitudes being displayed toward persons with physical disabilities than toward persons with psychiatric disabilities. Current observational study examined whether the relationship between a woman's type of disability (psychiatric vs. physical) and the social attitude towards her would be moderated by her being presented as a mother. University students (N = 100) filled out the Multidimensional Attitudes Scale Toward Persons With Disabilities and the Social Distance Scale, after reading one of six randomly assigned fictitious vignettes. The vignettes consisted of a woman with a physical disability/a woman with a psychiatric disability/a woman without a disability, who either was or was not a mother. Type of disability was found to have a main effect in some attitude domains, suggesting that attitudes toward women with physical disabilities were better than attitudes towards women with psychiatric disabilities. An interaction between type of disability and motherhood was found for the interpersonal distress subscale of the attitudes scale. It was found that when women had physical disabilities, there was no change in attitude towards them regardless of whether they were presented as mothers or not; However, when the target woman had a psychiatric disability, and she was presented as a mother, negative attitudes were generated towards her. The study demonstrates the existence of a hierarchy of stigmatization and the effect of being a mother on stigmatization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fayad, F; Mace, Y; Lefevre-Colau, M M
To identify all available shoulder disability questionnaires designed to measure physical functioning and to examine those with satisfactory clinimetric quality. We used the Medline database and the "Guide des outils de mesure de l'évaluation en médecine physique et de réadaptation" textbook to search for questionnaires. Analysis took into account the development methodology, clinimetric quality of the instruments and frequency of their utilization. We classified the instruments according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Thirty-eight instruments have been developed to measure disease-, shoulder- or upper extremity-specific outcome. Four scales assess upper-extremity disability and 3 others shoulder disability. We found 6 scales evaluating disability and shoulder pain, 7 scales measuring the quality of life in patients with various conditions of the shoulder, 14 scales combining objective and subjective measures, 2 pain scales and 2 unclassified scales. Older instruments developed before the advent of modern measurement development methodology usually combine objective and subjective measures. Recent instruments were designed with appropriate methodology. Most are self-administered questionnaires. Numerous shoulder outcome measure instruments are available. There is no "gold standard" for assessing shoulder function outcome in the general population.
Social Security Administration — The dataset includes fiscal year data for initial claims for SSA disability benefits that were referred to a state agency for a disability determination. Specific...
Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF
The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.
... Over a billion people, about 15% of the world's population, have some form of disability. Between 110 million ... disability. This corresponds to about 15% of the world's population. Between 110 million (2.2%) and 190 million ( ...
Ramzan, N.; Minhas, K.
Objectives: To find the prevalence of anxiety and depression in mothers of disabled and non-disabled children and to find the association of anxiety and depression with demographic characteristics in district Sheikhupura. Method: A cross sectional comparative study was conducted to find differences in the level of anxiety and depression in both groups of mothers i.e. among mothers of disabled and non-disabled children. A convenient sampling technique was used to select 340 mothers belonging to both groups (n = 170 in each group). Urdu version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess anxiety and depression in mothers. Data was analyzed using ANCOVA (SPSS version 17). Results: The Results of ANCOV A revealed statistically significant differences (p < .001) in the level of anxiety and depression in both groups of mothers. Majority of mothers (78%) belonging to children with disability had anxiety. Only 52% mothers belonging to non-disabled children had anxiety. Similarly, as compared to 46% mothers of non-disabled children, 76% mothers belonging to children with disability had depression. Correlation analysis revealed a significantly positive relationship of anxiety and depression with mothers' age (p < .05) and statistically significant inverse relationship with disabled child's age, mothers educational (p < .0 I) ana family income status. Conclusion: As the disabled child advances in age, mother better understands the demands of raising a disabled child and thus can cope with these demands affectively and with lesser anxiety. Implications of the study would assist psychologists in devising techniques for reducing level of anxiety and depression in mothers of disabled children. (author)
Gordy, Stephanie; Fabricant, Loic; Ham, Bruce; Mullins, Richard; Mayberry, John
The contribution of rib fractures to chronic pain and disability is not well described. Two hundred three patients with rib fractures were followed for 6 months. Chronic pain was assessed using the McGill Pain Questionnaire Pain Rating Index and Present Pain Intensity (PPI) scales. Disability was defined as a decrease in work or functional status. The prevalence of chronic pain was 22% and disability was 53%. Acute PPI predicted chronic pain. Associated injuries, bilateral rib fractures, injury severity score, and number of rib fractures were not predictive of chronic pain. No acute injury characteristics were predictive of disability. Among 89 patients with isolated rib fractures, the prevalence of chronic pain was 28% and of disability was 40%. No injury characteristics predicted chronic pain. Bilateral rib fractures and acute PPI predicted disability. The contribution of rib fractures to chronic pain and disability is significant but unpredictable with conventional injury descriptors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article sets out to increase awareness regarding the wide and universal significance of disability, as well as the important benefits of an Integrated Disability Management (IDM approach. The scientific basis for IDM is explored in the first place through an analysis of its relationship to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. The conceptual paradigm of the ICF shares an ideological position with the IDM approach in that they are both underpinned by dynamic and multidimensional constructions of disability, which imply equally holistic and interdisciplinary responses. The IDM approach can be applied across a diversity of human situations to provide solutions that reflect the multifaceted and widespread nature of disability. The IDM approach is intended as a strategy capable of handling: inclusion of people with disabilities, active aging of human resources, health and safety in the workplace, prevention of disabilities and various diseases, return-to-work, absenteeism, and presenteeism.
Full Text Available Ways of thinking about and responding to disability have radically changed in recent decades. Traditionally, disability was regarded in terms of sin, karma, or divine punishment. More recently, disability was made a medical issue and defined in terms of shortcomings of body or mind, which had to be prevented or cured at all costs. In the late 20th century, people with disabilities worldwide became more organised and created national and international disabled people’s organisations. They successfully demanded that disability be seen as a matter of equal opportunities and human rights, a shift which has now been described in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This is a global treaty which has so far been signed by 155 states and passed into law by 127.
Full Text Available Large number of children with intellectual disabilities encounters behavioral problems or show disharmonic behavior within the family, at school and in the community. Researches show that 30-50% of persons with intellectual disabilities have some behavioral problems. The behavior of children with intellectual disabilities depends on many factors: age of the child, level of intellectual disability, cognitive potentials, level of psycho-physical development, differentiation of emotions, communicative skills, social status and conditions of the environment (in the family and the wider community where the child lives. The influence of some of these factors has been analyzed by this research. There are many ins truments (questionnaires, scales that evaluate behavior of persons with intellectual disabilities, and reveal problems that these persons have in their psychosocial development and social life. This research used the AAMD Adaptive behavior Scale (part II and Scale for evaluating behavior of the child in school by authors Bojanin, Savanovikj.
Platt, Jennifer M.; Janeczko, Donna
This article presents adaptations for teaching art to students with disabilities. Various techniques, methods, and materials are described by category of disability, including students with mental disabilities, visual impairments, hearing impairments, learning disabilities, emotional disabilities, and physical disabilities. (JDD)
Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Hosseini Khezri, Alireza; Farahbakhsh, Farzin; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Smuck, Matthew; Kordi, Ramin
The purpose of this study was to evaluate validity and reliability of a new proposed questionnaire for assessment of functional disability in athletes with low back pain (LBP). Validity and reliability study. Elite athletes participating in different fields of sports. Participants were 165 male and female athletes (between 12 and 50 years old) with LBP. Athlete Disability Index (ADI) Questionnaire which is developed by the authors for assessing LBP-related disability in athletes, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ). Self-reported responses were collected regarding LBP-related disability through ADI, ODI, and RDQ. The test-retest reliability was strong, and intraclass correlation value ranged between 0.74 and 0.94. The Cronbach alpha coefficient value of 0.91 (P visual analog scale was r = 0.626 (P disability levels were mild in the large majority of subjects (91.5% and 86.0%, respectively). Alternatively, disability assessments by the ADI did not cluster at the mild level and ranged more broadly from mild to very high. The ADI is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing disability in athletes with LBP. Compared with the available LBP disability questionnaires used in the general population, ADI can more precisely stratify the disability levels of athletes due to LBP.
Research on disability issues in countries of the South is primarily dominated by a focus on generating large scale quantitative data sets. This paper discusses the many challenges, opportunities and dilemmas faced in designing and undertaking a qualitative research study in one district in India. The Disability, Education and Poverty Project…
Chen, Shuang; Ma, Li; Zhang, Jian-Xin
The present study is aimed at examining implicit and explicit attitudes toward persons with disabilities among Chinese college students. The "Implicit Association Test" was used to measure their implicit attitudes, whereas their explicit attitudes toward persons with disabilities were measured by using a scale of three items.…
Van Loan, Amira
Disability issues in Lebanon are not being addressed on a national scale. Among the myriad of underrepresented groups, individuals with disabilities in Lebanon continue to be marginalized in education, employment, health care, politics, and all aspects of society. The focus of this project investigation was to identify the attitudes of faculty…
Krokstad, Steinar; Westin, Steinar
The objective of this study was to describe sociomedical determinants and developments for the medically based disability pension in Norway by linking individual based data from a county health survey to data on disability from the National Insurance Administration. Two cross-sectional total population health surveys with an approximate 10-year interval were conducted in Nord-Trøndelag county, HUNT I (1984-86) and HUNT II (1995-97), which allows for analyses of changes over time, supplied with official incidence data on disability pension. The large-scale variations and overall increasing incidence rates of disability pension in Norway during the last 20 years also applied to the county of Nord-Trøndelag. The prevalence of disability pension generally increased in the population from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s. A striking finding was a consistent pattern of increasing prevalence of disability pension with decreasing socio-economic status and education. A geographic pattern for disability pension prevalence on a municipality level suggested that structural and cultural factors were important in determining the level of disability in society. Medical determinants alone cannot explain either the dramatic variations or the overall increased incidence rates of disability pension in the last two decades in Norway. The results demonstrate the importance of social, non-medical and contextual determinants for disability pension, how these determinants result in important prevalence differences by socio-economic status, and their impact on the level of disability in society.
Clinically important deterioration in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery: a choice of evaluation methods using the Oswestry Disability Index, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and pain scales: clinical article.
Gum, Jeffrey L; Glassman, Steven D; Carreon, Leah Y
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures have become the mainstay for outcome appraisal in spine surgery. Clinically meaningful interpretation of HRQOL improvement has centered on the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). The purpose of this study was to calculate clinically important deterioration (CIDET) thresholds and determine a CIDET value for each HRQOL measure for patients undergoing lumbar fusion. Seven hundred twenty-two patients (248 males, 127 smokers, mean age 60.8 years) were identified with complete preoperative and 1-year postoperative HRQOLs including the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and numeric rating scales (0-10) for back and leg pain following primary, instrumented, posterior lumbar fusion. Anchor-based and distribution-based methods were used to calculate CIDET for each HRQOL. Anchor-based methods included change score, change difference, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The Health Transition Item, an independent item of the SF-36, was used as the external anchor. Patients who responded "somewhat worse" and "much worse" were combined and compared with patients responding "about the same." Distribution-based methods were minimum detectable change and effect size. Diagnoses included spondylolisthesis (n = 332), scoliosis (n = 54), instability (n = 37), disc pathology (n = 146), and stenosis (n = 153). There was a statistically significant change (p < 0.0001) for each HRQOL measure from preoperatively to 1-year postoperatively. Only 107 patients (15%) reported being "somewhat worse" (n = 81) or "much worse" (n = 26). Calculation methods yielded a range of CIDET values for ODI (0.17-9.06), SF-36 physical component summary (-0.32 to 4.43), back pain (0.02-1.50), and leg pain (0.02-1.50). A threshold for clinical deterioration was difficult to identify. This may be due to the small number of patients reporting being worse after surgery and the variability across
Allala, Saeb; Alzubairi, Sharefa
The current study is an attempt to identify social shyness among mothers of children with disabilities based on (Disability type, mother's academic qualification, and family's economic level) in Riyadh. Thus, Social Shyness Scale was prepared of (28) paragraphs according to five-point Likert Scale. The reliability coefficient of the scale rated…
Kjeldsen, Lena; Amby, Finn
Danish governments have continuously proclaimed goals of raising the employment rate for people with disabilities, most recently in the publication “10 goal for social mobility” (Government 2016). In spite of this, the employment rate for people with disabilities has been more than 30 percent less...... than that of people without disabilities for more than a decade (Larsen & Høgelund 2015). An explanation of this difference could be the limited connection between these general goals, the employment laws and the actual implementation of the goals in the job centers (Amby 2015). Earlier Danish studies...... have by large focused on employment and disability at the stage where the client already has been categorized as having a disability (e.g. Møller & Stone 2013). This study offers new insight to the field in a Danish context by exploring the process in which people with disabilities are categorized...
Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie; Pestieau, Pierre
This Paper studies the design of retirement and disability policies. It illustrates the often observed exit from the labour force of healthy workers through disability insurance schemes. Two types of individuals, disabled and leisure-prone ones, have the same disutility for labour and cannot be distinguished. They are not, however, counted in the same way in social welfare. Benefits depend on retirement age and on the (reported) health status. We determine first- and second-best optimal benef...
For the theoretical part of this master's thesis foreign literature and finished foreign researches were studied. In this part of the thesis the characteristics of mothers with intellectual disabilities; factors, which influence the success of carrying out their mother role; and the rights of people with intellectual disabilities as parents, all based on Slovene legislation are included. We listed reasons for limiting reproduction for women with intellectual disabilities and issues concerning...
Krause, N; Lynch, J; Kaplan, G A; Cohen, R D; Goldberg, D E; Salonen, J T
Disability retirement may increase as the work force ages, but there is little information on factors associated with retirement because of disability. This is the first prospective population-based study of predictors of disability retirement including information on workplace, socioeconomic, behavioral, and health-related factors. The subjects were 1038 Finnish men who were enrolled in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, who were 42, 48, 54, or 60 years of age at the beginning of the study, and who participated in a 4-year follow-up medical examination. Various job characteristics predicted disability retirement. Heavy work, work in uncomfortable positions, long workhours, noise at work, physical job strain, musculoskeletal strain, repetitive or continuous muscle strain, mental job strain, and job dissatisfaction were all significantly associated with the incidence of disability retirement. The ability to communicate with fellow workers and social support from supervisors tended to reduce the risk of disability retirement. The relationships persisted after control for socioeconomic factors, prevalent disease, and health behavior, which were also associated with disability retirement. The strong associations found between workplace factors and the incidence of disability retirement link the problem of disability retirement to the problem of poor work conditions.
Durocher, Joan; Lord, Janet; Defranco, Allison
The United States invests billions of taxpayer dollars each year into foreign assistance programs that foster international diplomacy and development directed toward improving the quality of life for people around the world. These programs develop economies and combat poverty, promote democracy and governance, build new infrastructure, advance and protect human rights, among other development goals. The United States cannot effectively accomplish the goals of foreign assistance programs unless it undertakes measures to ensure that the programs are accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. The United States has been a leader in advancing the rights of people with disabilities and must continue to promote disability rights through its international development work. Overseas economic development will not be successful unless people with disabilities are included. Because of the significant number of people with disabilities in developing countries, if they are not included, the very economic growth the United States is trying to foster will be hindered. The goals of democracy and governance programs cannot be achieved without the inclusion of people with disabilities. In many countries, domestic law contains blatant discriminatory provisions for people with disabilities that undermine access to justice and full participation in society. The provisions that discriminate against people with disabilities include arbitrary exclusions in electoral codes, sweeping plenary guardianship laws with no due-process protections, discriminatory banking practices, and inaccessible court proceedings. National disability legal frameworks remain underdeveloped throughout the world. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Salvador-Carulla, Luis
We appraised life satisfaction using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and analysed its psychometric properties in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Ninety-nine persons with ID from four services in Spain participated. A battery of subjective assessments was used, including the SWLS, a Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF), and…
Tainã Alves Fagundes
Full Text Available Introduction: Dementia represents one of the major causes of disability and dependence in old age and can affect functional capacity in all areas of occupational performance, including basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADL and IADL, respectively, leisure, social participation and others. Objectives: To characterize the functional disability level in elderly people with dementia and verify the existence of correlation between functionality and the stage or type of dementia. Method: Quantitative, exploratory, cross-sectional study, with a sample of 25 caregivers of elderly with dementia. For the characterization of the participants were used structured questionnaires and to assess functional disability, the Disability Assessment Scale for Dementia - DAD was applied. Results: Greater incapacity was observed in the IADL sub item. This finding is compatible with the literature on the hierarchy in functional decline in the elderly: decline begins in IADL, while BADL remain unaffected for a longer period. There was no significant correlation between the type of dementia, age or gender and disability. It was verified through the Spearman coefficient (rho = 0.87, a significant correlation of high magnitude between functional disability and stage of dementia (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: Such findings reiterate the importance of giving priority to early detection and prevention of the functional decline, which is the manifestation of vulnerability among the elderly.
Evaluating the Quality of the Interaction between Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities and Direct Support Staff: A Preliminary Application of Three Observation Scales from Parent-Infant Research
Hostyn, Ine; Petry, Katja; Lambrechts, Greet; Maes, Bea
Background: Affective and reciprocal interactions with others are essential for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), but it is a challenge to assess their quality. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of instruments from parent-infant research to evaluate these interactions. Method: Eighteen videotaped…
Wilson, Robert S; Buchman, Aron S; Arnold, Steven E; Shah, Raj C; Tang, Yuxiao; Bennett, David A
The relation of personality to disability in old age is not well understood. The authors examined the relation of harm avoidance, a trait indicating a tendency to worry, fear uncertainty, be shy, and tire easily, to disability in a group of 474 older persons without dementia. Participants completed the 35-item Harm Avoidance scale. Disability was assessed with the Rosow-Breslau scale, a self-report measure of physical mobility. Performance-based tests of lower limb functions were also administered from which composite measures of gait, balance, and strength were derived. In a logistic regression model controlled for age, sex, education, and lower limb function, persons with high levels of harm avoidance were nearly three times as likely to report mobility limitations as persons with low levels, and these effects largely reflected fatigability and fear of uncertainty. The association of harm avoidance with disability was not explained or modified by frailty, physical activity, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, extraversion, or cognition. The results suggest that harm avoidance is associated with disability in old age.
Anner, Jessica; Kunz, Regina; Boer, Wout de
To compare the official requirements of the content of disability evaluation for social insurance across Europe and to explore how the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is currently applied, using the rights and obligations of people with disabilities towards society as frame of reference. Survey. We used a semi-structured questionnaire to interview members of the European Union of Medicine in Assurance and Social Security (EUMASS), who are central medical advisors in social insurance systems in their country. We performed two email follow-up rounds to complete and verify responses. Fifteen respondents from 15 countries participated. In all countries, medical examiners are required to report about a claimant's working capacity and prognosis. In 14 countries, medical reports ought to contain information about socio-medical history and feasible interventions to improve the claimant's health status. The format of medical reporting on working capacity varies widely (free text, semi- and fully structured reports). One country makes a reference to the ICF in their reports on working capacity, others consider doing so. Official requirements on medical reporting about disability in social insurance across Europe follow the frame of four features: work capacity, socio-medical history, feasibility of intervention and prognosis of disability. There is an increasing trend to make formal or informal reference to the ICF in the reports about working capacity. The four features and the ICF may provide common references across countries to describe disability evaluation, facilitating national and international research. Implications for Rehabilitation Reporting about disability in social insurance in different countries is about work capacity, social medical history, feasibility of intervention and prognosis of disability. Formats of reporting on work capacity vary among countries, from free text to semi-structured report forms to fully structured
Lykke Hindhede, Anette
Using disability theory as a framework and social science theories of identity to strengthen the arguments, this paper explores empirically how working-age adults confront the medical diagnosis of hearing impairment. For most participants hearing impairment threatens the stability of social...... interaction and the construction of hearing disabled identities is seen as shaped in the interaction with the hearing impaired person‟s surroundings. In order to overcome the potential stigmatisation the „passing‟ as normal becomes predominant. For many the diagnosis provokes radical redefinitions of the self....... The discursively produced categorisation and subjectivity of senescence mean that rehabilitation technologies such as hearing aids identify a particular life-style (disabled) which determines their social significance. Thus wearing a hearing aid works against the contemporary attempt to create socially ideal...
US Department of Education, 2007
Business is about productivity and maintaining a competitive advantage. To do this, business needs qualified workers. Hiring people with disabilities adds value to a business and will attract new customers. Disability is not inability. Employers can make sound business decisions and gain a competitive advantage by using this guide to increase the…
Salter, Erica K
From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care. As the introduction to HEC Forum's special thematic issue on Childhood and Disability, this article orients the reader to the history of bioethics' relationship to both pediatric ethics and disability studies and introduces the issue's five manuscripts. As clinicians, disability scholars, philosophers and clinical ethicists writing on various aspects of pediatric disability, the articles' authors all invite readers to dig beneath an overly-simplified version of what disability might mean to children and families and instead embrace a posture of genuine humility, recognizing both the limits and harms of traditional medical and bioethical responses (or indifferences) to the disabled child.
Dwyer, Kevin P.
This report discusses disciplining children with disabilities in schools, in the context of the legal requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Practical concepts are explained in terms of the school's responsibility to: (1) maintain a safe environment; (2) teach a code of discipline to all students; (3) use the…
Bogdan, Robert; And Others
From the early nineteenth century to the present, horror, gangster, and adventure films, television, the comics, and newspapers have shown physical and mental disabilities to connote murder, violence, and danger. Such false portrayals have promoted negative public attitudes toward people with disabilities. (Author/MJL)
Brown, S E
People with disabilities have, for the most part, failed to identify with each other as a group. This has been detrimental because it has built a sense of isolation when a camaraderie based upon existing commonalities could have been developed. During the past ten to twenty years, there has been a great deal of discussion about appropriate language to use when discussing disability issues. This discussion has been a part of a larger debate concerning the existence of a disability culture. I believe that there is indeed a disability culture and I am a proponent of identifying and passing on stories which contribute to that culture. I have chosen to use mythology to convey this message and have begun with a focus on heroes - people who do something out of the ordinary. It is contended that almost all people with disabilities have performed heroic activities because of the pervasive discrimination encountered by each individual with a disability. Creating a disability mythology is an attempt to recognize and promote heroes within the disabled community and to advocate the importance of telling other people how positive change has occurred through instances of individual heroism.
State Employees Division of Senior and Disabilities Services DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and ; Assistance Senior Benefits Program Medicare Substance Abuse Treatment Alaska Tribal Child Welfare Compact ; Senior and Disabilities Services Page Content Director Duane Mayes photo image. Duane Mayes Director
Anderson, David W.
People often hold stereotypical notions about disability, assuming people with significant disabilities offer little in terms of friendship or contribution. Some are even repulsed by that person's physical appearance. Such responses, evident within the Christian community as well, fail to acknowledge the inherent worth of the person as created in…
Full Text Available Disabled people, amidst political and social gains, continue to experience discrimination in multiple areas. Understanding how such discrimination, named here as ableism, operates is important and may require studying perspectives of people who do not claim a disability identity. Ableism may be expressed in a number of ways, and examining how a particular group, in this case siblings of disabled people, understand and value disability may contribute to overall understandings about how ableism works. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore relationships between siblings of disabled people's broad societal understandings of disability and their attitudes towards it. In order to tease out this relationship further we have also examined factors that impact how people define disability. Using both social psychological and sociological approaches, we have contextualized individual attitudes as providing additional new information about social meanings of disability, and set this study's results against the larger backdrops of debates over meanings of disability within Disability Studies. In our research, participants revealed complex understandings of disability, but most often defined disability as preventing or slowing action, as an atypical function, a lack of independence, and as a socially constructed obstacle. Participants' unconscious (implicit disability attitudes significantly related to their understandings of disability as lacking independence, impairment, and/or in relation to the norm, and their conscious (explicit disability attitudes. Moreover, longer employment in a disability-related industry was correlated with defining disability as a general difference, rather than as slowing or limiting of tasks.
Evaluation of cognitive and social functioning in patients requiring long-term inpatient psychiatric care using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: a large-scale, multi-institutional observational study.
Kawaguchi, Hideaki; Taguchi, Masamoto; Sukigara, Masune; Sakuragi, Shoji; Sugiyama, Naoya; Chiba, Hisomu; Kawasaki, Tatsuhito
We comprehensively evaluated cognitive and social functioning in patients requiring long-term inpatient psychiatric care using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. We surveyed 1967 patients receiving long-term inpatient psychiatric care. Patients were further categorized into an old long-stay group (n = 892, >5 years in hospitals) and a new long-stay group (n = 1075, 1-5 years in hospitals). We obtained responses for all the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health items in domain b (Body Functions) and domain d (Activities and Participation). We estimated weighted means for each item using the propensity score to adjust for confounding factors. Responses were received from 307 hospitals (response rate of hospitals: 25.5%). Cognitive and social functioning in the old long-stay group was more severely impaired than in the new long-stay group. No statistically significant differences were observed regarding the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health items associated with basic activities of daily living between the two groups. Combined therapy consisting of cognitive remediation and rehabilitation on social functioning for this patient population should be started from the early stage of hospitalization. Non-restrictive, independent environments may also be optimal for this patient population. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation of cognitive and social functioning for patients requiring long-term inpatient psychiatric care should be started in the early stages of hospitalization. In psychiatric fields, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health checklist could facilitate individualized rehabilitation planning by allowing healthcare professionals to visually assess the comprehensive functioning of each patient using graphics such as radar charts.
Full Text Available Disability is a complex phenomenon. It reflects an interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, lays stress on the functional as well as the structural problem of a person. All the definitions of disability also include the disorders of the reproductive and endocrine system. So infertility and impotency should also be included in the category of disability. It affects the participation in areas of life and can have a disabling affect on an individual. Like any other disability the couple has to adapt and integrate infertility in their sense of self thus infertility comes as a major life crisis. Medically, infertility, in most cases, is considered to be the result of a physical impairment or a genetic abnormality. Socially, couples are incapable of their reproductive or parental roles. On social level, infertility in most cultures remains associated with social stigma and taboo just like the social model of disability. Couples who are unable to reproduce may be looked down upon due to social stigmatisation. Infertility can lead to divorces and separation leading to a broken family life. Without labelling infertility as a disability, it is difficult for the people to access services and welfare benefits offered by the government. Infertility treatments are highly sophisticated so they are very expensive and are even not covered by insurance and government aid.In the light of all this it becomes imperative to categorise infertility as disability.
Mohsen Adib Hajbagheri
Full Text Available Objectives: Reports are indicating of increasing trend of aging and disability in the developing countries while such disabilities are decreasing within the developed countries. This study designed to evaluate the disability and some of its related factors among the elderly population (65 and older in Kashan, Iran. Methods & Materials: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on a multi-stage random sample of 350 elderly people (65 year and older in Kashan. The WHO-DAS-II was used as the generic disability measure. The questionnair had 48 questions. The range of score could be between 0-144. Chi-square, t-test analysis and ANOVA were utilized to check significant differences between subgroups. Results: 61% were men and 12% were living lonely. One fourth had some type of addiction, the majority were ilitrate and two thired had not regular phisycal activity.Twenty percent of the old people had a modereate disability and 4.3% were extremely disabled. A significant relationship was found between the disability and variables such as sex, age, living style, needing help, marriage status, living location, addiction, job, level of physical activity, education, and having multiple diseases. Conclusion: In conclusion, geriatric population in Iran, has a lower levels of disability in compare to those of other developed countries. Need of geriatric cares must be be increasing, since the populationpattern of elderly people is increasing in Iran. Female and ilitrate elders were sufering of more disability. These findings indicated the nessesity to more attention to these voulnarable subgroups of population.
