WorldWideScience

Sample records for sex specific effects

  1. Sex-Specific Neurotoxic Effects of Organophosphate Pesticides Across the Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Nicole; Re, Diane B

    2017-12-01

    This review discusses the sex-specific effects of exposure to various organophosphate (OP) pesticides throughout the life course and potential reasons for the differential vulnerabilities observed across sexes. Sex is a crucial factor in the response to toxicants, yet the sex-specific effects of OP exposure, particularly in juveniles and adults, remain unresolved. This is largely due to study design and inconsistencies in exposure and outcome assessments. Exposure to OPs results in multiple adverse outcomes influenced by many factors including sex. Reported sex-specific effects suggest that males are more susceptible to OPs, which reflects the sex-dependent prevalence of various neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders such as autism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), in which males are at greater risk. Thus, this review proposes that the biological sex-specific effects elicited by OP exposure may in part underlie the dimorphic susceptibilities observed in neurological disorders. Understanding the immediate and long-term effects of OP exposure across sexes will be critical in advancing our understanding of OP-induced neurotoxicity and disease.

  2. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Sex-specific genetic effects in physical activity: results from a quantitative genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego, Vincent P; de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Blangero, John; de Souza, Michele Caroline; Santos, Daniel; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Garganta, Rui; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José A R

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study is to present a model to estimate sex-specific genetic effects on physical activity (PA) levels and sedentary behaviour (SB) using three generation families. The sample consisted of 100 families covering three generations from Portugal. PA and SB were assessed via the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form (IPAQ-SF). Sex-specific effects were assessed by genotype-by-sex interaction (GSI) models and sex-specific heritabilities. GSI effects and heterogeneity were tested in the residual environmental variance. SPSS 17 and SOLAR v. 4.1 were used in all computations. The genetic component for PA and SB domains varied from low to moderate (11% to 46%), when analyzing both genders combined. We found GSI effects for vigorous PA (p = 0.02) and time spent watching television (WT) (p < 0.001) that showed significantly higher additive genetic variance estimates in males. The heterogeneity in the residual environmental variance was significant for moderate PA (p = 0.02), vigorous PA (p = 0.006) and total PA (p = 0.001). Sex-specific heritability estimates were significantly higher in males only for WT, with a male-to-female difference in heritability of 42.5 (95% confidence interval: 6.4, 70.4). Low to moderate genetic effects on PA and SB traits were found. Results from the GSI model show that there are sex-specific effects in two phenotypes, VPA and WT with a stronger genetic influence in males.

  4. Radiation-induced bystander effects in vivo are sex specific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koturbash, Igor; Kutanzi, Kristy; Hendrickson, Karl; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Kogosov, Dmitry; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) effects span beyond the area of direct exposure and can be observed in neighboring and distant naive cells and organs. This phenomenon is termed a 'bystander effect'. IR effects in directly exposed tissue in vivo are epigenetically mediated and distinct in males and females. Yet, IR-induced bystander effects have never been explored in a sex-specificity domain. We used an in vivo mouse model, whereby the bystander effects are studied in spleen of male and female animals subjected to head exposure when the rest of the body is protected by a medical-grade lead shield. We analyzed the induction of DNA damage and alterations in global DNA methylation. Molecular parameters were correlated with cellular proliferation and apoptosis levels. The changes observed in bystander organs are compared to the changes in unexposed animals and animals exposed to predicted and measured scatter doses. We have found the selective induction of DNA damage levels, global DNA methylation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in exposed and bystander spleen tissue of male and female mice. Sex differences were significantly diminished in animals subjected to a surgical removal of gonads. These data constitute the first evidence of sex differences in radiation-induced bystander effects in mouse spleen in vivo. We show the role of sex hormones in spleen bystander responses and discuss implications of the observed changes

  5. Radiation-induced bystander effects in vivo are sex specific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koturbash, Igor; Kutanzi, Kristy; Hendrickson, Karl; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Kogosov, Dmitry [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Kovalchuk, Olga [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada)], E-mail: olga.kovalchuk@uleth.ca

    2008-07-03

    Ionizing radiation (IR) effects span beyond the area of direct exposure and can be observed in neighboring and distant naive cells and organs. This phenomenon is termed a 'bystander effect'. IR effects in directly exposed tissue in vivo are epigenetically mediated and distinct in males and females. Yet, IR-induced bystander effects have never been explored in a sex-specificity domain. We used an in vivo mouse model, whereby the bystander effects are studied in spleen of male and female animals subjected to head exposure when the rest of the body is protected by a medical-grade lead shield. We analyzed the induction of DNA damage and alterations in global DNA methylation. Molecular parameters were correlated with cellular proliferation and apoptosis levels. The changes observed in bystander organs are compared to the changes in unexposed animals and animals exposed to predicted and measured scatter doses. We have found the selective induction of DNA damage levels, global DNA methylation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in exposed and bystander spleen tissue of male and female mice. Sex differences were significantly diminished in animals subjected to a surgical removal of gonads. These data constitute the first evidence of sex differences in radiation-induced bystander effects in mouse spleen in vivo. We show the role of sex hormones in spleen bystander responses and discuss implications of the observed changes.

  6. Radiation-induced bystander effects in vivo are sex specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koturbash, Igor; Kutanzi, Kristy; Hendrickson, Karl; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Kogosov, Dmitry; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-07-03

    Ionizing radiation (IR) effects span beyond the area of direct exposure and can be observed in neighboring and distant naïve cells and organs. This phenomenon is termed a 'bystander effect'. IR effects in directly exposed tissue in vivo are epigenetically mediated and distinct in males and females. Yet, IR-induced bystander effects have never been explored in a sex-specificity domain. We used an in vivo mouse model, whereby the bystander effects are studied in spleen of male and female animals subjected to head exposure when the rest of the body is protected by a medical-grade lead shield. We analyzed the induction of DNA damage and alterations in global DNA methylation. Molecular parameters were correlated with cellular proliferation and apoptosis levels. The changes observed in bystander organs are compared to the changes in unexposed animals and animals exposed to predicted and measured scatter doses. We have found the selective induction of DNA damage levels, global DNA methylation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in exposed and bystander spleen tissue of male and female mice. Sex differences were significantly diminished in animals subjected to a surgical removal of gonads. These data constitute the first evidence of sex differences in radiation-induced bystander effects in mouse spleen in vivo. We show the role of sex hormones in spleen bystander responses and discuss implications of the observed changes.

  7. Sex-specific effects of altered competition on nestling growth and survival: an experimental manipulation of brood size and sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Michler, Stephanie P M; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2009-03-01

    1. An increase of competition among adults or nestlings usually negatively affects breeding output. Yet little is known about the differential effects that competition has on the offspring sexes. This could be important because it may influence parental reproductive decisions. 2. In sexual size dimorphic species, two main contradictory mechanisms are proposed regarding sex-specific effects of competition on nestling performance assuming that parents do not feed their chicks differentially: (i) the larger sex requires more resources to grow and is more sensitive to a deterioration of the rearing conditions ('costly sex hypothesis'); (ii) the larger sex has a competitive advantage in intra-brood competition and performs better under adverse conditions ('competitive advantage hypothesis'). 3. In the present study, we manipulated the level of sex-specific sibling competition in a great tit population (Parus major) by altering simultaneously the brood size and the brood sex ratio on two levels: the nest (competition for food among nestlings) and the woodlot where the parents breed (competition for food among adults). We investigated whether altered competition during the nestling phase affected nestling growth traits and survival in the nest and whether the effects differed between males, the larger sex, and females. 4. We found a strong negative and sex-specific effect of experimental brood size on all the nestling traits. In enlarged broods, sexual size dimorphism was smaller which may have resulted from biased mortality towards the less competitive individuals i.e. females of low condition. No effect of brood sex ratio on nestling growth traits was found. 5. Negative brood size effects on nestling traits were stronger in natural high-density areas but we could not confirm this experimentally. 6. Our results did not support the 'costly sex hypothesis' because males did not suffer from higher mortality under harsh conditions. The 'competitive advantage hypothesis' was

  8. Sex differences in the vaccine-specific and non-targeted effects of vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Katie L; Klein, Sabra L; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines have non-specific effects (NSE) on subsequent morbidity and mortality from non-vaccine related infectious diseases. Thus NSE refers to any effect that cannot be accounted for by the induction of immunity against the vaccine-targeted disease. These effects are sex-differential, generally...... being more pronounced in females than males. Furthermore, the NSE are substantial causing greater than fifty percent changes in all cause mortality in certain settings, yet have never been systematically tested despite the fact that millions of children receive vaccines each year. As we strive...... to eliminate infectious diseases through vaccination programmes, the relative impact of NSE of vaccines on mortality is likely to increase, raising important questions regarding the future of certain vaccine schedules. A diverse group of scientists met in Copenhagen to discuss non-specific and sex...

