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Sample records for sexist rhetoric related

  1. Rhetorical relations for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Lu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    -called discourse structure has been applied successfully to several natural language processing tasks. This work studies the use of rhetorical relations for Information Retrieval (IR): Is there a correlation between certain rhetorical relations and retrieval performance? Can knowledge about a document’s rhetorical...... relations be useful to IR? We present a language model modification that considers rhetorical relations when estimating the relevance of a document to a query. Empirical evaluation of different versions of our model on TREC settings shows that certain rhetorical relations can benefit retrieval effectiveness...

  2. Polyculturalism and Sexist Attitudes: Believing Cultures are Dynamic Relates to Lower Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Levy, Sheri R; Militano, Maria

    2014-12-01

    In cultural contexts in which sexist beliefs are considered traditional, shifts toward gender equality represent an example of cultural change. Polyculturalism is defined as the belief that cultures change constantly through different racial and ethnic groups' interactions, influences, and exchanges with each other and, therefore, are dynamic and socially constructed rather than static. Thus, polyculturalism may involve openness to cultural change and, thereby, would be expected to be associated with lower sexist attitudes. Four studies (both cross-sectional and longitudinal) with undergraduate and community samples in the Northeastern United States tested whether endorsement of polyculturalism is inversely associated with sexism, above and beyond potentially confounding belief systems. Across studies, for both women and men, endorsement of polyculturalism was associated with lower sexist attitudes for two classes of sexism measures: (a) attitudes toward the rights and roles of women and (b) ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Associations remained significant while controlling for potentially confounding variables (colorblindness, conservatism, egalitarianism, gender and ethnic identity, gender and race essentialism, multiculturalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation). Greater openness to criticizing one's culture mediated polyculturalism's association with attitudes toward the rights and roles of women but not with ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Studying polyculturalism may provide unique insights into sexism, and more work is needed to understand the mechanisms involved.

  3. The Association Between Men's Sexist Attitudes and Facial Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldmeadow, Julian A; Dixson, Barnaby J

    2016-05-01

    Facial hair, like many masculine secondary sexual traits, plays a significant role in perceptions of an array of sociosexual traits in men. While there is consensus that beards enhance perceptions of masculinity, age, social dominance, and aggressiveness, the perceived attractiveness of facial hair varies greatly across women. Given the ease with which facial hair can be groomed and removed entirely, why should some men retain beards and others choose to remove them? We hypothesized that men with relatively sexist attitudes would be more likely to allow their facial hair to grow than men with less sexist attitudes. Men from the USA (n = 223) and India (n = 309) completed an online survey measuring demographic variables, ambivalent sexism, and facial hair status. After controlling for demographic variables, men with facial hair were significantly higher in hostile sexism than clean-shaven men; hostile sexism was a significant predictor of facial hair status over and above demographic variables; and facial hair was more frequent among ambivalent and hostile sexists than among benevolent and non-sexists. It is suggested that sexist men choose to grow facial hair because it maximizes sexual dimorphism and augments perceived masculinity and dominance.

  4. Rhetoric in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas

    The bond between law and rhetoric is as old as the subjects themselves. Especially the ancient works on legal rhetoric afford, however, a too narrow depiction of the interaction between law and rhetoric as a purely instrumental discipline of communication in court. In this paper I challenge...... this narrow understanding of legal rhetoric and outline three distinct frames of understanding the relation between law and rhetoric...

  5. Sexist games=sexist gamers? A longitudinal study on the relationship between video game use and sexist attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Johannes; Kowert, Rachel; Festl, Ruth; Quandt, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    From the oversexualized characters in fighting games, such as Dead or Alive or Ninja Gaiden, to the overuse of the damsel in distress trope in popular titles, such as the Super Mario series, the under- and misrepresentation of females in video games has been well documented in several content analyses. Cultivation theory suggests that long-term exposure to media content can affect perceptions of social realities in a way that they become more similar to the representations in the media and, in turn, impact one's beliefs and attitudes. Previous studies on video games and cultivation have often been cross-sectional or experimental, and the limited longitudinal work in this area has only considered time intervals of up to 1 month. Additionally, previous work in this area has focused on the effects of violent content and relied on self-selected or convenience samples composed mostly of adolescents or college students. Enlisting a 3 year longitudinal design, the present study assessed the relationship between video game use and sexist attitudes, using data from a representative sample of German players aged 14 and older (N=824). Controlling for age and education, it was found that sexist attitudes--measured with a brief scale assessing beliefs about gender roles in society--were not related to the amount of daily video game use or preference for specific genres for both female and male players. Implications for research on sexism in video games and cultivation effects of video games in general are discussed.

  6. Definitional Hegemony as a Public Relations Strategy: The Rhetoric of the Nuclear Power Industry after Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisopoulos, George N.; Crable, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines (1) definitional hegemony as one of several rhetorical options available to issue managers; (2) the post-accident rhetorical context of the Three Mile Island nuclear crisis; and (3) the specific strategies utilized to deal with this crisis. Assesses the nuclear industry's public relations efforts. (MS)

  7. Research Article Abstracts in Two Related Disciplines: Rhetorical Variation between Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntara, Watinee; Usaha, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008) illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and…

  8. The Rhetoric of Campus Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cynthia Duquette

    2016-01-01

    The group activity described in this article was originally designed for an upper-division undergraduate course on Rhetoric and Architecture, but would also be well suited for courses in Persuasion, Rhetorical Criticism, or Visual Rhetoric. Any undergraduate course related to communication and design (including Advertising) could make excellent…

  9. Tobacco industry use of personal responsibility rhetoric in public relations and litigation: disguising freedom to blame as freedom of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lissy C; Cheyne, Andrew; Givelber, Daniel; Gottlieb, Mark A; Daynard, Richard A

    2015-02-01

    We examined the tobacco industry's rhetoric to frame personal responsibility arguments. The industry rarely uses the phrase "personal responsibility" explicitly, but rather "freedom of choice." When freedom of choice is used in the context of litigation, the industry means that those who choose to smoke are solely to blame for their injuries. When used in the industry's public relations messages, it grounds its meaning in the concept of liberty and the right to smoke. The courtroom "blame rhetoric" has influenced the industry's larger public relations message to shift responsibility away from the tobacco companies and onto their customers. Understanding the rhetoric and framing that the industry employs is essential to combating this tactic, and we apply this comprehension to other industries that act as disease vectors.

  10. Hostile sexist male patients and female doctors: a challenging encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöckner Cronauer, Christina; Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Patient characteristics and attitudes can affect how patients react to the physician's communication style, and this reaction can then influence consultation outcomes. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the attitude of a sexist male patient affects how he perceives a female physician's nonverbal communication and whether this then results in expecting less positive consultation outcomes. Participants were analog patients who viewed four videotaped male and four videotaped female physicians in a consultation with one of their patients. Physician videos were preselected to represent a range of high and low patient-centered physician nonverbal behavior. Participants filled in questionnaires to assess how patient-centered they perceived the female and male physicians' nonverbal communication to be, and participants indicated how positive they expected the consultation outcomes to be. Moreover, we assessed the participants' sexist attitudes with a questionnaire measuring hostile and benevolent sexism. Students (N = 60) from a French-speaking university in Switzerland were recruited on campus. The main outcome measures were the extent to which analog patients expect the consultation outcomes to be positive (high satisfaction, increased trust in the physician, intention to adhere to treatment recommendations, and perceived physician competence) and the extent to which analog patients perceive physicians as patient-centered (judged from the physicians' nonverbal cues). Male analog patients' hostile sexism was negatively related to perceiving the physicians as patient-centered, and male analog patients' hostile sexism was also negatively related to expected positive consultation outcomes. For male patients viewing female physicians, mediation analysis revealed that perceived physician patient-centeredness mediated the negative relationship between hostile sexism and expected positive consultation outcomes. Male hostile sexist patients perceive a female

  11. Rhetorical Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J; Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    2017-01-01

    This article argues for the relevance of a rhetorical approach to the study of citizenship. We show how this view aligns with current views of the multidimensionality of citizenship, explain our use of the term rhetoric, and illustrate the usefulness of a rhetorical approach in two examples....... In close textual readings both examples – one vernacular, one elite – are shown to discursively craft and enact different notions of citizenship via-a-vis the European refugee crisis. We conclude that a rhetorical perspective on public civic discourse is useful in virtue of its close attention...

  12. Perspectives on Rhetorical History: Aristotle's Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    The most important historical theory of persuasion is Aristotelian Rhetorical Theory. Aristotle's work, "The Rhetoric," is divided into three books, each of which discuss principles relevant to persuasion. Book One establishes the philosophical position of rhetoric to logic; establishes the purposes of rhetoric; discusses three types of…

  13. Homophobic and sexist yet uncontested: examining football fan postings on Internet message boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kian, Edward M; Clavio, Galen; Vincent, John; Shaw, Stephanie D

    2011-01-01

    Although a homophobic and sexist archetype of heterosexual masculinity has been thought to permeate competitive teamsport, matters have been rapidly changing. This is evident in research on openly gay athletes, attitudes among heterosexual athletes, and recent studies on decreasing homophobia among sport media content. In this research, however, we examine how some men still adhere to a homophobic and sexist masculine deposition when discussing sport on the Internet. A textual analysis was used to analyze hegemonic masculinity from a popular American football message board. Although posts related to hegemonic masculinity did not permeate the data, we found that this traditional form of masculinity was upheld through misogyny, homophobia, and the objectification of women. Thus, whereas mainstream sport media is increasingly policed for homophobia and sexism, this research shows that the anonymity of the Internet permits hegemonic masculinity to flourish in specific locations, without contestation.

  14. Roles of Perceived Sexist Events and Perceived Social Support in the Mental Health of Women Seeking Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Funderburk, Jamie R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors of the present study contribute to research on the role of sexist events in women's mental health by examining the sexism-distress relation (a) with a sample of women who are seeking mental health services and (b) in the context of the additional roles of perceived social support in positive self-appraisal (i.e., empowerment and…

  15. Beyond Sexist Beliefs: How Do People Decide to Use Gender-Inclusive Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny, Sabine; Moser, Franziska; Wood, Wendy

    2015-07-01

    When people use generic masculine language instead of more gender-inclusive forms, they communicate gender stereotypes and sometimes exclusion of women from certain social roles. Past research related gender-inclusive language use to sexist beliefs and attitudes. Given that this aspect of language use may be transparent to users, it is unclear whether people explicitly act on these beliefs when using gender-exclusive language forms or whether these are more implicit, habitual patterns. In two studies with German-speaking participants, we showed that spontaneous use of gender-inclusive personal nouns is guided by explicitly favorable intentions as well as habitual processes involving past use of such language. Further indicating the joint influence of deliberate and habitual processes, Study 2 revealed that language-use intentions are embedded in explicit sexist ideologies. As anticipated in our decision-making model, the effects of sexist beliefs on language emerged through deliberate mechanisms involving attitudes and intentions. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Rhetoric of Appeal and Rhetoric of Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoos, George E.

    1987-01-01

    Examines Henry Johnstone's (a former editor of "Philosophy and Rhetoric") ironic play on the different uses of the terms "rational,""argument," and "explanation," when he discusses two of his favorite philosophical topics, rhetoric and argument. (NKA)

  17. Rhetorical questions or rhetorical uses of questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špago Džemal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore whether some rhetorical questions contain certain linguistic elements or forms which would differentiate them from answer-eliciting and action-eliciting questions, and thereby hint at their rhetorical nature even outside the context. Namely, despite the fact that the same questions can be rhetorical in one context, and answer-eliciting in another, some of them are more likely to be associated with rhetorical or non-rhetorical use. The analysis is based on extensive data (over 1200 examples of rhetorical questions taken from 30 plays by two British and two American writers, and the results are expected to give an insight into whether we can talk about rhetorical questions or just a rhetorical use of questions.

  18. Semiotic, Rhetoric and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Mackey

    2012-05-01

    deliberate semiotic practice because this was when rhetoric was most clearly understood for what it is. By contrast a discussion concentrating on modern rhetoric: public relations; advertising; lobbying; and public affairs would open wider controversies requiring considerably more complex explanation.

  19. Non-Sexist Learning and Teaching with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfield, Sheila

    This brief teaching guide provides sex-fair activities for use in grades PS-3. Activities suggested cover five areas: (1) feelings (the need to be able to express feelings regardless of sex), (2) non-sexist behavior (encouraging children to behave according to their needs and desires rather than according to sex role expectations), (3) body…

  20. Isocrates and Plato on Rhetoric and Rhetorical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1991-01-01

    Compares the views of Isocrates and Plato on rhetoric and rhetorical education. Elucidates their criticisms of the sophists, their general assumptions about the nature and function of rhetoric, and their views on rhetorical education. (PRA)

  1. Rhetoric Then and Now: A Proposal for Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makus, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Explores whether continuity or discontinuity is more appropriate to describe the particular relation between Aristotle's theory or rhetoric and Stuart Hall's ideology theory. Argues for inclusion of ideology theory within the rhetorical canon. Suggests that, if Aristotle's rhetorical theory belongs in the canon, Hall's theory also belongs because…

  2. The Rhetoric of Doodle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockas, Leo

    1978-01-01

    Encourages composition teachers to adopt a rhetoric of the sentence based on appeals to the intellect, in place of the currently popular rhetoric of the paragraph based on appeals to the emotions. (DD)

  3. Rhetoric of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. Allen

    1991-01-01

    Places rhetoric of science in context with sociology, psychology, history, and philosophy of science. Generates a typology of concerns for rhetoric of science. Characterizes the central issues of the field. (RS)

  4. "Kairos" in Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinneavy, James L.; Eskin, Catherine R.

    1994-01-01

    Considers how Aristotle uses the Greek term "kairos" (right timing and due measure) in his "Rhetoric." Examines each of the 16 references to "kairos" in the "Rhetoric." Argues for a fuller understanding of Aristotelian "kairos" among contemporary theorists of rhetoric. (HB)

  5. The Rhetoric of Arrogance: The Public Relations Response of the Standard Oil Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Josh

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates one of the earliest American public relations debacles (ending in the dissolution of the Standard Oil Trust in 1911). Presents background on Standard Oil and offers an overview Ida Tarbell's influential "History of the Standard Oil company." Argues that Standard failed to respond to these accounts adequately, reinforcing…

  6. [Sexist attitudes and recognition of abuse in young couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díaz, Vanesa; Lana-Pérez, Alberto; Fernández-Feito, Ana; Bringas-Molleda, Carolina; Rodríguez-Franco, Luis; Rodríguez-Díaz, F Javier

    2017-09-18

    To explore the association between gender-role attitudes and the recognition of abuse among adolescents and young adults during dating relationships. Cross-correlation study. 57 schools of secondary education, vocational education and university in five provinces of Spain (Huelva, Seville, A Coruña, Pontevedra and Asturias). 4,337 students aged between 15 and 26 years (40.6% males and 59.4% female) who had a dating relationship that lasted more than a month. The Gender Role Attitudes Scale was used, which consists of 20 indicators of egalitarian or sexism attitudes at the family, social and occupational level. The students also reported whether they suffered from recognized abuse (RA), unperceived abuse (UPA), or not abused (NA). In the whole sample, 68.6% declared themselves NA, 26.4% were under a situation of UPA, and 5.0% were RA. The RA group was more frequent among the females (6.3%), ≥18 years (6.4%) and university students (6.9%). UPA was more common in males (30.2%). The most sexist attitudes were found in the occupational dimension and especially in men and adolescents (15-17 years). Less sexist attitudes were associated with a lower probability of experiencing UPA (odds ratio=.71; P-trend<.001). Sexism seems to hinder the recognition of abuse. Achieving gender equity in adolescence and youth is imperative. Public health efforts should focus on men, as they constitute the group with more sexist attitudes and with higher prevalence of UPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. A Rhetorical Analysis of Village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Pynt

    2011-01-01

    The award-winning TV spot Village is a creative example of NGO advertising using condensed visual stprytelling. The spot is analysed using rhetorical concepts and communication theory, and potential effects are discused in relation to contexts, strategy and communication ethics....

  8. 'Behind the doors of learning': The transmission of racist and sexist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the official History curriculum (NCS, 2002) advocates multi-perspectival epistemological approaches, this paper illustrates the subordination of epistemic goals to racist and sexist ideological goals through the transmission of racist and sexist discourses. A teacher's lessons were observed, audio-taped, transcribed ...

  9. Third generation constructivism and the rhetoric of inquiry in international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that third generation constructivism can make a central and overdue contribution to the practice of meta-theorising in IR. Meta-theory has so far restricted itself to exercises of observational re ection or de nitional sedimentation of content, or in Patrick Jackson’s words, to an elaboration of the ‘conduct of inquiry’. It has thereby failed, to its detriment, to re ect on and recognise the central importance of the deep and intricate relation between the content of meta-...

  10. Defining Rhetorical Argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2013-01-01

    This article argues for a definition of rhetorical argumentation based on the theme of the argumentation, i.e., the issue in dispute - rather than its aim (e.g., to ‘win’) or its means (e.g., emotional appeals). The principal thinkers in the rhetorical tradition, from Aristotle onwards, saw...... rhetoric as practical reasoning, i.e., reasoning on proposals for action or choice, not on propositions that may be either true or false. Citing several contemporary philosophers, the article argues that such a definition acquits rhetorical argumentation of any culpable unconcern with truth and explains...

  11. Zhuang Zi's Rhetorical Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia

    The memory of the student uprising at Tiananmen Square in 1989 invites one professor to examine more closely what she does: rhetoric and composition, especially rhetorical invention. To examine the kind of power exercised by official Chinese public discourse and whether language could help to avoid reoccurrences such as the loss of innocent…

  12. FORMATION OF ANTIQUE RHETORIC: CHRONOLOGY OF RHETORICAL METHODS AND STYLES (PLATO, ARISTOTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Pantelyeyeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: to analyze the basic points of philosophical concepts of rhetoric of Plato and Aristotle, to prove that from Plato the rhetoric in the true sense starts being approved, and Aristotle is an ancestor of real theory of speech of the new genre, the new form, the new purposes and tasks of the description of verbal art. Problem statement: development of the ancient principles of rhetorical style’s creating is reached by efforts of outstanding speakers, each of them were differed not only by the ideological sympathies or antipathies, but also by nature of works, the concepts put in their basis. Two Ancient Greek philosophers: Plato and Aristotle are considered as founders of ancient rhetorical science. Methodology. Author has used system method, methods of content and comparative analysis. Scientific novelty is displayed in the received results from the comparative analysis of two concepts of public speech of Plato and Aristotle from a position of philosophical justification of rhetoric’s rules with orientation on ancient "popular" declamation practices. Practical value of article consists in development of insufficiently studied object "Antique declamation discourse" where Plato and Aristotle's two central rhetorical concepts appear as the intermediate stage in development of a declamation discourse of Ancient Greece and, subsequently, and Ancient Rome. Conclusions. The conclusions can be given by the following facts: from Plato the rhetoric in the true sense is approved: true rhetorical art isn’t based only on argument technique, the true rhethor appears as the philosopher. Plato raises the problem of an ambiguity of two opposite rhetorics presented in "Gorgias" and "Phaedrus ". Rhetoric as scientific discipline, as the present theory of speech is first considered by Aristotle. The rhetoric is presented as the science "about speech and about thoughts", about the relation of thinking to the word.

  13. [On rhetorics and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohry, Avi; Gitay, Yehoshua

    2008-04-01

    The beginning of Rhetorics can be found in ancient Greece (Corax, Gorgias, Aristo). The science of the proper use of language in order to explain or convince, was very popular until the 17th century. Rhetorics had influenced all levels of intellectual European life, including medical teaching. and practice (Cabanis). Currently, rhetorics have become popular again in: the media, politics, academic and social life and medicine. Medical and allied health professions students, should learn how to speak correctly, how to implement ethical and behavioral essentials (Osler, Asher).

  14. Attributing Responsibility, Sexist Attitudes, Perceived Social Support, and Self-Esteem in Aggressors Convicted for Gender-Based Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Molina, Mónica; Moreno-Manso, Juan Manuel; Guerrero-Barona, Eloísa; Cruz-Márquez, Beatriz

    2017-06-01

    This work analyzes how the assumption of responsibility by aggressors convicted for gender-based violence is related to sexist attitudes, self-esteem and perceived functional social support. Similarly, the predictive capacity of these variables is studied with respect to the aggressors' minimization of the harm done and a lack of attributing responsibility to themselves. The participants in the research were males condemned to prison sentences for crimes related with gender-based violence in Spain. The instruments applied were the Attribution of Responsibility and Minimization of Harm Scale, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), the Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), and the Social Desirability Scale (SDS). The study concludes that sexist attitudes are related with a greater lack of attribution of responsibility, as well as with a greater tendency to minimize the harm done by the aggression. In addition, the aggressors with low self-esteem use self-defense as a strategy to justify the violence. Similarly, the presence of an adequate social support network for the aggressor increases the attribution of responsibility on the part of those convicted for gender-based violence.

  15. Rhetoric and analogies

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonès, Enriqueta; Gilboa, Itzhak; Postlewaite, Andrew; Schmeidler, David; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica

    2013-01-01

    The art of rhetoric may be defined as changing other people's minds (opinions, beliefs) without providing them new information. One tech- nique heavily used by rhetoric employs analogies. Using analogies, one may draw the listener's attention to similarities between cases and to re-organize existing information in a way that highlights certain reg- ularities. In this paper we offer two models of analogies, discuss their theoretical equivalence, and show that finding good analogies is a com- p...

  16. Male Peer Support to Hostile Sexist Attitudes Influences Rape Proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Mercedes; Megías, Jesús L; Moya, Miguel

    2018-07-01

    Sexual assault affects a large proportion of women in the world. Although most rapes are committed by one man, the act itself may be influenced by many (e.g., the peer group). Hostile sexism (HS) has repeatedly been associated with men's rape proclivity, but the influence exerted by the HS of the peer group on rape proclivity has not been investigated. In this study, we explored the impact of perceived male peer support to HS on participants' rape proclivity. A sample of Spanish undergraduate students from a university in the south of Spain ( N = 134) completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Immediately afterwards, they received feedback on the supposed sexist responses of a peer group (high vs. low in HS); we kept the benevolent sexism (BS) of the peer group at medium levels. Next, we assessed participants' rape proclivity using acquaintance rape scenarios. Results showed an interaction between participants' own levels of HS and information about the HS of the peer group. Men high in HS reported higher rape proclivity in the high-HS peer-group condition than in the low-HS peer-group condition. By contrast, information on the peer group did not affect self-reported rape proclivity of men low in HS. Results also corroborated the relationship between participants' levels of HS and rape proclivity, and expanded the literature by revealing an unexpected influence of participants' BS on rape proclivity.

  17. Mythic Evolution of "The New Frontier" in Mass Mediated Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Janice Hocker

    1986-01-01

    Combines "rhetorical narration" with K. Burke's dramatistic pentad to argue that definitional cultural myths are rhetorically meaningful in relation to social consciousness if both evolved teleologically. Delineates two phases in America's frontier myth associated with recent space fiction films' representation of a pentadic term's…

  18. The Speaker Respoken: Material Rhetoric as Feminist Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Vicki Tolar

    1999-01-01

    Presents a methodology based on the concept of "material rhetoric" that can help scholars avoid problems as they reclaim women's historical texts. Defines material rhetoric and positions it theoretically in relation to other methodologies, including bibliographical studies, reception theory, and established feminist methodologies. Illustrates…

  19. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  20. RHETORICAL STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENTATIVE ANSWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Desiderato ANTONIO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the rhetorical structure of the argumentative answer genre in a corpus formed by 15 compositions of the winter vestibular of Universidade Estadual de Maringá. The instrument of analysis used in the investigation was RST (Rhetorical Structure Theory. The initial statement was considered the central unit of the argumentative answer. Most of the writers held evidence relation between the central unit (nucleus and the expansion (satellite. Evidence relation is interpersonal and the aim of the writers is to convince their addressees (in this case the compositions evaluation committee that their point is correct. Within the initial statement, the relation with higher frequency was contrast. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet. In the higher level of the expansion text span, list is the most frequent relation because the applicants present various arguments with the same status. Contrast was the second relation with highest frequency in this same level. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet as it happened in the initial statement. Within the 15 compositions, 12 had a conclusion. This part was considered a satellite of the span formed by the initial statement and its expansion. The relation held was homonymous.

  1. Parental socialization styles, parents' educational level, and sexist attitudes in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Aliri, Jone

    2012-07-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the differences in the mothers' and fathers' socialization styles depending on their children's sex; whether there are differences in hostile, benevolent, and ambivalent sexism, and neosexism as a function of both parents' socialization styles; and whether the parents' educational level affects their level of sexism and their children's sexism. The sample included 1,455 adolescents and their parents (764 mothers and 648 fathers). The results showed no differences in the socialization style of the father with his children's sexism, but the mother used a more authoritarian style with her daughters. The parents' socialization style had little influence on their children's sexism, although it had a higher impact on the sons' sexism. The father's style had less influence than the mother's on their sons' sexism, and it had no influence on their daughters' sexism. The indulgent style of both parents had the highest relation with a low level of sexism. Moreover, a negative correlation was found between the parents' educational level and their level of sexism, as well as between the mother's educational level and her daughters' sexism. To conclude, the indulgent style and the mother's high educational level promote fewer sexist attitudes.

  2. Of Brains and Rhetorics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Revisits the hemisphericity theory of the 1970s and the revised and less familiar accounts that emerged in the 1980s. Argues that neither the older nor the newer psychobiological accounts of mind support the Neoclassical/Romantic claims. Contends that these accounts are more congenial to an Aristotelian theory of mind and rhetoric. (RS)

  3. Rhetorics of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Julia M.

    A critical rhetoric is needed for those interested in feminist discourse, a means of both persuasion and critique. It has been suggested that monologic, fundamentally one-sided argument is inappropriate for a feminist discourse that should instead teach methods of negotiation and mediation. Kenneth Burke proposed shattering views of ideological…

  4. The Temporality of Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Bryan C.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the future tense underlies both literary criticism and the discipline of rhetoric as conceived by Aristotle and that Aristotle gives the argumentative arts a middle ground which makes them distinct and yet weds them inextricably with those claiming greater or lesser degrees of generality. (RAE)

  5. Nusic and rhetoric in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Sima D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes characteristics, importance and impact of the celebrated book Rhetoric from 1933, written by a famous Serbian lawyer and comedy writer Branislav Nusic. The a. points to shortage of literature about rhetoric among the Serbs in Hungary, and afterwards in Serbia, pointing that the most important book about rhetoric in XIX century was written not before 1844, also by a comedy writer, lawyer and one of the first law professors Jovan Sterija Popovic (but it was saved as a manuscript, which was published after 150 years in 1995. He also points to the position of rhetoric and of the literature about rhetoric in the world in the last centuries. He delineates route from the time when rhetoric entered into a crisis due to its formal and infertile approach up to appearance of the 'new rhetoric' in a wider meaning (differing it from Perelman's 'new rhetoric' in the strict sense, namely until appearance of the modern 'public speaking' approach and impact of Dale Carnegie. The a. finds many examples where Nusic's Rhetoric reflects his commitment to classical rhetoric, but also recognizes important steps toward its modernization. His attempt to update classical rhetoric was performed cautiously and with a proper measure. Therefore the a. is of opinion that it was Nusic's most important advantage, virtue and contribution. The flow of time has shown that it was his specific contribution to the identity of this discipline among the Serbs, as many generations were educated on his book, until our times. It is due to excellent concept and harmonious compound of classical rhetoric and elements of rhetoric from the first half of XX century. The a. compares Nusic with a modern American scholar Edward Corbett who claimed that classical rhetoric is still useful and effective - perhaps more useful and effective than the various courses of study that replaced it. Finally the a. points to dangers of unrefined public speaking trends. He insists that, upon

  6. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  7. Seeing the Unseen: Attention to Daily Encounters with Sexism as Way to Reduce Sexist Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Julia C.; Swim, Janet K.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted in the United States and Germany to test whether women and men endorse sexist beliefs because they are unaware of the prevalence of different types of sexism in their personal lives. Study 1 (N = 120) and Study 2 (N = 83) used daily diaries as a method to encourage individuals "to see the unseen." Results…

  8. Examining the Structure of the Schedule of Sexist Events: Replication and Extension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matteson, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    ... at Work/School," and "Unfair Treatment in Distant and Close Relationships" subscales Recommendations are made for the future use of these proposed subscales in conjunction with total scale scores in research using the SSE to examine links between reported experiences of sexist events and women's health and well-being.

  9. Rhetoric. The Bobbs-Merrill Series in Composition and Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard L., Ed.

    Reflecting the opinions of both classical theorists and recent authors, 16 papers on rhetorical theory are collected in this publication. Selections in Part 1, concerned with the definition and objectives of rhetoric, are by Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Kenneth Burke, Donald C. Bryant, and Martin Steinmann, Jr. In Part 2, selections from the pedagogy…

  10. Purifying Rhetoric: Empedocles and the Myth of Rhetorical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencarella, Stephen Olbrys

    2010-01-01

    The polymath Empedocles has not been considered a prominent figure in the history of rhetorical studies nor contemporary appropriations of antiquity, despite the reported attribution of his invention of rhetoric by Aristotle. This neglect is understandable, as the surviving fragments of Empedocles' work provide no significant reference to rhetoric…

  11. Rhetorical Dimensions of Teaching Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Linda E. L.

    An overlooked framework that allows for clearer understanding of effective teaching is the field of rhetoric. Although the concept has changed over time, Aristotle defines rhetoric as observing the available means of persuasion. These means include ethos, a speaker's credibility; pathos, appeal to emotions; and logos, appeal to reason or…

  12. Rhetoric and Essentially Contested Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Eugene

    1978-01-01

    Draws a connection between Gallie's essentially contested concepts and Aristotle's account of rhetorical argument by presenting a definition of Essentially Contested Argument which is used as the connecting term between rhetoric and essentially contested concepts and by demonstrating the value of making this connection. (JF)

  13. Three dimensions in rhetorical conflict analysis: A topological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve Svensson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Conflict is omnipresent in human relations. So is rhetoric in conflict situations. Hence, there is a danger of taking conflict and its different forms of resolution for granted when we do rhetorical analysis. “Rhetoric” is often used as a general and non-scientific term in the social sciences; the same is the case for “conflict” in rhetorical scholarship. Hence, there is a need for concrete analytical tools. This article suggests a topological model to analyze three dimensions of rhetoric in conflict resolution, management or handling. Using “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop,” the famous last speech of Martin Luther King Jr., as an example, I use the model to give an analytic overview.

  14. Public Speaking Practices: Analysis of Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    Aristotle's "Rhetoric" is divided into three books which describe the stages of preparing a public address. Book One establishes the philosophical position of rhetoric to logic. It also establishes four purposes of rhetoric and discusses three types of proof. Aristotle defines rhetoric as a faculty for providing two modes of…

  15. The rhetoric of remix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Kuhn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The affordances of digital technologies increase the available semiotic resources through which one may speak. In this context, video remix becomes a rich avenue for communication and expression in ways that have heretofore been the province of big media. Yet recent attempts to categorize remix are limiting, mainly as a result of their reliance on the visual arts and cinema theory as the gauge by which remix is measured. A more valuable view of remix is as a digital argument that works across the registers of sound, text, and image to make claims and provides evidence to support those claims. After exploring the roots of contemporary notions of orality, literacy, narrative and rhetoric, I turn to examples of marginalized, disparate artifacts that are already in danger of neglect in the burgeoning history of remix. In examining these pieces in terms of remix theory to date, a more expansive view is warranted. An approach based on digital argument is capable of accounting for the rhetorical strategies of the formal elements of remixes while still attending to the specificity of the discourse communities from which they arise. This effort intervenes in current conversations and sparks enhancement of its concepts to shape the mediascape.

  16. Interacting with sexist men triggers social identity threat among female engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logel, Christine; Walton, Gregory M; Spencer, Steven J; Iserman, Emma C; von Hippel, William; Bell, Amy E

    2009-06-01

    Social identity threat is the notion that one of a person's many social identities may be at risk of being devalued in a particular context (C. M. Steele, S. J. Spencer, & J. Aronson, 2002). The authors suggest that in domains in which women are already negatively stereotyped, interacting with a sexist man can trigger social identity threat, undermining women's performance. In Study 1, male engineering students who scored highly on a subtle measure of sexism behaved in a dominant and sexually interested way toward an ostensible female classmate. In Studies 2 and 3, female engineering students who interacted with such sexist men, or with confederates trained to behave in the same way, performed worse on an engineering test than did women who interacted with nonsexist men. Study 4 replicated this finding and showed that women's underperformance did not extend to an English test, an area in which women are not negatively stereotyped. Study 5 showed that interacting with sexist men leads women to suppress concerns about gender stereotypes, an established mechanism of stereotype threat. Discussion addresses implications for social identity threat and for women's performance in school and at work.

  17. The compassionate sexist? How benevolent sexism promotes and undermines gender equality in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideg, Ivona; Ferris, D Lance

    2016-11-01

    Although sexist attitudes are generally thought to undermine support for employment equity (EE) policies supporting women, we argue that the effects of benevolent sexism are more complex. Across 4 studies, we extend the ambivalent sexism literature by examining both the positive and the negative effects benevolent sexism has for the support of gender-based EE policies. On the positive side, we show that individuals who endorse benevolent sexist attitudes on trait measures of sexism (Study 1) and individuals primed with benevolent sexist attitudes (Study 2) are more likely to support an EE policy, and that this effect is mediated by feelings of compassion. On the negative side, we find that this support extends only to EE policies that promote the hiring of women in feminine, and not in masculine, positions (Study 3 and 4). Thus, while benevolent sexism may appear to promote gender equality, it subtly undermines it by contributing to occupational gender segregation and leading to inaction in promoting women in positions in which they are underrepresented (i.e., masculine positions). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Populism, Prejudice and the Rhetoric of Privilege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Giordano

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to show, by means of a close look at the most recent samples of political discourse in Europe and America, how much and how frequently populists set up their narratives around a relatively small number of patterns, such as the worship of the people, a (more or less overt appeal to prejudice and the rhetoric of privilege. In so doing, it offers some useful insights into the nature of contemporary populism.

  19. The Rhetoric of Explanation: Explanatory Rhetoric from Aristotle to 1850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Follows the slow growth of a body of knowledge about how information could best be communicated without necessary references to overt persuasion from Aristotle's "Rhetoric" through the beginnings of a theory of written discourse in the American nineteenth century. (FL)

  20. How Can Men Convicted of Violence Against Women Feel Moral While Holding Sexist and Violent Attitudes? A Homeostatic Moral Model Based on Self-Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecina, María L

    2018-05-01

    A moral model is proposed to understand how men convicted of violence against the partner can feel moral in spite of their past violent behavior and their current violent and sexist attitudes. Because of its appeal to the role of self-deception and its relationship to psychological well-being, it was hypothesized that a rigid conception about what is right and wrong (moral absolutism) is associated with ambivalent outcomes that keep their psychological system in homeostasis. The relationships were specified a priori and tested using path analysis. Several fit indices supported the adequacy of the model and showed that moral absolutism was indirectly related to both psychological well-being and a good moral self-conceptualization through self-deception. At the same time, moral absolutism was related to sexist and violent attitudes and a poor moral self-conceptualization. Future interventions could include strategies to reduce the resistances to change based on the reduction of moral absolutism and self-deception.

  1. Rhetoric and the digital humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Ridolfo, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The digital humanities is a rapidly growing field that is transforming humanities research through digital tools and resources. Researchers can now quickly trace every one of Issac Newton's annotations, use social media to engage academic and public audiences in the interpretation of cultural texts, and visualize travel via ox cart in third-century Rome or camel caravan in ancient Egypt. Rhetorical scholars are leading the revolution by fully utilizing the digital toolbox, finding themselves at the nexus of digital innovation. Rhetoric and the Digital Humanities is a timely, multidisciplinary collection that is the first to bridge scholarship in rhetorical studies and the digital humanities. It offers much-needed guidance on how the theories and methodologies of rhetorical studies can enhance all work in digital humanities, and vice versa. Twenty-three essays over three sections delve into connections, research methodology, and future directions in this field. Jim Ridolfo and William Hart-Davidson have assemb...

