WorldWideScience

Sample records for sexual abuse child

  1. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  2. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  3. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Showing private parts ("flashing"), forcing children to watch pornography, verbal pressure for sex, and exploiting children as prostitutes or for pornography can be sexual abuse as well. Researchers estimate ...

  4. Child Sexual Abuse in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantula, Fennie; Saloojee, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse is a significant public health problem globally, its incidence, prevention, and management is less well described in resource-poor settings. In poorer settings prevention initiatives assume even more importance since resources for managing abused children are severely limited. This article examines the current status of policy and practice related to the prevention of child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe. It identifies implementation challenges and highlights opportunities that could be embraced to reduce CSA in Zimbabwe, based on evidence synthesized from recent work. Although Zimbabwe has a well-established legal and regulatory framework to protect children from child sexual abuse, implementation of existing policies is weak. Financial, human, and material resource constraints are frequently cited to explain limited prevention activity. Effective strategies for the prevention of child sexual abuse should focus on implementing existing legislation, targeting schoolchildren, and getting community involvement. A dedicated budget would help entrench these strategies, but gains can be achieved even in the absence of this.

  5. child sexual abuse in zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J MUGUMBATE

    This paper bemoans the current scourge of child- sexual abuse as well as the recent .... What we must bear in mind is that these are the. 'reported cases' ..... Plato was trying to advance a theory of motivation for human action and he explains ...

  6. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming ... find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make good mental health a reality, consider donating to the Campaign for ...

  7. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  8. School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse: A School Leadership Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…

  10. Child sexual abuse and family outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Rinke; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between different characteristics of sexual abuse and adverse family outcomes in later life. Through archived court files, a large sample of Dutch men and women who have been sexually abused as a child could be identified. Outcome variables were assessed

  11. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  12. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  13. Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Guest Editor’s Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Salter

    2015-01-01

    One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have bee...

  14. Rural Child Sexual Abuse Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, JoAnn; Murty, Susan A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews literature on rural child sexual abuse and treatment. Surveys providers in rural Washington treatment programs. Responses describe agency characteristics, services, delivery problems, and suggested solutions. Reports providers' perceptions of service quality and interagency cooperation. Cites as problems heavy caseloads, lack of staff, and…

  15. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE IN ZIMBABWE: PREVENTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacob Mugumbate

    that social workers in Zimbabwe have a role to play at all the three levels of intervention. KEY TERMS: Child sexual abuse (CSA), social work, prevention,. Meili's model. ..... network/2013/mar/19/world-social-work-day-fair-global- · economy1.

  16. Containing the Secret of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  18. [Child sexual abuse: an irremediable hurt?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered--either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset--are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance--both at a physical and psychic level--and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents on child sexual abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    preventable harm and trauma of sexual abuse in rural communities of Tanzania. .... about preventing child sexual abuse was measured by 10 Likert's scale-type ..... Bensley, L., van Eenwyk, J. & Simmons K. (2000) Self-reported childhood ...

  20. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Child Sexual Abuse and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first book to explore child sexual abuse within global religious and media organisations. Termed here the dual narrative, there is, on the one hand, the view that everyone is a potential paedophile, and, on the other, the notion of a witch-hunt falsely accusing people. Beginning with a re-examination of historic claims of satanic ritual abuse, the author moves on to investigate global celebrity culture, the global religious context as well as an analysis of technology. The interna...

  2. Online Child Sexual Abuse: The French Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chawki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Online child sexual abuse is an increasingly visible problem in society today. The introduction, growth and utilization of information and telecommunication technologies (ICTs have been accompanied by an increase in illegal activities. With respect to cyberspace the Internet is an attractive environment to sex offenders. In addition to giving them greater access to minors, extending their reach from a limited geographical area to victims all around the world, it allows criminals to alter or conceal their identities. Sexual predators, stalkers, child pornographers and child traffickers can use various concealment techniques to make it more difficult for investigators to identify them and find evidence. Others physically hide removable media and incriminating evidence in rented storage space, impeding an investigator’s job to find the truth. France has given the protection of children from sexual exploitation and abuse a high priority. Traditional laws have been amended to address the challenges of information technology, violence and to bring at the same time the country into line with international conventions on the rights of children. Accordingly this current article will analyze some of the techniques used by offenders to abuse children online, including recent legal and administrative developments in France concerning online children protection.

  3. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  4. Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Methods: Key informant interviews were conducted among adults including parents of the ... factors for child sexual abuse, the type of perpetrators and the context into which these abuses take place.

  5. Child sexual abuse in Zaria, North

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... psychological trauma of sexual abuse, which manifests as major stress and ... to have been sexually active in their adolescence, which highlights some ... presentation in the clinic was 14 days, however three cases presented ...

  6. Child sexual abuse in Zaria, Northwestern Nigeria | Bugaje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child sexual abuse has been reported from all corners of the globe, ... Although the trauma of abuse heals with time, it leaves long term psychological and ... sexual abuse, from August 2008 to October 2009, at a primary health centre in ... Eleven cases (55%) attended school, while three (15%) were hawkers.

  7. Evaluation of an Innovative Tool for Child Sexual Abuse Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…

  8. The Medical Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon W.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents on child sexual abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The role of parents in preventing child sexual abuse in the community in low-and-middle income countries has not been adequately emphasized. The objective of this study was to assess parents' knowledge, attitudes and practices on child sexual abuse and its prevention in Shinyanga district, Tanzania in ...

  10. Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Guest Editor’s Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Salter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have been excluded from the terms of reference of the Royal Commission but nonetheless continue to surface in media reports. In 2013, twelve children were permanently removed from an extended family living in rural NSW in what has been described as one of the worst cases of child abuse in Australia, involving intergenerational incest going back at least three generations (Auebach 2014. Another recent high-profile case involved the use of the Internet to facilitate the sexual exploitation of an adopted child by his parents in Queensland (Ralston 2013. These cases challenge the received wisdom that child sexual abuse is characterised by the victimisation of one child by one opportunistic offender. Such incidents suggest instead that child sexual abuse takes varied and systemic forms, and can operate to perpetuate and entrench toxic cultures and power structures.   This special issue on Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation is a timely contribution to ongoing efforts to understand the multiplicity of child sexual abuse. It is an interdisciplinary collection of insights drawn from criminology, sociology, psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis, and includes papers from academic researchers alongside academic practitioners whose writing is grounded in their work with affected individuals and communities. A key aim of the special issue is to contextualise the diversity of child sexual abuse socially, politically and historically, recognising the dynamic and iterative

  11. Persistent Complications of Child Sexual Abuse: Sexually Compulsive Behaviors, Attachment, and Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dixie; Cohn, Aaron; Robinson, Brittany; Muse, Fatima; Hughes, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse has the potential to cause distress for the victim across the lifespan. Romantic relationships may be particularly difficult for victims of child sexual abuse. This retrospective study examined differences in adult romantic attachment, sexually compulsive behaviors, and emotion regulation by history of child sexual abuse in a large, nonclinical sample. Those with a history of child sexual abuse reported more attachment anxiety in romantic relationships and engaged in more sexually compulsive behaviors. Overall, males displayed more sexually compulsive behaviors than females regardless of history of sexual abuse. Males with a history of sexual abuse displayed the greatest number of sexually compulsive behaviors. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in emotion regulation or attachment avoidant behaviors by history of child sexual abuse. Future research should seek to replicate current findings and examine emotion regulation difficulties experienced as a result of trauma.

  12. [Child sexual abuse. Epidemiology, clinical diagnostics, therapy, and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegert, J M; Hoffmann, U; Spröber, N; Liebhardt, H

    2013-02-01

    The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents.

  13. Impact of parental sex education on child sexual abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-10

    Aug 10, 2015 ... reduce shame, stigma, and self-blame for youth who have experienced sexual abuse6. ... tional level of parents, sex education and child sexual abuse among ..... Jean R. Changes in self-esteem during the middle school ...

  14. The Child Sexual Abuse Epidemic in Addis Ababa: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The psychological trauma and physical complaints presented by victims include symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: It was found out that child sexual abuse cases presented to the legal office was not properly managed. Female children appear to be more prone to sexual abuse than their male counterparts.

  15. Child Sexual Abuse in Minna, Niger State Nigeria | Abdulkadir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child sexual abuse is a widespread form of child abuse that has remained the most under-reported. In our communities, much remains unknown of this act which often leaves victims traumatised with unsavoury memory that tends to affect their psychosocial development. The study evaluted the ...

  16. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  17. Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative study. Mangi J. Ezekiel, Felix Kisanga, Idda H. Mosha, Amani Anaeli, Switbert R. Kamazima, Rose Mpembeni, Eustace P. Muhondwa ...

  18. Alleged child sexual abuse : The expert witness and the court

    OpenAIRE

    Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2001-01-01

    Background During the past decades, the evaluation of alleged sexual abuse has manifested itself as a major challenge for professionals working within the field of child maltreatment. A new role for psychologists and psychiatrists has been to give expert opinions regarding the credibility and reliability of child witnesses in legal proceedings. Although some aspects of evaluating suspected sexual abuse cases are close to traditional clinical work, other aspects necessitate ...

  19. Simulating Memory Impairment for Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jeremy W; Hobbs, Sue D

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated effects of simulated memory impairment on recall of child sexual abuse (CSA) information. A total of 144 adults were tested for memory of a written CSA scenario in which they role-played as the victim. There were four experimental groups and two testing sessions. During Session 1, participants read a CSA story and recalled it truthfully (Genuine group), omitted CSA information (Omission group), exaggerated CSA information (Commission group), or did not recall the story at all (No Rehearsal group). One week later, at Session 2, all participants were told to recount the scenario truthfully, and their memory was then tested using free recall and cued recall questions. The Session 1 manipulation affected memory accuracy during Session 2. Specifically, compared with the Genuine group's performance, the Omission, Commission, or No Rehearsal groups' performance was characterized by increased omission and commission errors and decreased reporting of correct details. Victim blame ratings (i.e., victim responsibility and provocativeness) and participant gender predicted increased error and decreased accuracy, whereas perpetrator blame ratings predicted decreased error and increased accuracy. Findings are discussed in relation to factors that may affect memory for CSA information. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The International Epidemiology of Child Sexual Abuse: A Continuation of Finkelhor (1994)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Noemi; Guilera, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gomez-Benito, Juana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). "The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse." "Child Abuse & Neglect," 18 (5), 409-417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods:…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet for Parents, Teachers, and Other Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…

  2. Factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is identify potential factors associated with child sexual abuse confirmation at forensic examinations. The forensic files of children under 12 years of age reporting sexual abuse at the Nina Rodrigues Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil between January 2008 and December 2009 were reviewed. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with finding evidence of sexual abuse in forensic examinations. The proportion of cases confirmed by the forensic physician based on material evidence was 10.4%. Adjusted analysis showed that the variables place of birth, type of abuse reported, family relationship between the child and the perpetrator, and the interval between the reported abuse and the forensic examination were not independently associated with finding forensic evidence of sexual abuse. A report of penetration was associated with a five-fold greater likelihood of confirmation, while the victim being 10-11 years of age was associated with a two-fold of abuse confirmation than younger children. These findings should be taken into consideration when drawing up guidelines for the multidisciplinary evaluation of children suspected of being victims of sexual abuse and in deciding whether to refer the child for forensic examination.

  3. Forensic Impact of the Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John E. B.

    1998-01-01

    This commentary on an article (EC 619 279) about research issues at the interface of medicine and law concerning medical evaluation for child sexual abuse focuses on empirically testable questions: (1) the medical history--its accuracy, interviewing issues, and elicitation and preservation of verbal evidence of abuse; and, (2) expert testimony.…

  4. 6. The Psychological Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    school functioning, emotional reactions to the abuse were found to have ... feelings toward the perpetrator were negative or the ... When the child discloses sexual abuse, the parent's reaction .... divorced (n= 2, 5.88%) and single (n= 2, 5.88%).

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and child sexual abuse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) has not previously been regarded as important in the overall ... episode of abuse is unknown," but because of greater risk of mucosal trauma, the risk is .... Children and adolescents started on HIV PEP should receive sufficient ... A clear message should be proclaimed by all political and community ...

  6. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  7. Child sexual abuse within the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Mette

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, it will be argued that, even though the legislation from 1930 represents a legally shift in the perception of the younger party under the age of 18 (from accomplice to victim), in practice, norms about gender, age and sexuality continued to play an important role in the police...... system after 1933. Dichotomous stereotypes, such as the “decent girl” (with no sexual experiences) vs. the “immoral adolescent” (sexually experienced girl) and the “seduced adult” (who could not resist the temptation from the immoral adolescent) vs. the “child molester” (who had assaulted an innocent...... child), were, in this respect, shared and used by police authorities and families in the construction of the victim and offender and in attributing the moral responsibility for the crime ¬– despite the fact, that the younger party under the age of 18 couldn’t get punished...

  8. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  9. Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

  10. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  11. Child Sexual Abuse and the Law in India: A commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Belur, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has only recently been publicly acknowledged as a problem in India. A welcome development has been the enactment of a special law—Protection of Children against Sexual Offences (POCSO) 2012—criminalising a range of acts including child rape, harassment, and exploitation for pornography. The law mandates setting up of Special Courts to facilitate speedy trials in CSA cases. The paper highlights the intended benefits and the unintended consequences that might arise from...

  12. Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Their Nonoffending Mothers Followed by Child Welfare Services: The Role of a Maternal History of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse.

  13. A child sexual abuse research project: a brief endnote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on sexual abuse perpetrated by educators. Although the problem is receiving increasing attention, little emphasis has been placed on abuse directed at younger schoolchildren and on offenders' accounts of this form of abuse. Here, we attempt to address this gap in knowledge by exploring the narratives of five convicted, imprisoned male child sexual abusers, each of whom worked with children in educational settings in the United Kingdom. We draw on four themes that emerged from detailed interviews with offenders, namely: the power of reputation, authority and control, the "front of invulnerability," and disclosure of abuse. We conclude by considering the implications of our work for policy and practice.

  14. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  15. Evaluation of a child sexual abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasan-Taber, L; Tabachnick, J

    1999-10-01

    A half-million children are believed to be sexually abused each year in the United States. In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual assault "a silent violent epidemic." The majority of efforts to stop child sexual abuse have focused on punishing abusers and treating victims and their families; prevention programs are uncommon and rely on educating children to report sexual abuse. This case study describes the evaluation of the first public health campaign designed to target adults for prevention. A baseline assessment of attitudes, awareness, knowledge, and policies was conducted in Vermont to identify facilitators and barriers to adult prevention of child sexual abuse. These included predisposing factors (50% of Vermont residents did not know the characteristics of an abuser), enabling factors (60% of Vermont residents did not know where to refer someone who may have sexual behavior problems), and reinforcing factors (when focus group participants knew an abuser, they were less likely to take action). This process guided the intervention, which included a broad-based media campaign targeting adults; a one-to-one communications strategy that provided information to agencies working with families at risk and a toll-free helpline for adults in an abuse situation; and a systems change strategy designed to educate decision-makers and leaders. Program evaluation measures included a random-digit dial survey, focus groups, a survey of Vermont decision-makers, and other data sets. The successes and limitations of these interventions, both as strategies in themselves and as data sources for evaluation, are discussed.

  16. 5. Characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    The Child Sexual Abuse Centre at the Paediatric Centre of Excellence,. University ... As a result of its effects, CSA is a psychiatric emergency. .... Primary. 91. 47.4. Preschool. 29. 15.1. Not in School. 6. 3.1. Never been to School. 24. 12.5.

  17. Child Sexual Abuse Suspicions: Treatment Considerations during Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Kathryn; Connell, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts. The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…

  18. Magazine Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse, 1992-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheit, Ross E.; Shavit, Yael; Reiss-Davis, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes trends in the coverage of child sexual abuse in popular magazines since the early 1990s. The article employs systematic analysis to identify and analyze articles in four popular magazines. Articles are analyzed by subject, length, and publication. The results affirm established theories of newsworthiness related to the…

  19. Child sexual abuse and possible health consequences among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health concern especially in developed countries and where legal measures take unprecedented time. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of different forms of CSA, and the perceived health consequences among secondary school students in ...

  20. Knowledge and Perception of Child Sexual Abuse in Urban Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports some baseline findings from a community-based project on the incidence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in two Nigerian urban centres. The study focused on low income, non-elite, occupational groups. Data were generated through in-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs), and survey ...

  1. Childhood experiences of incarcerated male child sexual abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-10-01

    While numerous efforts have been made to understand the impact of child sexual abuse, little has been done to examine the childhood experiences of those who abuse children. Child sexual abusers have been studied from quantitative perspectives using behavioral checklists, parental-bonding surveys, and sexual history questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to explore incarcerated child sexual abusers' recollections of their childhood experiences using the descriptive existential lens of phenomenology. Eight incarcerated male child sexual abusers described their childhood from existential perspectives of lived space, lived other, lived body, and lived time via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Analysis was accomplished through the qualitative, descriptive method of Max van Manen. Rich descriptions of the participants' insights into their daily childhood life experiences that shaped their self-concepts and contributed to their adult behaviors were gathered. Four major themes were identified: (1) failure to root, (2) what you see is what you learn, (3) stupid is as stupid does, and (4) life's moments. Data from this study suggest that the experiences of childhood significantly contribute to an adult self-concept that can be distorted by the lack of a secure home space, maladaptive relationships, internalization of inappropriate behavior, and a lack of significant family development. This study explores the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of early childhood experiences. The findings support the need for family and psychological mental health nurse practitioners to be more aware of early home environments; improve their assessment of children's developing self-concept and the potential for abusive relationships.

  2. Credibility assessment in child sexual abuse investigations: A descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkman, Eran P; Hershkowitz, Irit; Zur, Ronit

    2017-05-01

    A major challenge in cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) is determining the credibility of children's reports. Consequently cases may be misclassified as false or deemed 'no judgment possible'. Based on a large national sample of reports of CSA made in Israel in 2014, the study examines child and event characteristics contributing to the probability that reports of abuse would be judged credible. National data files of all children aged 3-14, who were referred for investigation following suspected victimization of sexual abuse, and had disclosed sexual abuse, were analyzed. Cases were classified as either 'credible' or 'no judgment possible'. The probability of reaching a 'credible' judgment was examined in relation to characteristics of the child (age, gender, cognitive delay, marital status of the parents,) and of the abusive event (abuse severity, frequency, perpetrator-victim relationship, perpetrator's use of grooming, and perpetrator's use of coercion), controlling for investigator's identity at the cluster level of the analysis. Of 1563 cases analyzed, 57.9% were assessed as credible. The most powerful predictors of a credible judgment were older age and absence of a cognitive delay. Reports of children to married parents, who experienced a single abusive event that involved perpetrator's use of grooming, were also more likely to be judged as credible. Rates of credible judgments found are lower than expected suggesting under-identification of truthful reports of CSA. In particular, those cases of severe and multiple abuse involving younger and cognitively delayed children are the ones with the lowest chances of being assessed as credible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  4. Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

  5. Socio-Praxis Preferences in Teacher Preparation for Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, particularly child sexual abuse, is a pastoral care issue that deeply concerns all education professionals. The literature strongly supports specific training for pre-service teachers about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, although few studies identify how such training should be academically structured.…

  6. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  7. [Child sexual abuse: clinical perspectives and ethico-legal dilemmas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Alvaro; Ramírez, Luis

    2016-01-01

    In the review of the current literature, the main causing factors of the related conditions with child sexual abuse are the ethical dilemmas and legal implications. A review was conducted on the classic literature on this topic. In this articlesome difficult paradigmatic cases are presented in which the hypothetical dilemmas were solved. The main characteristics of child sexual abuse enable us to have a better argument to address these situations. Taking into account the literature reviewed and predictable courses of action, it is concluded that it is important to take into account each individual each case and its circumstances, and that prudence and clinical objectivity, as well as knowledge of the law, become essential requirements for proper action. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  10. Maladaptive Schemas as Mediators in the Relationship Between Child Sexual Abuse and Displaced Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly.

  11. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  12. Hiding behind the Cloth: Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Kathryn A.; Alpert, Judith L.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general…

  13. Teacher Education to Meet the Challenges Posed by Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of child sexual abuse has significant implications for teachers' pre-service training and professional development. Teachers have a pedagogical role in dealing with abused children, and a legal and professional duty to report suspected child sexual abuse. Teachers require support and training to develop the specialised knowledge and…

  14. News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori

    2012-01-01

    News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

  15. The impacts of institutional child sexual abuse: A rapid review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Tamara; Herbert, James Leslie; Arney, Fiona; Parkinson, Samantha

    2017-12-01

    While awareness of institutional child sexual abuse has grown in recent years, there remains limited understanding of its occurrence and outcomes as a distinct form of abuse. Drawing on research commissioned by the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, this article presents a rapid review of available evidence on the impacts of institutional abuse on victim/survivors. Literature searches identified 75 sources spanning international peer reviewed work and reports to Government that document or quantify the impacts of mostly historical child sexual abuse occurring in religious, educational, sporting and residential or out-of-home care settings. Consistent with child sexual abuse in other contexts, institutional child sexual abuse is found to be associated with numerous, pervasive and connected impacts upon the psychological, physical, social, educative and economic wellbeing of victims/survivors. Further, institutional child sexual abuse is associated with vicarious trauma at the individual, family and community level, and with impacts to the spiritual wellbeing of victims/survivors of abuse that occurs in religious settings. The identified literature suggests the trauma of institutional child sexual abuse may be exacerbated by the interplay of abuse dynamics in institutional settings, which may reduce or impede circumstances supporting disclosure, belief, support and protection from future harm. Acknowledging the limitations of the present study and the available evidence, this narrative synthesis provides insights into the complex impacts of institutional child sexual abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mothers who were sexually abused during childhood are more likely to have a child victim of sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva; Saulo G. Tractenberg; Mateus L. Levandowski; Thiago W. Viola; Joelza M. A. Pires; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consi...

  17. "Talking about child sexual abuse would have helped me": Young people who sexually abused reflect on preventing harmful sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Gemma; Humphreys, Cathy; Hamilton, Bridget

    2017-08-01

    Harmful sexual behavior carried out by children and young people accounts for about half of all child sexual abuse perpetration. The aim of this study was to draw on the insights of young people who had been sexually abusive to enhance the current prevention agenda. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 14 young people and six treatment-providing workers. Sampling was purposive and the young people had previously completed a treatment program for harmful sexual behaviour in Victoria, Australia. The young people were approached as experts based on their previous experience of engaging in harmful sexual behavior. At the same time, their past abusive behavior was not condoned or minimised. Constructivist Grounded Theory was used to analyse the qualitative data. Opportunities for preventing harmful sexual behavior were the focus of the interviews with young people and workers. The research identified three opportunities for prevention, which involved acting on behalf of children and young people to: reform their sexuality education; redress their victimization experiences; and help their management of pornography. These opportunities could inform the design of initiatives to enhance the prevention agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

  19. "She Got Spoilt": Perceptions of Victims of Child Sexual Abuse in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Bettina

    2017-10-01

    International research has commented on social stigma as a key reason for nondisclosure of child sexual abuse. However, the actual components of this social stigma frequently remain unexplored. The present study deals with perceptions of consequences of child sexual abuse among professionals and laypeople in Ghana (N = 44), employing a bystander perspective. As a qualitative study using a grounded theory framework, it considers these consequences in light of their underlying beliefs about child and adolescent development, particularly in relation to gender-based expectations placed on girls and boys. Consequences of child sexual abuse could be divided into sexual health consequences, beliefs about "destroyed innocence" and beliefs about a "destroyed future," which were strongly related to the sexual nature of the violence perpetrated. These perceived consequences of child sexual abuse hold implications for what surviving child sexual abuse means on a social level. Implications for practice are discussed on the basis of the data analysis.

  20. Disclosure of child sexual abuse: mother's reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Samara Silva dos; Dell'Aglio, Débora Dalbosco

    2009-01-01

    A literatura tem indicado que mães de crianças vítimas de abuso sexual, ao tomarem conhecimento da situação de abuso de suas filhas, podem apresentar uma variedade de manifestações, que podem incluir ansiedade, depressão e estresse pós-traumático. Além disso, a reação frente à revelação pode ser de apoio e proteção ou, ainda, de evitação, indiferença ou ambivalência. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar como mães de meninas abusadas sexualmente reagiram quando tomaram conhecimento do abu...

  1. Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

  2. Australian Undergraduate Primary School Student-Teachers' Responses to Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to understand how primary school teachers, as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse, are responding to child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, even though many teachers do not receive a compulsory course in Child Protection and its legal requirements in their pre-service university training. A cohort of 81 Australian…

  3. Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse as Predictors of Later Sexual Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese-Weber, Marla; Smith, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    The association between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and specific negative outcomes (attachment, feelings of power, and self-esteem) was explored as was the relationship between those negative outcomes and sexual victimization during the first semester of college. Two groups of freshman college women (67 who had experienced CSA and 55 who…

  4. The Diagnostic Utility of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory for Sexual Abuse: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Verlinden, Eva; Langendam, Miranda W; De Smet, Vivienne; Teeuw, Arianne H; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Benninga, Marc A; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2018-06-11

    Children with alleged child sexual abuse (CSA) need to be assessed systematically. The use of validated instruments during the assessment, like the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), could add diagnostic value. We aim to assess the diagnostic utility of the CSBI to differentiate between sexually abused and non-abused children. We conducted a systematic review. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE and PsychInfo for studies comparing CSBI scores in sexually abused children and non-abused children (2-12 years old). Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. We included 7 (out of 1048) articles. The CSBI total scores were significantly higher in CSA-victims compared with non-abused children (in case-control settings). However, in children with suspected CSA, the results were ambiguous. One study reported significant differences. Another study reported weak diagnostic ability for the CSBI-3 in children with suspected CSA (a sensitivity and specificity of 0.50, with a positive predictive value of 0.28, and a negative predictive value of 0.72). Research on the diagnostic utility of the CSBI for suspected CSA is limited and shows disappointing results. Until more research is done, the CSBI should not be used on its own to differentiate between sexually abused and non-abused children.

  5. Contextual Predictive Factors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…

  6. The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse Discovery on Caregivers and Families: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Hiu-Fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N

    2017-06-01

    In this qualitative study with nonoffending caregivers of suspected child sexual abuse victims, we aimed to explore the perceived impact of sexual abuse discovery on caregivers and their families, and caregivers' attitudes about mental health services for themselves. We conducted semistructured, in-person interviews with 22 nonoffending caregivers of suspected sexual abuse victims <13 years old seen at a child advocacy center in Philadelphia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment continued until thematic saturation was reached. We found that caregivers experienced significant emotional and psychological distress, characterized by anger, depressed mood, and guilt, after learning that their child may have been sexually abused. We identified four specific sources of caregiver distress: concerns about their child, negative beliefs about their parenting abilities, family members' actions and behaviors, and memories of their own past maltreatment experiences. Some caregivers described worsening family relationships after discovery of their child's sexual abuse, while others reported increased family cohesion. Finally, we found that most caregivers in this study believed that mental health services for themselves were necessary or beneficial to help them cope with the impact of their child's sexual abuse. These results highlight the need for professionals working with families affected by sexual abuse to assess the emotional and psychological needs of nonoffending caregivers and offer mental health services. Helping caregivers link to mental health services, tailored to their unique needs after sexual abuse discovery, may be an acceptable strategy to improve caregiver and child outcomes after sexual abuse.

  7. Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahroos, Fadheela; Al-Amer, Eshraq

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary medical care facility in Bahrain. The review included demographic data, child and family characteristics, manifestations and interventions. The 440 children diagnosed with CSA had a mean age of 8 years (range, 9 months to 17 years); 222 were males (50.5%) and 218 were females (49.5%). There was a steady increase in cases from 31 per year in 2000 to 77 cases in 2009. Children disclosed abuse in 26% of cases, while health sector professionals recognized 53% of the cases. Genital touching and fondling (62.5%) were the most common form of CSA, followed by sodomy in 39%. Gonorrhea was documented in 2% of the cases and pregnancy in 4% of the females. The illiteracy rate among the fathers and mothers was 9% and 12%, respectively, which is higher than the rate among the adult general population. Children came from all socio-economic classes. There was referral to police in 56%, public prosecution in 31% of the cases, but only 8% reached the court. During ten years there has been a 2.5% increase in reported cases of CSA. Improving the skill of professionals in identifying CSA indicators and a mandatory reporting law might be needed to improve the rate of recognition and referral of CSA cases. Further general population-based surveys are needed to determine more accurately the scope of CSA and the risk and protective factors in the family and community.

  8. Two Tragic Forms of Child Sexual Abuse: Are They Often Overlooked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmey, Dorothy E.; Tice, Pamela Paradis

    2002-01-01

    The persistence and pervasiveness of two forms of child sexual abuse in particular, pornography and prostitution, undoubtedly lie in the perpetuation of societal norms that unwittingly support such tragic behaviors. Argues that the overall problem of child sexual abuse must be reconceptualized, and in-depth, long-term investigations of both child…

  9. The Economic Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse for Adult Lesbian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Batya

    2000-01-01

    This study extends investigation of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse into the workplace and considers the economic effects on Lesbian women as determined by the National Lesbian Health Care Survey. It considers the effects of child sexual abuse on four spheres of a woman's life: her physical health, mental health, educational…

  10. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  11. Prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in the Netherlands : Ethnic differences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okur, P.; van der Knaap, L.M.; Bogaerts, S.

    2015-01-01

    In most epidemiological prevalence studies of child sexual abuse, the role of ethnicity remains unclear. This study examined the prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in four non-Western ethnic minority groups and compared them with a native Dutch group. A sample of 3,426 young adults (aged

  12. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  13. The Pennsylvania State University Child Sexual Abuse Scandal: An Analysis of Institutional Factors Affecting Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) child sexual abuse scandal have left many scholars and individuals questioning the university's collective identity. The goal of this research was to uncover the dominant themes that describe a problematic institutional response to the child sexual abuse incidents in order to provide…

  14. Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

  15. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  16. Is Anybody Listening? The Literature on the Dialogical Process of Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure Reviewed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsema, Anne Margit; Grietens, Hans

    We conducted an exploratory review of the current literature on child sexual abuse disclosure in everyday contexts. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of relevant publications on the process of child sexual abuse disclosure, in order to generate new directions for future research and

  17. Historical Child Sexual Abuse in England and Wales: The Role of Historians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Adrian; Delap, Lucy; Jackson, Louise; Settle, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on methodological and ethical issues that have shaped a collaborative project which aims to chart social, legal and political responses to child sexual abuse in England and Wales across the twentieth century. The etymological problem of searching for child sexual abuse in the historical archive is discussed, given that the…

  18. Increasing the Usability of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Amy S.

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for empirically based treatments for child sexual abuse (CSA) that are time-efficient and cost-effective. This article describes a modification of cognitive processing therapy for child sexual abuse (CPT-SA) that increases the therapy's usability by reducing the number of individual therapy sessions required. The…

  19. Externalizing Behavior among Adopted Boys with Preadoptive Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Ryan, Scott D.; Hinterlong, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the severity of externalizing symptomology among adopted boys with preadoptive histories of child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect/abandonment, or no abuse. The study was based on data collected across a three-year period from parents who adopted children from Florida's child welfare system. The sample consisted of 1,136…

  20. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  1. Correlates of joint child protection and police child sexual abuse investigations: results from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tonmyr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%, and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations.

  2. Knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathoma, Anikie M; Maripe-Perera, Dorcas B; Khumalo, Lindiwe P; Mbayi, Bagele L; Seloilwe, Esther S

    2006-02-01

    This study sought to explore the phenomenon of child sexual abuse by investigating the knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding this problem in Botswana and Swaziland. Although there are no published studies on child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland, literature elsewhere has indicated that child abuse and prostitution prevail in Southern African Development Community countries and that children still continue to be rape victims within and outside the family structure [Muwanigwa, V. (1996). Child Abuse Demands More Preventive Measures. Harare: Zimbabwe. (Southern Africa News Features Southern African Research and Documentation Center)]. In Botswana in 1998, there were 300 cases of child abuse reported, of which 33 were sexual abuse cases. The same year in Swaziland, >50% of child abuse cases were sexual abuse related. In addition, the same year in Swaziland, >50% of sexual abuse case patients reporting for counseling were children younger than 21 years. Respondents of the study included 8 men (1 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) and 10 women (3 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) who were parents aged between 26 and 70 years; they were determined by way of purposive sampling. A focused interview guide with open-ended questions was used to collect data, and measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to. Analysis of data was facilitated by categorization of themes and concepts and coding systems. The results of the study showed that the respondents acknowledged the prevalence of child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland and further demonstrated their knowledge of the predisposing factors, perpetrators of the problem, and effects of sexual abuse on children. They placed major emphases on community involvement in fighting against the problem; appropriate education of children, parents, families, and community members about child sexual abuse; and improvement on the laws that protect children against sexual abuse to

  3. Child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe: prevention strategies for social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sexual abuse of children crosses cultural and economic divides. Sexual abuse can lead to long-lasting, even life-long consequences and is a serious problem on individuals, families and societies. Social workers by nature of their work, intervene at the individual, family and societal level. This paper will explore the ...