Yuen, Genevieve S; Bhutani, Saumya; Lucas, Bryony J; Gunning, Faith M; AbdelMalak, Bassem; Seirup, Joanna K; Klimstra, Sibel A; Alexopoulos, George S
The aims of this study were to examine: (1) the relationship between apathy and disability in late-life depression, and (2) the functional significance of improvement in apathy following escitalopram treatment in terms of its relationship to disability. Subjects were 71 non-demented elderly with non-psychotic major depression. After a 2-week single-blind placebo period, subjects who had Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) ≥ 18 received escitalopram 10 mg daily for 12 weeks. Apathy and disability were assessed with the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (WHODAS), respectively. These measures and the HDRS were administered at baseline and again following 12 weeks of treatment. At baseline, 38% of depressed subjects had significant apathy (AES ≥ 36.5). Severity of apathy at baseline significantly correlated with severity of disability. In a multivariate regression model, baseline severity of apathy, but not the overall depressive syndrome (HDRS), significantly correlated with baseline disability. Following escitalopram treatment, improvement in apathy significantly correlated with improvement in disability measures, while change in the rest of the depressive syndrome did not. The overall change in apathy and disability in response to escitalopram treatment was significant but small. Apathy is common in late-life depression and is associated with disability above and beyond the influence of other depressive symptoms. Given the strong relationship between apathy and disability, understanding the neurobiology of apathy and developing treatments for apathy may improve the functional outcomes of late-life depression. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kishore, M Thomas
Understanding the disability impact on parenting and caregiving is important for intervention. The present study was designed to understand the differences in perceived disability impact and related coping in mothers having children with intellectual disabilities alone compared to those having children with intellectual disabilities and additional disabilities. Accordingly, 30 mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and 30 mothers of children with intellectual and additional disabilities were assessed for disability impact and coping. Group differences for disability impact were present in specific domains but not overall. Despite variations in coping pattern, both positive and negative coping strategies were observed in both groups. The results may imply that the impact of intellectual disability is so pervasive that except in certain domains mothers may not perceive the further impact of additional disabilities. Positive coping does not rule out negative coping strategies. These findings have specific relevance to service delivery in a cultural context.
Sheehanfs syndrome (SS), which is an important cause of hypopituitarism, is common in developing countries. The most common presentation is the absence of lactation and amenorrhea. Hypothyroidism rather than hyperthyroidism is the usual expected phenomenon in SS. Postpartum hyperthyroidism is also common and ...
Jan 10, 2014 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Sep-Oct 2014 • Vol 17 • Issue 5. Case Report. Abstract ... a high prevalence rate.[2,3] SS clinical spectrum varies from general symptoms, such as weakness and fatigue, to severe pituitary ...
Full Text Available Anesthetizing an intellectually disabled patient is a challenge due to lack of cognition and communication which makes perioperative evaluation difficult. The presence of associated medical problems and lack of cooperation further complicates the anesthetic technique. An online literature search was performed using keywords anesthesia, intellectually disabled, and mentally retarded and relevant articles were included for review. There is scarcity of literature dealing with intellectually disabled patients. The present review highlights the anesthetic challenges, their relevant evidence-based management, and the role of caretakers in the perioperative period. Proper understanding of the associated problems along with a considerate and unhurried approach are the essentials of anesthetic management of these patients.
Di Nucci, Ezio
This paper argues against Appel's recent proposal-in this journal-that there is a fundamental human right to sexual pleasure, and that therefore the sexual pleasure of severely disabled people should be publicly funded-by thereby partially legalising prostitution. An alternative is proposed that does not need to pose a new positive human right; does not need public funding; does not need the legalisation of prostitution; and that would offer a better experience to the severely disabled: charitable non-profit organisations whose members would voluntarily and freely provide sexual pleasure to the severely disabled.
Full Text Available Objective: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a progressive degenerative fatal disorder of motor neuron. In this research course of functional disability and possible underlying factors affecting disability were studied. Materials & Methods: First 59 patients with definite ALS were selected and for each patient ALSFRS (ALS Functional Rating Scale was determined at Initial and the end of a six month period. Results: During this period 9 patients expired. Bulbar onset localization showed a more rapid course than non-bulbar onset group. Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between the age group or gender with progression of disability. In expired group, mean survival in bulbar onset and older patients were significantly less than those with non-bulbar onset and younger ones. There was no significant relationship between survival and gender.
... for Educators Search English Español What Is an Intellectual Disability? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Is an Intellectual Disability? ... learning and becoming an independent person. What Causes Intellectual Disabilities? Intellectual disabilities happen because the brain gets injured ...
Wenger, Jodi; Downes, Alison; Blum, Nathan; Augustyn, Marilyn
Amad is a wonderful 16-year-old young man from Syria who has recently relocated to the United States from his war-torn native country. In his last few years in Syria, he was primarily at home with his mother, and they sought refuge with a maternal aunt in the United States seeking asylum and treatment of Amad's disability.At 8 years of age, he had intelligence testing in the United Arab Emirates, which showed a verbal intelligence score on the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC) of 68 and a performance of 64. His working memory was 67 and his processing speed was 65. On arrival in the United States, his achievement was roughly at a third-grade level in Arabic. In the year and a half that he has been in the United States, he quickly improved his English skills, which he learned as a toddler. His father remains in Syria unable to safely immigrate and his mother is raising him alone in the United States with the help of her sister.They come to you for an urgent care visit because Amad recently was accused of sexual harassment by two girls at his high school. He is in a substantially separate program but is included for lunch and technology. While in the computer laboratory, he repeatedly approached the girls and asks them to "date" him, and on 1 occasion sat behind 1 girl and repeatedly reached out to stroke her long blonde hair.His mother is distraught because she recently found out that Amad also has a Facebook page and had been attempting to contact the same two girls on social media. The girls' parents recently threatened to file criminal harassment charges and Amad's mother comes to you asking for help with making Amad stop this activity. What would you do next?
Lam, Raymond W; Wajsbrot, Dalia B; Meier, Ellen; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Mackell, Joan A; Boucher, Matthieu
Nine randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of major depressive disorder were pooled to evaluate the effects of desvenlafaxine 50- and 100-mg/d on energy and lassitude in adults with major depressive disorder ( n=4279). Changes from baseline to endpoint in 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D 17 ) Work and Activities, Retardation, and Somatic Symptoms General items, HAM-D 17 psychomotor retardation factor, and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale Lassitude item were analyzed with a mixed model for repeated measures analysis of variance. Associations between residual energy measures and functional impairment, based on the Sheehan Disability Scale, were modeled using stepwise multiple linear regression. Improvement from baseline was significantly greater for both desvenlafaxine doses versus placebo on all energy symptom outcomes at week 8 (all p⩽0.005). Both early improvement in HAM-D 17 psychomotor retardation at week 2 and residual energy symptoms at week 8 were associated with Sheehan Disability Scale total score at week 8 (all p⩽0.001). Among Sheehan Disability Scale remitters and responders, the HAM-D 17 psychomotor retardation score at week 8 was significantly lower with desvenlafaxine (both doses) than placebo. Desvenlafaxine 50 and 100 mg/d significantly improved energy and lassitude symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. Both early improvement in energy and fewer residual energy symptoms were associated with functional improvement.
Full Text Available Locating occupational therapy within gendered and racialized systems of power, the authors consider the intersectional nature of critical disability studies discourse and the need for occupational therapy to incorporate such values into practice. This article discusses ways in which occupational therapy as a profession and individual therapists can align with or resist the economic determination which has come to dominate medical systems. It considers some of the political background to the history of the profession and its relationship with power. This positioning of the profession is explored against the impact of neoliberal economic policy on health, rights, service delivery and disability, and against some key issues, the pressure of ageing populations and the positon of occupational therapists as women professionals. Current policies present a critical challenge to central occupational therapy tenets. Occupational therapists may find themselves working both in alliance with disabled people and disability activists, and against them.
Full Text Available In May 2007 UNHCR established an internal working group to look at developing in-house policies for people with disabilities both for the benefit of people of concern to us and for staff members.
In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about learning more about kids who have disabilities. Created: 5/22/2014 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). Date Released: 5/22/2014.
... risk behaviors and higher rates of premature death. Secondary conditions Secondary conditions occur in addition to (and ... Provide evidence-based guidelines for assessment and treatment. Data and research Include people with disabilities in health ...
Jespersen, Louise Norman; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Tjørnhøj-thomsen, Tine
highlighted as affecting quality of life. The use of social tactics to avoid confrontation with certain aspects of their disability was common among participants. Conclusions: Across disabilities, caregiving, dependency, understanding and acceptance, and discrimination and prejudice were all important aspects......Purpose: We explored which shared aspects of social relations were considered important to the quality of life of persons between the ages of 10 and 40 years living with a disability. We examined how social relations were experienced as affecting quality of life and social participation. Materials...... and methods: Fifteen focus groups involving 48 persons with disabilities were conducted using photo elicitation, preference ranking and props. Focus group interviews were supplemented with seven individual interviews with individuals unable to participate in focus groups. All focus group interviews...
... play, learn, speak, behave, and move (for example, crawling and walking). Children develop at their own pace, ... person’s lifetime. Most developmental disabilities begin before a baby is born, but some can happen after birth ...
Wilson, Pamela E; Clayton, Gerald H
Participation in recreational and competitive sports at an early age has long been touted as a positive influence on growth and development, and for fostering lifelong healthy lifestyles. The benefits of an active lifestyle include not only fitness, but the promotion of a sense of inclusion and improved self-esteem. These benefits are well documented in all populations, and their importance has been summarized in the recent Healthy People 2010 guidelines. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently produced a summary statement on the benefits of activity for disabled children. They note that children with disabilities tend to have an overall lower level of fitness and an increased level of obesity. For this population, developing a lifelong desire to be active can be a simple means for limiting illness and much of the morbidity associated with sedentary lifestyles often associated with disability. For disabled youth, participation in disabled sports programs available nationally and internationally can be an effective means to promote such precepts. The goal of this focused review is to improve the learner's knowledge of the positive impact that active lifestyles can have on overall health in the disabled youth population and, as a result, modify their practice by incorporating recreational and competitive sport activities as part of improving overall patient care. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia that manifests as short stature. Impairment and complications range over many disciplines including orthopedics, pediatrics, neurology, and otolaryngology. The major impairments of the extremities are short limbs, limited elbow and hip extension, and knee and leg deformities that can cause disabilities in arm function and locomotion. Hydrocephalus, a narrow foramen magnum, spinal deformity, and spinal canal stenosis can cause neurological problems, leading to disabilities in locomotion, communication, and learning. Malfunctions of the otolaryngeal system such as otitis media, upper respiratory obstruction, deafness, speech delay, and malocclusion are interrelated and can also lead to disabilities in communication and learning. Although such disabilities may cause social handicaps, most children receive a normal education. Their social maturity scale is comparable to that of normal children, but their scale of locomotion is not. The reported occupational level of female adult patients is lower than that of their unaffected siblings. When managing patients, orthopedists should consider the overall aspects of achondroplasia, including natural development and complications other than orthopedic factors.
Miranda Sue Terry
Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this exploratory research study was to examine the gender differences and role of disability among college students experienced intimate partner violence. The research project sought to address two questions: (1 are there gender differences? and (2 are there differences between people with disabilities and people without disabilities? Setting and Design: A large university in the Midwest, United States of America. A quantitative research design was used. Materials and Methods: This research project used a quantitative research design using a packet consisting of abuse screening surveys: Abuse Assessment Screen-Disability (AAS-D and Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2. Statistical analysis used: The quantitative surveys were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 22.0. Data input used a double entry method where the investigator entered the data into one SPSS sheet, an assistant entered the data into a separate SPSS sheet, and then the sheets were merged to check for discrepancies. The hypotheses were addressed using inferential statistics, such as Likelihood Ratio. Results: The results of this study indicate that there were no statistical differences between the rates at which men and women experience abuse. These results are not similar to previous literature. Other findings of this study indicate that people with disabilities experience similar rates of abuse as people without disabilities. These findings are similar to previous literature. Conclusions: Due to the small number of participants with disabilities, the statistical findings showed trends. A larger scale study would need to be conducted to draw any conclusions statistically. These trends should provide a shift in society and its views on who is affected by intimate partner violence and ensure everyone who is experiencing abuse has options to leave the relationship and has resources available and accessible to them.
Dammeyer, Jesper; Chapman, Madeleine
The aim of the study was to quantify levels of violence and discrimination among people with disabilities and analyze the effects of gender and the type and degree of disability. The study analyzed data on self-reported violence and discrimination from a Danish national survey of 18,019 citizens, of whom 4519 reported a physical disability and 1398 reported a mental disability. Individuals with disabilities reported significantly higher levels of violence than those without. Specifically, individuals reporting a mental disability reported higher levels of violence and discrimination. Significant gender differences were found with regard to type of violence: while men with disabilities were more likely to report physical violence, women with disabilities were more likely to report major sexual violence, humiliation and discrimination. Neither severity nor visibility of disability was found to be a significant factor for risk of violence. This large-scale study lends support to existing research showing that people with disabilities are at greater risk of violence than people without disabilities. Further, the study found that people with mental disabilities were significantly more likely to report all types of violence and discrimination than those with physical disabilities. The findings also show that gender is significant in explaining the type of violence experienced and the experience of discrimination.
Murray, C J; Lopez, A D
Information on non-fatal health outcomes of disease and injury has been largely neglected in health planning because of the conceptual and definitional complexity of measuring morbidity and disability in populations. One of our major objectives was to quantify disability for inclusion in health policy debates. We analysed these health outcomes in terms of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and disability-adjusted life expectancy (DALE). Published and unpublished data were systematically reviewed to estimate the incidence, prevalence, and duration of 483 disabling sequelae of 107 diseases and injuries. To ensure internal consistency of these estimates, a software programme (DISMOD) was applied many times until consistent parameters were identified. The severity of disability, on a scale of 0 (perfect health) to 1 (death), was measured in a deliberate manner by the person-trade-off method. Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to measure disability weights among groups. Prevalence of seven classes of disability was back-calculated from the distribution of each disabling sequela across disabilities. Prevalence for each class of disability for different age-sex groups was used to calculate seven forms of DFLE and DALE based on Sullivan's method. Prevalence of most disability classes is highest in sub-Saharan Africa and lowest in established market economies. Low-severity disabilities (class I and class II) are the most common. The expectation at birth of class I disability ranges from 6.5 years in established market economies to 14.7 years in sub-Saharan Africa, and for class II disabilities, from 8.5-18.4 years. DFLE varies significantly among regions: DFLE for class I disabilities at birth ranges from 9.9 years in sub-Saharan Africa to 47.7 years in established market economies for females and DFLE for class V disabilities ranges from 43.4 years for men in sub-Saharan Africa to 74.8 years for women in established market economies. The
Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia
The authors reviewed recent quantitative genetic research on learning disabilities that led to the conclusion that genetic diagnoses differ from traditional diagnoses in that the effects of relevant genes are largely general rather than specific. This research suggests that most genes associated with common learning disabilities--language impairment, reading disability, and mathematics disability--are generalists in 3 ways. First, genes that affect common learning disabilities are largely the same genes responsible for normal variation in learning abilities. Second, genes that affect any aspect of a learning disability affect other aspects of the disability. Third, genes that affect one learning disability are also likely to affect other learning disabilities. These quantitative genetic findings have far-reaching implications for molecular genetics and neuroscience as well as psychology. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Alavinia, S M; de Boer, A G E M; van Duivenbooden, J C; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Burdorf, A
Maintaining the ability of workers to cope with physical and psychosocial demands at work becomes increasingly important in prolonging working life. To analyse the effects of work-related factors and individual characteristics on work ability and to determine the predictive value of work ability on receiving a work-related disability pension. A longitudinal study was conducted among 850 construction workers aged 40 years and older, with average follow-up period of 23 months. Disability was defined as receiving a disability pension, granted to workers unable to continue working in their regular job. Work ability was assessed using the work ability index (WAI). Associations between work-related factors and individual characteristics with work ability at baseline were evaluated using linear regression analysis, and Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of work ability for disability. Work-related factors were associated with a lower work ability at baseline, but had little prognostic value for disability during follow-up. The hazard ratios for disability among workers with a moderate and poor work ability at baseline were 8 and 32, respectively. All separate scales in the WAI had predictive power for future disability with the highest influence of current work ability in relation to job demands and lowest influence of diseases diagnosed by a physician. A moderate or poor work ability was highly predictive for receiving a disability pension. Preventive measures should facilitate a good balance between work performance and health in order to prevent quitting labour participation.
McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane
Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of
In this study the question asked is: what clinical nursing skills are predominantly used in intellectual disability nursing? A survey of the nursing needs of people with moderate to severe intellectual disability in both residential and community units was undertaken with a questionnaire.The measure was a Likert design scale ranging across: skills used more than once a day, skills used daily, skills used weekly, skills used monthly, skills very rarely used, and skills never used.The results o...
Seval Cambaz Ulas
Full Text Available In Turkey there are approximately 8.5 million (% 12.3 disabled people. While the ratio of orthopedic, visual, auditory, speech, and talking disabilities and mental disability is 2.6%, the ratio of the people who have chronic diseases is 9.7% In our country, by the beginning of 1982 Constitution, there have been a lot of legal regulations. If the services for disabled persons considered as social security-related legislation for care, healthcare, education, employment and practices; the legal regulation on the year 2005 (The Disability Law no. 5378 has covered many blankness and also evolved the services to the disabled people. However, despite these recent legal regulation it is questionable that if the services for the disabled are adequate or not. In this review, the services, which offered to the disabled people, are evaluated as the topics mentioned above. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 483-488
Grotle, M; Brox, J I; Vøllestad, N K
To evaluate reliability and construct validity of the Norwegian versions of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and the modified Oswestry Disability Index. Translation of two functional status questionnaires and a cross-sectional study of measurement properties. The questionnaires were translated and back-translated following the Guillemin criteria. The Norwegian versions were tested for 55 patients with acute low back pain and 50 patients with chronic low back pain. Test-retest with a 2-day interval was performed in a subsample of 28 patients from the chronic sample. Reliability was assessed by repeatability according to Bland and Altman, intraclass coefficient and coefficient of variation. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Concurrent construct validity was assessed with correlations between the questionnaires and the SF-36, Disability Rating Index and pain intensity. Repeatability of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire was 4 points, coefficient of variation 15% and intraclass correlation coefficient 0.89, and of the modified Oswestry Disability Index 11, 12% and 0.88, respectively. Internal consistency was 0.94 for both questionnaires. The questionnaires correlated highly with the physical functioning scale of SF-36, moderately with pain, and low with mental scales of the SF-36. The reliability and construct validity of the Norwegian versions of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and the modified Oswestry Disability Index are acceptable for assessing functional status of Norwegian-speaking patients with low back pain.
The following article discusses the relationship between the model of intellectual disability and the attitudes towards sexuality of people with disabilities. This correlation has been verified during the author's own research conducted on students of several medical faculties such as nursing, public health, emergency medical services and physiotherapy. Tools of the author's design have been used in the research. Likert-type scale "Perspective of intellectual disability" has been used to determine the model of disability seen from the medical (individual) or social perspective. To examine the attitudes towards sexuality two tools of the author's own design have been used: a Likert-type scale "The essence of sexuality in persons with an intellectual disability" which has been used to analyze the cognitive aspect of the attitudes, and a semantic differential with notions concerning physical and psychosocial aspects of sexuality including the affective-evaluative aspect. As expected, significant correlations have been found between the model and the attitudes both in the cognitive and the affective-evaluative aspect. Higher scores for the individual model correlated with: (a) lover scores for most aspects of sexuality of people with intellectual disability, (b) perceiving them as asexual, (c) biological determinism in the sexual sphere. The social model concurred with positive values given to sexuality of people with intellectual disability and its normalization in the sphere of its determinants and symptoms.
Gilman, Sander L
How does society imagine mental illness? Does this shift radically over time and with different social attitudes as well as scientific discoveries about the origins and meanings of mental illness? What happens when we begin to think about mental illness as madness, as a malleable concept constantly shifting its meaning? We thus look at the meanings associated with 'general paralysis of the insane' in the nineteenth century and autism today in regard to disability. In this case study we examine the claims by scholars such as the anthropologist Emily Martin and the psychiatrist Kay Jamison as to the relationship between mental illness, disability and creativity. Today, the health sciences have become concerned with mental illness as a form of disability. How does this change the meaning of madness for practitioners and patients? © The Author(s) 2014.
This study explores how the ‘care’ of able-bodied employees and managers (observers) affects their relationships with colleagues with cerebral palsy. Disability researchers have established that ‘help’ and ‘care’ may cause feelings of dependency with the recipient. However, few workplace studies...... have investigated the potential negative consequences of ‘caring for’ colleagues with disabilities. Through open-ended interviews conducted in 2013 in 13 Danish work organizations with 13 employees with cerebral palsy and 62 observers, the study examines how the relational aspect of ‘care’ may result...... in relationships between colleagues of ‘parent–child’ or ‘helper–helpless’. The study thus clarifies the inherent contradictions embedded in the dynamics of organizational behaviour in relation to employees with disabilities, namely that workplaces may hire a person with physical limitations (perhaps to deflect...
Oliver, Mike; Barnes, Colin
This paper traces the relationship between the emergence of disability studies and the struggle for meaningful inclusion for disabled people with particular reference to the work of a pivotal figure in these developments: Len Barton. It is argued that the links between disability activism and the academy were responsible for the emergence of…
Evans, Nancy J.; Assadi, Jennifer L.; Herriott, Todd K.
The authors advocate for a constructionist interpretation of disability, grounded in a social justice perspective, by discussing disability paradigms, factors that influence attitudes and attitude change regarding disability, and disability ally development and behaviors.
Lauer, E. A; Houtenville, A. J.
The "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement" is a companion report to the "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium." The "Supplement" presents statistics on the same topics as the "Compendium," with additional categorizations by demographic characteristics including age, gender and race/ethnicity. In…
Pontone, Gregory M; Bakker, Catherine C; Chen, Shaojie; Mari, Zoltan; Marsh, Laura; Rabins, Peter V; Williams, James R; Bassett, Susan S
Depression in Parkinson disease (PD) is a common problem that worsens quality of life and causes disability. However, little is known about the longitudinal impact of depression on disability in PD. This study examined the association between disability and DSM-IV-TR depression status across six years. Longitudinal cohort study with assessments at study entry, year two, four, and six conducted in the Morris K. Udall Parkinson Disease Research Center. Recruitment totaled 137 adult men and women with idiopathic PD in which up to six years of data on demographic, motor, and non-motor variables was collected. Movement disorder specialists used the structured interview for DSM-IV-TR depressive disorders and the Northwestern Disability Scale to assess depression and disability. A generalized linear mixed model was fitted with Northwestern Disability Scale score as the dependent variable to determine the effect of baseline depression status on disability. A total of 43 participants were depressed at baseline compared to 94 without depression. Depressed participants were more likely to be female, were less educated, were less likely to take dopamine agonists, and more likely to have motor fluctuations. Controlling for these variables, symptomatic depression predicted greater disability compared to both never depressed (p = 0.0133) and remitted depression (p = 0.0009). Disability associated with symptomatic depression at baseline was greater over the entire six-year period compared to participants with remitted depressive episodes or who were never depressed. Persisting depression is associated with a long-term adverse impact on daily functioning in PD. Adequate treatment or spontaneous remission of depression improves ADL function. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
People with disabilities in America are twice as likely to be unemployed than people without disabilities â a fact that can be eliminated. Dr. Shannon Griffin-Blake tells us how we can give people with disabilities an opportunity to thrive in the workforce. Created: 12/28/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD). Date Released: 12/28/2016.
Alvaro, San Martín; Rafael, Pagani Mario
Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent...
People with disabilities in America are twice as likely to be unemployed than people without disabilities â a fact that can be eliminated. Dr. Shannon Griffin-Blake tells us how we can give people with disabilities an opportunity to thrive in the workforce.
Lauer, E. A.; Houtenville, A. J.
The "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium" and its compliment, the "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement," are publications of statistics about people with disabilities and about the government programs which serve them. The "Compendium" and "Supplement" are designed to serve as a summary of government…
Notes that American research has paid relatively little attention to prospects for adapting disability management practices to financial and management environment of smaller employers. Compares large and small firms in terms of employer disability practices and characteristics of disabled workers; discusses barriers to rehabilitation and…
Pal, Bharat Prakash
Objective To ascertain if there is a correlation between low back pain (LBP), fear of falling, and disability so that the patients with LBP are aware of the fact that other problems may occur with LBP. Hence, steps can be taken for decreasing the fear of falling and disability in order to improve the condition of patients. Methods A sample size of 100 patients with low back pain, with a range of ages from 40 to 73 years, participated in the study. The Falls Efficacy Scale was used to assess the fear of falling and the Oswestry Disability Index was used to assess the disability and pain in LBP individuals. Results The Pearson correlation analysis signifies the relationship between pain, fear of falling, and disability in LBP. Conclusion First, LBP increases the fear of falling. Second, LBP can result in a person becoming disabled. Third, the fear of falling and disability are correlated with each other. PMID:26605180
Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.
Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)
... for loving and fulfilling relationships with others. Individual rights to sexuality, which is essential to human health and well-being, have been denied. This loss has negatively affected people with intellectual disabilities in gender identity, friendships, self-esteem, body image ...
in 13 different work organisations. The primary finding of the study is that observers spontaneously refer to other ‘different’ people (e.g., transvestites, homosexuals, immigrants) when talking about a colleague with impairments. This finding suggests that disability is simultaneously a discursive...... discourses of ableism (which automatically produce difference) and tolerance and inclusiveness (which automatically render it problematic to talk about difference)....
... actually be at an advantage in terms of effective health information exchange in care coordination, due to local ... those patients with a disability had received an exercise recommendation at a doctor ... sponsors health promotion workshops designed to be provided by organizations ...
Redford, a veteran 5th grade teacher, addresses the question of whether, in the case of students with dyslexia, "it's time to ditch the disability classification and replace it with more positive language that embraces and appreciates [the condition] as a 'neurodifference' instead." Her answer is no--at least in the current education…
Original title: Jeugd met beperkingen. Taking part in society in an ordinary way is not self-evident for children and young people with a physical or intellectual disability. They often encounter more obstacles in going to school, finding a job and in their leisure time than other people of
Fejer, René; Hartvigsen, Jan
Pain and disability are interrelated, but the relationship between pain and disability is not straightforward. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between neck pain (NP) intensity, NP duration, and disability based on the population-based 'Funen Neck and Chest Pain......' study. Pain intensity was measured using 11-box numerical rating scales, pain duration was measured using the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire, and disability was measured by the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale. Spearman rank correlation coefficients and logistic regression analyses were...... used to measure correlations and strength of associations between pain intensity, pain duration, and disability given domain specific characteristics (socioeconomic, health and physical, comorbidity, and variables related to consequences of NP). Neck pain was very common, but mainly mild and did...