  2. Rhetorical Constructions: Dialogue and Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, C. H.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews Paulo Freire's concept of "praxis." Discusses ontological (Aristotle), objectivist (Descartes, Locke), expressionist (Kant), and sociological or "dialogical" (Marx) statements, and explains their potential application to the teaching of rhetoric. (JK)

  3. Stock Issues in Aristotle's Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpine, Bill

    1977-01-01

    Defines "stock issue" by the manner in which they function in Aristotle's theory, reviews examples of modern theories of stock issues, examines previous investigations of the "Rhetoric," and analyzes Aristotle's approach to this aspect of argumentation. (MH)

  4. Judgment, Probability, and Aristotle's Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Discusses Aristotle's five means of making judgments: intelligence, "episteme" (scientific knowledge), "sophia" (theoretical wisdom), "techne" (art), and "phronesis" (practical wisdom). Sets Aristotle's theory of rhetorical argument within the context of his overall view of human judgment. Notes that…

  5. Benevolent sexist ideology attributed to an abusive partner decreases women's active coping responses to acts of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Mercedes; Moya, Miguel; Megías, Jesús L

    2014-05-01

    This article describes three studies in which we explored the influence of the sexist ideology attributed to the perpetrator on women's responses to hypothetical acts of sexual assault perpetrated by male intimate partners. In Study 1 (n = 83), college women read three sexual assault scenarios in the context of an intimate relationship. The male partner's sexist ideology (benevolent, hostile, or control) was manipulated within participants. Women showed less active responses when the partner had been described as a benevolent sexist man. This effect was replicated in Study 2 (n = 103), which showed a relationship between women's less active responses and the belief that benevolent sexist men are very attracted to and interested in their partners. Study 3 (n = 130) demonstrated experimentally that women's responses are less active when they are exposed to information that indicates that the perpetrator is both high in benevolent sexism and highly attracted to his victim than when the latter information is not provided. Results suggest that sexist ideology and particularly benevolent sexism-attributed to the perpetrator in this case-is highly important in women's reactions to acts of sexual violence perpetrated by male intimate partners.

  6. Francis Bacon On Understanding, Reason and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Karl R.

    1971-01-01

    Bacon's views of the faculties of understanding and reason are presented and explained in reference to Baconian rhetoric. Understanding, Rhetoric, Insinuative and Imaginative Reason are defined. (Author/MS)

  7. Wendy's, the Potato Head Kids, and Me: Dealing with Sexist Representations in Language and Culture or, Un-wrapping the Hamburger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, Michael

    If sexism, inherent in the fabric of the culture of human society, produced sexist language, then sexist language no doubt helps reinforce and teach sexism to the users of that language. Language feeds back the sexism, sexism feeds back through language. Treating symptoms of disease alone will not eliminate the disease, but may help, while…

  8. How gaming became sexist:a study of UK gaming magazines, 1981-1995

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Computer gaming was not born sexist but was codified as an exclusively male practice as it peeled itself away from the rest of the burgeoning computer culture in the mid- 1980s. This article traces the development of gaming’s gender bias through a discourse analysis of gaming magazines published in the United Kingdom between 1981 and 1995. In their early years (1981–1985), these publications present a milieu that was reflective on gender issues and concerned to include female participants. Ho...

  9. Doxa, Dissent, and Challenges of Rhetorical Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    2017-01-01

    participation and rhetorical invention realized by means of rhetorical troping, the essay also invokes Phillips’ work on spaces of dissension. The article concludes with a discussion of the difficulties in realizing ideals of deliberative democracy as conceived within the conceptual frame of rhetorical...

  10. Adam Smith and the Rhetoric of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael G.

    Historians of rhetoric have generally accepted the view that Adam Smith rejected the principles of classical rhetoric. However, while there can be no doubt that Smith greatly truncated the five classical arts of rhetoric (invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery) by reducing his concerns largely to style and arrangement, he did not…

  11. Machiavelli's "Mandragola": Comedic Commentary on Renaissance Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethoff, William E.

    This paper traces Machiavelli's debt to classical rhetoric while outlining the rhetorical tenor of his comedy, "Mandragola." The paper specifically analyzes Machiavelli's attention to the medieval transmission of Ciceronian rhetoric by Boethius, as interpreted from the setting, characterization, and dialogue of "Mandragola."…

  12. The Outmoded Psychology of Aristotle's Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Argues that rhetoric belongs to a class of theories that tend not to become outmoded, and presents examples of effective rhetoric from ancient Greece. Suggests that rhetorical theories should be judged on their own terms rather than on the standards of an allied discipline. (KEH)

  13. Dialectical Rapprochement in the New Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Contends that the New Rhetoric, a response to 20th-century totalitarianism, is a post-Holocaust dialectic of rapprochement, deserving development by scholars of rhetoric and argument. Demonstrates that the dialectic of New Rhetoric exploits Aristotle's notion of reasoning from common opinions and reconciles Hegelian dialectics with argumentation.…

  14. Teaching Public Speaking Using Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Candida

    Rather than relegating Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to history of rhetoric courses, where it is regarded with only an antiquarian interest, it can be used as a practical text for introductory public speaking courses. The advantages would be threefold: (1) its emphasis is essentially on rhetoric as a speaking art rather than an art of…

  15. A dangerous boomerang: Injunctive norms, hostile sexist attitudes, and male-to-female sexual aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Parrott, Dominic J; Swan, Suzanne C; Kuchynka, Sophie L; Schramm, Andrew T

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of injunctive norm exposure and hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on men's sexually aggressive responses during a behavioral analogue paradigm in which they interacted online with a bogus female partner. Heterosexual adult men (n = 201), recruited from an online sample, read fictional information regarding other men's approval of misogynistic, paternalistic, or egalitarian treatment of women, or non-gender-relevant control information. Through a media preference survey, men then learned that their female partner disliked sexual content in films, after which they had an opportunity to send her up to 120 sec' worth of either a sexually explicit or nonsexual film clip. Validating the online sexual aggression paradigm, men with a 1-year history of sexual assault exhibited more sexually aggressive responding during the film selection paradigm. Moreover, exposure to injunctive norm information produced a boomerang effect, such that men high in hostile sexist attitudes showed an increase in sexual aggression when confronted with paternalism and gender equality norms. Conversely, exposure to paternalism and gender equality norms suppressed the otherwise protective function of high benevolent sexism in reducing men's sexually aggressive tendencies. The implications of these results for social norms interventions are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sexist Attitudes Among Emerging Adult Women Readers of Fifty Shades Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Lauren E; Carotta, Christin L; Bonomi, Amy E; Snyder, Anastasia

    2017-02-01

    Stereotypical sexist representations of men and women in popular culture reinforce rigid views of masculinity (e.g., males as being strong, in control, masterful, and aggressive) and femininity (e.g., women as being fragile and weak, unassertive, peaceful, irrational, and driven by emotions). The present study examined associations between the fictional series Fifty Shades-one popular culture mechanism that includes pervasive traditional gender role representations-and underlying sexist beliefs among a sample of 715 women ages 18-24 years. Analyses revealed associations between Fifty Shades readership and sexism, as measured through the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Namely women who reported reading Fifty Shades had higher levels of ambivalent, benevolent, and hostile sexism. Further, those who interpreted Fifty Shades as "romantic" had higher levels of ambivalent and benevolent sexism. Our findings support prior empirical studies noting associations between interacting with aspects of popular culture, such as television and video games, and individual beliefs and behaviors.

  17. Rhetoric of science in the regulation of medicines in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllebæk, Mathias

    the rhetoric of regulatory science in the Danish healthcare system. In Denmark, as in the rest of the EU, policy makers and regulators are met with increasing demands for science-based decisions. As medicines are becoming more complex, regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly required...... of academic science and the practical policy aims in “real-world” regulation of drugs. The field aims to develop frameworks and values that support decision-makers in managing drug-related uncertainties and risks under strict legal, time and budgetary constraints (Todt et.al, 2010). This requires a thorough...... rhetorical understanding of the establishment of scientific ethos and argumentation practices (Prelli, 1989) in the regulatory circuit of industry, academia and authorities. The paper includes a rhetorical analysis of an example from the Danish healthcare sector. The paper is part of a PhD project about...

  18. The Relationship between Sexist Naming Practices and Athletic Opportunities at Colleges and Universities in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelak, Cynthia Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the phenomenon of sexist naming of women's athletic teams at four-year colleges and universities in the southern United States. Drawing on theoretical and methodological insights from feminist scholarship on gender and sports, gendered language, and intersecting systems of race and gender inequalities, the author analyzes…

  19. Blame it on patriarchy: more sexist attitudes are associated with stronger consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself and one's partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stewart, Natasha; Nader, Ingo W; Stieger, Stefan; Shannon, Samantha; Voracek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we examined associations between oppressive, sexist beliefs and consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself and also endorsement of cosmetic surgery for one's romantic partner. A total of 554 German-speaking volunteers from the community, mainly in Austria, completed measures of consideration of cosmetic surgery and three measures of sexist attitudes, while a subset of participants in romantic relationships completed a measure of endorsement of cosmetic surgery for their partners along with the measures of sexism. Preliminary analyses showed that women and single respondents were more likely to consider having cosmetic surgery than men and committed respondents, respectively. Further analyses showed that consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself was significantly associated with sexist attitudes, particularly hostile attitudes to women. In addition, among participants in a relationship, sexist attitudes were associated with endorsement of cosmetic surgery for one's partner. These results indicate that attitudes to cosmetic surgery for oneself and one's partner are shaped by gender-ideological belief systems in patriarchal societies. Possible implications for understanding the motivations for having cosmetic surgery, among both single respondents and couples, are discussed.

  20. The Rhetorical Illusions of News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    ; and so on and so forth. In sum: the conditioned reaction on questions about ‘what journalism is good for’ tends to lead back toward familiar rhetorics and rationales. Journalism’s normative claims rely heavily upon these established modernist discourses which serve to affirm its essential role within...

  1. Dimensions of a Substantive Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William Louis

    The author contends that man as a receiver of information is largely manipulated by the information sources. He proposes a system of substantive rhetoric, whereby we could perceive how past assumptive reasoning processes have allowed us to be manipulated and how these processes have originated outside rather than within ourselves. The author…

  2. Ramus Revisited: The Uses and Limits of Classical Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, Jane R.

    Everything taught as rhetoric today can be traced to Aristotle, but his rhetoric needs to be updated. The five elements of his rhetoric--invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery--were designed for public orators, but rhetoric has since come to mean the written rather than the spoken word. Peter Ramus redefined rhetoric in the sixteenth…

  3. Lessons from Katrina: Crisis Communication and Rhetorical Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Widely misunderstood and often maligned, rhetoric in the simplest sense is the effective use of language in speech or writing. Much as law and medicine have well considered standards of conduct, so too does the field of communication. Experts in this area look at--patterns--of discourse in relation to specific kinds of events--tornadoes,…

  4. Representing Bodies in Virtual Space: The Rhetoric of Avatar Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, Beth E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the rhetorical aspects of avatars, or virtual selves, within multiuser graphical virtual realities (GVRs). Examines the development of GVRs and questions how representations of selves relate to online communication, focusing particularly on how bodies in GVRs are gendered. (Author/LRW)

  5. The Rhetoric of the Paneled Page: Comics and Composition Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey-Morris, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    While comics have received widespread acceptance as a literary genre, instructors and scholars in Rhetoric and Composition have been slower to adopt comics, largely because of a lingering difficulty understanding how the characteristics of the form relate to our work in the classroom. Using as guides the "WPA Outcomes Statement for First-Year…

  6. A Defense of Ethical Relativism as Rhetorically Grounded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummett, Barry

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the philosophical stance of ethical relativism. Notes that relativism is sometimes accused of being caught between moral impotence and self-contradiction. Argues that grounding relative ethical values in rhetorical communication allows relativists to judge other cultures without inconsistency. (PD)

  7. Genetic rhetoric: Science, authority, and genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Elizabeth Parthenia

    This dissertation is an analysis of how the cultural authority of genetics works through language. An analysis of the rhetorical construction of knowledge and authority in cultural contexts, the study is intended to contribute to a larger discussion aimed at keeping the intersections of science and culture within the realm of rhetoric, that is within the realm of communication and dialogue. Of special concern is the influence of genetic rhetoric on the cultural momentum of biological determinism to explain away social organization, class inequalities, racial differences, gender differences, and stigmatized behaviors by rooting them in the construct of the biological individual. This study separates questions of legitimacy from questions of authority and focuses on the way that authority of genetics works through language. With authority defined as the function of resisting challenges to legitimacy and/or power, the study consists of three parts. First, a historical analysis of the terms science, genetics, and gene, shows how these words came to refer not only to areas and objects of study but also to sources of epistemological legitimacy outside culture and language. The relationships between these words and their referents are examined in socio-historical context to illustrate how the function of signaling authority was inscribed in the literal definition of these terms. Second, introductory chapters of contemporary Genetics textbooks are examined. In these texts the foundations of legitimacy associated with genetics and science are maintained as the authors articulate idealized views of science and genetics in relation to society. Finally, articles in the popular press reporting on and discussing recent research correlating genetics and homosexuality are examined. The popular press reports of "gay gene" research serve as textual examples of figurative representations of genetics concepts shaping discourse about social issues. I argue that the cultural authority

  8. A linguistic analysis of sexist statements by Janusz Korwin-Mikke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kuros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the author has performed a linguistic analysis of several chosen sexist remarks by Janusz Korwin-Mikke in order to prove how stereotypically women are regarded by the famous politician. This conservative man treats stereotypes as a proof of good order and fights to prevent women from trying to change what for thousands of years has given the general order and happiness for male sex and, in his opinion, for female sex. Significant for the author’s paper has been the importance of antifeminist’s texts within pragmatic and semantic aspect. The paper has concentrated on solely the linguistic aspect - in detail there have been discussed among other things: aphorisms and neologisms which are used by the controversial politician. In the paper the author has tried to prove that J. Korwin- Mikke’s language provokes and insults the opposite sex.

  9. Rhetorical Studies: A Reassessment of Adam Smith's Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, William M.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a dissenting interpretation of Adam Smith's Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres and a more conservative perspective on Smith's significance to the history of rhetorical theory. Views the lectures as an historical commentary on literature and rhetoric from the perspective of an eighteenth-century lecturer. (JD)

  10. Aristotle's Definition of Rhetoric in the "Rhetoric": The Metaphors and Their Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sara J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates Aristotle's metaphorical definitions of rhetoric in book 1 of his "Rhetoric," using his own theory of metaphor as a measure of his practice in these definitions. Indicates that Aristotle's practice in the situation does not match his theory, a circumstance that has consequences for one's reading of the "Rhetoric."…

  11. A Rhetorical Analysis of Pharmaceutical Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Rhetoric, commonly regarded as the art of persuasion, is a subject of study and fascination that can be traced back to the ancient Greeks. As many scholars have suggested, rhetoric is a quintessential part of communication itself. Studying rhetoric affords us an understanding of how texts and the messages within them come to encapsulate a society’s values and ideals. This is particularly true of advertisements and, specifically to my purpose, pharmaceutical ads. In this paper I draw on the th...

  12. Is it Culture or is it Rhetoric?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2006-01-01

    than culture. The paper also explores the rhetorical distance demonstrated by attitudes connecting Native Americans and mainstream Americans.  It argues that the Kumeyaay web presence engages the rhetorical dimension of attitude and actively works toward reducing the rhetorical distance.  The findings...... question the idea that behavior is governed by cultural values and offering the rhetorical dimension of attitude as an alternative frame for understanding minority web presences.  [1] Here, I will define a web presence as the core sites to which the majority of websites refer...

  13. Rhetorical skills as a component of midwifery care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domajnko, Barbara; Drglin, Zalka; Pahor, Majda

    2011-04-01

    this article argues that rhetorical skills are an important quality factor of midwifery care. In particular, it aims to identify and discuss the relevance of three classical means of persuasion: ethos, pathos and logos. secondary analysis, rhetorical analysis of semi-structured interviews. Slovenia. Interviews were carried out predominantly in 2006. Data refer to childbirths in 2005 and 2006. four women with recent experience of childbirth. analysis identified the presence of all three means of persuasion in the interaction between midwives and women. Focusing on midwives, the quality of their awareness and command of rhetorical skills remains questionable. In particular, women experienced lack of a rational account of the situation and decisions made by health-care professionals involved in maternity care. acknowledging professional ethics, awareness and good command of all three means of persuasion [but above all, argumentative persuasion (logos)] is an integral component of midwifery care. It can contribute to collaborative relations between midwives and women, and thus promote women-centred midwifery care. knowledge of the three classical rhetorical means of persuasion should be integrated into professional midwifery curricula. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acting like a Tough Guy: Violent-Sexist Video Games, Identification with Game Characters, Masculine Beliefs, & Empathy for Female Violence Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Riva, Paolo; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J.

    2016-01-01

    Empathy--putting oneself in another's shoes--has been described as the "social glue" that holds society together. This study investigates how exposure to sexist video games can decrease empathy for female violence victims. We hypothesized that playing violent-sexist video games would increase endorsement of masculine beliefs, especially among participants who highly identify with dominant and aggressive male game characters. We also hypothesized that the endorsement of masculine beliefs would...

  15. Acting like a Tough Guy: Violent-Sexist Video Games, Identification with Game Characters, Masculine Beliefs, & Empathy for Female Violence Victims.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Gabbiadini

    Full Text Available Empathy--putting oneself in another's shoes--has been described as the "social glue" that holds society together. This study investigates how exposure to sexist video games can decrease empathy for female violence victims. We hypothesized that playing violent-sexist video games would increase endorsement of masculine beliefs, especially among participants who highly identify with dominant and aggressive male game characters. We also hypothesized that the endorsement of masculine beliefs would reduce empathy toward female violence victims. Participants (N = 154 were randomly assigned to play a violent-sexist game, a violent-only game, or a non-violent game. After gameplay, measures of identification with the game character, traditional masculine beliefs, and empathy for female violence victims were assessed. We found that participants' gender and their identification with the violent male video game character moderated the effects of the exposure to sexist-violent video games on masculine beliefs. Our results supported the prediction that playing violent-sexist video games increases masculine beliefs, which occurred for male (but not female participants who were highly identified with the game character. Masculine beliefs, in turn, negatively predicted empathic feelings for female violence victims. Overall, our study shows who is most affected by the exposure to sexist-violent video games, and why the effects occur. (200 words.

  16. Acting like a Tough Guy: Violent-Sexist Video Games, Identification with Game Characters, Masculine Beliefs, & Empathy for Female Violence Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Riva, Paolo; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J.

    2016-01-01

    Empathy—putting oneself in another’s shoes—has been described as the “social glue” that holds society together. This study investigates how exposure to sexist video games can decrease empathy for female violence victims. We hypothesized that playing violent-sexist video games would increase endorsement of masculine beliefs, especially among participants who highly identify with dominant and aggressive male game characters. We also hypothesized that the endorsement of masculine beliefs would reduce empathy toward female violence victims. Participants (N = 154) were randomly assigned to play a violent-sexist game, a violent-only game, or a non-violent game. After gameplay, measures of identification with the game character, traditional masculine beliefs, and empathy for female violence victims were assessed. We found that participants’ gender and their identification with the violent male video game character moderated the effects of the exposure to sexist-violent video games on masculine beliefs. Our results supported the prediction that playing violent-sexist video games increases masculine beliefs, which occurred for male (but not female) participants who were highly identified with the game character. Masculine beliefs, in turn, negatively predicted empathic feelings for female violence victims. Overall, our study shows who is most affected by the exposure to sexist-violent video games, and why the effects occur. (200 words) PMID:27074057

  17. Acting like a Tough Guy: Violent-Sexist Video Games, Identification with Game Characters, Masculine Beliefs, & Empathy for Female Violence Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Riva, Paolo; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J

    2016-01-01

    Empathy--putting oneself in another's shoes--has been described as the "social glue" that holds society together. This study investigates how exposure to sexist video games can decrease empathy for female violence victims. We hypothesized that playing violent-sexist video games would increase endorsement of masculine beliefs, especially among participants who highly identify with dominant and aggressive male game characters. We also hypothesized that the endorsement of masculine beliefs would reduce empathy toward female violence victims. Participants (N = 154) were randomly assigned to play a violent-sexist game, a violent-only game, or a non-violent game. After gameplay, measures of identification with the game character, traditional masculine beliefs, and empathy for female violence victims were assessed. We found that participants' gender and their identification with the violent male video game character moderated the effects of the exposure to sexist-violent video games on masculine beliefs. Our results supported the prediction that playing violent-sexist video games increases masculine beliefs, which occurred for male (but not female) participants who were highly identified with the game character. Masculine beliefs, in turn, negatively predicted empathic feelings for female violence victims. Overall, our study shows who is most affected by the exposure to sexist-violent video games, and why the effects occur. (200 words).

  18. Using Contrastive Rhetoric in the ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Contrastive rhetoric studies the writing of second language learners to understand how it is affected by their first language and culture. The field of contrastive rhetoric is as multidimensional as second language writing is complex. It draws on the work of contrastive analysis, anthropology, linguistics, pedagogy, culture studies, translation…

  19. Jimmy Carter and the Rhetoric of Charisma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Louis, III

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes Jimmy Carter's success in the 1976 presidential primaries in terms of his rhetorical style based on Max Weber's concept of charisma and Ernest Bormann's theory of fantasy and rhetorical vision. The combination of Carter's charismatic message and the country's social fantasies produced his election. (JMF)

  20. Rhetorical Devices in Literature for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toothaker, Roy Eugene

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, extent, order, and character of 18 rhetorical devices occurring in 100 trade books for children in the primary grades. The most frequent rhetorical devices and the total number of uses recorded for each device were alliteration, 1,079; onomatopoeia, 500; antithesis, 335; simile, 261;…

  1. An Unfashionable Rhetoric in the Fifteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Marjorie Curry

    1989-01-01

    Reveals the continued importance of medieval rhetorical pedagogy throughout the high Middle Ages and early Renaissance by exploring the fifteenth-century popularity, uses of, and references to Geoffrey of Vinsauf's "Poetria nova" (a thirteenth-century verse treatise on the composition of poetry according to rhetorical principles). (SR)

  2. Exploring Business Request Genres: Students' Rhetorical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai; Miller, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article presents selective findings from an ongoing study that investigates rhetorical differences in business letter writing between Vietnamese students taking an English for Specific Purposes course in Vietnam and business professionals. Rhetorical analyses are based on two corpora, namely, scenario (N = 20) and authentic business letters…

  3. Rhetoric and "Phronesis": The Aristotelian Ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Lois S.

    A recurring puzzle in Aristotle's "Rhetoric" is the book's ethical stance; Aristotle gives practical advice on the use of persuasive discourse and intends it to be used in association with virtue, although the two seem to be separable. However, persuasion and virtue in Aristotle's theory of rhetoric have connections deriving from the…

  4. Trade liberalisation in Mexico: rhetoric and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennelope Pacheco-Lopez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Trade liberalisation in Mexico started in a significant way in 1985/86, and was consolidated by the NAFTA agreement 1994. Mexico was expected to benefit in terms of increased export growth, employment, real wages, and above all, a faster rate of economic growth. In practice, there has been a divorce between rhetoric and reality. The growth of GDP post-liberalisation has been only one-half that pre-liberalisation. This paper gives three explanations. Firstly, export growth has hardly changed. Secondly, there has been a sharp increase in the propensity to import (partly related to US direct foreign investment which has reduced the growth of GDP consistent with a sustainable balance of payments equilibrium on current account. Thirdly, liberalisation has been used as a substitute for a development strategy.

  5. Rhetoric by Avistotel: a Legal View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kh. Rekosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of any phenomenon, which is far from the researcher for thousands years, in the light of this or that department of knowledge, highlights one and obscures another, prefers one over another. It happened to the rhetoric which was snatched by philology and neglected by lawyers. Although nowadays it is natural that the same phenomena are studied by different Sciences, the ancient rhetoric is looked at by most researchers as the art of philology. But the approach by Aristotle, in his Rhetoric, was legal rather than linguistic. Among the Aristotle's 4 requirements concerning good style (correctness, clarity, relevance and eloquence eloquence is only % and the % are closer to the law. Rhetoric has incorporated all the features of linguistic mechanisms and gave them to the law. The law perceived moral and ethical ideas: the good justice, virtue, ritual, law and techniques of philology and persuasion, among which the main one is syllogism already used in the dialectic, the main logic principle of legal reasoning. Towards the past, rhetoric is parallel to dialectic, but dialectic is focused on one person or on the speaker, and rhetoric aims at the audience, the first one tries to convince himself and the second tries to convince the audience and in this role rhetoric is linked with the law. As far as the evolution of law is concerned, instead of legal technique there was rhetoric (especially in its methodological form, defined by Aristotle, which can be considered as a step towards creating the law as a design in ancient Greece. It is proved by a comparison of the ancient institution of judicial process and judicial speeches with modern legal technicalities, which shows that the legal machinery embraced the principles of "rhetorical" technique. The methodological nature of the rhetoric by Aristotle is usually overlooked by linguists and lawyers.

  6. Articulation: A Working Paper on Rhetoric and "Taxis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormer, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    This essay suggests a way to historicize different rhetorical practices--in effect, alternative ways to write genealogies of diverse rhetorics. A certain distinction between culture and nature is a fundamental organizing concept in humanistic rhetoric that has circumscribed scholars' ability to appreciate rhetoric that does not emanate from the…

  7. Rhetorical Effects of Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van M.

    2012-01-01

    In the analysis of political discourse, relatively sparse attention is paid to grammatical phenomena. As far as grammatical phenomena are analyzed, the focus is generally on linguistic means that can be used to hide agency, like nominalization and passivization, or on transitivity analysis. In this

  8. «Reader! Bruder!»: The Rhetoric of Narration and the Rhetoric of Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bertoni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the relation of power established by narrative texts, exploring the many-sided field of articulation among the related subjects: the narrator as a subject of power, the text as a rhetorical device, and the reader as an ultimate guarantor of meaning. After a brief introduction on the “rebirth of rhetoric” in the second half of the Twentieth century, drawing attention to its links with Reader-response criticism, the paper  focuses on the “power of words” and analyzes three case-studies: Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov (1955, Money by Martin Amis (1984 and The Kindly Ones by Jonathan Littell (2006. These novels depend for their rhetorical effect on the invention of a special narrating voice and on the relationship that it establishes with the reader – an odd mixture of antagonism and complicity, seduction and persuasion. The reader is thus invoked as a brother, but an ambiguous and untrustworthy one, as archetypally described in last verse of the opening poem from Baudelaire’s Les Fleurs du mal: «hypocrite lecteur – mon semblable, mon frère».

  9. Persuasive negotiation for autonomous agents: A rhetorical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ramchurn, S.D.; Jennings, N. R.; Sierra, C.

    2003-01-01

    Persuasive negotiation occurs when autonomous agents exchange proposals that are backed up by rhetorical arguments (such as threats, rewards, or appeals). The role of such rhetorical arguments is to persuade the negotiation opponent to accept proposals more readily. To this end, this paper presents a rhetorical model of persuasion that defines the main types of rhetorical particles that are used and that provides a decision making model to enable an agent to determine what type of rhetorical ...

  10. Historical Process and Semantic Study of Rhetorical Apostrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Radmard

    2013-05-01

    by Radviyni which is an imitation of Mahasenol Kalam by Marghinani. After that other rhetorical books were written to imitate it. Fortunately, contemporaries present apostrophe in their books such as The Art of eloquence by Mohammad Rastgoo and the works of Poor Namdariyan such as Journey in the Mist, Missing at the Beach and It the Shadow of the Sun.   Types of apostrophe are not directly presented in rhetorical books. In the following section, some definitions of apostrophe are presented. We study each of them in terms of new meanings and add a number of new types.   1. Change of register in language: change of context and structure of a literary language to a slang language and vice versa.   2. Colloquial change : successive changes to address several audiences .   3. Grammatical change : changing pronouns, verbs and so on   4. Semantic change : it can be recognized only through semantic analysis. It includes varieties such as mentioning individual words in a speech or prayer after the speech, semantic change in poetry and hidden meanings.   5. Apostrophe   5.1. Appealing technique which means that the poet asks for an invisible power.   5.2. Rhythmical change: a sudden change in rhythm during the speech such as the poem of Jamshid, the sun and some of Molana’s sonnets.   5.3. Narrative change : ( story in story mode : consecutive stories which are not related to each other such as Baha Valad ’s Maaref and Molana’s Masnavi. Each technique has rhetorical and literary functions which are its aesthetic criteria. Zemakhshari was the first person who presented the technical and aesthetic values of apostrophe. He considered apostrophe as the criterion for consciousness of the reader which brings him joy and happiness. Other rhetoricians followed Zemakhshari and mentioned this advantage for apostrophe . Here we mention other rhetorical functions for apostrophe which are associated with linguistic concepts:   1. Norm-breaking, defamiliarizing

  11. The Theory of Rhetorical Criticism: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Moeder, Michael D.

    An updated version of a bibliography which appeared in a 1982 edition of "Rhetoric Society Quarterly," this 132-item bibliography is divided into books and articles and book chapters. The selections date from 1933 through 1989. (NKA)

  12. CREATING NEW BRAND IDENTITIES: A STYLO- RHETORICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I.E Olaosun

    RHETORICAL STUDY OF CAR APPELLATIONS IN NIGERIA ... This paper analyses twenty-six appellations of some popular cars in Nigeria. ... technology. ..... Automatic effects of brand exposure on motivated behavior: how Apple makes you.

  13. The Greekless Reader and Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Thomas M.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the inadequacy of translations of Aristotle's "Rhetoric," particularly three passages from the commonly used translation by Lane Cooper. The misleading nature of these passages is cited as a major cause for the lack of understanding of Aristotle. (JMF)

  14. Speech and scientific paper. A rhetorical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Carmona Sandoval

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to show that the ancient rhetorical theory has explanatory capabilities to understand and learn to write modern texts and to analyze them in order to understand their communication skills, as in the scientific article, one of the most prestigious forms on scientific communication. It starts with the notion of discourse in the field of scientific communication and then address the rhetorical dimension of the paper.

  15. Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. © 2011 IEEE

  16. Applying Synectics Strategy in teaching Arabic Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Abu Jabeen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   This research aimed at knowing the ability of applying Synectics strategy in teaching rhetoric in Arabic language at secondary schools and universities   Synectics is identifying as a process of joining elements that has no obvious relationship using the rhetoric arts, especially “metaphor” in addition to logical arts especially “analogy,” within a methodology aims to reach creative solutions to problems. This definition is completely similar to Arabic rhetoric such as analogy and metaphor.   When metaphor in language contains aesthetic and rhetorical values in expression, it carries explanatory connotations in philosophy and science which is the using of a specific experience to shed the light on another one. It also helps us to comprehend, insight and clarifying and explaining the concepts. And what we mean with analogy in Arabic language is nearer to simile which is one of the rhetoric arts.   This research will review the Synectics strategy, how the western scientists applied it to develop creativity, and to what extent it is suitable to teach Arabic rhetoric subject in the university and secondary stage. In addition, It will provide application forms about applying Synectics strategy which will at the same time increase creativity of the students in all fields.

  17. Is our language sexist or not ? An a pproach of the issue from Latin American popular sayings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rosa Pacheco Carpio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Popular proverbs are an expression of ancestor‟s wisdom emerging from daily life. Under the vision of the didactics they empower different attitudes, values and behaviors settled in the consciousness and social representation of the “ideal being”. Together with it, an important number of Latino American proverbs that transmit stereotypes associated with the traditional role of the gender expressing a discriminatory vision against women appeared in the daily language. The objective of this article is to analyze and systematize the proverbs used in Latino America which express a sexist vision against women.

  18. Rhetorical criticism and the hermeneutics of the New Testament

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    E.M. Cornelius

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that rhetorical criticism is increasingly recognized as a method of interpretation of biblical literature. From the discussion in this article it becomes clear that there are different perspectives of rhetorical criticism just as there are different theories of rhetoric. It is argued that contemporary critics need to develop an interdisciplinary method of rhetorical criticism in order to answer questions about the potential effectiveness of a rhetorical act. It is concluded that the rhetorical critic needs a combination of "old" methods in order to answer new questions.

  19. Discourse, Dialectic and Intrapersonal Rhetoric: A Reinterpretation of Plato's Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikins, James W.

    The idea that rhetoric might operate in epistemologically significant ways was first presented by Plato. This paper argues that the heart of Plato's conception of epistemic discourse is a recognition of the centrality of intrapersonal rhetoric. Through a careful study of Platonic writing, particularly the "Phaedrus," three principal…

  20. The Rhetoric of Rationalism versus the Rhetoric of Emotionalism on the American Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Carl Wayne

    As the United States entered the nineteenth century, it did so under the influence of the Second Great Awakening. This was the second wave of revivalism to sweep the nation, and it originated in the frontier as the Great Western Revival. One pertinent characteristic of the revival was its rhetoric, a rhetoric that was a prime expression of a…

  1. Rhetoric and Truth: A Note on Aristotle, Rhetoric 1355a 21-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, William M. A.

    1978-01-01

    A passage from Aristotle is discussed and interpreted. Rhetoric represents truth and justice in any situation for the auditor through the use of language. The usefulness of rhetoric lies in its ability to assure an adequate and competent articulation of truth and justice. (JF)

  2. Moving past the rhetoric: Policy considerations that can make Sino-African relations to improve Africa's climate change resilience and the attainment of the sustainable development goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumisani Chirambo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a threat to the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs in sub-Saharan Africa as its impacts can lead to increased incidences of poverty and inequality which can subsequently lead to a 12% decline in the Human Development Index (HDI for sub-Saharan Africa. Emerging countries such as China have the potential to support Africa to achieve the SDGs by pioneering South–South Climate Finance (SSCF modalities. In order to increase knowledge on climate informed development and the role of China in global climate governance, the paper examined various research articles, case studies, policy briefs and project reports. Sino-African aid, investments and trade were noted as essential in mitigating Africa's climate change vulnerabilities which induce poverty traps and inequality. Some African countries were noted to have a comparative advantage in environmental standards over China but lacked the initiative to use this comparative advantage to enhance the Forum on China–Africa Cooperation (FOCAC and assist China to have a sustainable growth trajectory. The paper concludes that SSCF modalities can enhance climate risk management in Africa if they focus on improving financial inclusion and improving climate finance flows towards climate change adaptation activities in Africa. Additionally, to increase the effectiveness and impact of Chinese climate finance support to Africa, African policymakers should not allow political and market forces to decide how climate related support from China should be allocated as decisions based on political and market forces could potentially promote an inequitable distribution of funds and ignore the most vulnerable countries and regions.

  3. The Question of Rhetoric in Nietzsche and Arendt

    OpenAIRE

    Tsushima, Michiko

    2003-01-01

    When we think of the question of rhetoric, we cannot ignore a historical shift that took place in the conception of rhetoric. This shift is most evident in Nietzsche's thought. In the classical tradition, ...

  4. PAUL AND SOPHISTIC RHETORIC: A PERSPECTIVE ON HIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of modern rhetorical theories but analyses the letter in terms of the clas- ..... If a critical reader would have had the traditional anti-sophistic arsenal ..... pressions and that 'rhetoric' is mainly a matter of communicating these thoughts.

  5. Music and the Three Appeals of Classical Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCoat, Gerard G.

    1976-01-01

    Contends that rhetorical theory of the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries influenced the theory of the composition of music and offers examples of vocal music which was adapted to the rhetorical appeals of logos, ethos, and pathos. (MH)

  6. Rhetorical Analysis of the Persuasiveness of Advertising | Esuh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhetorical Analysis of the Persuasiveness of Advertising. ... Abstract. The critical analysis of marketing communications argues that the rhetorical elements of advertising – the verbal and visual signs and ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Friendship and War: True Political Art as the Alliance of Philosophy and Rhetoric in Plato’s Gorgias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Parra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the relation between philosophy and rhetoric from a new perspective by highlighting the dramatic nature of the dialogue and paying attention not only to what is said about philosophy and rhetoric but also to what is shown, especially through Gorgias’ intervention throughout the dialogue in order to save a community of dialogue that inquires into the good and the just. This re-conception of the relation between philosophy and rhetoric implies a re-conception of the practice of politics itself, rooted in a philosophy concerned with turning individual souls toward the good and a rhetoric that motivates individuals to be turned in the same direction by the words of others.

  8. Bhaktivedanta Swami’s rhetoric of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Måns Broo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article puts a part of Bhaktivedanta Swami’s rhetoric of violence into a larger context that has previously been neglected: that of early- to mid-twentieth century Bengali politics. The author also pinpoints some other factors behind them, such as his literal reading of the Gaudiya Vaishnava scriptures and his flair for drama. In this, the author has not tried to exonerate Bhaktivedanta Swami for his more radically politically incorrect opinions. There is no reason why in the 1970s even an Indian could believe, for example, that Hitler killed Jews because they financed his enemies. Rather, the author tries to begin broadening the picture of Bhaktivedanta Swami by looking at him as a product both of his spiritual predecessors and of his more worldly background. Seeing Bhaktivedanta Swami not only as the great ‘transcendental’ founder-acharya of ISKCON, but also as an elderly gentle­ man, at times erring on relative, human issues, is a viewpoint shared by many ISKCON intellectuals today. For some apologists within the movement, however, taking this path is seen as exceedingly risky, and they fight it vehemently, claiming that the entire future of the movement hinges on being faithful to all the words of its founder.