  9. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immonen, Elina; Collet, Marie; Goenaga, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex...... to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity...... beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due...

  10. Differential sex-specific effects of oxygen toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuhao; Lingappan, Krithika

    2017-01-01

    Despite the well-established sex-specific differences in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the molecular mechanism(s) behind these are not completely understood. Pulmonary angiogenesis is critical for alveolarization and arrest in vascular development adversely affects lung development. Human neonatal umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) provide a robust in vitro model for the study of endothelial cell physiology and function. Male and Female HUVECs were exposed to room air (21% O 2 , 5% CO 2 ) or hyperoxia (95% O 2 , 5% CO 2 ) for up to 72 h. Cell viability, proliferation, H 2 O 2 production and angiogenesis were analyzed. Sex-specific differences in the expression of VEGFR2 and modulation of NF-kappa B pathway were measured. Male HUVECs have decreased survival, greater oxidative stress and impairment in angiogenesis compared to similarly exposed female cells. There is differential expression of VEGFR2 between male and female HUVECs and greater activation of the NF-kappa B pathway in female HUVECs under hyperoxic conditions. The results indicate that sex differences exist between male and female HUVECs in vitro after hyperoxia exposure. Since endothelial dysfunction has a major role in the pathogenesis of BPD, these differences could explain in part the mechanisms behind sex-specific differences in the incidence of this disease. - Highlights: • Cellular sex effects viability and oxidative stress in HUVECs exposed to hyperoxia. • Male HUVECs show greater impairment in angiogenesis compared to female cells. • Sex-specific modulation of VEGFR2 and the NF-kappaB pathway was noted.

  11. Species- and sex-specific connectivity effects of habitat fragmentation in a suite of woodland birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Nevil; Harrisson, Katherine A; Radford, James Q; White, Matt; Newell, Graeme; Mac Nally, Ralph; Sunnucks, Paul; Pavlova, Alexandra

    2014-06-01

    Loss of functional connectivity following habitat loss and fragmentation could drive species declines. A comprehensive understanding of fragmentation effects on functional connectivity of an ecological assemblage requires investigation of multiple species with different mobilities, at different spatial scales, for each sex, and in different landscapes. Based on published data on mobility and ecological responses to fragmentation of 10 woodland-dependent birds, and using simulation studies, we predicted that (1) fragmentation would impede dispersal and gene flow of eight "decliners" (species that disappear from suitable patches when landscape-level tree cover falls below species-specific thresholds), but not of two "tolerant" species (whose occurrence in suitable habitat patches is independent of landscape tree cover); and that fragmentation effects would be stronger (2) in the least mobile species, (3) in the more philopatric sex, and (4) in the more fragmented region. We tested these predictions by evaluating spatially explicit isolation-by-landscape-resistance models of gene flow in fragmented landscapes across a 50 x 170 km study area in central Victoria, Australia, using individual and population genetic distances. To account for sex-biased dispersal and potential scale- and configuration-specific effects, we fitted models specific to sex and geographic zones. As predicted, four of the least mobile decliners showed evidence of reduced genetic connectivity. The responses were strongly sex specific, but in opposite directions in the two most sedentary species. Both tolerant species and (unexpectedly) four of the more mobile decliners showed no reduction in gene flow. This is unlikely to be due to time lags because more mobile species develop genetic signatures of fragmentation faster than do less mobile ones. Weaker genetic effects were observed in the geographic zone with more aggregated vegetation, consistent with gene flow being unimpeded by landscape

  12. Maternal provision of non-sex-specific transformer messenger RNA in sex determination of the wasp Asobara tabida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuverink, E; Verhulst, E C; van Leussen, M; van de Zande, L; Beukeboom, L W

    2018-02-01

    In many insect species maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) of sex determination genes is an essential component of the sex determination mechanism. In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, maternal provision in combination with genomic imprinting has been shown for the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis, known as maternal effect genomic imprinting sex determination (MEGISD). Here, we characterize the sex determination cascade of Asobara tabida, another hymenopteran parasitoid. We show the presence of the conserved sex determination genes doublesex (dsx), transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra2) orthologues in As. tabida. Of these, At-dsx and At-tra are sex-specifically spliced, indicating a conserved function in sex determination. At-tra and At-tra2 mRNA is maternally provided to embryos but, in contrast to most studied insects, As. tabida females transmit a non-sex-specific splice form of At-tra mRNA to the eggs. In this respect, As. tabida sex determination differs from the MEGISD mechanism. How the paternal genome can induce female development in the absence of maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced mRNA remains an open question. Our study reports a hitherto unknown variant of maternal effect sex determination and accentuates the diversity of insect sex determination mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Sex-Specificity in the Reward Value of Facial Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2016-05-01

    Studies of the sex-specificity of sexual arousal in adults (i.e., the tendency to respond more strongly to preferred-sex individuals than non-preferred sex individuals) have suggested that heterosexual men, homosexual men, and homosexual women show stronger sex-specific responses than do heterosexual women. Evidence for a similar pattern of results in studies investigating the reward value of faces is equivocal. Consequently, we investigated the effects of (1) sexual orientation (homosexual vs. heterosexual), (2) sex (male vs. female), (3) image sex (preferred-sex vs. non-preferred-sex), and (4) the physical attractiveness of the individual shown in the image on the reward value of faces. Participants were 130 heterosexual men, 130 homosexual men, 130 heterosexual women, and 130 homosexual women. The reward value of faces was assessed using a standard key-press task. Multilevel modeling of responses indicated that images of preferred-sex individuals were more rewarding than images of non-preferred-sex individuals and that this preferred-sex bias was particularly pronounced when more physically attractive faces were presented. These effects were not qualified by interactions involving either the sexual orientation or the sex of our participants, however, suggesting that the preferred-sex bias in the reward value of faces is similar in heterosexual men, homosexual men, heterosexual women, and homosexual women.

  14. Using RAD-seq to recognize sex-specific markers and sex chromosome systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Tony

    2016-05-01

    Next-generation sequencing methods have initiated a revolution in molecular ecology and evolution (Tautz et al. ). Among the most impressive of these sequencing innovations is restriction site-associated DNA sequencing or RAD-seq (Baird et al. ; Andrews et al. ). RAD-seq uses the Illumina sequencing platform to sequence fragments of DNA cut by a specific restriction enzyme and can generate tens of thousands of molecular genetic markers for analysis. One of the many uses of RAD-seq data has been to identify sex-specific genetic markers, markers found in one sex but not the other (Baxter et al. ; Gamble & Zarkower ). Sex-specific markers are a powerful tool for biologists. At their most basic, they can be used to identify the sex of an individual via PCR. This is useful in cases where a species lacks obvious sexual dimorphism at some or all life history stages. For example, such tests have been important for studying sex differences in life history (Sheldon ; Mossman & Waser ), the management and breeding of endangered species (Taberlet et al. ; Griffiths & Tiwari ; Robertson et al. ) and sexing embryonic material (Hacker et al. ; Smith et al. ). Furthermore, sex-specific markers allow recognition of the sex chromosome system in cases where standard cytogenetic methods fail (Charlesworth & Mank ; Gamble & Zarkower ). Thus, species with male-specific markers have male heterogamety (XY) while species with female-specific markers have female heterogamety (ZW). In this issue, Fowler & Buonaccorsi () illustrate the ease by which RAD-seq data can generate sex-specific genetic markers in rockfish (Sebastes). Moreover, by examining RAD-seq data from two closely related rockfish species, Sebastes chrysomelas and Sebastes carnatus (Fig. ), Fowler & Buonaccorsi () uncover shared sex-specific markers and a conserved sex chromosome system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Sex-Specific Effects of Childhood Poverty on Neurocircuitry of Processing of Emotional Cues: A Neuroimaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Javanbakht