Fatima, A.; Tanveer, F.; Ahmed, A.; Gillani, S.A.
To determine an association of pain intensity with quality of life and functional disability in university students with lumbago. Methodology: In this cross sectional study 213 students participated. Standard questionnaire Numeric pain rating scale, Utian quality of life scale Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire were used for the data collection. Results: Mean age of students was 21.0 +- 1.970 years (range 18-24). Out of 213 students, 143 had lower quality of life. There was an association between pain intensity and quality of life (p=0.006). Out of 213 students, 120 had minimal disability with lower quality of life. There was strong association (p=0.015) between quality of life and functional disability. Conclusion: There was a strong association between pain intensity and quality of life, pain intensity and functional disability, quality of life and functional disability in university students with low back ache. (author)
Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: From a medical model perspective of substance use disorders (SUDs, opioid use disorders are associated with some degree of disability. This study aimed to assess the disability among patients with opioid use disorders (OUDs and its relationship with internalized stigma. Methodology: This cross-sectional study assessed patients with SUDs at a tertiary care center. Disability among patients with OUDs was assessed using Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS while stigma was measured using Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS. Results: Among 168 patients with OUD, the disability was greatest in the domain of work followed by interpersonal activities. About 48.2% and 3.0% of the participants had moderate and severe disability according to IDEAS. Disability (IDEAS scores had a robust correlation with the stigma (ISMIS scores (r = 0.453, P < 0.01. Multiple regression analysis found that internalized stigma (ISMIS score was an independent predictor of disability among patients with OUDs (β =0.42, P < 0.01. Conclusions: From a medical perspective, OUDs are associated with considerable disability which has significant correlation with internalized stigma. Designing interventions which can target internalized stigma among patients with OUD may help in reducing the disability associated with it.
Full Text Available We welcome Andrew Haig's critique of our paper, "Disability & Health: A research agenda" in Social Inclusion. Our paper sought to identify research priorities to better understand, provide enhanced services and a better quality of life for people with disabilities, particularly in relation to their health and wellbeing. Haig's critique makes several important points that deserve serious consideration. His comments reflect a view of the relationship between disability and health which is different from the one we have espoused. Specifically, Haig argues that (a disability is a health problem, (b medical rehabilitation should be separated from Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR, and (c the evidence base for medical rehabilitation is much stronger than for CBR. We address each of these points below arguing that while some types of disability clearly result from health problems; often disability is not experienced as a health problem; and sometimes, disability in interaction with restricted access is the cause of health problems.
Fayad, F; Mace, Y; Lefevre-Colau, M M; Poiraudeau, S; Rannou, F; Revel, M
To identify all available shoulder disability questionnaires and to examine those that could be used for athlete. We systematically reviewed the literature in Medline using the keywords shoulder, function, scale, index, score, questionnaire, disability, quality of life, assessment, and evaluation. We searched for scales used for athletes with the keywords scale name AND (sport OR athlete). Data were completed by using the "Guide des Outils de Mesure et d'Evaluation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation" textbook. Analysis took into account the clinimetric quality of the instruments and the number of items specifically related to sports. A total of 37 instruments have been developed to measure disease-, shoulder-specific or upper extremity specific outcome. Older instruments were developed before the advent of modern measurement methods. They usually combined objective and subjective measures. Recent instruments were designed with use of more advanced methods. Most are self-administered questionnaires. Fourteen scales included items assessing sport activity. Four of these scales have been used to assess shoulder disability in athlete. Six scales have been used to assess such disability but do not have specific items related to sports. There is no gold standard for assessing shoulder outcome in the general population and no validated outcome instruments specifically for athletes. We suggest the use of ASES, WOSI and WORC scales for evaluating shoulder function in the recreational athletes. The DASH scale should be evaluated in this population. The principal criterion in evaluating shoulder function in the high level athlete is a return to the same level of sport performance. Further studies are required to identify measurement tools for shoulder disability that have a high predictive value for return to sport.
Saltychev, Mikhail; Mattie, Ryan; McCormick, Zachary; Bärlund, Esa; Laimi, Katri
The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in a large cross-sectional cohort of individuals with chronic low back pain by defining its internal consistency, construct structure and validity, and its ability to differentiate between different degrees of functional limitation. A total of 837 consecutive outpatient patients with low back pain were studied. The internal consistency of ODI was assessed by Cronbach's α, construct structure by exploratory factor analysis, construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis, and discrimination was determined by item response theory analysis. The ODI showed good internal consistency (α=0.85). Explanatory factor analysis showed that ODI is a unidimensional test measuring functional level and nothing else. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the standardized regression weights of all ODI items were relatively high, varying from 0.5 to 0.7. The item response theory analysis suggested that eight out of 10 ODI items have a close to perfect ability to measure functional limitations in accordance with the actual severity of disability experienced by the respondents. Discrimination of all the items was high to perfect (1.08-2.01). The test characteristic and test information curves showed that the discriminative ability of the ODI is superior at higher levels of disability. The present data showed that the ODI is an internally consistent, unidimensional scale with overall excellent construct validity and ability to discriminate the severity of functional disability. The analysis suggests that the ODI may better distinguish between the relative degrees of function at above-average disability levels.
Shabunova Aleksandra Anatol’evna
Full Text Available Disability employment is a major tool for creating inclusive society. In Russia, the main obstacles to employment of the disabled are imperfect statutory measures aimed at improving competitiveness of this population group in the labor market; low prestige of jobs for people with disabilities; the employers’ unwillingness to hire disabled people. The purpose of this study is to determine the barriers disabled people face on the labor market and to justify the expedience of investing public funds in activities aimed at promoting disabled employment. Works of Russian and foreign authors, national statistics, results of sociological surveys of the population and people with disabilities conducted on the territory of the Vologda Oblast in 2013–2015 represent the information base of the study. The article reviews the impact of employment quotas for the disabled; in particular, it has been established that the number of the employed under such quotas during the period from 2008 to 2014 has declined. Based on the results of domestic research the authors have determined the reasons underlying lack of effectiveness of this social policy tool. One of the problems of promoting disability employment is training and re-training of the disabled. According to official statistics, only 38% of the employed disabled who live in a city are employed in the area of their specialty. At the same time, the results of research h of Russian authors show that training of an expert (even with consideration of their health capacities pays off within 4 years. Using the example of the Vologda Oblast, the authors show that annual tax revenues in employment of the disabled to jobs with wages close to the regional average may reach 33 million rubles. They also estimate the approximate regional cost of workplace equipment for the disabled. Finally, the authors propose a list of key courses of action on increasing competitiveness of the disabled in the labor market
Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Christiansen, Niels
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether tooth loss at age 70 is associated with onset of disability at 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year follow-up and to mortality at 21-year follow-up. SETTING: Community-based population in Copenhagen. DESIGN: A baseline study of a random sample of 70-year-old people born in 1914...... interviews and a medical and oral examination. Oral health was measured according to number of teeth (0, 1-9, 10-19, > or = 20). Disability was measured using the Avlund Mob-H scale at age 75, 80, 85, and 90. Mortality data were obtained from the National Death Register. RESULTS: Being edentulous or having...... one to nine teeth was associated with onset of disability at age 75 and 80. Health-related variables and education attenuated the associations between edentulism and onset of disability, although they remained marginally significant, whereas the association between having one to nine teeth and onset...
Lochhead, Lois E; MacMillan, Peter D
The Oswestry disability index (ODI) is the most widely used measure of perceived disability for low back conditions. It has been adopted without adaptation in functional capacity evaluation (FCE). Rigorous testing of the ODI with modern psychometric methods, in this setting, is warranted. To determine the psychometric properties of the ODI in FCE: unidimensionality; differential item functioning; item coverage and to identify poorly functioning items, allowing for improvement of these items and recalibration of the scale. Rasch analysis, specifically Masters' partial credit model, was conducted on data. 133 work-disabled individuals presenting for FCE in northern British Columbia, Canada. All items had one poorly functioning option. Items were rescaled from six categories to five, improving the psychometric properties of the ODI as a unidimensional (disability due to back pain) scale. Item difficulty range is sufficient for a population with mild to severe disability. Although two of the ten ODI items functioned marginally unsatisfactorily in the unrevised state, the 5-option revised ODI appears superior. Use in clinical settings across a broad spectrum of disability levels could help establish its psychometric properties. Health professionals should be aware that the ODI may perform differently depending on client population.
Kao, Ying-Chia; Kramer, Jessica M; Liljenquist, Kendra; Tian, Feng; Coster, Wendy J
OBJECTIVE. We compared the functional performance of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), and without disabilities using the revised Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test (PEDI-CAT) Social/Cognitive, Daily Activities, and Responsibility domains. METHOD. A nationally representative sample of parents of children ages 0-21 without disabilities (n = 2,205), with ASD (n = 108), or with IDD (n = 150) completed an online survey. We obtained predicted PEDI-CAT scaled scores for three reference ages (5, 10, 15) from a modified analysis of covariance model and compared each group's scores using contrasts of the regression parameters. RESULTS. We found no significant differences between the ASD and IDD groups. The group with ASD demonstrated significantly lower performance than the group without disabilities across the three domains at ages 10 and 15. CONCLUSION. Scores on the PEDI-CAT differentiated the group with ASD from the group without disabilities. Children with ASD and IDD did not demonstrate different performance profiles. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Xu Qichun; Wang Jingjin
The traditional sliding scale technique causes a disabled range that is equal to the sliding length, thus reduces the analysis range of a MCA. A method for reduce ADC's DNL, which is called self-adapted sliding scale method, has been designed and tested. With this method, the disabled range caused by a traditional sliding scale method can be eliminated by a random trial scale and there is no need of an additional amplitude discriminator with swing threshold. A special trial-and-correct logic is presented. The tested DNL of the spectroscopy ADC described here is less than 0.5%
Thomsen, Frej Klem
Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing...... sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three...... arguments for a legal exception, based on sexual rights, beneficence, and luck egalitarianism, respectively. It concludes that although the general case for and against criminalisation is complicated there is a good case for a legal exception....
Thomsen, Frej Klem
Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three arguments for a legal exception, based on sexual rights, beneficence, and luck egalitarianism, respectively. It concludes that although the general case for and against criminalisation is complicated there is a good case for a legal exception. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Stupar, Maja; Côté, Pierre; Beaton, Dorcas E
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Few instruments are available to measure disability associated with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ) was developed to measure disability resulting from WAD, but its validity is unknown for acute WAD. PURPOSE: The aim...... included insurance claimants who were aged 18 years or older and diagnosed with acute WAD Grades I to III. All participants completed the WDQ, a 13-item questionnaire scored from 0 (no disability) to 130 (complete disability). We assessed the factor structure of the WDQ and tested its construct validity...... against self-perceived recovery, neck pain (Numerical Rating Scale [NRS]), neck disability (Neck Disability Index [NDI] and Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire), health-related quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]), and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale...
Mealor, David J.; Abrams, Pamela F.
Profile analysis was performed on Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) scores of 29 learning disabled students (6-10 years old) in a Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) program, to determine whether subtest patterns for initial and re-evaluation WISC-R administrations would differ significantly. Profile analysis was applied…
Baker, Warren; Bramston, Paul
People (n=103) with mild intellectual disabilities responded to several scales of anger, hostility, aggression, and personality. Results were consistent with earlier studies of relationships among anger, hostility, and aggression conducted with the general population. Findings suggest that people with intellectual disabilities may benefit from…
Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Turbey, Carolyn B.
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) subtest scatter and Bannatyne recategorization scores were investigated with three types of learning disabilities in children 6 to 16 years old: visual-motor and visual-perceptual disability (N=66); auditory-perceptual and receptive language deficit (N=18); and memory deficit (N=12). Three…
Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Kapreli, Eleni; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Oldham, Jacqueline
Chronic neck pain is one of the most usual neuromusculoskeletal pain conditions which can lead patients to chronic disability. Similarly to other pain conditions, the changed psychological status of these patients is believed to be associated with their pain condition and disability. However, the association between the psychological status of patients with idiopathic neck pain and their pain intensity and disability is minimally explored. This study was aimed at investigating the association between psychological states (anxiety, depression, kinesiophobia, catastrophizing) of patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain and self-reported pain and disability. Forty five patients with idiopathic chronic neck pain (more than 6 months, at least once a week) participated. Their psychological states were assessed by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, Pain Catastrophizing scale and Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Self-reported disability was recorded with the Neck Disability Index. Pain intensity was recorded by using a visual analog scale. Neck pain intensity was significantly correlated with anxiety (pneck pain is associated with their self-reported disability, whereas anxiety is also associated with their pain intensity. Anxiety and catastrophizing may be important predicting markers of patients' self-reported disability.
Heiman, Tali; Berger, Ornit
The study examined the family environment and perceived social support of 33 parents with a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and 43 parents with a child with learning disability, which were compared to 45 parents of children without disabilities as a control group. Parents completed the Family Environment Scale and Social Support Scale…
Huck, Sally; Kemp, Coral; Carter, Mark
Background: Positive self-concept is an important educational outcome for individuals with disability. Method: Perceived competence and acceptance of 17 children with intellectual disability, included in mainstream classes, were assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PSPCSA) and…
The article presents results of a study on the correlation between value preferences and attitudes towards individuals with a disability. Five hundred and eighty respondents took part in the research, among them 300 special needs teachers (SNT) and 280 general teachers (GT). Attitudes towards Individuals with a Disability Scale and Brzozowski's…
Rieger, Alicja; McGrail, J. Patrick
The humor styles and family functioning of parents of children with disabilities are understudied subjects. This study seeks to shed quantitative light on these areas. Seventy-two parents of children with disabilities completed the "Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales" (FACES IV) and the "Humor Styles…
Chen, Mel Y
This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Disability weights represent the relative severity of disease stages to be incorporated in summary measures of population health. The level of agreement on disability weights in Western European countries was investigated with different valuation methods. Methods Disability weights for fifteen disease stages were elicited empirically in panels of health care professionals or non-health care professionals with an academic background following a strictly standardised procedure. Three valuation methods were used: a visual analogue scale (VAS; the time trade-off technique (TTO; and the person trade-off technique (PTO. Agreement among England, France, the Netherlands, Spain, and Sweden on the three disability weight sets was analysed by means of an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC in the framework of generalisability theory. Agreement among the two types of panels was similarly assessed. Results A total of 232 participants were included. Similar rankings of disease stages across countries were found with all valuation methods. The ICC of country agreement on disability weights ranged from 0.56 [95% CI, 0.52–0.62] with PTO to 0.72 [0.70–0.74] with VAS and 0.72 [0.69–0.75] with TTO. The ICC of agreement between health care professionals and non-health care professionals ranged from 0.64 [0.58–0.68] with PTO to 0.73 [0.71–0.75] with VAS and 0.74 [0.72–0.77] with TTO. Conclusions Overall, the study supports a reasonably high level of agreement on disability weights in Western European countries with VAS and TTO methods, which focus on individual preferences, but a lower level of agreement with the PTO method, which focuses more on societal values in resource allocation.
Lewis, V M; Williams, K; KoKo, C; Woolmore, J; Jones, C; Powell, T
Depressive symptoms occur frequently in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and rates of suicide ideation are higher than the general population. There is evidence for a direct association between disability and depression, disability and suicide ideation, and depression and suicide ideation in MS. However, the relationship between all three, i.e. the mediating role of depression between disability and suicidal ideation, has not been investigated. Exploring this relationship could highlight risk factors, alerting clinicians to the need for timely intervention. Seventy five people with progressive MS attending two out-patient clinics took part in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Beck Suicide Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale and Guy's Neurological Disability Scale. Depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between perceived and actual disability and suicide ideation. Different types of disability were associated with suicidality, including: 'tremors' and 'taking longer to do things'. A small sub-group of participants were identified who reported suicide ideation in the presence of only mild levels of depression. There may be a sample bias in this study as all participants were attending out-patient clinics and receiving support which may not be available to everyone with MS. It is important for clinicians to screen regularly for both depression and suicide ideation, to be alert to specific types of disability for which a higher level of suicide ideation might be present and to consider the possibility of suicidal thoughts being present in people who show minimal or no depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... inclusion of individuals with disabilities on the teams that develop the cloud and Web technologies... Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects... Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Disability Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers...
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper
Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone...
Beatriz Martínez Ríos
Full Text Available It is estimated that persons with disabilities represent 15% of the world population. There is a strong link between poverty and disability. Population with disabilities is among the most disadvantaged and discriminated. However, development economic theories have forgotten essential matters about this population, contributing towards their invisibility and poverty. The Capability Approach from a Human Rights based approach brings us a new dimension. The extraordinary costs that arise from a disability and from the psychological, physical and social barriers that persons with disabilities face, contribute to their poverty, lack of freedom and vulneration of human rights, as put forward by current studies on this subject. International co-operation becomes a very valuable tool to be used for the promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities and overcoming poverty.
Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per
situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms...... Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly...
MARÍA LAURA SERRA
Full Text Available Women with disabilities are doubly discriminated against and socially excluded: through gender and disability. In order to perform an in-depth analysis of their actual situation, it is necessary to understand which models have been able to provide legal and political answers to this issue. Hence, the feminist model can be identified, on the basis of which we might elaborate upon its possible ties with the social model of disability. This study shows the correctness of feminist conclusions when dealing with inequality between men and women, but it also proves the inaccurateness of feminism in its approach on women with disabilities.
Rios, Dianne; Magasi, Susan; Novak, Catherine; Harniss, Mark
People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of chronic conditions, and higher health care expenditure than people without disabilities. We outline our approach to "accessible research design"-research accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. We describe a model that includes 3 tiers: universal design, accommodations, and modifications. Through our work on several large-scale research studies, we provide pragmatic examples of accessible research design. Making efforts to include people with disabilities in public health, epidemiological, and outcomes studies will enhance the interpretability of findings for a significant patient population.
Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hermans, Heidi; Penning, Corine; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.
Problems encountered in epidemiologic health research in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are how to recruit a large-scale sample of participants and how to measure a range of health variables in such a group. This cross-sectional study into healthy ageing started with founding a
Favazza, Paddy C.; Phillipsen, Leslie; Kumar, Poonam
Results of two studies indicate the Acceptance Scale for Kindergartners was reliable with a sample of minority, low socioeconomic status children and that children exposed to all of the components of an intervention designed to promote acceptance of young children with disabilities had short-term and long-term gains in acceptance. (Contains…
ten Klooster, Peter M.; Oude Voshaar, Antonius H.; Taal, Erik; van de Laar, Mart A F J
Objective. To compare the measurement properties of the HAQ disability index (HAQ-DI), HAQ-II and short form 36 physical functioning scale (PF-10) in patients with gout. Methods. A cross-sectional sample of 97 patients with gout completed all three measures. Reliability was assessed by examining the
Hayes, Susan; Shackell, Phil; Mottram, Pat; Lancaster, Rachel
Over-representation of people with learning disability in prisons has been demonstrated in many Western jurisdictions. This was the first comprehensive research in a UK prison. The research used a random 10% sample of a prison population (n = 140). A semi-structured interview, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (UK version) and the Vineland…
Ling, Bin; Allison, Colin; Nicholl, J. Ross; Moodley, Luke; Roberts, Dave
The Disabilities Information Flow (DIF) project at the University of St Andrews has sought to provide a means of efficiently managing all student disabilities information within the institution and provide appropriate role-based service interfaces for all staff who need to routinely interact with this information. This paper describes the software…
Officer, Alana; Shakespeare, Tom
The "World Report on Disability" was requested by the World Health Assembly, the governing body of the World Health Organization (WHO). Because disability is broader than health, WHO partnered with the World Bank. The "World Report" was published in 2011 and provides a comprehensive scientific analysis on the global situation…
Velayutham, Banurekha; Kangusamy, Boopathi; Mehendale, Sanjay
Information on disability is essential for the government to formulate policies, allocate adequate resources and implement appropriate programmes. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of disability and describe the types of disability by gender, age and geographical regions in Tamil Nadu, India. We analysed the 2011 Census cross-sectional survey data of Tamil Nadu. Age-adjusted disability rates and disability rates per 100 000 population were calculated. There were 1 179 963 disabled individuals in Tamil Nadu in 2011, a disability rate of 1635 per 100 000 population. Disability in movement, hearing and sight individually accounted for 24%, 19% and 11% of the total disability, respectively. Sixteen districts had disability rates above the state average. As age advanced, disability rates increased; the highest disability rate of 2533 per 100 000 was among people aged 60 years and above. The disability rates were higher in males compared to females (1819 v. 1451 per 100 000). Rural areas had higher disability areas compared to urban (1670 v. 1599 per 100 000). Currently married, working populations and literate populations had lower disability rates. Disability rate in the Scheduled Castes was higher at 1763 per 100 000 compared to the Scheduled Tribes and other social groups. Multiple disability was high in the age groups 0-19 years and 60 years and above. Physical or mental disability was observed in 1.6% of the population of Tamil Nadu. Research is warranted to identify underlying causes and interventions to reduce the burden of disability in the state.
In the helpful article "Why Bioethics Needs a Disability Moral Psychology," Joseph Stramondo adds to the critique of actually existing bioethics and explains why disability activists and scholars so often find fault with the arguments of bioethicists. He is careful not to stereotype either community-rightly, given that bioethicists endorse positions as disparate as utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics, and feminist ethics, among others. Although Stramondo never explicitly mentions utilitarians or liberals, it seems probable that these are the main targets of his discontent. The disability community, as he concedes, is also a broad church. Yet for this reason, I do not believe that you can read off positions on bioethics questions from either disability embodiment or disability organization affiliation. © 2016 The Hastings Center.
Stanković Ivana; Milačić-Vidojević Ivona
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-esteem, perceived stigma and social comparison of persons with intellectual disabilities. The sample consisted of 100 persons with mild and moderate intellectual disability, aged 18 years and older, of different sexes, with or without stigmatized characteristics, who lived in an institution or in a family. We used questionnaires of Perceived stigma, Adapted Scale of Social Comparison and Adapted Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. ...
Discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act, which bans discrimination against the disabled by private-sector employers. Describes the hiring practices and experiences of several companies that have employed disabled people. (JOW)
ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.
This digest defines learning disabilities, cites their prevalence, describes typical characteristics of learning-disabled students, outlines educational implications of learning disabilities, and lists several printed and organizational resources for further information. (JDD)
Jenaro, Cristina; Flores, Noelia; Cruz, Maribel; Pérez, Ma Carmen; Vega, Vanessa; Torres, Víctor A
The risks and opportunities associated with the use of technologies are of growing research interest. Patterns of technology usage illuminate these opportunities and risks. However, no studies have assessed the usage patterns (frequency, duration, and intensity) and related factors in young people with intellectual disabilities. Questionnaires on Internet and cell phone usage patterns, the Internet Over-Use Scale and the Cell-Phone Over-Use Scale, as well as the Beck Depression Inventory were filled out in one-on-one interviews of 216 youth with intellectual disabilities. Young people with disabilities make more social and recreational rather than educational use of these tools, and show higher rates of excessive use of both technologies than a comparison group of 410 young people without disabilities. Also, their overuse is associated with other unhealthy behaviors. The framework of support needs of people with disabilities should be considered to promote healthy Internet and cell phone use. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baena-Beato, Pedro Ángel; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Artero, Enrique G; Robles-Fuentes, Alejandro; Gatto-Cardia, María Claudia; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel
The physical and psychological factors associated with reduction of disability after aquatic exercise are not well understood. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women; age, 50.60 [9.69] yrs; body mass index, 27.21 [5.20] kg/m²) with chronic low back pain were prospectively recruited. The 8-wk aquatic therapy program was carried out in an indoor pool sized 25 × 6 m, with 140-cm water depth and 30°C (1°C) of water temperature, where patients exercised for 2-5 days a week. Each aquatic exercise session lasted 55-60 mins (10 mins of warm-up, 20-25 mins of aerobic exercise, 15-20 mins of resistance exercise, and 10 mins of cooldown). Demographic information, disability (Oswestry Disability Index), back pain (visual analog scale), quality-of-life (Short Form 36), abdominal muscular endurance (curl-up), handgrip strength, trunk flexion and hamstring length (sit and reach), resting heart rate, and body mass index were outcomes variables. Significant correlations between change in disability and visual analog scale (at rest, flexion, and extension), curl-up and handgrip (r ranged between -0.353 and 0.582, all Ps pain and abdominal muscular endurance were significant predictors of change in disability after therapy.
Nicolielo-Carrilho, Ana Paola; Hage, Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos
to check the use of metacognitive reading strategies in children with learning disabilities and determine whether there is a relationship between their use and text comprehension. the study was conducted on 30 children, aged 8 to 12 years, of both genders, divided into experimental group (EG) - 15 children with learning disabilities; and control group (CG) - 15 children without disability. All children were submitted to the Reading Strategies Scale and Prolec text comprehension subtest. The sample was described in mean, median, minimum and maximum values. Comparative analysis was performed between the groups using the Mann-Whitney test. The degree of correlation between variables was verified by Spearman Correlation Analysis. The significance level was set at 5%. across the total scores of the scale, EG performance was lower in all descriptive measures, with a significant difference compared to CG. The EG achieved a performance close to children without difficulties only in global strategies. The correlation between the use of metacognitive strategies and reading comprehension was positive. children with learning disabilities showed deficits in the use of metacognitive reading strategies when compared to children without learning disabilities. The better the performance in reading strategies, the better textual comprehension was and vice versa, suggesting that metacognitive reading skills contribute to reading comprehension.
Vincent-Onabajo, Grace O; Malgwi, Wasinda S
Attitudes of students of health care professions, such as physiotherapy, toward persons with disability may influence their attitude and practice post-qualification. To examine attitudes toward persons with disability among undergraduate physiotherapy students in Universities in Nigeria. The 30-item Attitudes toward Disabled Persons--Form A (ATDP-A) scale was used to assess the attitudes of penultimate and final year physiotherapy students in 3 Nigerian universities. Overall and item-by-item analyzes of responses to the ATDP-A scale were carried out. Differences in attitude by sex, age, year and university of study were also examined using independent t-test and one-way ANOVA. One hundred and sixty-nine students with a male majority (56.2%) participated in the study. Mean score on the ATDP-A was 94.95 ± 17.50 with more students (60.4%) having a score >90 which depicts positive attitude. Item-by-item analysis of responses to the 30 items on the ATDP-A showed that negative attitudes were preponderant on items relating to the emotional component of the personality of persons with disability. Only age of students and their university of study however resulted in statistically significant differences in attitudes and older students reported better attitudes toward persons with disability. Although the overall attitude of the physiotherapy students was positive, negative stereotypes and discriminatory tendencies were observed in issues relating to the perceived emotional capacity of persons with disabilities. Educational strategies capable of effecting more positive attitudes in physiotherapy students in Nigeria toward persons with disability are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
included analysis of documentation, testing and survey. As the most suitable instruments for this research, I decided to use the test for measuring the IQ and level of mental deterioration of the respondents – WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for the Macedonian population and Demographic questionnaire which determined the basic demographic characteristics of the respondents. With the help of these two instruments, the most important data for achieving the research goals were obtained, which were further processed and gave the end results of this research. Results: The processing of the data from the study showed that a significant proportion of the individuals with mental disorders do not have intellectual disability as a second diagnosis (p=0,0001, however in the population with mental disorders there will be an appearance of intellectual disability in a significantly greater extend in comparison to the general population (p=0,00096. The type of mental disorder has an effect on the appearance of intellectual disability(p=0,015. The gender (p=0,683 and the age (p=0,669 of the individuals with mental disorders are not affecting the appearance and the level of intellectual disability. There is no statically significant connection between the appearance and the level of mental deterioration and intellectual disability in individuals with mental disorders (p=0,921 and its appearance does not depend on the gender (p=0,606 and age (p=0,649 of the individual with a mental disorder. Conclusion: Considering the fact that there are a great number of people in the institutions for individuals with mental disorders, who despite having a mental disorder also have an intellectual disability as a second diagnosis, a lot more research is needed which will be beneficial for the better understanding of the condition and needs of these individuals, thus improving the diagnostics and the treatment, as well as the quality of their life.