  9. Mexican Rhetoric: Exigency and Background--A Sketch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythin, Evan

    Presuming that rhetorical discourse comes into existence as a response to a situation in the same sense that an answer comes into existence in response to a question, or a solution in response to a problem, then Mexico is fertile ground for rhetoric and the study of rhetoric. Mexico is a country under fire. Economic and political problems threaten…

  10. "Pathos" Reconsidered from the Perspective of Classical Chinese Rhetorical Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Mary M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes that cross-cultural rhetorical studies may provide insights into the sources of difficulties with "pathos." Presents an extensive case study that appeals to the emotions in classical Chinese rhetorics. Notes that the presuppositions of these rhetorics highlight the contingent nature of certain fundamental assumptions of many…

  11. The Evolution of the PLO: A Rhetoric of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Bernard L.; Howell, Sharon

    1989-01-01

    Traces the evolution of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and assesses the effectiveness of the rhetoric of terrorism as a strategy. Applies concepts derived from protest rhetoric of the 1960s to the Palestine movement, noting that current "terrorist" rhetoric is similar to the New Left's confrontational strategies. (MM)

  12. Writing Pedagogies of Empathy: As Rhetoric and Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is attracting increased attention within and beyond the academy. In this essay I review relevant theories of empathy and their place within rhetoric and composition. I propose two approaches to teaching empathy: as rhetoric and as disposition. A rhetorical approach incorporates a necessary critical awareness of empathy's enticements and…

  13. Teaching Ethos from the Dumpster: "Dive" and Food Waste Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubisar, Abby M.; Hunt, Kathleen P.

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Rhetorical Criticism, Composition, Environmental Communication. Objectives: This unit activity, for which students view a documentary to identify and evaluate persuasive ethos and then create their own rhetorical messages for reducing food waste, serves as a platform for teaching both the critique and practice of rhetoric, as well as…

  14. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  15. Places in Time: The Inns and Outhouses of Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Rhetoric is often about "good guys" and "bad guys." Even more basically, it concerns who is in and who is out, what is included and what is excluded, who is placed inside and who outside a cultural community, a political movement, a professional organization. These ins and outs concern both the commonplaces of rhetoric and the rhetoric of …

  16. Plastic Language for Plastic Science: The Rhetoric of Comrade Lysenko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Paul M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the rhetoric of Lysenkoism in Soviet Russia from the 1920s to about 1960 as an overt attempt to redefine science. Discusses the rhetorical dimensions of Lysenkoist discourse from the perspective of the rhetorical theories of Aristotle, Burke, Weaver, Bakhtin, Habermas, and Foucault. Reviews two historical commentaries on Lysenkoism. (SG)

  17. The Boundaries of Language and Rhetoric: Some Historical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Robert O.

    1968-01-01

    Important ideas and events in the history of rhetoric are examined in order to illumine the present situation, especially the problem of defining the concept of rhetoric. From Plato's hostility to rhetoric and Aristotle's epistomological rehabilitation of it to the later ethical emphasis of Cicero and the Medieval Christian rhetoriticians, the…

  18. The Failure of Memory: Reflections on Rhetoric and Public Remembrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kendall R.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of public memory studies in the field of rhetoric suggests the need to reflect upon the ways in which the practices of rhetoric and the notion of memory intersect. In this essay, I trace the intersection between memory and rhetoric back to the works of Plato and Aristotle. These early works suggest that one reason for attending to…

  19. The oral case presentation: toward a performance-based rhetorical model for teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yuit Chan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The oral case presentation is an important communicative activity in the teaching and assessment of students. Despite its importance, not much attention has been paid to providing support for teachers to teach this difficult task to medical students who are novices to this form of communication. As a formalized piece of talk that takes a regularized form and used for a specific communicative goal, the case presentation is regarded as a rhetorical activity and awareness of its rhetorical and linguistic characteristics should be given due consideration in teaching. This paper reviews practitioners’ and the limited research literature that relates to expectations of medical educators about what makes a good case presentation, and explains the rhetorical aspect of the activity. It is found there is currently a lack of a comprehensive model of the case presentation that projects the rhetorical and linguistic skills needed to produce and deliver a good presentation. Attempts to describe the structure of the case presentation have used predominantly opinion-based methodologies. In this paper, I argue for a performance-based model that would not only allow a description of the rhetorical structure of the oral case presentation, but also enable a systematic examination of the tacit genre knowledge that differentiates the expert from the novice. Such a model will be a useful resource for medical educators to provide more structured feedback and teaching support to medical students in learning this important genre.

  20. The oral case presentation: toward a performance-based rhetorical model for teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mei Yuit

    2015-01-01

    The oral case presentation is an important communicative activity in the teaching and assessment of students. Despite its importance, not much attention has been paid to providing support for teachers to teach this difficult task to medical students who are novices to this form of communication. As a formalized piece of talk that takes a regularized form and used for a specific communicative goal, the case presentation is regarded as a rhetorical activity and awareness of its rhetorical and linguistic characteristics should be given due consideration in teaching. This paper reviews practitioners’ and the limited research literature that relates to expectations of medical educators about what makes a good case presentation, and explains the rhetorical aspect of the activity. It is found there is currently a lack of a comprehensive model of the case presentation that projects the rhetorical and linguistic skills needed to produce and deliver a good presentation. Attempts to describe the structure of the case presentation have used predominantly opinion-based methodologies. In this paper, I argue for a performance-based model that would not only allow a description of the rhetorical structure of the oral case presentation, but also enable a systematic examination of the tacit genre knowledge that differentiates the expert from the novice. Such a model will be a useful resource for medical educators to provide more structured feedback and teaching support to medical students in learning this important genre. PMID:26194482

  1. Studying Rhetorical Audiences – a Call for Qualitative Reception Studies in Argumentation and Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Elmelund Kjeldsen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In rhetoric and argumentation research studies of empirical audiences are rare. Most studies are speaker- or text focussed. However, new media and new forms of communication make it harder to distinguish between speaker and audience. The active involvement of users and audiences is more important than ever before. Therefore, this paper argues that rhetorical research should reconsider the understanding, conceptualization and examination of the rhetorical audience. From mostly understanding audiences as theoretical constructions that are examined textually and speculatively, we should give more attention to empirical explorations of actual audiences and users.

  2. The Cultural and Rhetorical Parameters of CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    and the situated choices of corporate website designers with respect to communicating CSR initiatives in those systems offers a nuanced approach to understanding the cultural and rhetorical parameters of communicating CSR knowledge online.   Brockreide, Wayne. "Dimensions of the Concept of Rhetoric." in Bernard L......How are the parameters of CSR constructed?-corporate communication policy or the interaction between civil society, governments, and corporations? Recognition of the presentation of CSR on the Web as socially constructed argumentation (Coupland 2005) opens the door for a rhetorical approach to both...... the relationship between power and language to demonstrate dialogue through "competing perspectives" in responses to the EU Green paper and anti-corporate campaign groups protesting business by using the Web for "direct action campaigning." They call for an analysis that is reflective of the dynamic co...

  3. Secular Islam and the Rhetoric of Humanity

    OpenAIRE

    Kharputly, Nadeen Sh B

    2017-01-01

    “Secular Islam and the Rhetoric of Humanity” examines competing notions of humanity in representations of Islam in the United States from the Civil Rights period to the present. In post-9/11 representations, Islam is rhetorically “humanized” by the dominant culture in attempts to determine Islam’s role in the United States. This humanizing framework not only presumes an inherent lack of humanity in Islam; it establishes the ideal of the human as white, rational, and secular. To critique this ...

  4. Apocalypse now, Vietnam and the rhetoric of influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Childs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Readings of Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now (1979 often confront the difficulty of having to privilege either its aesthetic context (considering, for instance, its relation to Conrad's Heart of Darkness [1899] or to the history of cinema or its value as a representation of the Vietnam War. In this paper, I will argue that viewing the film as a meditation on the nature and rhetoric of influence allows us to bridge this gap and provides us with valuable insights into both the film's aesthetic precursors and the circumstances of its historical setting.

  5. Rhetorical Aspects of Discourses in Present-day Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    being important for communication in modern society. Like speakers in public life, e.g. politicians, who had always acknowledged the role of rhetoric, all sorts of communicators, mediators and scholars became interested in rhetoric as a practical tool for building up texts meant for the public sphere......Since antiquity, the notion of rhetoric has been associated with Aristotle, Cicero and Quintilian. Their theories are central to the understanding that, on the one hand, rhetoric can be used for persuading and convincing an audience, and on the other, for becoming an eloquent speaker. Based...... as well as an analytical tool for the critique of public argumentation. This led to the development of new theories from New Rhetoric over Rhetorical Criticism to theories of genre and discourse, reflecting the view that rhetoric must be understood and used against the social and cultural framework...

  6. Are Associations Between "Sexist" Video Games and Decreased Empathy Toward Women Robust? A Reanalysis of Gabbiadini et al. 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent

    2017-12-01

    Gabbiadini, A., Riva, P., Andrighetto, L., Volpato, C., & Bushman, B, (PloS ONE, 2016) provided evidence for a connection between "sexist" video games and decreased empathy toward girls using an experimental paradigm. These claims are based on a moderated mediation model. They reported a three-way interaction between game condition, gender, and avatar identification when predicting masculine ideology in their original study. Masculine ideology was associated, in turn, with decreased empathy. However, there were no main experimental effects for video game condition on empathy. The current analysis considers the strength of the evidence for claims made in the original study on a sample of 153 adolescents (M age  = 16.812, SD = 1.241; 44.2% male). We confirmed that there was little evidence for an overall effect of game condition on empathy toward girls or women. We tested the robustness of the original reported moderated mediation models against other, theoretically derived alternatives, and found that effects differed based on how variables were measured (using alternatives in their public data file) and the statistical model used. The experimental groups differed significantly and substantially in terms of age suggesting that there might have been issues with the procedures used to randomly assign participants to conditions. These results highlight the need for preregistration of experimental protocols in video game research and raise some concerns about how moderated mediation models are used to support causal inferences. These results call into question whether use of "sexist" video games is a causal factor in the development of reduced empathy toward girls and women among adolescents.

  7. Rhetorical Legitimacy, and the Presidential Debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucaites, John Louis

    1989-01-01

    Explores the negative popular reaction to the 1988 Presidential Debates. Examines how these events function as ritualistic enactments of the , thus providing a rhetorical legitimacy for the electoral process in a system dedicated to . Suggests how the 1988 debates failed to satisfy that function. (MM)

  8. "The City": The Rhetoric of Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, Martin J.; Benson, Thomas W.

    1981-01-01

    Case study of Ralph Steiner and Willard Van Dyke's classic documentary, "The City," a work of cinematic art and a record of the problems confronting urban planners. Discusses how the film builds a rhythmic pattern through dramatic structure, image content and composition, editing, music, and narration to enhance its rhetorical appeal. (JMF)

  9. Assigning Blame: The Rhetoric of Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacik, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Despite a plethora of opinions on how to improve US education, a remarkable consensus has emerged that someone or something is to blame for the failures of the public school system, argues rhetoric scholar Mark Hlavacik in this new and insightful book examining the role of language and persuasion in the rise of the accountability movement.…

  10. A Preliminary Rhetoric of Technical Copywriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Leigh

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the rhetorical elements of technical copywriting, including its shared communicative aims with technical writing; authorship considerations such as ethics, education, and professionalism; and the concerns of promotional strategy, audience analysis, choice of media and materials, writing strategy, and style. (SR)

  11. "Hiroshima, Mon Amour": From Iconography to Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, Martin J.

    1982-01-01

    This iconographic study of Resnais' classic film reconstructs the narrative structure of the film; identifies the various icons, images, sounds, and acts that constitute "marks" in time; and examines these marks to show how they function rhetorically to help interpret the central message or intrinsic meaning of the film. (PD)

  12. Bibliography of Several Approaches to Rhetorical Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Moeder, Michael D.

    An illustrative rather than an exhaustive bibliography on approaches to rhetorical criticism, this update of an earlier publication lists more than 150 selections. The bibliography is divided into sections on: (1) discussions of the Burkean approach; (2) applications of the Burkean approach; (3) discussions of the fantasy theme approach; (4)…

  13. Intellectual Capital Statements -When Rhetoric meets Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Lotte

    of logos, ethos and pathos and the technical rational approach implying that only one problem, one way and one mean exist. The rhetorical approach sees the world as co-construction and the media is here in the form of narratives. Traditional accounting follows the technical rational approach and the media...

  14. Cooperative rhetoric question in contemporary Persian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Dashti ahangar

    2016-09-01

    Finally some samples of cooperative rhetoric question in current literature will be presented. It should be noted that the goal of these samples is to be more familiar with the subject matter and not the analysis of current literal texts; because it needs more time and study.

  15. "The Deer Hunter": Rhetoric of the Warrior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Janice Hocker; Frentz, Thomas S.

    A psychological/ritual model of criticism is used to examine the movie "The Deer Hunter" as a rhetorical event in which males undergo psychological change through their war and postwar experiences. The critical model depends on understanding a Jungian interpretation of the human psyche, the form and function of initiation rituals, and…

  16. Gorgias' Rhetoric: Epistemology, Doxa, and Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory T.

    Gorgias' rhetoric can be explained in three parts: his sensory-based but non-empirical epistemology; his definitions of language as inherently deceptive and of "doxa" as the only "knowledge" communicable; and his antithetical style, which reproduces the necessary negotiation of understanding in the world. Gorgias' epistemology…

  17. A Linguistic Analysis of Rhetorical Strategies in Selected Narratives of Alice Walker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matunda, Robert Stephen Mokaya

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to analyze rhetorical strategies of Alice Walker in four narratives, namely, "The Color Purple, In Search of Our Mother's Gardens, Possessing the Secret of Joy, and Now Is the Time To Open Your Heart". As such, this study helps to expand the body of investigation relating linguistics to literature and medium…

  18. Rhetorical Dissent as an Adaptive Response to Classroom Problems: A Test of Protection Motivation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2016-01-01

    Protection motivation theory (PMT) explains people's adaptive behavior in response to personal threats. In this study, PMT was used to predict rhetorical dissent episodes related to 210 student reports of perceived classroom problems. In line with theoretical predictions, a moderated moderation analysis revealed that students were likely to voice…

  19. Doing Televised Rhetorical Analysis as a Means of Promoting College Awareness in a Target Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Jim

    This paper describes aspects of doing televised rhetorical analysis as they relate to the promotion of college awareness in a particular target market. Considerations in the paper include variables that most professors encounter in their efforts to address the "service" expectations of their employment and how these variables can be…

  20. The Rhetoric of the Real: Stereotypes of Rural Youth in American Reality Television and Stock Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Carissa

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of the visual rhetoric of identity presented by reality shows, especially "Here Comes Honey Boo Boo," this paper explores ways in which American reality television and related media images construct, deploy, and reiterate visual stereotypes about whites from rural regions of the United States. Its focus is the…

  1. Endorsement of sexist ideology in Taiwan and the United States: social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, and deferential family norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Despite close relationships between men and women in daily lives, gender inequality is ubiquitous and often supported by sexist ideology. The understanding of potential bases of sexist ideology is thus important. According to Duckitt's dual-process model (2001), different worldviews may explain different types of sexist ideology. Individuals who hold a "competitive world" worldview tend to endorse group-based dominance. This lends itself to the endorsement of hostile sexism, because hostile sexism is an obvious form of male dominance. Conversely, individuals who hold a "dangerous world" worldview tend to adhere to social cohesion, collective security, and social traditions. This lends itself to the endorsement of benevolent sexism, because benevolent sexism values women who conform to gender norms. As predicted by Duckitt's model, research has shown that social dominance orientation, a general orientation towards the endorsement of group-based dominance, is closely associated with hostile sexism. Furthermore, right-wing authoritarianism, which measures adherence to social traditions, is closely associated with benevolent sexism. Due to the interdependent nature of gender relationships, the current research proposed that a relationship-based belief in hierarchy, deferential family norms, and norms depicting proper manners among family members should predict the endorsement of hostile and benevolent sexism, after controlling for social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism. As predicted, according to student samples collected in Taiwan and the US, the endorsement of deferential family norms predicted the endorsement of hostile sexism and of benevolent sexism, respectively. In addition, among men and women, social dominance orientation predicted hostile sexism more strongly (as opposed to benevolent sexism), whereas right-wing authoritarianism predicted benevolent sexism more strongly (as opposed to hostile sexism). Implications regarding relationship

  2. Narrative Transparency: Adopting a Rhetorical Stance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we look at how alternative marketing organisations communicate transparency in a climate of generalised risk and scepticism. We contrast the traditional numeric approach to transparency, which involves auditing and third-party certifications; with an alternative approach that we call...... narrative transparency. Central to narrative transparency is an emphasis on stake-holder dialogue and an invitation to stake-holders to play the role of auditor. This article illustrates how alternative marketing organisations engage in rhetorical tactics central to a narrative approach, to communicate...... transparency to their stakeholders. These rhetorical tactics include persona, allegory, consumer sovereignty and enlightenment. Community supported agriculture programmes from across the United States are the context for this study. Findings enrich discussions about best practices for transparency...

  3. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    writers a larger public forum into which they can extend their identity. When the identity being extended represents a minority group, the web offers an opportunity for members of that group to engage mainstream ideology and work at reducing the rhetorical distance between their identity and mainstream......Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension...... perceptions. This paper theorizes about ways in which the Internet can change the act of producing knowledge through the characteristics of speed and reach, allowing minorities to access a widespread audience much more easily than before the Internet. Access to a widespread audience, in turn, offers...

  4. Hierarchical Rhetorical Sentence Categorization for Scientific Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachman, G. H.; Khodra, M. L.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    Important information in scientific papers can be composed of rhetorical sentences that is structured from certain categories. To get this information, text categorization should be conducted. Actually, some works in this task have been completed by employing word frequency, semantic similarity words, hierarchical classification, and the others. Therefore, this paper aims to present the rhetorical sentence categorization from scientific paper by employing TF-IDF and Word2Vec to capture word frequency and semantic similarity words and employing hierarchical classification. Every experiment is tested in two classifiers, namely Naïve Bayes and SVM Linear. This paper shows that hierarchical classifier is better than flat classifier employing either TF-IDF or Word2Vec, although it increases only almost 2% from 27.82% when using flat classifier until 29.61% when using hierarchical classifier. It shows also different learning model for child-category can be built by hierarchical classifier.

  5. Campaign rhetoric: A model of reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés, Enriqueta; Postlewaite, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    We analyze conditions under which a candidate's campaign rhetoric may affect the beliefs of the voters over what policy the candidate will implement in case he wins the election. We develop a model of repeated elections with complete information in which candidates are purely ideological. Voter's strategies involve a credible threat to punish candidates that renege of their campaign promises, and in equilibrium all campaign promises are believed by voters, and honore...

  6. Cervantes and Rhetoric: Genera Oratoria and Compositio in La Gitanilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Pineda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the conclusions drawn by several scholars about Cervantes’s knowledge of Ancient and Renaissance poetical and rhetorical theories, this article aims to propose an attentive rhetorical reading of three speeches uttered by the protagonist of La Gitanilla. The speeches can be ascribed to the three rhetorical genres described by Aristotle in his Rhetoric, namely the deliberative, the epideictic, and the forensic genres. From that general framework, the last part of the article focuses on a single stylistic detail in order to show the theoretical connections of the compositio techniques that Cervantes uses in what might arguably be considered the highest point in Preciosa’s eloquence.

  7. The 'Recalcitrant Other': The Rhetorical Identity and Struggle of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the complexity of Mandela's rhetorical identity as the Recalcitrant Other and his rhetorical struggle as informed by contesting influences such as his ancestral birthright, cultural upbringing, British mission education, and exposure to a racially constructed hegemonic order. By subversively drawing on his ...

  8. Burke, Nietzsche, Lacan: Three Perspectives on the Rhetoric of Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Examines the complex relationship between rhetoric and order in the works of Kenneth Burke, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Jacques Lacan. Argues for three differing, yet complementary, views of rhetoric and order, each having a corresponding epistemology and axiology. Concludes with an analysis of the construction of order in Thomas Hobbe's…

  9. A Rhetoric of Turns: Signs and Symbols in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Kris; Soetaert, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    In our research and teaching we explore the value and the place of rhetoric in education. From a theoretical perspective we situate our work in different disciplines, inspired by major "turns": linguistic, cultural, anthropological/ethnographic, interpretive, semiotic, narrative, literary, rhetorical etc. In this article we engage in the…

  10. Jeremy Rifkin challenges recombinant DNA research: A rhetoric of heresy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futrell, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    One significant issue to come before the public in recent years is recombinant DNA research or genetic engineering and its applications. An important spokesman on this issue is Jeremy Rifkin. Rifkin is of rhetorical interest because of his strategies to sustain the dialogue and define the parameters in which it occurs. This dissertation analyzes a broad range of Rifkin's rhetorical artifacts and those of scientists engaged in recombinant DNA research. They are examined against criteria developed to identify and understand heresy. The five areas of analysis are: the nearness/remoteness phenomenon, the social construction of heresy, the social consequences of heresy, the doctrinal consequences of heresy, and the heresy-hunt ritual. The first two criteria focus on the rhetorical strategies of the heretic. The last three concentrate on the rhetorical strategies of the defenders of the institutional orthodoxy. This dissertation examines the rhetorical strategies of a heretical challenge to the scientific establishment and the consequences of that challenge. This dissertation also analyzes the rhetorical strategies employed by the defenders of the scientific orthodoxy. Although an understanding of the rhetorical strategies employed on both sides of this conflict is important, the implications for the role of rhetoric in highly controversial issues such as recombinant DNA are even more critical.

  11. The Argument in Film: Applying Rhetorical Theory to Film Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Laurence

    1979-01-01

    Approaches film criticism using classical and modern rhetorical concepts. Discusses the nature and effectiveness of the filmmaker's modes of appeal--to logos, pathos, and ethos, and the appropriateness of his/her rhetorical stance--the balance of attitudes toward subject, audience, and his/her creative self. (JMF)

  12. Sensing the Sentence: An Embodied Simulation Approach to Rhetorical Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Hannah J.

    2017-01-01

    This article applies the neuroscientific concept of embodied simulation--the process of understanding language through visual, motor, and spatial modalities of the body--to rhetorical grammar and sentence-style pedagogies. Embodied simulation invigorates rhetorical grammar instruction by attuning writers to the felt effects of written language,…

  13. The Imperial Style: Rhetorical Depiction and Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by examining a powerful set of imperialist symbols that have a lingering impact on the British national psyche. Investigates the Queen's Diamond Jubilee speech and the performative rhetoric of the Jubilee celebration itself, to illustrate how rhetorical depiction may…

  14. US and Russian Traditions in Rhetoric, Education and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappen, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional rhetoric attempts to find the available means of persuasion in public assemblies, law courts and ceremonials and is grounded in cultural values and beliefs. Traditional rhetoric supports the development of social communities and posits education as a primary means of maintaining these communities. In contrast, contemporary alternatives…

  15. Rhetorical Invention and Advanced Literacy: An Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, John

    Recent criticism of rhetorical invention faults the discipline for not promoting "advanced literacy," defined as the use of critical reading and writing abilities to serve social ends. Aristotle's vision of rhetoric has contributed significantly to a cognitive view of invention, but Aristotle also acknowledged the importance of social…

  16. Exploring the Common Ground of Rhetoric and Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Catherine E.

    In teaching the principles of rational discourse in advanced expository writing, it is necessary to clarify the similarities and differences between the logic and rhetoric of Aristotle and to identify a common ground between the two. The study of logic within rhetoric focuses on the inductive standards used to support two kinds of argument: the…

  17. Psyche/Logos: Mapping the Terrains of Mind and Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumlin, James S.; Baumlin, Tita French

    1989-01-01

    Discusses rhetoric as mirroring psychology. Examines Aristotle's three "pisteis"--the pathetic, logical, and ethical proofs, paralleling them to Freud's id, ego, and super-ego. Explores an adequate feminine psychology and a corresponding rhetoric. Outlines two models of persuasive discourse, the rational world paradigm and the narrative…

  18. The Myth of the "Turn" in Contrastive Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, David

    2003-01-01

    Contrastive rhetoric scholarship researches rhetorical structures across languages to predict the difficulties experienced by students learning to write essays in a second language. The paradigmatic contrast is between Western languages (e.g., English) that are said to exemplify "linearity" and "directness" and Eastern languages (e.g., Chinese,…

  19. Recursivity: A Working Paper on Rhetoric and "Mnesis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormer, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    This essay proposes the genealogical study of remembering and forgetting as recursive rhetorical capacities that enable discourse to place itself in an ever-changing present. "Mnesis" is a meta-concept for the arrangements of remembering and forgetting that enable rhetoric to function. Most of the essay defines the materiality of "mnesis", first…

  20. Indian Ability ("Auilidad de Indio") and Rhetoric's Civilizing Narrative: Guaman Poma's Contact with the Rhetorical Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romney, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the contact zone has been around for some time and deserves reconsideration. As a gesture toward this reevaluation and as an exploration of indigenous rhetoric, the author takes up Felipe Guaman Poma's "El primer nueva coronica y buen gobierno" (The First New Chronicle and Good Government), the text that Mary Louise Pratt…

  1. Toward a Rhetoric of Self-Representation: Identity Politics in Indian Country and Rhetoric and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Scholars in rhetoric and composition have explored political issues of identity and language for some time; however, we have only begun to develop an understanding of why the identity politics of Native scholars are so different from other scholars of color and whites. Native scholars take considerable risks in composing identities--they can face…

  2. The Devolution of 20th Century Presidential Campaign Rhetoric: A Call for "Rhetorical Service."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Robert L.

    Over the course of the 20th century, American Presidential campaign rhetoric has undergone various metamorphoses. Most of these changes can be traced to developments in technology and media. Furthermore, many of these changes have had the unfortunate effect of undermining a rational choice of the electorate, and thus threaten our democracy. Like…

  3. Washington Crossing the Media: American Presidential Rhetoric and Cultural Iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Ernst

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Revolutionary War has been of prime importance to American self-perceptions and to the formation of its national identity. As a foundational moment with a strong mythical dimension it has become a cherished point of reference for the nation’s leaders, who, in their speeches and written communications, rely on the most widely accepted cultural iconography to recall this event. A time-honored, traditional discourse might, however, go together with the use of contemporary media technology as a means of distribution, as in the case of Barack Obama. Framing Obama’s rhetorical strategies within 19th- and 20th-century artistic representations of one specific historical moment from the Revolutionary War, Washington’s crossing of the Delaware river, this paper seeks to contribute to an enlarged understanding of the intricate relations between politics, the arts, and media development and of the ways they appropriate the past

  4. Remembering Sappho: New Perspectives on Teaching (and Writing) Women's Rhetorical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jessica; Jack, Jordynn

    2011-01-01

    Remembering Sappho, from a pedagogical perspective, usually means that teachers bring recovered women's rhetorics into the classroom, prompting students to come to know women as rhetorical agents by analyzing the rhetorical strategies they used to make their voices heard. Teaching women's rhetorics in this way works toward the ultimate goal of…

  5. Student Engagement: Rhetoric and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Paula; Corbin, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been much interest in higher education literature and policy on the concepts of student engagement and disengagement. While most academic writings recognise the significance of student engagement, they have tended to concentrate on it in relation to academic activities. Increasingly, universities are "cascading" down…

  6. Cnosť ako most medzi Aristotelovou rétorikou a etikou? ( Virtue as a Bridge between Aristotle’s Ethics and Rhetoric?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Zvarík

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of relation between Aristotle’s ethics and art of rhetoric. On the one hand, his concept of rhetoric stresses its instrumental, morally neutral character, which is substantial for every art. On the other hand, it seems that for Aristotle if speaker is truly good rhetorician and persuades truthfully and for just cause, his speech should appear more persuasive than in case of artful defence of injustice. Thus, truthfulness and justice appear to have inherent persuasive effect. In order to clarify the relation between ethical and rhetorical normative claims author highlights distinctive character of art in comparison to Aristotle’s concepts of moral virtue and prudence (phronēsis and shows how this character of art is integrated into Aristotle’s concept of rhetoric and how it transforms the function of virtue in the scope of rhetorical activity. The primary goal of rhetorician is not to be moral, but merely to appear as such. This conclusion does not call for rejection of rhetoric in the eyes of prudent person. Rather, it is useful, because it provides means to realize ends that are in favour of good life of the city and his fellow citizens.

  7. The rhetoric of disenchantment through symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théophile Munyangeyo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The symbolism of flowers has always been a significant part of cultures around the world due to their functional meaning in daily life. From their decorative to their aromatic role, flowers and their symbolic meaning trigger emotions, convey wishes and represent thoughts that can not be explicitly expressed. In this regard, an elaborate language based on flower symbolism was developed in many societies, to convey clear messages to the recipient. However, in some cultural contexts, although the flower symbolism has social connotations, it is mainly associated with economic references. As flowers are an essential precursor to fruits, they are inevitably a source of expectations and hence foster a set of hopes and dreams, which can ultimately lead to excitement or disappointment.Through a discourse analysis based on factional narratives, this article explores the parameters through which the symbolism of bifaceted meaning of flowers fictionalises a space that refers to the social reality. This association between the fictional world and social reference has highlighted that writing can profoundly be a means of representing social events through the rhetoric of symbolism. Through a sociological reading approach, this paper aims to analyse how the symbolism of flowers informs the rhetoric of disenchantment that can foster a content-based pedagogy in language learning where silencing practices engender imagery to exercise the freedom of expression.

  8. From rhetoric to reality in science: Between Little Rock and a hard place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, I.

    1992-01-01

    As Bill Clinton makes the transition from candidate to president, he confronts the job of transforming campaign rhetoric to the reality of political compromise and budgetary constraint. Discussed in this article are Mr. Clinton's campaign promises related to funding for national laboratories, defense, and secondary education. Also discussed are Vice President Gore's views toward environmental cleanup and protection. Speculation is made of President Clinton's budget plans and Cabinet-level appointments

  9. Examination of “Introductory Economics” Textbooks Withinthe Contextof Rhetorical Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Bilir, Hüsnü

    2017-01-01

    Textbooks shape students opinions about relevant discipline. In this framework, text books which focus on cer-tain questions, ignore certain matter sand emphasize certain point sareno means “neutral” or “objective” andcontain value judgements implicitly. Rhetorical economics based on this point argues that the production ofeconomic know ledge is a social action and so works of economists have to be evaluated as a part of social rela-tions with in theyare, and strik est hemoulder power of econ...

  10. PRAGMATIC AND RHETORICAL STRATEGIES IN THE ENGLISH-WRITTEN JOKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rochmawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding verbal jokes in English is problematic for English as Foreign Language (EFL readers since understanding the jokes requires understanding their linguistic, cultural and social elements. Since a joke constitutes a complex and paradoxical phenomenon, it needs multiple approaches of analyses—such as pragmatic and rhetorical analyses—in order to investigate the multiple layers of meanings it carries. Recently there has been a shift in humor studies, emphasizing linguistic humors and involving the field of rhetoric. These studies, however, have mostly addressed the connection between rhetoric and spoken jokes in persuasion. The present study therefore applied Austin’s Speech Act Theory (1975 and Grice’s Cooperative Principles (1957, and Berger’s rhetorical techniques (1993 to crack the funniness of the written jokes. Specifically, the study aims at describing: how the (1 rhetorical and (2 pragmatic strategies are used in the jokes, and (3 how the pragmatic and rhetorical strategies complement to create humor. The study employed a qualitative research method. Some jokes were purposively selected from the Reader’s Digest and two online sources: http://jokes.cc.com/, and http://www.ajokeaday.com/. Document studies were the means of data collection. The collected data were then analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. The results showed that that there was a relationship between the two pragmatic theories, i.e., Speech Act Theory and Cooperative Principles, and Berger’s rhetorical techniques. The results offered an alternative reading and richer understanding of how written jokes employed pragmatic and rhetorical strategies to advance their rhetorical objectives and humor functions.

  11. Searching for New Forms of Legitimacy Through Corporate Responsibility Rhetoric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castello, Itziar; Lozano, Josep

    2011-01-01

    This article looks into the process of searching for new forms of legitimacy among firms through corporate discourse. Through the analysis of annual sustainability reports, we have determined the existence of three types of rhetoric: (1) strategic (embedded in the scientific-economic paradigm); (2...... of the firm analyzed in this article. We claim that dialectic rhetoric seems to signal a new understanding of the firm’s role in society and a search for moral legitimation. However, this new form of rhetoric is still fairly uncommon although its use is growing. Combining theory and business examples...

  12. Melos: a Rhetoric Proof in Songs in Semiotic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Dantas de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We will have, in this work, the exposure of an approach to cancional text as a specific rhetorical situation. We assimilated the melos as all musical aspects of the song as a rhetorical proof that articulates the traditional trilogy: ethos, logos and pathos. We will use an interdisciplinary theoretical framework, articulating the classical rhetoric to semiotics applied to the song, exploring, from this model, discursive aspects of cancional text. As corpus, we have the analysis of a buarquiana song sample sociopolitical theme composed and recorded during the period of dictatorship.

  13. Muddling through the Moment with “Rowdy” Rhetoric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    and cooperation as natural, would hold the potential to render public deliberation more meaningful. Ivie’s point strikes a chord in US rhetoric scholarship that goes back to the 1960s and 70s and scholars’ attempts then at coming to terms with public discourse that in various ways broke with traditional norms......, more tenable and democratic mode – a “civic discourse.2”? With this panel we explore and push the concept of rowdy rhetoric as we look at ways in which rhetoric can function as a vehicle for healthy debate in participatory democracy. With examples from fora such as electronic media, public meetings...

  14. The power of rhetoric and the rhetoric of power: Exploring a tension within the Obama presidency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Kroes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available When Barack Obama acceded to the Presidency of the United States he held out the promise of a new beginning. As a master of political rhetoric he had spoken of a new start following the dismal years of the Bush administration. He would take America back to its inspirational creed of freedom and democracy. He augured a break with policies infringing on civil liberties and government under the law. Once in office, though, the power of rhetoric that had carried him into the White House ran into the hard reality of political rule under conditions of ongoing wars in far-away countries and the threat of terrorism, lurking at home and abroad. This chapter will explore how well President Obama managed to preserve democratic freedoms at home while fighting terrorism.

  15. How Consumers Persuade Each Other: Rhetorical Strategies of Interpersonal Influence in Online Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Scaraboto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Persuasive messages are central to interpersonal influence in online communities, where consumers interact mainly through text. We employed a combination of netnography and computer-mediated discourse analysis to investigate how consumers exchange information related to products and brands in an online community. We identified a set of rhetorical strategies used by community members, including setting expectations, claiming expertise, prescribing, and celebrating acquiescence. Consumers employ these rhetorical strategies to influence each other's consumption decisions, report consumption decisions back to the community, and to gauge their influence on each other's choices. We compare this process to traditional types of interpersonal influence and discuss how our findings contribute to advancing the burgeoning literature on interpersonal influence in online contexts.

  16. Divinacija prieš Cecilijų Cicerono retorikos kontekste. Divinatio in Caecilium in the context of Cicero’s rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Kučinskienė

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the well known episode in the Divination against Caecilius (Divinatio in Caecilium 27–46, Cicero, assuming the role of a teacher, expounds issues of rhetoric to his opponent. In this article the following points are examined: 1 the relation of this episode to the theory of rhetoric of the time, as represented in the unknown author’s Rhetorica ad Herennium and Cicero’s De inventione, which he wrote as a young man; 2 the repercussions of this episode in Cicero’s later works of rhetoric; 3 the relation of this episode to the other speeches against Verres.In Div. Caec. 27–46, Cicero does not try to set forth his material systematically and sequentially, as it is customary in rhetorical treatises, but directs his attention first at the moral qualities of a good orator, as well as on his education and the innate personal traits that form a perfect orator. This allows us to connect the Divination against Caecilius with Cicero’s later treatises on rhetoric, in particular De oratore. Being a supporter of philosophical rhetoric, Cicero disdains the traditional Hellenistic manuals that expound rhetorical technique. He does not try to teach these things – which would be the aim of a rhetoric manual – but he presumes that his audience would understand them from the small hints about the topics that must be recognised as coming from the school of rhetoric. Such a stance corresponds well to the spirit of the treatise De oratore: in that work, Cicero does not teach rules and does not explain rhetorical technique either, but, having mastered these things perfectly himself, he addresses his work to those readers who know the art of rhetoric and who would certainly recognise and appreciate the hints on the art of rhetoric, which are scattered through the text rather than explicitly demonstrated.In the episode Div. Caec. 27–46, Cicero uses va­rious rhetorical figures copiously and inventively. It is obvious that, in explaining the issues of

  17. Social Media Rhetoric of the Transnational Palestinian-led Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hitchcock

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article uses rhetorical analysis to determine the effectiveness and characteristics of social media usage by the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS movement targeting Israel. Hundreds of local student, community, and religious groups in the United States use social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook to promote BDS discourse and organize local BDS-related events. Even though social media platforms are important for an international movement composed of a very dispersed population, with millions of Palestinians also living under military occupation, the history of traditional media use during the First Intifada also suggests that social media are not necessary for mobilizing Palestinians at the local level. A preliminary rhetorical analysis of several BDS-related Facebook pages and Twitter accounts reveals that the BDS movement’s social media usage functions similarly in some ways to other contemporary mass movements by facilitating on-the-ground actions and delivering useful information to supporters. BDS movement social media discourse, however, does not establish the same level of emotional connection or interactivity with audiences as some other recent movements have, but these limitations can be partly explained by the unique political, material, and rhetorical constraints of the situation.