  4. Adult Sexual Experiences as a Mediator Between Child Abuse and Current Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (M(age) = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Genitalia in human figure drawings: childrearing practices and child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, R A; Hartman, G

    1990-05-01

    To replicate and explore the associations of drawing genitalia on a human figure, child-rearing practices, and a history of alleged sexual abuse, we designed a cross-sectional study of 109 alleged child sexual abuse victims, ages 3 through 8 years, and a group of 109 comparison children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status but with no history of abuse. A standardized format was used to collect drawings, administer the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and gather background data on medical, developmental, and child-rearing issues. Seven alleged sexual abuse victims and one comparison child spontaneously drew genitalia (p = 0.02, one-tailed Fisher Exact Test, estimated relative risk 7.96). No differences in drawing maturity (Draw-A-Man score) were identified, although Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores were higher in comparison children (82.1 vs. 91.0, p less than 0.01). Neither drawing genitalia nor history of alleged sexual abuse were significantly associated with histories of medical problems, enuresis, encopresis, urinary tract infection, or child-rearing practices related to sleeping, nudity, bathing, sexual abuse education, or exposure to sexually explicit materials. The similar patterns of child-rearing practices in both samples should make professionals cautious in attributing allegations of abuse to specific child-rearing practices. This study confirms our previous report that the presence of genitalia spontaneously drawn on a child's drawing of a human figure is associated with alleged sexual abuse.

  6. From Freud to Feminism: Gendered Constructions of Blame Across Theories of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Corry; Alaggia, Ramona; Fallon, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Most theories of child sexual abuse are, to some degree, gendered, with nonoffending mothers bearing the burden of blame, ideologically and legally, for the transgressions of predominantly male offenders. This article explores the social construction of blame for child sexual abuse via critical analyses of evolving theoretical perspectives on maternal culpability for the inception and maintenance of abuse dynamics. Drawing on selected conceptual and research knowledge that supports and refutes anecdotal claims, this synthesis of the literature culminates in the proposal of an evidence-informed, feminist-grounded, multitheoretical child sexual abuse framework that disrupts dominant mother-blaming discourse and guides socially just and ethically responsive policy, practice, and research.

  7. Forensic, Cultural, and Systems Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Cases--Part 2: Research and Practitioner Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishelman, Amy C.; Geffner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider…

  8. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...

  9. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Attributions of Responsibility in a Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Vignette among Respondents with CSA Histories: The Role of Abuse Similarity to a Hypothetical Victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…

  11. Interpreting child sexual abuse: Empathy and offense-supportive cognitions among child sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempel, I.S.; Buck, N.M.L.; van Vugt, E.S.; van Marle, H.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that child sex offenders hold distorted views on social interactions with children. Misinterpreting children’s behavior and intentions could lead to sexually abusive behavior toward children. It is further suggested that the interpretation process is influenced by

  12. Preventing child sexual abuse: parents' perceptions and practices in urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, Olusimbo K; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I

    2011-11-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents disagreed with common child sexual abuse myths. In addition, almost all parents ( >90%) reported communicating with their child(ren) about stranger danger. However, about 47% felt their children could not be abused, and over a quarter (27.1%) often left their children alone and unsupervised. There were no significant variations in the perceptions of child sexual abuse and communication practices. The implications of findings for child sexual abuse prevention are discussed.

  13. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

  14. The Association of Maternal Depressive Symptoms with Child Externalizing Problems: The Role of Maternal Support Following Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Aaron; Smith, Daniel; Begle, Angela M.; Ayer, Lynsay

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of abuse-specific maternal support in the association between parent depressive symptoms and child externalizing problems in a sample of children with a history of sexual abuse. In total, 106 mother-child dyads were studied. The association between maternal depressive symptoms and child delinquency behaviors was found…

  15. Mothers who were sexually abused during childhood are more likely to have a child victim of sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consisting of 82 mothers of non-sexually abused children. History of exposure to CSA was evaluated by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form (CTQ and we used a logistic regression model to estimate the prediction values regarding having or not a child exposed to sexual violence. Results: Mothers of sexually abused children had significantly higher scores on CTQ, especially on the sexual abuse subscale (SA. According to our logistic regression model, higher scores on the CTQ significantly predicted the status of being a mother of children exposed to sexual violence in our sample (Wald = 7.074; p = 0.008; Exp(B = 1.681. Years of formal education reduced the likelihood of having a child victim of sexual violence (Wald = 18.994; p = 0.001; Exp(B = 0.497. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of a possible intergenerational effect of sexual abuse. Family intervention and prevention against childhood maltreatment should take this issue in account.

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  17. Magnitude and patterns of child sexual abuse: A retrospective cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    retrospective cross-sectional study among male pediatric patients at ... HIV on the first presentation of the incident to the emergency unit. ..... sexual abuse a qualitative interview study with ... exposure prophylaxis programme Malawi Med J.

  18. Coping Strategies and Depression Among College Students Following Child Sexual Abuse in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Irmak, Türkan; Aksel, Şeyda; Thompson, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between type of coping style and depression in college students with child sexual abuse experience. A total of 1,055 college students completed self-report measures to assess depressive symptoms, coping strategies, and child sexual abuse history. This study was conducted with a subset of 125 college students who reported that they had been sexually abused in childhood. They were divided into depressive and nondepressive groups according to their depressive symptoms. Data was collected with the Childhood Sexual Abuse Measurement, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Coping Styles of Stress Scale. Family characteristics were measured with a demographic questionnaire. Analyses involved multiple regression to test for predictive effects. Among college students with child sexual abuse histories, parental education level and both problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies significantly explained depression scores.

  19. The German Dunkelfeld project: a pilot study to prevent child sexual abuse and the use of child abusive images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Klaus M; Grundmann, Dorit; Kuhle, Laura F; Scherner, Gerold; Konrad, Anna; Amelung, Till

    2015-02-01

    Sexual interest toward prepubescents and pubescents (pedophilia and hebephilia) constitutes a major risk factor for child sexual abuse (CSA) and viewing of child abusive images, i.e., child pornography offenses (CPO). Most child sexual exploitation involving CSA and CPO are undetected and unprosecuted in the "Dunkelfeld" (German: "dark field"). This study assesses a treatment program to enhance behavioral control and reduce associated dynamic risk factors (DRF) in self-motivated pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2011, 319 undetected help-seeking pedophiles and hebephiles expressed interest in taking part in an anonymous and confidential 1-year-treatment program using broad cognitive behavioral methodology in the Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Therapy was assessed using nonrandomized waiting list control design (n=53 treated group [TG]; n=22 untreated control group [CG]). Self-reported pre-/posttreatment DRF changes were assessed and compared with CG. Offending behavior characteristics were also assessed via self-reporting. No pre-/postassessment changes occurred in the control group. Emotional deficits and offense-supportive cognitions decreased in the TG; posttherapy sexual self-regulation increased. Treatment-related changes were distributed unequally across offender groups. None of the offending behavior reported for the TG was identified as such by the legal authorities. However, five of 25 CSA offenders and 29 of 32 CPO offenders reported ongoing behaviors under therapy. Therapy for pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld can alter child sexual offending DRF and reduce-related behaviors. Unidentified, unlawful child sexual exploitative behaviors are more prevalent in this population than in officially reported recidivism. Further research into factors predictive of problematic sexual behaviors in the Dunkelfeld is warranted. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse Victimization: A Meta Analysis of School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Jan; Aleman, Andre; Goudena, Paul P.

    1997-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse victimization found significant and considerable mean postintervention and follow-up effect sizes, indicating that the programs were effective in teaching children sexual abuse concepts and self-protection skills. Program duration and content…

  1. Understanding Child Sexual Abuse by Catholic Priests from a Situational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Karen J.; Freilich, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Most sexual offense research focuses on offender motivation and individual risk factors rather than the criminal events themselves. This article provides an analysis of data from two studies on child sexual abuse by Catholic priests to help understand the opportunities clergy had or created to abuse youth. Findings show that situational factors…

  2. Social and Emotional Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…

  3. Caregiver perceptions about mental health services after child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Hiu-fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe caregiver perceptions about mental health services (MHS) after child sexual abuse (CSA) and to explore factors that affected whether their children linked to services. We conducted semi-structured, in-person interviews with 22 non-offending caregivers of suspected CSA victims<13 years old seen at a child advocacy center in Philadelphia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit caregivers who had (n=12) and had not (n=10) linked their children to MHS. Guided by the Health Belief Model framework, interviews assessed perceptions about: CSA severity, the child's susceptibility for adverse outcomes, the benefits of MHS, and the facilitators and barriers to MHS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment ended when thematic saturation was reached. Caregivers expressed strong reactions to CSA and multiple concerns about adverse child outcomes. Most caregivers reported that MHS were generally necessary for children after CSA. Caregivers who had not linked to MHS, however, believed MHS were not necessary for their children, most commonly because they were not exhibiting behavioral symptoms. Caregivers described multiple access barriers to MHS, but caregivers who had not linked reported that they could have overcome these barriers if they believed MHS were necessary for their children. Caregivers who had not linked to services also expressed concerns about MHS being re-traumatizing and stigmatizing. Interventions to increase MHS linkage should focus on improving communication with caregivers about the specific benefits of MHS for their children and proactively addressing caregiver concerns about MHS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  5. Conflict Resolution Styles as Mediators of Female Child Sexual Abuse Experience and Heterosexual Couple Relationship Satisfaction and Stability in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Ashlee E; Knapp, Darin J; Brown, Cameron C; Larson, Jeffry H

    2017-01-01

    Trauma from female incestuous child sexual abuse may result in negative psychological consequences affecting adult relationships. This study explored relational consequences of incestuous child sexual abuse, focusing on conflict resolution styles, relationship satisfaction, and relationship stability. Using the RELATionship Evaluation dataset, 457 heterosexual couples in which female partners experienced incestuous child sexual abuse were compared to a group of 1,827 couples with no sexual abuse history. Analyses tested differences in the frequencies of reported conflict resolution styles for incestuous child sexual abuse and non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups, the mediating effects of conflict resolution styles on the relationship between incestuous child sexual abuse, and self- and partner-reported relationship satisfaction and stability. Significant differences in the reports of types of conflict resolution styles were found for incestuous child sexual abuse versus non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups. Incestuous child sexual abuse and conflict resolution styles were negatively related to relationship satisfaction and stability and there was a significant indirect effect between female incestuous child sexual abuse, female volatility, and relationship instability. Clinical applications for couple relationships are discussed.

  6. Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse: examining abuse severity, mental health, and masculine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Scott D; Renner, Lynette M; O'Leary, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Men who were sexually abused during childhood are at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems, including suicidality. However, little is known about which factors are related to recent suicide attempts for this vulnerable, under-researched population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between abuse severity, mental health, masculine norms and recent suicide attempts among men with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). We analyzed survey data gathered from a purposive sample of 487 men who were sexually abused during childhood. The age of the sample ranged from 19 to 84 years (μ = 50.4 years). Recent suicide attempts served as the dependent variable in the study. Self-reported measures of sexual abuse severity, child physical abuse, mental health, masculine norms, and demographic information (age, race) represented the independent variables. The results from logistic regression modeling found that five variables - duration of the sexual abuse, use of force during the sexual abuse, high conformity to masculine norms, level of depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation - increased the odds of a suicide attempt in the past 12 months. To improve mental health services for men with histories of CSA, mental health practitioners should incorporate sexual abuse severity, current mental health, and adherence to masculine norms into assessment and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Case series of child sexual abuse: Abia State University Teaching Hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoronkwo, N C; Ejike, O

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse remains a serious infringement on the rights of the child. Though it appears to be viewed less seriously among adolescents, the consequences may be more severe and less obvious for the younger child. Age of the child appears notto be a deterrent. There is paucity of local data in the sub-region on this important social problem. The circumstance surrounding child sexual abuse in our environment needs to be reviewed. This study sets out to evaluate the characteristics of victims of child sexual abuse and to proffer solutions on how to stem the tide of the crime. To examine the characteristics of sexually abused children presenting to the paediatrics department of Abia State UniversityTeaching hospital, Aba. The case records of 10 consecutive cases of sexually abused children that presented to the Children Outpatient Department of Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH) Aba, from January to June 2006 were prospectively reviewed and the parents/child/abuser interviewed where possible. All the victims were females aged 3-11 yrs, while all the abusers were males 14-29 yrs. Both parties were of low socio-economic class. 50% of the victims reported the incident. Mental and psychological state of the perpetrators appears to be a factor. Physical injuries to the vulva-vaginal areas were common. This study shows that child sexual abuse may not be uncommon in our environment. The exact prevalence remains unknown.The perpetrators of child sexual abuse should be prosecuted as a deterrent and rehabilitated whenever possible.

  9. Prevalencia y Consecuencias del Abuso Sexual al Menor en Espana (Prevalence and Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse in Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Felix; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence and effects of child sexual abuse in Spain were studied, using interview and survey responses from 1,821 individuals. Results indicated a high prevalence of sexual abuse prior to age 17 (15 percent of males and 22 percent of females) and a number of short-term and long-term effects, including a tendency toward mental health…

  10. Framing Child Sexual Abuse: A Longitudinal Content Analysis of Newspaper and Television Coverage, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherred, Jane Long

    2017-01-01

    The way in which the news media frame child sexual abuse can influence public perception. This content analysis of the child sexual abuse coverage of eight national news organizations in the United States from 2002 to 2012 includes the two dominant events of the Catholic Church and Pennsylvania State University child sexual abuse scandals. Census and systematic stratified sampling techniques were applied to articles obtained from the Lexis/Nexis Academic database, resulting in a sample of 503 articles. Intercoder reliability was ensured by double coding a randomly selected sample. Study findings indicate a shift in the attribution of responsibility of child sexual abuse among news organizations over the past decade from an individual-level problem with individual-level solutions to a societal-level problem with institutional culpability. Nevertheless, individual-level solutions continue to be framed as the best possible solution.

  11. Child sexual abuse among adolescents in southeast Nigeria: A concealed public health behavioral issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Manyike Pius; M, Chinawa Josephat; Elias, Aniwada; I, Odutola Odetunde; Awoere, Chinawa T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse among adolescents is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, yet it is a major cause of low self esteem and stigmatization in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic determinant and pattern of child sexual abuse among adolescent attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out among children in three secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states of Nigeria. Five hundred and six adolescents who met inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited into our prospective study between June and October, 2014. Results: One hundred and ninety nine (40 %) of the respondents had been abused and the commonest form of abuse was to look at pornographic pictures, drawings, films, videotapes or magazine 93(18.4%). Fifty eight (11.5%) adolescents stated that they were abused once with age at first exposure being 7-12 years 57 (11.4%). When grouped together, family members and relatives are perpetrators of child sexual abuse. There was significant difference in sex abuse between males and females (p=0.014) while there were no significant difference for age (p=0.157) and social class (p=0.233). Conclusion: Overall prevalence and one time prevalence rates of sexual abuse among adolescents in south east Nigeria was 40% and 11.5% respectively with male perpetrators. There is no link between socioeconomic class, age and child sexual abuse among adolescents. PMID:26430412

  12. Grappling with smoke: investigating and managing organised child sexual abuse: a good practice guide

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    There has been, and remains, a great deal of concern among policy makers, practitioners, the media and members of the public concerning organised child sexual abuse (OCSA). \\ud OCSA includes the following types of case:\\ud • Child sexual abuse (CSA) by multiple offenders (a small proportion of these cases may also involve allegations of ritual or satanic CSA) \\ud • Sex offenders who abuse a series of children\\ud • Sex offenders who abuse children with whom they work\\ud The study described in ...

  13. Predicting the child-rearing practices of mothers sexually abused in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, A M

    2001-03-01

    Although empirical investigations have established a relationship between childhood sexual abuse and numerous long-term consequences, surprisingly little research has addressed the possible effects of childhood victimization on the later child-rearing practices of adult survivors. The present study examined hypothesized predictors of three parenting styles among adult survivors of sexual abuse as compared with adult children of alcoholic parents. Forty-five clinical outpatients completed a questionnaire battery assessing experiences of childhood abuse, current economic and social resources, and parenting attitudes and practices. The child-rearing practices of participants were compared with those reported by a community sample of 717 mothers. Additional analyses examined the extent to which sexual abuse and its adult sequelae predicted the parenting behaviors reported by the present sample. Both sexual abuse survivors and children of alcoholics reported significantly higher rates of permissive parenting practices than mothers in the community sample. Multiple regression analyses further revealed unique relationships between sexual abuse and parenting, over and above the variance explained by physical abuse, current socioeconomic status, and the experience of growing up in an alcoholic home. Mothers' sexual abuse severity, social support satisfaction, and dysfunctional parenting attitudes moderated several of these relationships. The present findings suggest that sexual abuse and its adult sequelae may have negative consequences for the parenting practices of survivors, particularly for survivors' ability to provide their children with appropriate structure, consistent discipline, and clear behavioral expectations. Implications for the psychosocial development of survivors' children are discussed.

  14. Caregiver-youth communication about sex in South Africa: the role of maternal child sexual abuse history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Elizabeth R; Hipp, Tracy N; Darnell, Doyanne A; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research on child sexual abuse focuses on negative outcomes. This brief report explores a potentially protective parenting behavior among black South African female caregivers with and without a child sexual abuse history. Using cross-sectional baseline data, we hypothesized that caregiver child sexual abuse history would be positively associated with caregiver-youth sex communication and this relationship would be strongest for girls. Youth whose caregiver experienced child sexual abuse were more likely to report communicating with their caregiver about sex than youth whose caregivers did not experience child sexual abuse; however, this relation did not hold for caregiver reported communication. Child sexual abuse survivors' ability and decision to discuss sex with their youth has the potential to protect youth from sexual risk and demonstrates resilience among a group rarely acknowledged for positive parenting practices.

  15. Multiple Forensic Interviews during Investigations of Child Sexual Abuse: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Stephanie D.; Foster, E. Michael; Pierce, Matthew W.; Berkoff, Molly C.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2013-01-01

    In suspected child sexual abuse some professionals recommend multiple child interviews to increase the likelihood of disclosure or more details to improve decision-making and increase convictions. We modeled the yield of a policy of routinely conducting multiple child interviews and increased convictions. Our decision tree reflected the path of a…

  16. Child Sexual Abuse and HIV-Related Substance Use and Sexual Risk Across the Life Course Among Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D; Kumar, Pritika C; Campion, Taylor; Quinn, Kelly; Beharie, Nisha; McGorray, Susan P; Khan, Maria R

    2017-07-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence and adulthood, but no known studies have documented associations across the life course in a nationally representative U.S. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to measure associations between child sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood among males and females (n = 11,820). Approximately 10% of females and 7% of males reported child sexual abuse. Associations with substance use were strongest during adolescence and lessened over time. Increased odds of sexual risk among those with a history of child sexual abuse remained consistent through the life course. Significant gender differences existed for some associations (e.g., adulthood multiple partners: males adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.73, 95%CI:1.18, 2.53; females AOR = 1.11, 95%CI:0.79, 1.56). Trauma-informed prevention interventions should address child sexual abuse among both males and females to prevent substance use and sexual risk behavior throughout the life course.

  17. Trichobezoar in Vagina: Assessment for Child Sexual Abuse and Diagnostic Result of Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağ, Özlem; Acar, Buğra Han; Öztürk, Şenol; Alşen, Sevay; Ecevit, Çiğdem

    2017-03-01

    Vaginal discharge and bleeding in children require a through and thoughtful evaluation to diagnose the underlying problem including infections, sexual abuse, and vaginal foreign bodies. We report a 6-year-old girl presenting with bloody vaginal discharge, carefully evaluated for sexual abuse, and finally diagnosed as a vaginal foreign body after vaginoscopy. A rolling hair ball was extracted from the vagina and was diagnosed as trichobezoar pathologically without any endo-ecto-mesodermal residual tissue. The hair ball was genetically detected and diagnosed to belong herself by containing no foreign structure. Child sexual abuse was ruled out by forensic interview at CAC and report of forensic science that reported genetic structure belonging to the child. Medicolegal assessment helped in final diagnosis to exclude child sexual abuse. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Associations between Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Sexual Experiences and Revictimization among Women: Does Measuring Severity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Tamra B.; Gaines, Tommi; Wyatt, Gail E.; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu

    2011-01-01

    Women with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely than those without such experiences to report a variety of negative sexual outcomes. This study examines the explanatory power of a CSA summed composite versus dichotomous (presence/absence) measurement in predicting a comprehensive negative sexual behavior outcome. Study…

  19. Transition to adulthood of child sexual abuse victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, R.; Alink, L.; Bijleveld, C.; Finkenauer, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) can have deleterious consequences for adult psychological and physical functioning. The extent to which CSA hampers victims in the fulfillment of adult roles such as marriage, employment, and parenting is less clear. In this review, we

  20. Psychopathological correlates of child sexual abuse: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifically, females with experience of sexual abuse were found to be more susceptible to develop depression, panic anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders than unabused females. Thus, parents, and teachers should give the necessary care and protection to female children. Primary bio-psychosocial care services ...

  1. Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I

    1998-11-01

    To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.

  2. Attributions of Blame in a Hypothetical Child Sexual Abuse Case: Roles of Behavior Problems and Frequency of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theimer, Kate; Hansen, David J

    2017-06-01

    Youth who are blamed for their sexual abuse may experience increased negative outcomes, such as amplified self-blame. Similarly, blaming nonoffending parents can impede their ability to support their child following disclosure. Understanding the factors that influence how people perceive victim, caregiver, and perpetrator responsibility is imperative for the protection and treatment of families who have experienced sexual abuse. Little research has explored victim and abuse characteristics that influence the perception of sexual abuse. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the roles of behavior problems and frequency of abuse in the attribution of blame in a hypothetical sexual abuse case. In addition, the relationship between several respondent characteristics and assignment of responsibility were explored as secondary aims. The study used a two (behavior problems: three suspensions in one school semester vs. no mention of behavior problems) by two (one abuse occurrence vs. five abuse occurrences) between-subjects design. Seven hundred forty-two participants read one of the four child sexual abuse (CSA) vignettes and completed measures related to responsibility. ANOVAs revealed those who read a vignette where the youth experienced multiple abuse incidents rated the victim as more responsible regardless of whether or not the youth was described as having behavior problems. Results indicate that respondents may have attributed more blame to the victim due to the belief that she could have done something to stop the abuse after the first incident. The abuse frequency manipulation when combined with the behavior manipulation appeared to relate to how respondents perceived the victim's parents. Males and younger respondents attributed more blame to the victim; however, sexual abuse or assault history did not associate with victim responsibility ratings. Clinical and research implications were discussed.

  3. The Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: Dreaming of Child Safe Organisations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Budiselik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available On 12 November 2012 the then Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard announced she was recommending to the Governor General the establishment of a Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse. Following inquiries in Australia and elsewhere much is already known about institutional and inter-institutional child protection failures and what is required to address them. That Australia’s national government has pursued another abuse inquiry with terms of reference limited to institution-based (excluding the family sexual abuse is of interest given the lack of political will to enact previous findings and recommendations. This article examines the background to the Government’s announcement, the Commission’s terms of reference and some of its settings, and literature on the nature of royal commissions across time and place. After the lack of success in implementing the recommendations of previous inquiries into how to better protect Australia’s children, the question is: how will this Royal Commission contribute to Australian child protection and safety? Will the overwhelming public support generated by “truth speaking to power” in calling for this inquiry translate into action?

  4. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  5. Alcohol myopia and sexual abdication among women: examining the moderating effect of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Jennifer M; George, William H; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2015-02-01

    HIV and other STIs are major public health concerns for women, and risky sexual behaviors increase the risk of transmission. Risky sexual behaviors include sexual abdication, that is, willingness to let a partner decide how far to go sexually. Alcohol intoxication is a risk factor for risky sexual behavior, and the Inhibition Conflict Model of Alcohol Myopia may help explain this relationship. This model suggests that in order for intoxication to influence behavior there must be high conflict, meaning the strength of the instigatory cues and inhibitory cues are both high. Recent research indicates that the degree to which cues are experienced as high in instigation or inhibition is subject to individual difference factors. One individual difference factor associated with alcohol-related sexual risk taking is child sexual abuse (CSA) history. The current study examined the influence of acute alcohol intoxication, CSA, and inhibition conflict on sexual abdication with 131 women (mean age 25) randomized into a 2 (alcohol, control)×2 (high conflict, low conflict) experimental design. Regression analyses yielded a significant 3-way interaction, F (1,122)=8.15, R(2)=.14, psexual decision making among women with CSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The childcare panopticon: guidelines for preventing child sexual abuse and wrongful allegations of child sexual abuse in Danish childcare institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Else-Marie Buch; Larsen, Per Lindsø; Munk, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the first research study of guidelines in Danish childcare institutions for protecting children against sexual abuse (CSA), and staff against wrongful allegations of CSA. Worldwide, it represents one of few empirical studies of the unintended consequences of contemporary soc...

  7. Views of child sexual abuse in two cultural communities: an exploratory study among African Americans and Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, L A; Cruz, M; Tabachnick, J

    2001-05-01

    This exploratory study investigates knowledge and ideas about child sexual abuse among African Americans and Latinos through focus group discussions. Participants defined and described child sexual abuse, acknowledged that it occurred in their communities, and expressed their sense that family risk factors, risky institutions, and offender propensities were its root causes. Latino participants identified cultural transitions as another contributor. Responses and conversational style differed somewhat by gender and cultural identity. The authors discuss implications for child sexual abuse prevention, intervention, and research.

  8. Family Resilience Resources in Coping With Child Sexual Abuse in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Theresa; Greeff, Abraham P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to identify resources of family resilience that help families cope with child sexual abuse. Data were collected from a purposeful sample of parents representing nine poor families living in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The narratives of the participants were analyzed thematically. The results indicate that the families, despite adverse situations, utilized internal and external resilience resources. Internal resources were the parents' relationship with their children, their own emotional functioning and attitudes, the children's ability to cope with the abuse, boundaries in the family, insight into their children's emotional needs, and sibling relationships. External family resources were the support of extended family members, friends, and a local community-based nonprofit organization working with child sexual abuse and schools. The empowering role of the identified resources for family resilience should be enhanced in interventions, while future studies could further explore these aspects in families confronted with child sexual abuse.

  9. The role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of substance-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of substance-related disorders, a systematic review of the several articles on the childhood sexual abuse-related risk for developing substance problems in adolescence or adulthood is provided. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand-search of reference lists. Six reviews, including 200 studies, were included. Results indicate that child sexual abuse is a statistically significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for substance problems. Other biological and psychosocial variables contribute to substance-related disorders, with sexual abuse conferring additional risk, either as a distal, indirect cause or as a proximal, direct cause. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  10. Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in the Nordic Countries: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppen, Kathrine; Haugland, Siren; Svedin, Carl Göran; Mæhle, Magne; Breivik, Kyrre

    2016-01-01

    This review examined child sexual abuse in the Nordic countries focusing on prevalence rates and victims' age and relationship to the perpetrator. The results show a prevalence of child sexual abuse (broadly defined) between 3-23% for boys and 11-36% for girls. The prevalence rates for contact abuse were 1-12% for boys and 6-30% for girls, while 0.3-6.8% of the boys and 1.1-13.5% of the girls reported penetrating abuse. The findings suggest an increased risk of abuse from early adolescence. In adolescence, peers may constitute the largest group of perpetrators. The results highlight the need for preventive efforts also targeting peer abuse. Future research should include cross-national and repeated studies using comparable methodology.

  11. The Use of Therapeutic Stories in Counseling Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Adamson, Nicole A.; Yensel, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Counselors will regularly counsel children and adolescents with histories of sexual abuse and be challenged with providing supportive and empowering interventions that serve to move the client from victim to survivor status. Therapeutic stories are a creative counseling technique that can be used when counseling child and adolescent sexual abuse…

  12. Sexual abuse of the girl-child in urban Nigeria and implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The special circumstances in which girl-children (i.e. child labour and residency in overcrowded housing units) find themselves in urban Nigeria expose them to possible risks of physical, psychological and sexual abuse, which in turn increase their vulnerability to early pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS.

  13. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. 1 Fighting Child Sexual Abuse in Zanzibar through Provision and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elibrary

    sexual harassment, child labour and general exploitation (Kijo-Bisimba, 2013). A survey on violence against ..... internet. The current study's findings concurs with those from a study by Omar (2014) which noted that today's students tend to rely more on online information than on physical information resources. Data from ...

  15. Explanations for Child Sexual Abuse Given by Convicted Offenders in Malawi: No Evidence for "HIV Cleansing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtibo, Charles; Kennedy, Neil; Umar, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A commonly cited, but unproven reason given for the rise in reported cases of child sexual abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa is the "HIV cleansing myth"--the belief that an HIV infected individual can be cured by having sex with a child virgin. The purpose of this study was to explore in Malawi the reasons given by convicted sex…

  16. A quantitative study on gender differences in disclosing child sexual abuse and reasons for nondisclosure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okur, Pinar; van der Knaap, Leontien; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Despite the available literature on disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA), little is known about how gender affects disclosure. This article aims to quantitatively examine whether gender differences exist in formal (to legal or child protection authorities) and informal (to a family member or

  17. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child…

  18. The Secret of Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse: Who Keeps It and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tener, Dafna

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes how women survivors of intrafamilial child sexual abuse perceive the family members who took part in keeping it secret and their tactics for doing so. Analysis of 20 in-depth interviews with Jewish Israeli women revealed unique ways of guarding the secret. These were attributed to the perpetrator, the mother and the family. Secret-keeping tactics included presenting a normative public identity or an unstable psychological identity, presenting multiple personas, reframing the abuse, concealing any trace of the secret after it was disclosed, as if the abuse had never happened, and making a monument of the abuser. These tactics are discussed in the context of silencing, the interpersonal relations orientation model, and the wider concepts of secrecy in society. Implications for professional practice and for society are considered, and new attitudes toward intrafamilial child sexual abuse secrecy are suggested.

  19. The Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katie; Swain, Shurlee; McPhillips, Kathleen

    2017-12-01

    The Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse is the largest royal commission in Australia's history and one of the largest public inquiries into institutional child abuse internationally. With an investment from the Australian government of half a billion dollars, it examined how institutions with a responsibility for children, both historically and in the present, have responded to allegations of child sexual abuse. Announced in the wake of previous Australian and international inquiries, public scandals and lobbying by survivor groups, its establishment reflected increasing recognition of the often lifelong and intergenerational damage caused by childhood sexual abuse and a strong political commitment to improving child safety and wellbeing in Australia. This article outlines the background, key features and innovations of this landmark public inquiry, focusing in particular on its extensive research program. It considers its international significance and also serves as an introduction to this special edition on the Australian Royal Commission, exploring its implications for better understanding institutional child sexual abuse and its impacts, and for making institutions safer places for children in the future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexting and investigation of materials with child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Sladič

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How widespread is the phenomenon of sexting among young people? Are young people sufficiently aware about this subject? Any difficulties encountered when investigating sexting? Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present problems in investigating sexting. Since using Internet child pornography expanded and changed the way the investigation of this crime, it is necessary to explore new ways of investigating and overcoming problems in the investigation of more attention. Method: The article is transparent and theoretical. It is based primarily on an analysis of available domestic and foreign literature and Internet sources on the issues addressed. Results: Showing sexting consequences of abuse, and also provides some preventive tips for safest use the Internet. In conclusion, the investigators also presented problems in the investigation of crimes related to sex abuse with minors. Society: The survey alert to be aware of the problem among young people. We emphasize the importance of raising awareness of young people and the importance of the application of possible abuse. Originality: The originality of the contribution is reflected in the examination of the current investigation sexting problems, faced by investigators on a daily basis. Only in this way it can eliminate problems and improve search. Limitations/Future Research: Using sexting appear high risk, but they are young without consulting the parents are not aware of. It is necessary to invest more effort into raising awareness of young people and create an environment that will encourage victims to report abuse.

  1. Gender differences in pathways from child physical and sexual abuse to adolescent risky sexual behavior among high-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use as pathways linking child physical and sexual abuse to risky sexual behavior among youth at risk of maltreatment. Path analysis was performed with 862 adolescents drawn from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Four waves of data collected in the United States were used: childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences (from ages 0-12) were assessed by Child Protective Services reports, internalizing and externalizing symptoms were measured at age 14, substance use was measured at age 16, and risky sexual behavior was measured at age 18. Physical abuse was directly associated with risky sexual behavior in boys but not girls. For girls, physical abuse had a significant indirect effect on risky sexual behavior via externalizing symptoms. Gender-focused preventive intervention strategies may be effective in reducing risky sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  3. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  4. Pathway to Hope: an indigenous approach to healing child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Payne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Alaska Native (AN population has endured multiple historical traumatic events. This population has poorer health outcomes on nearly all factors compared with Alaska non-Natives with more than 75% reportedly being physically assaulted in their lifetime, and child sexual abuse nearly 6 times the national average. Objective. This article describes the Pathway to Hope (PTH program, which is an indigenous approach to ending silence and denial related to child sexual abuse and encourages multigenerational healing. Design. PTH was developed by ANs who believe that each community is unique, thus strategies for ending denial and support for healing must be woven from the historical context, cultural strengths of individual communities. Strengths-based solutions built on truth, honesty, compassion and shared responsibility for healing and protecting today’s children have been profound and successful. The PTH curriculum addresses child sexual abuse from a historical perspective; that the higher rates of sexual abuse among certain Tribes, regions and communities is linked in part to years of victimisation, but may also be perpetuated by internalised oppression and lateral violence among Tribal members. Results. Data suggest that community-based dialogue and wisdom of Native elders and spiritual leaders paired with readiness of community service providers are necessary for sustained change. At all levels, this Indigenous model for learning, sharing, helping and healing brings hope for an end to denial and silence about child sexual abuse for Native people. Conclusions. The PTH program utilises the wisdom and values that have sustained Native people for generations. Ending silence and denial about child sexual abuse and building upon strengths have assisted many Indigenous communities begin the journey toward wellness. Through the PTH, communities have taken steps to accept the challenges associated with establishing safety for children

  5. Current information on the scope and nature of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, D

    1994-01-01

    Approximately 150,000 confirmed cases of child sexual abuse were reported to child welfare authorities in the United States during 1993. This number represents about 15% of the more than one million confirmed cases of all child abuse and neglect. But the true scope of this problem is better reflected in retrospective surveys of adults, and this article summarizes data from 19 of these surveys. Considerable evidence exists to show that at least 20% of American women and 5% to 10% of American men experienced some form of sexual abuse as children. The rates are somewhat lower among people born before World War II, but there is little evidence of a dramatic increase for recent generations. The studies provide little evidence that race or socioeconomic circumstances are major risk factors. They do show elevated risk for children who experienced parental inadequacy, unavailability, conflict, harsh punishment, and emotional deprivation. Adult retrospective studies are also good sources of information about the characteristics of abuse. Most sexual abuse is committed by men (90%) and by persons known to the child (70% to 90%), with family members constituting one-third to one-half of the perpetrators against girls and 10% to 20% of the perpetrators against boys. Family members constitute a higher percentage of the perpetrators in child protective agency cases because the mandate of these agencies generally precludes their involvement in extrafamily abuse. Around 20% to 25% of child sexual abuse cases involve penetration or oral-genital contact. The peak age of vulnerability is between 7 and 13. Studies of the criminal justice processing of sexual abusers suggest that, compared with other violent criminals, slightly fewer are prosecuted, but of those prosecuted, slightly more are convicted. Studies conducted in the 1980s also showed that, once convicted, relatively few sexual abusers receive sentences longer than one year, while 32% to 46% serve no jail time. Overall, there

  6. Sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač

    2012-11-01

    Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.