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is accumulating evidence on the negative impacts of childhood poverty on physical and mental health. Previous work has suggested hyperactive neural response to social fear cues, as well as impairment in neural regulatory functions. However, despite differences found between males and females in stress-related and anxiety disorders, possible sex-specific effects of poverty on emotional processing have not been explored. Methods: We analyzed data from three previously reported experiments of childhood poverty effects on emotional processing and regulation, for sex-specific effects. Participants were 52 healthy Caucasian males and females, from a longitudinal cohort of poverty development study, who were recruited for examining the long-term effects of childhood poverty and stress. The three functional MRI studies included emotion regulation task, emotional face assessment task, and shifted attention emotion appraisal task. Brain activations that associated with childhood poverty previously were entered into a regression analysis with interaction of gender by childhood income-to-need ratio as the independent variable, and age and current income-to-need ratio as variables of no interest, separately for males and females. Results: Amygdala reactivity to implicitly processed fearful faces was positively correlated with childhood income-to-need in adult females but not males. On the other hand, activation in dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal regions during emotion regulation by reappraisal was positively correlated with childhood income-to-need in males. Conclusion: Childhood poverty may exert sex-specific effects in adulthood as presented by hypersensitive emotional reactivity of the amygdala in females, and impaired emotion regulatory function of the prefrontal cortex in males. Results suggest further focus on sex-specific effects of childhood poverty.

  16. Sex-specific mechanisms for responding to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Wicks, Brittany

    2017-01-02

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression share stress as an etiological contributor and are more common in women than in men. Traditionally, preclinical studies investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of stress vulnerability have used only male rodents; however, recent studies that include females are finding sex-specific mechanisms for responding to stress. This Mini-Review examines recent literature using a framework developed by McCarthy and colleagues (2012; J Neurosci 32:2241-2247) that highlights different types of sex differences. First, we detail how learned fear responses in rats are sexually dimorphic. Then, we contrast this finding with fear extinction, which is similar in males and females at the behavioral level but at the circuitry level is associated with sex-specific cellular changes and, thus, exemplifies a sex convergence. Next, sex differences in stress hormones are detailed. Finally, the effects of stress on learning, attention, and arousal are used to highlight the concept of a sex divergence in which the behavior of males and females is similar at baseline but diverges following stressor exposure. We argue that appreciating and investigating the diversity of sex differences in stress response systems will improve our understanding of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related psychiatric disorders and likely lead to the development of novel therapeutics for better treatment of these disorders in both men and women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sex-specific effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on glucose metabolism in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Marques, Claudia; Arbo, Bruno Dutra; Cozer, Aline Gonçalves; Hoefel, Ana Lúcia; Cecconello, Ana Lúcia; Zanini, Priscila; Niches, Gabriela; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia M

    2017-07-01

    DHEA is a neuroactive steroid, due to its modulatory actions on the central nervous system (CNS). DHEA is able to regulate neurogenesis, neurotransmitter receptors and neuronal excitability, function, survival and metabolism. The levels of DHEA decrease gradually with advancing age, and this decline has been associated with age related neuronal dysfunction and degeneration, suggesting a neuroprotective effect of endogenous DHEA. There are significant sex differences in the pathophysiology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of many neurological diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether DHEA can alter glucose metabolism in different structures of the CNS from male and female rats, and if this effect is sex-specific. The results showed that DHEA decreased glucose uptake in some structures (cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb) in males, but did not affect glucose uptake in females. When compared, glucose uptake in males was higher than females. DHEA enhanced the glucose oxidation in both males (cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and females (cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb), in a sex-dependent manner. In males, DHEA did not affect synthesis of glycogen, however, glycogen content was increased in the cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb. DHEA modulates glucose metabolism in a tissue-, dose- and sex-dependent manner to increase glucose oxidation, which could explain the previously described neuroprotective role of this hormone in some neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Density-dependent sex ratio and sex-specific preference for host traits in parasitic bat flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentiványi, Tamara; Vincze, Orsolya; Estók, Péter

    2017-08-29

    Deviation of sex ratios from unity in wild animal populations has recently been demonstrated to be far more prevalent than previously thought. Ectoparasites are prominent examples of this bias, given that their sex ratios vary from strongly female- to strongly male-biased both among hosts and at the metapopulation level. To date our knowledge is very limited on how and why these biased sex ratios develop. It was suggested that sex ratio and sex-specific aggregation of ectoparasites might be shaped by the ecology, behaviour and physiology of both hosts and their parasites. Here we investigate a highly specialised, hematophagous bat fly species with strong potential to move between hosts, arguably limited inbreeding effects, off-host developmental stages and extended parental care. We collected a total of 796 Nycteribia kolenatii bat flies from 147 individual bats using fumigation and subsequently determined their sex. We report a balanced sex ratio at the metapopulation level and a highly variable sex ratio among infrapopulations ranging from 100% male to 100% female. We show that infrapopulation sex ratio is not random and is highly correlated with infrapopulation size. Sex ratio is highly male biased in small and highly female biased in large infrapopulations. We show that this pattern is most probably the result of sex-specific preference in bat flies for host traits, most likely combined with a higher mobility of males. We demonstrate that female bat flies exert a strong preference for high host body condition and female hosts, while the distribution of males is more even. Our results suggest that locally biased sex ratios can develop due to sex-specific habitat preference of parasites. Moreover, it is apparent that the sex of both hosts and parasites need to be accounted for when a better understanding of host-parasite systems is targeted.

  19. Sex-specific effects of yolk testosterone on survival, begging and growth of zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Engelhardt, N; Carere, C; Dijkstra, C; Groothuis, TGG

    2006-01-01

    Yolk androgens affect offspring hatching, begging, growth and survival in many bird species. If these effects are sex-specific, yolk androgen deposition may constitute a mechanism for differential investment in male and female offspring. We tested this hypothesis in zebra finches. In this species,

  20. The Mitochondrial Lon Protease Is Required for Age-Specific and Sex-Specific Adaptation to Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomatto, Laura C D; Carney, Caroline; Shen, Brenda; Wong, Sarah; Halaszynski, Kelly; Salomon, Matthew P; Davies, Kelvin J A; Tower, John

    2017-01-09

    Multiple human diseases involving chronic oxidative stress show a significant sex bias, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, immune dysfunction, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, a possible molecular mechanism for the sex bias in physiological adaptation to oxidative stress remains unclear. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster females but not males adapt to hydrogen peroxide stress, whereas males but not females adapt to paraquat (superoxide) stress. Stress adaptation in each sex requires the conserved mitochondrial Lon protease and is associated with sex-specific expression of Lon protein isoforms and proteolytic activity. Adaptation to oxidative stress is lost with age in both sexes. Transgenic expression of transformer gene during development transforms chromosomal males into pseudo-females and confers the female-specific pattern of Lon isoform expression, Lon proteolytic activity induction, and H 2 O 2 stress adaptation; these effects were also observed using adult-specific transformation. Conversely, knockdown of transformer in chromosomal females eliminates the female-specific Lon isoform expression, Lon proteolytic activity induction, and H 2 O 2 stress adaptation and produces the male-specific paraquat (superoxide) stress adaptation. Sex-specific expression of alternative Lon isoforms was also observed in mouse tissues. The results develop Drosophila melanogaster as a model for sex-specific stress adaptation regulated by the Lon protease, with potential implications for understanding sexual dimorphism in human disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex-specific determinants of fitness in a social mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Sophie; Allainé, Dominique; Bonenfant, Christophe; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-11-01

    Sociality should evolve when the fitness benefits of group living outweigh the costs. Theoretical models predict an optimal group size maximizing individual fitness. However, beyond the number of individuals present in a group, the characteristics of these individuals, like their sex, are likely to affect the fitness payoffs of group living. Using 20 years of individually based data on a social mammal, the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota), we tested for the occurrence of an optimal group size and composition, and for sex-specific effects of group characteristics on fitness. Based on lifetime data of 52 males and 39 females, our findings support the existence of an optimal group size maximizing male fitness and an optimal group composition maximizing fitness of males and females. Additionally, although group characteristics (i.e., size, composition and instability) affecting male and female fitness differed, fitness depended strongly on the number of same-sex subordinates within the social group in the two sexes. By comparing multiple measures of social group characteristics and of fitness in both sexes, we highlighted the sex-specific determinants of fitness in the two sexes and revealed the crucial role of intrasexual competition in shaping social group composition.