  18. Rhetorical Features of the Company Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2002-01-01

    will discuss the functional and the compositional aspects of corporate communication on the World Wide Web by comparing company websites with traditional market communication media. I will focus on linguistic and visual features of the company website and briefly account for some of the media constraints......Recent years have seen a growing body of literature ceoncerned with the World Wide Web as a new form of communication, and numerous discussions on composition, structure and design of successful company websites are being held in all kinds of forums within and outside the Internet. However, most...... these discussions seem to focus on the technological properties of the Internet or tend to serve purely practical purposes and only few researchers discuss the rhetorical features of web communication, the exception being a litited number of researchers dealing with metaphors on the Web. In this paper I...

  19. The Rhetoric of PowerPoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens E. Kjeldsen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presentation program PowerPoint is probably the most used tool in the schools, high schools and universities of today. The use of this program, however, comes at a cost, because it is not just a different and neutral way of teaching. Like the use of any technology, PowerPoint affects not only the way we present and teach, but also the way we think, learn and understand. The program carries an inherent tendency to crate fragmentation of thought and cognitive overload. In order to avoid this we should stop thinking in terms of technology and begin to think rhetorically. What we need is media rhetoracy: the ability to communicate persuasively and appropriately.

  20. Nuclear policy just rhetoric, says Gilinsky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Mr. Gilinsky, a member of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, labels administration nuclear policy as empty rhetoric that will not address the nuclear industry's real problems of the decline of nuclear power. He projects that another 20 plants under construction will join the 11 that were already cancelled or abandoned unless the economic situation changes. He argues that streamlining licensing not only won't help but will introduce a conflict of interest problem as the plan was presented. The real problem goes back to utilities entering the nuclear business without understanding the dangers and technical problems or having the managerial competence. Commercial reprocessing will not occur if federal money is withdrawn, making the Clinch River Breeder Project unnecessary

  1. 'Nurse entrepreneurs' a case of government rhetoric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Michael; Drennan, Vari; Goodman, Claire; Mark, Annabelle; Davis, Kathy; Peacock, Richard; Banning, Maggi

    2008-01-01

    Nursing has come to play a prominent role in government health policy since 1997. Extending the scope of nursing practice into activities previously carried out by doctors can assist a managerialist and 'modernizing' project of increasing National Health Service (NHS) efficiency by removing demarcations between professional groups. Drawing on elements of poststructuralist linguistics, this paper presents an analysis of a key government speech in the context of a discussion of overall policy intentions. The speech can be seen as an example of how government has attempted to use rhetoric to make its goals attractive to nurses. Policy-makers have to make their policies acceptable to those whom they expect to implement them. In this case, organizational efficiency, chiefly in terms of broader access to NHS services, as well as role substitution, is aligned with government policy promoting social enterprise and 'sold' to the nursing profession as enhancing its status compared with medicine.

  2. The Semiotics and Rhetoric of Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2017-01-01

    Does music have meanings? If so, what are they like? These questions concern the semiotics of music. I will address these questions, using evidence from what I call aesthetic protocol analysis. I will further ask about the rhetorical significance of music having the kind of semiotics it apparently...... has. Given that music has the meanings it does, in the way it does, then what is the aesthetic function of that? In my view, asking what role meanings in music play for its aesthetic effect is to ask a rhetorician’s question. Rhetoricians will want to know what sorts of things artifacts do, and how...... they do them. That also goes for artifacts whose function is to provide aesthetic experience—and that, I believe, is what many of us listen to music for most of the time. So I wish to say something about what role the experience of musical meanings plays in this....

  3. Hugh Blairs Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    1989-01-01

    Artiklen nærlæser dekonstruktivt dele af den skotske retorikprofessor Hugh Blairs Lecures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres (1783) og påviser splittelsen mellem to vidt forskellige retorik- og liltteraturhistoriske interesser, neoklassicistiske vs. romantiske....

  4. The Rhetoric of Defeat: Nazi Propaganda in 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytwerk, Randall L.

    1978-01-01

    The rhetoric of the final four months of Hitler's Reich is examined, including arguments that Germany could still win the war based on moral and logical grounds, and later appeals based on source credibility, historical analogy, and terror. (JF)

  5. Conspiracy Rhetoric: From Pragmatism to Fantasy in Public Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, G. Thomas; Poulakos, John

    1981-01-01

    Notes that conspiracy charges have come to characterize mainstream political drama. Analyzes dimensions of the Watergate scandal so that the manner in which conspiracy rhetoric unfolds in political drama may be better understood. (PD)

  6. Toward a Rhetoric for English Department Curricular Debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialostosky, Don

    1993-01-01

    Identifies the ideas of the good that organize the professional lives of English college faculty. Discusses how these ideas should help faculty to constitute their departments, colleagues, and students. Applies insights from Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to departmental discussions. (HB)

  7. Rhetorical facets of imagination in contemporary poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Delbari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present article deals with the trend of literary imaginative descriptions in the purview of poetical imaginations which have been regarded greatly in the discourse of rhetoric’s. The different facets of imagination of these imageries are also introduced in this article. Throughout this study poetical demonstrations are dealt with on the basis of their indications, functions and profundity. Meanwhile overcoming superficial and intermediate layers of imagination towards inner and profound thoughts would represent the domination of the poets in depiction of imagery. For this purpose, an introduction of numerous imagery layers with their deep and superficial, positive and subsidiary nature is presented through some examples. The result suggests that the extent of imagery complexity among many poets has a direct relation to their subjectivity in such a way that different levels of imageries are internalized as a unique stylistic feature of any individual poet. He endeavors to ornament his poem through imagery devices. Yousefi says: “any poem in which there is not imagery cannot be regarded as a poem. “The attractiveness of such imagination and the success or failure of the poet in conveying this imagery is a matter of poet’s tendency in using imagery devices. Through this article the contemporary poems are analyzed from the view point of objectivity and subjectivity. Furthermore, the poems are studied on their functions. The analysis has been carried out from two perspectives idiosyncratic features of the poet and the characteristics of the era in which he has lived. The examples presented in this article are selected from among the poets with different linguistic backgrounds and unique ideologies. The reason behind this specific consideration is an indication of a generalizability rather than a representativeness of few poets with their idiosyncratic styles. Therefore, the results indicate the style characteristics

  8. Framing public governance in Malaysia : rhetorical appeals through accrual accounting.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferry, L.; Zakaria, Z.; Zakaria, Z.; Slack, R.

    2017-01-01

    In government, the challenges of governance and anti-corruption are exacerbated by accounting not being fit for purpose. In developing countries, many governments adopt accrual accounting as a panacea. Drawing on Goffman's frame analysis, and rhetorical appeals to logic, credibility and emotion, this paper examines the adoption of accrual accounting in Malaysia. It was found accrual accounting has potential for keying governance and anti-corruption. However, rhetorical appeals that attempt to...

  9. Dedicated tool to assess the impact of a rhetorical task on human body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert; Wilczyński, Sławomir; Martowska, Katarzyna; Gołuch, Dominik; Wrocławska-Warchala, Emilia

    2017-10-01

    Functional infrared thermal imaging is a method widely used in medicine, including analysis of the mechanisms related to the effect of emotions on physiological processes. The article shows how the body temperature may change during stress associated with performing a rhetorical task and proposes new parameters useful for dynamic thermal imaging measurements MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 healthy male subjects were examined. They were given a rhetorical task that induced stress. Analysis and processing of collected body temperature data in a spatial resolution of 256×512pixels and a temperature resolution of 0.1°C enabled to show the dynamics of temperature changes. This analysis was preceded by dedicated image analysis and processing methods RESULTS: The presented dedicated algorithm for image analysis and processing allows for fully automated, reproducible and quantitative assessment of temperature changes and time constants in a sequence of thermal images of the patient. When performing the rhetorical task, the temperature rose by 0.47±0.19°C in 72.41% of the subjects, including 20.69% in whom the temperature decreased by 0.49±0.14°C after 237±141s. For 20.69% of the subjects only a drop in temperature was registered. For the remaining 6.89% of the cases, no temperature changes were registered CONCLUSIONS: The performance of the rhetorical task by the subjects causes body temperature changes. The ambiguous temperature response to the given stress factor indicates the complex mechanisms responsible for regulating stressful situations. Stress associated with the examination itself induces body temperature changes. These changes should always be taken into account in the analysis of infrared data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Rhetoric of Madness in Kathy Acker’s Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the rhetorical experimentation of Don Quixote by Kathy Acker, starting from a theoretical concept central in the author’s thought: her search for a “language of the body”. A brief introduction to Kathy Acker’s plagiaristic poetics frames her narrative strategies between postmodern rewriting and pastiche. It shows the way in which her Don Quixote transposes the representative scheme of the chivalric quest into the contemporary value system with the aim of questioning Cervantes’ text as one of the canonical works of the Western literary tradition. The following section deepens three focal concepts of Acker’s theoretical works – body, madness, and norm – illuminating the connections between her rhetorical experimentation and the works by Luce Irigaray and Judith Butler. Finally, the paper will demonstrate how these concepts in Acker's rewriting of Don Quixote are strictly related to paradox, which she uses in order to actualize a “language of the body”: in the passage from the former novel to the postmodern work, madness has become the device which, from the semantic level to the rhetorical one, expresses Acker’s idea of language of the body, as an alternative and in contrast to the canonical language of the logos.

  11. Global Perspectives on E-learning: Rhetoric and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ATAIZI

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Global Perspectives on E-learning: Rhetoric and Reality Carr-Chellman, A. A. (Ed (2005. Global Perspectives on E-learning. Rhetoric and Reality. 1-4129-0489-7, 280p.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub. Inc. Reviewed by Murat ATAIZIAnadolu University,Eskisehir, TURKEY This book is edited by Alison A. Carr-Chellman who is associate professor of education at Pennsylvania State University , and one of the leading figures in the field of e-learning. Total of sixteen authors contributed to the sections. Authors are varying from doctoral students to professors emeritus, but all of them are experienced in the field of e-learning and distance education. The book presents a collection of papers from international case studies and its divided into five main parts based on geographic location, and each of them brings case studies of online education on e-learning and discusses the rhetoric that surrounds this form of teaching and learning from Asia, Europe, North America, Oceania, and Africa. The first part of the book examines online education in Asia : Analysis of China , Taiwan , and India . The China chapter explains that the Dianda system there is one of the world's largest education systems, combining radio-television university system. The author examines the political rhetoric and discusses the impacts on the way China adopts the new online learning technologies. The Taiwan chapter examines the digital gap, internet usage, and the government and IT industries roles to development of e-learning in Taiwan . The India chapter begins with distance education through correspondence courses that has been with us since the 1960s. The author examines the state of traditional and distance education in India , and identifies the viability and importance of online education given the current social, economic, and infrastructural status que. The second part of the book is on online education in Europe : Analysis of Ireland , the United Kingdom , International Study

  12. Rhetorical impression management in the letter to shareholders and institutional setting : A metadiscourse perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, Walter; Yan, Beibei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using composite style measures of the letter to shareholders, we elaborate dominant rhetorical profiles and qualify them from an impression management perspective. In addition, we examine how institutional differences affect rhetorical profiles by comparing intensity and contingencies of

  13. a rhetorical analysis of philippians 1:12-26 1. introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the text, provides a better understanding of Paul's rhetorical strategy than a typical rhetorical ..... gospel, those preachers who were motivated by goodwill and love had ..... style tells us something of exegetical value regarding the emotion-.

  14. The Rhetoric of "Unconditional Surrender" and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikins, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the decision to drop the atomic bomb from a rhetorical point of view, arguing that the bombs were launched because of an American commitment to a particular rhetoric that focused on the propaganda slogan "unconditional surrender." (PD)

  15. Rhetorical structure theory and text analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, William C.; Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.; Thompson, Sandra A.

    1989-11-01

    Recent research on text generation has shown that there is a need for stronger linguistic theories that tell in detail how texts communicate. The prevailing theories are very difficult to compare, and it is also very difficult to see how they might be combined into stronger theories. To make comparison and combination a bit more approachable, we have created a book which is designed to encourage comparison. A dozen different authors or teams, all experienced in discourse research, are given exactly the same text to analyze. The text is an appeal for money by a lobbying organization in Washington, DC. It informs, stimulates and manipulates the reader in a fascinating way. The joint analysis is far more insightful than any one team's analysis alone. This paper is our contribution to the book. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST), the focus of this paper, is a way to account for the functional potential of text, its capacity to achieve the purposes of speakers and produce effects in hearers. It also shows a way to distinguish coherent texts from incoherent ones, and identifies consequences of text structure.

  16. RHETORIC OF GUANXI IN CHINESE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabalina Olga Ivanovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country. According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means. To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan. The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men. The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.

  17. RHETORIC OF GUANXI IN CHINESE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Ивановна Шабалина

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country.  According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means.To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan.The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men.The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-33

  18. The Rhetoric of Sustainability: Perversity, Futility, Jeopardy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Holden

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1991, development economist and American public intellectual Albert O. Hirschman wrote the Rhetoric of Reaction [1]. In this book, which was prescient of more contemporary popular books such as Naomi Klein’s The Shock Doctrine [2] and James C. Scott’s Seeing Like a State [3], Hirschman proposed a way to understand the kinds of arguments made by conservatives about proposals for change. His compelling trilogy of modes of arguments included arguments of perversity, futility, and jeopardy. I argue here that this schema can additionally be used as a way to understand the limits that are seen to exist to approaching sustainable development. I will demonstrate the pervasiveness of arguments that our best attempts to move toward sustainability in our cities today may present threats that are just as grave as those of not acting. This exercise serves two purposes. One is to urge those who would call themselves sustainability scholars to think critically and carefully about the lines of thought and action that may separate different sustainability motivations from the far reaches of interdisciplinary work in this field. The other is to suggest that, because of the persistence of certain kinds of arguments about the impossibility of sustainability, suggestive of deep and enduring instincts of doubt through human history, we should be skeptical of the legitimacy of these claims about the limitations of achieving sustainable development.

  19. The Rhetorical Making of the Asian/Asian American Face: Reading and Writing Asian Eyelids

    OpenAIRE

    Sano-Franchini, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In The Rhetorical Making of the Asian/Asian American Face: Reading and Writing Asian Eyelids, I examine representations of East Asian blepharoplasty in online video in order to gain a sense of how cultural values change over time. Drawing on scholarship in and around rhetorical theory, cultural rhetorics, Asian American rhetoric, cultural studies, Asian American studies, and postcolonial theory alongside qualitative data analysis of approximately fifty videos and the numerous viewer comments ...

  20. The Autobiographical Photo-textual Devices. Rhetorics and Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Coglitore

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The case of autobiographical photo-texts is to be analyzed, first of all, as an autobiographical writing that feels the need to express by other means; secondly, as a specific rhetoric practice that chooses the image, next to the word, as a further persuasive force; finally, as a very special case of icono-texts, which uses some variety of the connection between the verbal and the visual. It is not only a matter of analyzing how it works the cooperation between photographs and autobiographical writing, that is, through which connectors – frames, white space, overlays and captions –, but also of understanding what are the functions of the photographs in relation to literature. This is in order to understand what truth is affirmed in the examples chosen: Franca Valeri, Grégoire Bouillier, Roland Barthes, Winfried G. Sebald, Lalla Romano, Jovanotti, Edward Said, Azar Nafisi, Vladimir Nabokov, André Breton, Hannah Höch, Annie Ernaux. Do photographs expose, confirm, add or resist the truth expressed by the literary side? And if narrative expresses the truth and the resistance to the truth of the author himself, what does the photo resist to, while showing?

  1. Mythologizing Change: Examining Rhetorical Myth as a Strategic Change Management Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Jacob D.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how rhetorical myth can be used as a tool for persuading employees to accept change and to maintain consensus during the process. It defines rhetorical myth using three concepts: "chronographia" (a rhetorical interpretation of history), epideictic prediction (defining a present action by assigning praise and blame…

  2. Aristotelian Causal Analysis and Creativity in Copywriting: Toward a Rapprochement between Rhetoric and Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Advertising may be the most pervasive form of modern rhetoric, yet the discipline is virtually absent in rhetorical studies. This article advocates a mutually beneficial rapprochement between the disciplines--both in academe and the workplace. Rhetoric, for example, could help address an enduring lacuna in advertising theory. Persuasive…

  3. An Ethical Analysis of Reagan's Rhetoric Justifying the Invasion of Grenada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Ralph E.

    A study examined the Ronald Reagan Administration's rhetoric about the invasion of Grenada to determine its ethical quality and whether the American public could make a fair judgment about the incident based on this rhetoric. Examination of President Reagan's rhetorical efforts revealed numerous violations of democratic ethical standards.…

  4. Disciplinary Politics and the Institutionalization of the Generic Triad in Classical Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yameng

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of rhetoric in general and specifically the generic triad in classical rhetoric. Outlines contemporary versions of the function and realm of rhetoric. Discusses the clash between Aristotle and Quintilian regarding the triad and its relationship to contemporary debates. (HB)

  5. Aristotle and Social-Epistemic Rhetoric: The Systematizing of the Sophistic Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E.

    While Aristotle's philosophical views are more foundational than those of many of the Older Sophists, Aristotle's rhetorical theories inherit and incorporate many of the central tenets ascribed to Sophistic rhetoric, albeit in a more systematic fashion, as represented in the "Rhetoric." However, Aristotle was more than just a rhetorical…

  6. Rhetorical Analysis of Fast-Growth Businesses' Job Advertisements: Implications for Job Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Craig L.; Petre, James T.; Petre, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents findings from a rhetorical analysis of job advertisements posted by the fastest growing companies in the United States (Inc. 5000 rankings). The analysis suggests that companies rely on standard rhetorical figures and share similar rhetorical visions of novelty that likely effect their organizational culture, paradoxically…

  7. The Methodology of Investigation of Intercultural Rhetoric applied to SFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Heredero Zorzo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural rhetoric is a discipline which studies written discourse among individuals from different cultures. It is a very strong field in the Anglo-Saxon scientific world, especially referring to English as a second language, but in Spanish as a foreign language it is not as prominent. Intercultural rhetoric has provided applied linguistics with important methods of investigation, thus applying this to SFL could introduce interesting new perspectives on the subject. In this paper, we present the methodology of investigation of intercultural rhetoric, which is based on the use of different types of corpora for analysing genders, and follows the precepts of tertium comparationis. In addition, it uses techniques of ethnographic investigation. The purpose of this paper is to show the applications of this methodology to SFL and to outline future investigations in the same field.

  8. The Rhetorical Goddess: A Feminist Perspective on Women in Magic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruns, Laura C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although female magicians have existed since the rise of entertainment magic, women have faced difficulty in entering the “fraternity” of the magic community. As an art form largely based around persuasion, it is useful to study the performance of magic as a text. It is additionally useful to study female magicians within this context of rhetoric. Not only will examining the rhetoric of female magicians provide insights on the rhetoric of women in this unique arena, but also of women in a historically gendered and underrepresented field. Research into this area may disclose other details regarding the communicative differences between women and men and how communication is adapted within a gendered communication paradigm.

  9. Rhetoric and History in Brian Friel’s Making History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Bernardini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of the rhetorical devices of representation and recording of history, investigated and deconstructed by the so-called "history play" Making History, written by Brian Friel and performed by the Field Day Theatre Company in 1988. The play tells of the heroic deeds of Hugh O’ Neill, a Sixteenth century Ulster gaelic Lord, intertwining his personal facts with the crucial events in Irish History. Friel rediscovers a paradigmatic figure in Irish history, using the theatrical performance in order to dissect and thoroughly scrutinize the basis for the nationalist rhetoric which is at the root of contemporary conflicts in Northern Ireland. Starting from the theoretical contributions of seminal authors such as Hayden White, Paul Ricoeur, Walter Benjamin, Michel De Certeau, the northern Irish playwright challenges the supposedly scientific nature of History, that would decidedly mark it as different from other forms of narrative, such as literature. Hence History’s metalinguistic nature, based on specific rhetorical strategies, is uncovered.  Therefore, on the one hand Friel questions the theoretical foundations of History, of its “grand narratives”,  giving ‘stories’ the chance to be part of official History’s discourse. On the other hand, he lifts the veil on the rhetorical (and in some ways ideological mechanisms involved in the process of History writing, through the character of archbishop Peter Lombard - O’ Neill’s biographer, storyteller and master in elocutio - and sheds light on how History is a form of rhetorical narrative, almost a patchwork of events collected (inventio and assembled (dispositio by the historian according to specific criteria of representation. By taking us inside the very nucleus of the rhetorical devices used by storiography, Friel unmasks the delicate processes of making and unmaking history, the ones that help give birth to identity as well as History.

  10. Liberal or Conservative? Genetic Rhetoric, Disability, and Human Species Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F. Goodey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A certain political rhetoric is implicit and sometimes explicit in the advocacy of human genetic modification (indicating here both the enhancement and the prevention of disability. The main claim is that it belongs to a liberal tradition. From a perspective supplied by the history and philosophy of science rather than by ethics, the content of that claim is examined to see if such a self-description is justified. The techniques are analyzed by which apparently liberal arguments get to be presented as “reasonable” in a juridical sense that draws on theories of law and rhetoric.

  11. At the Head of Theoretical Disciplines, Rhetoric Besieges Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a field of human activity whose components are studied by numerous disciplines. There is a risk, then, to see the theoretical interest for this field crumble; in order to acquire a general view of it, we need – above researches conducted with the support of conceptual apparatuses of disciplines as sociology, mythology, psychology, ethology, visual communication, etc. – unifying points of view, offered by formal disciplines as rhetoric, semiotics, etc. The study of specific advertising messages will help us catch a glimpse of both proportions and stakes of the matter; leading the interdisciplinar approach, rhetoric can hope to “tame” the complexity of the advertising discourse.

  12. Lingual rhetoric paradigm as integrative research prism in philological science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlexandra A. Vorozhbitova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes the lingual rhetoric paradigm as an integrative approach in philology based on three crossing categorical ranges: 1 the ideological aspects of a speech act (ethos, logos, pathos; 2 the phases of the universal ideospeech cycle «from a thought to a word» (invention, disposition (arrangement, elocution (style as the technology of discourse process; 3 the structural levels of a lingual identity (associative verbal network, thesaurus, pragmaticon as the producer of discourse, the carrier of ideology. Hence there are three groups of lingual rhetoric parameters: ethos motivational dispositive, logos thesaurus inventive, pathos verbal elocutive.

  13. Rhetoric of Seduction and Seduction of Rhetoric in Paul de Man's ‘Allegories of Reading’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mirabile

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay analyzes the work of Paul de Man (1919-1983, in particular Allegories of Reading. Even though his posthumously revealed ties with Nazism reduced his academic influence, de Man is still considered the leader of  Deconstruction in America, and his favorite metaphor of 'seduction' summarizes his Nietzschean theory of rhetoric as illusionism, i.e. a strategy that provoke an affective reaction, independent from logic or facts. Yet, this metaphor seems to be in contrast with other tendencies of Deconstruction, namely the self-referential, non-voluntary, autonomous status of writing, the absence of critical meta-language, the reduction of psychology in criticism.

  14. The power of antiquity for modern purposes. A rhetorical analysis of a speech by Steve Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Martín González, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the blend of classic rhetorical techniques with linguistic devices to create an effective speech. To observe this, Steve Jobs’ Commencement Speech, given at Stanford University in 2005, is going to be the text under study. The success of the speech is going to be studied focusing on the relationship between the speaker and his audience. Jobs’ speech is related with the new communication media, which has become a viral video on the web working in differe...

  15. The Potentials of Visual Rhetoric in Communication | Rishante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six fundamental goals of the visual rhetorician which include attention gaining, sustenance of interest, recognition, effective storage, recall and persuasion and their potential application in communication are considered. The ways in which visual rhetoric can be expressed within the framework of the universal laws of ...

  16. Plato the Pederast: Rhetoric and Cultural Procreation in the Dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Examines Plato's Dialogues by reading them through two cultural lenses: the role of eros in classical Greece and its analogous relationship to language and rhetoric; and the educational function of eros within the ancient institution of pederasty. Shows how the cultural values of ancient Greece manifested themselves in Plato's erotic educational…

  17. Francis Bacon and the Historiography of Scientific Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappen, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews three twentieth-century interpretations of Francis Bacon's science and rhetoric: positivistic science and the plain style; institutionalized science and its more highly figured style; and democratic science. Presents the author's own interpretation, and concludes that each interpretation reflects different perceptions of the good of the…

  18. Rhetorical Dimensions of the Post-September Eleventh Grief Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Roy; Tibbles, David

    2005-01-01

    This essay examines Presidential rhetoric and popular culture practices in light of the stages of grief enumerated by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross. The authors find a consistent retrenchment of grief into the anger phase, where the pain of losing national invulnerability is transferred to externalized aggression. Reconciliation is suggested by means of…

  19. "No Truer Truth" : Sincerity Rhetoric in Soviet Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.; Dhooge, B.; De Dobbeleer, M.

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary discourse about human emotions, concerns about the sincerity of individuals, groups, and institutions thrive. This article thickens recent scholarship on sincerity rhetoric with an analysis of emotional regimes in Soviet Russia – a time and place where the notion of sincerity

  20. A Rhetorical Perspective of the Progressive Education Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr-Kidwell, PJ; Makay, John J.

    This paper looks at how rhetoric was used as an instrument in the Progressive Education Movement. According to the author, this movement stretched from the early 1920s to the early 1950s. As part of it, educators placed increased emphasis on child development, the student's freedom to develop naturally, student motivation, and the school/community…

  1. Ethical Implications of Thomas Reid's Philosophy of Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopec, Eric Wm.

    Eighteenth century Scottish philosopher Thomas Reid's emphasis on first principles of knowledge is fundamental to his ethics of rhetoric. Reid found the reduction of mental activities to material phenomena by Hobbes and others to be particularly odious and destructive of common sense. Turning to the analysis of human nature, he developed a radical…

  2. Doctors in ancient Greek and Roman rhetorical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Craig A

    2013-10-01

    This article collects and examines all references to doctors in rhetorical exercises used in ancient Greek and Roman schools in the Roman Empire. While doctors are sometimes portrayed positively as philanthropic, expert practitioners of their divinely sanctioned art, they are more often depicted as facing charges for poisoning their patients.

  3. Gloria Anzaldúa's Rhetoric of Ambiguity and Antiracist Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Sarah; Whithaus, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses approaches to antiracist pedagogy employed in a rhetoric course at a large public research university. Drawing upon our experience teaching a diverse group of students from a common text shared across disciplines, we show how and why students resisted binary constructions of race and racism and instead formulated an emergent…

  4. Seeing Cells: Teaching the Visual/Verbal Rhetoric of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinolfo, John; Heifferon, Barbara; Temesvari, Lesly A.

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study obtained baseline information on verbal and visual rhetorics to teach microscopy techniques to college biology majors. We presented cell images to students in cell biology and biology writing classes and then asked them to identify textual, verbal, and visual cues that support microscopy learning. Survey responses suggest that…

  5. Didactics: From Classical Rhetoric to Kitchen-Latin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordkvelle, Yngve Troye

    2003-01-01

    The article discusses the relationship between the ancient traditions of dialectics and rhetoric and the transformations they underwent through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, particularly because of the emergence of Humanism. The French philosopher Pierre de la Ramee (1515-1572) played an essential role in this transformation. The logic…

  6. Good, Clean, Fair: The Rhetoric of the Slow Food Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines the origins of the Slow Food movement before examining the ways in which Slow Food rhetoric seeks to redefine gastronomy and combat the more deleterious effects of globalization. In articulating a new gastronomy, Slow Food founder Carlo Petrini attempts to reconstruct the gastronomy of Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, at once…

  7. Funding Reforms and Revenue Diversification--Patterns, Challenges and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Pedro; Koryakina, Tatyana

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, much has been written about the challenging financial context faced by many European higher education institutions, and the pressures towards funding diversification. However, the evidence available indicates that funding diversification has seldom lived up to the rhetorical expectations of marketization and privatization that…

  8. Rhetorical, Metacognitive, and Cognitive Strategies in Teacher Candidates' Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Larenas, Claudio; Ramos Leiva, Lucía; Ortiz Navarrete, Mabel

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a study about the rhetoric, metacognitive, and cognitive strategies pre-service teachers use before and after a process-based writing intervention when completing an argumentative essay. The data were collected through two think-aloud protocols while 21 Chilean English as a foreign language pre-service teachers completed an…

  9. Metaphor and the Rhetorical Invention of Cold War "Idealists."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a procedure for identifying metaphorical concepts guiding the rhetorical invention of three Cold War "idealists": Henry Wallace, J. William Fulbright, and Helen Caldicott, whose collective failure to dispel threatening images of the Soviets is located in a recurrent system of metaphors that promotes a reversal of the enemy-image…

  10. The Rhetoric of Globalization and Communication Education in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts an assessment of the various conceptual projections for the evaluation of the supposed derivations of globalization. The many scholastic discourses and some obviously identifiable fallacies are measured from rhetorical standpoint. The dictates of globalization suggest that every nation needs to ...

  11. Exploring Corporate Rhetoric: Metadiscourse in the CEO's Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Examines how metadiscourse is used to create a positive corporate image in 137 CEOs' letters, showing how CEOs use nonpropositional material to realize rational, credible, and affective appeals. Reveals the essentially rhetorical nature of CEOs' letters by comparing the frequency and distribution of metadiscourse in their letters and directors'…

  12. The Machiavellian Princess: Rhetorical Dramas for Women Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Jolene

    1982-01-01

    Examined popular self-help books to determine how they portray organizational life and the female manager. Concluded that their rhetorical vision of the female manager is superficial and that for the woman who participates in this view of organizational life, the books present incomplete, contradictory, and debilitating advice. (PD)

  13. Sojourner Truth as an Essential Part of Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, Bevin A.

    To affirm Sojourner Truth as a powerful rhetor who advanced the equality and empowerment of women, a study examined several of her speeches on women's suffrage. Although the value of using such role models as Sojourner Truth has been demonstrated in various grade levels, and in the study of history and English, the approach is too seldom employed…

  14. Competing Foreign Policy Visions: Rhetorical Hybrids after the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Mary E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines ways in which two very different political actors, George Bush and Bill Clinton, attempted to construct a new foreign policy consensus by blending the rhetorical forms of the Cold War with other foreign policy metaphors. Argues that these hybrids have not proven persuasive as justifications for American actions in foreign policy. (SR)

  15. Start-Up Rhetoric in Eight Speeches of Barack Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine; Sabin, Edward J.; Lamia, John F.; Dannevik, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose in the following was to investigate the start-up rhetoric employed by U.S. President Barack Obama in his speeches. The initial 5 min from eight of his speeches from May to September of 2009 were selected for their variety of setting, audience, theme, and purpose. It was generally hypothesized that Barack Obama, widely recognized for…

  16. China Encounters Darwinism: A Case of Intercultural Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaosui

    1995-01-01

    Explores how influential works of one culture are adapted to the needs, circumstances and thought patterns of another. Analyzes as a case study Yan Fu's "Heavenly Evolution," a rhetorical translation of Thomas Huxley's "Evolution and Ethics," whose publication resulted in a rapid spread of a version of Darwinism in Confucian…

  17. Roasting on Earth: A Rhetorical Analysis of Eco-Comedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alison Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Environmentalists are accustomed to using the rhetorical appeals of guilt and sacrifice to advocate their agendas. I argue that the motivations of guilt and sacrifice do not mirror the goals of sustainability, and are easy for anthropocentric-resourcist ideology (ARI) agendas to counter. When it comes to actual environmental policy change,…

  18. Confronting Rhetorical Disability: A Critical Analysis of Women's Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Kim Hensley

    2009-01-01

    Through its analysis of birth plans, documents some women create to guide their birth attendants' actions during hospital births, this article reveals the rhetorical complexity of childbirth and analyzes women's attempts to harness birth plans as tools of resistance and self-education. Asserting that technologies can both silence and give voice,…

  19. Translating agency reform: rhetoric and culture in comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smullen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Through comparative analysis this book examines and explains the official rhetoric of agency reform across consensus and adversarial political cultures. It traces the trajectory of talk about agency reform in The Netherlands, Sweden and Australia and identifies the national styles of speaking that

  20. Gorgias on Madison Avenue: Sophistry and the Rhetoric of Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcuk, Matt

    Using sophistic theory and focusing on intersections in the practice and reception of sophistry and advertising, a study analyzed a contemporary advertising campaign. A number of extrinsic similarities between sophistic and advertising rhetoric exist: their commercial basis, their popular reception as dishonest speech, and the reception of both as…

  1. Go Tell Alcibiades: Tragedy, Comedy, and Rhetoric in Plato's "Symposium"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Nathan; Poulakos, John

    2008-01-01

    Plato's "Symposium" is a significant but neglected part of his elaborate and complex attitude toward rhetoric. Unlike the intellectual discussion of the "Gorgias" or the unscripted conversation of the "Phaedrus," the "Symposium" stages a feast celebrating and driven by the forces of "Eros." A luxuriously stylish performance rather than a rational…

  2. Rhetorical Structure of Education Research Article Methods Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoya; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rhetorical move structure of the education research article genre within the framework of Swales' (1981, 1990, 2004) move analysis. A corpus of 120 systematically sampled empirical education research articles served as data input for the analysis. The results indicate that the education research article methods section…

  3. The Rhetorical Force of History in Public Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Roy

    The rhetorical functions of history depend on the domain in which history is used, with no connotations of interpretive priority attaching to the social or the academic realm. The appropriation of history in support of social causes as radically opposed as socialism and fascism fuels the temptation to subsume history under ideology, with the…

  4. The Martial "Virtue" of Rhetoric in Machiavelli's "Art of War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethoff, William E.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that Machiavelli's inherent interest in pragmatic, "virtuous" applications of humanistic arts mandated both rhetorical form and matter in his composition of the "Art of War." Proposes that the work reveals Machiavelli's debt to the classically humane ideal of the warrior-orator. (JMF)

  5. Imagination and the Pursuit of a Rational Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David E.

    The works of certain rhetorical thinkers contain strategies directed at achieving assent or cooperation. Such writings demonstrate means by which readers' rational responses can be deliberately challenged and disrupted. While people often cite Aristotle's maxim "Man is a rational animal," critics have asserted that the statement…

  6. Film in Honors Rhetoric: Students' Dramaturgical Analyses of "The Mission."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, John S.; Smith, Amanda

    Since narrative forms help provide the rules and contexts for guiding human behavior, film and television offer excellent sources for the study of rhetoric in the college classroom. Kenneth Burke, Ernest Bormann, and Erving Goffman are all theorists, working from a "dramaturgical" perspective, who disuccuss the powerful role of the media…

  7. The Underdog Disciplines: Comics Studies and Composition and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtley, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This report discusses the answer to the question: What might comic studies learn from the slightly older field of composition and rhetoric? The author asks the question as a member of both fields. It is clear that both disciplines struggle for legitimacy within the academy. While comics studies strives for respectability given the popular nature…

  8. Teaching in Germany and the Rhetoric of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alred, Gerald J.

    1997-01-01

    Uses the cross-cultural concepts of context and time to examine the rhetoric of German university students in an English business writing course. Provides a fresh perspective for American teachers in increasingly multinational, multicultural classrooms. Suggests how Aristotle's concepts of ethos, logos, and pathos together with the case method and…

  9. Campus Racial Politics and a "Rhetoric of Injury"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Haivan V.

    2009-01-01

    If college writing faculty wish to prepare students to engage in civic forums, then how might we prepare students to write and speak amid racial politics on our campuses? This article explores the college student discourse that shaped an interracial conflict at a public California university in 2002 and questions the "rhetoric of injury"…

  10. DOORS English--The Cognitive Basis of Rhetorical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Karl K.

    1979-01-01

    The Development of Operational Reasoning Skills (DOORS) program at Illinois Central College is an interdisciplinary experiment that guides students from concrete to formal operational levels of thought to ensure that they understand the concepts and cognitive skills undergirding the rhetorical modes. (RL)

  11. “Mine”. The Rhetoric of Abraham Kuyper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molendijk, Arie L.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Even the critics of Dutch Reformed theologian, politician, and publicist Abraham Kuyper (1837–1920) acknowledge his great power of oratory. This essay examines the nature of Kuyper’s rhetoric in a mythopoetic perspective that sees its inspiration in a romantic understanding of artistic

  12. Militant Religiopolitical Rhetoric: How Abraham Kuyper Mobilized His Constituency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molendijk, Arie; Van den Hemel, Ernst; Szafraniec, Asja

    2016-01-01

    Even the critics of Dutch Reformed theologian, politician, and publicist Abraham Kuyper (1837-1920) acknowledge his great power of oratory. This essay examines the nature of Kuyper's rhetoric in a mythopoetic perspective that sees its inspiration in a romantic understanding of artistic inspiration

  13. Rhetorics of Regulation in Education after the Global Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, David

    2010-01-01

    Economic crises such as those of 1929, 1973 and 2008 appear to associate with shifts in the rhetorics of management. These dates mark the end of expansionary phases within an economic cycle, and they portend what James O'Connor has called a "fiscal crisis of the state". It is argued, speculatively, that immediately before and after an…

  14. The Panegyric Composed by Ennodius in Honour of King Theodoric: How Rhetoric Writes History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Deželak Trojar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The life and work of Ennodius (473/474–521 falls in a crucial but highly troubled period of late antiquity. With the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the arrival of the Ostrogoths, and Theodoric’s takeover of authority, Ennodius witnessed a number of processes which set the course of events for the centuries to come. He left an important testimony to his time in his panegyric to King Theodoric, which demonstrates the author's high level of classical education as well as his familiarity with classical, imperial, and early Christian literature. A skilfully written rhetorical work spanning the years 461–506/507, elaborate in style and content, it bears ample testimony to the historical reality of Theodoric’s time and constitutes an important historical source for the early period after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The panegyric dates from the first half of 507. The diversity of its content leaves the reasons for its composition open to speculation, the most likely hypothesis being that Ennodius wished to thank Theodoric for his victories and achievements in general (no particular event is highlighted. It is no coincidence that the panegyric was composed after the final regulation of Theodoric’s authority and after a relatively long period of peace. It is clear from the panegyric that Ennodius had a highly positive attitude to Theodoric, whom he saw as a continuator and stimulator of the idea of eternal Rome. In his view, Theodoric’s assumption of authority over the Western part of the Roman Empire was a historical watershed which would bring a rejuvenation of Rome; the beginning of a new golden age. Besides its great historical value, the work of Ennodius is distinguished by its rhetorical and stylistic perfection. Confronted with the mass of historical material on Theodoric, Ennodius would have run into difficulties selecting an appropriate topic (inventio, but he emerges as a skilled collector and a masterly organiser in

  15. Philosophical rhetoric and sophistical dialectic: some implications of Plato’s critique of rhetoric in the Phaedrus and the Sophist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, J.H.M.; Blair, J.A.; Farr, D.; Hansen, H.V.; Johnson, R.H.; Tindale, C.W.