Kuvalekar, Kunal; Kamath, Ramachandra; Ashok, Lena; Shetty, Bhartesh; Mayya, Shreemathi; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi
Disability is not just a health problem or attribute of individuals, but it reflects the problems individuals experience in their interaction with society and physical movements. Disabled persons remain neglected part of society and they also experience various barriers due to restriction of participation. The aim was to assess the quality of life (QOL) of physically disabled persons, the impact of physical disability on activities of daily living (ADL) and to study the awareness about laws and facilities available for disabled persons. A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 130 physical disabled persons who were selected using convenience sampling technique. The WHO BREF scale was used to assess QOL, while assessment of ADL was done using Barthel Index. Socio-demographic assessment was done using Udai Pareek scale. SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze data. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. As per guidelines physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain scores for WHO BREF scale were calculated. Among the study participants, 36.2% had a disability from birth that is, congenital. The second common cause of disability was found to be postpolio residual paralysis as it was found among 26.2% respondents. Other causes found were stroke/paralysis and accidents, in 19.2% and 18.5% respondents, respectively. Activities such as transfer, mobility, and stair climbing showed greater impact of physical disability. It was found that 11.5% respondents required help in one of the ADL. QOL score was found to be low under the psychological domain reflecting on negative feelings, bodily image, appearance, spirituality, and self-esteem of respondents. Physical disability had affected social participation as well as marriage of the respondents. However, it was found that very few of them are aware about facilities provided under persons with disability act.
Full Text Available Background: Disability is not just a health problem or attribute of individuals, but it reflects the problems individuals experience in their interaction with society and physical movements. Disabled persons remain neglected part of society and they also experience various barriers due to restriction of participation. Objectives: The aim was to assess the quality of life (QOL of physically disabled persons, the impact of physical disability on activities of daily living (ADL and to study the awareness about laws and facilities available for disabled persons. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 130 physical disabled persons who were selected using convenience sampling technique. The WHO BREF scale was used to assess QOL, while assessment of ADL was done using Barthel Index. Socio-demographic assessment was done using Udai Pareek scale. SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze data. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. As per guidelines physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain scores for WHO BREF scale were calculated. Results: Among the study participants, 36.2% had a disability from birth that is, congenital. The second common cause of disability was found to be postpolio residual paralysis as it was found among 26.2% respondents. Other causes found were stroke/paralysis and accidents, in 19.2% and 18.5% respondents, respectively. Activities such as transfer, mobility, and stair climbing showed greater impact of physical disability. It was found that 11.5% respondents required help in one of the ADL. QOL score was found to be low under the psychological domain reflecting on negative feelings, bodily image, appearance, spirituality, and self-esteem of respondents. Conclusion: Physical disability had affected social participation as well as marriage of the respondents. However, it was found that very few of them are aware about facilities provided under
Sahin, Hatice; Akyol, Asiye D
The aim of this study is to assess the attitudes of students towards disabled people and provide suggestions to make necessary changes in the curricula. Disabled people suffer from rejection, exclusion and discrimination. The undergraduate education of future health professionals should include processes of critical thinking towards and analysis of the disabled. Cross-sectional design was used. All the preclinical medical and nursing students in our institution were included in study. Data were collected using the Turkish Attitudes towards Disabled Person Scale (TATDP) and demographical variables. TATDP Scale was scored according to five-point Likert Scale. Students' mean attitude score is 120.57 (SD 15.24). Subscale mean scores are 53.61 (SD 7.25) for compassion (CP), 50.47 (SDS 7.26) for social value (SV) and 16.49 (SD 2.89) for resource distribution (RD). Whilst nursing students had less contact with the disabled, medical students had a closer contact with them. Medical students acquired more prior knowledge about attitudes towards the disabled. Total attitude scores of female students were above the students' mean attitude score when compared to those of male students. Only if early contact is established with patients and the disabled, practical educational strategies are adopted, and the students are provided with information on attitudes about the disabled, will a social model of disability be introduced into the curriculum. This study results were presented to curriculum planning committees of nursing and medical schools, so that they should use them as needs assessment data in developing a disability awareness curriculum. The curriculum will be implemented in cooperation with not only schools but also other social institutions. For instance, clerkship applications will be accomplished by cooperating with nursing homes and organisations of disabled people.
Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Leck, Joanne; Shen, Winny; Stinson, Jennifer
Many youths with disabilities find it challenging to disclose their medical condition and request workplace accommodations. Our objective was to explore when and how young people with disabilities disclose their condition and request workplace accommodations. We conducted 17 in-depth interviews (11 females, six males) with youth with disabilities aged 15-34 (mean age 26). We analyzed our data using an interpretive, qualitative, and thematic approach. Our results showed the timing of when youth disclosed their disability to their employer depended on disability type and severity, comfort level, type of job, and industry. Youth's strategies and reasons for disclosure included advocating for their needs, being knowledgeable about workplace rights, and accommodation solutions. Facilitators for disclosure included job preparation, self-confidence, and self-advocacy skills, and having an inclusive work environment. Challenges to disability disclosure included the fear of stigma and discrimination, lack of employer's knowledge about disability and accommodations, negative past experiences of disclosing, and not disclosing on your own terms. Our findings highlight that youth encounter several challenges and barriers to disclosing their condition and requesting workplace accommodations. The timing and process for disclosing is complex and further work is needed to help support youth with disclosing their condition. Implications for rehabilitation Clinicians, educators, and employers should emphasize the importance of mentoring and leadership programs to give youth the confidence and self-advocacy skills needed to disclose and ask for accommodations in the workplace. Clinicians should advocate for the inclusion of youth with disabilities in the workforce and educate employers on the importance of doing so. Youth with disabilities need more opportunities for employment training and particularly how to disclose their disability and request workplace accommodations.
Full Text Available Women have suffered from drug abuse for conturies, although formal Treatment assistance for women has been recognized as important only during the past few decades. The nature and underlying reasons for women's drug abuse differ from men’s behavior in many ways. It is finally understood that research on men will not simply translate into effective solutions for women as well. Here deal with the many issues that can arise in working with disabled women suffered from drug abuse because biologically, Culturally, and socially, their experience is different from that of men and other women and key theme For this discourse is that a woman who suffered from drug abuse is first and foremost a woman. Disabled women also have specific issues that must acknowledge and incorporate into the counseling, social work and other experince, so, here review is based on more than 25 years of the collective experience and firsthand knowledge of Monique Cohen and their Counselors at The CASPAR outpatient Clinic in Cambridge, Massachusett (2000 about women with drug abuse and alcoholism. The clinic Provides omprehensive substance abuse treatment to Individuals and Families struggling with either one or multiple addictions.
Mercier, C; Picard, S
The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a team dedicated to homeless persons. (1) To describe the characteristics, history and current situation of these persons; and (2) to report within-group differences as a function of gender and current residential status. The data were collected from files using an anonymous chart summary. Descriptive statistics on the whole sample (n = 68) and inferential statistics on cross-tabulations by gender and residential status were performed. Persons with ID exhibited several related problems. Some of these persons, primarily women, experienced relatively short periods of homelessness and their situations stabilised once they were identified and followed up. Other persons with ID experienced chronic homelessness that appeared to parallel the number and severity of their other problems. When compared with a previous epidemiological study of the homeless in Montreal, the population of homeless persons with ID differed from the overall homeless population in a number of respects. The results suggest prevention and intervention targets. The need for epidemiological research appears particularly clear in light of the fact that below-average intellectual functioning has been identified as a risk factor for homelessness and a predisposing factor for vulnerability among street people. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Wolfe, C V
These cases represent individuals who feel they have a severe impairment and are "disabled." They have been labeled with fibromyalgia. They are truly distressed. Their symptoms, their courses, are more chronic and refractory than those of medically ill patients, and they are high users of medical services, laboratory investigations, and surgical procedures. These patients see multiple providers simultaneously and frequently switch physicians. They are difficult to care for, and they reject psychosocial factors as an influence on their symptoms. Such persons "see themselves as victims worthy of a star appearance on the Oprah Winfrey show. A sense of bitterness emerges...." Shorter, a historian, believes that fibromyalgia is "heaven-sent to doctors as a diagnostic label for pain patients who display an important neurotic component in their illness. Our culture increasingly encourages patients to conceive vague and nonspecific symptoms as evidence of real disease and to seek specialist help for them; and the rising ascendancy of the media and the breakdown of the family encourage patients to acquire the fixed belief that they have a given illness...." Regarding the finding of "disability," this is a social construct, and many authors believe it is society and the judicial system who must decide who can work. To remain objective, the physician should report the objective clinical information. Physicians need not and should not sit in judgment of the veracity of another human being.
Garcia Alonso, Isabel; De La Fuente Anuncibay, Raquel; Fernandez Hawrylak, Maria
As there is a dearth of Spanish-language standardized scales that assess adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), the authors adapted one of the most widely used and studied scales of adaptive behavior in the U.S., the ABS-S:2 (Adaptive Behavior Scale-School, 2nd Edition), and validated it for use in…
Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela
Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system…
Taylor, Steven J.
As a topic of study, disability is not new at institutions of higher education. Psychological and intellectual disabilities have been of interest in psychiatry and psychology at least since the late 1800s and early 1900s. The post-World War II era, in particular, witnessed the rapid expansion of academic programs in special education, vocational…
ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; van de Laar, Mart A F J
Gout-related disability is an underestimated and understudied problem. More qualitative and quantitative studies are needed that examine the concept of disability in gout and its impact on patients’ lives, both during and between disease flares. Moreover, future studies should try to identify
DeFries, J. C.; And Others
Results obtained from the center's six research projects are reviewed, including research on psychometric assessment of twins with reading disabilities, reading and language processes, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and executive functions, linkage analysis and physical mapping, computer-based remediation of reading disabilities, and…
Contributes to the social theorization of physical access for people with disabilities by critically exploring how Ulrich Beck's "reflexive modernisation" thesis might be applied to the geographical understanding of disability. Demonstrates how Beck's theoretical framework can be used to enrich people's understanding of the genesis and mediation…
San Martín, Alvaro; Pagani, Mario Rafael
Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent. However, investigations in animal models suggest that learning disability can be functional in nature and as such reversible through pharmacology or appropriate learning paradigms. A fraction of the cases of intellectual disability is caused by point mutations or deletions in genes that encode for proteins of the RAS/MAP kinase signaling pathway known as RASopathies. Here we examined the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this group of genetic disorders focusing in studies which provide evidence that intellectual disability is potentially treatable and curable. The evidence presented supports the idea that with the appropriate understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved, intellectual disability could be treated pharmacologically and perhaps through specific mechanistic-based teaching strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nishio, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Ueki, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matsuura, Kenshin; Tamura, Osamu; Uehara, Ryosuke; Shioiri, Toshiki
While it has been reported that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in homeless people than in the national population, few studies have investigated the prevalence of intellectual and developmental disability among the homeless. In this study, we conducted a survey to comprehensively assess these mental problems among homeless people in Nagoya, Japan. The subjects were 18 homeless men. Mental illness was diagnosed with semi-structured interviews conducted by psychiatrists. We used the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III to diagnose intellectual disability. Discrepancies between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III subtest scores were used as criteria for developmental disability. Eleven of the 18 participants were diagnosed with mental illness: six with mood disorder, two with psychotic disorder, and six with alcohol problems. The mean IQ of all subjects was 83.4 ± 27.4. The 95% confidence interval (CI) was 96.2-69.1. Seven participants were found to have intellectual disability. Three men showed discrepancies of more than 10 between subtest scores, and all of them were diagnosed with a mental illness. We divided the participants into four groups: those with mental illness only; those with intellectual disability only; those with both problems; and those without diagnosis. The men with intellectual disability only were significantly younger and had been homeless since a younger age than the other groups. Participants diagnosed with a mental illness had been homeless for longer than those without mental health problems. Although the sample size was limited, this study revealed the high prevalence of mental illness and intellectual disability, 61% (95%CI, 35-83%) and 39% (95%CI, 17-64%), respectively, in homeless people in Nagoya, Japan. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Social Security Administration — DICARS is the legacy system supporting business processes in the Disability Quality Branches (DQBs). It supports quality reviews of DDS disability determinations....
Huang, Shih-Wei; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Escorpizo, Reuben; Chi, Wen-Chou; Yen, Chia-Feng; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chang, Feng-Hang; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Lin, Jia-Wei; Liou, Tsan-Hon
To analyse the disability status of elderly Taiwanese dementia patients by using the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). We enrolled 12 126 disabled elderly (>65 years) patients with dementia during July 2012-January 2014 from the Taiwan Data Bank of Persons with Disability. Trained interviewers evaluated the standardised scores in the six WHODAS 2.0 domains. Student's t test was used for comparing WHODAS 2.0 scores of male and female dementia patients with different age groups. The study population comprised 12 126 patients; 7612 were women and 4514 were men. The WHODAS 2.0 scores showed that the dementia patients had global activity limitation and participation restriction in all domains. Dementia-induced disability was prominent in male patients in all of the domains of the WHODAS 2.0. The domains of life activities, getting along with people and cognition were more strongly affected than the other domains. However, women experienced more rapid functional decline than men did as they aged. The data analysed in this large-scale, population-based study revealed crucial information on dementia-induced disability in elderly patients on the basis of the WHODAS 2.0 framework. Implications for rehabilitation Dementia patients have global functional disability in all domains of WHODAS 2.0 and multidisciplinary team is needed for rehabilitation programme intervention for these patients. When considering the rehabilitation resource and strategy, the domains of cognition, activities of daily living and life activities should be focussed. When dementia patients aged 65-75 years old, male patients got more restriction of function than female and more medical resource allocation for disabled male patients is recommended. With ageing, female dementia patients exhibited more rapid functional decline than male patients did and more budget about rehabilitation for maintain functional and dementia progression is crucial for female patients.
Gad, Christopher; Dalsgaard, Steffen
and we examine parts of the historical background for the production of authority in the context of managing disability as exception during polling. In doing so we point out that as the organization of electoral processes evolves, new potentialities for infra-critique also emerge.......This article investigates how disability can work analytically as a ‘critique from within’. Our case is the accommodation of citizens with disabilities during the voting process in Denmark. Here disability makes explicit how Danish democracy is produced as disability rubs up against implicit...... this offers. We analyze an incident at a polling booth during the 2013 Danish Municipal election. This renders visible some of the complex socio-material processes through which citizens and the Danish state co-enact and co-authorize one another. We highlight how ‘detachments’ are vital to such processes...
Riddle, Christopher A
Recent discussions surrounding the conceptualising of disability has resulted in a stalemate between British sociologists and philosophers. The stagnation of theorizing that has occurred threatens not only academic pursuits and the advancement of theoretical interpretations within the Disability Studies community, but also how we educate and advocate politically, legally, and socially. More pointedly, many activists and theorists in the UK appear to believe the British social model is the only effective means of understanding and advocating on behalf of people with disabilities. This model, largely reliant upon materialist research traditions, contends that disability is a form of social oppression and hence, is a phenomenon that should be conceptualised in social terms. Individual properties such as impairments are disregarded as they are viewed to be unimportant in the analysis of the social causes of disability. Concurrently, many bioethicists and philosophers have embraced what Tom Shakespeare has classified as an 'Interactional Approach' to disability--that "the experience of a disabled person results from the relationship between factors intrinsic to the individual, and the extrinsic factors arising from the wider context in which she finds herself". I intend to demonstrate that the benefits of the British social model are now outweighed by its burdens. I suggest, as Jerome Bickenbach has, that while it may be somewhat churlish to critique the social model in light of its political success, taken literally, it implies that people with disabilities require no additional health resources by virtue of their impairments. Despite the eloquent arguments that have preceded me by interactional theorists, none have been accepted as evidence of fallacious reasoning by British social model theorists. This article is an attempt to clarify why it is that the types of arguments British social model theorists have been offering are misguided. I suggest that the British
Lauridsen, Henrik Hein
Background and purpose: It is likely that the most common method for calculating a Roland Morris Disability Index (RMDQ) sum score is to simply ignore any unanswered questions. In contrast, the raw sum score on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is converted to a 0-100 scale, with the advantage...... of unanswered RMDQ questions was measured in a research and a routine care setting. The accuracy of the RMDQ proportional recalculation method was measured using 311 fully completed RMDQ and matching ODI questionnaire sets. Raw sum scores were calculated, and questions systematically dropped. At each stage, sum...
Bartys, Serena; Frederiksen, Pernille; Bendix, Tom
Work disability due to low back pain is a significant global health concern. Current policy and practice aimed at tackling this problem is largely informed by the biopsychosocial model. Resultant interventions have demonstrated some small-scale success, but they have not created a widespread...... and disability benefits), healthcare and family systems (spouse/partner/close others) can act as obstacles to work participation for those with low back pain. Systematic searches of several scientific and grey literature sources were conducted, resulting in 1762 records. Following a systematic exclusion process...
Kent, Peter; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein
Study Design: Analysis of Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and Oswestry Disability Index (Oswestry) responses.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of unanswered questions on the RMDQ23 (23-item RMDQ version) and Oswestry questionnaires. To determine if managing RMDQ23 missing data...... fully completed RMDQ23 and matching Oswestry questionnaire sets. Raw sum scores were calculated, and questions systematically dropped. At each stage, sum scores were converted to a score on a 0-100 scale and the error calculated. Wilcoxon Tests were used to compare the magnitude of the error scores...
Devkota, Hridaya Raj; Murray, Emily; Kett, Maria; Groce, Nora
Women with disabilities are less likely to receive maternal healthcare services compared to women without disabilities. While few studies have reviewed healthcare experience of women with disabilities, no studies have been conducted to understand provider's attitude towards disability in Nepal, yet the attitude and behaviour of healthcare providers may have a significant influence on aspects of care and the use of service by women with disabilities. This study examines healthcare provider's attitudes towards disability and explores the experience of women with disabilities in maternal healthcare service utilization during pregnancy and childbirth. The study used mixed method approach. An attitude survey was conducted among 396 healthcare providers currently working in public health facilities in Rupandehi district of Nepal. For additional insight, eighteen in-depth interviews with women with disabilities who used maternal healthcare services in a healthcare facility within the study district in their last pregnancy were undertaken. The Attitude Towards Disabled Persons (ATDP) scale score was used to measure the attitudes of healthcare providers. For quantitative data, univariate and multivariate analysis using ANOVA was used to understand the association between outcome and independent variables and qualitative analysis generated and described themes. Mean ATDP score among healthcare providers (78.52; SD = 14.75), was low compared to the normative score of 100 or higher. Nurses/auxiliary nurse midwives obtained the highest mean score (85.59, SD = 13.45), followed by general clinical health workers (Mean score = 82.64, SD 15.10). The lowest score was obtained by Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHV) (Score = 73.75, SD = 13.40) (P women with disabilities. The mean score difference between those who received disability training and who did not was also found statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). This may reflect the small number of individuals
Full Text Available Neurological disorders with a prolonged course, either remediable or otherwise are being seen increasingly in clinical practice and many such patients are young and are part of some organization or other wherein their services are needed if they were healthy and fit. The neurologists who are on the panel of these organizations are asked to certify whether these subjects are fit to work or how long they should be given leave. These certificates may be produced in the court of law and may be subjected to verification by another neurologist or a medical board. At present there are no standard guidelines in our country to effect such certification unlike in orthopedic specialty or in ophthalmology. The following is a beginning, based on which the neurologist can certify the neurological disability of such subjects and convey the same meaning to all neurologists across the country.
This article contributes to research examining the work situations of employees with disabilities. This is performed by demonstrating how able-bodied norms affect the work lives of employees with cerebral palsy in Danish work organizations. Thus, this article investigates how able-bodied managers...... and employees talk about their co-workers with cerebral palsy and examines the narratives of diversity among able-bodied managers and employees when they discuss the work situation of their colleagues with cerebral palsy. The empirical point of departure is six weeks of participant observations in two work...... organizations along with interviews conducted in 13 work organizations with 19 managers and 43 colleagues who work with an employee with cerebral palsy on a daily basis. The article finds two dominating narratives regarding diversity that have to do with being either ‘different but the same’ or ‘just different...
Full Text Available Parenthood in persons with intellectual disability (ID is an issue of concern for the family, guardians, and professionals as there are many sentiments and problems involved: financial, technical, medical, legal, and above all moral. People with intellectual, developmental, or other disabilities have feelings, want relationships, and are able to have children also. The attitude of society has changed through time from the early eugenic concern with heredity and fertility, to a focus on the risk to the children due to parental neglect or abuse, to acceptance and a search for solutions to parental training and support. This change can be seen as a result of a shift from institutional care to community care and normalization. This paper reviews available research, prevalence, service issues, experience from around the world, and relates to the situation in Israel. Jewish Law has been very progressive regarding the possibility of marriage between persons with ID (in contrast to American Law where historically this right has been denied, until recently. Recent research has shown that, in the case of such a union resulting in children, although they require some supervision, family, friends, and social welfare agencies have scrutinized these families so much they are in constant fear of their child being taken away. There is little information on the number of such cases and an overall dearth of information on the effects on the children, although one recent study from the U.K. has shown a varied picture of resilience and a close, warm relationship later on with the family and especially the mother.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision to grant a disability pension is usually the end of a long process of medical examinations, treatment and rehabilitation attempts. This study investigates to what extent the time spent on rehabilitation time prior to disability pension is associated with characteristics of the individual or the local employment and welfare office, measured as municipality variance. Methods A study of 2,533 40 to 42 year olds who received disability pension over a period of 18 years. The logarithm of the rehabilitation time before granting a disability pension was analysed with multilevel regression. Results The rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted ranged from 30 to 5,508 days. Baseline health characteristics were only moderately associated with rehabilitation time. Younger people and people with unemployment periods had longer rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted. There were only minor differences in rehabilitation time between men and women and between different levels of education. Approximately 2% of the total variance in rehabilitation time could be attributed to the municipality of residence. Conclusions There is a higher threshold for granting a disability pension to younger persons and those who are expecting periods of unemployment, which is reflected in the extended rehabilitation requirements for these groups. The longer rehabilitation period for persons with psychiatric disorders might reflect a lack of common knowledge on the working capacity of and the fitted rehabilitation programs for people with psychiatric disorders.
Støver, Morten; Pape, Kristine; Johnsen, Roar; Fleten, Nils; Sund, Erik R; Claussen, Bjørgulf; Ose, Solveig Osborg; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon
The decision to grant a disability pension is usually the end of a long process of medical examinations, treatment and rehabilitation attempts. This study investigates to what extent the time spent on rehabilitation time prior to disability pension is associated with characteristics of the individual or the local employment and welfare office, measured as municipality variance. A study of 2,533 40 to 42 year olds who received disability pension over a period of 18 years. The logarithm of the rehabilitation time before granting a disability pension was analysed with multilevel regression. The rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted ranged from 30 to 5,508 days. Baseline health characteristics were only moderately associated with rehabilitation time. Younger people and people with unemployment periods had longer rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted. There were only minor differences in rehabilitation time between men and women and between different levels of education. Approximately 2% of the total variance in rehabilitation time could be attributed to the municipality of residence. There is a higher threshold for granting a disability pension to younger persons and those who are expecting periods of unemployment, which is reflected in the extended rehabilitation requirements for these groups. The longer rehabilitation period for persons with psychiatric disorders might reflect a lack of common knowledge on the working capacity of and the fitted rehabilitation programs for people with psychiatric disorders.
Elliott, D.; Patla, A.; Bullimore, M.
AIMS—To determine the improvements in clinical and functional vision and perceived visual disability after first and second eye cataract surgery. METHODS—Clinical vision (monocular and binocular high and low contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and disability glare), functional vision (face identity and expression recognition, reading speed, word acuity, and mobility orientation), and perceived visual disability (Activities of Daily Vision Scale) were measured in 25 subjects before a...
Naidoo, P; Sewpaul, R; Nyembezi, A; Reddy, P; Louw, K; Desai, R; Stein, D J
The association between psychosocial factors and disability is less clear. This study investigated the biological and psychosocial (employment and psychological distress) factors associated with level of disability in an adult sample in South Africa. Data were analysed from a cross-sectional survey among adults aged 18-64 (n = 4974). Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the associations of the selected variables with disability. The mean percentage score on the WHODAS scale of disability was 5.31% (95% CI: 4.74-5.88). Age (p disability, and history of stroke (β = 7.19, 95% CI: 3.19-11.20) and heart-related conditions (β = 2.08, 95% CI: [0.23-3.93) showed positive associations. Of the psychosocial variables, psychological distress (β = 10.49 [8.63-12.35]) showed a strong positive association while employment (-1.62 [-2.36 to -0.88]) showed a negative association with disability. The association between demographic factors, medical conditions and increased disability confirms the findings in the literature. The finding that psychological distress is associated with increased disability has not been frequently reported. This study highlights specific psychosocial targets that may be usefully addressed by health policies and interventions in order to improve disability management.
The economic growth in Asia Pacific brings with it challenges and opportunities in many areas of work and health. As economies grow and work demands increase so do accidents, injures and work disability. Burns, chemical exposures, and construction related injuries are often catastrophic in severity and lead to work disability, major acute medical and subsequent rehabilitation efforts. In addition to these acute injuries, musculoskeletal and chronic illnesses are also sources of work disability. Industrial injuries and health problems are often explained and managed based on the classic unidimensional hazard prevention model. In contrast, work disability is a multi-factorial problem and requires more complex conceptualizations than an exposure outcome model. The economic impact of disability, limitations of the widely used impairment based disability determination method, lack of adherence to wide scale implementation of evidence based clinical approaches, the need for meaningful stakeholder involvement and the potential of a multivariable view of work disability, in all aspects of work disability prevention, management and policy are discussed in the context of Asia Pacific economic growth. With ideal alignment of diverse goals and incentives along with consideration of past efforts in disability prevention and management, new models, processes and policies can be created as commerce in these countries continues to grow.
Inequality, discrimination and transformation remain the key challenges which ... disabilities through the enactment of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998. ... their constitutional rights to equality, freedom and human dignity, and further, that it ...
jurisprudence of the United States of America as well as to guidelines provided ... gender discrimination, but also disability discrimination especially, in the workplace, ..... Montalti and Bellengère "Is a right to affirmative action the solution to the.