  7. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  8. Sources of Knowledge of Departmental Policy on Child Sexual Abuse and Mandatory Reporting Identified by Primary School Student-Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of a Department of Education policy on child sexual abuse and mandatory reporting is significant for school teachers. The mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse by school teachers carries wide-ranging and significant implications for the lives of school-aged children, and for the teachers who must implement the policy's…

  9. Are Child Abusers Sexually Attracted to Submissiveness? Assessment of Sex-Related Cognition With the Implicit Association Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanters, Thijs; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Nunes, Kevin L.; Huijding, Jorg; Zwets, Almar J.; Snowden, Robert J.; Muris, Peter; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with social anxiety, low self-esteem, and intimacy deficits. This, in combination with the core belief of a dangerous world, might suggest that child abusers are sexually attracted to submissiveness. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was used to examine this

  10. Sexually Abused Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Reports of male victims (N=189) of child sexual abuse were retrospectively reviewed. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of female victims revealed similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. (Author/DB)

  11. The impact of child sexual abuse on the course of bipolar disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this review was to elucidate the impact of child sexual abuse on all clinical phenomena that occur after the onset of bipolar disorder, including associated clinical features that are not part of the diagnostic criteria for the disorder. Five databases were searched and supplemented with a hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Study quality was assessed using a validated quality assessment tool. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers to reduce bias, minimize errors, and enhance the reliability of findings. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Eighteen studies that included a total of 2996 adults and youths with bipolar disorder and met the minimum quality criteria necessary to ensure objectivity and not invalidate results were analyzed. Across studies, child sexual abuse was strongly (and perhaps directly) associated with posttraumatic stress disorder; whereas it was less strongly (and perhaps indirectly) related to suicide attempts, alcohol and/or drug abuse or dependence, psychotic symptoms, and an early age of illness onset. In regard to the association between child sexual abuse and other clinical variables concerning the course of bipolar disorder, evidence was scant or conflicting. Child sexual abuse is associated (either directly or indirectly) with some clinical phenomena that represent a more severe form of bipolar disorder. Although such a traumatic experience may directly affect the development of posttraumatic stress disorder, the effects of early sexual abuse on later suicidal behavior, substance abuse, and psychotic symptoms may operate through the mediating influences of certain psychopathological or neurobiological variables. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Gendered pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual aggression victimization and perpetration in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual assault victimization and perpetration in adolescence and early adulthood, considering risky sexual behavior and lowered sexual self-esteem as mediator variables. In a two-wave longitudinal study with 2251 college students in Germany, male and female participants provided reports of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since age 14 (T1) and again a year later (T2), covering the last 12 months. In addition, child sexual abuse (CSA; before the age of 14), risky sexual behavior, and sexual self-esteem were assessed at T1, and risky sexual behavior and sexual-self-esteem were assessed again at T2. Experience of CSA was significantly associated with greater likelihood of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, lower sexual self-esteem, and more risky sexual behavior in both gender groups at T1 and was directly related to victimization at T2 among male participants. In both gender groups, CSA indirectly contributed to a higher probability of sexual victimization at T2 via its impact on victimization T1. In males, the indirect path from CSA to T2 perpetration via T1 perpetration was also significant. Through its negative impact on sexual self-esteem, CSA indirectly increased the probability of sexual victimization among women and the probability of sexual aggression perpetration among men. Risky sexual behavior mediated the pathway from CSA to sexual victimization at T2 for men and women and the pathway from CSA to sexual aggression perpetration for women. The findings contribute to the understanding of gendered effects of CSA on revictimization and the victim-to-perpetrator cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The psychosocial consequences of child sexual abuse in Ethiopia: a case-control comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Tafesse, Biruk; Reschke, Konrad; Schröder, Harry

    2011-07-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a pressing public health concern around the globe. Few existing reports, however, indicate the alarming rate at which the problem is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study is designed to investigate the psychosocial consequences of sexual abuse among child survivors in Ethiopia who were abused mainly through early marriage, rape, and child prostitution. Data are collected from 318 such CSA survivors-and 318 matched, non-sexually abused, normal controls- using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results reveal the CSA survivors to be significantly more symptomatic than the control group: They demonstrated a lower degree of social support, a lower degree of empowerment, as well as a higher degree of guilt and increased likelihood of viewing the world as dangerous. Finally, these CSA survivors show a lower degree of positive self-worth than their non-sexually abused counterparts. These findings have important implications for the formulation of appropriate preventions and interventions to be undertaken by various stakeholders ranging from family to policy makers.

  14. Don't Blame ME, Daddy. False Accusations of Child Sexual Abuse: A Hidden National Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Dean

    Noting the increase in false accusations of child sexual abuse where divorce and custody litigation is in progress, this book examines the consequences of such accusations for everyone involved and provides defensive strategies for those falsely accused. The book draws on four case studies, including a personal one, to illustrate the chronology…

  15. Does Psychotherapy Recover or Invent Child Sexual Abuse Memories? A Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchman, Madelyn Simring

    2008-01-01

    This case describes bodily experiences that appeared to cue child sexual abuse memories during psychotherapy by a woman who was amnesic for her childhood and suffered from chronic dissociative states. Though corroboration was unavailable, she became increasingly confident about her returning memories. Special efforts were made to avoid making…

  16. Impact of Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examinations on the Dependency and Criminal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Allan R.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews previous research on the sociolegal impact of medical evaluations for child sexual abuse; offers a recommended menu of research questions, concerning process and outcomes of these evaluations, interviewing techniques, the use of medical evidence in prosecution, and knowledge level of professionals in the criminal and dependency systems.…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse in Early-Childhood Care and Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Freda

    2014-01-01

    When the author was adviser to the Australian Minister for Education for writing the national Safe Schools Framework (2003), meetings were held with early-childhood care and education administrators from all state, Catholic and independent sectors. Their unexpected message was that educators were facing new problems, those of child sexual abuse in…

  18. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  19. Family narratives on fostering a child with a history of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, Susanna; Grietens, Hans; Batstra, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The impact of a history of sexual abuse on foster families has been studied, although never from a multilevel family perspective. Therefore, in Project Iris narratives are collected on the expertise, needs and experiences of family members in foster families concerning the care for a child with a

  20. Reliability of Professional Judgments in Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Unsettled or Unsettling Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel; Berson, Nancy; Crowson, Mary; Robinson, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of photographic or DNA evidence, a credible eyewitness, or perpetrator confession, forensic evaluators in cases of alleged child sexual abuse must rely on psychosocial or "soft" evidence, often requiring substantial professional judgment for case determination. This article offers a three-part rebuttal to Herman's (2009) argument…

  1. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  2. African-American Undergraduates' Perceptions and Attributions of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestick, Henrietta; Perrino, Carrol S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined perceptions of child sexual abuse and attributions of responsibility in a cross-sectional convenience sample of 384 African-American undergraduates using a scenario manipulating the age of the victim, gender of the victim, and gender of the perpetrator. Multiple interactions of respondent, victim, and perpetrator gender on…

  3. Social Service Professionals' Perceptions of Nonoffending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfteich, Paula M.; Cline, Monica L.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess social service workers' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in cases of child sexual abuse. Attributions of blame were examined by administering questionnaires to staff at local social service agencies. It was hypothesized that social service workers who worked in the field longer, were male, or had less…

  4. Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Legislative and Policy Duties for Reporting Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Mathews, Ben; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2013-01-01

    This study examined elementary school teachers' knowledge of their legislative and policy-based reporting duties with respect to child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 470 elementary school teachers from urban and rural government and nongovernment schools in 3 Australian states, which at the time of the study had 3 different legislative…

  5. Pre-Service Special Education Teachers' Professionalism and Preparation in Terms of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at examining Jordanian pre-service special education teachers' professionalism and preparation on the topic of child sexual abuse (CSA). Qualitative research data from interviews with 20 pre-service special education teachers were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that these participants generally hold avoiding…

  6. A Strengths-Based Group Intervention for Women Who Experienced Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Williams, Hayley J.; Fouché, Ansie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the benefits of a ''survivor to thriver'' strengths-based group intervention program to facilitate posttraumatic growth in women survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental, one group, pretest, posttest, time-delay design was employed using qualitative methods to evaluate the benefits of the…

  7. Prevalence and Predictors of Dating Violence among Adolescent Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…

  8. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Romantic Adjustment: Comparison of Single- and Multiple-Indicator Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stephane; Lussier, Yvan

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the usefulness of single- and multiple-indicator strategies in a model examining the role of child sexual abuse (CSA) to predict later marital satisfaction through attachment and psychological distress. The sample included 1,092 women and men from a nonclinical population in cohabiting or marital relationships. The single-item…

  10. Significance, Nature, and Direction of the Association Between Child Sexual Abuse and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    To elucidate the significance, nature, and direction of the potential relationship between child sexual abuse and conduct disorder, all the pertinent studies were reviewed. Ten databases were searched. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were performed by two independent researchers. Thirty-six studies including 185,358 participants and meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to ensure objectivity and to not invalidate results were analyzed. Across the majority of studies, conduct disorder was significantly and directly related to child sexual abuse, especially repeated sexual molestation and abuse involving penetration, even after controlling for various sociodemographic, family, and clinical variables. The association between child sexual abuse and conduct disorder was not confounded by other risk factors, such as gender, socioeconomic status, school achievement, substance problems, physical abuse, parental antisocial behavior or substance problems, parent-child relationships, and family disruption, conflict, or violence. Evidence for a significant interactive effect between child sexual abuse and monoamine oxidase A gene on conduct disorder was scant. Early sexual abuse might predispose to the subsequent onset of conduct disorder which, in turn, may lead to further sexual victimization through association with sexually abusive peers or involvement in dangerous situations or sexual survival strategies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Mood as a mediator of the link between child sexual abuse and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, S; Bebbington, P

    2015-04-01

    The significance of affective changes in psychosis is increasingly acknowledged, as is the role of early traumatic events. In a previous paper, using data from the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (APMS2007), strong associations between child sexual abuse (CSA) and psychosis were demonstrated, with some evidence of mediation by affect. In the current paper, we subjected the same dataset to formal tests of mediation. For CSA involving sexual intercourse, 38.5% of the link was mediated, 30.0% by depression and 8.5% by anxiety. For all forms of contact abuse, 38.2% was mediated, 29.1% by depression and 9.1% by anxiety.

  12. Child physical and sexual abuse: a comprehensive look at alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence from the National Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, E Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B; Korcha, Rachael A; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2011-02-01

    Previous research has documented a relationship between child sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. This paper extends that work by providing a comprehensive description of past year and lifetime alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence among women reporting either physical and sexual abuse in a national sample. This study used survey data from 3,680 women who participated in the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey. Information on physical and sexual child abuse and its characteristics were assessed in relation to 8 past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. Child physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. In multivariate analyses, controlling for age, marital status, employment status, education, ethnicity, and parental alcoholism or problem drinking, women reporting child sexual abuse vs. no abuse were more likely to report past year heavy episodic drinking (OR(adj) = 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9), alcohol dependence (OR(adj) = 7.2; 95% CI 3.2 to 16.5), and alcohol consequences (OR(adj) = 3.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 7.3). Sexual abuse (vs. no abuse) was associated with a greater number of past year drinks (124 vs. 74 drinks, respectively, p = 0.002). Sexual child abuse was also associated with lifetime alcohol-related consequences (OR(adj) = 3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.8) and dependence (OR(adj) = 3.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 5.3). Physical child abuse was associated with 4 of 8 alcohol measures in multivariate models. Both physical and sexual child abuse were associated with getting into fights, health, legal, work, and family alcohol-related consequences. Alcohol-related consequences and dependence were more common for women reporting sexual abuse compared to physical abuse, 2 or more physical abuse perpetrators, nonparental and nonfamily physical abuse perpetrators, and women reporting injury related to the abuse. Both child physical and sexual abuse were associated with many alcohol outcomes in

  13. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Opportunities: Parenting, Programs, and the Reduction of Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Julia; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Shanley, Dianne C; Hawkins, Russell

    2018-02-01

    To date, child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention has relied largely on child-focused education, teaching children how to identify, avoid, and disclose sexual abuse. The purpose of this article is to explore how prevention opportunities can include parents in new and innovative ways. We propose that parents can play a significant role as protectors of their children via two pathways: (i) directly, through the strong external barriers afforded by parent supervision, monitoring, and involvement; and (ii) indirectly, by promoting their children's self-efficacy, competence, well-being, and self-esteem, which the balance of evidence suggests will help them become less likely targets for abuse and more able to respond appropriately and disclose abuse if it occurs. In this article, we first describe why teaching young children about CSA protective behaviors might not be sufficient for prevention. We then narratively review the existing research on parents and prevention and the parenting and family circumstances that may increase a child's risk of experiencing sexual abuse. Finally, we make a number of recommendations for future approaches to prevention that may better inform and involve parents and other adult protectors in preventing CSA.

  14. Toward a more comprehensive analysis of the role of organizational culture in child sexual abuse in institutional contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Donald; Feldman, Valerie

    2017-12-01

    This article draws on a report prepared for the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse (Palmer et al., 2016) to develop a more comprehensive analysis of the role that organizational culture plays in child sexual abuse in institutional contexts, where institutional contexts are taken to be formal organizations that include children among their members (referred to here as "youth-serving organizations"). We begin by integrating five strains of theory and research on organizational culture from organizational sociology and management theory into a unified framework for analysis. We then elaborate the main paths through which organizational culture can influence child sexual abuse in youth-serving organizations. We then use our unified analytic framework and our understanding of the main paths through which organizational culture can influence child sexual abuse in youth-serving organizations to analyze the role that organizational culture plays in the perpetration, detection, and response to child sexual abuse in youth-serving organizations. We selectively illustrate our analysis with case materials compiled by the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse and reports of child sexual abuse published in a variety of other sources. We conclude with a brief discussion of the policy implications of our analysis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Childhood sibling and peer relationships of perpetrators of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sandra P; Phillips, Kenneth; Gunther, Mary

    2013-12-01

    Maltreatment by parents inhibits a child's ability to form relationships with other children. Given that many sex offenders experienced parental abuse, investigation of their relationships with siblings and peers could provide new directions for early childhood interventions. Interview transcripts of 23 community-dwelling perpetrators of sexual abuse against children were examined in this secondary data analysis. Ages of participants ranged from 20s to 70s, and education ranged from GED to PhD. Phenomenological analysis revealed that neither sibling nor peer relationships adequately promoted participants' capacity for developing and maintaining healthy relationships in adulthood. Until societal preventive actions and early clinical interventions are more successful, the crime of child sexual abuse will continue to be far too common. © 2013.

  16. [Sexual child abuse: correlation between medical certificates' conclusions and judiciary sanctions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumah, M M; Bah, H; Mbaye, I; Fall, M C; Yetognon, C; Sow, M L

    2005-01-01

    Sexual child abuse, comprises of indecency attitudes and physical misbehaviours, directed towards children are dominated by rape. The objective of our study was to assess in sexual child abuse the relation between the conclusion of medical certificates and court decision. It is a retrospective study carried out from 1994 to 1998 on the clerk's office correctional repertories in Dakar regional court. An overall number of 79 cases of child abuse were collected in 5 years period. Children under 18 years old of of both sex, were concerned. Data found were correlated with a review of requisition cases received by the of gynaecology and obstetrics clinic of Aristide Dantec Hospital. This facilitates the establishement of the relationship between the offences and the pronounced sanctions, as well as the initial medical certificate and these sanctions. The sanctions were severe whenever rape had been retained. Some cases were disqualified in indecent assault and were judged as such. The judge decision, which follow the medical certificate conclusions in 11 cases out of 14 shows the importance and reliability of this medical document. All files reviewed at the medical and legal level were incomplete. The difficulty of the materiality of the rape and the psychological consequences in the long run and especially HIV infection should invite to a multidisciplinary, specialized and organized management of sexual child abuse. This study has shown the importance of a correct and complete drafting of the medical certificate, to enable the establishment by the judge the materiality of the facts.

  17. Psychometrics of a Child Report Measure of Maternal Support following Disclosure of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel W; Sawyer, Genelle K; Heck, Nicholas C; Zajac, Kristyn; Solomon, David; Self-Brown, Shannon; Danielson, Carla K; Ralston, M Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    The study examined a new child report measure of maternal support following child sexual abuse. One hundred and forty-six mother-child dyads presenting for a forensic evaluation completed assessments including standardized measures of adjustment. Child participants also responded to 32 items considered for inclusion in a new measure, the Maternal Support Questionnaire-Child Report (MSQ-CR). Exploratory factor analysis of the Maternal Support Questionnaire-Child Report resulted in a three factor, 20-item solution: Emotional Support (9 items), Skeptical Preoccupation (5 items), and Protection/Retaliation (6 items). Each factor demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Construct and concurrent validity of the new measure were supported in comparison to other trauma-specific measures. The Maternal Support Questionnaire-Child Report demonstrated sound psychometric properties. Future research is needed to determine whether the Maternal Support Questionnaire-Child Report provides a more sensitive approximation of maternal support following disclosure of sexual abuse, relative to measures of global parent-child relations and to contextualize discrepancies between mother and child ratings of maternal support.

  18. Early Marriage, Rape, Child Prostitution, and Related Factors Determining the Psychosocial Effects Severity of Child Sexual Abuse in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child…

  19. Play Room as an psychological assessment method in cases of alleged child sexual abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagelskjær, Marie

    2017-01-01

    of Play Room from prevention into clinical assessment, in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Taking its starting point in the theory of Jean Laplanche, this article will discuss how psychoanalytic concepts such as seduction, translation, asymmetry, absence, and listening to listening can be used......This article presents an example of how psychoanalytic theory can be implemented in practice. The aim is to introduce and discuss the semi-projective material ‘Play Room’ which was originally developed to support prevention of sexual abuse among vulnerable children in Denmark. However, a recent...... study has shown that, when measured with a scale called Ability to Answer, children exposed to sexual abuse talked about the illustrations in Play Room in a significantly different way than did a clinical sample and a normal control group. The finding indicates the potential for expanding the scope...

  20. Stewards of children education: Increasing undergraduate nursing student knowledge of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L Elaine; Harris, Heather S

    2018-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and exploitation are an increasing public health problem. In spite of the fact that nurses are in a unique position to identify and intervene in the lives of children suffering from abuse due to their role in providing health care in a variety of settings, nursing curricula does not routinely include this focus. The goal was to document the effectiveness of the Stewards of Children child sexual abuse training as an effective educational intervention to increase the knowledge level of undergraduate nursing students on how to prevent, recognize, and react responsibly to child sexual abuse and trafficking. Undergraduate nursing students were required to take the Stewards of Children training in their last semester prior to graduation. Students in the study were given a pre-test prior to the class and a post-test following the class. Pre- and post-tests were graded and the results were compared along with an item indicating the participants' perception of the educational intervention in improving their confidence and competence in this area. Data analysis revealed that post-test scores following training were significantly improved: pre-test mean=45.5%; post-test mean score=91.9%. The statistical significance of the improvement was marked, pChildren training. Students also reported a high level of confidence in how to prevent abuse and react skillfully when child sexual abuse had occurred. The authors concluded that Stewards of Children is an effective option to educate nursing students on this topic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Do no more harm: the psychological stress of the medical examination for alleged child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Susan; Lamb, Robyn; Tzioumi, Dimitra

    2009-03-01

    Currently, there is some controversy that the medical examination following allegations of child sexual abuse may further traumatise the child. Access for children to appropriate care may be hindered if decisions about referral are influenced by personal beliefs, rather than by recognition of the potential health and psychological benefits of the assessment. We aimed to study the expectations and emotional responses of children and their parents to the medical examination. We conducted a prospective quantitative and qualitative study at the Children's Hospital at Westmead. Participants completed questionnaires pre-examination and post-examination, including Children's Anxiety and Pain Scales. Clinicians recorded a Genital Examination Distress Scale and a questionnaire about potentially prognostic variables. Parents found the medical examination significantly less stressful than they had anticipated. They highlighted the importance of being involved in the process, the child's reaction, staff attitudes and the doctor's explanations. Although most parents expected that the medical would be stressful for their child, this did not correlate with the children's reports of feeling scared beforehand. Increased parental and child distress were significantly associated with the child being 12 years or older. The type of abuse was not significantly linked to any of the parent or child self-reports. Our findings indicate that the medical examination is not as stressful as expected and support the recommendation that timely medical assessment by appropriately trained professionals should be offered for all children following allegations of sexual abuse.

  2. Security in Father-child Relationship and Behavior Problems in Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent-Boursier, Claudel; Hébert, Martine

    2015-01-01

    While the influence of mother-child relationships on children's recovery following sexual abuse has been documented, less is known about the possible contribution of father-child relationships on outcomes. The present study explored the contribution of children's perception of security in their relationship to the father on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, while controlling for sociodemographic variables and variables associated with the mother-child relationship. Participants were 142 children who disclosed sexual abuse involving a perpetrator other than the biological father. Regression analyses indicated that children's perception of security to fathers contributed to the prediction of parental reports of children's behavior problems, even after controlling for maternal psychological distress and perception of security to mothers.

  3. Practitioner review: The victims and juvenile perpetrators of child sexual abuse--assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizard, Eileen

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is now a recognized aspect of clinical work for both CAMH and adult services. As juvenile perpetrators of CSA are responsible for a significant minority of the sexual assaults on other children, CAMH services are increasingly approached to assess these oversexualized younger children or sexually abusive adolescents. A developmental approach to assessment and treatment intervention is essential in all these cases. This review examines research on the characteristics of child victims and perpetrators of CSA. It describes evidence-based approaches to assessment and treatment of both groups of children. A selective review of MEDLINE, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, and other databases was undertaken. Recommendations are made for clinical practice and future research. The characteristics of CSA victims are well known and those of juvenile perpetrators of sexual abuse are becoming recognized. Assessment approaches for both groups of children should be delivered within a safeguarding context where risk to victims is minimized. Risk assessment instruments should be used only as adjuncts to a full clinical assessment. Given high levels of psychiatric comorbidity, assessment, treatment, and other interventions should be undertaken by mental health trained staff. Victims and perpetrators of CSA present challenges and opportunities for professional intervention. Their complex presentations mean that their needs should be met by highly trained staff. However, their youth and developmental immaturity also give an opportunity to nip problem symptoms and behaviors in the bud. The key is in the earliest possible intervention with both groups. Future research should focus on long-term adult outcomes for both child victims and children who perpetrate CSA. Adult outcomes of treated children could identify problems and/or strengths in parenting the next generation and also the persistence and/or desistence of sexualized or abusive

  4. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  5. Contributions of Child Sexual Abuse, Self-Blame, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Alcohol Use to Women's Risk for Forcible and Substance-Facilitated Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self

  6. Reviewing the Focus: A Summary and Critique of Child-Focused Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Julia; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2016-10-26

    Due to the high incidence, and widespread detrimental health consequences, of child sexual abuse (CSA), effective prevention remains at the forefront of public and mental health research, prevention and intervention agendas. To date much of the focus of prevention has been on school-based education programs designed to teach children skills to evade adult sexual advances, and disclose past or ongoing abuse. Evaluation of sexual abuse prevention programs demonstrate their effectiveness in increasing children's knowledge of CSA concepts and protection skills, but little is known about their effects on children's capacity to prevent abuse. Moreover, concerns persist about the unintended side-effects for young children such as anxiety, worry and wariness of touch. This paper summarizes the recent history of CSA prevention and the critique of child-focused protection programs in order to demonstrate the need to compliment or replace these programs by focusing more on protectors in the children's ecology, specifically parents, in order to create safer environments in which abuse is less likely to occur. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Prevalence of child sexual abuse: a comparison among 4 Italian epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Castelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although many epidemiological studies defining child sexual abuse prevalence rates in many countries of the world are now available, Italy presents a lack of data regarding this specific issue. Only recently some attempts to define the epidemiology of this public health problem have been tried. Between 2003 and 2010, the Department of Public Health at University of Milan was in charge of one of the more important study of this kind in Italy, involving almost 3000 students aged 18 attending secondary schools in the City of Milan who filled out an anonymous questionnaire aiming at detecting their previous experiences of sexual victimization during childhood and adolescence. After this first edition, the study was replicated among students attending secondary schools in the city of Varese, in the area of Piedmont and in Basilicata (area of Lauria, using the same investigational model and questionnaire. This paper presents the main data collected through four different epidemiological studies using the same methodology and survey tool. Considering at least one of the five different forms of child sexual abuse surveyed (being exposed to pornography, being touched on private parts, being forced to masturbate an older person, being forced to perform oral sex, or being penetrated, the prevalence rate among our samples ranges between a minimum of 12.5% (Varese and a maximum of 34.1% (Lauria. In Lauria the research reveals a higher prevalence rate of child sexual abuse, especially among the male population, for all typologies of abuse but being touched in their private parts. In all other geographical areas and for all typologies of abuse, there is always a higher prevalence among girls, with the only exception of abuse such as being exposed to pornographic materials.

  8. The child sexual abuse epidemic in addis ababa: some reflections on reported incidents, psychosocial consequences and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemal, Jibril

    2012-03-01

    Though child sexual abuse is a universal phenomenon, only reported cases of the incidence are common source of information to get insight on how to understand the problem. Besides, investigating complaints presented by victims themselves would be a stepping stone for designing prevention and rehabilitation programs. The objective of this study was to identify the nature of sexual incidence and experience victims face. The research was conducted by collecting reported child sexual abuse cases from Child Protection Units of Addis Ababa Police Commission and three selected non-governmental organizations working for the welfare of sexually abused children in Addis Ababa. 64 selected samples of victim children were included from the three organizations. They completed a semi-structured questionnaire and data were analyzed. Of the total reported crime cases committed against children (between July 2005 and December 2006), 23% of them were child sexual victimization. On average, 21 children were reported to be sexually abused each month where majority of the sexual abuse incidence were committed against female children in their own home by someone they closely know. The psychological trauma and physical complaints presented by victims include symptoms of anxiety and depression. It was found out that child sexual abuse cases presented to the legal office was not properly managed. Female children appear to be more prone to sexual abuse than their male counterparts. By virtue of their nature, many children are at risk of sexual victimization by people they truest. Based on the findings, several implications are made, which includes the importance of nation-wide study to formulate a comprehensive policy guideline for protection and criminalization of child sexual abuse in Ethiopia.

  9. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse within the Family System: Guidelines for an Educational Social Group Work Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masilo, Daniel Tuelo

    2018-02-28

    Children have the right to be brought up in safe environments. However, this right is often infringed by people who are supposed to provide love, care, and protection to children. These people can include biological fathers, step-fathers, brothers, cousins, aunts, mothers, and uncles. Violation of children takes place in a variety of ways, however, for the purpose of this paper, the focus is on child sexual abuse within the family system. A literature review is adopted as the methodology for the discussions in this paper. The purpose of this paper is firstly to demonstrate that child sexual abuse happens within the family system in South Africa, and secondly, to argue that the prevention of child sexual abuse should start within the family system and this can be achieved by conducting educational social group work sessions on child sexual abuse with the family members.

  10. [Parental aptitude to prevent child sexual abuse after a participatory education intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higareda-Almaraz, Martha Alicia; Higareda-Almaraz, Enrique; Higareda-Almaraz, Irma Reyna; Barrera-de León, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Llamas, Meynardo Alonso; Benites-Godínez, Verónica

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the aptitude of parents regarding the educational impact of equity education for children to prevent child sexual abuse using participatory strategies. Quasi-experimental design. Ninety-two parents with children in preschool were included in the study. The parents were given a course using participatory educational strategies for one hour daily over a period of 20 days. Prior to the course, a group of experts in child education and sexology prepared a questionnaire with 20 sentences. A Wilcoxon test was used to compare intergroup differences We found statistically significant differences in the parents' responses before and after the educational intervention, with a median (range) of 10(2-12)/18(6-20), pchild sexual abuse. Thus, it is imperative to continue evaluating different educational strategies.

  11. Ethics and Issues of Secondary Prevention Efforts in Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, Kieran F; Merdian, Hannah L; Perkins, Derek E; Kettleborough, Danielle

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses the ethical, practical, and moral issues surrounding secondary prevention efforts of child sexual abuse from a professional and practice-based perspective. Transcripts of a semistructured consultation event with n = 15 international experts on the secondary prevention of child sexual abuse were analysed using thematic qualitative analysis. The research identified four main critical areas linked to secondary prevention efforts, including, the psychology of self-reporting and disclosure; the interaction with and within existing legal, social, and professional frameworks; the scale and type of an appropriate response; and potential hurdles (i.e., within media, public, politics). The article outlines these areas, highlighting participant perspectives on risk-enhancing and mitigating factors for each domain.

  12. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE, BULLYING, CYBERBULLYING, AND MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG HIGH SCHOOLS STUDENTS: A MODERATED MEDIATED MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Hébert, Martine; Cénat, Jude Mary; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with adverse outcomes, including heightened vulnerability that may translate into risk of revictimization. The aims of the study were: (1) to explore the direct and indirect links between child sexual abuse and cyberbullying, bullying, and mental health problems and (2) to study maternal support as a potential protective factor. Methods: Teenagers involved in the two first waves of the Quebec Youths’ Romantic Relationships Survey (N = 8,194 and 6,780 at Wave I...

  13. Prevalence of vulvovaginitis and relation to physical findings in girls assessed for suspected child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Gisel; Ocampo, Dolores; Rubinstein, Anahí; Risso, Paula

    2015-10-01

    The presence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in patients with suspected sexual abuse is uncommon in the field of pediatrics. To establish the prevalence of anogenital findings and their relation to the presence of STIs in girls referred for suspected child sexual abuse. Retrospective study conducted between January 1st, 2003 and December 31st, 2013. Physical findings and detection of STIs in girls with suspected child sexual abuse were analyzed. One thousand thirty-four patients were included. Their median age was 7.9 years old. Anogenital findings were classified as class I (normal):38.4%, class II (nonspecific):38.1%, class III (specific):19.9% and class IV (definitive):3.6%. STIs were observed in 42 patients (4.1%). A relation was established between STIs and the classification of physical findings: 10 (class II: 9; class III: 1) Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 17 (class I: 2; class II: 8; class III: 7) Chlamydia trachomatis, 15 (class I: 2; class II: 10; class III: 3) Trichomonas vaginalis. Statistically significant differences for Trichomonas vaginalis (p= 0.01) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (p < 0.0001) were observed, with predominance of nonspecific clinical signs. Both nonspecific and specific findings were similarly observed for Chlamydia trachomatis (p= 0.03). Most cases of girls with suspected child sexual abuse had normal or nonspecific anogenital findings. The prevalence of STIs in these girls is low. Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were related to nonspecific findings, while both nonspecific and specific findings were observed for Chlamydia trachomatis.

  14. Victimization and Violence: An Exploration of the Relationship Between Child Sexual Abuse, Violence, and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Rebecca Shoaf; Gushwa, Melinda; Cadet, Tamara J

    2018-05-24

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a major public health issue with significant short- and long-term consequences. However, little contemporary research has examined the relationship between CSA and delinquent and violent behavior in adolescence. Children who have been sexually abused experience a unique form of victimization compared to children who have endured other forms of maltreatment, as CSA can result in feelings of shame, powerlessness and boundary violations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CSA on delinquent and violent behavior in adolescence. We examined self-report data at the age 18 interview from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) on measures of sexual abuse experience, and engagement in delinquent and violent behavior in the past year. All participants reported either a history of maltreatment or were identified at-risk based on demographic risk factors. Participants included 368 males and 445 females who self-reported experiences of CSA and delinquent and violent behavior (N = 813). Findings indicated that, when controlling for gender and race, the odds of engagement in delinquent and violent behavior for those who have experienced CSA are 1.7 times higher than for those who have not. Additionally, female victims of CSA were .52 times less likely to engage in violent and delinquent behavior compared to their male counterparts. Further efforts are needed to examine the effects of CSA on violent and delinquent behavior to better guide treatment efforts that prevent juvenile justice involvement.