  2. Sex-specific effects of a parasite evolving in a female-biased host population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duneau, David; Luijckx, Pepijn; Ruder, Ludwig F; Ebert, Dieter

    2012-12-18

    Males and females differ in many ways and might present different opportunities and challenges to their parasites. In the same way that parasites adapt to the most common host type, they may adapt to the characteristics of the host sex they encounter most often. To explore this hypothesis, we characterized host sex-specific effects of the parasite Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterium evolving in naturally, strongly, female-biased populations of its host Daphnia magna. We show that the parasite proliferates more successfully in female hosts than in male hosts, even though males and females are genetically identical. In addition, when exposure occurred when hosts expressed a sexual dimorphism, females were more infected. In both host sexes, the parasite causes a similar reduction in longevity and leads to some level of castration. However, only in females does parasite-induced castration result in the gigantism that increases the carrying capacity for the proliferating parasite. We show that mature male and female Daphnia represent different environments and reveal one parasite-induced symptom (host castration), which leads to increased carrying capacity for parasite proliferation in female but not male hosts. We propose that parasite induced host castration is a property of parasites that evolved as an adaptation to specifically exploit female hosts.

  3. Sex-specific effects of a parasite evolving in a female-biased host population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duneau David

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Males and females differ in many ways and might present different opportunities and challenges to their parasites. In the same way that parasites adapt to the most common host type, they may adapt to the characteristics of the host sex they encounter most often. To explore this hypothesis, we characterized host sex-specific effects of the parasite Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterium evolving in naturally, strongly, female-biased populations of its host Daphnia magna. Results We show that the parasite proliferates more successfully in female hosts than in male hosts, even though males and females are genetically identical. In addition, when exposure occurred when hosts expressed a sexual dimorphism, females were more infected. In both host sexes, the parasite causes a similar reduction in longevity and leads to some level of castration. However, only in females does parasite-induced castration result in the gigantism that increases the carrying capacity for the proliferating parasite. Conclusions We show that mature male and female Daphnia represent different environments and reveal one parasite-induced symptom (host castration, which leads to increased carrying capacity for parasite proliferation in female but not male hosts. We propose that parasite induced host castration is a property of parasites that evolved as an adaptation to specifically exploit female hosts.

  4. Sex-specific effects of a parasite evolving in a female-biased host population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Males and females differ in many ways and might present different opportunities and challenges to their parasites. In the same way that parasites adapt to the most common host type, they may adapt to the characteristics of the host sex they encounter most often. To explore this hypothesis, we characterized host sex-specific effects of the parasite Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterium evolving in naturally, strongly, female-biased populations of its host Daphnia magna. Results We show that the parasite proliferates more successfully in female hosts than in male hosts, even though males and females are genetically identical. In addition, when exposure occurred when hosts expressed a sexual dimorphism, females were more infected. In both host sexes, the parasite causes a similar reduction in longevity and leads to some level of castration. However, only in females does parasite-induced castration result in the gigantism that increases the carrying capacity for the proliferating parasite. Conclusions We show that mature male and female Daphnia represent different environments and reveal one parasite-induced symptom (host castration), which leads to increased carrying capacity for parasite proliferation in female but not male hosts. We propose that parasite induced host castration is a property of parasites that evolved as an adaptation to specifically exploit female hosts. PMID:23249484

  5. Postzygotic isolation involves strong mitochondrial and sex-specific effects in Tigriopus californicus, a species lacking heteromorphic sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, B R; Rose, C G; Rundle, D E; Leong, W; Edmands, S

    2013-11-01

    Detailed studies of the genetics of speciation have focused on a few model systems, particularly Drosophila. The copepod Tigriopus californicus offers an alternative that differs from standard animal models in that it lacks heteromorphic chromosomes (instead, sex determination is polygenic) and has reduced opportunities for sexual conflict, because females mate only once. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was conducted on reciprocal F2 hybrids between two strongly differentiated populations, using a saturated linkage map spanning all 12 autosomes and the mitochondrion. By comparing sexes, a possible sex ratio distorter was found but no sex chromosomes. Although studies of standard models often find an excess of hybrid male sterility factors, we found no QTL for sterility and multiple QTL for hybrid viability (indicated by non-Mendelian adult ratios) and other characters. Viability problems were found to be stronger in males, but the usual explanations for weaker hybrid males (sex chromosomes, sensitivity of spermatogenesis, sexual selection) cannot fully account for these male viability problems. Instead, higher metabolic rates may amplify deleterious effects in males. Although many studies of standard speciation models find the strongest genetic incompatibilities to be nuclear-nuclear (specifically X chromosome-autosome), we found the strongest deleterious interaction in this system was mito-nuclear. Consistent with the snowball theory of incompatibility accumulation, we found that trigenic interactions in this highly divergent cross were substantially more frequent (>6×) than digenic interactions. This alternative system thus allows important comparisons to studies of the genetics of reproductive isolation in more standard model systems.

  6. Anthropogenic impacts on Costa Rican bat parasitism are sex specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah K; Mendenhall, Chase D; Judson, Seth D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    While anthropogenic impacts on parasitism of wildlife are receiving growing attention, whether these impacts vary in a sex-specific manner remains little explored. Differences between the sexes in the effect of parasites, linked to anthropogenic activity, could lead to uneven sex ratios and higher population endangerment. We sampled 1108 individual bats in 18 different sites across an agricultural mosaic landscape in southern Costa Rica to investigate the relationships between anthropogenic impacts (deforestation and reductions in host species richness) and bat fly ectoparasitism of 35 species of Neotropical bats. Although female and male bat assemblages were similar across the deforestation gradient, bat fly assemblages tracked their hosts closely only on female bats. We found that in female hosts, parasite abundance per bat decreased with increasing bat species richness, while in male hosts, parasite abundance increased. We hypothesize the differences in the parasite-disturbance relationship are due to differences in roosting behavior between the sexes. We report a sex-specific parasite-disturbance relationship and argue that sex differences in anthropogenic impacts on wildlife parasitism could impact long-term population health and survival.

  7. Untangling the Contributions of Sex-Specific Gene Regulation and X-Chromosome Dosage to Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Maxwell; Rao, Prashant; Ercan, Sevinc

    2016-01-01

    Dosage compensation mechanisms equalize the level of X chromosome expression between sexes. Yet the X chromosome is often enriched for genes exhibiting sex-biased, i.e., imbalanced expression. The relationship between X chromosome dosage compensation and sex-biased gene expression remains largely unexplored. Most studies determine sex-biased gene expression without distinguishing between contributions from X chromosome copy number (dose) and the animal’s sex. Here, we uncoupled X chromosome dose from sex-specific gene regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine the effect of each on X expression. In early embryogenesis, when dosage compensation is not yet fully active, X chromosome dose drives the hermaphrodite-biased expression of many X-linked genes, including several genes that were shown to be responsible for hermaphrodite fate. A similar effect is seen in the C. elegans germline, where X chromosome dose contributes to higher hermaphrodite X expression, suggesting that lack of dosage compensation in the germline may have a role in supporting higher expression of X chromosomal genes with female-biased functions in the gonad. In the soma, dosage compensation effectively balances X expression between the sexes. As a result, somatic sex-biased expression is almost entirely due to sex-specific gene regulation. These results suggest that lack of dosage compensation in different tissues and developmental stages allow X chromosome copy number to contribute to sex-biased gene expression and function. PMID:27356611