    2003-01-01

    My PhD research concentrates on the philosophical backgrounds of the relationship between dialectic and rhetoric. In order to pinpoint the discord between both disciplines, I studied their genesis and early history. In this paper, some characteristics of both disciplines will be outlined by

  16. Science Writing and Rhetorical Training: A New Model for Developing Graduate Science Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, N. E.; Lofgren, I.; Druschke, C. G.; McWilliams, S. R.; Morton-Aiken, J.; Reynolds, N.

    2016-12-01

    Graduate programs in the sciences generally offer minimal support for writing and communication, yet there is an increasing need for scientists to engage with the public and policymakers on technological, environmental, and health issues. The traditional focus on gaining particular discipline-related technical skills, coupled with the relegation of writing largely to the end of a student's academic tenure, falls short in equipping them to tackle these challenges. To address this problem, we launched a cross-disciplinary, National Science Foundation-funded training program in rhetoric and writing for science graduate students and faculty at the University of Rhode Island. This innovative program bases curricular and pedagogical support on three central practices, habitual writing, multiple genres, and frequent review, to offer a flexible model of writing training for science graduate students and pedagogical training for faculty that could be adopted in other institutional contexts. Key to the program, called SciWrite@URI, is a unique emphasis on rhetoric, which, we argue, is an essential—but currently lacking—component of science communication education. This new model has the potential to transform graduate education in the sciences by producing graduates who are as adept at the fundamentals of their science as they are at communicating that science to diverse audiences.

  17. Rhetorical Engineering of Emotions in the Courtroom: the Case of Lawyers in Modern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Marco Vidor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a way of »performing the law«, courtroom speeches have been a fundamental component of the legal ritual and a basic component of lawyers’ identities in many countries with civil law traditions: lawyers have presented themselves and have been culturally perceived as legal experts who make use of emotional strategies in order to achieve their aims in court. Within the courtroom, emotions have been both rhetorical tools and goals, especially in criminal trials where forensic eloquence aimed to create an emotional environment that was favourable to the client. In France, a rich literature on the art of forensic rhetoric was both the result and the basis of a (re-construction of a tradition that was extremely self-conscious, self-reflective and fundamentally emotional. The present work analyses the role of emotions in lawyers’ courtroom performances in the French legal culture from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the present. Its purpose is to identify the main themes related to the use of emotions in the pleading that legal professionals themselves have considered important – albeit with differing opinions – in the past three centuries. More broadly, this study explores reason / dispassion and emotion in legal practice beyond their longstanding dichotomy. Investigating the courtroom speech as a prototypical forensic performance through the perspective of the legal professionals themselves shows how reason and emotion have been continually intertwined and how legal professionals have consciously strategized approaches to the complex interplay between them in the judicial processes.

  18. Rhetorical Use of Inscriptions in Students' Written Arguments About Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sihan

    2018-05-01

    Educators expect that students be able to make informed decisions about science-related problems in their everyday lives. Engaging science in such problems often entails evaluating available evidence for given arguments. This study explores how students use inscriptions as evidence to argue about socioscientific issues. Fifth- and sixth-grade students (N = 102) in two intact classrooms completed written argument tasks in which they were asked to cite given inscriptions to support their decisions about energy use or genetically modified organisms. Qualitative content analyses of these written arguments, which focused on the coordination between inscriptions and claims, show three patterns of rhetorical use of inscriptions: seeing is believing, believing is seeing, and asserting is inferring. What counts as evidence was not the inscriptions per se, but the rhetorical functions they performed in particular arguments. These findings suggest that justifying socioscientific decisions is functionally different from explaining scientific phenomena. Linking these two activities in school may help students more productively engage with science in their everyday lives.

  19. The Rhetoric of Popular Science Texts. "Scientific American" Magazine as Typical Example

    OpenAIRE

    Lichański, Jakub Z.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the relationship between rhetoric and popular science texts. Scientific American magazine is taken as an example. In conclusion, the author suggests that the rhetoric of popular science texts rests on the presentation of the problem, avoiding controversy in the presentation of research issues, avoiding modal forms, the use of multiple elements of visual rhetoric. This article contains brief historical information about the development of...

  20. Attributing Rhetorical Agency in a Crisis of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff-Clausen, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Digital media offer innovative ways of resolving crises of trust. This essay discusses a campaign that aimed to rebuild public trust in banks during the financial crisis. The campaign reflected a strategy (well-known in conflict resolution) that is best described as an online exercise in active...... listening. The essay discusses the potential of such a campaign and argues that in a crisis where rhetorical agency is impaired due to declining trust, corporations that engage in public listening may communicate acknowledgment and openness to change. However, in order to realize this potential, the public...... must be entrusted with a meaningful role as contributor to the campaign in the discursive and technical design of the medium of interaction. In the case studied, the campaign texts explicitly invited participation, but implicitly restrained the rhetorical agency of the public. This undermined...

  1. Ideologija i retorika dizajna / Ideology and Rhetoric of Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Ćika

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There isn’t one or the best definition of design, because design can be defined from various perspectives. Design has long been considered as a closed and individualistic discipline, which is astonishing compared to its interdisciplinary and domains that it covers. The paper does not answer the question about the design, rather it try to position design in the current theoretical practices. By asking a series of questions about areas that integrate the design itself (visual culture, visual grammar, visual communication, visual rhetoric and the rhetoric of images, design and cultural representation, design ideology, the ideology of designers, historical setting and the effects of artistic movements, creative industries, the social dimension, innovations and practices, communication I will try to prove that design is creative principle of visual culture.

  2. Tensions between rhetoric and practice in entrepreneneurship education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Sarah; Blenker, Per

    2014-01-01

    Promoting entrepreneurialism, enterprise and entrepreneurial behaviour is a goal shared by many governments. European policy rhetoric strongly supports the promotion of entrepreneurial, creative and innovation skills in all disciplines and the cultivation of entrepreneurial mindsets. The transfor......Promoting entrepreneurialism, enterprise and entrepreneurial behaviour is a goal shared by many governments. European policy rhetoric strongly supports the promotion of entrepreneurial, creative and innovation skills in all disciplines and the cultivation of entrepreneurial mindsets...... of the entrepreneurial university coupled with the practice of entrepreneurship education as an opportunity to introduce radically new modes of knowing and learning that connotes to classical ideas of critique, self-organization, activism and emancipation. This discussion has relevance for what we as educators do...

  3. Rhetoric in the Estoria de Espanna of Alfonso el Sabio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Fraker

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The redactors of the two Alfonsine histories are perhaps more grammatical than rhetorical; the free Castilian versions of their Latin originals are more notable for their clarity than for their eloquence. The editors do, however, apply two figures of rhetoric routinely throughout their text, transition and aetiologia. A few passages on the Estoria de Espanna go much further. Two narratives there feature dramatic application of two Quintilianesque figures of amplification, comparatio and ratiocinatio. Other sections display a sort of quasi-classical prose, notable for its artful isocola and antitheses, and marked by a fine concern for prose rhythm. This last feature might suggest that the compilers had some knowledge of the ars dictaminis.

  4. Rhetoric in the Estoria de Espanna of Alfonso el Sabio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraker, Charles F.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The redactors of the two Alfonsine histories are perhaps moregrammatical than rhetorical; the free Castilian versions of their Latin originals aremore notable for their clarity than for their eloquence. The editors do, however,apply two figures of rhetoric routinely throughout their text, transitio and aetiologia.A few passages on the Estoria de Espanna go much further. Two narratives therefeature dramatic application of two Quintilianesque figures of amplification,comparatio and ratiocinatio. Other sections display a sort of quasi-classical prose,notable for its artful isocola and antitheses, and marked by a fine concern for proserhythm. This last feature might suggest that the compilers had some knowledgeof the ars dictaminis.

  5. RHETORIC AND IDEOLOGY IN ECONOMICS TEXTBOOKS: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    ABA, Anıl

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the somewhat disconnected studies on the introductory level economics textbooks. First, specifying the best-sellers, it is argued that there is visible standardization and concentration in the textbook market. Second, studies focusing on the rhetorical and ideological aspects of economics textbooks are reviewed. While the heterodoxy, with determination, asserts that economics is inherently political and ideological, the mainstream, understandably, tends to deny the ideologi...

  6. Deliberative Democracy, Active Citizenship and Critical Culture: From Aristotle’s Rhetoric to Contemporary Political Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Arenas Dolz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to defend an adequate reading of Aristotle’s deliberative rhetoric that allows us to understand practical rationalization as a process of interpretation of human actions. After the consideration of rhetoric as a general human ability that is indispensable for political coexistence, the impact of the Aristotelian rhetorical proposal is pressed, not just as a defense of the importance of rhetoric in a democratic society, but also as a novel attempt to understand what it means to speak of practical rationality.

  7. Caveat Emptor! The Rhetoric of Choice in Food Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Calabrese

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This project is about a form of corporate predation that entails both policy influence and cultural legitimation. Neoliberal explanations of the inability of citizens to thrive in the current socio- economic condition typically rest on a combination of victim-blaming and appeals to the individualistic rhetoric that assumes we all enjoy equality of opportunity and freedom of choice. It is common for corporate lobbyists, and politicians under their influence, to argue against consumer protection on the grounds that such efforts are paternalistic, and that they therefore undermine consumer sovereignty. By this logic, illnesses that are highly correlated to diet are problems that consumers can avoid, and it is not the duty of food companies or government to prevent consumers from making “bad choices.” Implicit in this moralistic narrative is that consumers have sufficient knowledge about the alternatives to enable them to make “good choices.” Major food lobbies use their political influence to oppose government regulations of food, based on the reasoning that consumers deserve the right to choose. Food industry groups also will sometimes invest heavily to prevent legal requirements to disclose information that might enable consumers to make informed choices, creating a predatory double-bind. In this essay, I discuss how the rhetoric of choice is employed by the food industry, how it is formulated within the political context of the United States, and how that rhetoric poses threats to food systems globally.

  8. Rhetoric and Educational Policies on the Use of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Y. Y. Wong

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to review the rhetoric and the educational policies on the use of history for citizenship education from 1880-1990 in England. In many instances, the rhetoric served as powerful tools to gain the support of educational authorities, namely, the Board of Education, Ministry of Education and Examination Boards. Their support was reflected in the change of educational policies and school syllabi that followed. This study shows that there was strong and consistent widespread rhetoric on history's contribution to citizenship education throughout the century, neither stopped by the two great wars nor impeded by the challenge of social studies as a citizenship subject after the Second World War. Instead it was challenged by the discipline itself in the early 1980s when some historians began to doubt the "new" history on the ground that the "real" history was being devalued. Consequently, there was evidence that the "new" history did not take off widely. In many schools, history was taught for its own sake. Its value for the education of modern citizenship was not being emphasised. This article ends with the argument that under the environment of the National Curriculum, first implemented in the country in 1989, history still claims its relevance for citizenship education.

  9. Mess management in microbial ecology: Rhetorical processes of disciplinary integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Christopher W.

    As interdisciplinary work becomes more common in the sciences, research into the rhetorical processes mediating disciplinary integration becomes more vital. This dissertation, which takes as its subject the integration of microbiology and ecology, combines a postplural approach to rhetoric of science research with Victor Turner's "social drama" analysis and a third-generation activity theory methodological framework to identify conceptual and practical conflicts in interdisciplinary work and describe how, through visual and verbal communication, scientists negotiate these conflicts. First, to understand the conflicting disciplinary principles that might impede integration, the author conducts a Turnerian analysis of a disciplinary conflict that took place in the 1960s and 70s, during which American ecologists and biologists debated whether they should participate in the International Biological Program (IBP). Participation in the IBP ultimately contributed to the emergence of ecology as a discipline distinct from biology, and Turnerian social drama analysis of the debate surrounding participation lays bare the conflicting principles separating biology and ecology. Second, to answer the question of how these conflicting principles are negotiated in practice, the author reports on a yearlong qualitative study of scientists working in a microbial ecology laboratory. Focusing specifically on two case studies from this fieldwork that illustrate the key concept of textually mediated disciplinary integration, the author's analysis demonstrates how scientific objects emerge in differently situated practices, and how these objects manage to cohere despite their multiplicity through textually mediated rhetorical processes of calibration and alignment.

  10. Os manuais escolares franceses de educação física, de higiene e de moral seriam sexistas? (1880-2004 Were the French school manuals of physical education, hygiene and morals between 1880 and 2004 sexist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Gleyse

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo situa-se como um estudo panorâmico sobre as relações de gênero e a co-educação no âmbito da Educação Física na França ao longo do século XX. Em seu desenvolvimento são privilegiados três domínios discursivos orientados em direção ao mesmo objeto: os manuais de higiene, os manuais de moral e, finalmente, os manuais e textos oficiais no domínio da educação física e do esporte. Nesta pesquisa pode-se constatar que os manuais escolares que tratam do exercício físico não apenas são sexistas, mas servem também para ensinar as diferentes modalidades de sexismo através do domínio específico dos exercícios físicos. As fontes aqui pesquisadas estão disponíveis nos arquivos do Centre d'Etude, de Documentation en Histoire et Recherche en Education (CEDHRE do Institut Universitaire de Formation des Maîtres (IUFM de Montpellier, um dos mais completos sobre manuais escolares na França.The following paper is based on an overview study about gender relations and co-education in Physical Education in France during the 20th century. In the development of this work three important discursive domains were approached towards the same object: the hygiene manuals, the morals manuals and the manuals and official texts in the field of physical education and sports. In this research it was possible to observe that the school manuals about physical exercise are not only sexist; they are also used as tools to teach different forms of sexism through physical exercise. The sources used in this study are available in files at the Centre d'Etudes de Documentation et de Recherche en Histoire de l'Education (CEDHRE of the Institut Universitaire de Formation des Maîtres (IUFM in Montpellier, one of the educational centers with the most complete documentation about school manuals in France.

  11. Harambee narratives: A rhetorical framing of the Kenyan trade union movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Ogutu Miruka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses discourse on trade unionism contained in the coverage of Labour Day (May 1 celebrationsinone leading Kenyan daily national newspaper, The East African Standard, from 1966 to 2013. I assess slightly over fortyarticles qualitativelyusing rhetorical criticism. This is done by looking at topics addressed, characterizations of unions as well as major actors such as union leaders, workers, and political leaders. I chose rhetoricalcriticism of a news media corpusin order to explore how diverse power relations have been transformed into mechanisms that keep the Kenyan labour movement tolerable to the government of the day. The research identifies themes surfaced by and in the news coverage. The paper shows how diverse power relations are colonized and articulated into more general mechanisms that keeps the industrial population governable with minimal disruptions.

  12. Joseph V. Denney, the Land-Grant Mission, and Rhetorical Education at Ohio State: An Institutional History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Annie S.

    2011-01-01

    This essay provides an account of The Ohio State University's (OSU) rhetoric department during the tenure of Joseph Villiers Denney, arguing that he appropriated and repurposed national trends in education and rhetoric in ways that complicate the narrative of rhetoric and composition's decline in the late nineteenth century. In this essay, the…

  13. A Rhetorical Criticism-Women's Studies Course: Exploring Texts and Contexts in the American Woman's Suffrage Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes-Crahall, Jane

    An undergraduate course in rhetorical criticism at Wilkes University incorporated a major component on the rhetoric of the American Woman's Suffrage Movement. Considerable time was devoted to critiquing "traditional" approaches to rhetorical criticism from a feminist perspective and to questioning the appropriateness of various…

  14. Science, economics, and rhetoric: environmental advocacy and the wolf reintroduction debate, 1987-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayle C. Hardy-Short; C. Brant Short

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the arguments employed in the debate over reintroduction of wolves into Idaho, Montana, and the Yellowstone National Park Ecosystem; and in Arizona and New Mexico. The study reviews common rhetorical themes used by advocates and opponents of wolf reintroduction and identifies a significant rhetorical shift in the debate. Advocates opposed to wolf...

  15. Organizational Rhetoric in the Prospectuses of Elite Private Schools: Unpacking Strategies of Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Paula; Pini, Barbara; Mayes, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The way in which private schools use rhetoric in their communications offers important insights into how these organizational sites persuade audiences and leverage marketplace advantage in the context of contemporary educational platforms. Through systemic analysis of rhetorical strategies employed in 65 "elite" school prospectuses in…

  16. Enacting Red Power: The Consummatory Function in Native American Protest Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Randall A.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the American Indian Movement (AIM) with respect to (1) the role of tradition in AIM demands; (2) militant Indian rhetoric as a form of ritual self-address; (3) how Indian religious/cultural beliefs restrict the ability of language to persuade Whites; and (4) how militant Indian rhetoric fulfills its function. (PD)

  17. Ajax isn't Ajax anymore: on power, rhetoric and identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokvis, R.

    2008-01-01

    The rhetoric of identity refers to the arguments used when supporters perceive a discrepancy between what they consider the true nature (= identity) of their club and the policy measures of its board. Based on newspaper reports, this essay analyses three cases that sparked this rhetoric. These are:

  18. Truth in politics : rhetorical approaches to democratic deliberation in Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar, P.J.; Osha, S.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Democracy is about competing "truths". This is why "rhetoric"- the study of public deliberation and the training in public debate and argumentation - is part of democracy in development. This volume acclimatizes "rhetoric" to the philosophical scene in South Africa, and more in general in Africa as

  19. Narratives and Values: The Rhetoric of the Physician Assisted Suicide Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysart, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the function of medicine as an art and as a social institution is impeded when the rhetorical nature of its practice is ignored. Offers a case study of two texts widely cited as landmarks in the physician-assisted suicide debate of the 1990s, examining their rhetorical organization and its impact on their reception. (SR)

  20. Muhammad Ali's Fighting Words: The Paradox of Violence in Nonviolent Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsevski, Ellen W.; Butterworth, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    While Muhammad Ali has been the subject of countless articles and books written by sports historians and journalists, rhetorical scholars have largely ignored him. This oversight is surprising given both the tradition of social movement scholarship within rhetorical studies and Ali's influential eloquence as a world renowned celebrity espousing…

  1. Rhetorical Moves in Problem Statement Section of Iranian EFL Postgraduate Students' Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimehchisalem, Vahid; Tarvirdizadeh, Zahra; Paidary, Sara Sayed; Binti Mat Hussin, Nur Izyan Syamimi

    2016-01-01

    The Problem Statement (PS) section of a thesis, usually a subsection of the first chapter, is supposed to justify the objectives of the study. Postgraduate students are often ignorant of the rhetorical moves that they are expected to make in their PS. This descriptive study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of the PS in Iranian master's (MA)…

  2. Deliberative Rhetoric as a Step in Organizational Crisis Management: Exxon as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Darrin; Sellnow, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    Explains that when organizations face crises, their rhetorical response often follows two steps: assessment of causes leading to the crisis, and a search for potential solutions and preventive measures for the future. States that epideictic rhetoric designed to sustain or regain the organization's reputation is effective in both steps. Examines…

  3. Are we not experimenting then? : The rhetorical demarcation of psychology and common sense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    Scientific disciplines need both autonomy and alliances with other cultural groups. In order to achieve these twin goals, scientists have to engage in boundary rhetoric and popularize the demarcation of their discipline. In the case of psychology in particular such rhetoric involves a paradoxical

  4. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  5. The Rhetoric of Bonds, Alliances, and Identities: Interrogating Social Networks in Early Modern English Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Christina J.

    2010-01-01

    The household and family have received considerable interest in studies of early modern English drama, but less attention has been paid to how writers represent intimate affective bonds on the stage. Emotion is intangible; yet many writers convincingly convey the intensity of emotional bonds through rhetoric. Rhetoric is a mainstay in…

  6. Critical Race Theory, Policy Rhetoric and Outcomes: The Case of Muslim Schools in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Damian

    2018-01-01

    The expansion of state-funded Muslim schools in Britain since 1998 has developed against a backdrop of sustained public political rhetoric around the wider position of British Muslims in both political and educational contexts. This article explores the public policy rhetoric around Muslim schools under New Labour and the subsequent Coalition and…

  7. "Aggiornamento" and the American Catholic Bishops: A Rhetoric of Institutional Continuity and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Carol J.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes 140 pastoral letters issued by the American Catholic bishops before, during, and after Vatican II (1947 through 1981). Suggests that doctrinal rhetoric has a tremendous capacity to endure accelerated social and institutional change, and that the rhetorical impact of Vatican II was quickly institutionalized in the public communications of…

  8. “Abba” revisited: merging the horizons of history and rhetoric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study uses the “Abba” metaphor to demonstrate the New Rhetoric model of metaphor as a tool to understand Paul's rhetorical purpose in using metaphors. By looking closely at the theme (i.e., the idea the author tries to convey) and phoros (i.e., the picture the author uses to convey the idea). From a historical ...

  9. The Knowledge Gap: Examining the Rhetoric and Implementation of Peer Education for HIV Prevention in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I report on an examination of the rhetoric and implementation of peer education in Myanmar. I demonstrate that while there was widespread consistency on interviewees' views of what peer education should involve, there was a significant gap between this rhetoric and the ways in which peer education was implemented, particularly in…

  10. Mary Wollstonecraft, Margaret Fuller, and Angelina Grimke: Symbolic Convergence and a Nascent Rhetorical Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxman, Susan Schultz

    1996-01-01

    Invites rhetorical critics to reappraise the way they study discreet social movements and pay isolated tribute to woman's rights figures. Examines how Mary Wollstonecraft, Margaret Fuller, and Angelina Grimke each co-opted the ideational and stylistic rhetorical characteristics of pre-existing social movements (the enlightenment,…

  11. Materiality, Symbolicity, and the Rhetoric of Order: "Dialectical Biologism" as Motive in Burke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engnell, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Considers how the work of Kenneth Burke has recently been critiqued for its lack of attention to the role of non-symbolic motivation in rhetoric. Describes Burke's contributions as a "dialectical biologism" that sets forth a system of five symbolic/material dialectics that undergird all rhetorical appeal. Suggests that the most effective…

  12. Complicating the Rhetoric: How Racial Construction Confounds Market-Based Reformers' Civil Rights Invocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Reformers today maintain the use of civil rights rhetoric when advocating for policies that address educational inequity. While continuing the legacy of earlier civil rights activists, the leaders invoking this rhetoric and the educational platforms they promote differ greatly from previous decades. Not only does this new crop of reformers differ…

  13. Material Rhetoric: Spreading Stones and Showing Bones in the Study of Prehistory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Reybrouck, D.; de Bont, R.; Rock, J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces

  14. The Death of a Rhetorical Vision: Disciples of Christ and Social Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Carl Wayne

    The Disciples of Christ, an indigenous American religious movement born on the frontier, grew rapidly until early in the twentieth century. Its growth was based on a rhetorical vision that offered a plausible interpretation of the data of the senses and accounted for developments in human activity and conditions. That rhetorical vision was linked…

  15. A scientist's voice in American culture. Simon Newcomb and the rhetoric of scientific method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, A. E.

    Through close readings of Newcomb's (1835 - 1909) published and unpublished works, the author illuminates the ways this eminent astronomer used the "rhetoric of scientific method" to great effect. The book devides into three sections: an introduction to the rhetoric of scientific method, a core of ten central chapters on Newcomb's life and thought, and the concluding commentary on pragmatism and scientific method.

  16. Aristotelian Rhetorical Theory as a Framework for Teaching Scientific and Technical Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sara

    1999-01-01

    Describes an upper level rhetorical theory course for Scientific and Technical Communication majors (developed and taught by the author) that is grounded in Aristotle's "On Rhetoric" and in his understanding that effective communication is a systematic "tekhne"/art. Describes how the course uses Aristotle's work as a…

  17. Rhetorical Inventions and Cultural Diversity--A Historical Approach: Aristotle and Confucius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia

    While Aristotle treats the nature of rhetoric as philosophical, political/practical, and artistic/technical, Confucius views language use as philosophical and political/practical but not as artistic/technical, with the result that Confucius does not seem to offer as much as Aristotle does. In their essay "Refiguring Rhetoric as an Art:…

  18. The Art of Wondering: A Revisionist Return to the History of Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, William A.

    Reacting to the tradition which has reduced rhetorics to summaries of rules and principles, this book presupposes that Plato's "Phaedrus," Aristotle's "Rhetoric," and Cicero's "De Oratore" cannot be reduced to summary information or pedagogical advice. The book considers that these works, on the contrary, along with…

  19. Identification and Consubstantiation in the 1988 California Primary Campaign Rhetoric of Jesse Jackson: A Burkeian Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Laurinda W.

    In 1988, Jesse Jackson was the second most successful candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination, finishing behind Michael Dukakis. While Jackson displayed extraordinary rhetorical talent and articulated a view of America unlike that of other candidates, little scholarly attention has been paid to his rhetoric. Examination of four of…

  20. Revealing the Mind of the Sage: The Narrative Rhetoric of the "Chuang Tzu."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, William G.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that one of the formative texts of Taoism, the "Chuang Tzu," is worthy of study by rhetoric scholars because it reveals a unique approach to rhetoric in its attempt to disclose the mind of the sage not through logic but through intuition, and it shows how storytelling can acquaint people with previously unsuspected possibilities of thought…

  1. A Rhetorical Approach to Non-Discursive Messages in Information Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kathleen

    Public information campaigns serve a primary role in contemporary American society to promote more active citizen involvement. When the U.S. government seeks to influence its citizens, it can use mass media to help produce systematic social change, particularly visual communication derived from rhetoric. Rhetorical criticism includes…

  2. Rhetorical Numbers: A Case for Quantitative Writing in the Composition Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary argument increasingly relies on quantitative information and reasoning, yet our profession neglects to view these means of persuasion as central to rhetorical arts. Such omission ironically serves to privilege quantitative arguments as above "mere rhetoric." Changes are needed to our textbooks, writing assignments, and instructor…

  3. Virtuosity as Rhetoric: Agency and Transformation in Paganini's Mastery of the Violin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David L.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the rhetorical nature of human agency. Examines in detail a concert by Nicolo Paganini, the 19th-century violinist whose striking expressive force functioned rhetorically to expand ideas concerning music and human agency and to evoke a unique sense of "communitas" by embodying the ideals of the Romantic era.…

  4. Internet Health and the 21st-Century Patient: A Rhetorical View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Judy Z.

    2009-01-01

    Internet health--here, the public use of information Web sites to facilitate decision making on matters of health and illness--is a rhetorical practice, involving text and trajectories of influence. A fulsome account of it requires attention to all parts of the rhetorical triangle--the speaker, the subject matter, and the audience--yet most…

  5. Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance; Kommers, Piet

    2008-01-01

    Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities How can we extend learner-centred theories for educational technology to include, for instance, the cultural and rhetorical backgrounds which influence participants in online communities as they engage in knowledge...... via web-based communities the intersection of culture and rhetoric in web-based communication rhetoric and discourse in the process of communicating knowledge via technology heuristics for knowledge communication from teaching in online forums connections between identity and knowledge communication...... This call for papers invites papers focused on theoretical frameworks or empirical research which highlights the cultural and/or rhetorical aspects of communicating knowledge in web based communities. We are looking for work that brings together methods and perspectives across disciplines...

  6. Sociology in American medical education since the 1960s: the rhetoric or reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegar, K

    1992-10-01

    Despite recommendations by medical reformers that medical sociology be included in the curriculum, there is currently little evidence of a far-reaching integration of sociological perspectives in American medical education. Yet, support for the relevance of sociological knowledge has since the late 1960s helped to diffuse external pressures for change in health care and medical education. As a symbol of the communitarian commitment of the medical profession, claims in favor of the incorporation of sociological perspectives have thus occasionally, and largely unintentionally, served the public relations interests of biomedicine. However, the more recent interest in medical ethics has to some degree transformed medicine's educational agenda and the definition of medical 'human values'. Whereas the rhetorical expropriation of medical sociology primarily has concerned medicine's responsibility vis-à-vis society as a whole, the new medical ethics education signifies a return to a more individualistically oriented medical morality.

  7. Political rhetoric from Canada can inform healthy public policy argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Patrick B; McIntyre, Lynn; Anderson, Laura C; Mah, Catherine L

    2017-10-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI), insufficient income to obtain adequate food, is a growing problem in Canada and other Organisation of economic cooperation and development (OECD) countries. Government political orientations impact health policies and outcomes. We critically examined Canadian political rhetoric around HFI from 1995 to 2012 as a means to support effective healthy public policy argumentation. We analysed a data set comprised of Hansard extracts on HFI from the legislative debates of the Canadian federal and three provincial governments, using thematic coding guided by interpretivist theories of policy. Extracts were examined for content, jurisdiction, the political affiliation of the legislator speaking and governing status. Members of non-governing, or 'opposition' parties, dominated the rhetoric. A central hunger-as-poverty theme was used by legislators across the political spectrum, both in government and in opposition. Legislators differed in terms of policy approach around how income should flow to citizens facing HFI: income intervention on the left, pragmatism in the centre, reliance on markets on the right. This analysis is a case-example from Canada and caution must be exercised in terms of the generalizability of findings across jurisdictions. Despite this limitation, our findings can help healthy public policy advocates in designing and communicating HFI policy interventions in OECD countries with a similar left-right spectrum. First, even with a divisive health policy issue such as actions to address HFI, core themes around poverty are widely understood. Secondly, the non-polarizing centrist, pragmatist, approach may be strategically valuable. Thirdly, it is important to treat the rhetoric of opposition members differently from that of government members. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Rhetoric, logic, and experiment in the quantum nonlocality debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graft Donald A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that quantum nonlocality (QNL has not been rigorously proven, despite the existence of recent Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPRB experiments that are claimed to be ‘loophole-free’. First, readers are alerted to rhetorical arguments, which are unfortunately often appealed to in the QNL debate, to empower readers to identify and reject such arguments. Second, logical problems in QNL proofs are described and exemplified by a discussion of the projection postulate problem. Third, experimental issues are described and exemplified by a discussion of the postselection problem. The paper concludes that QNL has not been proven and that locality cannot be excluded.

  9. "The post-antibiotic apocalypse" and the "war on superbugs": catastrophe discourse in microbiology, its rhetorical form and political function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, Brigitte

    2009-09-01

    Discourses evoking an antibiotic apocalypse and a war on superbugs are emerging just at a time when so-called "catastrophe discourses" are undergoing critical and reflexive scrutiny in the context of global warming and climate change. This article combines insights from social science research into climate change discourses with applied metaphor research based on recent advances in cognitive linguistics, especially with relation to "discourse metaphors." It traces the emergence of a new apocalyptic discourse in microbiology and health care, examines its rhetorical and political function and discusses its advantages and disadvantages. It contains a reply by the author of the central discourse metaphor, "the post-antibiotic apocalypse," examined in the article.

  10. The Role of Rhetorical Theory in Military Intelligence Analysis: A Soldier’s Guide to Rhetorical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    the course of day-to-day activities; and in 1994, according to Ferdinand Saussure , “the very ones who use it daily are [often] ignorant of it...the Discourse on Lan­ guage, 45. 25. Ibid., 5. 26. Foss, Foss, and Trapp, 12. 27. Ferdinand de Saussure , “Nature of the Linguistic Sign,” in... Saussure , Ferdinand de. “Nature of the Linguistic Sign.” In Pro­ fessing the New Rhetorics: A Sourcebook. Edited by Theresa Enos and Stuart Brown. Boston

  11. Exercising Empathy: Ancient Rhetorical Tools for Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ferry

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Can multiculturalism work? Can people from different religious and ethnic backgrounds live side by side peacefully and, even better, enrich each other? There are two ways social scientists can deal with this question. The first one, which I would label as “macro”, focuses on statistics and opinion surveys. A macro approach would, for instance, analyze the effects of an increase in religious and ethnic diversity on social indicators such as trust in neighbors, civic engagement or political participation. The second one, which I would label as “micro”, focuses on the skills citizens need for a better management of cultural diversity. This paper falls into the second category and will provide support for two claims: (1 training for intercultural communication should focus first and foremost on empathy; (2 ancient rhetorical exercises offer an effective way to develop empathy. To support the first claim, it will be argued that for a multicultural society to be peaceful, citizens need to be willing and able to use empathy when interacting with their fellow citizens of different religious, ethnic or ideological background (section I. A method to develop empathy using rhetorical exercises will then be described (section II. Finally, I present the results of an experiment to test its effectiveness with secondary school teachers (section III.