  15. Prevention nearby: the influence of the presence of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Benoit; Smallbone, Stephen; Wortley, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse. Using data obtained on crime events from adult child sexual offenders incarcerated in Queensland (Australia), mixed-effects logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of potential guardianship on the severity of abuse. Controlling for victim and situational characteristics, the analyses showed that the presence of a potential guardian reduced the duration of sexual contact and the occurrence of penetration. Presence of a potential guardian decreased the risk of sexual penetration by 86%. The study highlights the importance of the presence of a potential guardian for reducing the severity of child sexual abuse, and suggests more broadly that guardianship may be an important protective factor in sexual offending. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Unacknowledged Rape: The Influences of Child Sexual Abuse and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supports that the majority of young women who experience sexual victimization that meets the legal definition of rape do not label their experiences as rape--this has been termed unacknowledged rape. In a sample of 77 young adult women, the odds of unacknowledged rape significantly increased as a function of less severe child sexual abuse histories and greater levels of dysfunctional personality traits. Potential explanations for these findings as well as clinical implications are discussed. Because of the potential psychological and societal consequences of unacknowledged rape, it is vital that researchers continue to examine this phenomenon.

  17. Evaluation of forensic medical history taking from the child in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Rachel; Gall, John A M

    2017-02-01

    Suspected child physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect are not uncommon presentations. As part of the assessment of these cases, a forensic medical history may be taken. This forensic history is used not only to determine the steps necessary to address the child's wellbeing but also to direct the forensic examination. Currently, there is no clear consensus on whether or not a forensic medical history should consistently be considered an integral element within the paediatric forensic evaluation. This study examines the value derived by the medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history rather than relying on hearsay evidence when a child presents for an assessment. A retrospective review of paediatric cases seen by the Victorian Forensic Paediatric Medical Service (VFPMS) between 2014 and 2015 was undertaken. 274 forensic case reports were reviewed and the data was entered into an Excel spread sheet and analysed using chi squared tests within STATA ® . With increasing age of the child, a forensic medical history is significantly more likely to be taken. Additional information is made available to the medical practitioner what would otherwise have been provided if the medical practitioner relied only on the interview conducted by the police. Discrepancies observed between the official third parties (police or child protection) report of what a child has said and what the child says to the medical practitioner decrease with age, as do discrepancies observed between the child's version of events and a third party's (eg. parents, caregivers, friends) version of events. The study showed that by taking a forensic medical history from the child additional information can be obtained. Further, that there is a value in the examining medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history from children in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. A matched cohort comparison of a criminal justice system's response to child sexual abuse: a profile of perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, B J; Smith, P H; Funk, J B; Haaf, R A

    2000-04-01

    This study was undertaken to examine whether alleged child sexual abuse perpetrators are handled differently by the courts than other alleged felony perpetrators. Comparisons were made from the time of prosecutorial case acceptance through prosecution to sentencing, with emphasis on judicial and prosecutorial decision-making and plea-bargaining. Data were retrospectively abstracted on the entire defendant population of cases of sexual abuse of children and adolescents (ages 2-17) over a 5-year period. Using a case-flow analysis, comparisons were made between a child sexual abuse cohort and a cohort of matched felony cases from a single jurisdiction. Three important findings emerged. First, compared to other felons, abuse perpetrators were employed, had been married, were mostly European American, and were older than 30 years of age. Second, in the abuse cohort, as many as 14% had a previous sexual or violent record compared to 2% in the comparison group. Third, similar percentages of perpetrators in both groups were released on their own recognizance, had the charges against them dropped, and were found guilty. As well, no differences between groups were found in the proportion of individuals sentenced to jail, probation, counseling, or work release. Although the treatment of perpetrators of child sexual abuse was similar to the treatment of perpetrators of other felonies, the profile of the child abuse perpetrator was quite different. Knowledge about this profile may impact prosecution or treatment and recidivism rates, to the extent that recidivism is related to characteristics of the abuse perpetrator.

  19. Psychological resilience: an approach to the concept, theoretical framework and relation with child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gustavo Pinto-Cortez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a serious public health problem and a violation of human rights from children and adolescents. A prolific research has been developed to determine the magnitude of the problem, psychological effects, risk factors and protective factors. In this context, resilience approach becomes important by explain the mechanisms that promote positive adaptation to adversity. In this paper, it is discussed in the first part, the analysis of the concept of resilience and its various stages of investigation over time. Finally, an integration of this model in understanding and approaching child and adolescent victimization is done.

  20. The Impact of Child, Family, and Child Protective Services Factors on Reports of Child Sexual Abuse Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanan, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…

  1. Emotional security in the family system and psychological distress in female survivors of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Forensic Interviews for Child Sexual Abuse Allegations: An Investigation into the Effects of Animal-Assisted Intervention on Stress Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Parello, Cheryl A; Gulick, Elsie E

    2015-01-01

    The use of therapy animals during forensic interviews for child sexual abuse allegations is a recommendation by the Therapy Animals Supporting Kids Program to help ease children's discomfort during the forensic interview process. Based on this recommendation, this study incorporated a certified therapy canine into the forensic interview process for child sexual abuse allegations. This study investigated changes in salivary cortisol, immunoglobulin A, blood pressure, and heart rate as a result of forensic interview phenomenon (e.g., outcry) incorporating animal-assisted intervention versus a control condition in children (N = 42) interviewed for alleged child sexual abuse. The results supported significantly greater heart rate values for the control group (n = 23) who experienced sexual contact and/or indecency than the experience of aggravated sexual assault compared to no difference in HR for the intervention group (n = 19). The results suggest that the presence of the canine in the forensic interview may have acted as a buffer or safeguard for the children when disclosing details of sexual abuse. In the intervention group, children's HR was lower at the start of the forensic interview compared to the control group. Finding an effect of having a certified handler-canine team available during the forensic interview on physiological measures of stress has real-world value for children, child welfare personnel, and clinical therapists. It is suggested that animal-assisted intervention be expanded to children facing other types of trauma and to treatment programs for child survivors of sexual abuse.

  3. Psychological and Physical Health of Nonoffending Parents After Disclosure of Sexual Abuse of Their Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc; McDuff, Pierre; Turcotte, Marie-Ève

    2016-10-01

    Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be traumatic for nonoffending parents. Research has shown its impact on mothers' mental health, which includes heightened psychological distress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Very little is known, however, about its impact on their physical health or on fathers' health. The self-perceived mental and physical health of nonoffending parents after child sexual abuse disclosure was compared to determine gender-related differences in this regard. Interviews were conducted with 109 mothers and 43 fathers of 6- to 13-year-old sexually abused children. Bivariate analyses revealed that a fair proportion of parents reported psychological and physical problems after disclosure. However, proportionally more mothers than fathers reported psychological distress, depression, and use of professional services. Fathers were more likely to resort to health services instead of social services and to use medication for depression. Study findings provide leads for health and social service providers for the development of intervention protocols and referral procedures sensitive to gender issues, and they shed new light on specific needs of nonoffending parents.

  4. The influence of child sexual abuse on the self from adult narrative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayer, Anne; Seddon, Diane; Robinson, Catherine A; Gwilym, Hefin

    2015-01-01

    The impact of child sexual abuse on the adult self is not yet clearly understood. We explored adult perspectives through the use of narrative interviews (N = 30). Three key themes or views of self were identified in all narratives to varying degrees: the worthless self, the self as unknown, and the potential/developing self. Ambivalence and tension were present in all narratives. Individuals were challenged to integrate the sexual abuse experience in a constructive way and develop a more coherent perception of the self. The narrative method highlighted the dynamic nature of peoples' experiences at the same time recognizing that the narratives themselves are in progress. Reactions to disclosure, social support, and interpersonal connections are crucial at every turn.

  5. The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on the Education of Boys in Residential Care between 1950 and 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Andrew; Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2012-01-01

    Children's education may be adversely impacted by external factors during their childhood. For example, learning to learn, critical reflection, experiential learning and self-direction may be permanently impaired. Many children in out-of-home residential care during the last century suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect, including sexual abuse,…

  6. Child physical and sexual abuse and cigarette smoking in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristman-Valente, Allison N; Brown, Eric C; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2013-10-01

    Analyses used data from an extended longitudinal study to examine the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPA and CSA, respectively) and adolescent and adult smoking behavior. Two questions guided the study: (1) Is there an association between childhood abuse and adolescent and adult smoking behavior? (2) Does the relationship between childhood abuse and later cigarette smoking differ for males and females? A censored-inflated path model was used to assess the impact of child abuse on adolescent and adult lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking frequency. Gender differences in significant model paths were assessed using a multiple-group approach. Results show no significant relation between CPA or CSA and risk of having ever smoked cigarettes in adolescence or adulthood. However, for males, both CPA and CSA had direct effects on adolescent smoking frequency. For females, only CSA predicted increased smoking frequency in adolescence. Adolescent smoking frequency predicted adult smoking frequency more strongly for females compared with males. CPA and CSA are risk factors for higher frequency of smoking in adolescence. Higher frequency of cigarette smoking in adolescence increases the risk of higher smoking frequency in adulthood. Results underscore the need for both primary and secondary prevention and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of childhood abuse and to lessen risk for cigarette smoking among those who have been abused. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Childcare Professionals: Comparison of a Web-Based and In-Person Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two…

  8. Child sexual abuse as an etiological factor of overweight and eating disorders - considerations for primary health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opydo-Szymaczek, Justyna; Jarząbek-Bielecka, Grażyna; Kędzia, Witold; Borysewicz-Lewicka, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Despite the recognition of the clinical importance of child sexual abuse, primary health care providers are often not ad-equately prepared to perform medical evaluations and diagnose child sexual maltreatment. Paper presents basic symptoms and signs of CSA, which may suggest the need for further patient's diagnosis and referral. Since the great majority of sexually abused children do not have any abnormal physical findings, special attention is paid to the silent warning signs of CSA, such as changes in attitude towards own body and eating habits. Numerous studies suggest that victims of CSA may develop obesity or eating disorders of various forms and intensities.

  9. Sexual abuse in children -- what to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look at pornography Masturbating in front of a child Signs of Sexual Abuse in Children Suspect sexual abuse when children: Tell ... update 04-03-18. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Sexual Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  10. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE, BULLYING, CYBERBULLYING, AND MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG HIGH SCHOOLS STUDENTS: A MODERATED MEDIATED MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Martine; Cénat, Jude Mary; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille

    2016-07-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with adverse outcomes, including heightened vulnerability that may translate into risk of revictimization. The aims of the study were: (1) to explore the direct and indirect links between child sexual abuse and cyberbullying, bullying, and mental health problems and (2) to study maternal support as a potential protective factor. Teenagers involved in the two first waves of the Quebec Youths' Romantic Relationships Survey (N = 8,194 and 6,780 at Wave I and II, respectively) completed measures assessing child sexual abuse and maternal support at Wave I. Cyberbullying, bullying, and mental health problems (self-esteem, psychological distress, and suicidal ideations) were evaluated 6 months later. Rates of cyberbullying in the past 6 months were twice as high in sexually abused teens compared to nonvictims both for girls (33.47 vs. 17.75%) and boys (29.62 vs. 13.29%). A moderated mediated model revealed a partial mediation effect of cyberbullying and bullying in the link between child sexual abuse and mental health. Maternal support acted as a protective factor as the conditional indirect effects of child sexual abuse on mental health via cyberbullying and bullying were reduced in cases of high maternal support. Results have significant relevance for prevention and intervention in highlighting the heightened vulnerability of victims of child sexual abuse to experience both bullying and cyberbullying. Maternal support may buffer the risk of developing mental health distress, suggesting that intervention programs for victimized youth may profit by fostering parent involvement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Criminal investigation of child sexual abuse: a comparison of cases referred to the prosecutor to those not referred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, D D; Martens, S L; Barker, J

    2000-05-01

    The present study sought to identify characteristics of child sexual abuse cases which differentiate cases referred for criminal prosecution ("criminal-action") from those not referred ("dropped") by investigators. The study sample consisted of 1043 children who completed a forensic interview for sexual abuse that allegedly occurred at the hands of an adult between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1996 in Bernalillo County of New Mexico. Data was systematically obtained from forensic interview files and offender records at the local prosecutor's office. Differences between criminal-action and dropped cases were found in relation to the children (age, sex and ethnicity), the alleged offenders (age, sex and relationship to child), and the case characteristics (disclosure and injury to the child). The present study provided insight into the characteristics of a previously ignored population (reported child sexual abuse cases that are not referred for prosecution). Recommendations are made to address the needs of these children and their families.

  12. Predicting risky sexual behavior in emerging adulthood: examination of a moderated mediation model among child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather L; Grills, Amie E; Drum, Katherine B

    2014-01-01

    Although having a sexual victimization history is associated with engaging in sexual risk behavior, the mechanisms whereby sexual victimization increases risk behavior are unclear. This study examined use of sex as an affect regulation strategy as a mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior among 1,616 sexually active college women as well as examined having a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA), or both (CSA/ASA) as moderators. Results supported the mediated model as well as moderated mediation, where depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with use of sex as an affect regulation strategy among ASA victims, and sex as an affect regulation strategy was more strongly related to sexual risk behavior for CSA/ASA victims.

  13. Concepções da professora acerca do abuso sexual infantil Teachers' conceptions about sexual child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel de Faria Brino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A escola mostra-se como lugar ideal para detecção e intervenção em casos de abuso sexual infantil, uma vez que o principal agressor geralmente encontra-se na família. Considerando que a escola deve ter como objetivo garantir a qualidade de vida de sua clientela, bem como promover a cidadania, para delinear um programa que possa capacitar tais profissionais em casos de abuso sexual, parece necessário, em primeiro lugar, conhecer o universo de informações que eles detêm sobre o tema, sobre a legislação a respeito e sobre os direitos da criança. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar as informações de 20 educadoras de escolas municipais de educação infantil sobre o abuso sexual de crianças em uma cidade de médio porte. As informações obtidas foram analisadas e divididas em sete categorias. Os resultados indicam que a maioria das educadoras possuía informações insuficientes acerca do tema e afirmava adotar procedimentos inadequados diante dos casos de crianças que sofreram abusos sexuais.The school proves to be an ideal place for detection and intervention in child sexual abuse cases, since the main aggressor is found generally within the family. Considering that one of the school's objectives should be to guarantee the quality of life of its pupils, as well as to promote citizenship, in order to develop a program to train teachers on what to do in cases of sexual abuse, it seems necessary first to survey the universe of information teachers have about the subject, the existing legislation, and the children's rights. This study aimed to characterize the information that twenty educators in municipal schools for early child education in a medium size city had about child sexual abuse. The data obtained were analyzed and divided into seven categories. The results indicate that the majority of educators had insufficient information on the subject, affirming as well that they took inadequate measures when faced with cases of

  14. Family Violence and Child Sexual Abuse Among South Asians in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Hillary A; Chaudhary Nagaraj, Nitasha; Vyas, Amita N

    2016-08-01

    Family violence, including child sexual abuse (CSA), is a significant public health problem in the United States. It is particularly difficult to assess family violence and CSA among South Asians because it is often hidden due to cultural and familial stigma. A web-based survey was administered to a convenience sample (n = 368) of South Asian adults in the US. One-fourth (25.2 %) of the sample reported CSA; 13.8 % reported abuse involving exposure; 21.5 % reported abuse involving touching; 4.5 % reported attempted sexual intercourse; and 3.5 % reported forced sexual intercourse. Adjusted odds ratios found that participants who reported any relationship violence were significantly more likely to have experienced CSA (OR 2.28; 95 % CI 1.26-4.13); and suicide attempt was significantly associated with CSA (OR 3.96; 95 % CI 1.27-12.3). The findings presented in this formative study will assist in guiding future studies and interventions for South Asians in the United States.

  15. Overview: Clinical Identification of Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, David L.; Olafson, Erna

    1993-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on clinical identification of sexually abused children reviews the history of the study of child sexual abuse and describes the 14 papers included in the special issue. (JDD)

  16. Bad Apples, Bad Barrel: Exploring Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse by Catholic Clergy in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Death

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers constructions of institutional culture and power in the cover-up of child sexual abuse (CSA by clergy in the Roman Catholic Church of Australia. The issue of cover-up has previously been considered in international inquiries as an institutional failing that has caused significant harm to victims of CSA by Catholic Clergy. Evidence given by select representatives of the Catholic Church in two government inquiries into institutional abuse carried out in Australia is considered here. This evidence suggests that, where cover-up has occurred, it has been reliant on the abuse of institutional power and resulted in direct emotional, psychological and spiritual harm to victims of abuse. Despite international recognition of cover-up as institutional abuse, evidence presented by Roman Catholic Representatives to the Victorian Inquiry denied there was an institutionalised cover-up. Responding to this evidence, this paper queries whether the primary foundation of cover-up conforms to the ‘bad apple theory’ in that it relates only to a few individuals, or the ‘bad barrel theory’ of institutional structure and culture.

  17. School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron

    2015-04-16

    Child sexual abuse is a significant global problem in both magnitude and sequelae. The most widely used primary prevention strategy has been the provision of school-based education programmes. Although programmes have been taught in schools since the 1980s, their effectiveness requires ongoing scrutiny. To systematically assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse. Specifically, to assess whether: programmes are effective in improving students' protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse prevention; behaviours and skills are retained over time; and participation results in disclosures of sexual abuse, produces harms, or both. In September 2014, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and 11 other databases. We also searched two trials registers and screened the reference lists of previous reviews for additional trials. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs of school-based education interventions for the prevention of child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We summarised data for six outcomes: protective behaviours; knowledge of sexual abuse or sexual abuse prevention concepts; retention of protective behaviours over time; retention of knowledge over time; harm; and disclosures of sexual abuse. This is an update of a Cochrane Review that included 15 trials (up to August 2006). We identified 10 additional trials for the period to September 2014. We excluded one trial from the original review. Therefore, this update includes a total of 24 trials (5802 participants). We conducted several meta-analyses. More than half of the trials in each meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors.1. Meta-analysis of two trials (n = 102) evaluating protective behaviours favoured intervention (odds

  18. Mandatory Reporting Laws and Identification of Child Abuse and Neglect: Consideration of Differential Maltreatment Types, and a Cross-Jurisdictional Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mathews

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory reporting laws have been created in many jurisdictions as a way of identifying cases of severe child maltreatment on the basis that cases will otherwise remain hidden. These laws usually apply to all four maltreatment types. Other jurisdictions have narrower approaches supplemented by differential response systems, and others still have chosen not to enact mandatory reporting laws for any type of maltreatment. In scholarly research and normative debates about mandatory reporting laws and their effects, the four major forms of child maltreatment—physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect—are often grouped together as if they are homogenous in nature, cause, and consequence. Yet, the heterogeneity of maltreatment types, and different reporting practices regarding them, must be acknowledged and explored when considering what legal and policy frameworks are best suited to identify and respond to cases. A related question which is often conjectured upon but seldom empirically explored, is whether reporting laws make a difference in case identification. This article first considers different types of child abuse and neglect, before exploring the nature and operation of mandatory reporting laws in different contexts. It then posits a differentiation thesis, arguing that different patterns of reporting between both reporter groups and maltreatment types must be acknowledged and analysed, and should inform discussions and assessments of optimal approaches in law, policy and practice. Finally, to contribute to the evidence base required to inform discussion, this article conducts an empirical cross-jurisdictional comparison of the reporting and identification of child sexual abuse in jurisdictions with and without mandatory reporting, and concludes that mandatory reporting laws appear to be associated with better case identification.

  19. School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwi, K J; Woolfenden, S R; Wheeler, D M; O'brien, T A; Tait, P; Williams, K W

    2007-07-18

    Child sexual abuse is a significant problem that requires an effective means of prevention. To assess: if school-based programmes are effective in improving knowledge about sexual abuse and self-protective behaviours; whether participation results in an increase in disclosure of sexual abuse and/or produces any harm; knowledge retention and the effect of programme type or setting. Electronic searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts and other databases using MESH headings and text words specific for child sexual assault and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted in August 2006. RCTs or quasi-RCTs of school-based interventions to prevent child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Meta-analyses and sensitivity analysis, using two imputed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (0.1, 0.2), were used for four outcomes: protective behaviours, questionnaire-based knowledge, vignette-based knowledge and disclosure of abuse. Meta-analysis was not possible for retention of knowledge, likelihood of harm, or effect of programme type and setting. Fifteen trials measuring knowledge and behaviour change as a result of school-based child sexual abuse intervention programmes were included. Over half the studies in each initial meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors. For behaviour change, two studies had data suitable for meta-analysis; results favoured intervention (OR 6.76, 95% CI 1.44, 31.84) with moderate heterogeneity (I(2)=56.0%) and did not change significantly when adjustments using intraclass coefficients were made. Nine studies were included in a meta-analysis evaluating questionnaire-based knowledge. An increase in knowledge was found (SMD 0.59; 0.44, 0.74, heterogeneity (I2=66.4%). When adjusted for an ICC of 0.1 and 0.2 the results were SMD 0.6 (0.45, 0.75) and 0.57 (0.44, 0.71) respectively. Heterogeneity decreased

  20. Co-occurrence of avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse predicts poor outcome in long-standing eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabel, Karianne R; Hoffart, Asle; Rø, Oyvind; Martinsen, Egil W; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2010-08-01

    Few consistent predictive factors for eating disorder have been identified across studies. In the current 5-year prospective study, the objective was to examine whether (a) personality disorder and child sexual abuse predict the course of severity of eating disorder symptoms after inpatient treatment and (b) how the predictors interact. A total of 74 patients with long-standing eating disorder and mean age of 30 years were assessed at the beginning and end of inpatient therapy and at 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-up. A mixed model was used to examine the predictors. Avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse interacted in predicting high levels of eating disorder over a long-term course. These results suggest that eating disorder, avoidant personality disorder, and sequelae after child sexual abuse are potential targets for treatment that need further investigation. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Parental reflective functioning as a moderator of child internalizing difficulties in the context of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, Karin; Bégin, Michaël; Normandin, Lina; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to examine pathways from child sexual abuse (CSA) and maternal mentalizing to child internalizing and externalizing difficulties and to test a model of MRF as a moderator of the relationships between CSA and child difficulties. The sample was comprised of 154 mothers and children aged 2-12 where 64 children had experienced CSA. To assess parental mentalizing the Parental Development Interview was rated with the Parental Reflective Functioning Scale. Child internalizing and externalizing difficulties were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results indicate that there were significant inverse relationships between maternal mentalizing and child internalizing and externalizing difficulties. When maternal mentalizing was considered together with CSA, only maternal mentalizing was a significant predictor of child difficulties. Furthermore, maternal mentalizing moderated the relationship between CSA and child internalizing difficulties. These findings provide evidence of the importance of the parents' mentalizing stance for psychiatric symptoms of children aged 2-12, as well as children's recovery from CSA. The clinical implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring the Role of Child Sexual Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Gay and Bisexual Men Reporting Compulsive Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Leah M.; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has…

  3. Can the Punishment Fit the Crime When Suspects Confess Child Sexual Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Birdsall, William C.; Vandervort, Frank; Henry, James

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine significant predictors of severity of sentencing of sex offenders of minors in a jurisdiction which obtains many confessions. Method: Data were abstracted from 323 criminal court case records of sexually abused minors over 11 years in a county which places a high priority on sexual abuse prosecution. The sample used in this…

  4. Transactional sex as a form of child sexual exploitation and abuse in Rwanda: implications for child security and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Timothy P; Binagwaho, Agnes; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2012-04-01

    To illuminate the different manifestations of transactional sexual exploitation and abuse among Rwanda's children in order to inform effective responses by policies, programs, and communities. Qualitative data was collected during April and May 2010. One-hundred and thirty-nine adults (56% female) and 52 children (60% female) participated in focus groups across three geographic locations in Rwanda. Eleven interviews were held with child protection stakeholders. Interview and focus group participants reported how children, primarily girls, engaged in transactional sex as a survival strategy in response to situations of adversity including economic deprivation, difficulty accessing school, and social pressure. Policy and programs should work to address the underlying social and economic determinants of transactional sexual exploitation through structural interventions that reduce gender inequalities to accessing school and securing basic needs. Further quantitative and qualitative research to better understand the complexities of this issue is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Techniques Used in Forensic Psychological Examinations in Cases of Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Lages Gava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no standardized protocol for the evaluation of situations of sexual abuse. Thus, this study investigated the techniques used by psychologists in forensic examinations in cases of suspected child and adolescent sexual abuse in the context of the criminal investigation. Semi-structured interviews, which were qualitatively analyzed using the WebQDA software, were applied with twelve psychologists who work as expert witnesses in the Medical-Legal Institute of six Brazilian capitals. The results showed a diversity of actions taken in the forensic examination practice, as well as consensus and controversy regarding the use of psychological testing and the credibility assessment of the report. Flexibility in conducting the forensic examinations by the teams was also observed, with the techniques used adapted according to the needs. The importance of the diversity of techniques was highlighted, as these aim to assist the expert witness to come to reliable conclusions, as well as maintain the rigor and technical quality of the evaluation.

  7. Child Sexual Abuse, Baby Gender, and Intergenerational Psychic Transmission: An Exploratory, Projective Psychoanalytic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tychey, Claude; Vandelet, Elena; Laurent, Mélanie; Lighezzolo-Alnot, Joelle; Prudent, Cécile; Evrard, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this article is to present a French psychoanalytic model of how and to what extent the sequellae of sexual abuse by a male during a girl's childhood are transmitted to the next generation, as a function of the gender of the abused mother's children. The authors conducted a qualitative exploratory study based on the longitudinal follow-up of a woman who had two boys and a girl. They focused on the impact of two general sequellae: separation anxiety and negativity-disqualification of the paternal and/or male figures. From the methodological standpoint, they used a clinical interview to assess the mother, and a projective tool, a storytelling test, to assess the child's personality using content analysis. The results confirm both the merits of the theoretical framework and the relevance of the projective methodology for grasping sequellae transmitted to the child. The sequellae turned out to be markedly different for the two baby genders: rejection for the male, overprotection and ghostly encryption for the female. Avenues for using this tool and model in future quantitative, comparative studies are suggested.

  8. Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship with Health Risk Behaviors among Rural Children and Adolescents in Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…

  9. Unpacking Race, Culture, and Class in Rural Alaska: Native and Non-Native Multidisciplinary Professionals' Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubar, Roe; Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to unpack notions of class, culture, and race as they relate to multidisciplinary team (MDT) professionals and their perceptions of prevalence in child sexual abuse cases in Native and non-Native rural Alaska communities. Power and privilege within professional settings is significant for all social work professionals…

  10. At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ione R.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…

  11. Exploring Predictors of Professional School Counselors' Ability to Accurately Recognize and Likelihood to Appropriately Report Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behun, Richard Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors related to personal characteristics (i.e., level of moral reasoning and personal attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse) and professional characteristics (i.e., experience, and training) of the professional school counselor influencing ability to accurately recognize and likelihood to…

  12. School-Based Education Programs for the Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse: A Cochrane Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programs for the prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA). The programs deliver information about CSA and strategies to help children avoid it and encourage help seeking. Methods: Systematic review including meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster…

  13. Factors from Durkheim's Family Integration Related to Suicidal Ideation among Men with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Scott D.; Renner, Lynette M.

    2013-01-01

    Men who were sexually abused during childhood represent a highly stigmatized, marginalized population at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems. Using the family integration dimension of Durkheim's theory of suicide, factors associated with suicidal ideation among a purposive sample of 487 men with histories of child sexual…

  14. Multi-Informant Assessment of Anxiety regarding Ano-Genital Examinations for Suspected Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Philip V.; Hornor, Gail; Rhoda, Dale; Curran, Sherry; Stevens, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Given the commonly held belief that physical examinations for child sexual abuse (CSA) are very distressing, our primary objective was to evaluate anxiety during these assessments using the Multidimensional Anxiety Score for Children (MASC-10). A second objective was to compare self-reported anxiety to parental report using the MASC-10…

  15. Vicarious Traumatisation in Practitioners Who Work with Adult Survivors of Sexual Violence in Child Sexual Abuse: Literature Review and Directions for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Choularia, Zoe; Hutchison, Craig; Karatzias, Thanos

    2009-01-01

    Primary objective: The authors sought to summarise and evaluate evidence regarding vicarious traumatisation (VT) in practitioners working with adult survivors of sexual violence and/or child sexual abuse (CSA). Methods and selection criteria: Relevant publications were identified from systematic literature searches of PubMed and PsycINFO. Studies were selected for inclusion if they examined vicarious traumatisation resulting from sexual violence and/or CSA work and were published in English b...

  16. The Child Sexual Abuse Offender: A Review of Current Research and Implications for Personnel Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    such as unemploy - ment or loss of a loved one are recognized as factors which might lower a person’s inhibition to pedophilic behavior (e.g., Mc-hr et al...the fathers: A study of physi- cal and psychic abuse, parent to child. New York: St. Martin’s. Kempe, R., & Kempe, C. H. (1978). Child abuse. Cambridge

  17. Child sexual abuse is largely hidden from the adult society. An epidemiological study of adolescents' disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate disclosure rates and disclosure patterns and to examine predictors of non-disclosure in a sample of male and female adolescents with self-reported experiences of sexual abuse. A sample of 4,339 high school seniors (2,324 girls, 2,015 boys) was examined with a questionnaire concerning sexual experiences in this study with a focus on disclosure of sexual abuse (non-contact, contact or penetrating abuse, and including peer abuse). Of the sample, 1,505 girls (65%) and 457 boys (23%) reported experience of sexual abuse. The disclosure rate was 81% (girls) and 69% (boys). Girls and boys disclosed most often to a friend of their own age. Few had disclosed to professionals. Even fewer said that the incident had been reported to the authorities. Logistic regression showed that it was less likely for girls to disclose if they had experienced contact sexual abuse with or without penetration, abuse by a family member, only a single abuse occasion or if they had perceived their parents as non-caring. Boys were less likely to disclose if they studied a vocational program, lived with both parents or had perceived their parents as either caring and overprotective or non-caring and not overprotective. Disclosing sexual abuse is a complex process. Much is hidden from the adult society, especially from professionals and the legal system. Since peers are the most common receivers of abuse information, programs for supporting peers ought to be developed. Differences in disclosure patterns for girls and boys indicate that a gender perspective is helpful when developing guidelines for professionals. Professionals, especially in the school system, need to be more aware of the finding that few sexually abused children seek help from professionals or other adults and that support offers should be directly addressed not only to the vulnerable young persons themselves but also to peers who wish to help a friend.

  18. Criminalising Institutional Failures to Prevent, Identify or React to Child Sexual Abuse

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    Penny Crofts

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there is increasing academic recognition of corporations as criminogenic, the criminal legal system has demonstrated difficulties in conceptualising corporate culpability. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse provides ample evidence of why organisations can and should be criminalised for systemic failures. I demonstrate that the emphasis upon individualistic subjective culpability by the criminal legal system does not adequately encapsulate the institutional failings detailed before the Royal Commission. Whilst mandatory reporting offences are important, these offences do not adequately respond to the kinds of organisational failings identified by the Royal Commission. I argue in favour of developing a new institutional offence constructed upon realist concepts of negligence and/or corporate culture that recognises that organisations are capable of wrongdoing and sufficiently blameworthy to justify the imposition of criminal sanctions. I conclude by arguing that the expressive role of criminal law justifies and requires the criminalisation of this kind of organisational wrongdoing.

  19. Predicting Time Spent in Treatment in a Sample of Danish Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Shelley; Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark; Armour, Cherie

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify significant predictors of length of time spent in treatment. In a convenience sample of 439 Danish survivors of child sexual abuse, predictors of time spent in treatment were examined. Assessments were conducted on a 6-month basis over a period of 18 months. A multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that the experience of neglect in childhood and having experienced rape at any life stage were associated with less time in treatment. Higher educational attainment and being male were associated with staying in treatment for longer periods of time. These factors may be important for identifying those at risk of terminating treatment prematurely. It is hoped that a better understanding of the factors that predict time spent in treatment will help to improve treatment outcomes for individuals who are at risk of dropping out of treatment at an early stage.