  8. BDNF deficiency and young-adult methamphetamine induce sex-specific effects on prepulse inhibition regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E Manning

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, yet its role in the development of specific symptoms is unclear. Methamphetamine (METH users have an increased risk of psychosis and schizophrenia, and METH-treated animals have been used extensively as a model to study the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. We investigated whether METH treatment in BDNF heterozygous mutant mice (HET has cumulative effects on sensorimotor gating, including the disruptive effects of psychotropic drugs. BDNF HETs and WT littermates were treated during young-adulthood with METH and, following a two-week break, prepulse inhibition (PPI was examined. At baseline, BDNF HETs showed reduced PPI compared to WT mice irrespective of METH pre-treatment. An acute challenge with amphetamine (AMPH disrupted PPI but male BDNF HETs were more sensitive to this effect, irrespective of METH pre-treatment. In contrast, female mice treated with METH were less sensitive to the disruptive effects of AMPH, and there were no effects of BDNF genotype. Similar changes were not observed in the response to an acute apomorphine or MK-801 challenge. These results show that genetically-induced reduction of BDNF caused changes in a behavioural endophenotype relevant to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, major sex differences were observed in the effects of a psychotropic drug challenge on this behaviour. These findings suggest sex differences in the effects of BDNF depletion and METH treatment on the monoamine signaling pathways that regulate PPI. Given that these same pathways are thought to contribute to the expression of positive symptoms in schizophrenia, this work suggests that there may be significant sex differences in the pathophysiology underlying these symptoms. Elucidating these sex differences may be important for our understanding of the neurobiology of schizophrenia and developing better treatments strategies for the

  9. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets have sex-specific effects on bone health in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zengin, Ayse; Kropp, Benedikt; Chevalier, Yan

    2016-01-01

    the effects in female rats remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether sex-specific effects of LC-HF diets on bone health exist. METHODS: Twelve-week-old male and female Wistar rats were isoenergetically pair-fed either a control diet (CD), "Atkins-style" protein-matched diet (LC-HF-1), or ketogenic......PURPOSE: Studies in humans suggest that consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets (LC-HF) could be detrimental for growth and bone health. In young male rats, LC-HF diets negatively affect bone health by impairing the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis (GH/IGF axis), while...... low-protein diet (LC-HF-2) for 4 weeks. In females, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry analyses were performed on the distal femur. Sex hormones were analysed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and endocrine parameters including GH and IGF-I were measured by immunoassay...

  10. No evidence for sex-specific effects of the maternal social environment on offspring development in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Esther M A; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C

    2018-07-01

    The social environment of reproducing females can cause physiological changes, with consequences for reproductive investment and offspring development. These prenatal maternal effects are often found to be sex-specific and may have evolved as adaptations, maximizing fitness of male and female offspring for their future environment. Female hormone levels during reproduction are considered a potential mechanism regulating sex allocation in vertebrates: high maternal androgens have repeatedly been linked to increased investment in sons, whereas high glucocorticoid levels are usually related to increased investment in daughters. However, results are not consistent across studies and therefore still inconclusive. In Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), we previously found that pair-housed females had higher plasma androgen levels and tended to have higher plasma corticosterone levels than group-housed females. In the current study we investigate whether these differences in maternal social environment and physiology affect offspring sex allocation and physiology. Counter to our expectations, we find no effects of the maternal social environment on offspring sex ratio, sex-specific mortality, growth, circulating androgen or corticosterone levels. Also, maternal corticosterone or androgen levels do not correlate with offspring sex ratio or mortality. The social environment during reproduction therefore does not necessarily modify sex allocation and offspring physiology, even if it causes differences in maternal physiology. We propose that maternal effects of the social environment strongly depend upon the type of social stimuli and the timing of changes in the social environment and hormones with respect to the reproductive cycle and meiosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Deletion of Fmr1 results in sex-specific changes in behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Suzanne O; Reynolds, Conner D; Smith, Gregory D; Holley, Andrew J; Escobar, Brianna; Chandler, Matthew A; Volquardsen, Megan; Jefferson, Taylor; Pandian, Ashvini; Smith, Tileena; Huebschman, Jessica; Lugo, Joaquin N

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we used a systemic Fmr1 knockout in order to investigate both genotype- and sex-specific differences across multiple measures of sociability, repetitive behaviors, activity levels, anxiety, and fear-related learning and memory. Fragile X syndrome is the most common monogenic cause of intellectual disability and autism. Few studies to date have examined sex differences in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, though clinical data support the idea of differences in both overall prevalence and phenotype between the sexes. Using wild-type and systemic homozygous Fmr1 knockout mice, we assessed a variety of behavioral paradigms in adult animals, including the open field test, elevated plus maze, nose-poke assay, accelerating rotarod, social partition task, three-chambered social task, and two different fear conditioning paradigms. Tests were ordered such that the most invasive tests were performed last in the sequence, and testing paradigms for similar behaviors were performed in separate cohorts to minimize testing effects. Our results indicate several sex-specific changes in Fmr1 knockout mice, including male-specific increases in activity levels, and female-specific increases in repetitive behaviors on both the nose-poke assay and motor coordination on the accelerating rotarod task. The results also indicated that Fmr1 deletion results in deficits in fear learning and memory across both sexes, and no changes in social behavior across two tasks. These findings highlight the importance of including female subjects in preclinical studies, as simply studying the impact of genetic mutations in males does not yield a complete picture of the phenotype. Further research should explore these marked phenotypic differences among the sexes. Moreover, given that treatment strategies are typically equivalent between the sexes, the results highlight a potential need for sex-specific therapeutics.

  12. Conservation and sex-specific splicing of the doublesex gene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic control of sex determination in insects has been best characterized in Drosophila melanogaster, where the master gene Sxl codes for RNA that is sex specifically spliced to produce a functional protein only in females. SXL regulates the sex-specific splicing of transformer (tra) RNA which, in turn, regulates the ...

  13. Who perpetrates violence against children? A systematic analysis of age-specific and sex-specific data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen; Knight, Louise; Petzold, Max; Merrill, Katherine G; Maxwell, Lauren; Williams, Abigail; Cappa, Claudia; Chan, Ko Ling; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Hollis, NaTasha; Kress, Howard; Peterman, Amber; Walsh, Sophie D; Kishor, Sunita; Guedes, Alessandra; Bott, Sarah; Butron Riveros, Betzabe C; Watts, Charlotte; Abrahams, Naeemah

    2018-01-01

    The epidemiology of violence against children is likely to differ substantially by sex and age of the victim and the perpetrator. Thus far, investment in effective prevention strategies has been hindered by lack of clarity in the burden of childhood violence across these dimensions. We produced the first age-specific and sex-specific prevalence estimates by perpetrator type for physical, sexual and emotional violence against children globally. We used random effects meta-regression to estimate prevalence. Estimates were adjusted for relevant quality covariates, variation in definitions of violence and weighted by region-specific, age-specific and sex-specific population data to ensure estimates reflect country population structures. Secondary data from 600 population or school-based representative datasets and 43 publications obtained via systematic literature review, representing 13 830 estimates from 171 countries. Estimates for recent violence against children aged 0-19 were included. The most common perpetrators of physical and emotional violence for both boys and girls across a range of ages are household members, with prevalence often surpassing 50%, followed by student peers. Children reported experiencing more emotional than physical violence from both household members and students. The most common perpetrators of sexual violence against girls aged 15-19 years are intimate partners; however, few data on other perpetrators of sexual violence against children are systematically collected internationally. Few age-specific and sex-specific data are available on violence perpetration by schoolteachers; however, existing data indicate high prevalence of physical violence from teachers towards students. Data from other authority figures, strangers, siblings and other adults are limited, as are data on neglect of children. Without further investment in data generation on violence exposure from multiple perpetrators for boys and girls of all ages, progress