  12. Energy Department radiation rhetoric, actions at odds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-01-01

    Only months after Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary pledged that DOE would open-quotes come cleanclose quotes about past radiation abuses, the department is refusing to release individual exposure records of former workers at its heavily contaminated Fernald uranium plant. At the same time O'Leary was flying around the country to tout a new era of openness at the department, top DOE officials in January told attorneys representing the Fernald workers that individual exposure records would not be forthcoming. While agreeing to provide general health data, DOE specifically refused to disclose the names of the workers involved or their specific exposure histories at the plant, citing privacy concerns. The workers' attorneys contend the privacy concerns are spurious since every former Fernald worker contacted about possible overexposure has waived the privacy privilege and authorized DOE to release his or her records. The attorneys also note that DOE under the Bush administration released worker exposure information related to its Hanford, Wash., plant after the government and outside attorneys agreed to a protective order that assured privacy rights were not violated. The Fernald workers' attorneys maintain DOE is refusing to disclose the names of the workers to ensure that no additional workers are contacted by the attorneys and told about their possible overexposure - and the pending litigation seeking compensation for the alleged injuries. And as DOE remains silent, the attorneys say, the former Fernald workers are going without medical treatment for any possible radiation-related ailments they may have suffered as a result of working at the plant

  13. Rhetorical facets of imagination in contemporary poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Delbari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present article deals with the trend of literary imaginative descriptions in the purview of poetical imaginations which have been regarded greatly in the discourse of rhetoric’s. The different facets of imagination of these imageries are also introduced in this article. Throughout this study poetical demonstrations are dealt with on the basis of their indications, functions and profundity. Meanwhile overcoming superficial and intermediate layers of imagination towards inner and profound thoughts would represent the domination of the poets in depiction of imagery. For this purpose, an introduction of numerous imagery layers with their deep and superficial, positive and subsidiary nature is presented through some examples. The result suggests that the extent of imagery complexity among many poets has a direct relation to their subjectivity in such a way that different levels of imageries are internalized as a unique stylistic feature of any individual poet. He endeavors to ornament his poem through imagery devices. Yousefi says: “any poem in which there is not imagery cannot be regarded as a poem. “The attractiveness of such imagination and the success or failure of the poet in conveying this imagery is a matter of poet’s tendency in using imagery devices. Through this article the contemporary poems are analyzed from the view point of objectivity and subjectivity. Furthermore, the poems are studied on their functions. The analysis has been carried out from two perspectives idiosyncratic features of the poet and the characteristics of the era in which he has lived. The examples presented in this article are selected from among the poets with different linguistic backgrounds and unique ideologies. The reason behind this specific consideration is an indication of a generalizability rather than a representativeness of few poets with their idiosyncratic styles. Therefore, the results indicate the style characteristics of poet

  14. Choice in maternity: rhetoric, reality and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Rosemary; Melender, Hanna-Leena

    2009-12-01

    to inform the organisation of the maternity services in Scotland, a phenomenological study was planned to examine maternity decision making in two similarly small countries. The aim was to examine the experience of contributing to decisions at clinical, organisational and policy-making levels. When examples were needed the informants were asked to use their experience of place of birth decisions. a hermeneutic phenomenological approach was employed. In-depth, semi-structured conversations were used. The fieldwork extended over a 4-month period in 2005. The data were analysed using Colaizzi's method. Finland and New Zealand were chosen because the parallels in their health care and maternity care systems would limit disparities. In one of the Finnish centres, the findings were particularly homogeneous and exemplified many of the issues arising in other settings. The findings of the fieldwork in this Finnish centre are the focus of this paper. the informants were mothers, midwife managers/policy makers, midwives and other maternity care providers. The findings of 12 conversations, including mothers and all groups of staff, are reported here. the background theme which emerged was 'trusting the system'. The informants were aware of the extent to which change is happening. One of the sub-themes contrasted the informants' perceptions of their lack of strength and courage with Finnish stereotypes. Being safe proved to be another crucial issue. The final sub-theme was 'playing the system'. trust in a well-respected health-care system was necessary for the informants to be able to subvert or resist that system. While such resistance has been documented in other disciplines, such as nursing, reference has not been found in relation to maternity. The resistance to the system was, at the time of the fieldwork, neither co-ordinated nor collaborative. the findings of this study carry important implications for women's and midwives' input into maternity care.

  15. An Exploratory Study of the Rhetoric in CSR Reports: A Comparison of Shari’ah Compliant Company and Non –Shari’ah Compliant Company in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razak Rafizan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances previous research in corporate social reporting (CSR by using a taxonomy of five distinct rhetorical strategies to examine any differences in term of type of ethical categories and to identify moral attitudes towards different societal activities between Shari’ah compliant company Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB and Non-Shari’ah compliant company Malayan Banking Berhad (Maybank. The data is analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed that there are different rhetoric applied in both types of companies such as Agency (profit, Benefit (collective welfare, Compliance (law and contracts, Duty and Ethos (virtue. In term of moral attitudes, both types of companies disclosed relatively similar behaviour and commitment towards CSR. This research is the first of its kind to be conducted in Malaysia by using this new approach and will contribute new insights to existing CSR literatures in Malaysia.

  16. Dangerous relation: chivalrousness and sexism through a look at the novel of Laclos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Carneiro da Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Product of a scientific initiation research, this article part of un hermeneutic interpretation of the novel by Choderlos de Laclos (Dangerous Relations, 1971 and his filmic adaptation (Dangerous Liaisons, Stephen Frears, 1988 in search of launching a new look at the male figures of gentleman and sexist, understand them as movements that are approaching, cohabit, interpenetrate and infl uence, confi guring the chivalrousness a form of change to stay for sexism.

  17. Topic theory and Brazilian musicality: Considerations on rhetoricity in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio T. C. Piedade

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an application of the topic theory to the analyses of Brazilian music. It starts with a reflection on the concepts of musicality, friction of musicalities in Brazilian jazz, and the fusion of musicalities that emerges from the invention of tradition. The discussion follows with the question of the adaptability of topic theory to national musics. Then, some musical examples are used in order to present some of the universes of topics of Brazilian music. In this article I argue that the concept of rhetoricity brings good results to the study of musical signification, and that the theory of topics is useful for other contexts than classical music, being an interesting route to the investigation of sociocultural connections in musicalities.

  18. Consumer Engagement in Health IT: Distinguishing Rhetoric from Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marsha; Hossain, Mynti; Mangum, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers want health information technology (health IT) to support consumer engagement to help achieve national health goals. In this paper, we review the evidence to compare the rhetoric with the reality of current practice. Our environmental scan shows that consumer demand exists for electronic access to personal health information, but that technical and system or political barriers still limit the value of the available information and its potential benefits. There is a gap between current reality and the goals for consumer engagement. Actions that may help bridge this gap include: (1) resolving technical barriers to health information exchange (HIE); (2) developing more consumer-centric design and functionality; (3) reinforcing incentives that attract provider support by showing that consumer engagement is in their interest; and (4) building a stronger empirical case to convince decision makers that consumer engagement will lead to better care, improved health outcomes, and lower costs.

  19. Rhetorical, Metacognitive, and Cognitive Strategies in Teacher Candidates’ Essay Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Díaz Larenas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study about the rhetoric, metacognitive, and cognitive strategies pre-service teachers use before and after a process-based writing intervention when completing an argumentative essay. The data were collected through two think-aloud protocols while 21 Chilean English as a foreign language pre-service teachers completed an essay task. The findings show that strategies such as summarizing, reaffirming, and selecting ideas were only evidenced during the post intervention essay, without the use of communication and socio-affective strategies in either of the two essays. All in all, a process-based writing intervention does not only influence the number of times a strategy is used, but also the number of students who employs strategies when writing an essay—two key considerations for the devising of any writing program.

  20. Persian Linguistic and Rhetorical Pathology in The Telegram Communication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hedayat Mofidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the mobile phone, with its wide range of features, is an inexpensive, easy to use, and most modern communication tool. One of the special applications of smart phones is providing spaces and facilities such as SMS services, virtual networks, and interactive groups that link people and groups from different linguistic and cultural background. In this paper, we tried to study the messages of the Farsi-speaking users of the Telegram communication network from the linguistics perspective. In this regard, the linguistics and rhetorical correspondence of short messages in Persian language was studied by the content-analysis method. The statistical population consisted of 150 messages which contained 327 sentences. These messages were randomly selected from 5 different groups. Persian language used in cyberspace differs from standard Persian language. The first step in correcting communication language errors in cyberspace is to inform the users about the type of errors.

  1. The Case of 'Mafiaboy' and the Rhetorical Limits of Hacktivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Genosko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the "Mafiaboy" case of 2000, in which a teenage hacker from Montréal brought down several blue chip American Web sites. What makes the subsequent court case compelling is that the categories and distinctions developed in the academic literature on hacker culture were shown to fit the Mafiaboy case too perfectly. They circulated with ease across defense and prosecution lines, yet upon closer inspection reveal themselves to be empty containers and rhetorically hollow. Via content analysis of an extensive media dossier, it is demonstrated that the mundane reality behind the media hype surrounding the case challenges the popular and political perception of the "hacker". Mafiaboy himself may have also discovered the incommensurability of his imagined future as a hacker legend and corporate security expert employee, and his everyday reality as a computer loving teen whose curiosity passed over into mischief with data, and beyond.

  2. Rhetorics in Financial Reporting: An Interpretive Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Chariri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a case study conducted in an Indonesian insurance company. The aim of the study is to understand the dynamics of financial reporting in the company. Ontologically, this study is built on a belief that financial reporting practice is a socially constructed reality. As a socially constructed reality, such a practice involves an interaction among social actors, and between organisational actors and the institutional and cultural environment in which the company operates. The main research question of this study is why and how the company constructs its financial reporting to deliver messages to its audience. This study reveals that the company is committed to quality financial reporting because such reporting can be used to gain legitimacy and to maintain social harmony. Consequently, financial reporting is constructed as a rhetorical story about its performance, management ability and insight into the future.

  3. Rhetorical values and aesthetic values in Ovid’s Metamorphoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Gheorghe BÂRLEA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Among Ovid’s writings the catalogue of metamorphoses is a literary convention which is more frequent and more significant than it may be thought. The apparently arid formula of the concepts list acquired rhetorical, philosophical, and none the less aesthetic values under Ovid’s pen. The process of acquiring rich and delicately expressed significations enhanced over the time from the lyrical distiches of his youth, such as Amores or Heroides, over to the poems written during his exile, such as Tristia, the climax being the didactic poem in dactylic hexameter Metamorphoses (1-8 AD, unfinished or in any case unperfected. The use of a literary text as support across time and space for his polemics with personalities of the Roman cultural or political world is in accordance with the nonconformist spirit of Publius Ovidius Naso.

  4. Consumer Engagement in Health IT: Distinguishing Rhetoric from Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marsha; Hossain, Mynti; Mangum, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Policymakers want health information technology (health IT) to support consumer engagement to help achieve national health goals. In this paper, we review the evidence to compare the rhetoric with the reality of current practice. Current Reality and Barriers: Our environmental scan shows that consumer demand exists for electronic access to personal health information, but that technical and system or political barriers still limit the value of the available information and its potential benefits. Conclusions and Policy Implications: There is a gap between current reality and the goals for consumer engagement. Actions that may help bridge this gap include: (1) resolving technical barriers to health information exchange (HIE); (2) developing more consumer-centric design and functionality; (3) reinforcing incentives that attract provider support by showing that consumer engagement is in their interest; and (4) building a stronger empirical case to convince decision makers that consumer engagement will lead to better care, improved health outcomes, and lower costs. PMID:26665120

  5. « Change » Rhetoric as innovation device in Tunisian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali ELHAOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the “Tunisia change” toward structural unemployment of young graduates highlight the “change’s era” as a unique innovative solution. In this publicity process, the Democratic Constitutional Rally (RCD partystate plays a major communicative role. It acts indeed the same way as a huge communication agency. The party, internally, will have the responsibility to promote the presidential actions on the ground. Externally, in a gradually globalized world market where suitcaseconcepts such as “good” or “new governance”, “democratic transition”, “sustainable development” and “information society” are plentiful, the RCD’s role is therefore to be a catch-all rhetoric.

  6. Theoretical Proposal for Pragmatic-Rhetorical Analysis of Argument in the Tourist Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Iliana Rosabal-Pérez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to present a useful theoretical proposal for the analysis of argumentation within the guidebook genre. The study perspective is supported on the rhetorical-pragmatic perspective of argumentation provided by some authors as well as the theoretical models applied to the study of persuasion in guidebooks suggested by Adam/Bonhomme (1997, Hernández-Santaolalla and Cobo-Durán (2010. The analysis of argumentation in this kind of text must consider a tactical and strategic view of  the rhetorical actions; that is to say, not to abstain from the elocution traditional examination since argumentation is an essential devise obtainable in the whole test. Keywords: rhetorical, argumentation, guidebook, rhetorical operations, topical.

  7. a rhetorical analysis of philippians 1:1-11 1. introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The aim of this article is to analyse Philippians 1:1-11 from a rhetorical perspective ..... gospel. koinwniva includes, but is not limited to, the financial contri- butions of .... einsichtig”) and the whole statement tautological if one inter-.

  8. John Stuart Mill's "On Liberty": Implications for the Epistemology of the New Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherwitz, Richard A.; Hikins, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses John Stuart Mill's nineteenth century treatise and reveals that it embodies the tenets of a sophisticated theory of argument. Makes clear the implications of that theory for contemporary rhetoric. (JMF)

  9. Richard M. Nixon's Rhetorical Strategies in His Public Statements on Watergate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1982-01-01

    Identifies nine rhetorical strategies in Nixon's public utterances on Watergate and traces their development through four phases. Examines polls which reveal that these strategies failed to stem the tide of negative opinion. (PD)

  10. Experience of Linguo-rhetoric Approach Realization in the Process of Classical Writer Literal Personality Idiodiscourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladlena V. Siganova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes major results of integrated linguo-rhetoric approach application to writer’s idiodiscourse (F.M. Dostoevsky’s ‘The Brothers Karamazov’ case study.

  11. Translating agency reform through durable rhetorical styles: comparing official agency talk across consensus and adversarial contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smullen, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article directs attention to the role of ideational variables in shaping public management reform initiatives. It considers the contribution of both endogenous rhetorical styles and exogenous international fashions in explaining official agency talk in consensus and adversarial contexts.

  12. The Figures of Speech, "Ethos," and Aristotle: Notes toward a Rhetoric of Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallendorf, Craig; Kallendorf, Carol

    1985-01-01

    Demonstrates that business writers rely far more heavily than expected on classical figures of speech. Uses Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to show that figures of speech offer a powerful tool for the persuasive function of modern business communication. (PD)

  13. Ethical persuasion: the rhetoric of communication in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alex

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the ethics of rhetoric in critical care. Rational appeals in critical care fail to move patients or surrogates to a better course of action. Appeals to their emotions are considered illegitimate because they may preclude autonomous choice. This article discusses whether it is always unethical to change someone's beliefs, whether persuasive communication is inherently harmful and whether it leaves no space for voluntariness. To answer these questions, the article engages with Aristotle's work, Rhetoric. In considering whether there is a place for emotionally charged messages in a patient-provider relationship, the article intends to delineate the nature of this relationship and describe the duties this relationship implies. The article presents examples of persuasive communication used in critical care and discusses whether providers may have a duty to persuade patients. This duty is supported by the fact that doctors often influence patients' and families' choices by framing presented options. Doctors should assume responsibility in recognizing these personal and contextual influences that may influence the medical choices of their patients. They should attempt to modify these contextual factors and biases in a way that would assist patients and families in reaching the desired outcomes. The opening sections surveyed a number of definitions found in relevant literature and outlined some of the concepts included in the proposed definition. This definition helps to distinguish instances of persuasion from cases of manipulation, coercion and deception. Considering the fact that patients and families often make irrational decisions and the fact that doctors inadvertently influence their choices, the article suggested that persuasion can be a positive tool in medical communication. When patients or families clearly do not understand the risks or make decisions that contradict their long-term goals, persuasion can be used as a positive influence.

  14. ASPECTUAL INFLUENCE ON TEMPORAL RELATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF THE EXPERIENTIAL GUO IN MANDARINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Shiung Wu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the temporal relation between a clause containing the experiential guo and an adjacent clause is determined. Mandarin is a language not morphologically marked for tenses (e.g., Lin 2006, and therefore, tenses cannot help in determining temporal relations in Mandarin. However, Mandarin has a rich aspectual system. This paper argues that the experiential guo indirectly influences temporal relations via rhetorical relations by either specifying a default rhetorical relation, or by constraining the circumstances under which a certain rhetorical relation can connect a clause with guo to an adjacent clause. This paper also argues that the default rhetorical relation and the constraints are determined by the aspectual properties of the experiential marker. Other information, such as discourse connectors, lexical information, etc., can override the default rhetorical relation indicated by guo and specifies a rhetorical relation. Therefore, this paper concludes that in Mandarin aspect markers can indirectly affect temporal relations by means of rhetorical relations, a result consistent with Wu’s (2005b paper on the perfective marker le in Mandarin, and Wu’s (2007b, 2004 work on the progressive marker zai and the durative marker zhe.

  15. Communication situation and positioning in virtual meetings - rhetorical implications for interpersonal management communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederikke; Nielsen, Rikke Kristine; Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2017-01-01

    , a living room or just a plain white wall. Seen from a rhetorical perspective, the communication situation in a virtual meeting consists of all the participants’ individual frameworks on a screen which must converge into a context suitable for interpersonal communication, interaction and collaboration....... It is argued, that virtual leadership must respond to the situation with rhetorical sensitivity by corresponding attentively and carefully to the conditions, positions and experiences of the particular followers in order to evoke their responsiveness and build commitment....

  16. Know Yourself, Define Your Enemy: Presidential Rhetoric and American Strategic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    declared the situation in Iran as an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy and the economy of the United States. It...presidents will be examined using the case studies of Iran and North Korea. By using these two countries the examination of rhetoric against strategic...reality of the U.S. and has considerable implications for the future. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Rhetoric, Strategic Culture, Presidents, Iran , North Korea

  17. Entrepreneurial orientation rhetoric in franchise organizations: The impact of national culture

    OpenAIRE

    Watson , Anna; Dada , O. Lola; Wright , Owen; Perrigot , Rozenn

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This study examines the role of national culture on the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) rhetoric contained within franchisee recruitment promotional materials, where EO rhetoric is defined as the strategic use of words in organizational narratives to convey the risk taking, innovativeness, proactiveness, autonomy and competitive aggressiveness of the firm. The sample comprised 378 franchise organizations, in five different countries (Australia, France, India, South Af...

  18. MARKETING TECHNIQUES: RHETORICAL STRATEGIES IN CEOs’ LETTERS INTRODUCING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REPORTS OF THE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca GÂŢĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides limited but new details on the rhetoric of Chief Executive Officers’ letters to stakeholders. We analyze CEOs’ letters to which introduce Corporate Social Responsibility reports for 2012 of several US large companies. The analysis is rooted in discourse analysis, rhetoric, and the theory of argumentation. It yields significant results to be later valued in the field of Business Ethics.

  19. «Public Enemy»: from Lenin’s Rhetoric to Stalin’s Ideologeme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga U. Popova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the problem of Soviet ideologeme of the enemy from within in the period of pre-war Stalinism. Stalin’s ideologeme is considered as consistent continuity with Lenin’s enemy rhetoric. The article discloses the development of Lenin’s enemy rhetoric, singles out stages of Stalin’s enemy ideologeme establishment as a part of official ideologic policy and analyses its features.

  20. Sexist double standard in media: how Marcela Temer and Dilma Rousseff (PT are portrayed in Veja Magazine and IstoÉ Magazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Conceição Veloso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A forma como a mídia brasileira retrata a mulher no campo político é um dos aportes deste artigo, que analisa as reportagens de duas revistas semanais, a Veja e a IstoÉ: enquanto a primeira tenta mostrar uma vice-primeira-dama, Marcela Temer, como “bela, recatada e do lar”, a segunda traz uma presidenta da República, Dilma Rousseff, histérica, destemperada, cuja manchete de capa é “As explosões nervosas da presidente”. As duas edições são veiculadas no contexto da votação do impeachment da presidenta Dilma Rousseff (PT, votado na Câmara Federal em  abril de 2016 e, no Senado, em maio e em agosto do mesmo ano. Utilizando como referenciais teóricos a Economia Política da Comunicação, o trabalho mostra o caráter patriarcal, misógino e preconceituoso das publicações, que reproduzem valores consoantes a formações ideológicas sexistas.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mídia; Economia Política da Comunicação; Dilma Rousseff; Marcela Temer; Sexismo.   ABSTRACTThis paper aims to show how Brazilian media portrays women in politics. Articles about two public female figures published by Brazilian weekly news magazines, Veja and IstoÉ, were analyzed. While Veja tried to show the Second Lady Marcela Temer as a “beautiful, demure housewife”, IstoÉ portrayed the President of the Republic, Dilma Rousseff, as hysterical, intemperate, and published the headline “The nervous explosions of the President”. Both editions were published in the context of Dilma Rousseff (PT impeachment trial. Between April and August 2016, the lower chamber voted for impeachment and the Senate voted to begin the trial, resulting in Rousseff’s suspension. Using the Political Economy of Communication as theoretical reference, this paper shows the patriarchal, misogynist and prejudiced character of the magazines, which reproduce sexist ideas.   KEYWORDS: Media; Political Economy of Communications; Dilma Rouseff; Marcela Temer; Sexism.  

  1. Rhetoric of civil conflict management: United Nations Security Council debates over the Syrian civil war

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    Juraj Medzihorsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a spatial model of civil conflict management rhetoric to explore how the emerging norm of responsibility to protect shapes major power rhetorical responses to civil war. Using framing theory, we argue that responsibility to protect functions like a prescriptive norm, such that representing a conflict as one of (1 human rights violations (problem definition, implies rhetorical support for (2 coercive outside intervention (solution identification. These dimensions reflect the problem-solution form of a prescriptive norm. Using dictionary scaling with a dynamic model, we analyze the positions of UN Security Council members in debates over the Syrian Civil War separately for each dimension. We find that the permanent members who emphasized human rights violations also used intervention rhetoric (UK, France, and the US, and those who did not used non-intervention rhetoric (Russia and China. We conclude that, while not a fully consolidated norm, responsibility to protect appears to have structured major power rhetorical responses to the Syrian Civil War.

  2. Rhetoric in visual arabic poetry: from the Mamluk period to the digital age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Younis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2015v11n1p118 Rhetoric has been of great importance in philosophy, criticism and literature since Aristotle, through the Golden Age of Arabic studies and down to modern literary trends. Rhetoric is tightly bound with literary texts in all their manifestations and artistic, literary and analytic gradations. There are three aspects of rhetoric in every literary text of whatever type. One of these has to do with content, that is, with the author's ability to convince the receiver by alternately addressing his mind through logic and proofs and his heart by arousing in him feelings of desire and dread. This aspect of rhetoric is know in Arabic as ʿilm al-bayān (rhetoric in the strict sense. Another aspect concerns style, that is, a writer's ability to manipulate words and create novel linguistic modes through the use of metaphors, similes and other devices, which in Arabic is called ʿilm al-badīʿ ("the science of metaphors and good style". The third aspect concerns form, that is, the text's structure, its forms and icons. This is known as al-balāgha al-baṣriyya ("visual eloquence". Although there are various distinct types of balāgha ("eloquence, good style, rhetoric in the general sense", they all have one purpose, namely to affect the receiver in some way.

  3. The Taste in Veracruzan Bodies: Culinary and Sexual Rhetorics and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Martos, Juan Antonio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is framed on the theory and current anthropology of the senses, and in particular, tries to explore the sense of taste —the sensual taste— in the urban culture of Veracruz, Mexico. The article is an ethnographic study about the place that rhetorics and practices, related to food and sex, have in the society and social imagination from Veracruz. For this purpose, I take as reference my fieldwork during the 90s in this city. Stories and discourses are analyzed in an approach to understand the singular and hegemonic “cosmo-tasting” among the people from Veracruz. I focus my analysis on sociability, gastronomy and sexuality that engage the senses in veracruzan daily life. In particular, I study the sensory as identity rhetoric, the veracruzan meals as cultural world maps, the ambigu taste, the compound pleasure and the libertine taste from veracruzan males. Finally, I identify the main categories of morphological Veracruzan taste

    Esta contribución se enmarca en la teoría y corriente de la antropología de los sentidos, y en particular, intenta explorar el sentido del gusto —el gusto sensual— en la cultura urbana de Veracruz, México. El artículo es un estudio etnográfico sobre el lugar que las retóricas y prácticas referidas a comidas y al sexo tienen en la sociedad e imaginación social veracruzana, a partir de mi trabajo de campo realizado en los años 90 en esta ciudad. Historias y discursos diferentes son analizados en una aproximación para comprender la “gustación del mundo” hegemónica y singular entre las gentes de Veracruz. Centro mi análisis en los campos de la sociabilidad, la gastronomía y la sexualidad que comprometen los sentidos en la vida cotidiana veracruzana. De modo especial, estudio lo sensorial como retórica identitaria, los platos veracruzanos como mapamundis culturales, el gusto de ambigú y el placer compuesto y el gusto libertino de los varones veracruzanos

  4. Invitational Rhetoric and the Case for Service Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L. Hicks-Goldston

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research argues for repositioning Service Learning as a necessary part of public education, with the transformative goal of empowered communities operating in a social-collaborative framework from communities dependent on overburdened state and local government programs and services. Such repositioning depends on recognition of Service Learning as a means of providing that preparation. To “mainstream” Service Learning, this research proposes two initiatives: (a Foster the idea of the Service Learning experience as citizenship/community building by associating the experience with embedded cultural values and (b apply Invitational Rhetoric in persuading students and parents to view Service Learning as something other than imposed servitude or social consciousness for a grade. Service Learning has proven to be successful in changing students’ attitudes about their place in society. If Service Learning were a part of the common educational core, the potential for repositioning its value to citizenry would be highly expanded. Because many communities lack access to education and training for the citizenry, Service Learning could supply that link to empowerment.

  5. Fishful Thinking: Rhetoric, Reality, and the Sea Before Us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony J. Pitcher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries science and management have been shrouded in controversy and rhetoric for over 125 yrs. Human reliance on fish through history (and even prehistory has impacted the sea and its resources. Global impacts are manifest today in threatened food security and vulnerable marine ecosystems. Growing consumer demand and subsidized industrial fisheries exacerbate ecosystem degradation, climate change, global inequities, and local poverty. Ten commonly advocated fisheries management solutions, if implemented alone, cannot remedy a history of intense fishing and serial stock depletions. Fisheries policy strategies evaluated along five performance modalities (ecological, economic, social, ethical, and institutional suggest that composite management strategies, such as ecosystem-based management and historically based restoration, can do better. A scientifically motivated solution to the fisheries problem can be found in the restorable elements of past ecosystems, if some of our present ideology, practices, and tastes can be relinquished for this historical imperative. Food and social security can be enhanced using a composite strategy that targets traditional food sources and implements customary management practices. Without binding laws, however, instituting such an ethically motivated goal for fisheries policy can easily be compromised by global market pressures. In a restored and productive ecosystem, fishing is clearly the privilege of a few. The realities of imminent global food insecurity, however, may dictate a strategy to deliberately fish down the food web, if the basic human right to food is to be preserved for all.

  6. The spatial rhetoric of Gustav Zeiller's popular anatomical museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakiner, Nike

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the public experience of science by studying the exhibition practice of a small popular anatomy museum. The owner, Gustav Zeiller, a little-known German model maker and entrepreneur, opened his private collection in Dresden in 1888 with the aim of providing experts and laymen alike with a scientific education on bodily matters and health care. The spatial configuration of his museum environment turned the wax models into didactic instruments. Relying on the possible connexion between material culture studies and history of the emotions, this article highlights how Zeiller choreographed the encounter between the museum objects and its visitors. I argue that the spatial set up of his museum objects entailed rhetorical choices that did not simply address the social utility of his museum. Moreover, it fulfilled the aim of modifying the emotional disposition of his intended spectatorship. I hope to show that studying the emotional responses toward artefacts can offer a fruitful approach to examine the public experience of medicine.

  7. Social conflict and sacrificial rhetoric: Luther’s discursive intervention and the religious division of labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Sacrifice’ is a religious term whose use extends far beyond the church door. People from all walks of life speak of ‘sacrifice’ when they want to evoke an irreducible conflict in the relations between self, family, and society. In America, hardly a speech goes by without political leaders insisting upon the necessity and virtue of sacrifice, but rarely will they clarify who is sacrificing what, and to whom. Indeed, this is not only an American phenomenon, as a number of recent texts examining ‘sacrifice’ as a term in various national discourses have shown. Such a political and economic deployment of a religious figure demands interpretation, for not only does the rhetoric of sacrifice span the globe, it constitutes a problem with a long genealogy. As a key moment in the Western segment of this genealogy, this article examines the way that Luther’s exegetical work rhetoricalized sacrifice, and, in doing so, constructed a new discursive position, the pastor as anti-sophist, or parrhesiast, in the religious division of labor.

  8. Ethics, rhetoric, and expectations: responsibilities and obligations of health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Health care organization foundations and other fund-raising departments often function at an arm's length from the system at large. As such, operations related to their mandate to raise funds and market the organization do not receive the same level of ethical scrutiny brought to bear on other arms within the organization. An area that could benefit from a more focused ethics lens is the use of language and rhetoric employed in order to raise funds and market the organization. Such departments and divisions often utilize overblown promises of miracles and extraordinary advances to convince donors to contribute and to persuade the general public. The result can be a heightened sense of expectation on the part of patients, their families, and the general public as to what can realistically be achieved by the health care system, leading to disappointment and conflict when these expectations are not or cannot be met. This article suggests that such advertising and marketing be subject to the same advertising standards as other businesses.

  9. "Who Knows Not But Speaks Is Not Wise; Who Knows But Speaks Not Is Not Loyal!": Rhetoric of Philosophical Wisdom in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guanjun

    The persistent cultural conservatism in Western scholarship has led to the exclusion of Chinese rhetoric from the canon of rhetorical studies. However, the assumption that Chinese culture does not have a rhetorical tradition is misleading and inappropriate. It stems from any number of notions: that the Chinese language is not as logical as those…

  10. Language, Rhetoric, and Politics in a Global Context: A Decolonial Critical Discourse Perspective on Nigeria's 2015 Presidential Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yunana

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation, I conceptualize a rhetorical and linguistic analysis of politics from a decolonial framework (Mignolo, 2011; Smith, 2012). My analysis draws on classical rhetoric (Aristotle, 2007), cultural rhetoric (Mao, 2014; Powell, et al., 2014; Yankah, 1995), and linguistics (Chilton, 2004) to reveal the different ways ideological and…

  11. The Myth-Making Function of the Rhetoric of the American Revolution: Francis Hopkinson as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kurt W.

    The author suggests a critical approach to the rhetoric of the American Revolution focusing on the concept of "myth-making. This operates in revolutionary rhetoric when the revolutionist creates a spiritual dynamism for his movement through appeals that suggest the sanction of supra-rational forces. The author applies this concept to the…

  12. Linking Contextual Factors with Rhetorical Pattern Shift: Direct and Indirect Strategies Recommended in English Business Communication Textbooks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Zhu, Pinfan

    2011-01-01

    Scholars have consistently claimed that rhetorical patterns are culturally bound, and indirectness is a defining characteristic of Chinese writing. Through examining how the rhetorical mechanism of directness and indirectness is presented in 29 English business communication textbooks published in China, we explore how English business…

  13. A Comparison of Rhetorical Move Structure of Applied Linguistics Research Articles Published in International and National Thai Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannaruk, Anchalee; Amnuai, Wirada

    2016-01-01

    The rhetorical organization of research articles has attracted extensive attention in genre study, and the focus of move-based analysis is on the textual function. The primary aim of the present study was the comparison of the rhetorical moves of English research articles in the field of Applied Linguistics written by Thai first authors and…

  14. ThEoLogy ANd RhEToRIC: REdEFININg ThE RELATIoNShIP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Produced by SUN MedIA Bloemfontein ... contexts of Paul's diverse letters – with multiple social issues and different rhetorical .... peripheral, or things/words; the verba, rhetoric, “are the contingent .... language in the mouth of the apostle Peter.

  15. The rhetoric of organizational stability and creativity: an analysis of the term ‘platform’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry D. Browning

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the term platform as it surfaced in interview data from Norway and the United States that was collected in a field research project on organizational technology use. Through an inductive analysis of the term’s use in six interviews, a conceptualization of the term reveals it to be rhetorical in nature, expressing the interplay between stability and creativity. In order to explain the rhetorical aspects we describe, the authors turn to the rhetorical critic Kenneth Burke’s work to aid in conceptualizing the term, specifically his understanding of scene and agency. The authors present the conceptualization to help researchers on two levels. On the micro-level, we offer an analysis of the term platform. On the macro-level, we illustrate how grounded theory can help locate other terms that have unacknowledged salience to researchers, consultants, and interviewees. 

  16. How the conceptions of Chinese rhetorical expressions are derived from the corresponding generic sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenhui

    2018-04-01

    Generic sentences are simple and intuitive recognition and objective description to the external world in terms of "class". In the long evolutionary process of human being's language, the concepts represented by generic sentences has been internalized to be the defaulted knowledge in people's minds. In Chinese, some rhetorical expressions supported by corresponding generic sentences can be accepted by people. The derivation of these rhetorical expressions from the corresponding generic sentences is an important way for language to evolution, which reflects human's creative cognitive competence. From the perspective of conceptual blend theory and the theory of categorization of the cognitive linguistics, the goal of this paper is to analysis the process of the derivation of the rhetorical expressions from the corresponding generic sentences, which can facilitate the Chinese metaphorical information processing and the corpus construction of Chinese emotion metaphors.

  17. Reconsidering 'Set the People Free': Neoliberalism and Freedom Rhetoric in Churchill's Conservative Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, James

    2017-09-18

    It is often assumed that 'Hayekian' or 'neoliberal' influences lay behind Conservative attacks on socialism in 1945 and subsequent calls to 'set the people free' in 1950 and 1951. This assumption has had consequences for our understanding of late-1940s Conservatism and for wider interpretations of post-war politics. Heeding recent calls to reconnect the inter-war and post-war parties and to pay closer attention to how opponents and contexts generate arguments, this article revisits senior Conservatives' rhetoric between 1945 and 1951 to break the link between neoliberal influence and freedom rhetoric. First, it argues that the rhetoric of 1945 was derived from a distinctly Conservative lineage of interwar argument and reflected strategies developed before the publication of F. A. Hayek's 'The Road to Serfdom'. Second, it demonstrates that senior Conservatives' emancipatory rhetoric in opposition after 1945 was neither a simple continuation of these themes nor primarily a response to the public's growing antipathy towards rationing and controls. Rather, such rhetoric was a complex response to Britain's immediate economic difficulties and the political challenges presented by austerity. Finally, the article sheds new light on the strategy that governed the party's campaigns in 1950 and 1951. Churchill and others' calls to 'set the people free' stemmed from a belief that the rhetorical opportunity lay in reconciling liberty with security. In that sense, the leadership had moved beyond begrudging compromises with the 'Attleean settlement' and was instead attempting to define a new identity within the parameters of the welfare state. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Allegory, Poetrie, Rhetoric: On the Notion of Poetic Fiction in France at the End of the 15 th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina K. Staf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The allegorical dimension of the text in the early French Renaissance culture became, under the influence of Boccaccio’s Genealogy of the Pagan Gods, the main argument in the defense of poetic fiction (fabula. However, the transfer of Boccaccio’s ideas to France was followed by significant reconsideration of his work’s fundamental principles. Whereas in Genealogy, the truth (hidden under the veil of the “fables” is a series of virtual mythological interpretations that represent a solid macrocosm, French followers of the Italian humanist, from the Augustinian Jacques Legrand, author of the treatise Eloquent Sofia-Wisdom (ca. 1400 to the anonymous author of The Poetic Stories of Olympus (1539, develop a different understanding. Bearing on the tradition of both medieval mythography and the medieval versions of Ovid’s Metamorphosis, they form extensive lists of ancient Gods and characters, interpreting the ancient myth as figurative instruction in the true faith. Interpretation becomes primary to the myth thus moving the myth into the realm of “moral philosophy” and turning it into an exemplum, an instructive example. Such exegesis functionally equates poetic “fables” of the Ancient Greeks and Romans with Biblical plots: from both, a “moral philosopher” or preacher can draw the material he needs. This is how Jacques Legrand understands the essence and the tasks of the science of fiction (poetrie. “Poetrie,” a catalogue of moralized fictional images and plots, separated into loci communes and classified according to the categories of moral philosophy, becomes part of the rhetoric as it penetrates into some treatises on the “second rhetoric,” related to the verse in the national language. By the beginning of the 16 th century, the doctrine of the fabula became wholly subordinated by the principle of “decorated speech” and added to a set of rhetorical figures for the usage of the speaker. Poetic fiction acquired a

  19. Comments About The New Rhetoric Theory Of Chaïm Perelman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Calado

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay pretends to demonstrate how the issue of the interpretation of legal norms was treated in the New Rhetoric of Chaïm Perelman. The theory emerged in the 1950´s criticizing juridical positivism and bringing back the possibility of reinsertion of valuational matters in the application of the law. With the scope of not compromising legal predictability, notions like equity and reasonability where hitched to the concept. Furthermore, the essay aimed, with the collation of literary works about the theme, to analyze the possibility of applying the New Rhetoric theory in the Brazilian Legal Order, The method utilized was the critic- deductive.