  20. "Just dreaming of them": The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Klaus M; Oezdemir, Umut C; Schlinzig, Eliza; Groll, Anna; Hupp, Elena; Hellenschmidt, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ) offers diagnostic and therapeutic help to 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for the prepubescent and/or early pubescent body of children and who apply for treatment on a voluntary basis. The project goal is to prevent primary or recurrent child sexual abuse as well as primary or recurrent use of child abuse images. Treatment aims to enable affected juveniles to obtain control over their conflictual sexual behaviors. In the present article, the origin of the PPJ; its main approach, including the conception of a media campaign; as well as results from the first year of a three-year study are presented. Further, initial characterizations of juveniles taking part in the project for the first 12 months are provided. The results confirmed that the group of 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors exists as a target group for primary preventive measures and that they can be assessed for their sexual preferences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A rhetoric of retribution and redemption: Burke's terms for order in the drama of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Pamela D

    2011-01-01

    Law consists of a series of stories, narratives that embody the values and integrity of a culture. We define crimes, and label the individuals who commit them, along a continuum that moves from the merely unacceptable to the monstrous. One of the most heinous crimes in American society is considered to be child sexual abuse. The sexual abuser of children is firmly established in the public imagination as a modern-day bogeyman, and approaches to prevention and punishment reflect this artificially accelerated panic. Although public policies and correctional measures ostensibly are geared at preventing the crime, they reflect a fundamental misunderstanding as to the motivation of many offenders and the way in which child sexual abuse is perceived as a source of social anomie. This paper uses Kenneth Burke's interpretative framework to examine the social and legal perceptions and treatment of child sexual abusers. First discussed are Burke's conceptions of identity and orientation, which form the basis of human motivation and thus can illuminate the source of offenders' impulses. Next, Burke's "terms for order" are used to show the ways in which the dominant hierarchy compels us to scapegoat and sacrifice in the quest for social redemption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Prevention Toward Sexual Abuse on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Paramastri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a worldwide problem. Although most studies on the longterm consequences of child sexual abuse have focused on women, sexual abuse of both boys and girls is common. Peer sexual abuse in schools was an often overlooked problem that contributes to a hostile school environment: one major study found that 85% of girls and 76% of boys reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse in school. 85% of child sexual abuse is committed by relatives, close family friend or an adult that the child knows and trusts. The childhood sexual abuse variables taken into account are commonly age of onset, duration, abuse forms and relationship between the child and the perpetrator. The objective of this study was to gather information or opinion about sexual abuse concept, methods and media of the elementary students, parents, teachers and experts. A qualitative study, involving one to one interviews, was conducted with 7 experts, focus group discussion with 40 elementary students, and with 40 parents in Yogyakarta district about child sexual abuse issues. Data were analysed according to Miles and Huberman’s data reduction, data display and conclusion verification process. These findings strongly indicate that boys and girls are vulnerable to this form of childhood sexual abuse ; the similarity in the likelihood for multiple behavioral, mental and social outcomes among men and women suggest the need to identify and treat all adults affected by child sexual abuse. Themes related to the child sexual abuse were: paperwork design, good facilitator, guidelines for students, parents and teachers. Students prefer media that can help them understand concept with komik paperwork as media for early prevention. Parents, teachers and experts prefer that this prevention program can run as soon. With careful paperwork design and evaluation of prevention program, the success of program implementation can be enhanced.

  3. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  4. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  5. Preventing the Onset of Child Sexual Abuse by Targeting Young Adolescents With Universal Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Feder, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth’s first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations. PMID:28413921

  6. Psychological injury in victims of child sexual abuse: A meta-analytic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara G. Amado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of child/adolescent sexual abuse (CSA/ASA on the victim's probability of developingsymptoms of depression and anxiety, to quantify injury in populational terms, to establish theprobability of injury, and to determine the different effects of moderators on the severity of injury, a meta-analysis was performed. Given the abundant literature, only studies indexed in the scientific databaseof reference, the Web of Science, were selected. A total of 78 studies met the inclusion criteria: they measuredCSA/ASA victimization or injury in terms of depression or anxiety symptoms, measured the effectsize or included data for computing them, and provided a description of the sample. The results showedthat CSA/ASA victims suffered significant injury, generally of a medium effect size and generalizable, victimshad 70% more probabilities of suffering from injury, and clinical diagnosis was significantly a moreadequate measure of injury than symptoms. The probability of chronic injury (dysthymia was greaterthan developing more severe injury, i.e., major depressive disorder (MDD. In the category of anxiety disorders,injury was expressed with a higher probability in specific phobia. In terms of the victim's gender,females had significantly higher rates of developing a depressive disorder (DD and/or an anxiety disorder(AD, quantified in a 42% and 24% over the baseline, for a DD and AD respectively. As for the type of abuse,the meta-analysis revealed that abuse involving penetration was linked to severe injury, whereas abusewith no contact was associated to less serious injury. The clinical, social, and legal implications of the resultsare discussed.

  7. Memory for child sexual abuse information: simulated memory error and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Kelly; Goodman, Gail S; Lyons, Kristen E; Newton, Jeremy; Avila-Mora, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Building on the simulated-amnesia work of Christianson and Bylin (Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, 495-511, 1999), the present research introduces a new paradigm for the scientific study of memory of childhood sexual abuse information. In Session 1, participants mentally took the part of an abuse victim as they read an account of the sexual assault of a 7-year-old. After reading the narrative, participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: They (1) rehearsed the story truthfully (truth group), (2) left out the abuse details of the story (omission group), (3) lied about the abuse details to indicate that no abuse had occurred (commission group), or (4) did not recall the story during Session 1 (no-rehearsal group). One week later, participants returned for Session 2 and were asked to truthfully recall the narrative. The results indicated that, relative to truthful recall, untruthful recall or no rehearsal at Session 1 adversely affected memory performance at Session 2. However, untruthful recall resulted in better memory than did no rehearsal. Moreover, gender, PTSD symptoms, depression, adult attachment, and sexual abuse history significantly predicted memory for the childhood sexual abuse scenario. Implications for theory and application are discussed.

  8. Child abuse in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, a large number of children are deprived of their basic human rights due to unacceptable health, nutrition, education as well as social conditions. In addition, children are exposed to severe forms of sexual, physical and mental abuses at home, in the work place, in institutions and other public places. The nature and extent of violence against children irrespective of age, sex and class has been increasing day by day. These include physical torture, rape, homicide and sometimes heinous attacks with acid. Children are also victims of child labor and trafficking, both of which are treated as the most severe form of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. This review article is aimed to focus on the present situation of various forms of child abuses in our country. Data collection is based on secondary sources of information from Dhaka Medical College Hospital, One Stop Crisis Center (OCC,UNICEF, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, several Dhaka based organizations and news paper clipping. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2015; 9(1: 18-21

  9. [Child sexual abuse: a study among 892 female students of a medical school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-qi; Han, Ping; Dunne, Michael P

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) among female students of a medical school and to explore the impact of CSA on the mental health and health related risk behaviors of the victims being sexually abused and to provide useful reference for CSA prevention. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 892 female students from a medical school by anonymous self-administered questionnaire during Oct. 2002. The questionnaire used for this study mainly included (1) general demographic information; (2) sexual experiences; (3) 12 forms of CSA. In this study, cases of CSA were defined as those who answered positively to one or more of the 12 questions relating to childhood sexual experiences (including non-physical contact CSA and physical contact CSA) occurring before age 16 with a person when a child did not want to. (4) Center for Epidemiologic Studies (CES)-Depression Scale; (5) Self Esteem Scale; (6) Risk Behaviors; (7) Health status' self-evaluation. Survey procedures were designed to protect students' privacy by allowing anonymous and voluntary participation. Students were seated separately, completed the self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms during a regular class period. Respondents were encouraged to participate in this survey, but given the sensitive nature of the subject, they could skip portion of the questionnaire if they were not comfortable with the questions. The completed questionnaires were sealed in envelopes by students themselves (the envelope was distributed with questionnaire at the same time), and then collected together. Data were analysed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Frequency, percentage, Chi-square test and t-test of statistics were used to analyze the CSA prevalence and explore the influence of CSA on mental health of students. Among 892 female students, 25.6% reported having experienced CSA (any one of 12 forms non-physical contact and physical

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Trajectories in Child Sexual Abuse Victims: An Analysis of Sex Differences Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Koenen, Karestan C.; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Very few studies have prospectively examined sex differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms and symptom trajectories in youth victimized by childhood sexual abuse. This study addresses that question in a relatively large sample of children, drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, who were between the ages of 8-16 years…

  11. Child sexual abuse as a risk factor for teen dating violence: Findings from a representative sample of Quebec youth

    OpenAIRE

    Hébert, Martine; Moreau, Catherine; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is identified as a significant risk factor for later victimization in the context of adult intimate relationships, but less is known about the risk associated with CSA in early romantic relationships. This paper aims to document the association between CSA and teen dating victimization in a large representative sample of Quebec high-school students. As part of the Youths’ Romantic Relationships Project, 8,194 teens completed measures on CSA and psychological, physical...

  12. A Combination of Outcome and Process Feedback Enhances Performance in Simulations of Child Sexual Abuse Interviews Using Avatars

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Pompedda; Jan Antfolk; Jan Antfolk; Angelo Zappalà; Angelo Zappalà; Pekka Santtila; Pekka Santtila

    2017-01-01

    Simulated interviews in alleged child sexual abuse (CSA) cases with computer-generated avatars paired with feedback improve interview quality. In the current study, we aimed to understand better the effect of different types of feedback in this context. Feedback was divided into feedback regarding conclusions about what happened to the avatar (outcome feedback) and feedback regarding the appropriateness of question-types used by the interviewer (process feedback). Forty-eight participants eac...

  13. Child sexual abuse as a risk factor for teen dating violence: Findings from a representative sample of Quebec youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Martine; Moreau, Catherine; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is identified as a significant risk factor for later victimization in the context of adult intimate relationships, but less is known about the risk associated with CSA in early romantic relationships. This paper aims to document the association between CSA and teen dating victimization in a large representative sample of Quebec high-school students. As part of the Youths’ Romantic Relationships Project, 8,194 teens completed measures on CSA and psychological, physical and sexual dating violence. After controlling for other interpersonal traumas, results show that CSA contributed to all three forms of dating victimization among both boys and girls. The heightened risk of revictimization appears to be stronger for male victims of CSA. Intervention and prevention efforts are clearly needed to reduce the vulnerability of male and female victims of sexual abuse who are entering the crucial phase of adolescence and first romantic relationships. PMID:29308104

  14. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents Referred to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for Psychiatric Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Child abuse has been a continuous, hidden health and social problem in all over the world. Identifying risk factors are crucial to implement protective services. In Turkey, data of the legal cases are still lacking. This study aims to assess the sociodemographic and psychiatric features of the sexually abused children who have been referred for forensic evaluation together with their identity issues. Materials and Methods: The forensic files of the sexually abused cases (tı 11: 9 boys, 32 girls who had been referred to the child psychiatry outpatient clinic were evaluated. Psychiatric diagnoses in the files were based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age children- Turkish Version. Data on age, gender, socioeconomic status and diagnoses of the victims and characteristics of the abusers were gathered and analysed by descriptive statistical methods. Results: Mean age of the victims was 11.54±3.31 years. Socioeconomic levels of their families were mostly lower class with rate of 51.2%. All perpetrators were male with a mean age of 23 years (min 14; max 67. When the consanguinity of the abusers and victims were taken into consideration, it was found that they were intrafamilial (fathers and brothers rate:12.2%, close relatives (19.5%, distant relatives (22.0%, other familiar (such as neighbours, friends: 14.6% and unfamiliar (24.4% people for the victims. 19.5% of the victims had mental retardation. The most common diagnoses of the victims were posttraumatic stress disorder (46.3%, other anxiety disorders (17.1%, and major depression (24.4%. Conclusion: Identified risk factors for sexual abuse, determined as the result of this study, are being a female child, late childhood period, mental retardation, and low economic status. The abusers were males who were familiar to the child victims. Preventive measures should be implemented for the entire population, particularly involving the high- risk groups

  15. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Body Safety Training for Young Children in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak Tunc, Gulseren; Gorak, Gulay; Ozyazicioglu, Nurcan; Ak, Bedriye; Isil, Ozlem; Vural, Pinar

    2018-06-01

    The "Body Safety Training Program" is an education program aimed at ensuring children are informed about their body and acquire self-protection skills. In this study, a total of 83 preschoolers were divided into experimental and control groups; based on a power analysis, 40 children comprised the experimental group, while 43 children comprised the control group. The "Body Safety Training Programme" was translated into Turkish and content validity was determined regarding the language and cultural appropriateness. The "What If Situations Test" (WIST) was administered to both groups before and after the training. Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Variance Analysis, and the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test were used to compare between the groups and the Spearman correlation analysis was used to determine the strength of the relationship between the dependent and independent variable. The differences between the pretest and posttest scores for the subscales (appropriate recognition, inappropriate recognition, say, do, tell, and reporting skills), and the personal safety questionnaire (PSQ) score means for the children in the experimental group were found to be statistically significant (p Body Safety Training programme" is effective in increasing the child sexual abuse prevention and self-protection skills in Turkish young children.

  16. The independent effects of child sexual abuse and impulsivity on lifetime suicide attempts among female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daray, Federico M; Rojas, Sasha M; Bridges, Ana J; Badour, Christal L; Grendas, Leandro; Rodante, Demián; Puppo, Soledad; Rebok, Federico

    2016-08-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a causal agent in many negative adulthood outcomes, including the risk for life-threatening behaviors such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Traumatic events such as CSA may pose risk in the healthy development of cognitive and emotional functioning during childhood. In fact, high impulsivity, a risk factor for suicidal behavior, is characteristic of CSA victims. The current study aims to understand the relations among CSA, impulsivity, and frequency of lifetime suicide attempts among a female patient sample admitted for suicidal behavior. Participants included 177 female patients between the ages of 18 and 63 years admitted at two hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Number of previous suicide attempts and CSA were assessed via structured interviews, while impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). A model of structural equations was employed to evaluate the role of impulsivity in the relation between CSA and suicide attempts. CSA (β=.18, pimpulsivity (β=.24, psuicide attempts. However, impulsivity was not significantly associated with CSA (β=.09, p>.05). CSA and impulsivity are independently associated with lifetime suicide attempts among female patients with recent suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Monsters in My Head: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Child Survivor of Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Stacie E.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is 1 of several possible outcomes of child sexual victimization. There is a growing body of literature regarding the prevalence of PTSD among children who have been sexually victimized. Using specific case examples, this article looks at the nature and scope of the problem, diagnostic criteria according to the…

  18. Feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for childcare professionals: comparison of a web-based and in-person training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheingold, Alyssa A; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two different formats: in person and Web based. The sample consisted of 188 child care professionals from a large-scale, multisite, randomized controlled trial. Findings indicate that both in-person and online training formats are feasible to implement and acceptable to professionals. When comparing formats, the in-person format was favored in terms of comfort level and likelihood of sharing information with others. These findings have significant implications for dissemination of child sexual abuse prevention programs for child care professionals.

  19. The economic burden of child sexual abuse in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Brown, Derek S; Fang, Xiangming; Hassan, Ahmed; Mercy, James A

    2018-05-01

    The present study provides an estimate of the U.S. economic impact of child sexual abuse (CSA). Costs of CSA were measured from the societal perspective and include health care costs, productivity losses, child welfare costs, violence/crime costs, special education costs, and suicide death costs. We separately estimated quality-adjusted life year (QALY) losses. For each category, we used the best available secondary data to develop cost per case estimates. All costs were estimated in U.S. dollars and adjusted to the reference year 2015. Estimating 20 new cases of fatal and 40,387 new substantiated cases of nonfatal CSA that occurred in 2015, the lifetime economic burden of CSA is approximately $9.3 billion, the lifetime cost for victims of fatal CSA per female and male victim is on average $1,128,334 and $1,482,933, respectively, and the average lifetime cost for victims of nonfatal CSA is of $282,734 per female victim. For male victims of nonfatal CSA, there was insufficient information on productivity losses, contributing to a lower average estimated lifetime cost of $74,691 per male victim. If we included QALYs, these costs would increase by approximately $40,000 per victim. With the exception of male productivity losses, all estimates were based on robust, replicable incidence-based costing methods. The availability of accurate, up-to-date estimates should contribute to policy analysis, facilitate comparisons with other public health problems, and support future economic evaluations of CSA-specific policy and practice. In particular, we hope the availability of credible and contemporary estimates will support increased attention to primary prevention of CSA. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Prevalence Rate and Demographic and Clinical Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse Among New Psychiatric Outpatients in a City in Northern Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O; Juhás, Michal; Ritchie, Amanda; Ogunsina, Olurotimi; Ambrosano, Lorella; Corbett, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence rate for child sexual abuse among new psychiatric outpatients in Fort McMurray was 20.7%. With an odds ratio for sex of 3.30, female patients are about 3 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared with male patients when controlling for other factors. Similarly, patients with at most high school education and those with previous contact with psychiatric services were about 2 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared to the patients with college or university education or no previous contact with psychiatric services, respectively. Similarly, patients with histories of substance abuse and patients with family histories of mental illness had higher likelihoods of reporting histories of child sexual abuse compared to patients without histories of substance abuse or family histories of mental illness, respectively. Our findings suggest that victims of child sexual abuse are an at-risk population in need of ongoing mental health and educational support.

  1. Arab Parents' Reactions to Child Sexual Abuse: A Review of Clinical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Baker, Khawla

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses parents' reactions to sexual abuse cases in their families. The study analyzed the clinical records of individual and family therapy sessions with 35 cases of Arab Palestinian clients, citizens of Israel (27 individuals and 8 families). Families were categorized as either functional or dysfunctional. It was concluded that the…

  2. Sexual Abuse Images in Cyberspace: Expanding the Ecology of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer; Alaggia, Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Cyberspace has added a new dimension to the ecology of children made the subjects of sexual abuse images distributed online. These images cannot be permanently removed and can continue to circulate in cyberspace forever. A review of the current literature suggests that helping professionals are not consistently aware of or do not probe…

  3. Competing Meanings of Childhood and the Social Construction of Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…

  4. Her Body Speaks: The Experience of Dance Therapy for Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Letty J.; Daniluk, Judith C.

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study explores the experiences of dance therapy for 5 women who had been sexually abused as children. Using in-depth, largely unstructured interviews, the women reflect on their dance therapy experiences: and on their perceptions of the role of these experiences in their psychological healing. (Contains 46…

  5. Positive and Negative Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Margot; Edelaar, Monique

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of a Dutch sexual abuse prevention program, "Right for Security," for elementary school children (ages 8 to 12) found differences in short-term and long-term effects. In the long run, children thought refusing to cooperate with the intruder more feasible and younger children showed less social anxiousness. However, the oldest…

  6. Children at Risk: A Review of Sexual Abuse Incidents and Child Protection Issues in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The right of children to be protected from abuse is grounded in international law. Children should be free to enjoy their childhoods and to engage with their physical environment without fear for their safety. In recent years, girls and women in Jamaica have been targeted by men who rape and/or otherwise sexually assault them. This is without…

  7. Evaluating Animal-Assisted Therapy in Group Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Tracy J.; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child…

  8. Update on child abuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Scott D; Lane, Wendy G; Walsh, Christina M

    2007-12-01

    Child abuse remains a significant problem in the United States with 2.9 million reports and 825 000 indicated cases in 2005. This report will highlight recent efforts toward child abuse prevention, focusing on home visiting programs, abusive head trauma primary prevention, parent training programs, sexual abuse prevention, and the effectiveness of laws banning corporal punishment. Most home visitation programs have demonstrated a lack of effectiveness in recent randomized trials. One exception is the Nurse Family Partnership, which remains the most effective and longest enduring intervention for high-risk families. Child sexual abuse prevention programs and parent training programs need further evaluation with more rigorous methodology and outcome measures. Providing universal parent education about coping with crying infants appears to be effective in lowering the incidence of abusive head trauma. Although advocated for, further study will determine the effectiveness of laws banning corporal punishment or mandating abusive head trauma education to parents of newborns. Pediatricians play an important role in the prevention of child maltreatment. Their knowledge of the effectiveness of different programs can help guide parents toward appropriate services.

  9. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in child victims of sexual abuse: perceived social support as a protection factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad

    2016-08-01

    Background Social support has been shown to play a protective role against the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in individuals exposed to trauma. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived social support on depression and PTSD in child victims of sexual abuse and to determine the relationship between them. Method In total 182 victims of sexual abuse aged 6-18 at time of interview were assessed. Clinical interviews, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) were used to assess children's psychological status, while the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R) was used to measure social support. Results Girls had significantly higher median CDI and CPTS-RI scores than boys, while no significant difference was determined between boys and girls in terms of PSSS-R scores. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between CDI and PSSS-R scores, CPTS-RI scores and PSSS-R scores in girls, while no significant correlation was identified in male victims. Conclusions In conclusion, we think that social support networks for victims of sexual abuse need to be broadened and increased, and that importance should be attached to protective approaches in that context.

  10. Recovering Process from Child Sexual Abuse During Adulthood from an Integrative Approach to Solution-Focused Therapy: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Carolina

    2017-10-01

    In recent times, strengths-based recovery approaches that focus on the present and build strategies that look toward the future have become popular. However, some cases require the consideration of experiences from previous stages of the clients' development. This single-case study explores the psychotherapeutic process of a middle-aged woman who presented with a history of child sexual abuse (incest) and a long-term adult diagnosis of depression that was treated in public health services. This psychotherapy involved an integrative approach to solution-focused therapy; specifically, the approach proposed by Yvonne Dolan to work with adult survivors of sexual abuse, in conjunction with techniques and strategies from the transtheoretical model. Measures incorporating therapeutic working alliance and outcomes were administered over sessions. Results showed positive outcomes from this therapeutic intervention, which remained at 3-month and 12-month follow-ups. Implications for practitioners' specialist practice in health services are discussed, given the complexity of comorbid mental health conditions with a history of child sexual abuse.

  11. Interpretation of Medical Findings in Suspected Child Sexual Abuse: An Update for 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Joyce A; Farst, Karen J; Kellogg, Nancy D

    2018-06-01

    Most sexually abused children will not have signs of genital or anal injury, especially when examined nonacutely. A recent study reported that only 2.2% (26 of 1160) of sexually abused girls examined nonacutely had diagnostic physical findings, whereas among those examined acutely, the prevalence of injuries was 21.4% (73 of 340). It is important for health care professionals who examine children who might have been sexually abused to be able to recognize and interpret any physical signs or laboratory results that might be found. In this review we summarize new data and recommendations concerning documentation of medical examinations, testing for sexually transmitted infections, interpretation of lesions caused by human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus in children, and interpretation of physical examination findings. Updates to a table listing an approach to the interpretation of medical findings is presented, and reasons for changes are discussed. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The nature and structure of supervision in health visiting with victims of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, L

    1999-03-01

    Part of a higher research degree to explore professional practice. To explore how health visitors work with victims of child sexual abuse and the supervision systems to support them. To seek the views and experiences of practising health visitors relating to complex care in order to consider the nature and structure of supervision. The research reported in this paper used a qualitative method of research and semi-structured interviews with practising health visitors of varying levels of experience in venues around England. Qualitative research enabled the exploration of experiences. Identification of the need for regular, structured, accountable opportunities in a 'private setting' to discuss whole caseload work and current practice issues. Supervision requires a structured, formalized process, in both regularity and content, as a means to explore and acknowledge work with increasingly complex care, to enable full discussion of whole caseloads. Supervision is demonstrated as a vehicle to enable the sharing of good practices and for weak practices to be identified and managed appropriately. Supervision seeks to fulfil the above whilst promoting a stimulating, learning experience, accommodating the notion that individuals learn at their own pace and bring a wealth of human experience to the service. The size of the study was dictated by the amount of time available within which to complete a research master's degree course primarily in the author's own time, over a 2-year period. The majority of participants volunteered their accounts in their own time. For others I obtained permission from their employers for them to participate once they approached me with an interest in being interviewed. This research provides a model of supervision based on practitioner views and experiences. The article highlights the value of research and evidence-based information to enhance practice accountability and the quality of care. Proactive risk management can safeguard the health

  13. Transactional Sex as a Form of Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Rwanda: Implications for Child Security and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Timothy P.; Binagwaho, Agnes; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To illuminate the different manifestations of transactional sexual exploitation and abuse among Rwanda's children in order to inform effective responses by policies, programs, and communities. Method: Qualitative data was collected during April and May 2010. One-hundred and thirty-nine adults (56% female) and 52 children (60% female)…

  14. Neurodevelopmental Biology Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…

  15. [Child abuse in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    : abuse of the embryo, foetus or new-born child, and sexual abuse. In Portugal the existence of various forms of poverty (whether in material or educational terms), and the lack of family support services and mechanisms, are of particular significance. And tied in with this structural aspect there is the significant factor of alcoholism, which in the sample under investigation is statistically much more significant than drug addiction.

  16. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Human Trafficking Laws & Policies Service Array Statistics ... Home Topics Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children ...

  17. Prevalencia y características de los abusos sexuales a niños/Prevalence and characteristics of child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cantón-Cortés (España

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue delimitar las tasas de prevalencia de los abusos sexuales infantiles, así como, especialmente, clarificar las características más frecuentes de los abusos, las víctimas y los agresores. Los resultados demuestran la gravedad del problema de los abusos sexuales a menores, así como las circunstancias en que se producen y el perfil de los agresores y de las víctimas. Estos resultados serán relevantes para la planificación de programas de detección y prevención de los abusos. The aim of the present work was to delimit the prevalence of child sexual abuse, as well as, especially, to clarify the most frequent characteristics of abuse, survivors and perpetrators. Results show the problematic of sexual abuse to minors, as well as the circumstances under they take place and the profile of perpetrator and survivors. These results are relevant in order to design abuse detection and prevention programs

  18. Perceived Needs for Support Program for Family With Child Sexual Abuse Victim in South Korea: Focus Group Interview With Therapists and Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suejung; Kim, Jinsook

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed perceived needs for psychological support program for family with victim of child sexual abuse in South Korea. We conducted two separate focus group interviews with five therapists who served child sexual abuse victims and families as well as four mothers of a child sexual abuse victim. Consensual qualitative research analysis revealed four domains: Emotional support for parents, psychoeducation, family therapy, and tailored and flexible service delivery. Core ideas of the four domains were identified. The results were consistent with the family support program contents developed in Western countries and suggested culture-specific contents and culturally sensitive service delivery. Clinical implications for developing family support program in South Korea were discussed.

  19. Comprehending and Rehabilitating Roman Catholic Clergy Offenders of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Many have studied Roman Catholic clergy who have sexually abused children, but the range of investigations remains disconnected. This article brings together various disciplinary perspectives to form a comprehensive view. A review of the literature is first undertaken to comprehend how clergy offenders have been conceptualized in psychosocial, sociocultural, and moral-religious studies. These perspectives are then used as a foundation for examining how these clergy can be rehabilitated. Three rehabilitative modalities--psychological treatment, rehabilitation through restorative justice, and ritual healing--are explored. The article concludes with a discussion of the insights gained from the literature review and how the modalities can be advanced in an interdependent and considered approach.

  20. [Child abuse: a disturbing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, E; Reyes-Rodrguez, R

    1993-08-01

    This current information on "battered child syndrome" (BCS) was obtained during 1990 from nine institutions in Tijuana, Baja California; 549 cases of BCS were studied, of which 338 were female, 203 male, eight of indeterminate sex due to loss documentation. Child abuse was manifested in all its forms: beatings, sexual abuse, neglect, and affective indifference. The victim's and perpetrator's characters were analyzed together with other factors which had to be taken into consideration in order to detect results which were similarly described in the literature. It is of utmost importance to alert all medical staff to this terrible social problem for the complete treatment of the affected child and the family environment. Community support, and legislation to adequately cover rights of minors and their protection are imperative to elimination of the battered child syndrome.

  1. Effects of the Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education (C-SAPE) Program on South Korean Fifth-Grade Students' Competence in Terms of Knowledge and Self-Protective Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kang, Kyung-Ah

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) threatens children's safety and even their lives. CSA is increasing steadily, despite the government's efforts to decrease and prevent its incidence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education (C-SAPE) program on fifth-grade elementary school students' competence in…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Affect as Shared Risk Factors for Sexual Aggression and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior in Heterosexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Zoё D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Hensel, Devon J; Heiman, Julia R

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that sexually aggressive behavior and sexual HIV risk behavior are associated. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a well-established risk factor for both types of problematic sexual behavior. Negative affect (i.e., anxiety, depression, and anger) is a less well-studied risk factor, but it has been theorized to relate to both sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior. Thus, this study sought to (1) confirm the relationship between sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior, (2) establish CSA and negative affect as shared risk factors for sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior, and (3) evaluate whether negative affect mediates the relationship between CSA and sexual aggression and between CSA and HIV sexual risk in a sample of heterosexual men. We recruited 18- to 30-year-old heterosexual men (N = 377) from urban sexually transmitted infection clinics. Men completed measures of sexual HIV risk history (number of partners and condom use), sexual aggression history, CSA history, and trait negative affect (anger, anxiety, and depression). Structural equation modeling was used to examine hypothesized direct and indirect relationships. In the final SEM model, sexual aggression history and sexual HIV risk behavior were correlated. CSA was associated with both types of problematic sexual behavior. Anxiety significantly mediated the relationship between CSA and sexual aggression and between CSA and sexual HIV risk behavior (χ 2 [1300] = 2121.79, p Sexual aggression appears to be part of a constellation of sexual risk behaviors; thus, it may be possible to develop prevention programs that target both sexual HIV risk and sexual aggression. CSA is a shared risk factor for sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior through the pathway of anxiety. Thus, anxiety might be one promising target for intervention.

  3. Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeid, Muzdalifat; Muganyizi, Projestine; Olsson, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth; Axemo, Pia

    2014-08-18

    Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania's contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence.

  4. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ... child was abused The success of therapy and parenting classes Alternative Names Neglect - child; Emotional abuse - child ...

  5. Clerical Child Abuse – The Irish Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Murphy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ireland has been overwhelmed in the past two decades by what the Catholic Church itself has called ‘a tsunami’ of revelations of clerical child abuse – physical as well as sexual – of the meticulous concealment of abuse and abusers and of a long-established, and almost universal policy of protecting the assets and reputation of the Church, in preference to exposing the abusers.Between 2006 and 2009 Judge Yvonne Murphy chaired a Commission of Inquiry into the child sex abuse scandal in the Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin.

  6. 75 FR 17841 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ..., abuse, and neglect. Tragically, sexual, emotional, and physical abuse threaten too many children every... Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our..., productive adults. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our unwavering commitment to...

  7. Pathway from child sexual and physical abuse to risky sex among emerging adults: the role of trauma-related intrusions and alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Latzman, Natasha E; Latzman, Robert D

    2014-04-01

    Some evidence suggests that risk reduction programming for sexual risk behaviors (SRB) has been minimally effective, which emphasized the need for research on etiological and mechanistic factors that can be addressed in prevention and intervention programming. Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked with SRB among older adolescents and emerging adults; however, pathways to SRB remain unclear. This study adds to the literature by testing a model specifying that traumatic intrusions after early abuse may increase risk for alcohol problems, which in turn may increase the likelihood of engaging in various types of SRB. Participants were 1,169 racially diverse college students (72.9% female, 37.6% black/African-American, and 33.6% white) who completed anonymous questionnaires assessing child abuse, traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and sexual risk behavior. The hypothesized path model specifying that traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems account for associations between child abuse and several aspects of SRB was a good fit for the data; however, for men, stronger associations emerged between physical abuse and traumatic intrusions and between traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems, whereas for women, alcohol problems were more strongly associated with intent to engage in risky sex. Findings highlight the role of traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems in explaining paths from childhood abuse to SRB in emerging adulthood, and suggest that risk reduction programs may benefit from an integrated focus on traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and SRB for individuals with abuse experiences. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. The Idealized Cultural Identities Model on Help-Seeking and Child Sexual Abuse: A Conceptual Model for Contextualizing Perceptions and Experiences of South Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanukollu, Shanta N.; Mahalingam, Ramaswami

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an interdisciplinary framework to study perceptions of child sexual abuse and help-seeking among South Asians living in the United States. We integrate research on social marginality, intersectionality, and cultural psychology to understand how marginalized social experience accentuates South Asian immigrants' desire to…

  9. When worlds collide. Social science, politics, and the Rind et al. (1998). Child sexual abuse meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2002-03-01

    A 1998 meta-analysis by B. Rind, P. Tromovitch, and R. Bauserman in Psychological Bulletin indicated that the relations between child sexual abuse and later psychopathology were weak in magnitude. Shortly thereafter, this article was condemned by media personality Dr. Laura Schlessinger and numerous conservative organizations and was denounced by the United States Congress. In addition, the American Psychological Association (APA) distanced itself from the authors' conclusions. This incident raises questions regarding (a) authors' responsibilities concerning the reporting of politically controversial findings, (b) academic and scientific freedom, (c) the role of the APA in disabusing the public and media of logical errors and fallacies, and (d) the substantial gap between popular and academic psychology and the responsibility of the APA to narrow that gap.