  14. Who perpetrates violence against children? A systematic analysis of age-specific and sex-specific data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen; Knight, Louise; Petzold, Max; Merrill, Katherine G; Maxwell, Lauren; Williams, Abigail; Cappa, Claudia; Chan, Ko Ling; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Hollis, NaTasha; Kress, Howard; Peterman, Amber; Walsh, Sophie D; Kishor, Sunita; Guedes, Alessandra; Bott, Sarah; Butron Riveros, Betzabe C; Watts, Charlotte; Abrahams, Naeemah

    2018-01-01

    Objective The epidemiology of violence against children is likely to differ substantially by sex and age of the victim and the perpetrator. Thus far, investment in effective prevention strategies has been hindered by lack of clarity in the burden of childhood violence across these dimensions. We produced the first age-specific and sex-specific prevalence estimates by perpetrator type for physical, sexual and emotional violence against children globally. Design We used random effects meta-regression to estimate prevalence. Estimates were adjusted for relevant quality covariates, variation in definitions of violence and weighted by region-specific, age-specific and sex-specific population data to ensure estimates reflect country population structures. Data sources Secondary data from 600 population or school-based representative datasets and 43 publications obtained via systematic literature review, representing 13 830 estimates from 171 countries. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Estimates for recent violence against children aged 0–19 were included. Results The most common perpetrators of physical and emotional violence for both boys and girls across a range of ages are household members, with prevalence often surpassing 50%, followed by student peers. Children reported experiencing more emotional than physical violence from both household members and students. The most common perpetrators of sexual violence against girls aged 15–19 years are intimate partners; however, few data on other perpetrators of sexual violence against children are systematically collected internationally. Few age-specific and sex-specific data are available on violence perpetration by schoolteachers; however, existing data indicate high prevalence of physical violence from teachers towards students. Data from other authority figures, strangers, siblings and other adults are limited, as are data on neglect of children. Conclusions Without further investment in data

  15. Do sex-specific densities affect local survival of free-ranging great tits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Nicolaus, Marion; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Komdeur, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Competition within sexes is expected when resources are sex specific, whereas competition between sexes can occur when similar resources are exploited. Local population density and sex ratio will determine the amount of sex-specific interactions and thus the potential degree of sex-specific

  16. Sex-specific effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the microbiome and behavior of socially-isolated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J; Hecht, Patrick M; Jasarevic, Eldin; Beversdorf, David Q; Will, Matthew J; Fritsche, Kevin; Gillespie, Catherine H

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been shown to have a beneficial effect on reducing the symptoms associated with several neuropsychiatric conditions including anxiety and depression. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain largely unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that the vast repertoire of commensal bacteria within the gut plays a critical role in regulating various biological processes in the brain and may contribute to neuropsychiatric disease risk. The present study determined the contribution of DHA on anxiety and depressive-like behaviors through modulation of the gut microbiota in a paradigm of social isolation. Adult male and female mice were subjected to social isolation for 28days and then placed either on a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.1% or 1.0% DHA. Fecal pellets were collected both 24h and 7days following the introduction of the new diets. Behavioral testing revealed that male mice fed a DHA diet, regardless of dose, exhibited reduced anxiety and depressive-like behaviors compared to control fed mice while no differences were observed in female mice. As the microbiota-brain-axis has been recently implicated in behavior, composition of microbial communities were analyzed to examine if these sex-specific effects of DHA may be associated with changes in the gut microbiota (GM). Clear sex differences were observed with males and females showing distinct microbial compositions prior to DHA supplementation. The introduction of DHA into the diet also induced sex-specific interactions on the GM with the fatty acid producing a significant effect on the microbial profiles in males but not in females. Interestingly, levels of Allobaculum and Ruminococcus were found to significantly correlate with the behavioral changes observed in the male mice. Predictive metagenome analysis using PICRUSt was performed on the fecal samples collected from males and

  17. Age- and sex-specific thorax finite element model development and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Vavalle, Nicholas A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    The shape, size, bone density, and cortical thickness of the thoracic skeleton vary significantly with age and sex, which can affect the injury tolerance, especially in at-risk populations such as the elderly. Computational modeling has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool to assess injury risk. However, current computational models only represent certain ages and sexes in the population. The purpose of this study was to morph an existing finite element (FE) model of the thorax to depict thorax morphology for males and females of ages 30 and 70 years old (YO) and to investigate the effect on injury risk. Age- and sex-specific FE models were developed using thin-plate spline interpolation. In order to execute the thin-plate spline interpolation, homologous landmarks on the reference, target, and FE model are required. An image segmentation and registration algorithm was used to collect homologous rib and sternum landmark data from males and females aged 0-100 years. The Generalized Procrustes Analysis was applied to the homologous landmark data to quantify age- and sex-specific isolated shape changes in the thorax. The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant model was morphed to create age- and sex-specific thoracic shape change models (scaled to a 50th percentile male size). To evaluate the thoracic response, 2 loading cases (frontal hub impact and lateral impact) were simulated to assess the importance of geometric and material property changes with age and sex. Due to the geometric and material property changes with age and sex, there were observed differences in the response of the thorax in both the frontal and lateral impacts. Material property changes alone had little to no effect on the maximum thoracic force or the maximum percent compression. With age, the thorax becomes stiffer due to superior rotation of the ribs, which can result in increased bone strain that can increase the risk of fracture. For the 70-YO models

  18. Risk of sex-specific cancers in opposite-sex and same-sex twins in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Skytthe, Axel; Möller, Sören

    2015-01-01

    -scale prospective twin study compared opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins to test the impact of intrauterine exposures on cancer risk. Based on the Danish and Swedish twin and cancer registries, we calculated incidence rate ratios for OS and SS twins while standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95......% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for OS/SS twins compared with the general population. RESULTS: A total of 18,001 cancers were identified during 1943-2009. No significant differences were observed between OS and SS twins, neither for the sex-specific cancers nor for cancer at all sites. All...... to prenatal testosterone - does not increase the risk of sex-specific cancers in OS females. Furthermore, the study supports that twinning per se is not a risk factor of cancer. IMPACT: Findings are reassuring as they fail to provide evidence for the hypothesis that endocrine or other difference...

  19. Sex-Specific Effects of Organophosphate Diazinon on the Gut Microbiome and Its Metabolic Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bei; Bian, Xiaoming; Mahbub, Ridwan; Lu, Kun

    2017-02-01

    There is growing recognition of the significance of the gut microbiome to human health, and the association between a perturbed gut microbiome with human diseases has been established. Previous studies also show the role of environmental toxicants in perturbing the gut microbiome and its metabolic functions. The wide agricultural use of diazinon, an organophosphate insecticide, has raised serious environmental health concerns since it is a potent neurotoxicant. With studies demonstrating the presence of a microbiome-gut-brain axis, it is possible that gut microbiome perturbation may also contribute to diazinon toxicity. We investigated the impact of diazinon exposure on the gut microbiome composition and its metabolic functions in C57BL/6 mice. We used a combination of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomics sequencing, and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics profiling in a mouse model to examine the functional impact of diazinon on the gut microbiome. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that diazinon exposure significantly perturbed the gut microbiome, and metagenomic sequencing found that diazinon exposure altered the functional metagenome. Moreover, metabolomics profiling revealed an altered metabolic profile arising from exposure. Of particular significance, these changes were more pronounced for male mice than for female mice. Diazinon exposure perturbed the gut microbiome community structure, functional metagenome, and associated metabolic profiles in a sex-specific manner. These findings may provide novel insights regarding perturbations of the gut microbiome and its functions as a potential new mechanism contributing to diazinon neurotoxicity and, in particular, its sex-selective effects. Citation: Gao B, Bian X, Mahbub R, Lu K. 2017. Sex-specific effects of organophosphate diazinon on the gut microbiome and its metabolic functions. Environ Health Perspect 125:198-206; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP202.

  20. Stage- and sex-specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria

    OpenAIRE

    Blanckenhorn Wolf U.; Gautier Roland; Nick Marcel; Puniamoorthy Nalini; Schäfer Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal tolerance varies at all hierarchical levels of biological organization: among species populations individuals and even within individuals. Age or developmental stage and sex specific thermal effects have received relatively little attention in the literature despite being crucial for understanding thermal adaptation in nature and responses to global warming. We document stage and sex specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae) a...