Christine O'Rourke - Lang
Full Text Available This issue of Global Education Review examines the global context of disability and how in different geographic locations, socioeconomic factors, domestic policy, and disability perspectives impact access to special education services, and the types of resources and interventions available to individuals with diverse learning needs. Practices in countries including India, Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Liberia, and Kenya were studied and implications for meeting the special education needs for children and adults with disabilities and their families are discussed
Cohen, Jeffrey A; Reingold, Stephen C; Polman, Chris H
Many of the available disability outcome measures used in clinical trials of multiple sclerosis are insensitive to change over time, inadequately validated, or insensitive to patient-perceived health status or quality of life. Increasing focus on therapies that slow or reverse disability...... recommend practical refinements. Conversely, although substantial data support the multiple sclerosis functional composite as an alternative measure, changes to its component tests and scoring method are needed. Novel approaches, including the use of composite endpoints, patient-reported outcomes...... progression makes it essential to refine existing measures or to develop new tools. Major changes to the expanded disability status scale should be avoided to prevent the loss of acceptance by regulators as a measure for primary outcomes in trials that provide substantial evidence of effectiveness. Rather, we...
The disability rights movement grounds material critiques of the treatment of people with disabilities in a social constructionist perspective, locating disability in the social rather than physical realm, and demedicalizing the concept of disability. However, this conceptualization is threatened by the medicalization of non-normative erections as…
Background: The term "intellectual disability" is increasingly used to refer to people with learning disabilities in British learning disability policy, practice and research. This change is undoubtedly a reflection of the changing international context. The inclusion of the term "intellectual disability" has been particularly…
textabstractThe main aim of this thesis is to investigate the clinical significance of headache-related disability; the clinical importance of assessing disability, the means of recognising the patients with severe disability and the development of new ways to assess headache-related disability
Gerschick, Thomas J.
Presents a theory of the connections between disabilities and gender, arguing that because bodies are so central to gender, people with disabilities are vulnerable to being denied gender recognition. Though both sexes experience devaluation and discrimination when disabled, being disabled further diminishes women's already devalued status. For…
Olkin, Rhoda; Pledger, Constance
Although the field of disabilities studies incorporates psychology within its interdisciplinary purview, it embodies a distinct perspective consonant with the new paradigm of disability. Although psychology has begun embracing diversity, disability remains marginalized. Examines the foundational ideas of disability studies, training in disability…
Kavaliunas, Andrius; Wiberg, Michael; Tinghög, Petter; Glaser, Anna; Gyllensten, Hanna; Alexanderson, Kristina; Hillert, Jan
Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients earn lower incomes and receive higher benefits. However, there is limited knowledge of how this is correlated with their disability. To elucidate sources and levels of income among MS patients with different disability, assessed with the Expanded Disability Status Scale. A total of 7929 MS patients aged 21-64 years and living in Sweden in 2010 were identified for this cross-sectional study. Descriptive statistics, logistic and truncated linear regression models were used to estimate differences between MS patients regarding earnings, disability pension, sickness absence, disability allowance, unemployment compensation, and social assistance. The average level of earnings was ten times lower and the average level of health- related benefits was four times higher when comparing MS patients with severe and mild disability. MS patients with severe disability had on average SEK 166,931 less annual income from earnings and SEK 54,534 more income from benefits compared to those with mild disability. The combined average income for MS patients was 35% lower when comparing patients in the same groups. The adjusted risk ratio for having earnings among MS patients with severe disability compared to the patients with mild disability was 0.33 (95% CI 0.29-0.39), while the risk ratio for having benefits was 1.93 (95% CI 1.90-1.94). Disease progression affects the financial situation of MS patients considerably. Correlations between higher disability and patient income were observed, suggesting that earnings and benefits could be used as measures of MS progression and proxies of disability.
Full Text Available The unprecedented number of elderly individuals in China presents a serious public health challenge. Limited data are available on the prevalence of disability or factors resulting in disability among the elderly in China.We aimed to assess the prevalence of disability and related risk factors among the elderly of Xiamen, China.A cross-sectional study was performed on individuals who were ≥60 years of age. The subjects were recruited by multi-stage sampling; a total of 14,292 valid questionnaires were received. Study measurements included activities of daily living (ADL, demographics, and health status. The ADL was assessed by the Katz Index Scale to evaluate disability. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with disabilities.Among the valid participants, 4.27% had at least one disability. Bathing was the most frequently reported disability and feeding was the least frequently reported disability. Disabilities were significantly associated with female gender, older age, unmarried status, living with family, urban residence, illiteracy, poor economic status, self-rated bad health, chronic illnesses, lower life satisfaction, bad mood, and feelings of loneliness.Functional disability among the elderly requires more public attention. Culturally appropriate policies and programs are also needed to address the care for the disabled elderly.
Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per
at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP), Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients' past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social...... situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms...
Jabeen, T.; Kazmi, S. F.; Rehman, A. U.; Ahmed, S.
Background: It is believed that the study of personality has the potentials to enhance our prognostic abilities and can better to expose the etiology of mental illness through the relationship of revealed mechanisms. The focus of this study was to investigate and compare the habitual patterns of behavior, thought and emotions of upper and lower limb physically disabled students in terms of personality traits. Methods: This cross sectional study consisted of 100 upper limbs and lower limbs disabled students taken from Kingston school Inclusive Education System Abottabad, Mashal special education system Haripur, Syed Ahmed Shaheed special education center Abottabad, Al-Munir Foundation Mansehra and Hera Special Education System Haripur and 100 normal students taken from Islamic International School Abottabad, Falcon Public School Haripur, Iqra Academy Mansehra and Alhamd International School Haripur of Hazara Division by purposive sampling technique. This study was conducted during the month of June 2013 to May 2014. Goldberg five big personality scale was used for measuring personality traits of physically disabled and normal students. Results: The significant difference of personality traits scores between physically disabled students (M = 139.2, SD=12.0) and normal students (M=184.5, SD=13.2), t (198) =25.3, p<.05 was observed. Conclusion: Normal students have high scores as compared to physically disabled students on big five traits, i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience. (author)
Goudie, Anthony; Havercamp, Susan; Jamieson, Barry; Sahr, Timothy
The purpose of this study was to empirically test if siblings of children with disability had higher levels of parent-reported behavioral and emotional functional impairment compared with a peer group of siblings residing with only typically developing children. This was a retrospective secondary analysis of data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We included only households with at least 2 children to ensure sibling relationships. Two groups of siblings were formed: 245 siblings resided in households with a child with disability and 6564 siblings resided in households with typically developing children. Parents responded to questions from the Columbia Impairment Scale to identify functional impairment in their children. On the basis of parent reports and after adjusting for sibling demographic characteristics and household background, siblings of children with disability were more likely than siblings residing with typically developing children to have problems with interpersonal relationships, psychopathological functioning, functioning at school, and use of leisure time (P siblings of children with disability classified with significant functional impairment was 16.0% at the first measurement period and 24.2% at the second (P siblings of typically developing children there was a smaller percentage increase from 9.5% to 10.3% (P mental health services and, as such, early assessment and interventions to limit increasing severity and short- to long-term consequences need to be addressed. Health care professionals need to consider a family-based health care approach for families raising children with disability.
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Jagoda, Sue; Cremer, Bob
Summarizes proceedings and student experiences at the 1980 Science Career Workshop for Physically Disabled Students at the Lawrence Hall of Science (University of California). Includes a description of the key-note speaker's topics, and other workshop activities. (DS)
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Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel-Angel
This article summarizes the five major characteristics of the transformation era and describes how intellectual and closely related developmental disabilities organizations can apply specific transformation strategies associated with each characteristic. Collectively, the characteristics and strategies provide a framework for transformation…
Frick, Marty; And Others
Includes "Reviewing Commitment to Individuals with Disabilities" (Frick); "Modifying Laboratory Equipment" (Silletto); "Equine Facilitated Therapy" (Hoover et al.); "Horticultural Therapy" (Rees, Iverson); "How Accessible Is Your Agriculture Program? (Delks, Sillery); "Agricultural Education for…
... provides the most current information on research, practice, theory, issues, and trends to broaden understanding and improve ... These services make LDA the leading resource for information on learning disabilities. Learn more about: Auditory Processing ... Processing Disorder ...
Jukes, Mark; Aspinall, Susan-Louise
Leadership is seen as critical for the transformation of learning disability services and has been further emphasised since the publication of Transforming Care, the Department of Health's response to the review of events at Winterbourne View. What is clear within learning disability nursing and services is the demand for leadership in the quest for improving the quality and effectiveness of services across health and social care. This article discusses the challenges for the undergraduate learning disability nurse with the recommendation to pursue a framework that promotes and focuses on integrating knowledge transfer into services for people with a learning disability. It explores practice change using the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework, and the example of the involvement of service users in practitioner training on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and consent and capacity to consent for treatment.
... complica- tions of NF1 include: • Learning disabilities: Although intelligence is usually within the normal range, 50-60% ... and the ability to access meaning from the printed word. 5 Recent ﬁndings suggest that a high ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background What currently appears to be irreversible axonal loss in normal appearing white matter, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is of great interest in the study of Multiple Sclerosis. Our aim is to determine the axonal damage in normal appearing white matter measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and to correlate this with the functional disability measured by Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite scale, Neurological Rating Scale, Ambulation Index scale, and Expanded Disability Scale Score. Methods Thirty one patients (9 male and 22 female with relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis and a Kurtzke Expanded Disability Scale Score of 0–5.5 were recruited from four hospitals in Andalusia, Spain and included in the study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans and neurological disability assessments were performed the same day. Results A statistically significant correlation was found (r = -0.38 p Conclusions There is correlation between disability (measured by Expanded Disability Scale Score and the NAA/Cr ratio in normal appearing white matter. The lack of correlation between the NAA/Cr ratio and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite score indicates that the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite is not able to measure irreversible disability and would be more useful as a marker in stages where axonal damage is not a predominant factor.
Sexuality is one of the many phenomena which are least openly discussed particularly in the African culture. Sexuality is conceived variously in different cultures and disability is seen as a threat to sexuality in many of the cultures. Meanwhile, sexuality is regarded as a central theme in the development of self-esteem and self-identity since it has been conceived within the bodily perfection and bodily beauty complexes. Thus, the way sexuality is conceived for people with disabilities form...
John k. McNamara
This paper presents a prevention model for supporting children with learning disabilities. The model holds that children can be identified as at-risk for learning disabilities by identifying and supporting potential academic failure early in their elementary years. A prevention model includes two elements, identification and instruction. Identification entails recognizing those children at-risk for poor achievement in the early primary grades. The second component of the model is to...
Cypaite, Asta; Šerkšnien, Justina; Rudžioniene, Jurgita
Disabled students who makes relatively small part of the academic society are in risk to disappear among all other students, due to their communication and mobility difficulties have less possibilities to satisfy their needs, ensuring their rights to qualitative studies, equal opportunities in the labor market and social integration. A topic about information accessibility for disabled students is extremely important because of their information exclusion in their study process at the un...
Rodriguez, Raymond J.; Cavendish, Wendy
The role of gender and ethnicity as moderators of the relationship between perceived family environments and levels of self-determination was examined in a sample of students with disabilities. A sample of 157 Latino and Anglo students with disabilities completed the "Family Environment Scale" and the "Arc Self-Determination…
Martin, Lynn; Hirdes, John P.; Fries, Brant E.; Smith, Trevor F.
This paper describes the development of the interRAI-Intellectual Disability (interRAI ID), a comprehensive instrument that assesses all key domains of interest to service providers relative to a person with an intellectual disability (ID). The authors report on the reliability and validity of embedded scales for cognition, self-care, aggression,…
Carter, Erik W.; Boehm, Thomas L.; Biggs, Elizabeth E.; Annandale, Naomi H.; Taylor, Courtney E.; Loock, Aimee K.; Liu, Rosemary Y.
Can young people with intellectual and developmental disabilities be known for their strengths? This mixed-method study explored the strengths of 427 youth and young adults with intellectual disability and/or autism (ages 13-21) from the vantage point of their parents. Using the Assessment Scale for Positive Character Traits-Developmental…
Hirano, Kara A.; Shanley, Lina; Garbacz, S. Andrew; Rowe, Dawn A.; Lindstrom, Lauren; Leve, Leslie D.
Parent involvement is a predictor of postsecondary education and employment outcomes, but rigorous measures of parent involvement for youth with disabilities are lacking. Hirano, Garbacz, Shanley, and Rowe adapted scales based on Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler model of parent involvement for use with parents of youth with disabilities aged 14 to 23.…
Mapping health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) score, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) onto the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility score with the KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data.
Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dam; Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Min-Young; Song, Hyun Jin; Park, Sun-Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hwajeong; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Park, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Kyung
The aim of this study was to estimate the mapping model for EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility values using the health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) in a large, nationwide cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Korea. The KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data on 3557 patients with RA were used. Data were randomly divided into a modeling set (80 % of the data) and a validation set (20 % of the data). The ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and two-part model methods were employed to construct a model to map to the EQ-5D index. Using a combination of HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28, four model versions were examined. To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the models, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated using the validation dataset. A model that included HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 produced the highest adjusted R (2) as well as the lowest Akaike information criterion, RMSE, and MAE, regardless of the statistical methods used in modeling set. The mapping equation of the OLS method is given as EQ-5D = 0.95-0.21 × HAQ-DI-0.24 × pain VAS/100-0.01 × DAS28 (adjusted R (2) = 57.6 %, RMSE = 0.1654 and MAE = 0.1222). Also in the validation set, the RMSE and MAE were shown to be the smallest. The model with HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 showed the best performance, and this mapping model enabled the estimation of an EQ-5D value for RA patients in whom utility values have not been measured.
Ammitzbøll, Cecilie; Dyrby, Tim Bjørn; Lyksborg, Mark
Background: Progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by diffuse changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which complicates the use of MRI as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. The relationship between MRI measures (conventional and non-conventional) and clinical disability...... in progressive MS therefore warrants further investigation. Objective: To investigate the relationship between clinical disability and MRI measures in patients with progressive MS. Methods: Data from 93 primary and secondary progressive MS patients who had participated in 3 phase 2 clinical trials were included...... matter. Disability was assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the MS functional composite. Results: T2 lesion volume was associated with impairment by all clinical measures. MD and MTR in T2 lesions were significantly related to disability, and lower FA values correlated with worse...
... seeks to: (1) Improve the quality and utility of disability and rehabilitation research; (2) determine...; (3) identify research gaps; (4) identify mechanisms of integrating research and practice; and (5... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-- Disability...
Näslund, Rebecka; Qais Al Said, Shariffa Khalid
This article examines how a group of students with visual disabilities speak about becoming disabled and living with disability in relation to: material entities, practices, and their own expectations regarding the future in the Sultanate of Oman. It draws upon individual interviews among six adults with visual disabilities. The article outlines, from a material semiotics approach, how various forms of modes of ordering enact disability. An interdisciplinary approach, informed by disability s...
Bogart, Kathleen R
Current theories of adaptation to disability do not address differences in adaptation to congenital or acquired disability. Although people with congenital disabilities are generally assumed to be better adapted than people with acquired disabilities, few studies have tested this, and even fewer have attempted to explain the mechanisms behind these differences. This study tested the proposition that whether a disability is congenital or acquired plays an important role in the development of the disability self-concept (consisting of disability identity and disability self-efficacy), which in turn, affects satisfaction with life. It was predicted that disability self-concept would be better developed among people with congenital, compared with acquired disabilities, predicting greater satisfaction with life in those with acquired conditions. 226 participants with congenital and acquired mobility disabilities completed a cross-sectional online questionnaire measuring satisfaction with life, self-esteem, disability identity, disability self-efficacy, and demographic information. Self-esteem, disability identity, disability self-efficacy, and income were significant predictors of satisfaction with life. Congenital onset predicted higher satisfaction with life; disability identity and disability self-efficacy, but not self-esteem, partially mediated the relationship. Findings highlight the distinction between adaptation to congenital versus acquired disability and the importance of disability self-concept, which are underresearched constructs. Results suggest that rather than attempting to "normalize" individuals with disabilities, health care professionals should foster their disability self-concept. Possible ways to improve disability self-concept are discussed, such as involvement in the disability community and disability pride. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
The concept of disability from an ethical viewpoint was examined. Whether disability results from the way society is built and the way ideas and judgments considering disability are established in a communal interaction was discussed (i.e., is disability socially created and constructed?). Although views on disability emphasizing its social nature are basically sound, they are also insufficient because they fail to consider the normative dimension attached to the concept of disability. The core of the concept of disability is ethical, which is why a moral philosophical examination of the concept is needed. Three possible ethical theories of disability (universal, objective, subjectivist, and communitarian) are briefly presented and discussed and a preliminary outline of a basis for a sound ethical model of disability presented.
Klug Marilyn G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. Learning disabilities are frequently comorbid with TS. Using the largest sample of TS patients ever reported, we sought to identify differences between subjects with TS only and subjects with TS and a comorbid learning disability. Methods We used the Tourette Syndrome International Consortium database (TIC to compare subjects with comorbid Tourette Syndrome and learning disabilities (TS + LD to subjects who did not have a comorbid learning disability (TS - LD. The TIC database contained 5,500 subjects. We had usable data on 5,450 subjects. Results We found 1,235 subjects with TS + LD. Significant differences between the TS + LD group and the TS - LD group were found for gender (.001, age onset (.030, age first seen (.001, age at diagnosis (.001, prenatal problems (.001, sibling or other family member with tics (.024, two or more affected family members (.009, and severe tics (.046. We used logistic modeling to identify the optimal prediction model of group membership. This resulted in a five variable model with the epidemiologic performance characteristics of accuracy 65.2% (model correctly classified 4,406 of 5,450 subjects, sensitivity 66.1%, and specificity 62.2%. Conclusion Subjects with TS have high prevalence rates of comorbid learning disabilities. We identified phenotype differences between the TS - LD group compared to TS + LD group. In the evaluation of subjects with TS, the presence of a learning disability should always be a consideration. ADHD may be an important comorbid condition in the diagnosis of LD or may also be a potential confounder. Further research on etiology, course and response to intervention for subjects with TS only and TS with learning disabilities is needed.
Vaz, Sharmila; Wilson, Nathan; Falkmer, Marita; Sim, Angela; Scott, Melissa; Cordier, Reinie; Falkmer, Torbjörn
Teachers' attitudes toward inclusion are often based on the practical implementation of inclusive education rather than a specific ideology and understanding of inclusiveness. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with primary school teachers' attitudes towards inclusion of students with all disabilities in regular schools. Seventy four primary school teachers participated in a cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Australia. Teachers' attitudes and efficacy toward integration of students with disabilities were measured using the Opinions Relative to Integration of Students with Disabilities scale and Bandura's Teacher Efficacy scale respectively. Four teacher attributes-age, gender, teaching self-efficacy and training collectively explained 42% of the variability in teachers' attitude toward including students with disabilities. The current study further contributes to the accumulation of knowledge that can unpack the complex pattern of factors that should be considered to promote positive attitudes towards inclusive schools.
Full Text Available Teachers' attitudes toward inclusion are often based on the practical implementation of inclusive education rather than a specific ideology and understanding of inclusiveness. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with primary school teachers' attitudes towards inclusion of students with all disabilities in regular schools.Seventy four primary school teachers participated in a cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Australia. Teachers' attitudes and efficacy toward integration of students with disabilities were measured using the Opinions Relative to Integration of Students with Disabilities scale and Bandura's Teacher Efficacy scale respectively.Four teacher attributes-age, gender, teaching self-efficacy and training collectively explained 42% of the variability in teachers' attitude toward including students with disabilities.The current study further contributes to the accumulation of knowledge that can unpack the complex pattern of factors that should be considered to promote positive attitudes towards inclusive schools.
Vaz, Sharmila; Wilson, Nathan; Falkmer, Marita; Sim, Angela; Scott, Melissa; Cordier, Reinie; Falkmer, Torbjörn
Objective Teachers' attitudes toward inclusion are often based on the practical implementation of inclusive education rather than a specific ideology and understanding of inclusiveness. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with primary school teachers' attitudes towards inclusion of students with all disabilities in regular schools. Method Seventy four primary school teachers participated in a cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Australia. Teachers' attitudes and efficacy toward integration of students with disabilities were measured using the Opinions Relative to Integration of Students with Disabilities scale and Bandura's Teacher Efficacy scale respectively. Results Four teacher attributes—age, gender, teaching self-efficacy and training collectively explained 42% of the variability in teachers' attitude toward including students with disabilities. Conclusion The current study further contributes to the accumulation of knowledge that can unpack the complex pattern of factors that should be considered to promote positive attitudes towards inclusive schools. PMID:26317862
Kovacs, F M; Seco, J; Royuela, A; Betegon, J N; Sánchez-Herráez, S; Meli, M; Martínez Rodríguez, M E; Núñez, M; Álvarez-Galovich, L; Moyá, J; Sánchez, C; Luna, S; Borrego, P; Moix, J; Rodríguez-Pérez, V; Torres-Unda, J; Burgos-Alonso, N; Gago-Fernández, I; González-Rubio, Y; Abraira, V
The objective of this study was to estimate the association between sleep quality (SQ) and improvements in low back pain (LBP) and disability, among patients treated for LBP in routine practice. This prospective cohort study included 461 subacute and chronic LBP patients treated in 11 specialized centres, 14 primary care centres and eight physical therapy practices across 12 Spanish regions. LBP, leg pain, disability, catastrophizing, depression and SQ were assessed through validated questionnaires upon recruitment and 3 months later. Logistic regression models were developed to assess: (1) the association between the baseline score for SQ and improvements in LBP and disability at 3 months, and (2) the association between improvement in SQ and improvements in LBP and disability during the follow-up period. Seventy-three per cent of patients were subacute. Median scores at baseline were four points for both pain and disability, as assessed with a visual analog scale and the Roland-Morris Questionnaire, respectively. Regression models showed (OR [95% CI]) that baseline SQ was not associated with improvements in LBP (0.99 [0.94; 1.06]) or in disability (0.99 [0.93; 1.05]), although associations existed between 'improvement in SQ' and 'improvement in LBP' (4.34 [2.21; 8.51]), and 'improvement in SQ' and 'improvement in disability' (4.60 [2.29; 9.27]). Improvement in SQ is associated with improvements in LBP and in disability at 3-month follow-up, suggesting that they may reflect or be influenced by common factors. However, baseline SQ does not predict improvements in pain or disability. In clinical practice, sleep quality, low back pain and disability are associated. However, sleep quality at baseline does not predict improvement in pain and disability. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.
Tabachnick, Barbara Gerson
Scatter on the revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (WISC-R) was evaluated for 105 learning disabled (LD) children. Scatter was defined as range of scaled scores on: (1) five regular verbal tests; (2) five regular performance tests; and (3) all 10 regular subtests. Pairwise combinations of 11 subtests were also evaluated for deviations…
Vermeer, Adri; Lijnse, Margot; Lindhout, Marleen
The results of a study examining the psychometric quality of a pictorial scale to measure perceived physical competence, perceived cognitive competence and perceived social acceptance by peers and caregivers in individuals with intellectual disabilities are reported. The scale was administered twice to 100 subjects. The stability of the scale…
Inglis, James; Lawson, J. S.
Investigated nature of a learning disability index (LDI) for the objective assessment of verbal-nonverbal patterns of intellectual deficit on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised using Factor II score coefficients derived from an unrotated principal components analysis of normative data, and average scaled scores. The…
Background: This was a quantitative study to measure the prevalence low self-esteem in an intellectually disabled forensic population. The dependent variables used were the adapted six-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the adapted Evaluative Beliefs Scale. It had a repeated measures design with independent variables including consideration of…
Schreuer, N; Sachs, D; Rosenblum, S
The aim of the current study was to compare varied dimensions of participation in leisure activities among school-aged children ages 10-16 with and without disabilities. The Children Leisure Activity Scale (CLASS) was administrated to 294 children, 81 with and 213 without physical disability. Two-way MANCOVA revealed significant differences between the frequency of participation in leisure activities of the study groups: an effect of disability F(4,265=239.57; pleisure participation. In addition, the research further established the discriminate validity of the CLASS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Overview This thesis reviewed forensic aspects of Intellectual Disabilities (ID) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Chapter two was a case study where an individual with ID and ASD who exhibited forensic/Challenging Behaviour (CB) was assessed and intervention offered. Chapter three then focussed on the assessment of people with ID and ASD by critiquing the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), version 3 and 4 (WAIS-III & WAIS-IV) (Wechsler, 1997; Wechsler, 2008a, 2008b, 2008c) and ...
Søndenaa, E; Rasmussen, K; Palmstierna, T; Nøttestad, J
The objective of the study was to calculate the prevalence of inmates with intellectual disabilities (ID), and identify historical, medical and criminological characteristics of a certain impact. A random sample of 143 inmates from a Norwegian prison cross sectional sample was studied. The Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI) was validated with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). The prevalence of inmates with ID, IQ intellectual handicap, are mostly absent in the Norwegian criminal justice system.
Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G.; Bavin, Edith L.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl
Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Inte...
Negin H. Goodrich
Full Text Available Exploring major requisites to establish an Iranian disability studies, the aim of this study is to determine how a local literature of disability can be formed in Iran, as well as how the Iranian and global disability studies might interchange disability knowledge. In an analysis of the responses to a qualitative questionnaire, three themes emerged: rudimentary resources, disability literature, and political prerequisites. Accordingly, human and financial resources, a bank of Farsi and English literature on disability, as well as developing academic relations between Iranian and international disability scholars (as an outcome of improving the Iran-USA political affairs are essential to form a local disability studies in Iran and to engage it in the global discussions of disability studies. Keywords: disability, global disability studies, Iran
Muh Khoironi Fadli
Full Text Available Background:Intellectual disability is disorder of intellectual function that is significantly below averagewith various deficits in adaptive function, such as taking care of oneself or occupational activities thatemerge before the age of 18 years old. One characteristic of intellectuallydisabled children in adaptivefunction is social maturity disorder. Children with intellectual disability haveproblem in social maturityandlimitation in fulfilling needs in daily activities.Objective:To identify correlation between social maturity and self-reliance of children with intellectualdisability.Methods:The study was non experimental. It used cross sectional design and quantitative approach.Samples were taken throughproportionate stratified random samplingtechnique. Research instrumentused to assess social maturity was Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS and self-reliance wasFunctional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM. Subject of the study were children withintellectual disability in SLB Bakti Siwithat met inclusion and exclusion criteria as many as 61children.The study usednon parametricSpearman’s Rank Correlationtestat significancep<0.05.Result:Social maturity was high in 9 children (14.8%, medium in 23 children (37.7%, and low in 29children (47.9%. Self-reliance of children with intellectual disability showed average score (mean105.36with deviation standard15.43and range56-126.Score of correlation between social maturity andself-reliance of children with intellectual disability inSLB Bakti Siwishowedpvalue 0.000 (p<0.05.Conclusion: There was significant correlation between social maturity and sel-reliance of children withintellectual disability in SLB Bakti Siwi with score of correlation in strong category.