  10. Reports of child sexual abuse of boys and girls: Longitudinal trends over a 20-year period in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben; Bromfield, Leah; Walsh, Kerryann; Cheng, Qinglu; Norman, Rosana E

    2017-04-01

    Although prevalence studies show girls are more frequently sexually abused than boys, a significant proportion of boys also experience child sexual abuse (CSA). The challenges for public policy are amplified for boys due to less developed public and professional sensitisation to boys' experiences, conceptions of masculinity, and less research on boys including into reporting trends and outcomes. We conducted a 20-year longitudinal time-trend analysis of government data to identify reporting trends and report outcomes for CSA in Victoria, Australia from 1993 to 2012. We stratified by child gender and reporter status. Results indicate a new sensitisation to CSA, especially for boys, although this trend was not stable. Marked change occurred in the last five years, likely influenced by major social and political events. Comparison over time revealed that from 1993 to 2012, the rate of reporting of boys increased 2.6-fold whereas there was a 1.5-fold increase for girls. Comparing genders, with regards to rate of reporting, in 1993, the sex ratio of girls to boys was 2:1, while by 2012 this ratio changed to 1.14:1. Reports by police and other mandated reporters accounted for the majority of the increase in reports over the 20-year period, suggesting unequal sensitisation. Positive report outcomes (i.e. substantiations, findings of harm, and referral to services) increased twelve-fold for boys, and nearly five-fold for girls, indicating the increased levels of reports were based in actual clinical need. Most of this increase occurred from 2009 to 2012, influenced by a compound of social, political and agency-related factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An examination of risky sexual behavior and HIV in victims of child abuse and neglect: a 30-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2008-03-01

    This article examined links between childhood maltreatment and risky sexual behavior (early sexual contact, promiscuity, prostitution) and HIV in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, physically and sexually abused and neglected children (ages 0-11) with documented cases during 1967-1971 were matched with nonmaltreated children and followed into adulthood. Early sexual contact, promiscuity, and prostitution were assessed through in-person interviews and official records (prostitution) at approximate age 29 (N=1196). HIV tests were conducted at approximate age 41 (N=631). Child maltreatment was associated with prostitution (OR=2.47, 95% CI=1.35-4.50) and early sexual contact (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.24-2.40). Prevalence of HIV in the abuse/neglect group was twice that in controls (OR=2.35, 95% CI=.64-8.62), although this difference did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. SEM provided significant support for a model linking child abuse and neglect to prostitution through early sexual contact and a marginal link to HIV through prostitution. These findings provide prospective evidence that maltreated children are more likely to report sexual contact before age 15, engage in prostitution by young adulthood, and test positive for HIV in middle adulthood. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Exploring the role of child sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in gay and bisexual men reporting compulsive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Leah M; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2012-05-01

    Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has been limited in the literature. The present study aimed to examine the uniqueness of the association of CSA with CSB as compared to other experiences of child maltreatment; the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in CSB symptoms for individuals reporting CSA; and clinical differences between individuals with and without histories of CSA. Hypotheses were tested using data from a sample of 182 gay and bisexual men reporting CSB symptoms. CSA prevalence was high in the tested sample (39%). CSA severity was a unique predictor of CSB symptoms, above child physical and emotional abuse, and poly-victimization status was not significantly related to CSB symptoms. Contrary to hypotheses, PTSD symptoms did not significantly mediate the role of CSA severity, although PTSD symptoms explained additional variance in CSB symptoms, with the final model accounting for over a quarter of the variance in CSB symptoms (27%). Finally, men with a history of CSA reported more CSB, depressive, and anxious symptoms than those without a history of CSA. Findings from the present study support the hypothesis that CSA may be uniquely related to CSB symptoms, above other forms of child maltreatment, and indicate that men with a CSA history are likely to present more severe clinical comorbidities. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trauma complexity and child abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2017-01-01

    and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information...

  14. Trajectories of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors: The Role of Other Maltreatment, Witnessed Violence, and Child Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.; Wiley, Tisha; English, Diana E.; Proctor, Laura J.; Jones, Bobby L.; Nagin, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV/AIDS risk behavior; however, much of this work is retrospective and focuses on women. The current study used semiparametric mixture modeling with youth (n = 844; 48.8% boys) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine the link between trajectories of CSA (2 to 12 y.o.) and HIV/AIDS risk behavior at age 14 (i.e., sexual intercourse & alcohol use). Trajectory analyses revealed a link between a history of CSA and the development of risky behavior. In addition, trajectories for physical and emotional abuse, but not neglect or witnessed violence, contributed to risky behavior over and above the role of CSA. Child gender did not moderate the findings. Findings highlight the signficance of CSA histories, as well as the broader context of maltreatment, for better understanding the development of risk behaviors in both girls and boys. PMID:20706919

  15. The public health crisis of child sexual abuse in low and middle income countries: an integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Thornton, Clifton P; Corley, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies conducted to ascertain the incidence and characteristics of child sexual abuse (CSA) in developing countries around the world are inconsistent and poorly synthesized. In order to prevent and respond to these heinous acts, clinicians and policymakers require a substantive body of evidence on which to base interventions and treatment programs. The purpose of this study is to conduct an integrative review of the literature concerning CSA in non-industrialized nations. Ultimately, this evidence could be used to drive research and policy implementation in this area. An integrative literature review of publications identified through a comprehensive search of five relevant databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) regarding the incidence and characteristics of all forms of child sexual assault in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) since 1980. Independent and collective thematic assessment and analysis was utilized to identify major concepts of the phenomenon. Forty-four articles were identified. These represented 32 separate low or middle-income countries. More studies were identified in low-income countries, and there was a disproportional distribution of studies conducted on regions of the world. CSA has been identified at all levels of society in nearly every region and continent of the world. It is being falsely perceived as a new phenomenon in some developing countries, most likely as a result of increases in CSA reporting. Researching and discussing CSA is difficult because of the sensitive and taboo nature of the topic. Four major themes emerged including difficulty of accurate measurement, barriers to reporting, barriers to justice, and the false perception of CSA as a new phenomenon. Themes of early marriage, human trafficking, sexual coercion and forced first sex, and males as victims have been identified as characteristics and topics placing individuals at risk for CSA. Poverty and its resultant

  16. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises No. 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  17. Children Seeking Refuge: A Review of the Escalating Humanitarian Crisis of Child Sexual Abuse and HIV/AIDS in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Clifton P; Veenema, Tener Goodwin

    2015-01-01

    Early identification and intervention for victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is essential to halting the spread of HIV in Latino populations because children who are sexually abused are at an increased risk of contracting HIV. The recent influx of unaccompanied children into the United States exposed histories of victimization, vulnerability to CSA, and suggested an epidemic of CSA in Latin America. CSA has been identified as a contributory event to HIV infection. The aim of our research was to identify factors associated with CSA and Latin Americans. A systematic review and a document search were conducted on factors associated with CSA in Latin America. Victimization was associated with lifelong risk factors for HIV. Males were consistently underrepresented in the published CSA literature and machismo attitudes may contribute to abuses of sexual power by males and contribute to males not reporting or under-reporting victimization. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  19. 'The darkest times of my life': Recollections of child abuse among forced migrants persecuted because of their sexual orientation and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Edward J; Kahn, Sarilee; Chatterji, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) children and youth are likely to experience abuse by peers, parents, and other adults and that these experiences correlate with a host of mental health problems. However, there is little understanding of the experiences of LGBT children and youth living in countries where social and legal protections for sexual and gender minorities are limited or nonexistent. This qualitative study used thematic analysis to explore the child and adolescent abuse experiences and their impact on the pre-migration mental health of LGBT forced migrants. We analyzed 26 interviews with individuals who obtained refugee or asylee status in the United States or Canada on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Participants originated from countries in Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East. Analysis revealed the following themes: abuse by parents and caregivers, abuse by peers and school personnel, having nowhere to turn, and dealing with psychological distress. Findings indicate that participants experienced severe verbal, physical, and sexual abuse throughout childhood and adolescence and that this abuse occurred at home, in school, and in the community. Furthermore, there were no resources or sources of protection available to them. Participants linked their abuse to subjective experiences of depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress, as well as suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We conclude with implications for refugee adjudication practices, mental health care, and international policy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood sexual abuse history and role reversal in parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P C; Teti, L; Anderson, C L

    2000-06-01

    This study explored the main and interactive effects of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction on self-reported parenting, controlling for histories of physical abuse and parental alcoholism. The community sample consisted of 90 mothers of 5- to 8-year-old children. The sample was limited to those mothers currently in an intimate relationship, 19 of whom reported a history of childhood sexual abuse. Participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Parenting Stress Inventory, the Family Cohesion Index, and questions assessing parent-child role reversal, history of abuse and parental alcoholism, and current relationship satisfaction. Results of analyses and multivariate analyses of covariance suggested that sexual abuse survivors with an unsatisfactory intimate relationship were more likely than either sexual abuse survivors with a satisfactory relationship or nonabused women to endorse items on a questionnaire of role reversal (defined as emotional overdependence upon one's child). Role reversal was not significantly predicted by histories of physical abuse or parental alcoholism or child's gender. While parenting stress was inversely predicted by the significant main effect of relationship satisfaction, neither parenting stress nor child behavior problems were predicted by the main effect of sexual abuse history or by the interaction between sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction. These results suggest the unique relevance of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction in the prediction of a specific type of parent-child role reversal--namely, a mother's emotional overdependence upon her child.

  1. Masculine norms, disclosure, and childhood adversities predict long-term mental distress among men with histories of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Scott D

    2014-02-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) can have a profound effect on the long-term mental health of boys/men. However, not all men with histories of CSA experience psychopathology. To improve prevention and intervention services, more research is needed to understand why some male survivors experience mental health problems and others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to mental distress among a large, non-clinical sample of men with histories of CSA (N=487). Using a cross-sectional design with purposive sampling from three national survivor organizations, data were collected through an anonymous Internet-based survey. Multivariate analyses found that only one of the four CSA severity variables-use of physical force by the abuser-was related to mental distress. Additional factors that were related to mental distress included the number of other childhood adversities, years until disclosure, overall response to disclosure, and conformity to masculine norms. Overall, the final model predicted 36% of the variance in the number of mental health symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include masculine norms, disclosure history, and childhood adversities in assessments and intervention planning with male survivors. To more fully explicate risk factors for psychopathology in this population, future studies with probability samples of men that focus on mediational processes and use longitudinal designs are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sexual abuse of children: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, K C

    1987-01-01

    An increasing number of studies in the past decade have shown that sexual abuse of children is disturbingly common. The author reviews some of the more recent knowledge about the problem, with particular reference to medical implications. The incidence and distribution of the problem and the relative importance of the medical examination are reviewed, and the diagnostic significance of clinical presentations such as vulvovaginitis, recurrent urinary tract infection and masturbation is evaluated. The agents responsible for sexually transmitted diseases in abused children are reviewed. Many crucial psychosocial issues are raised in the evaluation and management of sexual abuse. The author discusses some aspects of abuse that are hard to confront, such as the possible pleasure of the child and the nonoffending role of the mother in cases of incest. Information from sources other than the medical literature on the characteristics of abusers, therapy and prevention is reviewed. The medical implications of the Badgley Report are also discussed. PMID:3801988

  3. Sexual abuse and the problem of embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, trauma, sexual abuse, and some of the potential resulting long-term effects, are explored in terms of the problem of embodiment and the formation of personal identity and psychological integrity. That is, what effect does severe sexual abuse have on an individual's, particularly a child's, sense of living in his or her body and, by extension, living in the world? First, trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to the development and maintenance of a "posttraumatic" sense of personal identity. Then, several disorders associated with sexual abuse--dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, suicide, and suicide attempts--are examined in terms of their phenomenological coherence and relation to the problem of embodiment. This conceptual framework may be of use to clinicians and researchers assessing and treating the survivors of sexual abuse.

  4. Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

  5. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen; Hall, Christine M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  6. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  7. Child Abuse and Neglect in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents.

  8. Generational Reproduction of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    García Ampudia, Lupe; Orellana M., Oswaldo; Pomalaya V., Ricardo; Yanac Reynoso, Elisa; Malaver S., Carmela; Herrera F., Edgar; Sotelo L., Noemi; Campos C., Lilia; Sotelo L., Lidia; Orellana García, Daphne; Velasquez M., Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is the study of the abuse rising in two generations, of parents and children and establishing the relationship between background child’s abuse with the potential abuse. The sample is comprised of 441 students and 303 parents who agreed to answer the Memories of Abuse Questionnaire. The used instruments were the Child History Questionnaire adapted for the purpose of this research, the Inventory of Potential Child Abuse (Milner, J. 1977), adapted by De Paul, Arru...

  9. Trends in child sexual abuse cases referred for forensic examination in Southern Denmark from 2000 to 2011-Did the 'Tonder-case' have an impact?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmand, S.; Astrup, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005 a serious case of child sexual abuse from the region of Southern Denmark was revealed to the Danish public. The case became known as the 'Tonder-case'. It was the first in a series of 4-5 serious cases of child maltreatment in Denmark, cases which spurred heavy public debate. In this study...... all the cases of child sexual abuse referred for forensic examination in a 12 year period, a total of 368 cases, were systematically evaluated. In order to identify any trends that could be correlated to an impact of the 'Tonder-case', cases from 2000 to 2002 and cases from 2009 to 2011 underwent...... in the frequency of cases where children were placed in foster care prior to the examination. These results were countered by a significant decrease in the number cases police reported child sexual abuse in the same period. The possible impact that cases like the 'Tonder-case' and the following press coverage may...

  10. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...

  11. Parenting a Child Who Has Been Sexually Abused: A Guide for Foster and Adoptive Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused a betrayal of trust within an important interpersonal relationship • How long the abuse occurred (chronicity) • Whether ... depend on the child’s age and the therapist’s training. Some therapists use creative techniques (for example, art, ...

  12. Predictors of Clinical Outcomes in Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocker, Lotem; Ben-Amitay, Galit; Horesh-Reinman, Netta; Lask, Michal; Toren, Paz

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional, case control study examines the association between child sexual abuse and interpersonal and intrapersonal outcomes among 54 adolescents, examining specific clinical measures (depression, anxiety, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder, attachment patterns, self-esteem, self-disclosure, and family environment characteristics). The research results point to a correlation between sexual abuse and higher levels of the clinical measures. In addition, a correlation was found between sexual abuse and level of avoidant attachment, self-esteem, and family environment characteristics. Stepwise hierarchical regressions were conducted to examine how adolescent attributes predicted depression, anxiety, and dissociation beyond the prediction based on sexual abuse. A combination of self-esteem, anxiety attachment, and family cohesiveness made sexual abuse insignificant when predicting levels of depression, anxiety, and dissociation. This study contributes to characterizing the emotional, personal, and family attributes of adolescents who experienced sexual abuse. It also raises questions about the clinical outcomes usually associated with sexual abuse.

  13. The Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in Out-of-Home Care: Increased Risk for Children with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Tharner, Anne; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children without disabilities in out-of-home care have a higher risk of child sexual abuse [CSA (Euser et al. 2013)]. In this study, we examined the year prevalence of CSA in out-of-home care for children with a mild intellectual disability, and compared it with the prevalence in out-of-home care for non-disabled children and children…

  14. Impact of a new mandatory reporting law on reporting and identification of child sexual abuse: A seven year time trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben; Lee, Xing Ju; Norman, Rosana E

    2016-06-01

    Child sexual abuse is widespread and difficult to detect. To enhance case identification, many societies have enacted mandatory reporting laws requiring designated professionals, most often police, teachers, doctors and nurses, to report suspected cases to government child welfare agencies. Little research has explored the effects of introducing a reporting law on the number of reports made, and the outcomes of those reports. This study explored the impact of a new legislative mandatory reporting duty for child sexual abuse in the State of Western Australia over seven years. We analyzed data about numbers and outcomes of reports by mandated reporters, for periods before the law (2006-2008) and after the law (2009-2012). Results indicate that the number of reports by mandated reporters of suspected child sexual abuse increased by a factor of 3.7, from an annual mean of 662 in the three year pre-law period to 2448 in the four year post-law period. The increase in the first two post-law years was contextually and statistically significant. Report numbers stabilized in 2010-2012, at one report per 210 children. The number of investigated reports increased threefold, from an annual mean of 451 in the pre-law period to 1363 in the post-law period. Significant decline in the proportion of mandated reports that were investigated in the first two post-law years suggested the new level of reporting and investigative need exceeded what was anticipated. However, a subsequent significant increase restored the pre-law proportion, suggesting systemic adaptive capacity. The number of substantiated investigations doubled, from an annual mean of 160 in the pre-law period to 327 in the post-law period, indicating twice as many sexually abused children were being identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastbom ÅA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Åsa A Kastbom,1,2 Gunilla Sydsjö,3 Marie Bladh,3 Gisela Priebe,4,5 Carl Göran Svedin2 1Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Linköping University Hospital, 2Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Faculty, Linköping University, Linköping, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Faculty, Linköping University, Linköping, 4Department of Psychology, Linnæus University, Växjö, 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Background: Empirical research about late sexual debut and its consequences is limited, and further research is needed. Objective: To explore how students who had not had intercourse by the age of 18 years differed in terms of sociodemographic factors, physical and psychological health, sexual behavior, and history of sexual abuse from those who had. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional survey involving 3,380 Swedish 18-year-olds. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate different types of sexual behavior. Ordinal data concerning alcohol consumption, self-esteem, sexual and physical abuse, parental relationships, sense of coherence, and health were analyzed, and multiple regression was carried out to identify the most important factors associated with no sexual debut. Results: Just under a quarter of the adolescents had not had oral, anal, or vaginal sex by the age of 18 years, and they comprised the index group. They were characterized by being more likely to have caring fathers, parents born outside Europe, lower pornography consumption, lower alcohol and tobacco consumption, less antisocial behavior, and above all lower sexual desire (sometimes, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.8; never/seldom, aOR 13.3 and fewer experiences of sexual abuse (aOR 25.5. Family structure and culture matters when it comes to the age of sexual debut. Conclusion: Adolescents

  16. [Recognizing signs of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, T.A.; Wong, S.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual abuse is very common. In the Netherlands 42% of women and 13% of men aged over 25 years have experienced unacceptable sexual behaviour. Most victims do not seek professional help nor do they report the abuse to the police, and most of the victims who do seek medical help do not mention the

  17. Typological and Integrative Models of Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demidova L.Y.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the basic typological and integrative theoretical models that explain the occurrence of child sexual abuse and the differences detected among the perpetrators of crimes against sexual integrity of minors. A comprehensive review of the theoretical concepts of sexual abuse in our country, in fact has not been carried out, and in this paper for the first time we made such an attempt. It is shown that the existing notions of sexual abuse largely overlap each other, but each of the models somehow takes into account the factors not explicitly addressed in other concepts. Systematic consideration of the theoretical models of sexual abuse can generalize and systematize the available data on the mechanisms of pedophile behavior. This review provides an opportunity to develop a new benchmark in the study of sexual abuse, get closer to building the most accurate and comprehensive model. In turn, this may contribute to solving the questions about the factors, dynamics, and the prevention of criminal sexual conduct against children

  18. False Memory for Trauma-Related DRM Lists in Adolescents and Adults with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Gail S.; Ogle, Christin M.; Block, Stephanie D.; Harris, LaTonya S.; Larson, Rakel P.; Augusti, Else-Marie; Cho, Young Il; Beber, Jonathan; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory for trauma-related and nontrauma-related lists in adolescents and adults with and without documented histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). Individual differences in psychopathology and adult attachment were also explored. Participants were administered free recall and recognition tests after hearing CSA, negative, neutral, and positive DRM lists. In free recall, CSA and negative lists produced the most false memory. In sharp contrast, for recognition, CSA lists enjoyed the highest d’ scores. CSA-group adolescents who evinced greater PTSD symptoms had higher rates of false memory compared to: 1) nonCSA-group adolescents with higher PTSD symptom scores (free recall), and 2) CSA-group adolescents with lower PTSD symptom scores (recognition). Regression analyses revealed that individuals with higher PTSD scores and greater fearful-avoidant attachment tendencies showed less proficient memory monitoring for CSA lists. Implications for trauma and memory development and for translational research are discussed. PMID:23786687

  19. A Combination of Outcome and Process Feedback Enhances Performance in Simulations of Child Sexual Abuse Interviews Using Avatars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pompedda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulated interviews in alleged child sexual abuse (CSA cases with computer-generated avatars paired with feedback improve interview quality. In the current study, we aimed to understand better the effect of different types of feedback in this context. Feedback was divided into feedback regarding conclusions about what happened to the avatar (outcome feedback and feedback regarding the appropriateness of question-types used by the interviewer (process feedback. Forty-eight participants each interviewed four different avatars. Participants were divided into four groups (no feedback, outcome feedback, process feedback, and a combination of both feedback types. Compared to the control group, interview quality was generally improved in all the feedback groups on all outcome variables included. Combined feedback produced the strongest effect on increasing recommended questions and correct conclusions. For relevant and neutral details elicited by the interviewers, no statistically significant differences were found between feedback types. For wrong details, the combination of feedback produced the strongest effect, but this did not differ from the other two feedback groups. Nevertheless, process feedback produced a better result compared to outcome feedback. The present study replicated previous findings regarding the effect of feedback in improving interview quality, and provided new knowledge on feedback characteristics that maximize training effects. A combination of process and outcome feedback showed the strongest effect in enhancing training in simulated CSA interviews. Further research is, however, needed.

  20. Social disorganization and history of child sexual abuse against girls in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Ismail; Uthman, Olalekan A; Soares, Joaquim; Macassa, Gloria

    2013-08-07

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a considerable public health problem. Less focus has been paid to the role of community level factors associated with CSA. The aim of this study was to examine the association between neighbourhood-level measures of social disorganization and CSA. We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 adolescents from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2006 and 2008. The percentage of adolescents that had experienced CSA ranged from 1.04% to 5.84%. There was a significant variation in the odds of reporting CSA across the communities, suggesting 18% of the variation in CSA could be attributed to community level factors. Respondents currently employed were more likely to have reported CSA than those who were unemployed (odds ratio [OR]=2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48 to 2.83). Respondents from communities with a high family disruption rate were 57% more likely to have reported CSA (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.16). We found that exposure to CSA was associated with high community level of family disruption, thus suggesting that neighbourhoods may indeed have significant important effects on exposure to CSA. Further studies are needed to explore pathways that connect the individual and neighbourhood levels, that is, means through which deleterious neighbourhood effects are transmitted to individuals.

  1. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? A child is brought into the emergency room with a fractured leg. The parents are unable to explain how ... the fractures is not child abuse. It is osteogenesis imperfecta , or OI. OI is a genetic disorder characterized ...

  2. Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.

    1988-01-01

    The report examined psychological symptoms exhibited by 24 girls (ages 6-12) evaluated within six months of being sexually abused. Results showed a marked discrepancy between child and parent reports of symptoms with children not reporting as many symptoms of depression, anxiety, or low self-esteem as parents. (Author/DB)

  3. Sexual Abuse and the Problem of Embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie

    1992-01-01

    Potential long-term effects of the trauma of severe sexual abuse on a child's sense of living in his/her body and in the world are explored. Trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to a posttraumatic sense of personal identity. Then dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, and…

  4. The Oedipal Complex and Child Sexual Abuse Research: A Re-examination of Freud's Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.

    In 1896, Sigmund Freud stated that early childhood seduction caused hysteria in his female patients. He later recanted his original finding and claimed that the reports of abuse he heard from his patients were not descriptions of real events, but his patients' expressions of unconscious childhood wishes. The theory of the Oedipal complex gave…

  5. Multifaceted Glance on Childhood Sexual Abuse and Incest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An experience of domestic violence can lead to permanent physical, mental, and psychological harms, whether the child is a direct victim or a witness. Although having no standard definition, it is generally agreed that childhood sexual abuse and incest are underreported. The majority of sexual abuse happens in childhood, with incest being the most common form. Incest is a sexual activity or assault between family members or close relatives and can be defined as the sexual abuse of the child, as well. On the other hand, pedophilic disorder is defined as having recurrent, intense sexual urges or behaviors involving sexual activity with a preadolescent child, over a period of at least 6 months. In this article, clinical, social, and legal effects from the sexual abuse of results are investigated. Results of our research will be hopefully helpful in informing social policy and guiding mental health practice.

  6. Allegations of Sexual Abuse of a Child: What to Do when a Single Forensic Interview Isn't Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Cordisco-Steele, Linda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the state of knowledge about extended assessments/forensic evaluations in situations of possible sexual abuse. It provides a critical review of the modest body of relevant research, describes two models for extended assessments, and presents descriptive survey findings of 62 professionals conducting extended assessments,…

  7. Demographic, psychological and behavioral characteristics of child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    SERAFIM, Antonio de Pádua; SAFFI, Fabiana; ACHÁ, Maria Fernanda Faria; BARROS, Daniel Martins de

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXTO: A relação entre transtorno mental e histórico de abuso sexual é frequentemente observada na prática clínica e relatada na literatura. OBJETIVO: Descrever os dados demográficos e os aspectos emocionais e comportamentais em crianças e adolescentes vítimas de abuso sexual. MÉTODO: 205 crianças e adolescentes com idade entre 6 e 14 anos, sendo 130 meninas (9,6 ± 3,4 anos) e 75 meninos (7,2 ± 2,9 anos) vítimas de abuso sexual passaram por avaliação psicológica e psiquiátrica individual n...

  8. Analytic versus systemic group therapy for women with a history of child sexual abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Henriette; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    This randomized prospective study examines durability of improvement in general symptomatology, psychosocial functioning and interpersonal problems, and compares the long-term efficacy of analytic and systemic group psychotherapy in women 1 year after completion of treatment for childhood sexual...

  9. The Role of the Medical Provider in the Evaluation of Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Alice Whittier; Vandeven, Andrea Marie

    2010-01-01

    It was only 30 years ago that the medical community began to develop an increased awareness of child sexual abuse, and the role of the medical provider in the evaluation of sexually abused children has evolved significantly. As clinicians worldwide develop a greater understanding of the impact of the sexual abuse evaluation on the child, the roles…

  10. Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Mexican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Lucatero, A G; Trujillo-Hernández, B; Millán-Guerrero, R O; Vásquez, C

    2009-03-01

    To determine the characteristics and prevalence of previous child sexual abuse among a group of Mexican junior high school students. A total of 1067 adolescents of both genders were selected to fill out a survey about child sexual abuse. The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 18.7% (n = 200). It was more frequent in girls (58%) than in boys (42%). Sexual abuse involved physical contact in 75% of those cases reporting abuse. The aggressors were neighbours (50.3%), relatives (36.8%) and strangers (13.9%). Abuse was committed through deception in 90% of the cases and involved physical mistreatment in 10% of the cases. Of the victims, 14.4% had spoken about the problem and 3.7% had taken legal action. And 9.6% of those surveyed stated that they required psychological counselling. In the population studied, the prevalency of child sexual abuse was greater than that reported in Mexico City (4.3-8.4%), although it was similar to that found in the Spanish child population (15-23%). The risk of sexual abuse is greater for girls and the principal aggressors are male neighbours, family friends and relatives; the abuse is committed in the home of the aggressor or the victim and very few cases are reported to the authorities.

  11. Examining the Effects of a Service-Trained Facility Dog on Stress in Children Undergoing Forensic Interview for Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Parello, Cheryl A; Thames, Michele; Ray, Colleen M; Kolassa, John

    2018-04-01

    Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be a stressful experience for the child. Gaining a better understanding of how best to serve the child, while preserving the quality of their disclosure, is an ever-evolving process. The data to answer this question come from 51 children aged 4-16 (M = 9.1, SD = 3.5), who were referred to a child advocacy center in Virginia for a forensic interview (FI) following allegations of sexual abuse. A repeated measures design was conducted to examine how the presence of a service-trained facility dog (e.g. animal-assisted intervention (AAI) may serve as a mode of lowering stress levels in children during their FIs. Children were randomized to one of the two FI conditions: experimental condition (service-trained facility dog present-AAI) or control condition (service-trained facility dog not present- standard forensic interview). Stress biomarkers salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), heart rate, and blood pressure, and Immunoglobulin A were collected before and after the FI. Self-report data were also collected. Results supported a significant decrease in heart rate for those in the experimental condition (p = .0086) vs the control condition (p = .4986). Regression models revealed a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the experimental condition (p = .03285) and (p = .04381), respectively. Statistically significant changes in alpha-amylase and IgA were also found in relation to disclosure and type of offense. The results of this study support the stress reducing effects of a service-trained facility dog for children undergoing FI for allegations of child sexual abuse.

  12. Poverty, child sexual abuse and HIV in the Transkei region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, M

    2011-08-01

    Everyone love children. They want them to be happy and prosperous, but poverty takes away their rights. Poverty even forces them to sell their daughters in exchange for money. The trio of poverty, sexual assaults and HIV are complimentary to one another.This paper is a selection of 5 cases who presented at Sinawe Center as victims of rape, where money has played a role in the delay in reporting to the police. First, a young girl of 13 years was raped by a known person. The cost of settlement was a mere R500 (equivalent to 70 US dollars). The second victim was paid R10 or R20 for each sexual act. Third, fourth and fifth cases, were young girls who were forced to marry by their parents. The history, physical examination and laboratory investigations are given. Psychosocial and economic aspects are also discussed.

  13. Sexual abuse of children in residential care : an international review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Margaretha; Schreuder, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an international review of academic literature on sexual abuse in residential child and youth care, 1945-2011. The review focusses on questions related to the nature and scope of sexual abuse, on personal and institutional factors providing either protection or

  14. Application of Attachment Theory to the Study of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Pamela C.

    1992-01-01

    Attachment theory provides useful conceptual framework for understanding familial antecedents and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Themes associated with insecure parent-child attachment (rejection, role reversal/parentification, and fear/unresolved trauma) are frequently found in dynamics of families characterized by sexual abuse, and…

  15. Purported false allegations of rape, child abuse and non-sexual violence: Nature, characteristics and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Rumney, P.; McCartan, K.

    2017-01-01

    The subject of false rape allegations is a subject shrouded in anxiety, confusion and misunderstanding. Despite a growing body of quality research there continue to be significant gaps in our knowledge about the topic, including the phenomenon of false allegations beyond rape and other sexual offences. The purpose of this article is to seek to deepen our understanding by examining a unique dataset comprising 701 cases involving individuals who purport to have been the subject of false accusat...

  16. An Approach to Treatment of the Child Sexual Abuser in the Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-20

    orientation is to children. 2. Pedophilic interests begin at aaolescence. 3. No precipitating stress/no subjective distress. 4. Persistent interest and...maturation) issues. Regressed Type i. Primary sexual orientation is to agemates. 2. Pedophilic interests emerge in adulthood. 3. Precioitating stress usually...assessment of otfenoers is sea oi rnrv’ cet *een! the fixated pedophile and the rearessec oeooohile is verv imoortant in an approach to treatment ot the :7ce_

  17. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different

  18. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect? Recognizing the Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Signs of Sexual Abuse Consider the possibility of sexual abuse when the child: • Has difficulty walking or sitting • Suddenly refuses to ... adults in their environment Consider the possibility of sexual abuse when the parent ... unduly protective of the child or severely limits the child’s contact with other ...

  19. An Evidence-Based Education Program For Adults About Child Sexual Abuse (“Prevent It!” Significantly Improves Behaviours As Well As Attitudes And Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA, called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behaviour of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes towards it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85% agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behaviour (our primary outcome variable. Behavioural questions asked individuals to select behaviours used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking how many times in the previous 3-months have you talked about healthy sexual development or child sexual abuse with a child you know; suspected a child was sexually abused; taken steps to protect a child; or reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 – 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behaviour and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline

  20. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  1. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  2. Preventing Sexual Abuse of Children in the Twenty-First Century: Preparing for Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a widespread social problem that negatively affects victims, families, communities, and society. This article briefly describes the scope and consequences of child sexual abuse and briefly critiques child-focused personal safety educational programs designed to prevent sexual victimization. The final section offers…

  3. Physical Child-Abuse in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Sayyari

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Child-abuse (physical, mental and sexual is considered as one of the important problems faced by persons specialized in behavioral Sciences and Forensic Medicine, physicians and pediatricians. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the status of physical child-abuse in Tehran. Materials & Methods: Forty-five pediatric residents, trained for this purpose, conducted this ten-day study in three teaching hospitals (Children's Medical Center, Bahrami Hospital, Hazrat Ali-Asghar Hospital. A questionnaire on physical child-abuse, designed and proposed by the WHO, was completed for 3019 children (male=1578, 52.3% female=1441, 47.7% less than 18 years of age, who attended the emergency department of the above hospitals. The children and their parents were interviewed and physical examination was performed for the children. Results: A total of 347 children (male=14.5%, female =9.6%, which is 12.2% of the total number of children studied, were physically abused. Injuries were mostly present on the face, upper extremities, back and lower extremities, among which 12.8% of the cases were severe and 87.2% were moderate in intensity. Fathers and mothers were responsible for 51.2% and 34.1% of the cases of child-abuse respectively. Among the persons responsible for causing child-abuse, 34.1% had themselves been physically abused during their childhood period and 26.4% had physically abused children before. Hyperactivity, bed-wetting and an unwanted child were among the most common causes of child-abuse. Conclusion: Factors precipitating child-abuse included: large numbers of children in the family drug addiction of one of the family members, and acute or severe psychological stress during the past 6 months. Using the Chi-square test, a significant relationship (P value=0.00l was found to exist between physical child-abuse and demographic factors such as age, sex, site of residence, history of divorce or separation of the parents and

  4. Investigating sexual violence and abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Synnott, John

    2017-01-01

    This special issue brings together emerging research concerning the issue of Sexual Violence and Abuse from around the world. The importance of pulling together research that explores the central topic of sexual violence and abuse is more pressing than ever and having a collection of work using different methodological approaches to unique samples previously unexplored contributes significantly to our understanding towards this type of offence.

  5. Perceptions and experiences of dentists towards child abuse and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child abuse and neglect (CAN) includes all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development or dignity.Since approximately half the manifestations of CAN are evident in the cranial, orofacial and neck ...

  6. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and frequency of abuse increases.” 76 o Among adolescents, suicide attempters report more sexual abuse than non-attempters ... suicide attempts among junior and senior high school youth. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 358-372. 1011 ...

  8. Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship Between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    fisico y abuso sexual . Psicothema, 14, 53–62. DiLillo, D., Perry, A. R., & Fortier, M. (2006). Child physical abuse and neglect. In R. T. Ammerman (Ed...Valerie A. Standere, Lex L. Merrill e a Center for the Study of Family Violence and Sexual Assault, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115-2854...recruits (N=5,394) and college students (N=716) completed self-report measures of their history of child abuse (i.e., CPA and child sexual abuse [CSA

  9. Integration of Services for Victims of Child Sexual Abuse at the University Teaching Hospital One-Stop Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwyn Chomba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To improve care of sexually abused children by establishment of a “One Stop Centre” at the University Teaching Hospital. Methodology. Prior to opening of the One Stop Centre, a management team comprising of clinical departmental heads and a technical group of professionals (health workers, police, psychosocial counselors lawyers and media were put in place. The team evaluated and identified gaps and weaknesses on the management of sexually abused children prevailing in Zambia. A manual was produced which would be used to train all professionals manning a One Stop Centre. A team of consultants from abroad were identified to offer need based training activities and a database was developed. Results. A multidisciplinary team comprising of health workers, police and psychosocial counselors now man the centre. The centre is assisted by lawyers as and when required. UTH is offering training to other areas of the country to establish similar services by using a Trainer of Trainers model. A comprehensive database has been established for Lusaka province. Conclusion. For establishment of a One Stop Centre, there needs to be a core group comprising of managers as well as a technical team committed to the management and protection of sexually abused children.