  1. Sex-specific lifespan and its evolution in nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancell, Henry; Pires-daSilva, Andre

    2017-10-01

    Differences between sexes of the same species in lifespan and aging rate are widespread. While the proximal and evolutionary causes of aging are well researched, the factors that contribute to sex differences in these traits have been less studied. The striking diversity of nematodes provides ample opportunity to study variation in sex-specific lifespan patterns associated with shifts in life history and mating strategy. Although the plasticity of these sex differences will make it challenging to generalize from invertebrate to vertebrate systems, studies in nematodes have enabled empirical evaluation of predictions regarding the evolution of lifespan. These studies have highlighted how natural and sexual selection can generate divergent patterns of lifespan if the sexes are subject to different rates or sources of mortality, or if trade-offs between complex traits and longevity are resolved differently in each sex. Here, we integrate evidence derived mainly from nematodes that addresses the molecular and evolutionary basis of sex-specific aging and lifespan. Ultimately, we hope to generate a clearer picture of current knowledge in this area, and also highlight the limitations of our understanding. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex differences in the vaccine-specific and non-targeted effects of vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Katie L; Klein, Sabra L; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2011-01-01

    to eliminate infectious diseases through vaccination programmes, the relative impact of NSE of vaccines on mortality is likely to increase, raising important questions regarding the future of certain vaccine schedules. A diverse group of scientists met in Copenhagen to discuss non-specific and sex...

  3. Facial Resemblance Exaggerates Sex-Specific Jealousy-Based Decisions1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Platek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reaction to a romantic partner's infidelity are well documented and are hypothesized to be attributable to sex-specific jealousy mechanisms which are utilized to solve adaptive problems associated with risk of extra-pair copulation. Males, because of the risk of cuckoldry become more upset by sexual infidelity, while females, because of loss of resources and biparental investment tend to become more distressed by emotional infidelity. However, the degree to which these sex-specific reactions to jealousy interact with cues to kin are completely unknown. Here we investigated the interaction of facial resemblance with decisions about sex-specific jealousy scenarios. Fifty nine volunteers were asked to imagine that two different people (represented by facial composites informed them about their romantic partner's sexual or emotional infidelity. Consistent with previous research, males ranked sexual infidelity scenarios as most upsetting and females ranked emotional infidelity scenarios most upsetting. However, when information about the infidelity was provided by a face that resembled the subject, sex-specific reactions to jealousy were exaggerated. This finding highlights the use of facial resemblance as a putative self-referent phenotypic matching cue that impacts trusting behavior in sexual contexts.

  4. Sex difference and Allee effects shape the dynamics of sex-structured invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Allison K; Kokko, Hanna; Neubert, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    The rate at which a population grows and spreads can depend on individual behaviour and interactions with others. In many species with two sexes, males and females differ in key life-history traits (e.g. growth, survival and dispersal), which can scale up to affect population rates of growth and spread. In sexually reproducing species, the mechanics of locating mates and reproducing successfully introduce further complications for predicting the invasion speed (spread rate), as both can change nonlinearly with density. Most models of population spread are based on one sex, or include limited aspects of sex differences. Here we ask whether and how the dynamics of finding mates interact with sex-specific life-history traits to influence the rate of population spread. We present a hybrid approach for modelling invasions of populations with two sexes that links individual-level mating behaviour (in an individual-based model) to population-level dynamics (in an integrodifference equation model). We find that limiting the amount of time during which individuals can search for mates causes a demographic Allee effect which can slow, delay, or even prevent an invasion. Furthermore, any sex-based asymmetries in life history or behaviour (skewed sex ratio, sex-biased dispersal, and sex-specific mating behaviours) amplify these effects. In contrast, allowing individuals to mate more than once ameliorates these effects, enabling polygynandrous populations to invade under conditions where monogamously mating populations would fail to establish. We show that details of individuals' mating behaviour can impact the rate of population spread. Based on our results, we propose a stricter definition of a mate-finding Allee effect, which is not met by the commonly used minimum mating function. Our modelling approach, which links individual- and population-level dynamics in a single model, may be useful for exploring other aspects of individual behaviour that are thought to impact the

  5. Sex linkage, sex-specific selection, and the role of recombination in the evolution of sexually dimorphic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G

    2010-12-01

    Sex-biased genes--genes that are differentially expressed within males and females--are nonrandomly distributed across animal genomes, with sex chromosomes and autosomes often carrying markedly different concentrations of male- and female-biased genes. These linkage patterns are often gene- and lineage-dependent, differing between functional genetic categories and between species. Although sex-specific selection is often hypothesized to shape the evolution of sex-linked and autosomal gene content, population genetics theory has yet to account for many of the gene- and lineage-specific idiosyncrasies emerging from the empirical literature. With the goal of improving the connection between evolutionary theory and a rapidly growing body of genome-wide empirical studies, we extend previous population genetics theory of sex-specific selection by developing and analyzing a biologically informed model that incorporates sex linkage, pleiotropy, recombination, and epistasis, factors that are likely to vary between genes and between species. Our results demonstrate that sex-specific selection and sex-specific recombination rates can generate, and are compatible with, the gene- and species-specific linkage patterns reported in the genomics literature. The theory suggests that sexual selection may strongly influence the architectures of animal genomes, as well as the chromosomal distribution of fixed substitutions underlying sexually dimorphic traits. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Sex-Specificity of Oxidative Stress in Newborns Leading to a Personalized Antioxidant Nutritive Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Jean-Claude; Tremblay, André

    2018-03-27

    Oxidative stress is a critical process that triggers several diseases observed in premature infants. Growing recognition of the detriment of oxidative stress in newborns warrants the use of an antioxidant strategy that is likely to be nutritional in order to restore redox homeostasis. It appears essential to have a personalized approach that will take into account the age of gestation at birth and the sex of the infant. However, the link between sex and oxidative stress remains unclear. The aim of this study was to find a common denominator explaining the discrepancy between studies related to sex-specific effects of oxidative stress. Results highlight a specificity of sex in the levels of oxidative stress markers linked to the metabolism of glutathione, as measured in the intracellular compartments. Levels of all sex-dependent oxidative stress markers are greater and markers associated to a better antioxidant defense are lower in boys compared to girls during the neonatal period. This sex-specific discrepancy is likely to be related to estrogen metabolism, which is more active in baby-girls and promotes the activation of glutathione metabolism. our observations suggest that nutritive antioxidant strategies need to target glutathione metabolism and, therefore, should be personalized considering, among others, the sex specificity.

  7. Sex-Specificity of Oxidative Stress in Newborns Leading to a Personalized Antioxidant Nutritive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Lavoie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a critical process that triggers several diseases observed in premature infants. Growing recognition of the detriment of oxidative stress in newborns warrants the use of an antioxidant strategy that is likely to be nutritional in order to restore redox homeostasis. It appears essential to have a personalized approach that will take into account the age of gestation at birth and the sex of the infant. However, the link between sex and oxidative stress remains unclear. The aim of this study was to find a common denominator explaining the discrepancy between studies related to sex-specific effects of oxidative stress. Results highlight a specificity of sex in the levels of oxidative stress markers linked to the metabolism of glutathione, as measured in the intracellular compartments. Levels of all sex-dependent oxidative stress markers are greater and markers associated to a better antioxidant defense are lower in boys compared to girls during the neonatal period. This sex-specific discrepancy is likely to be related to estrogen metabolism, which is more active in baby-girls and promotes the activation of glutathione metabolism. Conclusion: our observations suggest that nutritive antioxidant strategies need to target glutathione metabolism and, therefore, should be personalized considering, among others, the sex specificity.