  20. Science and Rhetoric From Bacon to Hobbes; Responses to the Problem of Eloquence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappen, James P.

    Decisive changes in the history of rhetoric occurred with the publication of Francis Bacon's "Advancement of Learning" and "De augmentis scientiarum" and "Leviathan" by Thomas Hobbes. Bacon and Hobbes responded to the problem of eloquence common to scientists in the early seventeenth century, which centered on three…

  1. The Culture of Science and the Rhetoric of Scientism: From Francis Bacon to the Darwin Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessl, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    The culture of modern science continues to establish its public identity by appealing to values and historical conceptions that reflect its appropriation of various religious ideals during its formative period, most especially in the rhetoric of Francis Bacon. These elements have persisted because they continue to achieve similar goals, but the…

  2. A Newcomer Gains Power: An Analysis of the Role of Rhetorical Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Susan M.

    1998-01-01

    Offers a case study describing how the rhetorical expertise of a young woman (at the lowest professional level in a male-dominated bureaucratic organization) gave her the power to revise the processes by which her organization did its work, to rewrite the job descriptions of the managers within the organization, and to create a unique role for…

  3. The "Journal of General Education" and an Institutional Return to Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, James

    2012-01-01

    Henry W. Sams served on the editorial boards of "College English," "College Composition and Communication," and the "Journal of General Education." He was able to influence the kinds of articles on composition and rhetoric being published throughout this period, and he and his colleagues increased broad awareness of…

  4. Authority and Legitimacy: A Rhetorical Case Study of the Iranian Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisey, D. Ray; Trebing, J. David

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the legitimacy crisis in Iran in 1978-79 arose from the contrasting views of authority espoused by the Shah and the Ayatollah over 25 years and describes how their rhetoric expresses the two impulses of the progressive and the traditionalist orientation of authority. Employs a critical perspective to analyze various rhetorical…

  5. Female and Male Modes of Rhetoric in an Advanced Composition Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Catherine E.

    A college composition course based on teaching the difference between male and female modes of rhetoric offers advantages over the traditional course in reference, persuasive, and expressive discourse: the appeal to student emotion provided by the terms "female" and "male," and the clarity of the terms in delineating the…

  6. the rhetorical analysis of the letter to the galatians: 1995-2005

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002a:11) points out that sophistic rhetoric was not aimed at reflecting truth or even at achieving logical consistency, but rather at winning the ar- gument at all costs. Furthermore, Vos (2002a:14ff.) describes the attempts by. Plato and Aristotle to ...

  7. From Hitler to Hurricanes, Vietnam to Virginia Tech: Using Historical Nonfiction to Teach Rhetorical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckelhimer, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Historical nonfiction is effective in teaching rhetoric for two main reasons. First, historical texts communicate through a real-world lens that students can understand and find familiar. Students study history and are exposed to current events through the news, school, and each other. Second, since history affects people's lives so broadly, its…

  8. Ego Defense and Media Access: Conflicting Rhetorical Needs of a Contemporary Social Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kathleen J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the relationship among the social movements of the 1960s, particularly the feminist movement and the mass media. Analyzes the nature of the rhetoric of social activism in that period which is characterized by the ego-defensive responses to media-created reality and by ego-building responses to media's reality-creating potential. (JMF)

  9. The Rhetoric of Industrial Espionage: The Case of "Starwood v. Hilton"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Daphne A.

    2011-01-01

    When Starwood Hotels charged Hilton Hotels with industrial espionage, the case hinged on an employment agreement that two executives had violated. The rhetoric of the employment agreement contrasted greatly with that of the corporation's own code of business conduct. Whereas the private agreement stressed narrow self-interest, the public code…

  10. Between grammar and rhetoric : Dionysius of Halicarnassus on language, linguistics, and literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, Casper Constantijn de

    2006-01-01

    The Greek rhetorician and historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus was active in Rome at the end of the first century BC. In his rhetorical writings, he analyses the styles of classical Greek orators, historiographers and poets, including Homer, Lysias, Isocrates, Demosthenes and Thucydides. Dionysius

  11. On a Rhetorical Technique in Leopold’s The Land Ethic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry St. Maurice

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of definite articles in Leopold’s essay The Land Ethic found evidence of deliberate usage of a rhetorical device for emphasis. The device, a type of definite article, is commonly used and usually abused. Leopold’s uses evidently affected his essay’s contribution to environmental communications.

  12. "A Capital and Novel Argument": Charles Darwin's Notebooks and the Productivity of Rhetorical Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Nathan

    2005-01-01

    With the rise of poststructuralist critiques of the autonomous subject, attention has shifted from the nature of "intentional persuasion" to the constitutive nature of discourse. Although this turn has led to valuable new insights into the nature of rhetoric, it also threatens to discount one of the most vital contributions of the rhetorical…

  13. Mapping a Space for a Rhetorical-Cultural Analysis: A Case of a Scientific Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorpenyo, Isidore Kafui

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes a proposal submitted to a funding unit in Michigan Technological University by a PhD Forestry student. A rhetorical-cultural approach of the text provides evidence to argue that scientific writing is rooted in a cultural practice that valorizes certain kinds of thought, practices, rituals, and symbols; that a scientist's work…

  14. Techno-Velcro to Techno-Memoria: Technology, Rhetoric, and Family in the Composition Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Patricia Freitag; Muhlhauser, Paul

    2011-01-01

    "Techno-velcro to Techno-memoria" is an intergenerational collection of techno-memories illustrating the impact of techno-literacies on family communication practices. Guests participating in "Techno-velcro to Techno-memoria" add their voices to create a rich resource of techno-rhetorical connections. Our guest-collaborators remember and describe…

  15. Collaborative Complexities: Co-Authorship, Voice, and African American Rhetoric in Oral History Community Literacy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This co-authored article describes a community literacy oral history project involving 14 undergraduate students. It is intellectually situated at the intersection of writing studies, oral history, and African American rhetoric and distinguished by two features: 1) we were a combined team of 20 collaborators, and 2) our narrator, Frank Gilyard,…

  16. Magic, Mimesis, and Revolutionary Praxis: Illuminating Walter Benjamin's Rhetoric of Redemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChaine, D. Robert

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the rhetorical contributions of Walter Benjamin, who attempted to develop a social critique arguing for the decisive function of critical intervention. Suggests Benjamin's insights about the liberatory role of the engaged social agent warrant closer attention. Proposes his ideas provide useful avenues for examining contemporary texts and…

  17. Writing and Social Justice: Analyzing Representations of Homelessness in Rhetoric and Composition Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John

    Although the topic of homelessness receives a great deal of attention in journalism and throughout popular culture, the discourse of homelessness remains largely unexamined and unquestioned. This discourse creates stereotypes and perpetuates homelessness by portraying it as an inevitability rather than a contingency. Rhetoric and composition…

  18. Argumentation in Contemporary Rhetoric: A Response to Haiman's "Farewell to Rational Discourse."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, George L.; Schunk, John F.

    In a 1968 address, Franklyn S. Haiman stated that public discourse at that time was marked by irrationality because of emphases on emotional appeals, disorganization, and aggressive or abusive style and language. He also cited "body rhetoric" (lawful protests or marches) and civil disobedience (illegal actions) as examples of irrational arguments.…

  19. The Recovery of Rhetoric as "Methodeutic": A Renaissance of Discourse in a Postmodern Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Grant

    1994-01-01

    Describes the crisis of the humanities at the present time as an effect of the demise of the traditional, modern concept of the subject or self. Provides an analysis of views of the postmodern subject, as described by theorists such as Gianni Vattimo and Charles Pierce, and how these views might help redefine rhetoric in a postmodern age. (HB)

  20. The Cultural-Rhetorical Role of Free Jazz: Forging an Identity in the Sixties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Robert

    The free jazz movement of the 1960s provided a rhetorical parallel in music to the verbal messages of black power and black nationalism. The use of Third World musical patterns represented an attempt to reinforce the revolutions in perceptions that black Americans held of themselves, their cultural heritage, and relationships to the rest of the…

  1. Continuous Linguistic Rhetorical Education as a Means of Optimizing Language Policy in Russian Multinational Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorozhbitova, Alexandra A.; Konovalova, Galina M.; Ogneva, Tatiana N.; Chekulaeva, Natalia Y.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the function of Russian as a state language the paper proposes a concept of continuous linguistic rhetorical (LR) education perceived as a means of optimizing language policy in Russian multinational regions. LR education as an innovative pedagogical system shapes a learner's readiness for self-projection as a strong linguistic…

  2. Medicine, Rhetoric, and Euthanasia: A Case Study in the Workings of a Postmodern Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Offers a critical reading of a controversial narrative on euthanasia that appeared in the "Journal of the American Medical Association," paying particular attention to what the narrative is doing rhetorically. Suggests the narrative is addressing topic and readers in a postmodern manner. (SR)

  3. Myth and Multiple Readings in Environmental Rhetoric: The Case of "An Inconvenient Truth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosteck, Thomas; Frentz, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    Contesting interpretations of "An Inconvenient Truth" that treat it as political jeremiad, autobiography, or science documentary, we contextualize the film within Joseph Campbell's monomyth and argue that its rhetorical efficacy arises in part because Al Gore's personal transformation animates the documentary footage with jeremiad advocacy. In…

  4. Some Influences of Greek and Roman Rhetoric on Early Letter Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Herbert W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes how letter writing, especially business letters, was influenced by Greek and Roman oral rhetoricians. Discusses three precepts of oral rhetoric--inventio, dispositio, and style--and notes that the classical theories' reflection in written communication can be seen in selected Italian, German, and English epistolographic works. (MM)

  5. A Contrastive Study of the Rhetorical Organisation of English and Spanish PhD Thesis Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Monreal, Carmen; Carbonell-Olivares, Maria; Gil-Salom, Luz

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the introductory sections of a corpus of 20 doctoral theses on computing written in Spanish and in English. Our aim was to ascertain whether the theses, produced within the same scientific-technological area but by authors from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds, employed the same rhetorical strategies…

  6. "The Confessions of Nat Turner": Styron's "Meditation on History" as Rhetorical Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strine, Mary S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines Syron's novel as a strategic rhetorical response to the problems of racism in America with far-ranging implications in American social and institutional history. Argues that the novel's shaping vision illuminates the ethical dilemma of the liberal humanist and explores the ramifications of violence for self-definition and social reform.…

  7. A Private Issue Becomes a Public Issue: A Rhetorical Analysis of "Roe v Wade."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Martha

    Supreme Court decisions tend to take the form of either (1) an act of justification or argumentation that defends the verdict of the communicator, or (2) a construction of a new symbolic reality that influences the world view of its audience. The "Roe vs. Wade" decision is an example of the merger of these two rhetorical functions. The…

  8. Lydia J. Roberts's Nutrition Research and the Rhetoric of "Democratic" Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Jordynn

    2009-01-01

    This article examines nutritionist Lydia J. Roberts's use of the "democratic approach" as a rhetorical strategy both to build solidarity among scientists and to enact participatory research in a rural Puerto Rican community. This example suggests that participatory scientific methodologies are not necessarily democratic but may function…

  9. Building Fictional Ethos: Analysing the Rhetorical Strategies of Persona Design for Online Role Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative case study that uses discourse and social semiotic analysis methods in order to examine the rhetorical construction of fictional personas within an online role play used for learning in the college classroom. Of special focus are the differing patterns of semiotic resource use (for example, language and…

  10. Inventing Citizens, Imagining Gender Justice: The Suffrage Rhetoric of Virginia and Francis Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Angela G.; Richards, Cindy Koenig

    2007-01-01

    From the late 1860s through the mid-1870s, woman suffrage activists developed an ingenious legal argument, claiming that the U.S. Constitution already enfranchised women citizens. The argument, first articulated by St. Louis activists Virginia and Francis Minor, precipitated rhetorical performances by movement activists on public platforms and in…

  11. Rediscovering the "Back-and-Forthness" of Rhetoric in the Age of YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian; Wallin, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Web 2.0 applications such as YouTube have made it likely that students participate in online back-and-forth exchanges that influence their rhetorical literacy. Because of the back-and-forth nature of online communities, we turn to the procedural, critical, and progressive qualities of dialectic as a means of accounting for what makes public…

  12. Style and Content in the Rhetoric of Early Afro-American Feminists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes selected speeches by feminists active in the early Afro-American protest, revealing differences in their rhetoric and that of White feminists of the period. Argues that a simultaneous analysis and synthesis is necessary to understand these differences. Illustrates speeches by Sojourner Truth, Ida B. Wells, and Mary Church Terrell. (JD)

  13. The socio-rhetorical force of 'truth talk' and lies: The case of 1 John

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2010-08-05

    Aug 5, 2010 ... The point is that humans have immense linguistic capacity. The power of words ... discussing it especially when the lines of veracity were being pushed in written .... unbecoming of human intelligence. .... Arguments about lying and the quality of truth were rhetorically ... artificial context of written discourse.

  14. Ma ka Hana ka 'Ike (In the Work Is the Knowledge): Kaona as Rhetorical Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Brandy Nalani; Nordstrom, Georganne

    2011-01-01

    Malea Powell's description of composition and rhetoric's scholarship on American Indian texts echoes assertions made by Scott Richard Lyons, who writes that while the literature of the past decade demonstrates the discipline's efforts at including Native ways of knowing in scholarly discussions and classroom curricula, representations of Native…

  15. Reagan and the Nuclear Freeze: "Stars Wars" as a Rhetorical Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Rebecca S.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the interaction between nuclear freeze activists and proponents of a Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Argues that SDI strengthens Reagan's rhetorical position concerning nuclear weapons policy because it reduces the argumentative ground of the freeze movement by envisioning a defensive weapons system that would nullify nuclear weapons.…

  16. FDR's 'Four Freedoms' Campaign: The Rhetorical Contribution of Norman Rockwell's Posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lester C.

    Rhetorical criticism focusing on Norman Rockwell's paintings of the "Four Freedoms" provides reasons for the paintings' effectiveness within the context of Franklin Roosevelt's campaign to educate Americans about participation in World War II. The epideictic icons in Rockwell's paintings promoted identifications that constitute the…

  17. (Re)Bordering the Civic Imaginary: Rhetoric, Hybridity, and Citizenship in "La Gran Marcha"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Josue David

    2011-01-01

    Though the drive to limit US citizenship often takes shape through the symbolic and material exclusion of "aliens," immigrants also engage in rhetorical struggles over the limits of the US civic imaginary. This essay examines one such challenge to the bordering logics of US citizenship--"La Gran Marcha", one of the largest…

  18. Latina/os in Rhetoric and Composition: Learning from Their Experiences with Language Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos, Alyssa Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    "Latina/os in Rhetoric and Composition: Learning from their Experiences with Language Diversity" explores how Latina/o academics' experiences with language difference contributes to their Latina/o academic identity and success in academe while remaining connected to their heritage language and cultural background. Using qualitative…

  19. The World Bank's Shift Away from Neoliberal Ideology: Real or Rhetoric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Rino Wiseman

    2012-01-01

    Some literature on World Bank education policies after 1999 tries to project a shift away of the Bank from its 1980s neoliberal mandate. This article argues that the shift is only in the form of rhetoric, which facilitates a hidden agenda of creating a worldwide higher education market, leaving the poor with primary education only. At the…

  20. Material rhetoric: spreading stones and showing bones in the study of prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reybrouck, David; de Bont, Raf; Rock, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces the concept of material rhetoric to understand the promotional regimes in which material objects play an essential argumentative role. It analyzes the phenomenon by looking at two students of prehistory from nineteenth-century Belgium. In the study of human prehistory and evolution, material data are either fairly abundant stone tools or very scarce fossil bones. These two types of material data stand for two different strategies in material rhetoric. In this article, the first strategy is exemplified by Aimé Rutot, who gathered great masses of eoliths (crudely chipped stones which he believed to be prehistoric tools). The second strategy is typified by the example of Julien Fraipont, who based his scientific career on only two Neanderthal skeletons. Rutot sent his "artifacts" to a very wide audience, while Fraipont showed his skeletons to only a few selected scholars. Unlike Rutot, however, Fraipont was able to monitor his audience's interpretation of the finds by means of personal contacts. What an archaeologist gains in reach, he or she apparently loses in control. In this article we argue that only those scholars who find the right balance between the extremes of reach and control will prove to be successful.

  1. Comprehending Multiple Documents on Scientific Controversies: Effects of Reading Goals and Signaling Rhetorical Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadtler, Marc; Scharrer, Lisa; Skodzik, Timo; Bromme, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Understanding conflicts between sources is an inherent part of science text comprehension. We examined whether readers' memories for conflicts and their situational interpretation of conflicts would be affected by reading goals and lexical cue phrases that signal rhetorical relationships. To this end, 198 undergraduates read multiple documents on…

  2. The Rhetoric of Investment Theory : The Story of Statistics and Predictability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Pistorius (Thomas)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractUncertainty is a feeling of anxiety and a part of culture since the dawn of civilization. Civilizations have invented numerous ways to cope with uncertainty, statistics is one of those technologies. The rhetoric as the discourse of investment theory uncovers that the theory of

  3. Using Digital Comics to Develop Digital Literacy: Fostering Functionally, Critically, and Rhetorically Literate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchoff, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Literacy scholarship has established the importance of teaching, supporting, and facilitating digital literacy education for 21st century students. Stuart Selber goes a step further, arguing that students must be functionally (using digital technology), critically (questioning digital technology), and rhetorically (producing effective digital…

  4. Calculating the Weather: Deductive Reasoning and Disciplinary "Telos" in Cleveland Abbe's Rhetorical Transformation of Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdik, Zoltan P.; Platt, Carrie Anne; Meister, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the rhetorical basis of a major paradigm change in meteorology, from a focus on inductive observation to deductive, mathematical reasoning. Analysis of Cleveland Abbe's "The Physical Basis of Long-Range Weather Forecasts" demonstrates how in his advocacy for a new paradigm, Abbe navigates the tension between piety to tradition…

  5. Writing for the Robot: How Employer Search Tools Have Influenced Resume Rhetoric and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Nicole; Manning, Alan

    2009-01-01

    To date, business communication scholars and textbook writers have encouraged resume rhetoric that accommodates technology, for example, recommending keyword-enhancing techniques to attract the attention of searchbots: customized search engines that allow companies to automatically scan resumes for relevant keywords. However, few scholars have…

  6. Construction and analysis of television news in Mexico: An approach from the rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos González Domínguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the rhetoric (the art of persuasion, the first great communication theory, today rehabilitated, we can analyze the different aspects of language that are involved in the textuality of the television news. We understand for textuality the combinatorial analysis of the enunciation devices that take part in the rhetorical system of the speech production: invention, disposition, elocution, memory and action. In consequence, in this article, we will see how this combination (textuality as a whole produces sense from the rhetorical trilogy proposed by Aristotle: ethos-pathos-logos, ethical, pathetic and logical reasons for which men interact. Particularly we will put the accent in the disposition (exordium, narration, demonstration, elocution and epilogue, for we consider it to be the moment in which the enunciation devices more flagrantly express themselves. Rhetorics constitutes a powerful epistemological basis that allows us to understand the construction of the speeches, and, in the specific case here analyzed, the speech of the Mexican television news.

  7. AITIA and KAIROS: Classical Rhetoric in the Writing across the Curriculum Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Rosemary L.

    Three areas of the classical rhetoric of Aristotle, adapted for the modern discourse of inquiry and demonstration, provide a systematic framework for students to understand thought, investigation, and writing in other disciplines: aitia, kairos, and the enthymeme and the example. Aitia, or cause, has four aspects--the material cause, the formal…

  8. Review of Laurent Pernot, Epideictic Rhetoric : Questioning the Stakes of Ancient Praise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuin, Inger Neeltje Irene

    2015-01-01

    The French scholar Laurent Pernot has been at the forefront of the study of ancient rhetoric for over two decades. His standard work La Rhétorique dans l’Antiquité has been translated into four languages, including an English edition that I found very useful for the (undergraduate) classroom. Pernot

  9. Rhetorical distance and knowledge in Burke's blurring of identification and division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    for knowledge creation (Nonaka et al. 2000).  This synthesis of perspectives offers insight into the connection between rhetoric and academic knowledge communication processes. Burke, K. (1966). Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature and Method. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press...

  10. The Developmental Quality of Participation Experiences: Beyond the Rhetoric that "Participation Is Always Good!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro D.; Azevedo, Cristina N.; Menezes, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    A powerful rhetoric regarding the importance of adolescents' civic engagement and political participation is common in contemporary societies, whilst citizens, both adolescent and adults, seem to express a growing scepticism and alienation regarding politics. Even if this disengagement is debatable, as there are simultaneous signs of an increasing…

  11. The experimental psychology of attitude change and the tradition of classical rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolano, Marlana; Evans, Rand B

    2005-01-01

    Social psychologists might be surprised to learn that their discipline has been cut off from a vast and ancient family tree. The study of attitude change in the context of experimental social psychology began around 1918. It developed into a defined discipline in the 1930s and 1940s, particularly through the work of Carl Hovland and his associates. Unlike earlier specialties in experimental psychology, social psychology emerged well after the 19th-century split between psychology and philosophy in college curricula. Before this period of growth in empirical teaching and practice, the study of persuasion in classical rhetoric was a bedrock of higher education for more than 2000 years. Because of social psychology's late development in empirical science, there is a historical disconnect between experimental social psychology and its ancient philosophical counterpart, classical rhetoric. This article demonstrates similarities and differences between Hovland's findings and the theoretical groundings of classical rhetoric. We suggest areas where modern social psychology might benefit from a look at the older, more holistic theories of the art of rhetoric.

  12. Metadiscourse in Book Prefaces of Filipino and English Authors: A Contrastive Rhetoric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munalim, Leonardo O.; Lintao, Rachelle B.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded on the tradition of Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), this paper aimed at contrasting the presence of metadiscourse resources in a book preface of Filipino and English authors. It especially sought to see the similarities and differences of interactive and interactional markers between two cultures. A total of thirty book prefaces on language…

  13. Against the Intentional Fallacy: Legocentrism and Continuity in the Rhetoric of Indian Dispossession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The road of US Indian law and policy, like its companion to hell, is paved with good intentions. Critics of its generally diabolic outcomes have had little difficulty demonstrating the moral chasm between the appealing rhetoric in which a policy or judgment was framed and the oppressive consequences to which it practically conduced. With a nod to…

  14. Beyond the rhetoric of choice: Promoting women's economic empowerment in developed countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkenburg, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    In preparing for the 20-year review of the Beijing Platform for Action on women's economic empowerment, both formal policy documents and media coverage in developed countries such as the Netherlands resonate with the rhetoric of choice between work and care. In this article, my central argument is

  15. 360-Degree Rhetorical Analysis of Job Hunting: A Four-Part, Multimodal Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huiling; Ding, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a four-component multimodal employment project that offers students a 360-degree understanding of the rhetorical situations surrounding job searches. More specifically, we argue for the use of the four deliverables of written resumes and cover letters, mock oral onsite interview, video resume analysis, and peer…

  16. Liberal Party Politics, the South African War, and the Rhetoric of Imperial Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackley, Simon

    2018-03-01

    This article examines the imperial rhetoric of the Liberal Party during the South African War of 1899-1902, charting its use and development across five key controversies spanning the course of the conflict. Moving beyond traditional interpretations of the Liberal split as the product of competing visions of Empire and approaches to imperialism, this article argues for the need to recognize also the continuities within the imperial rhetoric of fin-de-siècle British Liberalism. Building on recent studies of political languages, it identifies how Liberal speakers from across the party operated within a rhetorical framework that emphasized three ideals of imperial governance: good government, self-government, and pluralism. In doing so, this article seeks to advance our understanding of the South African War as an episode in British party politics, demonstrating the complexity and nuance of the Liberal Party's response to the conflict. Furthermore, by undertaking an in-depth exploration of the rhetoric of imperial governance, this article highlights the Liberal response to the South African War as a case study for the reinvention and reiteration of both party and imperial languages in early twentieth-century Britain, with the potential to offer new insights into the political and imperial cultures of the period.

  17. En retorisk forståelsesramme for Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (A Rhetorical Theory on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlung, Asger

    2003-01-01

    The dissertation explores the potential of rhetorical theories for understanding, analyzing, or planning communication and learning processes, and for integrating the digitized contexts and human interaction and communication proccesses in a single theoretical framework. Based on Cicero's rhetori...... applied to two empirical case studies of Master programs, the dissertation develops and presents a new theory on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL).......The dissertation explores the potential of rhetorical theories for understanding, analyzing, or planning communication and learning processes, and for integrating the digitized contexts and human interaction and communication proccesses in a single theoretical framework. Based on Cicero's rhetoric...

  18. Persuading through pity and fear: Aristotle’s account of the emotions in the Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Andrè Lauritzen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine what has commonly been perceived as a discrepancy between the generally pragmatic or amoral tone of the Rhetoric and Aristotle’s preoccupation with normative questions elsewhere in his works, including in the opening chapter of the Rhetoric itself. I suggest an interpretation that allows for this discrepancy to be avoided. When Aristotle warns against emotional influence in Rhetoric 1.1, this statement must be seen in context with his critique of previous writers of rhetorical handbooks. By looking at other historical sources to the rhetorical practice that Aristotle appears to criticize, we can better understand what the critique is really about. I argue that this historical context makes plausible an understanding of Aristotle’s critique as being directed towards a specific practice in the contemporary judicial practice, namely, that of trying to influence emotionally by means that are foreign to the argument. My main sources in establishing this historical context are Plato’s Apology and Lycurgus’ Against Leocrates. Reading Aristotle’s text in light of the judicial practice of the time offers an alternative understanding ridding us of the apparent contradiction. I suggest that it is the manner in which the emotional influence is made that is is essential. What Aristotle is warning against is emotional influence that is foreign to the subject matter; the critique is directed against influencing through establishing ethos or producing pathos without this having any con­nection to logos. By seeking a reading where the emotions can be understood as saying something genuine about the situation, something that without the emotions could not be properly understood, the apparent discrepancy in Aristotle can be resolved.

  19. USING THE MEANS OF THEATRE ART TO DEVELOP MODERN TEACHERS’ RHETORICAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Budianskyi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines an important problem of modern education – the use of theatre arts to improve the teachers’ oratorical skills. In the pedagogical context the main categories of theatre pedagogy (co-creation, reincarnation, tempo, rhythm, mise-en-scène, etc. are discussed in details. Thus the congruence of teaching and dramatic art is found out. The essence of artistry is determined as an element of a teacher’s rhetorical culture. The contents, structural elements of Stanislavsky system and their use for developing the teacher’s rhetorical culture are analyzed. The author discusses in details the two main components of Stanislavsky system: an actor’s work itself and the actor’s work on the role. It is proved that both parts of this system with a few adjustments correspond to the method of forming the teacher-speaker’s artistic and rhetorical qualities. The development of teacher’s external techniques includes the preparation of the bodily apparatus for teaching. According to the author’s point of view, a teacher like an actor should have the mental technique to be able to call creative feeling at the right time. Special attention is paid to the various types of artistic training, which is an effective tool for developing the teacher’s rhetorical culture. The system of training includes exercises to develop speech culture, plastic expression, emotional memory, behavior naturalness, etc. The article focuses on the need to study and use the main principles of Stanislavsky system in the teachers’ practical activities. The most effective means of creating a creative mood is physical activity. The author emphasizes the necessity of developing modern-teachers’ artistic and rhetorical qualities by means of theatre pedagogy with the aim of increasing the efficiency of the educational process. The results of the study can be used in the process of training, professional activities and advanced training of education workers.

  20. Textual Self-branding: the Rhetorical Ethos in Mallarmé’s Divagations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arild Michel Bakken

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines, from a rhetorical perspective, the textual presence of the auctorial figure in Mallarmé’s collection of prose writings, Divagations. It challenges the traditional and structuralist idea of Mallarmé as a poet eager to exclude his own persona from his work, and even as the initiator of the “death of the author.” Recent Mallarméan studies have been shifting the field’s attention away from the myth of the ivory tower to focus on the poet’s social project as it appears in the Divagations. Such a project presupposes a rhetorical commitment, and thus an auctorial presence in the text. The question that is raised here is then what role the figure of the poet plays in Mallarmé’s rhetorical strategy. A close rhetorical analysis of the Divagations reveals that the poet constantly, although discreetly, writes his own persona into the text. Throughout the Divagations, Mallarmé deploys much effort to give his persona qualities likely to win the support of his audience. It is argued that this manifest ethos preoccupation has a double function. The rhetorically efficient image of the poet is obviously intended to add authority to his social project. However, the poet’s constant cultivation of his textual figure shows that the ethos has gained a certain autonomy. An important preoccupation for the poet is in fact to brand himself as an author: contrary to the traditional idea of the absent poet, the auctorial figure seems to be one of the primary subjects of the Divagations. The argument thus invites us, in order to avoid overlooking this central aspect of Mallarmé’s project, to take the ethos perspective into account in any approach to Mallarmé’s prose work.

  1. Visual rhetoric: images of Saracens in Florentine churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Aryeh Debby, Nirit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the encounter between the Christian and the Islamic worlds as it appears in Florentine churches. It explores images of Muslims connected to the ideas of mission, conversion and crusade as they appear in the oral and visual traditions. Crusading sympathy in Tuscany, particularly in Florence, had a long history, going back to the twelfth century. The role of the mendicant orders, established in the great convents of Santa Croce and Santa Maria Novella, was crucial in winning sympathy for the crusades. This tradition continued in the fi fteenth century, after the fall of Constantinople, when Florence openly voiced support for papal crusading efforts and participated in fund-raising for the crusade. The main supporters of crusade propaganda in Florence were the Franciscan and Dominican preachers, who acted as virtual papal envoys, continuing a tradition of mendicant crusade sermons. These movements also developed special types of artworks, either painting or sculptures in order to disseminate their religious ideals. The usage of rhetoric and preaching, the interrelations between word and image, the artistic and literary traditions, artworks and sermons will be a central focus of essay.

    Este artículo se centra en el encuentro entre el mundo cristiano y el musulmán tal y como se representa en las iglesias florentinas. Analiza las imágenes de musulmanes relacionadas con los conceptos de misión, conversión y cruzada según su tratamiento en las tradiciones visuales y orales. Existía una larga tradición de simpatía hacia las Cruzadas en la Toscana, sobre todo en Florencia, que se remonta hasta el siglo XII. El papel ejercido por las órdenes mendicantes establecidas en los grandes conventos de santa Croce y de Santa María Novella, fue crucial para fomentar la simpatía hacia las cruzadas. Esta tradición continuó durante el siglo XV, después de la caída de Constantinopla, cuando Florencia articuló expl

  2. Innovation and Organizational Communication in Corporate America: The Rhetorical Visions of Managers, Facilitators, and Employees on Quality Circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyo, Bassey A.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the dynamics of organizational communication following corporate implementation of quality circles. Describes the rhetorical visions of people at three organizational levels closely associated with quality circles: (1) managers; (2) facilitators who organize the quality circles; and (3) employees. (SR)

  3. Rhetorical Autobiography: A Narrative Analysis of Aleshia Brevard's The Woman I Was Not Born To Be: A Transsexual Journey

    OpenAIRE

    Tubbs , Meghan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis aims to explore autobiography as a rhetorical genre and to explore the personal narrative of Aleshia Brevard, an MTF (male to female) transsexual. The critical analysis employs a form of narrative criticism created from the work of several rhetorical critics. Narrative coherence is examined through looking at Brevardâ s arrangement of events, and narrative fidelity is examined through looking at Brevardâ s use of ultimate terms. This thesis suggests that the personal narratives ...

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Golestan and rhymed Prose on the basis of Arabic Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Lavzheh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Harmonious and rhymed prose is a literary kind of speech characterized by producing music and intonation in order to conveying meaning of the context as well as possible and influencing the addressee more. In this paper main question is “whether Sa’di in writing the Golestan, besides of applying rules of this kind of speech in Persian language, has used those characteristics of rhymed prose that exist in the main Arabic rhetoric books?” For this purpose, Characteristics of rhythmic and rhymed prose in Arabic rhetoric books have been examined by using description-annalistic approach, and brief pointing to the situation of Persian rhetoric science. The hypothesis is based on the belief that Golistan’s author uses ideas of Arab rhetorician in composition of this book to strengthen the structure of Harmonious and rhymed prose. The aim of the present study is recognizing that Sa'di in the rhymed prose of Golistan how much has used important Arabic rhetorical resources in the field of word and meaning. Having a critical look at the rhetorical books, New and Old Persian sources, it can be found that the researchers noted only a short definition limited to interpretation of some words or expressions based on great prose works and poetries, and not expressed their opinion by a critical attitude and also not looked on the details exactly and thoroughly of the aesthetic view. In the other side, in Arabic literature up to the Sa’di’s range, the field of rhetoric has been expanded and developed more and more. Most parts of Golistan are consistent with theories in view of Arab rhetoricians that in the following of this paper some cases are briefly mentioned: In the period of Abuhelal Askari, main idea was that meaning is superior to the word, and meaning was not as important as word. Abd ol-Qahr Jorjani abolished that belief and so emphasized that word and meaning cannot be separated and also proved that word out of the

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Golestan and rhymed Prose on the basis of Arabic Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Lavzheh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Harmonious and rhymed prose is a literary kind of speech characterized by producing music and intonation in order to conveying meaning of the context as well as possible and influencing the addressee more. In this paper main question is “whether Sa’di in writing the Golestan, besides of applying rules of this kind of speech in Persian language, has used those characteristics of rhymed prose that exist in the main Arabic rhetoric books?” For this purpose, Characteristics of rhythmic and rhymed prose in Arabic rhetoric books have been examined by using description-annalistic approach, and brief pointing to the situation of Persian rhetoric science. The hypothesis is based on the belief that Golistan’s author uses ideas of Arab rhetorician in composition of this book to strengthen the structure of Harmonious and rhymed prose. The aim of the present study is recognizing that Sa'di in the rhymed prose of Golistan how much has used important Arabic rhetorical resources in the field of word and meaning. Having a critical look at the rhetorical books, New and Old Persian sources, it can be found that the researchers noted only a short definition limited to interpretation of some words or expressions based on great prose works and poetries, and not expressed their opinion by a critical attitude and also not looked on the details exactly and thoroughly of the aesthetic view. In the other side, in Arabic literature up to the Sa’di’s range, the field of rhetoric has been expanded and developed more and more. Most parts of Golistan are consistent with theories in view of Arab rhetoricians that in the following of this paper some cases are briefly mentioned: In the period of Abuhelal Askari, main idea was that meaning is superior to the word, and meaning was not as important as word. Abd ol-Qahr Jorjani abolished that belief and so emphasized that word and meaning cannot be separated and also proved that word out of the meaning frame and

  6. Against the Heresy of Immanence: Vatican’s ‘Gender’ as a New Rhetorical Device against the Denaturalisation of the Sexual Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Garbagnoli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s, the Vatican contests the concept of gender as forged by feminists to study social arrangements through which the sexual order is naturalised. This contestation came with the distortion of the analyses and claims formulated by feminists and LGBTQ scholars and social movements. This article understands the Vatican’s invention of ‘gender ideology’ as a new rhetorical device produced both to delegitimise feminist and LGBTQ studies and struggles and to reaffirm that sexual norms transcend historical and political arrangements. It also investigates how the transnationality of this discursive construct relates to the specific features it has taken in two different national contexts – France and Italy. The article is structured as follows: it first highlights the logic and structure of the anti-gender discourse. Then, it analyses how the same argumentative device is performed in anti-gender demonstrations. Finally, it scrutinises the rhetorical and performative strategies through which anti-gender actors have formulated their views and argues that ‘gender ideology’ can be understood as a political reaction against the entry of minorities into the fields of politics and theory.

  7. The Insta-Dead: The rhetoric of the human remains trade on Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Huffer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a thriving trade, and collector community, around human remains that is facilitated by posts on new social media such as Instagram, Facebook, Etsy, and, until recently, eBay. In this article, we examine several thousand Instagram posts and perform some initial text analysis on the language and rhetoric of these posts to understand something about the function of this community, what they value and how they trade, buy, and sell, human remains. Our results indicate a well-connected network of collectors and dealers both specialist and generalist, with a surprisingly wide-reaching impact on the 'enthusiasts' who, through their rhetoric, support the activities of this collecting community, in the face of legal and ethical issues generated by its existence.