  10. Prevalence and pattern of sexual abuse among children attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Child sexual abuse is defined in various ways, making it challenging to ... elementary schools (aged 6-12 years) and adolescent ... children registered at both clinics (CHOP and consultant clinic). ..... American Psychological.

  11. prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse of women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expended providing treatment for these injuries. 5 Afr Med J2001; 91: ... that violent practices are deployed by men against women in attempts to maintain ... child abuse, or sexual harassment; social support; and experiences with police and ...

  12. 8. Perceptions ofchild sexual abuse among convicted prisoners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Methods: This was a qualitative study that was carried out among inmates ... study showed that the child sexual abuse is common in Zambia. .... Guba was used to ensure trustworthiness of the. 11 study. The criteria of credibility, transferability,.

  13. The Third International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect: Conference Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharov, Douglas J.

    1981-01-01

    Presents highlights from the Third International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect. The topic of child sexual abuse dominated the Congress; other topics included malnutrition, research problems, and concerns of Third World countries. Recommendations of the Congress are summarized.

  14. Optimising implementation of reforms to better prevent and respond to child sexual abuse in institutions: Insights from public health, regulatory theory, and Australia's Royal Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben

    2017-12-01

    The Australian Royal Commission Into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has identified multiple systemic failures to protect children in government and non-government organizations providing educational, religious, welfare, sporting, cultural, arts and recreational activities. Its recommendations for reform will aim to ensure organizations adopt more effective and ethical measures to prevent, identify and respond to child sexual abuse. However, apart from the question of what measures institutions should adopt, an under-explored question is how to implement and regulate those measures. Major challenges confronting reform include the diversity of organizations providing services to children; organizational resistance; and the need for effective oversight. Failure to adopt theoretically sound strategies to overcome implementation barriers will jeopardize reform and compromise reduction of institutional child sexual abuse. This article first explains the nature of the Royal Commission, and focuses on key findings from case studies and data analysis. It then analyzes public health theory and regulatory theory to present a novel analysis of theoretically justified approaches to the implementation of measures to prevent, identify and respond to CSA, while isolating challenges to implementation. The article reviews literature on challenges to reform and compliance, and on prevention of institutional CSA and situational crime prevention, to identify measures which have attracted emerging consensus as recommended practice. Finally, it applies its novel integration of regulatory theory and public health theory to the context of CSA in institutional contexts, to develop a theoretical basis for a model of implementation and regulation, and to indicate the nature and functions of a regulatory body for this context. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Child Abuse in Northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiadas, M G; Mayoorathy, S; Varuni, K; Ranganathan, Shalini Sri

    2017-02-01

    To identify areas of deficiencies and gaps in child protection services in Northern Sri Lanka. Also, to help in recommending strategies, programmes of interventions for addressing issues of child abuse and advice the legal system. A retrospective study was done to determine the socio-demographic details, type of abuse, clinical profile, relationship of the perpetrator and nature of abuse among children admitted to a tertiary care centre from 2009 through 2014, a period after cessation of a 60-y conflict. Data were obtained from hospital based records and records maintained at the district probation office. Seven hundred twenty cases were referred to the tertiary care centre with abuse. Majority of the children were from the Jaffna district, the northern city of the war affected area and mean age of the children affected was 14.5 ± 2.6 y. Females were affected more than the males and 352 children were seen following sexual abuse. The clinical examination showed penetrative injury in 15 %. The perpetrator was known in 70 % of the situations and the victim was coerced into a relationship for abuse. Attempted suicide was seen in significant numbers during the immediate post war period and school dropout and delinquent behaviour was seen in later years. The problem of child abuse is considerable in this region and there is an urgent need to strengthen the services offered to the victims. Urgent steps are needed to safeguard these children, especially in the war affected areas.

  16. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph

    Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…

  17. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

  18. Getting evidence into action to tackle institutional child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    The Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse is an example of a government response to survivors' demands to address the harm they suffered. It is also a major response by a national government to improve child safety in the future. Facing up to child abuse is difficult and in other countries similar inquiries have suffered delays and derailing. This commentary uses an evidence-to-action lens to explore why clear evidence of child sexual abuse may be ignored and side-lined. It argues that where evidence challenges the powerful, is surprising and shocking, or undercuts current institutional and policy arrangements, then that evidence is likely to be ignored, undermined or refuted - all factors which are present in the case of historical institutional child sexual abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluations of children who have disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botash, A S; Babuts, D; Mitchell, N; O'Hara, M; Lynch, L; Manuel, J

    1994-12-01

    To review the findings of interdisciplinary team evaluations of children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication. Case series. Tertiary care hospital outpatient child sexual abuse program in central New York. Between January 1990 and March 1993, 13 children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication and were referred to a university hospital child abuse referral and evaluation center. The range of previously determined developmental diagnosis included mental retardation, speech delay, and autism. None. Medical records were reviewed for (1) disclosure, (2) physical evidence, (3) child's behavioral and medical history, (4) disclosures by siblings, (5) perpetrator's confession, (6) child protective services determinations, and (7) court findings. Four children had evidence of sexual abuse: two had physical findings consistent with sexual abuse, one also disclosed the allegation verbally, and one perpetrator confessed. These results neither support nor refute validation of facilitated communication. However, many children had other evidence of sexual abuse, suggesting that each child's case should be evaluated without bias.

  20. An Analysis of Avoidant and Approach Coping as Mediators of the Relationship Between Paternal and Maternal Attachment Security and Outcomes in Child Victims of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Martine; Daspe, Marie-Ève; Cyr, Mireille

    2017-10-05

    Prior studies have documented the potential role of nonoffending parent support in promoting recovery of adult survivors following sexual abuse (SA). However, few studies have distinguished the maternal and paternal role and the mechanisms by which quality of the parent-child relationship might foster more positive outcomes in child victims. The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies as mediators of the link between mother-child and father-child relationship and outcomes following child SA. A sample of 505 children (339 girls and 166 boys) ages 6-13 years completed measures evaluating perceived attachment security to mother and father (Kerns Security Scale; Kerns, Klepac, & Cole, 1996), as well as coping strategies related to the SA experienced (Self-Reported Coping Scale; Causey & Dubow, 1992). Outcomes evaluated were posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS; Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-II [CITES-II]; Wolfe, 2002) and self-esteem (Harter, 1985). Results indicated that, in girls, both attachment security to the mother and to the father are associated with lower PSS symptoms and higher self-esteem through a lesser use of avoidant coping. Avoidance coping mediated the link between attachment security to the mother and outcomes in boys. In addition, security in the relationship with the same-sex parent was associated with approach coping, which in turn was associated with both outcomes for girls and with PSS for boys. Findings highlight the importance of involving both parents in interventions for sexually abused children as mothers and fathers appear to play different, yet complementary roles in sustaining children's recovery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Childhood attachment, childhood sexual abuse, and onset of masturbation among adult sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, Stephen W; McCabe, Billee-Anne

    2003-01-01

    Written autobiographies of 48 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders (22 rapists, 13 intrafamilial child molesters, and 13 extrafamilial child molesters) were used to generate retrospective self-report measures of their childhood maternal and paternal attachment, childhood sexual abuse experiences, and onset of masturbation. Contrary to expectation, the offenders as a combined group more often reported secure than they did insecure childhood maternal and paternal attachment. There were no differences between the three offender subgroups with respect to maternal attachment; however the rapists and the intrafamilial child molesters were more likely to report insecure paternal attachment than were the extrafamilial child molesters. There were no differences between these offender subgroups in the frequency with which childhood sexual abuse was reported. However, offenders with insecure paternal attachment were more likely to report having been sexually abused than were those with secure paternal attachment. Sexually abused offenders in turn reported earlier onset of masturbation than did those who were not sexually abused. These results are consistent with contemporary attachment models linking insecure childhood attachment to childhood sexual abuse, and with traditional conditioning models linking childhood sexual abuse, early masturbation, and sexual offending.

  2. Assessing the relationship between child sexual abuse and marginal living conditions on HIV/AIDS-related risk behavior among women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullings, J L; Marquart, J W; Brewer, V E

    2000-05-01

    There were two aims in this research. First, to examine the relationships between childhood sexual abuse and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors among female prisoners, and second, to examine the relationship between a marginal adult living context and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behavior among female prisoners. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a random sample of 500 women at admission to prison in 1994. Differences between women who were sexually abused while growing up (n = 130) were compared to women who reported no sexual abuse (n = 370) along various demographic, and HIV drug and sexual risk taking dimensions. A history of sexual abuse while growing up was associated with increased sexual risk taking behaviors in adulthood. A marginal adult living situation also emerged as an important factor increasing the risk for HIV infection. Examining the co-occurrence of both childhood sexual abuse and adult marginal living context revealed a strong relationship between these two factors and HIV risk taking activities. The findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse may be a predictor for HIV sexual risk taking behaviors among incarcerated women. The marginal and chaotic adult living style of these women was also associated the extent of their HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors. Our research suggests that the co-occurrence of sexual victimization and marginality is a stronger predictor of HIV risk than each variable alone.

  3. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Male Sexual Abuse: The Case of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…

  4. Female Survivors' Perceptions of Lifelong Impact on Their Education of Child Abuse Suffered in Orphanages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bode, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Many children raised in orphanages suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect including sexual abuse, and nearly all were denied an adequate education. This paper explores adult females' perceptions of the impacts on their education of child sexual abuse they suffered while living in orphanages in Australia. In-depth qualitative and anonymous…

  5. Young adults’ personal views on child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Anne Jernbro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false NO-BOK X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Vanlig tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This is a qualitative study based on reports from young adults, both exposed and not exposed to child abuse. The aim of the present study has been to analyse young adults' thoughts and feelings about child abuse. The data consisted of 358 responses to an open-ended question included in a national postal questionnaire study carried out by the Swedish Committee Against Child Abuse (Kommittén mot barnmisshandel. The analysis of data involved qualitative content analysis. Four main categories emerged: children's rights, consequences of child abuse, the role of the society, and causes of child abuse. The respondents who were abused as children wrote about the experience and the psychological long-term consequences of the abuse. The psychological abuse was particularly detrimental. The sexually abused expressed feelings of shame and guilt, in particular the young men. The non-abused respondents reported primarily on more general issues. They expressed children's right to a safe childhood and they strongly believed in stricter penalties for child abusers.

  6. SEXUAL ABUSE IN ADOLESCENTS - DATA FROM A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abused patients scored higher on depression rating scales than non sexually ... between sexual abuse and depresSIon, suicidal symptoms and alcohol nse is .... psychiatric symptoms, including negative cognitions, suicidal. Not present.

  7. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  8. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori

    2002-01-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  9. Review of Randomized Controlled Trials on Psychological Interventions in Child Sexual Abuse: Current Status and Emerging Needs in the Indian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Vandana; Satapathy, Sujata; Sagar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a critical, psychologically traumatic and sometimes life-threatening incident often associated with sequel of adverse physical, behavioral, and mental health consequences. Factors such as developmental age of the child, severity of abuse, closeness to the perpetrator, availability of medico-legal-social support network and family care, gender stereotypes in the community complicate the psychological trauma. Although the research on the effects of CSA as well as psychological intervention to reduce the victimization and promote the mental health of the child is in its infancy stage in India, the global research in the past three decades has progressed much ahead. A search was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar from 1984 to 2015 and only 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) out of 96 potentially relevant studies were included. While nonspecific therapies covering a wide variety of outcome variables were prominent till 1999s, the trend changed to specific and focused forms of trauma-focused therapies in next one-and-half decades. Novel approaches to psychological interventions have also been witnessed. One intervention (non-RCT) study on effects on general counseling has been reported from India.

  10. A crisis worker's observations on the psychosocial support for victims and families following child sexual abuse; a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibney, Daniel R; Jones, Alyson

    2014-10-01

    The Lancashire Sexual Assault Forensic Examination (SAFE) centre in Preston saw 204 children aged 16 and under for examination following allegation of sexual assault in 2013. The psychological impact on the child is well known but not always addressed correctly or appropriately; the impact and resulting difficulties faced by the parent/carer of the child can also easily go un-noticed. Mrs A attended the centre with her 2 year old daughter in 2013, where I was the crisis worker in the case. She was contacted five months later and the support they received after attending the centre discussed. Her experiences, along with my own anecdotal experiences are discussed. Independent Sexual Assault Advisors (ISVAs) offer support following attendance at the centre, and various charitable organisations offer counselling, emotional and practical support. Health visitors, paediatricians, school nurses and social workers also play a role in looking after children and families following allegations of assault. However, the organisations and agencies involved in psychological aftercare for victims and parents are hindered by strict referral criteria and lack of funding or appropriate specialist expertise. The psychological, educational and behavioural support for parents and children, and specifically pre-trial counselling for children need significant improvement if we are to offer the best support for victims. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic ... Some researchers recognize that power also plays a role in sexual abuse, but this abuse of ..... Gender, power, and organizational culture.

  12. Revictimization of Victims Sexually Abused by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata H. Kowalczyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Victims experiencing the sexual abuse are surviving not only physical injustice but above all deep traumas, which very often in different forms, are keeping them company through the entire life. Quite often at establishing different results a sex is underestimated for the perpetrator. Therefore knowing the problem of sexual abuses from a perspective of close as well as distant results is very important in the event that a woman was a perpetrator of these acts – mother, minder. In the present article based on analysis of literature, a problem of results of the sexual abuse was presented at victims which experienced these behaviours on the part of women. In order to draw up discussing the survived specificity by victims was both of sex of the trauma connected with the sexual application as well as close and distant consequences of these events in the form prime victimisation and revictimisation for figure being noticeable in the adult life of psychosexual disorders and social shortages. Amongst the consequence isolated traumatic factors are deserving the particular attention about dynamic character which are provoking the appearance of many symptoms characteristic of children which experienced the sexual violence. Recalled factors it: traumatic sexualisation of child, the betrayal, the stigmatization and the helplessness. The specificity of these factors results from the fact that they will leave distant “tracks” in the psyche and they can undergo the additional reinforcement if a woman is a perpetrator of the sexual violence. It results from frequent attitudes of “denying” towards the sexual violence applied by women. In the study they pointed also at one of possible consequences of the revictimisation process copying patterns of behaviour connected with the sexual exploitation of children in their more late life by victims is which. This process resulting from the alternating identification of the perpetrator and the victim is starting

  13. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  14. Prevalence, Characteristics, and Associations of Sexual Abuse with Sociodemographics and Consensual Sex in a Population-Based Sample of Swedish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual abuse and associations between child sexual abuse, gender, sociodemographic data, and consensual sexual experiences. A questionnaire was completed by 4,339 Swedish high school seniors. Three categories of child sexual abuse were…

  15. Is Tourism Marriage of Young Girls in Egypt a Form of Child Sexual Abuse? A Family Exploitation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hussein Hassan; Alsharqawi, Nagwa Ibrahim; Younis, Mustafa Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Tourism marriage in Egypt is considered a part of the child marriage phenomenon, as parents following false interpretations of Islamic teachings offer up their daughters for short-term sexual relationships in return for money from tourists. This exploratory study used qualitative methods to interview 42 parents who reside in the city of Darasa, Giza, Egypt, whose daughters were persuaded to engage in tourism marriage. Eight social work students utilized an interview guide that contained 10 questions exploring how parents strike deals with tourists and avoid all legal and traditional procedures of marriage in Egypt. The findings of this study were summarized in six distinct themes, which show evidence of family exploitation of young women. This experience likely increases the child's vulnerability to psychological, social, and physical consequences.

  16. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  17. Evaluation of Bikers Against Child Abuse (BACA) program: A community intervention for child abuse victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dee C; Lilly, J P; Gallina, Nancy; MacIan, Paula; Wilson, Brittany

    2017-12-01

    Children who have experienced physical abuse benefit from a multitude of community interventions including support programs to address emotional and behavioral stability. This pilot study evaluated the services of Bikers Against Child Abuse (BACA), a community of bikers lending intervention to abused children, using a pre/post exploratory design. Participants (N=154) were children who had been referred by parents/guardians for current or past physical and/or sexual abuse. Parents/guardians of children were interviewed four times over a course of one year. Results indicated children demonstrated substantial improvements in their overall levels of emotional distress, conduct concerns, hyperactivity, and behavioral and emotional functioning. Overall, results support the premise that services provided by BACA may serve as a unique intervention for children who have experienced abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Several unusual cases of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, H; Weston, J T

    1976-10-01

    All childhood deaths which occurred in New Mexico during 1974 and 1975 were reviewed. Nine fatal instances of abuse were identified representing the entire spectrum of physical abuse: neglect, abuse in a single episode of injury, repetitive abuse, or sexual abuse. Several cases are summarized. These are unusual either in the distribution of pathologic findings or in the problems encountered in court presentation.

  19. Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, T.

    2009-01-01

    Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.) [de

  20. Parenting in females exposed to intimate partner violence and childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.

  1. Sexual Abuse of Children as a Form of Power Abuse and Abuse of the Body

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaert, Machteld

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic theological viewpoint. The article starts with the relationship between sexual abuse and power. It is argued that sexual abuse is always a form of power abuse. A second step examines the relation between sexual abuse and the body. We may not ignore the theme of the body when we speak about sexual abuse as a form of power abuse. The article also explores whether the body is a theme in recent (th...

  2. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  3. Sexual Abuse of Individuals with Disabilities: Prevention Strategies for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Adriana G.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…

  4. Music therapy with sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarts, Jacqueline

    2006-04-01

    Music is part of everyday life, and is generally regarded as therapeutic. There is increasing interdisciplinary interest in innate human musicality and the link between music and the emotions. Innate musicality is evident in the dynamic forms of emotional expression that both regulate and cultivate the foundations of meaning in human communication (intersubjectivity). This article discusses music therapy, drawing from interdisciplinary perspectives, and illustrated by case material of individual music therapy with a sexually abused child. Where the growth of mind and meaning is devastated at its core by early relational trauma, music, when used with clinical perception, may reach and work constructively with damaged children in an evolving, musically mediated therapeutic relationship.

  5. Sexual Abuse Trauma Among Chinese Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tsun-yin Echo

    1998-01-01

    This study conducted interviews with 19 survivors of sexual abuse and three social workers in Taiwan. It found sexual stigmatization and feelings of disempowerment and betrayal as the most pervasive trauma complex among the abuse survivors. Effects of cultural attitudes toward sexual victimization of women and Chinese patriarchal familialism are…

  6. Play Therapy Behaviors of Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, Linda E.; Landreth, Garry L.

    The purpose of this study was to identify play therapy behaviors of sexually abused children. Surveys were sent to members of the Association for Play Therapy, of which 249 respondents, who worked with 16 or more sexually abused children, were used. Results indicate that there are identifiable and highly interrelated PTBs of sexually abused…

  7. Evaluation of Military Criminal Investigative Organizations’ Child Sexual Assault Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-09

    the definition of child abuse that includes the rape , molestation, prostitution , or other such form of sexual exploitation of a child; or incest...data gleaned from comparable statistical samples. See Appendix B for details. The primary offenses that occurred were rape of a child, aggravated...Offense/Manual for Courts-Martial Rape of a child under 12 Rape of a child over 12 but under 16 Sexual assault of a child under 16 Sexual abuse of a

  8. Pilot Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Taiwanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.; Tseng, Kai-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program for Taiwanese children. Forty-six Taiwanese children age 6 to 13 were divided into one of two groups based on their school grade and then randomly assigned to a skills-based child sexual abuse prevention program who…

  9. Children's Response to a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program: A Study of the Spiderman Comic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James

    1987-01-01

    Children (N=73) in grades two, four, and six were interviewed concerning their comprehension and response to a special comic book on child sexual abuse. Although the comic made some children anxious, one child spoke up about having been sexually abused and how the comic would have helped him. (DB)

  10. Conceptualization of the Complex Outcomes of Sexual Abuse: A Signal Detection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechtel, Pia; Evans, Ian M.; Podd, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-five New Zealand based practitioners experienced in treating adults with a history of child sexual abuse participated in an online judgment study of child sexual abuse outcomes using signal detection theory methodology. Participants' level of sensitivity was assessed independent of their degree of response bias when discriminating (a) known…

  11. From child pornography offending to child sexual abuse : A review of child pornography offender characteristics and risks for cross-over

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtepen, J.A.B.M.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Bogaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, concrete directions are provided for individual risk assessment, treatment planning, and future research on child pornography offending. First, based on reviewing offender characteristics, including demographics, socio-affective difficulties, cognitive distortions and psychosexual

  12. [Migraine type childhood headache aggravated by sexual abuse: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleağasi, Hakan; Ozge, Aynur; Toros, Fevziye; Kar, Hakan

    2009-04-01

    Although the vast majority of chronic headache is idiopathic in origin, child abuse can be a very rare cause of paroxysmal headaches in children. The aim of this report was to present a case of migraine headache aggravated after sexual abuse, which did not respond to treatment. An 11-year-old girl admitted to the outpatient department of the Neurology Clinic with headache complaint for the past two years. Neurological examination, neuroimaging and laboratory tests were normal. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-II criteria, the headache was diagnosed as migraine without aura and treatment as prophylaxis was planned. Her headache did not respond to treatment, so she was consulted with the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and diagnosed as major depressive disorder. During one of the psychological interviews, she confessed that she had been sexually abused by her mother's boyfriend for two years. After this confession and punishment of the abuser, her headache improved dramatically. The prevalence of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse during childhood has been estimated between 13% and 27%, and these children may suffer chronic pain, headache or depression. Sexual abuse has been strongly associated with the migraine-depression phenotype when abuse first occurred before the age of 12 years. Despite the high prevalence of abuse, many physicians do not routinely ask about abuse history. In conclusion, child abuse must be kept in mind in intractable childhood headache. A multidisciplinary approach with the Departments of Forensic Sciences and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and detailed psychiatric evaluation should be useful in these cases.

  13. ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming.

  14. Aptitud de padres para prevenir abuso sexual en menores después de una intervención educativa participativa Parental aptitude to prevent child sexual abuse after a participatory education intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Alicia Higareda-Almaraz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la aptitud en los padres sobre el impacto de educar con equidad a los menores, para prevenir abuso sexual infantil con una estrategia educativa participativa. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Diseño cuasiexperimental. Se incluyó a 92 padres con hijos menores en preescolar que recibieron una intervención educativa con estrategia promotora participativa por una hora durante 20 días. Para evaluar el cambio de aptitud se construyó previamente un cuestionario estructurado con 20 enunciados, que fue validado por expertos en educación y sexología infantil. Para comparar la diferencia intragrupos se utilizó Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las respuestas de los padres antes/después de la intervención educativa con un valor en la mediana (rango 10(2-12/18(6-20, pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the aptitude of parents regarding the educational impact of equity education for children to prevent child sexual abuse using participatory strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental design. Ninety-two parents with children in preschool were included in the study. The parents were given a course using participatory educational strategies for one hour daily over a period of 20 days. Prior to the course, a group of experts in child education and sexology prepared a questionnaire with 20 sentences. A Wilcoxon test was used to compare intergroup differences RESULTS: We found statistically significant differences in the parents' responses before and after the educational intervention, with a median (range of 10(2-12/18(6-20, p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: A significant change in aptitude was noted when parents attended classes using a participatory strategy to learn about the impact of educational equity for the prevention of child sexual abuse. Thus, it is imperative to continue evaluating different educational strategies.

  15. Exposure to child abuse and risk for mental health problems in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse.

  16. SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND ABUSE BY UN PEACEKEEPERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allaiac

    from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse (ST/SGB/2003/13) (UN, Secretary .... In addition, in most situations, UN personnel have enjoyed immunity from local .... 9 Official UN statistics show a higher incidence of allegations reported against.

  17. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2002-04-01

    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  18. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G.; Casteels, I.

    2002-01-01

    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  19. Prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Many clinicians and researchers have speculated that child sexual abuse and conduct disorder co-occur frequently, yet no systematic reviews of literature have specifically addressed both these conditions. To estimate the prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder, the pertinent literature was systematically reviewed. Ten databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Twenty-three studies meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to insure objectivity and not to invalidate results and including 7,256 participants with either conduct disorder or child sexual abuse were examined. The prevalence of child sexual abuse among participants with conduct disorder was 27 %; however, such figure might be underestimated due to selection, sampling, and recall biases; poor assessment methods; and narrow definitions of abuse in included studies. Participants with conduct disorder, compared with healthy individuals, reported higher rates of child sexual abuse. However, compared with other psychiatric populations, they reported similar or lower rates. There was also some evidence suggesting that children with conduct disorder might be more likely to report child physical abuse. Female participants with conduct disorder, compared with males, were significantly more likely to report child sexual abuse. Youths with conduct disorder are at risk of being (or having been) sexually abused, although such risk seems to be neither more specific to nor stronger for these individuals, compared with people with other psychiatric disorders.

  20. Interdisciplinary action of nurses to children with suspected sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Leão Ciuffo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Understanding the role of nurses as members of interdisciplinary teams in the care of children with suspected sexual abuse. Methodology. This is a qualitative research based on the sociological phenomenology of Alfred Schutz. In 2008 were interviewed eleven nurses who worked in reference institutions for the care of child victims of sexual abuse in Rio de Janeiro. Results. The category called 'Interacting with other professionals in child care' emerged from the analysis of performance of professionals. The intersubjective relations between the nurses and the interdisciplinary team will enable to understand the intent of care from the perspective of social, emotional and psychological needs of children and their families. Conclusion. Interdisciplinarity favored the development of actions based on acceptance, listening and agreements on possible solutions in the care of children with suspected sexual abuse.

  1. Imaging and Diagnosis of Physical Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marlene M

    2017-09-01

    Child abuse involves grave and disturbing acts of violence that can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for children and their families. The diagnosis of child abuse is emotionally difficult for those involved, and an error in judgment either way can have a detrimental effect on the health and safety of the child. Physicians rely on the skills of the imaging team to produce high-quality images that assist in differentiating inflicted injuries from accidental trauma. This article explores the significance of imaging in child abuse by discussing the types of injuries that occur and the imaging studies that aid in diagnosing physical child abuse. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  2. Review: Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse: Incidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual abuse in children and adolescents is a silent epidemic because despite the fact that close to 20% of children and adolescents (1 out 5) are affected, less than 10% of the cases get reported to law enforcement agents or medical practitioners. Sexual abuse is associated with physical injuries such as bruises and ...

  3. Educator Sexual Abuse: Two Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…

  4. Parent’s Addiction and Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study is review the theorical approches of child abuse and its prevalency, ethiology, prevention, assessment and treatment. Also, we try to difine the relationship between child abuse and parents addiction and their side effects in different areas of childs life .

  5. Violence, sexual abuse and health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p sexually abused in childhood (8...

  6. Oral and dental aspects of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Suzy Puspa Pertiwi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is defined as those acts or omissions of care that deprive a child from the opportunity to fully develop his or her unique potentials as a person either physically, socially or emotionally. The overall incidence of child abuse is not really clear. Statistical data do not show the actual rate because of the unreported cases. Dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report the children being abused because they often see the child and parents interacting during multiple visits and over a long period of time. The orofacial region is commonly traumatized during episodes of child abuse. The characteristics and diagnostic finding of child abuse, and the protocol of reporting such cases, should be familiar to the dentist so that appropriate notification, treatment and prevention of further injury can be instituted. Dentists with experience or expertise in child abuse and neglect will strengthen their ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance the ability to care for and protect children. This paper discusses the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and the dentist role in evaluating this situation including prevention of child abuse.

  7. A Case Study of Sexual Abuse of a Minor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    as it is commonly perpetrated by close ones including family relations. Victims are left ... The case brings to the fore the problem of child sexual abuse in Nigeria and its attendant sequelae. .... matter was brought to the public domain, she was.

  8. A BIG SHAME OF MANKIND: CHILD ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TOPBAS

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse has for a long time been recorded in literature of science in many parts of the world. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(4.000: 76-80

  9. Pre-service teachers’ awareness of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal TUNCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the awareness of pre-service teachers from different departments related to the concept of child abuse. This study aims to determine pre-service teachers’ awareness of child abuse as a qualitative study, conducted in line with phenomenological design. In the study, one of the purposeful sampling methods, maximum diversity sampling method, was employed. The participants of the study are 15 pre-service teachers attending the departments of Psychological Counseling and Guidance, Teacher Education for the Intellectually Disabled, Pre-school Teacher Education, Social Studies, Art Teaching, Computer and Instructional Technologies, German Language Teaching, French Language Teaching, and Teacher Education for the Hearing Impaired, all within the Education Faculty of Anatolian University, Turkey. The data of the study was collected through the focus-group interview technique. The data collected from two different focus-group interviews were analyzed by content analysis technique using the NVivo 8 data analysis program. As a result of the analysis of the data, it was concluded that the pre-service teachers explained the concept of child abuse by most strongly emphasizing emotional abuse and least strongly by emphasizing economic abuse. In light of the pre-service teachers’ opinions, it was also concluded that the culture constructed by society through the meanings attached to genders, society’s view of sexuality, child marriage, proverbs and idioms specific to the local society and superstitions lead to incidences of child abuse. The current study revealed that child abuse can be prevented by providing training to raise the awareness of child abuse primarily for families then children, teachers and other concerned people. It was also found that the majority of pre-service teachers do not have enough information about how to act in the face of an incidence of child abuse.

  10. Quando o silêncio é rompido: o processo de revelação e notificação de abuso sexual infantil When the silence is broken: the process of disclosure and reporting of child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Silva dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir o processo de revelação e notificação de situações de abuso sexual envolvendo crianças e adolescentes, a partir da análise de publicações relacionadas a essa temática. Os estudos indicam que a revelação e a notificação do abuso sexual são momentos difíceis para a vítima e para seus familiares porque geralmente envolvem alguém próximo à criança e apresentam reflexos no sistema familiar, como rompimento de vínculo, culpabilização e perda de suporte financeiro. Vários fatores que podem facilitar ou inibir a revelação e notificação do abuso são discutidos, como, por exemplo, a reação materna. Destaca-se a importância de um trabalho integrado no atendimento às vítimas, no encaminhamento das questões judiciais e no fortalecimento da rede de apoio às famílias.The aim of this article is to discuss the process of disclosure and reporting of cases of sexual abuse involving children and adolescents, based on the analysis of publications related to that topic. Studies suggest that the disclosure and reporting of sexual abuse is a difficult moment for the victims and their families because it usually involves someone close to the child. It provokes changes in the family system, such as disruption of ties, guilt and loss in financial support. Several factors that may facilitate or inhibit the disclosure and reporting of sexual abuse are discussed such as the mother's reaction. It is highlighted the importance of an integrated work in the service that deals with these situations, involving the victims care, in the forwarding of the processes and in the strengthening of the supporting network for families.

  11. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  12. Child protection medical service demonstration centers in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ching; Huang, Jing-Long; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lee, En-Pei; Chou, I-Jun; Hsin, Yi-Chen; Lo, Fu-Song; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Wu, Han-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development, or dignity. In Taiwan, the Child Protection Medical Service Demonstration Center (CPMSDC) was established to protect children from abuse and neglect. We further analyzed and compared the trends and clinical characteristics of cases reported by CPMSDC to evaluate the function of CPMSDC in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan. We prospectively recorded children with reported child abuse and neglect in a CPMSDC in a tertiary medical center from 2014 to 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed and compared age, gender, scene, identifying settings, time of visits, injury type, injury severity, hospital admission, hospitalization duration, and outcomes based on the different types of abuse and the different settings in which the abuse or neglect were identified. Of 361 child abuse cases (mean age 4.8 ± 5.36 years), the incidence was highest in 1- to 6-year-old children (n = 198, 54.85%). Physical abuse and neglect were predominant in males, while sexual abuse was predominant in females (P Neglect was most common (n = 279, 75.85%), followed by physical (n = 56, 15.51%) and sexual abuse (n = 26, 7.2%). The most common identifying setting was the emergency department (n = 320, 88.64%), with neglect being most commonly reported. Head, neck, and facial injuries were more common in physically abused children than in neglected and sexual abused children (P neglect (P abuse, and to increase the rate of registry. Cases of physical abuse had a higher Injury Severity Score, longer duration of hospitalization, and more injuries of head, face, and neck compared with other types of abuse. The reported rate of neglect was highly elevated after the CPMSDC established during the study period. Recognition of neglect is not easy, but the consequent injury, especially

  13. Diagnostic imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, B.

    2007-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in ''battered child syndrome'' and brain injuries in ''shaken baby syndrome''. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.) [de

  14. Picture Book on Raising Children's Awareness Against Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Christy, Evelyn; Handojo, Priska Febrinia

    2015-01-01

    One of the common problems leading to the sexual abuse is that the child is not aware about it. This project aims to raise children's awareness against sexual abuse through picture book. This picture book use realistic fiction as the genre of my picture book. The purpose is to make the children familiar with the story and can relate it to their life. This picture book uses the narrative theory as the framework of the story. The narrative story is consist of abstract, orientation, complication...