Siedliecki, Sandra L; Good, Marion
This paper reports a study testing the effect of music on power, pain, depression and disability, and comparing the effects of researcher-provided music (standard music) with subject-preferred music (patterning music). Chronic non-malignant pain is characterized by pain that persists in spite of traditional interventions. Previous studies have found music to be effective in decreasing pain and anxiety related to postoperative, procedural and cancer pain. However, the effect of music on power, pain, depression, and disability in working age adults with chronic non-malignant pain has not been investigated. A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out with a convenience sample of 60 African American and Caucasian people aged 21-65 years with chronic non-malignant pain. They were randomly assigned to a standard music group (n = 22), patterning music group (n = 18) or control group (n = 20). Pain was measured with the McGill Pain Questionnaire short form; depression was measured with the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression scale; disability was measured with the Pain Disability Index; and power was measured with the Power as Knowing Participation in Change Tool (version II). The music groups had more power and less pain, depression and disability than the control group, but there were no statistically significant differences between the two music interventions. The model predicting both a direct and indirect effect for music was supported. Nurses can teach patients how to use music to enhance the effects of analgesics, decrease pain, depression and disability, and promote feelings of power.
Maataoui, Adel; Vogl, Thomas J; Middendorp, Marcus; Kafchitsas, Konstantinos; Khan, M Fawad
To investigate the correlation of facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) at lumbar levels L4/L5 and L5/S1 and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The study involved lumbar MRIs of 591 patients with a mean age of 47.3 years. The MRIs of the lumbar spine were performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner (Magnetom(®) Avanto, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) using a dedicated receive only spine coil. After initial blinding, each dataset was evaluated by 2 board certified radiologist with more than 5 years experience in musculoskeletal imaging. In total 2364 facet joints were graded. Degenerative changes of the facet joints were evaluated according to the 4-point scale as proposed by Weishaupt et al Functional status was assessed using the ODI. The index is scored from 0 to 100 and interpreted as follows: 0%-20%, minimal disability; 20%-40%, moderate disability; 40%-60%, severe disability; 60%-80%, crippled; 80%-100%, patients are bedbound. Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation was used for statistical analysis, with significance set at P disability had a minimum of 0% and a maximum of 91.11% with an arithmetic mean of 32.77% ± 17.02%. The majority of patients (48.39%) had moderate functional disability (21%-40%). There was no significant correlation between FJOA and ODI on both sides of lumbar level L4/5 and on the left side of lumbar level L5/S1. A weak positive correlation was evaluated between ODI and FJOA on the right side of lumbar level L5/S1. The missing correlation of FJOA and ODI confirms our clinical experience that imaging alone is an insufficient approach explaining low back pain. Clinical correlation is imperative for an adequate diagnostic advance in patients with low back pain.
Nishio, Akihiro; Horita, Ryo; Sado, Tadahiro; Mizutani, Seiko; Watanabe, Takahiro; Uehara, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Mayumi
Many studies have reported that the prevalence of mental illness and cognitive disability is higher among homeless individuals compared to the general population, and the rates of mental illness among the homeless population have recently increased. This study: (i) compares causes of homelessness or barriers to escaping homelessness for people with/without mental illness/cognitive disability; (ii) reveals problems with the Japanese homeless policy; and (iii) proposes an effective and necessary support system. The participants were 114 homeless individuals. A psychiatric diagnostic interview and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, version III were used to measure participants' mental health and cognitive abilities. A questionnaire was administered comprising 17 items related to the causes of their homelessness and barriers to escaping from it. Participants were divided into four groups - with/without mental illness or cognitive disability - and Fisher's exact test was used to compare the questionnaire results. Individuals with cognitive disabilities considered bad relationships with their family members to be the cause of their homelessness. Conversely, normal individuals considered their homelessness to be the result of debt more so than did individuals with mental problems. Individuals with mental illness had more difficulties escaping homelessness than did either normal individuals or individuals with cognitive disability. This tendency was observed most strongly among individuals with both mental illness and cognitive disability. Most homeless individuals considered economic problems to be the cause of their homelessness; however, difficulties with human relationships were also important factors and were more difficult for participants to acknowledge. Furthermore, these difficulties were exacerbated among those individuals with mental problems. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Background It has been estimated that 9.4% of women giving birth in the United Kingdom have one or more limiting longstanding illness which may cause disability, affecting pregnancy, birth and early parenting. No large scale studies on a nationally representative population have been carried out on the maternity experiences of disabled women to our knowledge. Method Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 by English National Health Service Trusts on behalf of the Care Quality Commission was undertaken. 144 trusts in England took part in the postal survey. Women self-identified with disability and were excluded if less than 16 years of age or if their baby had died. The 12 page structured questionnaire with sections on antenatal, labour and birth and postnatal care covered access, information, communication and choice. Descriptive and adjusted analyses compared disabled and non-disabled groups. Comparisons were made separately for five disability subgroups: physical disability, sensory impairment, mental health conditions, learning disability and women with more than one type of disability. Results Disabled women comprised 6.14% (1,482) of the total sample (24,155) and appeared to use maternity services more than non-disabled women. Most were positive about their care and reported sufficient access and involvement, but were less likely to breastfeed. The experience of women with different types of disability varied: physically disabled women used antenatal and postnatal services more, but had less choice about labour and birth; the experience of those with a sensory impairment differed little from the non-disabled women, but they were more likely to have met staff before labour; women with mental health disabilities also used services more, but were more critical of communication and support; women with a learning disability and those with multiple disabilities were least likely to report a positive experience of maternity care. Conclusion This
Hoberg, Astrid A; Ponto, Julie; Nelson, Pamela J; Frye, Mark A
To evaluate the feasibility of 2-week interpersonal and social rhythm therapy group (IPSRT-G) for bipolar depression. Participants with bipolar depression received two individual sessions, six IPSRT-G sessions, and a 12-week telephone call. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician Rated (IDS-C), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Version (CGI-BP) were used. IDS-C and SDS scores improved significantly at 12 weeks. YMRS and CGI-BP scores improved but did not reach statistical significance. The promising antidepressive response supports further study of IPSRT-G for bipolar depression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Scalfari, Antonio; Neuhaus, Anneke; Degenhardt, Alexandra; Rice, George P; Muraro, Paolo A; Daumer, Martin; Ebers, George C
The relationship of relapses to long-term disability in multiple sclerosis is uncertain. Relapse reduction is a common therapeutic target but clinical trials have shown dissociation between relapse suppression and disability accumulation. We investigated relationships between relapses and disability progression for outcomes of requiring assistance to walk, being bedridden and dying from multiple sclerosis [Disability Status Scale 6, 8, 10] by analysing 28 000 patient-years of evolution in 806-bout onset patients from the London Ontario natural history cohort. Having previously shown no effect of relapse frequency among progressive multiple sclerosis subtypes, here we examined these measures in the pre-progressive or relapsing-remitting phase. Survival was compared among groups stratified by (i) early relapses--number of attacks during the first 2 years of multiple sclerosis; (ii) length of first inter-attack interval; (iii) interval between onset and Disability Status Scale 3 (moderate disability); (iv) number of attacks from the third year of disease up to onset of progression; and (v) during the entire relapsing-remitting phase. Early clinical features can predict hard disability outcomes. Frequent relapses in the first 2 years and shorter first inter-attack intervals predicted shorter times to reach hard disability endpoints. Attack frequencies, in the first 2 years, of 1 versus >or=3, gave differences of 7.6, 12.8 and 20.3 years in times from disease onset to Disability Status Scale 6, 8 and 10, respectively. Time to Disability Status Scale 3 highly and independently predicted time to Disability Status Scale 6, 8 and 10. In contrast, neither total number of relapsing-remitting phase attacks nor of relapses experienced during the relapsing-remitting phase after the second year up to onset of progression showed a deleterious effect on times from disease onset, from progression onset and from Disability Status Scale 3 to these hard endpoints. The failure of a
Nieto, Rubén; Miró, Jordi; Huguet, Anna
Cross-sectional study. To analyze the psychometric properties of the neck disability index (NDI), with a special emphasis in its factor structure, and its usefulness, in a sample of patients suffering from a subacute whiplash problem. A valid and reliable instrument to assess pain-related disability would be of great help to clinicians and researchers interested in whiplash associated disorders. First, to better understand the impact of whiplash on the patient's life, and his or her progress over time. Second, to formulate comprehensive treatment plans, and evaluate the results from therapeutic actions. Finally, to follow-up patients' changes and improvement. The NDI could be an appropriate instrument for these purposes. A convenience sample of 150 subacute whiplash patients participated. They were requested to complete the Catalan version of the NDI, and report about their pain intensity, pain interference and depression. RESULTS.: An exploratory factor analysis showed that the NDI can be viewed as a 2-factor instrument. The items and the instrument's total score were normally distributed. Internal consistency was also appropriate both for the total score (Cronbach's alpha: 0.87) and the 2 subscales (0.7 for the pain and interference with cognitive functioning scale, and 0.83 for the physical functioning scale). Total NDI and subscales scores significantly correlated with pain intensity, pain interference, and depression. The NDI showed excellent psychometric properties in a sample of subacute whiplash patients. Additional research is needed to replicate the NDIs factor structure.
Banihani, Rudaina; Baskin, Berivan; Halliday, William; Kobayashi, Jeff; Kawamura, Anne; McAdam, Laura; Ray, Peter N; Yoon, Grace
Severe intellectual disability has been reported in a subgroup of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy but is not typically associated with Becker muscular dystrophy. The authors report a 13-year-old boy, with severe intellectual disability (Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-IV, Full Scale IQ A mutation in DMD. Dystrophinopathy may be associated with predominantly cognitive impairment and neurobehavioral disorder, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained cognitive or psychiatric disturbance in males.
Roush, Susan E; Sharby, Nancy
The purposes of this perspective article are: (1) to explore models of disability from the perspective of the academic discipline of disability studies (DS), (2) to consider the paradox of improving functional capacities while valuing disability as diversity, (3) to identify how physical therapy's use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) disablement model intersects with various disability models, and (4) to apply this broader understanding of disability to physical therapist practice, education, and research. The DS literature has been critical of rehabilitation professionals, particularly targeting the medical model of disability. In contrast, advocates for a social model of disability recognize disability as diversity. It is paradoxical for physical therapy to simultaneously work to ameliorate disability while celebrating it as diversity. The ICF biopsychosocial disablement model offers a mechanism to practice within this paradox and suggests that it is no longer sufficient to conceptualize disability as a purely individual matter that requires attention in isolation from the impact of the larger society.
Wylde, Vikki; Hewlett, Sarah; Learmonth, Ian D; Cavendish, Victoria J
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability. Numerous tools are available to assess this, but they fail to place a patient value upon disability. In rheumatoid arthritis, research has shown patients have different importance values for similar disabilities, and these individual values can be used to weight disability levels, creating a measure of personal impact. Firstly, to determine if the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) can be used as the basis for an importance value scale by assessing if it includes activities considered important by OA patients. Secondly, to determine if the weights used for the value scale should be based on population, healthcare professional or patient values. Twenty-five OA patients, 25 healthy controls and 25 healthcare professionals rated the importance of the items on the HAQ and shortened Modified HAQ (MHAQ). Prior to completing the HAQ, patients generated a list of activities that were important to them. The HAQ contained 69% of items that patients considered important. No items were consistently deemed unimportant by patients. There was low agreement within and between groups about the importance of the items on the HAQ and MHAQ. The HAQ is a suitable basis for a value scale for an OA disability impact score. Importance values for function differed for patients, healthcare professionals and the general population; therefore individual patient weightings need to be used. Further work is under way to validate a measure of the personal impact of disability in patients with lower limb OA. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Mood disorders cause many social problems, often involving family relationships. Few studies are available in the literature comparing patients with bipolar, unipolar, dysthymic, and double depressive disorders concerning these aspects. In the present study, demographic and disease data were collected using a specifically prepared questionnaire. Social adjustment was assessed using the Disability Adjustment Scale and family relationships were evaluated using the Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale. One hundred patients under treatment for at least 6 months were evaluated at the Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic of the Botucatu School of Medicine, UNESP. Most patients were women (82% more than 50 (49% years old with at least two years of follow-up, with little schooling (62% had less than 4 years, and of low socioeconomic level. Logistic regression analysis showed that a diagnosis of unipolar disorder (P = 0.003, OR = 0.075, CI = 0.014-0.403 and dysthymia (P = 0.001, OR = 0.040, CI = 0.006-0.275 as well as family relationships (P = 0.002, OR = 0.953, CI = 0914-0.992 played a significant role in social adjustment. Unipolar and dysthymic patients presented better social adjustment than bipolar and double depressive patients (P < 0.001, results that were not due to social class. These patients, treated at a teaching hospital, may represent the severest mood disorder cases. Evaluations were made knowing the diagnosis of the patients, which might also have influenced some of the results. Social disabilities among mood disorder patients are very frequent and intensive.
Painter, J; Trevithick, L; Hastings, R P; Ingham, B; Roy, A
In meeting the needs of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) who access health services, a brief, holistic assessment of need is useful. This study outlines the development and testing of the Learning Disabilities Needs Assessment Tool (LDNAT), a tool intended for this purpose. An existing mental health (MH) tool was extended by a multidisciplinary group of ID practitioners. Additional scales were drafted to capture needs across six ID treatment domains that the group identified. LDNAT ratings were analysed for the following: item redundancy, relevance, construct validity and internal consistency (n = 1692); test-retest reliability (n = 27); and concurrent validity (n = 160). All LDNAT scales were deemed clinically relevant with little redundancy apparent. Principal component analysis indicated three components (developmental needs, challenging behaviour, MH and well-being). Internal consistency was good (Cronbach alpha 0.80). Individual item test-retest reliability was substantial-near perfect for 20 scales and slight-fair for three scales. Overall reliability was near perfect (intra-class correlation = 0.91). There were significant associations with five of six condition-specific measures, i.e. the Waisman Activities of Daily Living Scale (general ability/disability), Threshold Assessment Grid (risk), Behaviour Problems Inventory for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities-Short Form (challenging behaviour) Social Communication Questionnaire (autism) and a bespoke physical health questionnaire. Additionally, the statistically significant correlations between these tools and the LDNAT components made sense clinically. There were no statistically significant correlations with the Psychiatric Assessment Schedules for Adults with Developmental Disabilities (a measure of MH symptoms in people with ID). The LDNAT had clinically utility when rating the needs of people with ID prior to condition-specific assessment(s). Analyses of internal
... Disabled Under the Statutory Definition? Under the Act, we have full power and authority to make rules and.... Sections 205(a), 702(a)(5), and 1631(d)(1). In addition, we have the power to promulgate regulations that... How we evaluate symptoms, including pain. * * * * * (b) * * * In cases decided by a State agency...
Rioux, Marcia H., Ed.; Bach, Michael, Ed.
This book is the product of a forum titled New Research Directions and Paradigms, held at the Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency in Australia in August 1992. The book presents 13 chapters, all written within a critical paradigm for disability research which critiques the reification of…
Poggesi, A.; Gouw, A.; van der Flier, W.M.; Pracucci, G.; Chabriat, H.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Fazekas, F.; Ferro, J.M.; Blahak, C.; Langhorne, P.; O'Brien, J.; Schmidt, R.; Visser, M.C.; Wahlund, L.O.; Waldemar, G.; Wallin, A.; Scheltens, P.; Inzitari, D.; Pantoni, L.
To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed
Kulow, Marianne DelPo
Disability employment discrimination is often treated summarily in legal environment courses. This is actually a topic with significant practical application in the workplace since managers are often those who are confronted with accommodation requests. It is therefore desirable to include a class with hands-on exercises for students to begin to…
Wood, Tara; Dolmage, Jay; Price, Margaret; Lewiecki-Wilson, Cynthia
The authors' perception, as specialists at the intersection of disability studies and composition studies, is that disability has arrived--in the sense that it is now on most peoples' radar. Most have come to think of it as "Disability 2.0": the state where acceptance of disabled students and teachers as belonging in our…
Haydon-Laurelut, Mark Andrew
Knowledge about disabled people has and continues to be dominated by the medical and allied professions and inevitably this provides only one story of disabled life: a story of a problem seeking solutions (Grue, 2015). The rehabilitative professions write most of what is read and written about disability. As a family therapist I wondered how family therapy might be constructing disability? If, as Michalko (2012) has noted, medicine finds a home in all kinds of places to what extent has it mad...
Alison Elizabeth Germaine
Full Text Available This article explores disability and depression, especially as they relate to masculinity and power, within Thor comics. Societal interpretations of disability are also discussed in terms of comics' ability to both challenge and reinforce these interpretations; further, aspects of comics design are investigated within the symbolic realm of disability and depression, illustrating the portrayal of disability and depression via characteristics such as color, panels, and facial expressions.
Disability Insurance (DI) is a public program that provides income support to persons unable to continue work due to disability. The difficulty of defining disability, however, has raised the possibility that this program may be subsidizing the early retirement of workers who are not truly disabled. A critical input for assessing the optimal size of the DI program is therefore the elasticity of labor force participation with respect to benefits generosity. Unfortunately, this parameter has be...
Pooja Manghirmalani; Darshana More; Kavita Jain
The endeavor of this work is to support the special education community in their quest to be with the mainstream. The initial segment of the paper gives an exhaustive study of the different mechanisms of diagnosing learning disability. After diagnosis of learning disability the further classification of learning disability that is dyslexia, dysgraphia or dyscalculia are fuzzy. Hence the paper proposes a model based on Fuzzy Expert System which enables the classification of learning disability...
Picavet, Valerie A; Gabriëls, Loes; Grietens, Jente; Jorissen, Mark; Prokopakis, Emmanuel P; Hellings, Peter W
In patients seeking aesthetic rhinoplasty, a high prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms has recently been reported. However, the impact of these symptoms on the outcomes after rhinoplasty remains elusive. This large-scale study determines the influence of preoperative body dysmorphic disorder symptoms on patients' postoperative satisfaction and quality of life, using validated questionnaires. A 1-year prospective study of 166 adult patients undergoing cosmetic rhinoplasty in a tertiary referral center was performed. Severity of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms was assessed by the modified Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Postoperative satisfaction was evaluated using a visual analog scale for patients' appraisal of nasal shape and the Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation. Generic quality of life was quantified by the Sheehan Disability Scale, whereas the appearance-related disruption of everyday life was measured by the Derriford Appearance Scale-59. Preoperative body dysmorphic disorder symptom scores inversely correlated with postoperative satisfaction at 3 months (visual analog scale nasal shape: rho = -0.43, p dysmorphic disorder symptom scores positively correlated with Sheehan Disability Scale scores and Derriford Appearance Scale-59 scores at 3 months (rho = 0.43, p dysmorphic disorder symptoms on subjective outcomes after rhinoplasty, hence unveiling a crucial factor in patient dissatisfaction after aesthetic rhinoplasty.
Full Text Available Pragmatic competence means the use of language in social context. Persons with intellectual disability experience numerous problems in this aspect of communication, but they are relatively pragmatically skilled in well-known situations, in which they are not subjected to significant cognitive and social requirements. The aim of this paper is to determine the level of pragmatic abilities of children and youth with mild intellectual disability and to perceive its relation to chronological age, speech comprehension, speech production, the level of intellectual functioning, gender and bilingualism of the participants. The level of pragmatic competence was tested in the sample of 120 children with mild intellectual disability, aged between 8 and 16, by using the Test of pragmatic language competence. The Clinical scales of Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological battery for children were also used. The results obtained in this research suggest that general level of achievement of children with mild intellectual disability in this domain of development is far below the expectations based on their chronological age. Significant progress appears between 12 and 14 years of age, but there are also two critical periods in their development. Important relations of pragmatic skills with speech comprehension, speech production, chronological age and intellectual level were established.
Marchand, Alain; Haines, Victor Y; Harvey, Steve; Dextras-Gauthier, Julie; Durand, Pierre
This study examines the associations between health and stress management (HSM) practices and mental-health disability claims. Data from the Salveo study was collected during 2009-2012 within 60 workplaces nested in 37 companies located in Canada (Quebec) and insured by a large insurance company. In each company, 1 h interviews were conducted with human resources managers in order to obtain data on 63 HSM practices. Companies and workplaces were sorted into the low-claims and high-claims groups according to the median rate of the population of the insurer's corporate clients. Logistic regression adjusted for design effect and multidimensional scaling was used to analyse the data. After controlling for company size and economic sector, task design, demands control, gratifications, physical activity and work-family balance were associated with low mental-health disability claims rates. Further analyses revealed three company profiles that were qualified as laissez-faire, integrated and partially integrated approaches to HSM. Of the three, the integrated profile was associated with low mental-health disability claims rates. The results of this study provide evidence-based guidance for a better control of mental-health disability claims. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jabeen, Tahira; Kazmi, Syeda Farhana; Rehman, Atiq Ur; Ahmed, Sajjad
It is believed that the study of personality has the potentials to enhance our prognostic abilities and can better to expose the etiology of mental illness through the relationship of revealed mechanisms. The focus of this study was to investigate and compare the habitual patterns of behavior, thought and emotions of upper and lower limb physically disabled students in terms of personality traits. This cross sectional study consisted of 100 upper limbs and lower limbs disabled students taken from Kingston school Inclusive Education System Abottabad, Mashal special education system Haripur, Syed Ahmed Shaheed special education center Abottabad, Al-Munir Foundation Mansehra and Hera Special Education System Haripur and 100 normal students taken from Islamic International School Abottabad, Falcon Public School Haripur, Iqra Academy Mansehra and Alhamd International School Haripur of Hazara Division by purposive sampling technique. This study was conducted during the month of June 2013 to May 2014. Goldberg five big personality scale was used for measuring personality traits of physically disabled and normal students. The significant difference of personality traits scores between physically disabled students (M = 139.2, SD=12.0) and normal students (M=184.5, SD=13.2), t (198) =25.3, ptraits, i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience.
Jenni, Oskar G; Fintelmann, Sylvia; Caflisch, Jon; Latal, Beatrice; Rousson, Valentin; Chaouch, Aziz
Longitudinal studies that have examined cognitive performance in children with intellectual disability more than twice over the course of their development are scarce. We assessed population and individual stability of cognitive performance in a clinical sample of children with borderline to mild non-syndromic intellectual disability. Thirty-six children (28 males, eight females; age range 3-19y) with borderline to mild intellectual disability (Full-scale IQ [FSIQ] 50-85) of unknown origin were examined in a retrospective clinical case series using linear mixed models including at least three assessments with standardized intelligence tests. Average cognitive performance remained remarkably stable over time (high population stability, drop of only 0.38 IQ points per year, standard error=0.39, p=0.325) whereas individual stability was at best moderate (intraclass correlation of 0.58), indicating that about 60% of the residual variation in FSIQ scores can be attributed to between-child variability. Neither sex nor socio-economic status had a statistically significant impact on FSIQ. Although intellectual disability during childhood is a relatively stable phenomenon, individual stability of IQ is only moderate, likely to be caused by test-to-test reliability (e.g. level of child's cooperation, motivation, and attention). Therefore, clinical decisions and predictions should not rely on single IQ assessments, but should also consider adaptive functioning and previous developmental history. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.
Proponents of a social model of disability derive their arguments from social constructionism. They combine different disabling conditions under one term: disability. Subsequently, they apply the specific viewpoint of the disability rights social movement of people with physical disabilities to other conditions such as intellectual disabilities,…
Walker, Michael J.
The Disabled Veterans Outreach Program (DVOP) administered by the Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration arranges training and placement for disabled veterans in local job service offices. These employees then assist in placing other disabled veterans on jobs. Some typical DVOP success stories are described. (MF)
Discussions of disability should be within a clearly-defined moral framework if the disabled person's rights are to be translated into society's duty to the disabled. An ethical system based on modern versions of utilitarianism is suggested as a moral framework, supplemented by prescriptions based on social justice and respect. (Author/CB)
Presser, Harriet B.; Altman, Barbara
More than one-fifth of employed persons with disabilities work late or rotating shifts, about the same as nondisabled workers. Day workers with disabilities receive lower hourly wages than nondisabled workers. Except for men, nonday workers with disabilities receive wages similar to their nondisabled counterparts. (Contains 27 references.)…
Livneh, Hanoch; Antonak, Richard F.
Used cross-sectional design to collect data on phases of adaptation to disability as measured by the Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory among 112 inpatients and 92 outpatients at rehabilitation facilities. Results generally support the existence of a psychosocial adaptation process to physical disability. Incongruities between the…
Presents an account of the discourse of disability in the "Reader's Digest" during its first 30 years (1922-1952). Concludes that the construction of disability in the "Digest" raises important questions that should enter the field of disability studies. (PM)
Rhodes, Penny; Nocon, Andrew; Small, Neil; Wright, John
Through examining the case of people with epilepsy (which, as we demonstrate, has an ambiguous status in relation to both popular and academic conceptions of disability) we explore the fluid, negotiable and contingent nature of identity and, in particular, the identification as "disabled". Disability, we argue, cannot be reduced to either biology…
Kolbe, Sherry L.
The 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments offered a welcome shield for disabled students who found themselves unfairly disciplined within their school placements. Highlights the disagreements that continue over the bill's interpretation, and the fight by advocates for the disabled to limit unreasonable suspensions and…
Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat
This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…
Draper, William R.; Reid, Christine A.; McMahon, Brian T.
This article documents the employment discrimination experienced by Americans "regarded as" disabled (but not medically verified as such), using the Integrated Mission System of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). Claimants who were perceived as disabled, as contrasted with those with documented disabilities, were more likely…
Ciot, Melania-Gabriela; Van Hove, Geert
There is a wide range of media representations of disability, but not just because of the societal stigma. They are a function of norms of journalism as well as biases among people with disabilities themselves. This article is a contribution to the issue of social representation of persons with disabilities from a Romanian perspective, which will…
State Employees Governor's Council on Disabilities and Special Education DHSS State of Alaska Home ; Governor's Council on Disabilities and Special Education Page Content Untitled Document Patrick Reinhart : follow GCDSE to 40404 The Governor's Council on Disabilities & Special Education is pleased to award
Zavala, Jesus; Mims, Joan
The study compared 10 learning disabled and 10 non-learning disabled limited English proficient Mexican American elementary grade children. Six tests were identified as predicting learning disabilities including the Prueba de Lectura y Lenguaje Escrito and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. (Author/DB)
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability benefits. 192.52 Section 192.52... Disability or Death § 192.52 Disability benefits. (a) Principals who qualify for benefits under § 192.1 and... benefits may not be received from both OWCP and the local organizational authority for the same claim...
Pierce, Patricia A.
Reports the findings of Lou Harris and Associates (1987) on what employers are doing to employ people with disabilities and what their experiences with disabled employees have been. Presents strategies that provide a model for addressing the needs of the disabled population and provide them with opportunities. (JS)
Sullivan, Patricia M.