  8. Critical contrastive rhetoric: The influence of L2 letter writing instruction on L1letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed critical contrastive rhetoric to investigate the L2 to L1 transfer of organizational pattern and directness level of speech acts in business complaint letters. By examining the L1 complaint letters of 30 tourism university students in two phases of study, pre and post instruction of English complaint letter, the study revealed that the rhetorical organization of Persian letters are in a state of hybridity. The post instruction comparison of letters, however, showed a tendency towards applying English conventions both in organization and directness level of complaint speech act in the L1 complaint letters. The results also revealed that after instruction the expert in the field of tourism viewed some letters as inappropriate in terms of politeness which is reflected through some lexical items.

  9. Risk assessment as rhetorical practice: The ironic mathematics behind terrorism, banking, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisch, Robert

    2013-02-01

    The twin problems of possible terrorist attacks and a global economic recession have been, and continue to be, critical components of contemporary political culture. At the center of both problems is the assessment of future risk. To calculate the probability that a loan will default or to estimate the likelihood of an act of bioterrorism crippling an American city is to engage in the quantitative science of risk assessment. The process of risk assessment is an attempt to rationalize the uncertainty and contingency of the future. In this essay, I read risk assessments made by the Department of Homeland Security and by major banks during the recent financial collapse as examples of rhetorical practice. As such, I show the rhetorical form and function of risk assessments in order to determine the effect that they have on contemporary political culture.

  10. From rhetoric to reality? Putting HIV and AIDS rights talk into practice in a South African rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Nair, Yugi

    2014-01-01

    Whilst international rhetoric on HIV and AIDS frequently invokes discourses of human rights to inspire and guide action, translating universal rights talk into practice in specific settings remains a challenge. Community mobilisation is often strategy of choice. We present a case study of the Entabeni Project in South Africa--in which a foreign-funded NGO sought to work with female health volunteers in a deep rural community to increase their access to two HIV-relevant rights: women's rights (especially gender equality) and rights to health (especially access to HIV- and AIDS-related services). Whilst the project had short-term health-related successes, it was less successful in implementing a gender empowerment agenda. The concept of women's rights had no purchase with women who had little interest in directly challenging male power, foregrounding the fight against poverty as their main preoccupation. The area's traditional chief and gatekeeper insisted the project should remain 'apolitical'. Project funders prioritised 'numbers reached' over a gender empowerment orientation. In the absence of (1) a marginalised group who are willing to assert their rights; and (2) a context where powerful people are willing to support these claims, 'rights' may be a blunt tool for HIV-related work with women in deeply oppressive and remote rural communities beyond the reach of international treaties and urban-based activist movements.

  11. Does Rhetoric Have a Place in Wohlrapp’s Theory of Argument?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Stevens

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When a new theory of argumentation becomes available on the English-speaking market, such as it is happening now through the translation of Harald Wohlrapp’s The Concept of Argument, it is always interesting to work out how the new input will interact with the work that has otherwise been done in the field. (Wohlrapp, 2014 This comment aims to determine whether rhetoric has a place in Wohlrapp’s account of argumentation.

  12. Science and rhetoric in a globalizing public sphere: mediating systems of climate change knowledge and action

    OpenAIRE

    Üzelgün, Mehmet Ali

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Psicologia / Classification (PsychINFO): 3000 Social Psychology 3040 Social Perception & Cognition 4070 Environmental questions e attitudes People’s knowledge and beliefs about intangible problems such as climate change rely heavily on mediated discourses of science and policy. This thesis employs a dialogical and rhetorical approach to social representations to examine how two mediating systems -the mainstream press and environmental non-governmental organizatio...

  13. Freedom of Expression and Rhetorical Art: The Problems of Avant-Garde Jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Robert

    Although the success of black jazz has been limited by its lack of recognition in the white-controlled music industry, its rhetorical development as an expression of black consciousness can be traced from the bebop of the 1940s and early 1950s, through the hard bop and free jazz of the 1960s, to the jazz orientation of the disco circuit in the…

  14. Crisis Communication and the Rhetorical Arena - A Multi-Vocal Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Winni; Frandsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    Presentation of a new model of crisis communication called the rhetorical arena. This new model is compared to W. Benoit's theory of image restoration strategies and T. Coomb's theory of crisis communication as relationship management. The new model is based on a multi-vocal approach taking...... into account the many corporate and non corporate 'voices' which meet, compete, collaborate or negotiate during a crisis situation. The model conceives crisis communication as mediated through four parameters: context, media, genre, and text....

  15. Historical analysis of the logic and rhetoric: problems on the procedural using of entimems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Freire Pimentel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the historical and bibliographical method, this article aims to present a critical appraisal of the logic and rhetoric evolution, specifically how the enthymemes are currently used to support judicial decisions. The paper intends to prove that the decision-making precedes the writing process and it is not necessarily guided by a formal logic reasoning but, especially, through an ideological motivation, and also that the wording can be done based on enthymemes.

  16. Minding "Our Cicero": Nineteenth-Century African American Women's Rhetoric and the Classical Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Nineteenth-century American culture was rife with references to classical Greco-Roman antiquity, especially in rhetoric, education, and neoclassical visual culture. But the legacy of the classics also had a racialized strain: in "justifications" of slavery and racism, white elites often figured classical erudition as the antithesis to blackness, suggesting, for example, that African Americans did not have the mental capacity to learn Greek or Latin. But despite limited access to the tools a...

  17. The Energy Covenant: Energy Dominance and the Rhetoric of the Aggrieved

    OpenAIRE

    Jen Schneider; Jennifer Peeples

    2018-01-01

    The Trump Administration has adopted “energy dominance” as its guiding ideology for energy policy, marking a notable shift from decades of “energy security” rhetoric. This paper analyzes how Secretary of Interior Ryan Zinke, one of the administration’s key spokespeople for energy dominance, uses “energy covenant renewal” to frame the importance of energy dominance for the conservative base. Covenant renewal is a modified form of the jeremiad; Zinke uses it to unite conservative identities aro...

  18. Aristotle on Deliberation:Its Place in Ethics, Politics and Rhetoric

    OpenAIRE

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2014-01-01

    Aristotle differs from most later philosophers in distinguishing clearly between epistemic reasoning, which aims for truth, and practical reasoning, which does not. How can he posit this distinction and yet not dismiss practical reasoning as flattery and manipulation, as Plato did? The answer lies in the concepts of deliberation (boulē, bouleusis) and deliberate choice (proairesis). They link Aristotle's rhetoric, ethics, and politics together and help provide definitions of all three: Ethics...

  19. Example and similarity in Aristotle’s Rhetoric

    OpenAIRE

    Mª. Carmen Encinas Reguero

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the example (παράδειγμα) in Aristotle’s Rhetoric and focuses on the relationship between it and the idea of similarity (τὸ ὅμοιον), which is essential also for the concepts of metaphor and comparison. Thus, the idea of similarity is used to explore the connection among all this resources, and also between analogy and induction.

  20. The Rhetoric of Prejudice: Can Europe Still Be Inclusive? Some Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Pasini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On May 9, 2017, Europe Day, a date chosen as a sign of goodwill for the future of Europe, a group of philosophers, linguists, historians, political scientists and media experts, coming from Belgium, France, Greece, Iceland, Norway, Poland, and Italy of course, gathered in Genoa (Italy to debate The Rhetoric of Prejudice. The subtitle of the Conference, which should not to be overlooked, posed a crucial question: can Europe still be inclusive?

  1. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's language, rhetoric and habitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker was not only an exceptional physicist, philosopher and peace scholar, but also a skilled and articulate speaker and a highly successful author. Dozens of his books were published in tens of thousands of copies despite their highly nontrivial content. This wide impact was only possible--this at least is one of the claims made in this paper--because of his sophisticated style and rhetorics. The analysis here is based on hand-picked samples from all kinds of Weizsäcker texts (talks, scientific and popular papers and books, poems and Limericks). Strangely enough, this interesting stylistic and rhetorical facet of his oeuvre has hitherto not been analyzed in any detail despite its crucial importance in the broad impact on his multifarious audience. My paper starts out from a collection of striking features of his language and structural specialties in his published talks and speeches, and explore findings from sound recordings and film tapes which offer further insight into his manner of emphasis, usage of pauses and intonation. On the basis of these stylistic traits and their often subcutaneous, but nevertheless clever rhetorics, I close with a few remarks on the habitus of this scholar and his positioning within the ensemble of German-speaking physicists of that generation.

  2. The human rights of intersex people: addressing harmful practices and rhetoric of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Morgan

    2016-05-01

    Intersex people and bodies have been considered incapable of integration into society. Medical interventions on often healthy bodies remain the norm, addressing perceived familial and cultural demands, despite concerns about necessity, outcomes, conduct and consent. A global and decentralised intersex movement pursues simple core goals: the rights to bodily autonomy and self-determination, and an end to stigmatisation. The international human rights system is responding with an array of new policy statements from human rights institutions and a handful of national governments recognising the rights of intersex people. However, major challenges remain to implement those statements. Human rights violations of intersex individuals persist, deeply embedded in a deliberate history of silencing. Rhetoric of change to clinical practices remain unsubstantiated. Policy disjunctions arise in a framing of intersex issues as matters of sexual orientation and gender identity, rather than innate sex characteristics; this has led to a rhetoric of inclusion that is not matched by the reality. This paper provides an overview of harmful practices on intersex bodies, human rights developments, and rhetorics of change and inclusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive rhetoric of effect: energy flow as a means of persuasion in inaugurals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapenko Serhiy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive rhetoric of effect deals with creating a referent’s favourable image throughout four text-forming stages: invention (looking for arguments; disposition (argument arrangement; elocution (verbal ornamentation; and performance, combining the ancient canons of memory and delivery. The cognitive procedures of rhetoric of effect rest on conceptual structures of sensory-motor origin: image schemas, i.e. recurring dynamic patterns of our perceptual interactions and motor programmes (Johnson, 1987, p.xiv, and force dynamics, i.e. a semantic category in the realm of physical force generalized into domains of internal psychological relationships and social interactions (Talmy, 2000, p.409. The embedding of sensory-motor structures into the text-forming stages reveals that cognitive rhetorical effects are created by managing the energy flow, which consists of force and motion transformations denoted by particular linguistic units. The phenomenon is exemplified by the analysis of the way impressions of freedom celebration and freedom defence are formed in the inaugurals of J.F. Kennedy (1961 and G.W. Bush (2005 respectively.

  4. Rhetoric in Augustine of Hippo’s De libero arbítrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Reali Taurisano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at demonstrating in which way the three books of the philosophical and theological dialogue of Augustine of Hippo, De libero arbitrio, is situated also in the scope of “Rhetoric”, or yet, grosso modo, in the scope of “discourse”.  It also becomes evident that no discourse, philosophical or theological, can renounce the resources offered by the ars rhetorica, as claimed Plato. Neither, it can be said, the so called “religious” discourse, which sets itself in search of a Truth that is unique, far beyond the eikós. Hence, being one and another, simultaneously philosophical and religious, dialectic and theological, this work attempted to make evident that De libero arbitrio can be understood and studied as a “discourse”; not, however, in the depreciative and prejudiced sense of the term, set on by part of Plato’s work, which bequeathed a stubborn trace; but in the sense which Aristotle, Cicero and the modern scholars of the Rhetoric art ascribe to it, as a “verbal production”, production which is carefully elaborated, projected and adorned, in order to not only instruct, but also to delight and put in motion.Keywords: Augustine. Rhetoric. Discourse. Rhetoric genres. Christian Philosophy.

  5. The impact of rhetoric and education on the "Res Gestae" of Ammianus Marcellinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pablo

    The aim of this thesis is to explore and underline the impact of education and rhetoric on the Res Gestae of Ammianus Marcellinus. I will examine the concept of education in two different aspects. First, I will determine the role of education in regards to Ammianus' early life by describing the cultural climate in the East in the fourth century (Introduction and chapter 1). In this analysis, I will argue that the historian's familiarity with Latin suggests an early acquaintance with the language, indicating that he should not be invariably associated with earlier Greek historians. Second, I will look at how the content of the curriculum is reflected in the RG, explaining how literary sources shaped the composition of the historian's digressions on geography (Chapter 3) and astronomy (Chapter 4). In the past, scholars have examined Ammianus' cultural digressions as an example of the tension between things seen and things read. In my argumentation, I will concentrate on explaining the reasons why Ammianus often tended to rely on literary works rather than observation. I will show that the explanation greatly lies in the content of the curriculum. Concerning the role of rhetoric, I will examine how rhetorical training is articulated in the RG. In Chapter 2, I will show that Ammianus' selection of historical material can be explained in light of the ancient theory of styles. In this context, I will study the role of a rhetorical device designed to raise the emotions of readers by bringing the scene before their eyes: enargeia. In Chapters 3 and 4, I will demonstrate that the cultural digressions in the RG are mostly the product of cultural stereotypes and literary influences. In Chapter 5, I will show the impact of rhetorical treatises on some passages of the RG, arguing that the traditional classification of oratory into deliberative, epideictic and judicial is echoed in both the speeches and the historical narrative. To conclude: the main purpose of my dissertation

  6. Media culture and post-sexism discourse: a rhetoric study through facebook and gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Etura Hernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the appearance of the post-sexism discourse in Social networks through controversy in Facebook about the broadcast in the spanish television of a journalist report called ‘Sexism kills’ (February, 2016 in a prime time programme entitled “Salvados”. Specifically, we analyse a corpus of texts formed by 98 comments and more tan 4000 reactions on the night of January 31 consequence of a preview advertisement in the Jordi Evole’s Facebook page (the presentator of the programme.Our theoretical supporting research is based on feminist theory and critical discourse analyse. By means of both proposal, we have tried to find, show and describe a post-sexism discourse and the ideological frames underlying in the comments, which attacked the topic of the tv programme even before the telecast. Upon examination of this corpus, it becomes clear that exist a common discoursive patron in the postsexism prosumers in internet and a different behaviour by genders against the sexist violence.

  7. “Show me thy glory” Sacred language and political rhetoric in Exodus 33:18-23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Luiz Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The text of the Hebrew Bible as instrument of rhetorical projection of political and theological conflicts in the horizon of its production. The objective is to analyze rhetorically Ex 33:18-23, applying at the pericope hermeneutical procedures of social-historical approach and rhetoric analysis, and intending to identify possible relationships between the narrative and the historical and social horizon of its production. As methodological steps, it was translated the Hebrew text from Ex 33:18-23, it was compared with the versions in Portuguese, it was analyzed rhetorically each section of the pericope and sought to identify the elements of contact between the narrative and the historical and social world-that produced it and serves as its semantic context. It was concluded that this is a critical and sarcastic text to priestly prerogatives that marked the political and social transformation of Judah after the Babylonian captivity. The narrative rhetorical strategy is, in the form of a request to the deity, to isolate the priestly postulated in v. 18, confronting it in v. 19-23 through three categorical denials by Yahweh.

  8. Validation of the Greek Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression (AMMSA Scale: Examining Its Relationships with Sexist and Conservative Political Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hantzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression scale measures contemporary beliefs about sexual aggression that tend to blame victims and exonerate perpetrators. A Greek version of the thirty-item AMMSA scale was administered to two diverse convenience samples, one in Greece and one in Cyprus. Convergent and discriminant construct validity were assessed via correlations with other constructs that were hypothesized to be strongly related to AMMSA (Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance; hostile sexism or moderately related (benevolent sexism; social dominance orientation; right-wing authoritarianism. It was found that the Greek AMMSA was unidimensional, highly internally consistent, normally distributed, and showed good construct validity. When sociodemographic data were analyzed, age, gender, and nationality turned out to be significant predictors of AMMSA, with a U-shaped trend for age, higher scores for men than women, and higher scores for Cypriots than Greeks. In sum, the Greek AMMSA scale provides a highly useful instrument for further research on sexual aggression myths, their correlates, and effects on judgment and behavior.

  9. On the Pragmatic Functions of English Rhetoric in Public Speech: A Case Study of Emma Watson's "HeForShe"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin

    2018-01-01

    The current research is mainly conducted to explore the pragmatic functions of English rhetoric in public speech. To do this, methods of close reading and case studies are adopted. The research first reveals that the boom of public speech programs helps reexamine the art of utterance, during the delivery of which English rhetoric plays an…

  10. Rhetoric and Public Address: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1983 (Vol. 43 Nos. 7 through 12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 31 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) the rhetoric of confrontation in Northern Ireland; (2) rhetorical arguments in public health regulations; (3) epideictic discourse in the founding of the…

  11. The Role of Rhetorical Strategies On The Pr ocess Of Institutionalization: A Qualitative Analysis Of Insurance Industry In Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gökoğlu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the role and effectiveness of rhetorical strategies in the process of institutionalization. Rhetorical strategies present continuity with regard to institutionalization of certain social phenomena in society and are classified as Pathos, Logos and Ethos (Aristotle 1991. When considered from this point of view, institutional actors representing the important sections of the society produce effective texts through the discourse they use and ensuredissemination of the ideas regarding social phenomena they defend. In the study, insurance industry was taken into the scope of research to present in company with which rhetorical strategies institutionalization takes place. In accordance with the idea t hat different strategies might be dominant in different contexts, the findings put forth as a result of Pathos, Ethos and Logos strategies.

  12. From Disabled Students to Disabled Brains: The Medicalizing Power of Rhetorical Images in the Israeli Learning Disabilities Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchergin, Ofer

    2017-09-01

    The neurocentric worldview that identifies the essence of the human being with the material brain has become a central paradigm in current academic discourse. Israeli researchers also seek to understand educational principles and processes via neuroscientific models. On this background, the article uncovers the central role that visual brain images play in the learning-disabilities field in Israel. It examines the place brain images have in the professional imagination of didactic-diagnosticians as well as their influence on the diagnosticians' clinical attitudes. It relies on two theoretical fields: sociology and anthropology of the body and sociology of neuromedical knowledge. The research consists of three methodologies: ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews, and rhetorical analysis of visual and verbal texts. It uncovers the various rhetorical and ideological functions of brain images in the field. It also charts the repertoire of rhetorical devices which are utilized to strengthen the neuroreducionist messages contained in the images.

  13. Tuskegee as Sacred Rhetoric: Focal Point for the Emergent Field of African American Religion and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Terri

    2018-02-01

    Scholars in African American religion engage the Tuskegee Syphilis Study as the focal point of the African American experience in institutional medicine. Seeking a way forward from this history and its intentional evil, the author proposes to position Tuskegee as a form of Lynch's culturally contextual sacred rhetoric to make use of its metaphoric value in the emerging field of African American religion and health. In this broader meaning-making frame, Tuskegee serves as a reminder that African American religious sensibility has long been an agential resource that counters abuse of the Black body. It also acknowledges the complex decisions facing African American clinical trial participants.

  14. Singing Dead Tales to Life: Rhetorical Strategies in Shandong Fast Tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Shepherd

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of the Shandong fast tale tradition, a Chinese oral performance genre that began in rural northern China approximately four hundred years ago. Included in this overview are brief descriptions of the origins, audience composition, tale length, repertoire, and major characteristics of the stories and performances. Following these descriptions is a discussion of the expressive and rhetorical devices used by the tale-tellers as they perform live, such as formulaic language, repetition, character roles, shifts in speech register, body language, facial expressions, memory, onomatopoeia, physical humor, and hyperbolic language.

  15. Andres Bello and the Dissemination of Astronomy: Education and Scientific Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Ramírez Errázuriz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the astronomical texts written by Andres Bello between 1810 and 1848, from its educational nature to its rhetorical expression, suggesting that their main purpose was to show the advances in the field - in terms of knowledge production and also technology development- in order to improve the material and intellectual environment of the nation. It also stands that astronomy should be tought by activating creativity and imagination, which may be linked with Bello’s willing to avoid science and art develop apart from each other, keeping, in this case astronomy bonded with literature.

  16. The Rhetorical Algorithm: WikiLeaks and the Elliptical Secrets of Donald J. Trump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Hallsby

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms were a generative force behind many of the leaks and secrets that dominated the 2016 election season. Taking the form of the identity-anonymizing Tor software that protected the identity of leakers, mathematical protocols occupied a prominent place in the secrets generated during the presidential campaign. This essay suggests that the rhetorical trope of ellipsis offers an equally crucial, algorithmic formula for explaining the public production of these secrets and leaks. It then describes the 2016 DNC leak and Donald Trump’s “I love Wikileaks” moment using the trope of ellipsis, which marks a discursive omission or gap in official executive discourse.

  17. Skeuomorphs’: on the rhetoric of material in the Gumelniţa tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Gheorghiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The social changes, which characterise the Chalcolithic in southeastern Europe, which coincide with the emergence of metals, imposed a new material and led to the emergence of skeuomorphs (i.e. copies of objects made from a material different from that of the originals. Some gold objects from the Gumelnita tradition were objects of value, such as the valves of exotic shells, which therefore become visible in the form of paraphernalia. The present paper discusses the rhetoric of material visible in the shape and proximity of originals and skeuomorphs.

  18. From the Bear’s Mouth: Analyzing Vladimir Putin’s Rhetoric and Its Implications for Russian Grand Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    will never be in peril. Sun Tzu Thus far, this essay contended that rhetoric matters, studied Putin’s worldview, and then analyzed his rhetoric...VLADIMIR PUTIN’S 2014 VALDAI SPEECH…………….....87 BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………………………………....100 1 Chapter 1 Introduction The Sky is...book. 8 counts.”13 Simpson’s observations harken back to Sun Tzu’s maxim that “battles are won by choosing the terrain on which [they] are

  19. Improving the Ability of Writing Argumentative Essays of Iranian EFL Learners by Raising Awareness of Rhetoric Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    SADEGHI, Bahador; MALEKI, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of raising awareness about rhetoric transfer on the ability of writing argumentative essays of Iranian EFL learners. One of the most important issues in EFL mainstream has been the effect of L1 on L2. In discussion of Error analysis, one of the errors with high frequency in the EFL classroom is caused by the interference of first language. It seems that making comparison between L1 and L2 rhetoric can reveal the patterns of nega...

  20. The rhetorical construction of the predatorial virus: a Burkian analysis of nonfiction accounts of the Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, R A

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, a new subgenre of horror films, referred to as plague films, has turned our focus to the threat of a hemorrhagic viral pandemic, comparable to the Spanish Flu epidemic of 1916. Based on the Ebola viral outbreaks of 1976, various writers have presented their accounts under the guise of increasing interest and prevention strategies. Disregarding inappropriate health care practices as the cause of these epidemics, accountability is refocused onto the rhetorically constructed, predatory nature of the virus. By employing Burke's theory of dramatism and pentadic analysis, the author examines this rhetorical construction of Ebola as a predatorial virus and its implications for public perceptions of public health endeavors.

  1. Telecommuting resistance, soft but strong: Development of telecommuting over time, and related rhetoric, in three organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Rognes, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Telecommuting, or working part of the time from another location than the office, normally from home, has been tried by several organisations in the recent years. This has not always been a success. Still, many arguments in favour of telecommuting are forwarded by previous studies. This paper investigates the development of telecommuting in three organisations, and elaborates on mechanisms behind the fact that the practice of telecommuting has not been as widespread as expected. The study is ...

  2. Rhetorical Analysis as Introductory Speech: Jumpstarting Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Marc P.

    2012-01-01

    When students enter the basic public speaking classroom,When students enter the basic public speaking classroom, they are asked to develop an introductory speech. This assignment typically focuses on a speech of self-introduction for which there are several pedagogical underpinnings: it provides an immediate and relatively stress-free speaking…

  3. Work-Life Balance: Beyond the Rhetoric. IES Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodz, J.; Harper, H.; Dench, S.

    The current status of British policy and practice related to work-life balance was examined through case studies of six organizations identified as having well-developed work-life balance and flexible working practices. Interviews were conducted with human resource (HR) managers at all six organizations, and interviews and focus group discussions…

  4. Policy and Practice within Arts Education: Rhetoric and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Barbara Helen; Buck, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects upon international arts education action and relative local in-action. The first half of the paper provides a brief narrative of the World Alliance for Arts Education's advocacy work and the development of the UNESCO Seoul Agenda: Goals for the development of arts education. The second half of the paper highlights a dance…

  5. Socio-psychological Communication in the Rhetoric of Healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general notion of existence is conceptualized in terms of human relations in the society. The world is a cauldron of socio-psychological problems yet, some societies have made theirs a more conducive environment thus reducing the stress associated with socio-psychological problems. As an act of intentional ...

  6. Developing a Behavioral Paradigm for the Performance of Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Melvin L.

    2000-01-01

    Provides and supports a definition of public relations as behavior with a mode explaining the difficulty of achieving each behavior and the cost to organizations when the behavior is not achieved. Draws from the literature on ethics, rhetorical theory, public relations management, case studies, and from observation and experience to support this…

  7. The Rhetoric of Commoditized Vulnerabilities: Ethical Discourses in Cybersecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, Brittany Noel

    2015-01-01

    The field of cybersecurity is relatively uncharted by rhetoricians and sociologists but nevertheless laden with terminological assumptions, violent metaphors, and ethical conflicts. This study explores the discourse surrounding the morally contentious practice of hackers selling software vulnerabilities to third parties instead of disclosing them to the affected technology companies. Drawing on grounded theory, I utilize a combination of quantitative word-level analysis and qualitative coding...

  8. SEXISM IN CONSUMERS AND THEIR SEXIST ASESSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Velandia-Morales

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research identifies the relationship between the score for consumers of television media in Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI, Glick and Fiske, 1996. Adapt. Expósito et al., 1998 and they valuation around level of sexism than 14 television commercials broadcast in the national channels. The study was conducted with 100 participants, of both genders, aged between 18 and 60 years of strata 4, 5, 6, consumers of television media. It is an ex post facto study, a prospective with single independent variable (Montero & Leon, 2007. The level of ambivalent sexism is the independent variable by classification and the valuation of commercial is the dependent variable. The main findings show an interaction statistically significant between level of ambivalent sexism in the component of gender differentiation and the perception of sexism in advertising, but without a statistically significant effect with gender, age and other demo-graphic variables.

  9. Assessing the Impact of Energy Access on Households in Kyrgyzstan: Government Rhetoric Versus Daily Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Alyssa

    While significant literature enumerates the impacts of electrification on development, the impact of energy insecurity on daily life and governance is comparatively poorly understood. In post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan, I will argue that this question is of critical importance for two reasons. First, if one were to only study state rhetoric on the subject, one might believe it to be self-evident that Kyrgyzstan is energy secure and even exporting excess hydroelectric production to its neighbors. In actuality, as I will illustrate by comparing household accounts of the impact of energy supply intermittencies on daily life to government rhetoric on energy, the sector's exports are only indicative of the government's lack of concern for domestic demand and desperate need for revenue. Yet, given that a similar mismatch in the resource allocation priorities of Kyrgyzstani citizens and those of their government created context for revolution in 2010, this finding has serious implications for the political stability of the country. Second, with the progression of global climate change, the population's struggle to access already restricted resource bases will only be further complicated by climate-induced vulnerabilities and resource degradation. Particularly in the short-term, while such a mismatch persists, consumer-driven, community-level interventions must play a key role in improving the energy access, capacity to adapt to climate change, and economic well-being of Kyrgyzstani citizens.

  10. Toward Finding an Approach for Improving Rhetorical Organization of EFL Learners’ Argumentative Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam Miri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the probable impact of three distinct approaches to teaching writing, namely Process, Process-product and Product approaches on the rhetorical organization of EFL learners’ argumentative essays. To fulfill this aim, after ensuring the homogeneity of the 45 participants of the study through Oxford Placement Test (OPT the learners who were all at the intermediate level of English proficiency were divided into three groups comprising of 15 learners, each receiving instruction for 6 sessions based on the aforementioned approaches. After teaching the basic structure of an argumentative essay, the students in each group were required to write an essay in each session. In the last session they were asked to produce an essay which was considered as their post-test. The rhetorical organization of their writings was analyzed using a rubric adopted from the study of Tsai (2006. Using SPSS 16, the results of One-way ANOVA at the alpha level of .05 revealed that there was a significant difference between those who wrote based on process approach and also process-product approach and those who were taught on the basis of product approach to writing. The pedagogical implications of the study are further discussed throughout the paper.

  11. Rhetoric and Etiological Beliefs About Sexuality: Reader Responses to Cynthia Nixon's New York Times Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, Adam; Barker, Sophie

    2017-08-04

    In 2012, the U.S. actress Cynthia Nixon was quoted in the New York Times Magazine as having stated that "for me, it [being gay] is a choice. I understand that for many people it's not, but for me it's a choice, and you don't get to define my gayness for me." The interview attracted international media attention and public criticism by lesbian and gay activists. This article suggests a rhetorical approach to understanding etiological beliefs and provides a discursive analysis of 198 online comments by readers of Pink News, a gay news Web site that reported on Nixon's controversial interview. This article explores common arguments used in readers' comments about Nixon and examines the rhetorical construction of sexuality. The analysis examines three themes within the data. First, biological essentialism was treated by many readers as common knowledge; second, readers suggested that only bisexuals have "choice"; and, third, it was suggested by both Nixon's critics and her supporters that counterarguments colluded with homophobia. The article suggests that there is an ideological dilemma whereby both "born-this-way" and "choice" arguments can be understood as colluding with anti-gay prejudice.

  12. Kairos and Carnival: Mikhail Bakhtin’s Rhetorical and Ethical Christian Vision

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    Ian Bekker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The term kairos has been used to mean, alternatively, right timing or proportion in Ancient Greek rhetoric, by Jesus to refer to the Christian eschaton and by Paul Tillich and modern liberation theologians to refer to the breakthrough of the divine into human history. Kairos, unlike chronos, is an intrinsically qualitative time and implies a consciousness of the present as well as the need for responsive action. This emphasis on action provides the link between kairos and virtue, the particular virtue in question being that of prudence (phronesis in Greek. The aim of this article is twofold: to highlight and make explicit the connections between the notion of kairos and the Russian literary-theorist and philosopher Mikhail Bakhtin’s rhetorical and ethical world, with particular emphasis on his notion of carnival; secondly, to further support a Christian reading of Bakthin’s work by making explicit the connections between his carnivalesque vision and a Christian reading of the ethical importance of kairos and its links with incarnation.

  13. Onwards facing backwards: the rhetoric of science in nineteenth-century Greece.

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    Tampakis, Kostas

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the Greek men of science negotiated a role for their enterprise within the Greek public sphere, from the institution of the modern Greek state in the early 1830s to the first decades of the twentieth century. By focusing on instances where they appeared in public in their official capacity as scientific experts, I describe the rhetorical schemata and the narrative strategies with which Greek science experts engaged the discourses prevalent in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Greece. In the end, my goal is to show how they were neither zealots of modernization nor neutral actors struggling in isolated wastelands. Rather, they appear as energetic agents who used scientific expertise, national ideals and their privileged cultural positions to construct a rhetoric that would further all three. They engaged eagerly and consistently with emerging political views, scientific subjects and cultural and political events, without presenting themselves, or being seen, as doing anything qualitatively different from their peers abroad. Greek scientists cross-contextualized the scientific enterprise, situating it in the space in which they were active.

  14. Available means: manifestations of Aristotle's three modes of rhetorical appeal in antinuclear fiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannix, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The abundance of sympathetic scientists, military men and clergymen in antinuclear fiction reflects a public perception that authorities speak most knowledgeably about an issue. Other antinuclear works employ characters with less traditional ethical appeals: nurturing women, vital youths, and even infallible computers. Antinuclear fiction uses enthymeme and example to reflect the history of the nuclear weapons debate. Some works attach the immorality of the weapons by examining the moral dilemmas of nuclear scientists. Others admit the permanence of the nuclear threat. By arousing emotions, fiction is capable of mobilizing its audience's active support for the ideas it presents. The principal emotions that various antinuclear works arouse highlight the close relationship between literature and rhetoric. The most dominant emotions, pity and fear, are the two Aristotle links to tragedy. Scorn, the principal emotion that Dr. Strangelove arouses - is the crucial emotion on which all satire depends. However, the other principal emotion in anti-nuclear fiction - hope - has principally a rhetorical function ensuring that the feelings the works provoke will be channeled constructively.

  15. Learning to listen to the organisational rhetoric of primary health and social care integration.

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    Warne, T; McAndrew, S; King, M; Holland, K

    2007-11-01

    The sustained modernisation of the UK primary health care service has resulted in individuals and organisations having to develop more integrated ways of working. This has resulted in changes to the structure and functioning of primary care organisations, changes to the traditional workforce, and an increase in scope of primary care practice. These changes have contributed to what for many staff has become a constantly turbulent organisational and practice environment. Data from a three-year project, commissioned by the North West Development Agency is used to explore how staff involved in these changes dealt with this turbulence. Three hundred and fifty staff working within primary care participated in the study. A multimethods approach was used which facilitated an iterative analysis and data collection process. Thematic analysis revealed a high degree of congruence between the perceptions of all staff groups with evidence of a generally well-articulated, but often rhetorical view of the organisational and professional factors involved in how these changes were experienced. This rhetoric was used by individuals as a way of containing both the good and bad elements of their experience. This paper discusses how these defense mechanisms need to be recognised and understood by managers so that a more supportive organisational culture is developed.

  16. A CONTRASTIVE RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF PHILIPPINE AND SRI LANKAN ENGLISH NEWS COMMENTARIES

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    Romualdo Atibagos Mabuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Newspaper commentaries constitute a part of media discourse, which is a significant area of inquiry in intercultural rhetoric analysis. Through conducting a contrastive textual analysis of newspaper commentaries culled from the English newspapers in the Philippines and Sri Lanka, this paper explored the notions of genre and micro-genre on the 2015 papal visit in the two countries. To set a tertium comparationisin examining the genre-newspaper commentaries on the papal visit, the timeframe was set during the two-week duration of the visit. To investigate the micro-genres employed by the writers, two sets of 15 newspaper commentaries on the visit respectively in the Philippines and Sri Lanka were selected and analyzed. Findings revealed that both Filipino and Sinhalese writers in English newspaper commentaries tended to employ the micro-genre of “media explanatory exposition” more often than other micro-genres, and in terms of rhetorical structures, both of these writers tended to show variation, dynamism, and individuality. Implications for ESL (English as a second language and EFL (English as a foreign language teaching are provided in the light of these findings.

  17. "Islam" In the Anti-Multicultural Rhetoric of Western European Politicians and Anthropologists: Congruence or Coincidence?

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    Marko Pišev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent rhetoric of the "end" or "failure" of multiculturalism in Europe and beyond came as no surprise to anthropologists. Moreover, the statements made by leading politicians of key European economies seem as though they are based on the decades old anthropological critique of the consequences of the failed implementation of multicultural policies in Europe and on the global level. It is as though the messages we have been getting over the course of the last few years – that multicultural policies are contraindicated, that they weaken the contacts between cultures, rob individuals of the right to change and chose their identities and strengthen intra-cultural mediators of power, with patriarchy, violence against women and children, leaving school, religious fundamentalism and even terrorism as main consequences – are being read by politicians from anthropological analyses of abuses of collective "cultural" rights. The paper considers the nature of this similarity between the discourse of politicians and anthropologists with a special emphasis on the status of "Islam" in them, and discusses whether it is congruence or mere coincidence of stances toward minorities, immigrants and cultural differences, as toward the regulations which were tasked with protecting this diversity as a fundamental European value which today, at least at the rhetorical level, seems to be fading.

  18. Rhetorics of Race: Mexican Thinkers and the War of 1898

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    Rafael Rojas

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The war between Spain and the United States. which broke out in the summer of 1898 in Cuba, Puerto Rico and Philippines -Spain's last three American territories- was passionately followed by all Latin America countries. The old metropolis, which had by then resumed its  relations with the  Hispanic-Arnerican nations, was now facing the new imperial democracy arising in the  late-nineteenth century United States. As a neighboring country, Mexico was almost an eye-witness to all this and lived the war as if it were  being waged on Mexican soil. It was also in Mexico where supporters of Spain and the United States, friends and enemies of Cuban independence, opposed their intellectu­al and political strength. This paper is about that parallel war fought in 1898 within the culture and politics of the Porliriato.

  19. Immediate attention for public speech: Differential effects of rhetorical schemes and valence framing in political radio speeches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerwerf, L.; Boeynaems, A.; van Egmond-Brussee, C.; Burgers, C.F.

    2015-01-01

    Political campaign speeches are deemed influential in winning people’s minds and votes. While the language used in such speeches has often been credited with their impact, empirical research in this area is scarce. We report on two experiments investigating how language variables such as rhetorical

  20. George W. Bush's Post-September 11 Rhetoric of Covenant Renewal: Upholding the Faith of the Greatest Generation

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    Bostdorff, Denise M.

    2003-01-01

    The appeal of Bush's post-September 11 discourse lies in its similarities with the Puritan rhetoric of covenant renewal by which ministers brought second- and third-generation Puritans into the church. Through this epideictic discourse, Bush implored younger Americans to uphold the national covenant of their "elders," the World War II generation,…