  15. Factors influencing children to self-disclose sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Mary L; Hansen, David J

    2002-03-01

    Self-disclosure by victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is critical to initiate legal and therapeutic intervention. Unfortunately, research indicates that lengthy delays in disclosure and even nondisclosure are common. A comprehensive review of the clinical and research literature on CSA and an overview of related bodies of literature was conducted. Areas addressed include the context of sexual abuse as it relates to disclosure, the context and elements of children's disclosures, motivational factors inhibiting disclosure, and models of the disclosure process. Ancillary and analogue research on secrecy and disclosure are also reviewed. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  16. Violence, sexual abuse and health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p abused in childhood (8...

  17. SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND ABUSE BY UN PEACEKEEPERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allaiac

    sexual exploitation of children by peacekeepers is particularly insidious. ... sexual exploitation and abuse should involve an understanding of the social .... The charges of sexual misconduct, and the consequent media exposure, have ..... awareness programmes such as video tapes, lectures and training manuals, designed.

  18. Teen birth rates in sexually abused and neglected females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E

    2013-04-01

    Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.

  19. Development and Testing of Intervention Model for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention on Primary School Children in Padang City, 2014

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    Meri Neherta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence against children increased in many regions in Indonesia, both in cities and in desa. Keadaan is also happening in the city of Padang, where cases of sexual violence against children is increasing from year to year. Therefore, necessary one model to be able to do primary prevention. Aims & Objectives: The aim of this study is to establish a model of promotion and prevention interventions that can be used as primary prevention of sexual violence against primary school children in Padang City. Material & Methods: The method was combining qualitative and quantitative research. The population of this study was the teachers and students within amount of ten elementary schools in the Padang City with 170 sample of people. Result: The model of intervention through Minangkabau language songs can enhance children's knowledge and assertiveness toward primary prevention of sexual violence. Conclusion: "Neherta" Model is a promotion and prevention interventions model of sexual violence against primary school children in Padang City.

  20. Silencing the Patient: Freud, Sexual Abuse, and "The Etiology of Hysteria."

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOmber, James B.

    1996-01-01

    States that, in "The Etiology of Hysteria," Sigmund Freud's "seduction theory" asserted that child sexual abuse was the single cause of adult hysteria. Argues that Freud's failure to persuade his audience can be attributed not only to their denial of sexual abuse but also to his failure to clarify how pschyoanalysis could…

  1. Commentary: Ethical Considerations in Testing Victims of Sexual Abuse for HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fost, Norman

    1990-01-01

    Ethical issues in screening of victims of sexual abuse for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are raised in response to Gellert (EC 222 881). It is concluded that widescale HIV testing of child victims of sexual abuse is not justified by the available information. (DB)

  2. Sexual Abuse Prevention Mobile Application (SAP_MobAPP) for Primary School Children in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyoung Ja; Park, Kyung Min; Sung, Yunsick

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate the effects of a sexual abuse prevention mobile application, SAP_MobAPP, for primary school children. Forty-five subjects were trained for 40 minutes once a week. The experimental group received education that utilized the SAP_MobAPP. Control group A received Web based sexual abuse prevention education, while control group B received textbook based sexual abuse prevention education. Effectiveness was verified through a survey on child sexual abuse recognition and avoidance skills administered before and after training. The SAP_MobAPP program improved recognition (awareness) and the child's skills to avoid child sexual abuse situations, and the effects were long-lasting. However, differences between groups were not statistically significant. This study developed a sexual abuse prevention application and verified its effectiveness. Awareness and skills to avoid child sexual abuse after app education increased immediately after training and four weeks later. The SAP_MobAPP could be used for sexual abuse prevention education in schools.

  3. Maltreatment and sexual abuse at home concerning schooling adolscents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuranis Ibeth Henríquez Santoya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio consistió en determinar la presencia del maltrato infantil y abuso sexual en el hogar en adolescentes escolarizados con edades comprendidas entre 14 y 16 años, matriculados a 2010 en colegios públicos de la de la ciudad de Santa Marta. Los participantes fueron 229 jóvenes. Las variables medidas fueron la edad, el tipo de maltrato y el género. Los resultados indican que la tendencia al maltrato psicológico fue de 29.3%, de maltrato físico 13.3% y de abuso sexual de 32.3%. Con relación al género se halló que las mujeres han sido objeto en mayor porcentaje de maltrato físico y abuso sexual que los hombres y éstos han sido objeto de mayor maltrato psicológico que las mujeres; respecto a la edad los jóvenes de 14 años presentaron mayor porcentaje de maltrato y abuso que en los otros rangos etarios. Se concluye que tres (3 de cada 10 estudiantes ha sido objeto de abuso sexual, tres ha sido objeto de maltrato psicológico y uno de maltrato físico. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 262 - 269AbstractThe present study was to determine the presence of child maltreatment and sexual abuse at home, concerning schooling adolescents, aged between 14 and 16 years enrolled in public schools belonging to the city of Santa Marta. Participants were 229 young persons. The variables were age, abuse and gender. The results point out: 29.3% for psychological abuse, 32.3% for sexual abuse, and 13.3% for physical abuse. Concerning the gender it was detected that women have been at a higher rate aim of physical mistreatment and sexual abuse than men, but on the other hand men are aim of psychological abuse. With regard to age, young people of 14 years, revealed a higher percentage of maltreatment than the elder ones. We conclude that three of each schooling boy has been object of sexual abuse; three of them have been injured of psychological mistreatment and one of physical abuse.Keywords: abuse; sexual abuse; maltreatment; gender; adolescents

  4. INFEKSI NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE AKIBAT SEXUAL ABUSE PADA SEORANG ANAK PEREMPUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Wydya Yenny

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi Neisseria gonorrhoeae pada anak akibat sexual abuse sangat jarang dilaporkan.Dilaporkan satu kasus infeksi Neisseria gonorrhoeae pada seorang anak perempuan usia 6 tahun setelah mengalami sexual abuse satu minggu yang lalu.Diagnosis ditegakkan berdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan klinis dan pemeriksaan laboratorium. Anamnesis adanya keputihan sejak 5 hari sebelum berobat. Pada pemeriksaan fisis tampak cairan berwarna krem menempel pada celana dalam, cukup banyak, serta sedikit kemerahan dan duh genital pada vulva. Hasil pemeriksaan mikroskopis ditemukan diplokokus Gram negatif dan kultur didapatkan Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Berdasarkan hasil tes sensitivitas, pasien diterapi dengan ceftriaxon 125 mg i.m, dosis tunggal dan memberikan kesembuhan.Infeksi ini membutuhkan penatalaksanaan yang komprehensif karena mempunyai dampak psikologis baik bagi anak maupun keluarga seumur hidupKata kunci : Neisseria gonorrhoeae, sexual abuse, anakAbstractNeisseria gonorrhoe infection in childhood caused by sexual abuse is considered rare reported.A young girl 6 years old suffering gonococcal infection was reported. The diagnostic procedure were base on clinically and laboratory findings. The source of transmission was sexual abuse by an adult man. Physical examination revealed purulent discharge, cream in colour that stains the underwear with minimal vaginal discharge and vulval erythema. Laboratory examination showed Gram-negative diplococcic and isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This patient had been treated with ceftriaxon 125mg given intramuscularly in a single dose. Result of the treatment was good.The psychological sequelae of sexual abuse and the turmoil in the family produced by suspicions and allegations are largely unknown, but are probably life long.Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, sexual abuse, childLAPORAN

  5. Diminished fronto-limbic functional connectivity in child sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, Jonas; Borchardt, Viola; Kärgel, Christian; Sinke, Christopher; Massau, Claudia; Tenbergen, Gilian; Ponseti, Jorge; Walter, Henrik; Beier, Klaus M; Schiffer, Boris; Schiltz, Kolja; Walter, Martin; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2018-02-22

    Child sexual abuse and neglect have been related to an increased risk for the development of a wide range of behavioral, psychological, and sexual problems and increased rates of suicidal behavior. Contrary to the large amount of research focusing on the negative mental health consequences of child sexual abuse, very little is known about the characteristics of child sexual offenders and the neuronal underpinnings contributing to child sexual offending. This study investigates differences in resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between non-pedophilic child sexual offenders (N = 20; CSO-P) and matched healthy controls (N = 20; HC) using a seed-based approach. The focus of this investigation of rs-FC in CSO-P was put on prefrontal and limbic regions highly relevant for emotional and behavioral processing. Results revealed a significant reduction of rs-FC between the right centromedial amygdala and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in child sexual offenders compared to controls. Given that, in the healthy brain, there is a strong top-down inhibitory control of prefrontal over limbic structures, these results suggest that diminished rs-FC between the amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and may foster sexual deviance and sexual offending. A profound understanding of these concepts should contribute to a better understanding of the occurrence of child sexual offending, as well as further development of more differentiated and effective interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SEXUAL ABUSE OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOLS: THE NEED FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY TERMS: Sexual abuse, social work, social exchange theory, Botswana. ... The problem of sexual abuse of children by teachers in the education system is not .... to leave an abusive relationship when the costs of the relationship outweigh ...

  7. Child Abuse: The Crying Baby at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, John

    The author considers the relationship between uncontrollable infant crying and child abuse. An integrative scheme is offered from evidence of child abuse literature, experimentally induced infant crying effects, attribution theory, and learned helplessness. It is suggested that infant crying often has causes beyond caregiver control, such as birth…

  8. "Who can you tell?" Features of Arab culture that influence conceptualization and treatment of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haboush, Karen L; Alyan, Hala

    2013-01-01

    The literature on child sexual abuse reflects growing recognition of the manner in which culture impacts the conceptualization, experience, and treatment of such cases. Despite heightened visibility of Arab Americans within the United States, population due to recent media attention, little empirical research exists on the occurrence of child sexual abuse within this population. Arab culture is often characterized by an emphasis on collectivism and familial obligations, and such features may prove to either facilitate or impede assessment and treatment of child sexual abuse, depending on how they are manifested. In terms of reporting child sexual abuse, cultural values pertaining to shame and honor as well as the stigma attached to mental health problems may influence the response to abuse. As such, enhancing the cultural competence of the therapist is key to facilitating effective cultural practice. Empirical research is required to investigate and substantiate these concepts as they relate to child sexual abuse in Arab-American populations.

  9. The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Diehle, Julia; Verlinden, Eva; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Tuinebreijer, Wilco; Bosschaart, Thekla F.; van Duin, Esther; Verhoeff, Arnoud

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundLittle research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse ¿ including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet ¿ might have for the children and their parents. The effects of

  10. The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindauer, R.J.L.; Brilleslijper-Kater, S.N.; Diehle, J.; Verlinden, E.; Teeuw, A.H.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Tuinebreijer, W.; Bosschaart, T.F.; van Duin, E.; Verhoeff, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse ¿ including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet ¿ might have for the children and their parents. The effects of

  11. The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindauer, R.J.L.; Brilleslijper-Kater, S.N.; Diehle, J.; Verlinden, E.; Teeuw, A.H.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Tuinebreijer, W.; Bosschaart, T.F.; van Duin, E.; Verhoeff, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse - including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet - might have for the children and their parents. The effects of

  12. Syphilis as a Sole Indicator of Sexual Abuse: Two Cases with No Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Susan; Chadwick, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of suspected sexual abuse of five-year-old children with syphilis are reported. Lack of confirmation of abuse by either child or in parental interviews led to closing of the cases by Child Protection Services and continued residence by the children in their original homes. (DB)

  13. What prevents Chinese parents from reporting possible cases of child sexual abuse to authority? A holistic-interactionistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qian Wen; Sun, Xiaoyue; Chen, Mengtong; Qiao, Dong Ping; Chan, Ko Ling

    2017-02-01

    The reporting of suspected CSA cases to authorities in a timely manner is important in preventing continued abuse and protecting abused children at early ages. The current study seeks to explore parents' intentions of reporting their own children's CSA experiences to authorities as well as their reporting willingness when they become aware of possible CSA cases happening to children in other families. Two rounds of semi-structured interviews were conducted among a sample of 26 parents in Beijing; these parents were purposefully selected so as to be diverse in terms of gender, age, and socioeconomic status. The data were analyzed thematically. The findings showed that the reporting of suspected CSA to authorities was a choice made by only a few Chinese parents; it was often even a last resort. By using a holistic-interactionistic approach, the interaction between Chinese parents' intentions of reporting CSA and the Chinese socio-cultural context was analyzed as a dynamic and continuously ongoing process. The impacts of the definition and perceptions of CSA on reporting, the balance of children's rights and parents' power, and the double effect of informal social control are discussed. The implications, both locally and globally, are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parenting and Family Stress as Mediators of the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Tiffany Weissmann; Silvern, Louise

    1994-01-01

    Data on child physical/sexual abuse, family stress histories, perceived parental warmth, and current psychological functioning were gathered from 259 working women. Multiple regression analyses showed that parental warmth strongly influenced or mediated the relationship of intrafamilial child abuse to depression and self-esteem levels. However,…

  15. Impact of Traumatic Events on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Palic, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse...... survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk...... factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute...

  16. Impact of traumatic events on posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish survivors of sexual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M; Palic, Sabina; Karsberg, Sidsel; Eriksen, Sara Bek

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  17. Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastbom, Åsa A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    Empirical research about late sexual debut and its consequences is limited, and further research is needed. To explore how students who had not had intercourse by the age of 18 years differed in terms of sociodemographic factors, physical and psychological health, sexual behavior, and history of sexual abuse from those who had. This is a cross-sectional survey involving 3,380 Swedish 18-year-olds. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate different types of sexual behavior. Ordinal data concerning alcohol consumption, self-esteem, sexual and physical abuse, parental relationships, sense of coherence, and health were analyzed, and multiple regression was carried out to identify the most important factors associated with no sexual debut. Just under a quarter of the adolescents had not had oral, anal, or vaginal sex by the age of 18 years, and they comprised the index group. They were characterized by being more likely to have caring fathers, parents born outside Europe, lower pornography consumption, lower alcohol and tobacco consumption, less antisocial behavior, and above all lower sexual desire (sometimes, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.8; never/seldom, aOR 13.3) and fewer experiences of sexual abuse (aOR 25.5). Family structure and culture matters when it comes to the age of sexual debut. Adolescents with no sexual debut at 18 years of age seemed to live a more stable and cautious life than more sexual experienced peers, exemplified by fewer antisocial acts, less smoking and alcohol/drug consumption, less sexual desire, and less experience of sexual abuse.

  18. Modeling the differential incidence of "child abuse, neglect and exploitation" in poor households in South Africa: Focus on child trafficking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbecke, P

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available above hinders their care, protection and well- being. As a consequence of remarkable abuse, neglect and exploitation of children in South Africa, in 2005 Child Welfare South Africa (CWSA), an umbrella body representing 169 children?s organizations... (affiliates, branches and developing organizations) provided services to 108 379 children considered and defined by the Child Care Act as ?children in need of care?. Out of this number there were 5 000 physically abused children, 6 637 sexually abused...

  19. Child sexual abuse: the perception of mothers concerning their daughters' sexual abuse Abuso sexual infantil: percepción de las madres frente al abuso sexual de sus hijas Abuso sexual infantil: percepção de mães em face do abuso sexual de suas filhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quitéria Clarice Magalhães Carvalho

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence affects all members in a family and children are considered the main victims. This qualitative study aimed to grasp the perception of mothers whose daughters were sexually abused. Data were collected between February and March 2007 in a governmental facility in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil through semi-structured interviews with ten mothers of sexually abused children. Data were submitted to the Collective Subject Discourse Technique from which three themes emerged: Guilt is rooted in the motherhood myth, unhealable pain and despair as a consequence of a feeling of powerlessness. Results evidenced that mothers experience a range of feelings in which pain, revulsion and powerlessness are highlighted. Society should be engaged in the subject and interested in understanding violence, its magnitude and the whole affected chain, otherwise, only good intentions will remain, lost in the void from the lack of action.La violencia doméstica afecta a todos los componentes familiares, las niñas son consideradas las principales víctimas. Este es un estudio cualitativo que tuvo por objetivo aprender la percepción de las madres cuyas hijas fueron víctimas de abuso sexual infantil. Los datos fueron recolectados entre febrero y marzo de 2007, en una organización gubernamental de Fortaleza, estado de Ceará, mediante entrevista semiestructurada con diez madres de niñas víctimas de abuso sexual. Las informaciones fueron sometidas a la técnica del Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo, de la cual emergieron tres temas: la culpa arraigada por el mito materno, el dolor de lo insuperable y el desespero, como consecuencia del sentimiento de impotencia, permitiendo aprender que las madres experimentan una amplia gama de sentimientos, destacándose el dolor, la rebelión y la impotencia. Se considera una necesidad que exista un interés por parte de la sociedad para comprender la violencia, su magnitud y todas sus implicaciones, caso contrario, solo restar

  20. [Child abuse in Tlaxcala: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada-Huidobro, A; Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Cassaball-Núñez, M; Vega-Ramos, R; Nava-Cruz, C B

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study about child abuse was carried out in the Hospitals of the Tlaxcala Secretariat of Health, Mexico. The information was obtained from hospitalized children's charts between January first and November 30, 1991. The charts included were those belonging to zero to 14 year old children with injuries, poisoning, and II-III degrees of malnutrition. Four child-abuse criteria were established: physical, sexual, non organic malnutrition and mixed (physical and non organic malnutrition). Two control groups were defined. Different patterns were observed between accidental and non accidental injuries, malnutrition and poisoning among the case and the control groups. The study provides useful information for the integral diagnosis of child abuse in hospitalized children.

  1. Psychiatric symptom typology in a sample of youth receiving substance abuse treatment services: associations with self-reported child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James

    2011-11-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.

  2. Proposed pathways to problematic drinking via post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative tendencies following child/adolescent sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanecky, Alicia K; McChargue, Dennis E; Tuliao, Antover P

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between early sexual abuse and college problem drinking was examined using an integration of the self-medication and vulnerability-stress models. Baseline survey data from parti-cipants (N = 213; 135 men and 78 college women) completing a mandated, brief alcohol intervention were utilized. Representative of the self-medication model, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated the early sexual abuse/problem drinking relationship. Two psychological vulnerability factors-emotion dysregulation and dissociative tendencies-were incorporated into self-medication findings via more advanced mediational models. Results highlighted that problem drinking increased as dissociative tendencies increased, and relations between the vulnerability factors and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were in an unexpected direction.

  3. Predicting Resilience in Sexually Abused Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…

  4. Child-abusers face mob justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebunya, C

    1996-06-01

    In Uganda, before the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, rape or sexual abuse of children was not considered a serious offense by the public, although the maximum criminal offense for rape was death. Because so many young girls are testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and due to the efforts of women's groups, public opinion is changing. According to the United Nations International Children's Fund (UNICEF), girls aged 9-15 years are five times more likely to be infected with HIV than boys of the same age. Adults, who fear their peers may be infected with HIV, turn to children; some AIDS patients believe sleeping with a virgin girl will cure their illness. Uganda is targeting a $15 million project to protect children 5-15 years of age. A study commissioned by the Uganda National Council for Women and Children in 1994 found that in Kabale district 31% of girls and 15% of boys had been abused, many by teachers. In Masaka district, the Council found that 30% of women had been coerced into sex; bosses abuse their maids, and customers abuse alcohol sellers. According to police, rape is the second most common crime in Uganda. Victims are reluctant to come forward to testify; rape victims can be shunned in their communities and may be considered ineligible for marriage. Cases which make it to court rarely get a fair hearing, according to the Council of Women, because the men handling the cases often favor the culprits. FIDA, an association of women lawyers, Action for Development (ACFODE), and the National Association of Women's Organisations in Uganda (NAWOU) are lobbying for tougher laws on rape and closed courts. They are pressuring newspapers to not disclose the names of victims. Although many expect the Ministry of Women to take the lead in this area, it has been unable to do so, because of a lack of funds; it received two-thirds of its budget for 1994-95, an indication, perhaps, of the Ugandan government's intentions. Two figures

  5. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

  6. Brain MR imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.; Ellerbroek, C.J.; Alexander, R.; Kao, S.C.S.; Yuh, W.T.C.; Smith, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    Intracranial injuries represent the most severe manifestation of child abuse. CT of the brain is the current standard for evaluation of these infants; however, MR imaging offers several potential advantages. MR imaging and CT were performed in ten infants who suffered intracranial trauma owing to child abuse. CT was slightly better at demonstrating subarachnoid hemorrhage and had definite advantages for defining fractures. MR imaging was superior in the demonstration of subacute extraaxial hemorrhage, deep brain injuries owing to shearing effects from shaking, and anoxic injuries. MR imaging has a definite complementary role in the evaluation of acute intracranial trauma in child abuse victims

  7. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian E

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child′s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  8. Signs of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Kids Cyber SafeCyber safety is important for kids. Parents should monitor their child’s internet and mobile device use.Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)Read Article >>Sex and SexualitySexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)Learn about sexually ...

  9. Children's knowledge of sexual abuse prevention in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig L; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel; Nosike, Digna

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) remains a global health problem that must be addressed. In a country with limited resources such as El Salvador, we sought an alternative way to disseminate CSA prevention information to elementary school children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention exhibit at a children's museum. We asked 189 children to answer a questionnaire about CSA prevention before entering a museum exhibit on the subject and then asked 59 different children to answer the questionnaire after visiting the exhibit. Children's knowledge scores on CSA prevention significantly improved after visiting the exhibit (P School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 19261 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our... responsibilities. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to preventing child abuse... our Nation. Although a strong family unit is the best deterrent to child abuse, effectively...

  11. Prevalencia y características de los abusos sexuales a niños/Prevalence and characteristics of child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    David Cantón-Cortés (España)

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue delimitar las tasas de prevalencia de los abusos sexuales infantiles, así como, especialmente, clarificar las características más frecuentes de los abusos, las víctimas y los agresores. Los resultados demuestran la gravedad del problema de los abusos sexuales a menores, así como las circunstancias en que se producen y el perfil de los agresores y de las víctimas. Estos resultados serán relevantes para la planificación de programas de detección y prevención...

  12. Mapping the Maze: An Art Therapy Intervention following Disclosure of Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifalo, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Disclosures of child sexual abuse create an immediate crisis within the child's family unit. Reactions of nonoffending caregivers in particular may prevent them from being emotionally available to respond immediately to the needs of the child victim. This article describes an art therapy intervention of visual mapping used in a support group of…

  13. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  14. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  15. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

  16. Identifying Potential Child Abuse through Oral Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian N. Printz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited reports of oropharyngeal trauma exist in the literature even though this type of injury is extremely common in pediatric populations. There are no widely agreed upon diagnostic and management tools for such injuries in abuse cases, emphasizing the importance of reporting rare cases of orofacial trauma. This case report of a soft palate laceration demonstrates an instance of initially unrecognized potential child abuse. We aim to clarify understanding of such injuries. Furthermore, the report highlights the need for recognition of oral signs of child abuse in order to promote early detection, reporting, and appropriate management.

  17. Negligent Hiring and Retaining of Sexually Abusive Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regotti, Terri L.

    1992-01-01

    Explores negligent hiring, supervision, and retention of teachers who sexually abuse students. Examines the issue of defamation and suggests school policy that will work toward eradication of sexual abuse of students by teachers. (33 references) (MLF)

  18. [Accomplices under influence, teachers-lovers, "Incestigators" or pimps… Who are females child abusers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleau, Virginie; Thirioux, Bérangère; Harika-Germaneau, Ghina; Jaafari, Nematollah

    2017-12-01

    According to victimization surveys, the percentage of females among child abusers is much higher than 2 or 5% as usually reported in the devoted literature. The under-estimated percentage of child sexual abuses committed by females would result from the dissimulation of sexual acts within nursing care, a gender bias in favor of women among child protection system professionals and low disclosures. Sexual abuses committed by females are often more harmful for children than sexual abuses committed by males. Although a few female child abusers suffers from psychiatric disorders, most of them are psychologically and emotionally dependent from a man or have psychopathic, manipulative and sometimes sadistic personality traits. Female child abusers are a heterogeneous population either acting under the influence of a man or initiating actively the offending for pedophile or financial motivations. Deconstructing the persistent myths about female child abusers is necessary to better identify these women, treat them and prevent relapse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual revictimization in a clinical sample of women reporting childhood sexual abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Marianne; Kristensen, Ellids

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) increases the risk for adult sexual assault (ASA), and psychological vulnerability as well as aspects of CSA and upbringing might influence the risk. AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate whether women who reported both CSA and ASA: 1......: The results showed an increased psychological vulnerability among women with ASA, but whether the results are cause or effect of sexual revictimization or can be generalized to other clinical samples are not clear. Interventions targeting the increased risk of ASA should be developed, implemented and tested...

  20. 'Unrecognized victims': Sexual abuse against male street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Conclusions- Sexual abuse against male children around Merkato area is rampant, but received less or no attention ..... abusers and started protecting myself from such abuse. Figure 1: .... Then I ran away fast with determination and without.

  1. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect in Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    of failure * fear of desertion by caregiver • inappropriate dress for the weather * discomfort when sitting * excessive masturbation , especially when...abusive parents are repeating the child-rearing practices that they had been subjected to as children. In some cases, abused children who 10 become parents...them abreast of the center’s procedures for reporting, the state’s reporting laws, and the specific practices of the state child welfare agency

  2. Sexual Anxiety and Eroticism Predict the Development of Sexual Problems in Youth With a History of Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Valerie A.; Feiring, Candice

    2008-01-01

    Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, i...

  3. Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…

  4. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…

  5. Predictors of Intention of Reporting Child Abuse among Emergency Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Mi; Kim, Ji-Soo

    The current study investigates predictors of intention of reporting child abuse among emergency nurses in Korea. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data were collected from 200 emergency nurses in eight general hospitals in Korea through a questionnaire that asked about their general characteristics, knowledge about child abuse, perceived behavioral control, experiences of child abuse cases and reporting, and attitude toward child abuse. Multiple regression analysis indicated that attitude toward child abuse was the most influential predictor of the intention of reporting child abuse among Korea's emergency nurses. Knowledge about child abuse, and perceived behavioral control were also significant influencing predictors of reporting intention. These variables explained 22.1% of the variances in the intention of reporting child abuse among emergency nurses. Reporting child abuse has not yet been established as a professional responsibility among Korea's emergency nurses. Increasing the level of awareness of the characteristics of child abuse and encouraging communication among nurses about the responsibility to report suspected child abuse will increase nurses' confidence to report. Training for reporting child abuse should be implemented in the near future to improve emergency nurses' understanding of child abuse. A support program is also needed to help emergency nurses build confidence in reporting child abuse as a professional responsibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-07-01

    Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes.

  7. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  8. Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect.

  9. The Relationship Between Sexual Abuse and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Adolescent Boys: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yuko; Wang, Naren; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Kishor, Nand

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been shown to lead to increased odds of sexual behaviors that lead to sexually transmitted infections and early pregnancy involvement. Research, meta-analyses, and interventions, however, have focused primarily on girls and young women who have experienced abuse, yet some adolescent boys are also sexually abused. We performed a meta-analysis of the existing studies to assess the magnitudes of the link between a history of sexual abuse and each of three risky sexual behaviors among adolescent boys in North America. Methods The three outcomes were a) unprotected sexual intercourse, b) multiple sexual partners, and c) pregnancy involvement. Weighted mean effect sizes were computed from 10 independent samples, from nine studies published between 1990 and 2011. Results Sexually abused boys were significantly more likely than non-abused boys to report all three risky sexual behaviors. Weighted mean odds ratios were 1.91 for unprotected intercourse, 2.91 for multiple sexual partners, and 4.81 for pregnancy involvement. Conclusions Our results indicate that childhood and adolescent sexual abuse can substantially Influence sexual behavior in adolescence among male survivors. To improve sexual health for all adolescents, even young men, we should strengthen sexual abuse prevention initiatives, raise awareness about male sexual abuse survivors’ existence and sexual health issues, improve sexual health promotion for abused young men, and screen all people, regardless of gender, for a history of sexual abuse. PMID:22727072

  10. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 389-394

  11. A critical review of child abuse and its management in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eben Badoe

    Full Text Available Introduction: Child abuse in Africa is a major threat to the achievement of the sustainable development goals on the continent and has become increasingly topical with a dramatic increase in recognition and an appreciation of the long term harmful effects on the affected population. The aim of this review was to outline current management of child abuse (especially sexual abuse and highlight current preventive practice that could be beneficial in a resource-limited environment. Methods: A search of Medline and reference lists of the literature on child abuse in African countries and relevant world literature was conducted in December 2016. The review was written narratively, rather than systematically as a general overview was desired, instead of a focused view of individual aspects of child abuse. Recommendations: Opportunities for early identification of child abuse, as well as research into preventative strategies should be prioritised. Establishing strong institutions and guidance to tackle abuse when it occurs is both beneficial to the survivors and the continent at large. Keywords: Child abuse, Sexual abuse, Africa, Domestic violence

  12. Sexual abuse evaluation in urological practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, Jacobus Johannes Hendrikus

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of sexual abuse in a urological outpatient clinic. Can differences been made in urological population, i.e. general urological clinic, a university urological clinic and a tertiary university pelvic floor clinic? Do urologists inquire

  13. Educators' Experience of Managing Sexually Abused Learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using availability-sampling methods, four educators from a local primary school were interviewed and the data systematically analysed in accordance with Morrisette's (1999) seven–step procedural model. The present study confirmed the finding of Skinner (1999) and Mzamo (2003) that managing cases of sexually abused ...

  14. Child Abuse and Autonomic Nervous System Hyporesponsivity among Psychiatrically Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Albert, David B.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sexually or physically abused children are at risk for neurobiological dysregulation as well as for internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Stress-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) down-regulation has been proposed as a sequela of abuse and was investigated in the present study. Methods: Child Protective Services…

  15. Prevalence of child abuse in Khorramabad junior high school students, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farideh Malekshahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a global problem and occurs in a variety of forms and is deeply rooted in cultural, economic and social practices. Child abuse is a behaviour which causes physical, psychological, emotional or sexual abuses, consequentlylead to damage of children,s health, peace of mind and education. Based on these considerations, the present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of child abuse among junior high school students of Khoramabad in 2012. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 907 junior high school students randomly selected .Data collection tool was a multiple questionnaire incloding child and parents’ demographic information, and a physical emotional abuse and neglect questionnaire. It,s validity and reliability was done by content validity and Test re test. Data were analysed using SPSS v. 19. Results: The findings of this study showed that average age of the cases was 13.36±1.04 and 5.4% of them were always under physical abuse and the most physical abuse was slap on the face , 7.3% emotional abuse and 5.5% neglect. Statistical test showed a significant relation between abuses and parents, educational level, job, addiction and divorce. Conclusion: Results showed that child abuse is common among families, therefore, monitoring of children, ratification of rules supporting children, planing and administration of preventive educational programs can be effective to reduce child abuse.

  16. Is Child Abuse Associated with Adolescent Obesity? A Population Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, Katherine; Norris, Tom; Crawley, Esther; Shield, Julian P H

    Child abuse is associated with obesity in adulthood through multiple mechanisms. However, little is known about the relationship between abuse and obesity during adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a birth cohort, whether there is an association between child abuse and overweight or obesity in adolescence. This study utilizes data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective cohort study based in South West England. Using data from the 4205 children with complete data at 13 and 16 years, we analyzed body mass index (BMI) and anonymous parental report of abuse. Abuse was categorized as emotional, physical, or sexual. A sub-sample of 3429 had BMI recorded at 18 years, enabling a longitudinal analysis of BMI trajectories. Using linear and logistic regression analysis, adjusting for sex and family adversity, no association was found between child abuse and BMI, BMI Z-scores, overweight, or obesity, at 13 or 16 years, with all confidence intervals straddling the null. There was weak evidence of a negative association between physical and emotional abuse and BMI trajectories between 13 and 18 years. No relationship was found between child abuse and adolescent obesity in this cohort. This challenges the assumption that adolescent obesity is linked to previous child abuse, as demonstrated for obesity in adult life. A further longitudinal study utilizing both parental and child reports with data record linkage, to improve reporting of abuse, and including neglect as an abuse category, would be desirable.

  17. The Mediator Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Impulsive Symptoms in Female Survivors of CSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David; Jauregui, Paula

    2016-04-24

    Child abuse is a traumatic experience that may have psychological consequences such as dysfunctional beliefs. The aim of this study was to analyze the impulsive behaviors (alcohol abuse, gambling, drug abuse, eating disorders, Internet abuse, videogame abuse, shopping and sex addiction) in sexual abuse survivors and to study the mediating role of early maladaptive schemas in the appearance of impulsive behaviors in adult female victims. The sample consisted of 182 adult women who had suffered childhood sexual abuse (CSA), mostly referred by associations for the treatment of childhood abuse and maltreatment. Sexual abuse was found to be positively related to the domains of Disconnection/Rejection and Impaired Autonomy. Moreover, these domains were significantly related to impulsivity and impulsive behaviors. Finally, the Disconnection/Rejection domain was found to mediate between CSA and eating disorders and alcohol abuse. These results may provide important guidance for clinical intervention. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo

    1997-01-01

    Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)

  19. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  20. A child abuse research network: Now what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Daniel M; Scribano, Philip V

    2017-08-01

    As foundational work in preparation for a sustainable, multi-center network devoted to child abuse medical research, we recently used a combination of survey and modified Delphi methodologies to determine research priorities for future multi-center studies. Avoiding missed diagnoses, and improving selected/indicated prevention were the topics rated most highly in terms of research priority. Several constructive commentaries in this issue identify the key challenges which must be overcome to ensure a successful network. Indeed, as with the clinical work of child abuse pediatrics, a scientific network will also require constant collaboration within and outside the community of child abuse pediatricians, the wider medical community, and even non-medical professions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.