The focus of this paper is children with disabilities exposed to a broad range of violence types including child maltreatment, domestic violence, community violence, and war and terrorism. Because disability research must be interpreted on the basis of the definitional paradigm employed, definitions of disability status and current prevalence…
Li, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying
Due to rapid population aging and a tidal wave of dementia, dementia has become an urgent public health issue in China. Few large-scale surveys on dementia have been conducted in China and little was known about the magnitude of dysfunction and disability caused by dementia. In this study, using national sample survey data, we aimed to describe the prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability, its associated factors, and daily activities and social functions of people with dementia-associated disability in Chinese older adults. We used the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, comprising 2,526,145 persons from 771,797 households. Identification for dementia was based on consensus manuals. Standard weighting procedures were used to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Population weighted numbers, weighted prevalence, and the odd ratios (ORs) were calculated. The prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability was 4.64% (95% CI: 4.26-5.01) and it accounted for 41.03% of mental disability among Chinese older adults. Urban residence (OR: 1.33 [1.12-1.57]), older age (80+ years) (OR: 4.12 [3.38-.03]), illiteracy (OR: 1.79 [1.27-2.53]), and currently not married (OR: 1.15 [1.00-1.32]) were associated with increased risk of dementia-associated disability. Compared with those with mental disability of other causes and those with other types of disabilities, older adults with dementia-asscoiated disability were more likely to have severe or extreme difficulty in daily activities and social functions. Countermeasures are warranted to obtain a more precise overview of dementia in China, and strategies on enhancing early identification, treatment, and rehabilitation should be developed for people with dementia. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Handrakis, John P; Friel, Karen; Hoeffner, Frank; Akinkunle, Ola; Genova, Vito; Isakov, Edward; Mathew, Jerrill; Vitulli, Frank
To identify which factors commonly associated with low back pain (LBP) and disability differ between college-aged persons with LBP and with no or minimal LBP. Clinical measurement, observational study. Subjects were assessed for LBP with the visual analog scale (VAS) and for disability from LBP using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Subjects were measured for variables commonly associated with LBP and were grouped by both VAS (minimum [min]/no pain, pain) and ODI (no disability, disability) scores. College campus at a university. A convenience sample (N=84) of English-speaking students (34 men, 50 women) between 18 and 30 years of age. Not applicable. Sports activity (sports activity score of the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire), depression, hamstring and hip flexor range of motion, low back extensor endurance, abdominal strength and endurance. A significant main effect of group was found for both pain (P=.019) and disability groups (P=.006). The min/no pain and pain groups differed in back endurance (114.2±38.8s vs 94.5±44.5s, respectively; P=.04). The no disability and disability groups differed in back endurance (116.3±35.9s vs 97.1±45.7s, respectively; P=.03) and the sports activity score of the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire (2.98±.95 vs 2.48±.85, respectively; P=.01). Subjects with hyperkyphotic postures compared with the normative thoracic group had higher depression scores (49 vs 38.5, respectively; P=.03) and less hamstring flexibility (30.5 vs 49.9, respectively; PBack extensor endurance was consistently different between both the pain and disability groups. Addressing limited low back extensor endurance and low levels of physical activity in young adults may have clinical relevance for the prevention and treatment of LBP and disability. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kritsotakis, George; Galanis, Petros; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Meidani, Flora; Philalithis, Anastas E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Sourtzi, Panayota
To examine and compare undergraduate healthcare students' attitudes towards people with physical or intellectual disabilities in Greece. The experience that people with disabilities have with health care is a complex interaction between their medical condition and the social and physical environment. Attitudes of the nursing and healthcare staff affect the quality of care and people's adaptation to their disability, self-image and rehabilitation outcomes. Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Nursing, Social Work and Medicine students (N = 1007, 79.4% female) attending three universities (Athens, Crete) completed during 2014-2016 two standardised scales regarding physical (ATDP-B) and intellectual disability (CLAS-ID). Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Attitudes towards people with physical disabilities in Greece (ATDP-B scores) were poor with scores just above the mid-point. Medical studies and higher knowledge and work with individuals with physical disabilities signified marginally more positive attitudes. Gender and age displayed no associations with attitudes. Regarding intellectual disability (CLAS-ID scores), nursing students had slightly less positive attitudes in "Similarity" but more positive attitudes in "Sheltering" subscales. Previous work and contact was related to more favourable and higher age to less favourable "Similarity" and "Sheltering" attitudes. Males had higher "Exclusion" scores. Those who knew people with intellectual disabilities had less favourable "Empowerment" attitudes. Knowledge was related to more positive attitudes in all four CLAS-ID subscales. Greek health and social care students showed poor attitudes towards people with physical and intellectual disability. When holding unfavourable attitudes, healthcare professionals become less involved with the people they care for and they do not provide nursing care to the best of their abilities. Undergraduate and continuing education, along with
Full Text Available Background: Literature recommends that refractory cases with lumbar disc herniation and appropriate indications are better to be treated surgically, but do all the patients throughout the world consent to the surgery with a same disability and pain threshold? We aim to elucidate the prevalence and severity of disabilities and pain in Iranian patients with lumbar disc herniation who have consented to the surgery. Methods: In this case series study, we clinically evaluated 194 (81 female and 113 male admitted patients with primary, simple, and stable L4-L5 or L5-S1 lumbar disc herniation who were undergoing surgical discectomy. The mean age of the patients was 38.3±11.2 (range: 18-76 years old. Disabilities were evaluated by the items of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI questionnaire and severity of pain by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Chi-square test was used to compare the qualitative variables. Results: Severe disability (39.2% and crippled (29.9% were the two most common types of disabilities. Mean ODI score was 56.7±21.1 (range: 16-92. Total mean VAS in all patients was 6.1±1.9 (range: 0-10. Sex and level of disc herniation had no statistical effect on preoperative ODI and VAS. The scale of six was the most frequent scale of preoperative VAS in our patients. Conclusion: Iranian patients with lumbar disc herniation who consented to surgery have relatively severe pain or disability. These severities in pain or disabilities have no correlation with sex or level of disc herniation and are not equal with developed countries.
Majdinasab, Fatemeh; Karkheiran, Siamak; Soltani, Majid; Moradi, Negin; Shahidi, Gholamali
To evaluate voice of Iranian patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and find any relationship between motor disabilities and acoustic voice parameters as speech motor components. We evaluated 27 Farsi-speaking PD patients and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy persons as control. Motor performance was assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III and Hoehn and Yahr rating scale in the "on" state. Acoustic voice evaluation, including fundamental frequency (f0), standard deviation of f0, minimum of f0, maximum of f0, shimmer, jitter, and harmonic to noise ratio, was done using the Praat software via /a/ prolongation. No difference was seen between the voice of the patients and the voice of the controls. f0 and its variation had a significant correlation with the duration of the disease, but did not have any relationships with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III. Only limited relationship was observed between voice and motor disabilities. Tremor is an important main feature of PD that affects motor and phonation systems. Females had an older age at onset, more prolonged disease, and more severe motor disabilities (not statistically significant), but phonation disorders were more frequent in males and showed more relationship with severity of motor disabilities. Voice is affected by PD earlier than many other motor components and is more sensitive to disease progression. Tremor is the most effective part of PD that impacts voice. PD has more effect on voice of male versus female patients. Copyright Â© 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Howard, Matt C.
Scale pretests analyze the suitability of individual scale items for further analysis, whether through judging their face validity, wording concerns, and/or other aspects. The current article reviews scale pretests, separated by qualitative and quantitative methods, in order to identify the differences, similarities, and even existence of the…
Chia, S H
Groupwork can be effective in meeting a range of needs presented by students with profound learning disabilities. This article describes the process involved in setting up groups for these students, and includes examples of a group session and methods for evaluating groupwork.
Sapir, Selma C.
The author discusses controversial issues in the field of learning disabilities (LD). Among topics addressed are conflicting definitions of LD and the impact of the operational definition accepted by the US Government; etiological questions concerning the separation of neurological, environmental, and emotional factors; approaches used in training…
Nolan, John D.; Driscoll, Rosemary L.
Memory storage and retrieval of learning disabled (LD) and normal children at two age levels (8-9 years and 11-12 years) were compared using a multitrial free recall paradigm. Stimuli were two lists of 20 high frequency nouns. Each child was tested individually on both lists on different days; one presentation was blocked, one random with…
Pool, Donald A.
The paper examines issues, philosophy and guidelines for psychological assessment of the disabled. Focused on are: (1) adjustments in testing procedures and (2) applicability of standard norms with commonly used psychological test instruments for the assessment of ability, interest, and personality. The importance of accurate assessment for…
Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; O'Neill, Lotte; Kongsted, Alice
Objective: To (1) translate and culturally adapt and (2) determine the clinimetric properties of the Danish 8-item Neck Disability Index (NDI-8) in primary sector patients (PSPs) and secondary sector patients (SSPs). Methods: Analyses included 326 patients with neck pain. Validity and reliability...
lives of disabled people (Barnes & Mercer 2005, Paterson & Hughes 2010). A recurrent theme in this study’s transcribed and coded interviews was not an awareness of bullying and harassment, as other studies have found (e.g., Fevre et al. 2013), but rather how managers and employees without impairments...
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Kenyon, Elinor; Beail, Nigel; Jackson, Tom
Studies have focused on the experience of diagnosis from the perspectives of parents of children with learning disabilities, but there has been limited methodologically rigorous investigation into the experience for the person themselves. Eight participants were recruited from a range of different backgrounds. Interviews were analysed using…
Heisler, Alice B.
Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)
Singh, Delar K.
This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…
Gold, Sandra; Sherry, Lee
A review of research on the effects of alcohol consumption by pregnant women supports the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's warning about the possible negative effects (learning disabilities, hyperactivity, short attention span, and emotional liability) of children. (Author/CL)
Full Text Available Abstract My research will focus on some of the more pertinent changes that need to take place on a societal level in order to better serve disabled people and allow them to participate in all facets of community life. I will argue that three of the most significant changes that must take place include educating society on disabilities and disabled persons creating and enforcing better laws that truly help disabled persons and expanding the definitions of disability and disabled person to include a broader spectrum of ailments inflictions and handicaps. The changes which I support will be presented in a research-driven paper. I will highlight the current UK disability laws in place and point out some of their shortcomings. Then I will explore the worldview of society as a whole as it pertains to disabled peoples and suggest changes that need to take place and how educators can help facilitate these changes. Finally I will explain the shortcomings of the most common definitions used for disability and disabled persons and offer alternatives that incorporate a broader range of people and ailments. My audience will be any citizen whose political jurisdiction is under the UK disability mandate although anyone from any society would benefit from reading my paper due to the universality of this topic.
Michael JL Sullivan
Full Text Available The psychological predictors of pain and disability were examined in a sample of people who sustained whiplash injuries during rear-end motor vehicle accidents. Sixty-five patients referred to a specialty pain clinic with a diagnosis of whiplash injury completed measures of depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, pain and perceived disability. Regression analysis revealed that psychological variables accounted for 18% of the variance in pain ratings. The magnification subscale of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale was the only variable that contributed significant, unique variance to the prediction of pain. Psychological variables accounted for 37% of the variance in perceived disability scores. In the latter analysis, however, none of the independent variables contributed significant, unique variance to the prediction of perceived disability. Psychological variables accounted for significant variance in disability ratings, even when controlling for pain intensity. Discussion focuses on the need to draw clearer distinctions between determinants of pain and disability, and directions for interventions aimed at minimizing disability following whiplash injury are suggested.
Shobana, M; Saravanan, C
Parents' positive attitudes and psychological wellbeing play an important role in the development of the children with developmental disability. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of psychological problems among mothers of children with autism disorder, intellectual disability, and Down syndrome. The second aim was to assess the differences in mothers' attitudes and psychological problems among their children with intellectual disability, autism disorder, and Down syndrome. The third aim was to identify whether negative attitude was a predictor of psychological problems in these mothers. In this study, 112 mothers of children having mild and moderate levels of autism disorder, Down syndrome, and intellectual disability were assessed using the Parental Attitude Scale and General Health Questionnaire-28. Overall, mothers of children with intellectual disability were found to have the most negative attitude towards their child. Mothers of children with autism disorder exhibited higher scores on somatic symptoms, anxiety, and social dysfunction when compared with their counterparts with Down syndrome and intellectual disability. Negative attitude was a significant predictor of psychological problems. Parental attitudes and psychological problems would vary among mothers of children with different types of developmental disability.
Zelkowitz, P; Looper, K J; Mustafa, S S; Purden, M; Baron, M
Our study examines the association between the disease characteristics of inflammatory arthritis and patients' self-perception of mental health, parenting disability, parenting stress and child behaviour in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Patients in the early phase (more than 6 weeks, less than 18 months) of inflammatory arthritis were recruited from a larger EIA registry that recorded sociodemographic data and measures of pain, physical functioning and disease activity. Patient-perceived parenting disability, parenting stress, depression and children's behaviour problems were assessed using the Parenting Disability Index, Parenting Stress Index, Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression Mood Scale and Child Behavior Checklist, respectively. Pain, physical dysfunction, number of tender joints and physician global assessment of disease activity were associated with parenting disability. Self-report measures of parenting disability were associated with those of depression and parenting stress. Parenting stress was associated with children internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems while parenting disability was associated with children externalizing behaviour problems. This study suggests a possible reciprocal relationship among physical aspects of disease activity, parenting disability and parent and child distress in EIA.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping and sham Kinesio Taping on pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion, and disability in cervical myofascial pain syndrome patients (MPS. Methods: This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study. Sixty-one patients with MPS were randomly assigned into two groups. Group 1 (n = 31 was treated with Kinesio Taping and group 2 (n = 30 was treated sham taping five times by intervals of 3 days for 15 days. Additionally, all patients were given neck exercise program. Patients were evaluated according to pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion and disability. Pain was assessed by using Visual Analog Scale, pressure pain threshold was measured by using an algometer, and active cervical range of motion was measured by using goniometry. Disability was assessed with the neck pain disability index disability. Measurements were taken before and after the treatment. Results: At the end of the therapy, there were statistically significant improvements on pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion, and disability (p 0.05. Conclusion: This study shows that Kinesio Taping leads to improvements on pain, pressure pain threshold and cervical range of motion, but not disability in short time. Therefore, Kinesio Taping can be used as an alternative therapy method in the treatment of patients with MPS.
Marrie, Ruth Ann; Cutter, Gary; Tyry, Tuula
Visual comorbidities are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) but the impact of visual comorbidities on visual disability is unknown. We assessed the impact of visual and vascular comorbidities on severity of visual disability in MS. In 2006, we queried participants of the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) about cataracts, glaucoma, uveitis, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, heart disease, diabetes and peripheral vascular disease. We assessed visual disability using the Vision subscale of Performance Scales. Using Cox regression, we investigated whether visual or vascular comorbidities affected the time between MS symptom onset and the development of mild, moderate and severe visual disability. Of 8983 respondents, 1415 (15.9%) reported a visual comorbidity while 4745 (52.8%) reported a vascular comorbidity. The median (interquartile range) visual score was 1 (0-2). In a multivariable Cox model the risk of mild visual disability was higher among participants with vascular (hazard ratio [HR] 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39-1.51) and visual comorbidities (HR 1.47; 95% CI: 1.37-1.59). Vascular and visual comorbidities were similarly associated with increased risks of moderate and severe visual disability. Visual and vascular comorbidities are associated with progression of visual disability in MS. Clinicians hearing reports of worsening visual symptoms in MS patients should consider visual comorbidities as contributing factors. Further study of these issues using objective, systematic neuro-ophthalmologic evaluations is warranted.
Ay, Saime; Konak, Hatice Ecem; Evcik, Deniz; Kibar, Sibel
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping and sham Kinesio Taping on pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion, and disability in cervical myofascial pain syndrome patients (MPS). This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study. Sixty-one patients with MPS were randomly assigned into two groups. Group 1 (n=31) was treated with Kinesio Taping and group 2 (n=30) was treated sham taping five times by intervals of 3 days for 15 days. Additionally, all patients were given neck exercise program. Patients were evaluated according to pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion and disability. Pain was assessed by using Visual Analog Scale, pressure pain threshold was measured by using an algometer, and active cervical range of motion was measured by using goniometry. Disability was assessed with the neck pain disability index disability. Measurements were taken before and after the treatment. At the end of the therapy, there were statistically significant improvements on pain, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion, and disability (pdisability (p>0.05). This study shows that Kinesio Taping leads to improvements on pain, pressure pain threshold and cervical range of motion, but not disability in short time. Therefore, Kinesio Taping can be used as an alternative therapy method in the treatment of patients with MPS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
The plays of William Shakespeare were reviewed for references to disabilities, aging and disability, and older characters with disabilities. Shakespeare's references draw from traditional cultural notions about older people with disabilities. These traditional notions include people with physical disabilities being evil, the entertainment value of disabilty, and those who were mentally ill being wild and animal-like. He viewed the aging process as disabling and old age as a time when individuals lost some abilities to function, particularly when it came to mental capacity and physical mobility. His writings show that he used disability as a literary tool to add dimension to characters and set them apart. Contemporary literature continues to share some of Shakespeare's view on aging and disability but also departs from them in important ways. For example, contemporary treatment of disabilities and aging places more emphasis on the human side of the affects of aging and disabilities. Disabilities and aging are not cast in the same negative terms as Shakespeare used.
Cooney, Patricia; Jackman, Catherine; Coyle, David; O'Reilly, Gary
Background Despite the evidence base for computer-assisted cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in the general population, it has not yet been adapted for use with adults who have an intellectual disability. Aims To evaluate the utility of a CBT computer game for adults who have an intellectual disability. Method A 2 × 3 (group × time) randomised controlled trial design was used. Fifty-two adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability and anxiety or depression were randomly allocated to two groups: computerised CBT (cCBT) or psychiatric treatment as usual (TAU), and assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. Forty-nine participants were included in the final analysis. Results A significant group × time interaction was observed on the primary outcome measure of anxiety (Glasgow Anxiety Scale for people with an Intellectual Disability), favouring cCBT over TAU, but not on the primary outcome measure of depression (Glasgow Depression Scale for people with a Learning Disability). A medium effect size for anxiety symptoms was observed at post-treatment and a large effect size was observed after follow-up. Reliability of Change Indices indicated that the intervention produced clinically significant change in the cCBT group in comparison with TAU. Conclusions As the first application of cCBT for adults with intellectual disability, this intervention appears to be a useful treatment option to reduce anxiety symptoms in this population. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
Luciana Ramos Baleotti
Full Text Available The way one conceives disabled people seems to influence the actions directed toward them. Occupational therapists constitute a part of health professionals that direct their actions based on a comprehensive view of disability. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the conception of disability from the standpoint of occupational therapists. Fifteen university teachers of Occupational Therapy undergraduate courses participated in this study: seven from public universities and eight from private institutions, located in mid-sized municipalities in the state of São Paulo. The data were collected by means of a scale denominated “Escala de Avaliação da Concepção de Deficiência” (Rating Scale for Conception of Disability. The results show that the subjects tend to follow interactional, social conceptions of disability. This study yields contributions to understand the conception of disability held by teachers of Occupational Therapy. This conception certainly guides their teaching performance and affects the training of future professionals.
Hemm, Cahley; Dagnan, Dave; Meyer, Thomas D
Developmental literature highlights peer relationships and parental overprotection as factors implicated in the development of social anxiety. These factors are highly prevalent in the lives of people with intellectual disabilities; however research has not examined whether these factors are associated with social anxiety for this population. Twenty-one individuals without intellectual disabilities and 21 individuals with intellectual disabilities (aged 16-24 years) completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents with follow-up questions, the Glasgow Anxiety Scale-Intellectual disabilities and the parental overprotection subscale of the Parental Bonding Instrument with follow-up questions. Aspects of general and social anxiety were significantly greater in the intellectual disabilities group. There were no significant differences in parental overprotection between groups, however, qualitative analyses revealed differences in experiences of social anxiety and parental overprotection. Further research into factors associated with social anxiety in people with intellectual disabilities may inform adaptations to therapies and early intervention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chien, Meng-Yueh; Chen, Hsi-Chung
We aimed to evaluate the association between sleep quality and physical disability in community-dwelling older adults. There were 213 community-dwelling adults (76 men and 137 women) aged 65 years and above participated into this investigation. The Groningen Activity Restriction Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were utilized to evaluate physical disability and subjective sleep quality, respectively. Global functional capacity was measured by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). The Mini Mental State Examination and the Chinese Geriatric Depression Screening Scale were used to evaluate cognitive function and depression. Univariate analysis revealed a correlation between physical disability and poor sleep quality, older age, 2 or more comorbidities, depression, functional capacity, and poor cognitive function. However, in the multivariate analyses, depression failed to show significant association with physical disability. In contrast, an independent association was observed between poor sleep quality and physical disability (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.02-4.05). In community-dwelling older adults, subjective poor sleep was significantly associated with physical disability, even after controlling for the effects of other established risk factors. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen
Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse, are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is because of disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for AUD. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. Systematic literature review and expert interviews. There is heterogeneity in experts' descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with AUD. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to AUD and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
This research aimed to develop and design Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for facilitating disabled people by presenting some useful disabled information on the Google Map. The map could provide information about disabled types of people such as blind, deaf and physical movement. This research employed the Multiview 2 theory and method to plan and find out the problems in real world situation. This research used many designing data structure methods such as Data Flow Diagram, and ER-Diagram. The research focused into two parts: server site and client site which included the interface for Web-based application. The clear information of disable people on the map was useful for facilitating disabled people to find some useful information. In addition, it provided specialized data for company and government officers for managing and planning local facilities for disabled people in the cities. The disable could access the system through the Internet access at any time by using mobile or portable devices.
Almeida, Vera; Taveira, Sofia; Teixeira, Maribel; Almeida, Isabel; Rocha, José; Teixeira, Ana
There are known connections between emotions and psoriasis; however, we have not established a clear pathway for this association. This study aimed to explore correlates of difficulties in emotional regulation in patients with psoriasis and predict the influence of emotional regulation in psoriasis disability. Two hundred and twenty eight participants completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, Self-administered Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, Psoriasis Disability Index, and Brief Symptom Inventory. Spearman's correlation and a hierarchical stepwise multiple regression were carried out to analyse associations. Results indicated that patients with the most recent diagnoses experienced greater difficulty in acting in accordance with goals (r = .16, p psoriasis severity (r = .15, p psoriasis disability (β = .34). The results highlighted the relationship between emotional regulation difficulty, disease characteristics, and psychological variables in psoriasis disability emphasizing the importance of including a broader approach in clinical management of psoriatic patients.
Garaigordobil, Maite; Pérez, José Ignacio
The purpose of this study is two-fold: (a) to analyze self-concept, self-esteem, and psychopathological symptoms in individuals with and without intellectual disability; and (b) to explore whether there were gender differences in these same variables in both groups. The sample is made up of 170 participants aged 19 to 40, 128 without disability and 42 with intellectual disability. The methodology is descriptive. To measure the variables, three assessment instruments were applied: the "Listado de adjetivos para la evaluaci6n del autoconcepto en adolescentes y adultos" (LAEA; Garaigordobil, in press), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965), and the Revised Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, 1983). The ANOVA showed that participants with intellectual disability scored significantly lower in self-concept and self-esteem, and higher in all the psychopathological symptoms except for somatization. The ANOVA did not reveal significant gender differences in any variables in either of the two groups.
Stodden, Robert; And Others
Studied was the relationship between the Attitude Toward Disabled Persons (ATDP) scale and the Attitude Towards Handicapped Individuals (ATHI) scale. These scales were administered to 82 college students. Also determined was the coefficient of stability of the ATHI using a test-retest after 2 weeks with 54 Ss. The ATHI scale was thought to be more…
Ali, Syed Asif; Soomro, Safeeullah; Memon, Abdul Ghafoor; Baqi, Abdul
There are various types of disability egress in world like blindness, deafness, and Physical disabilities. It is quite difficult to deal with people with disability. Learning disability (LD) is types of disability totally different from general disability. To deal children with learning disability is difficult for both parents and teacher. As parent deal with only single child so it bit easy. But teacher deals with different students at a time so its more difficult to deal with group of stude...
Alijan Ahmadi Ahangar
Full Text Available Background: Stroke is the leading cause of serious long-term disability. In recent studies hyponatremia as a risk factor for stroke. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was to evaluate serum zinc level in serum sodium over the first 24 hours after the onset of stroke. Different intensities were determined on Stroke Scale NIH (National Institute of Health (mild 4-1 and (average moderate 15-5 and (moderate to severe 20-16 and (extreme severe 42- 21. Determination intensity of stroke after admission and discharge with Modified Rankin Scale and Barthel index. Blood serum concentrations of sodium 0.5 mL of venous blood were taken and sodium serum level was performed with Latex particle agglutination test in Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital. That normal range was defined 136-146 meq / L Findings: 125 patients were entered into this study; the prevalence of hyponatremia in female was 70% vs 60% in male. Of stroke patients included in this study 66% of them had hyponatremia and the frequency of hyponatremia in ischemic and hemorrhagic was 82% and 63%, respectively. Increase in hyponatremia with disability period of admission had statistically significant (10(12 mild vs 40(32 moderate, 32(25.6 severe, p=0.01 also with disability before discharge (24(19.2 mild, 26(20.8 moderate, 32(25.6 severe, p=0.03. Conclusions: Hyponatremia can effect on severity of the stroke and can be considered as a predictor of increased stroke severity and disability at admission and discharge.
Quinn, P Roger
After a workplace injury or disability, there is a period of hardship and adjustment for the injured party as well as all stakeholders in the workers' compensation process. Ultimately, however, return to work is considered. The author reviews this often challenging exercise from the Canadian perspective and stresses the need for timely intervention, honest communication, the coordination of information and resources--and the need for flexibility. A case study on low back pain is included.
Bolduc, François V.; Tully, Tim
Mental retardation—known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability—is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been use...
Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana
The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ayerbe, Luis; Ayis, Salma A; Crichton, Siobhan; Rudd, Anthony G; Wolfe, Charles D A
To identify explanatory factors for the association between depression at 3 months after stroke and physical disability at 3 years. Data from the South London Stroke Register (1998-2013) were used. Patients (n = 3,612) were assessed at stroke onset. Follow-up at 3 months included assessment for depression with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (scores ≥ 7 = depression), physical disability (Barthel index) cognitive function, smoking habit, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) use, perception of recovery and social support. Physical disability was reassessed at 3 years. The associations between depression at 3 months and physical disability at 3 years were estimated with multinomial regression adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, stroke severity and possible explanatory factors for the association (introduced in the models first individually and then sequentially): pre-stroke medical history and physical disability, cognitive function, smoking, SSRIs, perception of recovery and social support at 3 months. One thousand three hundred and seven survivors were assessed at 3 months, of which 418 (32.0%) had depression. Survivors with depression had a higher physical disability rate at 3 years. These associations remained significant after adjustment for individual explanatory factors but were not significant after adjustment for combined explanatory factors. Physical disability at 3 months was a relevant explanatory factor for this association. SSRIs were associated with severe, relative risk: 6.62 (2.92-15.02) P disability, relative risk: 3.45 (1.58-7.52) P = 0.002, at 3 years. The association between depression and physical disability appears to be multifactorial. The use of SSRIs after stroke requires further research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Eisner, Mark D; Iribarren, Carlos; Blanc, Paul D; Yelin, Edward H; Ackerson, Lynn; Byl, Nancy; Omachi, Theodore A; Sidney, Stephen; Katz, Patricia P
COPD is a major cause of disability, but little is known about how disability develops in this condition. The authors analysed data from the Function, Living, Outcomes and Work (FLOW) Study which enrolled 1202 Kaiser Permanente Northern California members with COPD at baseline and re-evaluated 1051 subjects at 2-year follow-up. The authors tested the specific hypothesis that the development of specific non-respiratory impairments (abnormal body composition and muscle strength) and functional limitations (decreased lower extremity function, poor balance, mobility-related dyspnoea, reduced exercise performance and decreased cognitive function) will determine the risk of disability in COPD, after controlling for respiratory impairment (FEV(1) and oxygen saturation). The Valued Life Activities Scale was used to assess disability in terms of a broad range of daily activities. The primary disability outcome measure was defined as an increase in the proportion of activities that cannot be performed of 3.3% or greater from baseline to 2-year follow-up (the estimated minimal important difference). Multivariable logistic regression was used for analysis. Respiratory impairment measures were related to an increased prospective risk of disability (multivariate OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.26 to 2.44 for 1 litre decrement of FEV(1) and OR 1.57 per 5% decrement in oxygen saturation; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.18). Non-respiratory impairment (body composition and lower extremity muscle strength) and functional limitations (lower extremity function, exercise performance, and mobility-related dyspnoea) were all associated with an increased longitudinal risk of disability after controlling for respiratory impairment (pdeterminants of disablement. Prevention and treatment of disability require a comprehensive approach to the COPD patient.
Małgorzata M. Machaj
Full Text Available Introduction : One of the regulations governing employment on the open labour market is the Act for vocational and social rehabilitation and employment of people with disabilities, which defines disability in the context that it impacts upon a person’s ability to work. Aim of the research : To evaluate the level of hospital staff awareness of the financial impacts of employing people with disabilities at the Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior in Warsaw. Material and methods: The sample and control groups consisted of people working at the hospital, comprising 247 individuals, including 194 women and 53 men, aged between 25 and 60 years. The sample group consisted of people with disabilities. The control group consisted of colleagues with disabilities, of both sexes, and of the same age range. There was also a separate sample group comprising 60 people from middle management and senior management. The sample and control groups were provided with a questionnaire about issues relating to the economic aspects of employing people with disabilities. The results were compared with data from the questionnaire for management and from hospital statistics. The methodology of mathematical statistics was used. Results : Discrepancies were found between sample and control groups, and hospital statistics pertaining to people with disabilities as employees in terms of the burden placed on the business, such as sick leave, breaks from work in the general sense, additional leave, accessing specialist tests during working hours, and earnings, in particular reimbursement of the cost of workplace equipment and funding for salaries. Conclusions: There is a significant degree of divergence between managers’ and employees’ notions of privileges for disabled workers and their actual scale. There is misunderstanding and lack of knowledge of the applicable provisions of the Act for the Vocational and Social Rehabilitation and Employment of
Milner, Allison; King, Tania Louise; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Aitken, Zoe; Petrie, Dennis; Kavanagh, Anne M
Underemployment (defined as when a person in paid employment works for fewer hours than their desired full working capacity) is increasingly recognised as a component of employment precarity. This paper sought to investigate the effects of underemployment on the mental health of people with disabilities. Using 14 waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey, we used fixed-effects models to assess whether the presence of a disability modified the association between underemployment and mental health. Both disability and underemployment were assessed as time-varying factors. Measures of effect measure modification were presented on the additive scale. The experience of underemployment was associated with a significantly greater decline in mental health when a person reported a disability (mean difference -1.38, 95% CI -2.20 to -0.57) compared with when they did not report a disability (mean difference -0.49, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.14). The combined effect of being underemployed and having a disability was nearly one point greater than the summed independent risks of having a disability and being underemployed (-0.89, 95% CI -1.75 to -0.03). People with disabilities are more likely to experience underemployment and more likely to have their mental health adversely affected by it. There is a need for more research and policy attention on how to ameliorate the effects of underemployment on the mental health of persons with disabilities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Sauro, Khara M; Rose, Marianne S; Becker, Werner J; Christie, Suzanne N; Giammarco, Rose; Mackie, Gordon F; Eloff, Arnoldas G; Gawel, Marek J
The objective of this study was to compare the headache impact test (HIT-6) and the migraine disability assessment scale (MIDAS) as clinical measures of headache-related disability. The degree of headache-related disability is an important factor in treatment planning. Many quality of life and headache disability measures exist but it is unclear which of the available disability measures is the most helpful in planning and measuring headache management. We compared HIT-6 and MIDAS scores from 798 patients from the Canadian Headache Outpatient Registry and Database (CHORD). Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between the HIT-6 and MIDAS total scores, headache frequency and intensity, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores. A positive correlation was found between HIT-6 and MIDAS scores (r = 0.52). The BDI-II scores correlated equally with the HIT-6 and the MIDAS (r = 0.42). There was a non-monotonic relationship between headache frequency and the MIDAS, and a non-linear monotonic relationship between headache frequency and the HIT-6 (r = 0.24). The correlation was higher between the intensity and the HIT-6 scores (r = 0.46), than MIDAS (r = 0.26) scores. Seventy-nine percent of patients fell into the most severe HIT-6 disability category, compared with the 57% of patients that fell into the most severe MIDAS disability category. Significantly more patients were placed in a more severe category with the HIT-6 than with the MIDAS (McNemar chi-square = 191 on 6 d.f., P MIDAS appear to measure headache-related disability in a similar fashion. However, some important differences may exist. Headache intensity appears to influence HIT-6 score more than the MIDAS, whereas the MIDAS was influenced more by headache frequency. Using the HIT-6 and MIDAS together may give a more accurate assessment of a patient's headache-related disability.
Gerry, David C.; And Others
Two groups (learning disabled and normal) of 15 children were administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Considering abnormal or borderline profiles as indicative of learning disability was 93.3 percent accurate in discriminating between groups.…
Bolduc, François V; Tully, Tim
Mental retardation--known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability--is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory.
Disability and the resulting lowered quality of life are serious issues accompanying increased longevity. Active life expectancy #(8) can be to used to distinguish the number of years without disability from the number with disability; increases were found in both in longevity #(9, 19). With the same rate of age-related new disability in the cohorts between 1970 and 1990, the total disability increased three fold #(11). In elderly patients I showed that 1) the duration of disability of those at a specific age at death (predeath) #(1) increased with age, and it decreased in those who remained without disability, 2) the cumulative number of days of disability for patients who died at a specific age (a convolution function of predeath and mortality) #(2), approached a normal distribution, which is consistent with the central limit theorem, 3) competing risk with chronic disease in a patient greatly affects the incidence and duration of disability, 4) using the central limit theorem we can predict that preventing dementia will retard premature rectangularization of the disability-free survival curve, and will thus reduce the total disability, 5) disability is an example of how variation and selection of chronic diseases (disease Darwinism) can alter population structure. Insights into the evolution of senescence #(14-21), pleiotropy, and slower rates of molecular evolution in the core than at the border #(26, 27), reveal that the central nervous system is relatively robust and conservative for pleiotropy and may senesce relatively slowly, which support a new way of thinking #(3, 4) about old age. To minimize disability, public knowledge and education about an ideal lifestyle and the evolution of senescence is essential.
Foti, Calogero; Albensi, Caterina; Giordani, Laura; Azeufack Ngueko, Yannick; Sanou Sobze, Martin; Colizzi, Vittorio
Rehabilitation services for disabled persons are lacking in countries with limited economic resources. Reliable and objective data are needed to plan for their implementation and to determine the burden of disability in these countries. A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in June 2013 among people living in Dschang Health District, in the West region of Cameroon, to collect information about socio-demographic aspects of physically disabled subjects and health determinants of disabilities. Data was collected using a standard questionnaire in French. In total, 159 physically disabled subjects were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 36 years [± SD 17.26], 55.9% of subjects were female, and 33.8% had a low educational-level. The most frequently reported disabilities were orthopaedic problems (mainly fractures) [45.8%], infectious diseases [29.1%]), and neurological disabilities (mainly hemiplegia [33.3%], hemiparesis [23.8%], and monoplegia [23.8%]). The main causes of disability were trauma due to traffic accidents (17.8%) and inappropriate medical interventions (14.5%). Disability was related to age and 50% of participants experienced social discrimination. Disabled subjects with low-incomes (from 50.000 to 200.000 XAF) were required to pay for rehabilitative care (XAF 10.000 to 100.000), and up to 83% had appealed for improved quality of Rehabilitation Medicine. Although Law n. 83/013 for the protection of persons with disabilities in Cameroon dates back to 1983, the results of this study show that disabled people, and children in particular, are still marginalized, vulnerable and have little chance of recovery. Therefore, there is a clear need to improve the quality and availability of rehabilitative care services , with programmatic interventions that ensure implementation of existing laws, improve access to rehabilitative services, provide disabled persons with the necessary specialty medical products, and eliminate barriers to their social
Falk, C.; And Others
The development of the Maslowian Scale, a method of revealing a picture of one's needs and concerns based on Abraham Maslow's levels of self-actualization, is described. This paper also explains how the scale is supported by the theories of L. Kohlberg, C. Rogers, and T. Rusk. After a literature search, a list of statements was generated…
Colucci, G; Pellicciotta, A; Buono, S; Di Nuovo, S F
The aims of the present research were to assess the level of self-concern in people with intellectual disability using the Rorschach Egocentricity Index, to correlate the Index with other Rorschach and IQ variables, and to study the effect of associated psychological pathology. The Rorschach Inkblot Test and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale were administered to a group of 75 subjects with intellectual disability, aged between 18 and 38 years, who were divided into subgroups according to their additional diagnosis (i.e. personality disorders, psychosis and depression). A fourth subgroup was composed of people with intellectual disability but without other pathologies. The Egocentricity Index was very low in the subjects with intellectual disability and differences were a result of the effects of additional psychological pathologies. The meaning of the measurement of egocentricity in people with intellectual disability is discussed.
Güleç, Medine Yazici; Hocaoğlu, Ciçek
The co-morbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD ) with personality disorders (PDs) in patients with long-standing work disability at a psychiatry clinic was investigated. The purpose of our study was to evaluate personality for contributing to disability in patients with MDD and to investigate the relationship with these two psychometric characters in patients with MDD. Seventy-two patients with a MDD and 72 healthy controls were assessed by means of both clinician and self-rating scales for depression, anxiety, disability, and the SCID-II personality inventory. There was no difference between the personality parameters of the groups regarding schizotypal and antisocial PDs. Avoidant personality was found to be less common in the patient group (p=0.030). Dependent (p less than 0.001), obsessive (p=0.003), passive-aggressive (p=0.025), self-defeating (p less than 0.001), paranoid (p less than 0.001), schizoid (p=0.012), histrionic (p=0.001), narcissistic (p less than 0.001), and borderline (p less than 0.001) PDs in patients were more common than in controls. On the disability sub-scales, physical role limitation, vitality, social functioning, emotional role limitation, and mental health were significantly lower in patient group than normal control group. While Cluster A was not related to any disability subscale, Cluster B had a positive correlation with vitality and mental health, whereas Cluster C and Cluster NOS had a negative correlation with emotional role limitation. Only the emotional role limitation predicts the presence of depression, whereas only self-defeating, obsessive, paranoid, and passive aggressive personality predict the emotional role limitation. Patients with MDD have personality and disability problems. PDs in depression contribute to disability. Our results demonstrated that the emotional role limitation is the unique sub-scale that predicts the MDD group.
Wadugodapitiya .S .I
Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy (CP is one of the most common conditions in childhood causing severe physical disability. Spastic paresis is the most common form of CP. According to the topographic classification, CP is divided into spastic hemiplegia, diplegia and quadriplegia. Distribution of functional motor disability is varied in each type of CP. Aims: To describe functional motor disability in children with cerebral palsy using standard scales. Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study included 93 children with cerebral palsy (CP. Functional motor disability of each type of spastic CP was assessed using standard scales. Results: The dominant sub-type of cerebral palsy in the present study was spastic diplegia. Most affected muscle with spasticity was gastrocnemius-soleus group of muscles. Active range of motion of foot eversion and dorsiflexion were the most affected movements in all the types of CP. In the overall sample, only 35% were able to walk independently. Majority of subjects with quadriplegia were in levels III and IV of Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale representing severe disability. There was a significant relationship observed between the muscle tone and range of motion of their corresponding joints as well as between the muscle tone of gastrocnemius-soleus group of muscles and the ankle components of Observational Gait Analysis. Conclusions: Results of the present study confirms the clinical impression of disability levels in each type of CP and showed that the assessment of functional motor disability in children with different types of spastic CP is useful in planning and evaluation of treatment options.
Giannini, Margaret J; Bergmark, Brian; Kreshover, Samantha; Elias, Eileen; Plummer, Caitlin; O'Keefe, Eileen
Disability is not a category of disease but rather relates to the physical, sensory, cognitive, and/or mental disorders that substantially limit one or more major life activities. These functional limitations have been found to be predictive of suicide, with psychiatric comorbidities increasing the risk for suicide. Enormous gaps exist in the understanding of the relationship between disability and suicide. We reviewed the current literature addressing the prevalence of and risk factors for suicide among persons with three major disabling conditions and identify priorities for future research. We performed a literature review investigating the relationship between three major disabilities (intellectual disability, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis) and suicide. To ensure thorough evaluation of the available literature, we searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar with terms including "suicide," "disability," "intellectual disability," "spinal cord injury," "multiple sclerosis," and permutations thereof. By this method we evaluated 110 articles and included 21 in the review. Suicide rates are significantly higher among persons with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury than in the general population. A more nuanced picture of suicide rates and risk factors exists for the intellectual disability population, in which it appears that rates of suicide risk factors are higher than among the general population while suicide rates may be lower. The highest rates of suicide are reported among study populations of persons with multiple sclerosis, followed by persons with spinal cord injury, and then individuals with intellectual disability. Suicide among persons with disabilities is a complex and pressing public health concern. Urgent research priorities include (1) valid estimates of suicide rates among persons with disabilities by age cohort; (2) assessment of the predictive importance of suicide risk factors; and (3) determination of best
Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Carroll, Dianna D; Zhang, Qing C; Stevens, Alissa C; Griffin-Blake, Shannon; Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A
Understanding the prevalence of disability is important for public health programs to be able to address the needs of persons with disabilities. Beginning in 2013, to measure disability prevalence by functional type, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), added five questions to identify disability in vision, cognition, mobility, self-care, and independent living. CDC analyzed data from the 2013 BRFSS to assess overall prevalence of any disability, as well as specific types of disability among noninstitutionalized U.S. adults. Across all states, disabilities in mobility and cognition were the most frequently reported types. State-level prevalence of each disability type ranged from 2.7% to 8.1% (vision); 6.9% to 16.8% (cognition); 8.5% to 20.7% (mobility); 1.9% to 6.2% (self-care) and 4.2% to 10.8% (independent living). A higher prevalence of any disability was generally seen among adults living in states in the South and among women (24.4%) compared with men (19.8%). Prevalences of any disability and disability in mobility were higher among older age groups. These are the first data on functional disability types available in a state-based health survey. This information can help public health programs identify the prevalence of and demographic characteristics associated with different disability types among U.S. adults and better target appropriate interventions to reduce health disparities.
Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela
Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system in the United States from its origins in the civil rights movement of the mid-twentieth century. They note the dual character of federal legislation, which both guarantees eligible children with disabilities the right to a "free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive setting" and establishes a federal funding program to help meet this goal. They then review the types of services and accommodations these children receive from infancy through young adulthood. The special education system has given children with disabilities much greater access to public education, established an infrastructure for educating them, helped with the earlier identification of disabilities, and promoted greater inclusion of these children alongside their nondisabled peers. Despite these advances, many problems remain, including the over- and underidentification of certain subgroups of students, delays in identifying and serving students, and bureaucratic, regulatory, and financial barriers that complicate the program for everyone involved. More important, the authors show that special education students still lag behind their nondisabled peers in educational achievements, are often held to lower expectations, are less likely to take the full academic curriculum in high school, and are more likely to drop out of school. Only limited evidence is available on the effectiveness of specific special education services or on how to improve student achievement for this important subgroup of students. Improving the system will require better ways of understanding and measuring both ends of the special education continuum, namely, what
Amendola, Fernanda; Alvarenga, Márcia Regina Martins; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos
This exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional, and quantitative study aimed to develop and validate an index of family vulnerability to disability and dependence (FVI-DD). This study was adapted from the Family Development Index, with the addition of social and health indicators of disability and dependence. The instrument was applied to 248 families in the city of Sao Paulo, followed by exploratory factor analysis. Factor validation was performed using the concurrent and discriminant validity of the Lawton scale and Katz Index. The descriptive level adopted for the study was p DD was validated using both the Lawton scale and Katz Index. We conclude that FVI-DD can accurately and reliably assess family vulnerability to disability and dependence.
Ryan C. Parrey
Full Text Available Disorienting encounter with disability are those in which the meaning of disability is an open question, and in which our relation to it is questionable. This essay explores the relationship between disability and disorientation on conceptual but also concrete levels. First, I examine the connection between disability and disorientation within disability studies. Second, I provide a preliminary sketch of disorientation through what I call ontic disruption and ontological disorientation. Third, I take up Leder's (1990 articulation of bodily disappearance and embodied dysappearance to address ableist violence. Finally, I develop the notion of dysorientation — a prolonged, persistent or recurrent sense of disorientation — as a useful concept for understanding experiences of ableism but also as a significant meeting point between impairment and disability.
Lipenga, Ken J
This article examines the representation of disability by disabled black South African men as portrayed in two texts from the autosomatography genre, which encompasses first-person narratives of illness and disability. Drawing on extracts from Musa E. Zulu's The language of me and William Zulu's Spring will come , the article argues that physical disability affects heteronormative concepts of masculinity by altering the body, which is the primary referent for the construction and performance of hegemonic masculinity. In ableist contexts, the male disabled body may be accorded labels of asexuality. This article therefore reveals how male characters with disabilities reconstruct the male self by both reintegrating themselves within the dominant grid of masculinity and reformulating some of the tenets of hegemonic masculinity.
Ken J. Lipenga
Full Text Available This article examines the representation of disability by disabled black South African men as portrayed in two texts from the autosomatography genre, which encompasses first-person narratives of illness and disability. Drawing on extracts from Musa E. Zulu’s The language of me and William Zulu’s Spring will come, the article argues that physical disability affects heteronormative concepts of masculinity by altering the body, which is the primary referent for the construction and performance of hegemonic masculinity. In ableist contexts, the male disabled body may be accorded labels of asexuality. This article therefore reveals how male characters with disabilities reconstruct the male self by both reintegrating themselves within the dominant grid of masculinity and reformulating some of the tenets of hegemonic masculinity.
Cubero, Christopher G
Does situational leadership style impact workers with disabilities? Situational leadership as a model and style of organizational management is defined. With a concentration on workers with disabilities, employer and employee perceptions of the workplace environment are analyzed as a contributing factor to the choice of leadership styles. Leadership style and its potential impact on workers with disabilities are included. Advantages of situational leadership style as an organizational model for managers that matches the intricate needs of workers with disabilities are argued. Methods for increasing awareness of the needs of persons with disabilities in the workplace and improving leadership models are discussed. Implications and potential outcomes for workers with disabilities based on the use of situational leadership by managers are discussed.
Full Text Available The article applies Alfred Schutz’s phenomenologically grounded sociological perspective to explore how persons with a congenital motor disability or having a disability ever since their childhood construct and maintain their significant social reality through subjective meanings and how they interpret their disabled bodies. Their personal narratives are based on qualitative in-depth interviews and suggest that these persons face the disability only during secondary socialization, after internalization of social typifications of disabled body of negative meaning, the overcoming of which and successful socialization requires the involvement into new social group or community, i.e., into a positive social structure, confirming their identity. This article performs cognitive function and contributes to the social workers‘ understanding and knowledge building in order to get a re-evaluating the social needs of people with congenital physical disability.
Full Text Available People with developmental disabilities can experience any psychological abnormalitiy and psychiatric illness as do people without developmental disabilities. Due to different diagnostic criteria, assessment procedures and instruments, we lack definite prevalence rates for people with developmental disabilities, also suffering from mental health problems, eventhough most studies place the rate at 20 to 40%. One of the possible treatment alternatives for augmenting psychological well-being is psychotherapy, but is extremely rarely used for people with severe and profound disabilities, where speech cannot be the main therapeutic medium. So, those that are included in the psychotherapuetic process are predominantly clients with mild developmental disabilities, and they are mostly in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Recently, two models of (psychotherapy for persons with severe and profound developmental disabilities were developed: developmental-dynamic relationship therapy and attachment-based behaviour therapy for children. Conceptually, they both originate form developmental psychoanalytic theories.
Lyon, Lori; Houser, Rick
As educators strongly influence the attitudes of their students, the purpose of this study was to determine nurse educator attitudes toward people with disabilities. Inadequate education of health professionals is a known barrier to care for people with disability. Continuing calls for improved education of health professionals compel an assessment of nurse educator attitudes. This was a cross-sectional, correlational web-based survey of nurse educators (n = 126). Nurse educator attitudes were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis. Nurse educators held discriminatory attitudes toward people with disabilities, though most preferred a biopsychosocial model of disability. Forty-four percent lacked knowledge of disability-related aims, objectives, or outcomes within the curriculum. To advance equity in health care, nurse educators must confront personal bias and teach competent care of people with disabilities.
Birgul Elbozan Cumurcu
Full Text Available Physical disability is termed as disturbance or defect which impede or eliminate human body’s ability by disturbing human structure and shape. Physical disability may occur due to neonatal, natal or postnatal causes. People with physical disability have some natural needs as everyone. They are known to have difficulties in many areas of life. In society, sexual lives of these individuals are treated as an unknown and ignored issue, and moreover it has been assumed that they have no such needs. Disabled patients experience many troubles in their life domains including sexuality. This article provides information about physical disability and sexuality, and difficulties with which disabled people faces in their sexual life and overviews literature on this topic.
van Lieshout, M.; Dewulf, A.; Aarts, N.; Termeer, K.
Policy problems are not just out there. Actors highlight different aspects of a situation as problematic and situate the problem on different scales. In this study we will analyse the way actors apply scales in their talk (or texts) to frame the complex decision-making process of the establishment
Jenell Lynn-Senter Wittmer
Full Text Available Previous organizational research has focused heavily on organizational commitment, for employees in general, as well as for specific minority groups. However, there is a large gap in the research literature concerning the organizational commitment of people with disabilities. The current study contributes to the literature both by investigating the predictors of reported organizational commitment of people with disabilities, as well by examining organizational-level predictors, rather than individual-level phenomena. Additionally, rather than examining legal or compliance issues related to people with disabilities, as is found in most previous research, the current study examines contextual predictors of organizational commitment, pro-disability climate, pro-disability technology, and availability of flexible work arrangements. Structural equation modeling results suggest that there is a chain effect of pro-disability climate, which impacts the organizational commitment of people with disabilities through pro-disability technology and flexible work arrangements. Implications for both research and human resource practitioners are discussed.
Full Text Available This paper tracks a series of conversations between a women's and gender studies professor and two of her undergraduate students, all of whom are interested in disability studies. We explore the links between disability and feminism, and to think through the possibilities of having disability studies become part of the academy. Our primarily positive interactions with the academic institution and our interest in disability studies has led to our argument that disability is in fact a feminist issue. Disability studies has allowed each of us to re-conceptualize our own relationships to feminist theory, and shaped our ability to envision a better academic environment for all students. Keywords: feminist disability studies, intersectionality, pedagogy, mental disability
... Policy and Measurement; Overview Information and Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal... Knowledge and Experts in Disability and Rehabilitation Research: Overview Information and Notice Inviting... between income support programs, poverty, disability, and employment success; the [[Page 39425...
Full Text Available To marry and form a household of one’s own was the expected life course of most people in the nineteenth century, but little is known about whether individuals with disabilities shared the same demographic experience of marriage as non-disabled did. This study examines this issue by analyzing the marital chances of a group of disabled people—i.e. blind, deaf mute, crippled and with mental disabilities—compared with a non-disabled reference group. Our results show that about a quarter of the disabled individuals did marry, even though their marital propensities were significantly lower than those of non-disabled people. These propensities also differed by gender and type of disability. We suggest that the lower marital chances and the variation we found within the group of disabled people indicate the level of social exclusion they faced in society.
Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Barnett, Kimberly; Peugh, James; Sil, Soumitri; Goldschneider, Kenneth; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita
Objectives Functional abdominal pain (FAP) in youth is associated with substantial impairment in functioning and prior research has shown that overprotective parent responses can heighten impairment. Little is known about how a range of parental behaviors in response to their child’s pain (overprotection, minimizing and/or encouragement) interact with child coping characteristics (e.g., catastrophizing) to influence functioning in youth with FAP. In this study, it was hypothesized that the relationship between parenting factors and child disability would be mediated by children’s level of maladaptive coping (i.e., pain catastrophizing). Methods Seventy-five patients with FAP presenting to a pediatric pain clinic and their caregivers participated. Youth completed measures of pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Caregivers completed measures of parent pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and parent responses to child pain behaviors (Adult Responses to Child Symptoms: protection, minimizing, and encouragement/monitoring subscales). Results Increased functional disability was significantly related to higher child pain intensity, increased child and parent pain catastrophizing, and higher levels of encouragement/monitoring and protection. Parent minimization was not related to disability. Child pain catastrophizing fully mediated the relationship between parent encouragement/monitoring and disability and partially mediated the relationship between parent protectiveness and disability. Conclusions The impact of parenting behaviors in response to FAP on child disability is determined in part by the child’s coping style. Findings highlight a more nuanced understanding of the parent-child interaction in determining pain-related disability levels, which should be taken into consideration in assessing and treating youth with FAP. PMID:25121521
Cunningham, Natoshia R; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Barnett, Kimberly; Peugh, James; Sil, Soumitri; Goldschneider, Kenneth; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita
Functional abdominal pain (FAP) in youth is associated with substantial impairment in functioning, and prior research has shown that overprotective parent responses can heighten impairment. Little is known about how a range of parental behaviors (overprotection, minimizing, and/or encouragement) in response to their child's pain interact with child coping characteristics (eg, catastrophizing) to influence functioning in youth with FAP. In this study, it was hypothesized that the relation between parenting factors and child disability would be mediated by children's levels of maladaptive coping (ie, pain catastrophizing). Seventy-five patients with FAP presenting to a pediatric pain clinic and their caregivers participated in the study. Youth completed measures of pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Caregivers completed measures of parent pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and parent responses to child pain behaviors (Adult Responses to Child Symptoms: Protection, Minimizing, and Encouragement/Monitoring subscales). Increased functional disability was significantly related to higher child pain intensity, increased child and parent pain catastrophizing, and higher levels of encouragement/monitoring and protection. Parent minimization was not related to disability. Child pain catastrophizing fully mediated the relation between parent encouragement/monitoring and disability and partially mediated the relation between parent protectiveness and disability. The impact of parenting behaviors in response to FAP on child disability is determined, in part, by the child's coping style. Findings highlight a more nuanced understanding of the parent-child interaction in determining pain-related disability levels, which should be taken into consideration in assessing and treating youth with FAP.