  8. Sex-specific hippocampal 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is disrupted in response to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Ligia A; Li, Sisi; Madrid, Andy; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Li; Chopra, Pankaj; Jin, Peng; Keleş, Sündüz; Alisch, Reid S

    2016-12-01

    Environmental stress is among the most important contributors to increased susceptibility to develop psychiatric disorders. While it is well known that acute environmental stress alters gene expression, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain largely unknown. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a novel environmentally sensitive epigenetic modification that is highly enriched in neurons and is associated with active neuronal transcription. Recently, we reported a genome-wide disruption of hippocampal 5hmC in male mice following acute stress that was correlated to altered transcript levels of genes in known stress related pathways. Since sex-specific endocrine mechanisms respond to environmental stimulus by altering the neuronal epigenome, we examined the genome-wide profile of hippocampal 5hmC in female mice following exposure to acute stress and identified 363 differentially hydroxymethylated regions (DhMRs) linked to known (e.g., Nr3c1 and Ntrk2) and potentially novel genes associated with stress response and psychiatric disorders. Integration of hippocampal expression data from the same female mice found stress-related hydroxymethylation correlated to altered transcript levels. Finally, characterization of stress-induced sex-specific 5hmC profiles in the hippocampus revealed 778 sex-specific acute stress-induced DhMRs some of which were correlated to altered transcript levels that produce sex-specific isoforms in response to stress. Together, the alterations in 5hmC presented here provide a possible molecular mechanism for the adaptive sex-specific response to stress that may augment the design of novel therapeutic agents that will have optimal effectiveness in each sex. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex-specific evolution during the diversification of live-bearing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culumber, Zachary W; Tobler, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Natural selection is often assumed to drive parallel functional diversification of the sexes. But males and females exhibit fundamental differences in their biology, and it remains largely unknown how sex differences affect macroevolutionary patterns. On microevolutionary scales, we understand how natural and sexual selection interact to give rise to sex-specific evolution during phenotypic diversification and speciation. Here we show that ignoring sex-specific patterns of functional trait evolution misrepresents the macroevolutionary adaptive landscape and evolutionary rates for 112 species of live-bearing fishes (Poeciliidae). Males and females of the same species evolve in different adaptive landscapes. Major axes of female morphology were correlated with environmental variables but not reproductive investment, while male morphological variation was primarily associated with sexual selection. Despite the importance of both natural and sexual selection in shaping sex-specific phenotypic diversification, species diversification was overwhelmingly associated with ecological divergence. Hence, the inter-predictability of mechanisms of phenotypic and species diversification may be limited in many systems. These results underscore the importance of explicitly addressing sex-specific diversification in empirical and theoretical frameworks of evolutionary radiations to elucidate the roles of different sources of selection and constraint.

  10. Depleted uranium induces sex- and tissue-specific methylation patterns in adult zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombeau, Kewin; Pereira, Sandrine; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Camilleri, Virginie; Cavalie, Isabelle; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of chronic exposure to different concentrations (2 and 20 μg L"−"1) of environmentally relevant waterborne depleted uranium (DU) on the DNA methylation patterns both at HpaII restriction sites (5′-CCGG-3′) and across the whole genome in the zebrafish brain, gonads, and eyes. We first identified sex-dependent differences in the methylation level of HpaII sites after exposure. In males, these effects were present as early as 7 days after exposure to 20 μg L"−"1 DU, and were even more pronounced in the brain, gonads, and eyes after 24 days. However, in females, hypomethylation was only observed in the gonads after exposure to 20 μg L"−"1 DU for 24 days. Sex-specific effects of DU were also apparent at the whole-genome level, because in males, exposure to 20 μg L"−"1 DU for 24 days resulted in cytosine hypermethylation in the brain and eyes and hypomethylation in the gonads. In contrast, in females, hypermethylation was observed in the brain after exposure to both concentrations of DU for 7 days. Based on our current knowledge of uranium toxicity, several hypotheses are proposed to explain these findings, including the involvement of oxidative stress, alteration of demethylation enzymes and the calcium signaling pathway. This study reports, for the first time, the sex- and tissue-specific epigenetic changes that occur in a nonhuman organism after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of uranium, which could induce transgenerational epigenetic effects. - Highlights: • This study demonstrates a sex-related effect of DU exposure on DNA methylation patterns. • Impacts on DNA methylation patterns revealed a tissue-specific effect of DU exposure. • The MS–AFLP and HPLC–MS/MS sensitively and complementarily demonstrated the responses to environmental concentrations of DU.

  11. Sex-specific markers developed by next-generation sequencing confirmed an XX/XY sex determination system in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichehys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyang; Pang, Meixia; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhou, Ying; Tong, Jingou; Fu, Beide

    2018-01-05

    Sex-specific markers are powerful tools for identifying sex-determination system in various animals. Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichehys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) are two of the most important edible fish in Asia, which have a long juvenility period that can lasts for 4-5 years. In this study, we found one sex-specific marker by next-generation sequencing together with bioinformatics analysis in bighead carp. The male-specific markers were used to perform molecular sexing in the progenies of artificial gynogenetic diploids and found all progenies (n = 160) were females. Meanwhile, around 1 : 1 sex ratio was observed in a total of 579 juvenile offspring from three other families. To further extend the male-specific region, we performed genome walking and got a male-specific sequence of 8,661 bp. Five pairs of primers were designed and could be used to efficiently distinguish males from females in bighead carp and silver carp. The development of these male-specific markers and results of their molecular sexing in different populations provide strong evidence for a sex determination system of female homogametry or male heterogametry (XX/XY) in bighead carp and silver carp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of effective sex-specific markers in these two large carp species. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  12. Large scale gene expression meta-analysis reveals tissue-specific, sex-biased gene expression in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mayne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The severity and prevalence of many diseases are known to differ between the sexes. Organ specific sex-biased gene expression may underpin these and other sexually dimorphic traits. To further our understanding of sex differences in transcriptional regulation, we performed meta-analyses of sex biased gene expression in multiple human tissues. We analysed 22 publicly available human gene expression microarray data sets including over 2500 samples from 15 different tissues and 9 different organs. Briefly, by using an inverse-variance method we determined the effect size difference of gene expression between males and females. We found the greatest sex differences in gene expression in the brain, specifically in the anterior cingulate cortex, (1818 genes, followed by the heart (375 genes, kidney (224 genes, colon (218 genes and thyroid (163 genes. More interestingly, we found different parts of the brain with varying numbers and identity of sex-biased genes, indicating that specific cortical regions may influence sexually dimorphic traits. The majority of sex-biased genes in other tissues such as the bladder, liver, lungs and pancreas were on the sex chromosomes or involved in sex hormone production. On average in each tissue, 32% of autosomal genes that were expressed in a sex-biased fashion contained androgen or estrogen hormone response elements. Interestingly, across all tissues, we found approximately two-thirds of autosomal genes that were sex-biased were not under direct influence of sex hormones. To our knowledge this is the largest analysis of sex-biased gene expression in human tissues to date. We identified many sex-biased genes that were not under the direct influence of sex chromosome genes or sex hormones. These may provide targets for future development of sex-specific treatments for diseases.

  13. Vasopressin and oxytocin receptor systems in the brain: Sex differences and sex-specific regulation of social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M; Veenema, Alexa H

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) and their receptors in the brain are involved in the regulation of various social behaviors and have emerged as drug targets for the treatment of social dysfunction in several sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders. Sex differences in the VP and OT systems may therefore be implicated in sex-specific regulation of healthy as well as impaired social behaviors. We begin this review by highlighting the sex differences, or lack of sex differences, in VP and OT synthesis in the brain. We then discuss the evidence showing the presence or absence of sex differences in VP and OT receptors in rodents and humans, as well as showing new data of sexually dimorphic V1a receptor binding in the rat brain. Importantly, we find that there is lack of comprehensive analysis of sex differences in these systems in common laboratory species, and we find that, when sex differences are present, they are highly brain region- and species-specific. Interestingly, VP system parameters (VP and V1aR) are typically higher in males, while sex differences in the OT system are not always in the same direction, often showing higher OT expression in females, but higher OT receptor expression in males. Furthermore, VP and OT receptor systems show distinct and largely non-overlapping expression in the rodent brain, which may cause these receptors to have either complementary or opposing functional roles in the sex-specific regulation of social behavior. Though still in need of further research, we close by discussing how manipulations of the VP and OT systems have given important insights into the involvement of these neuropeptide systems in the sex-specific regulation of social behavior in rodents and humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vasopressin and oxytocin receptor systems in the brain: sex differences and sex-specific regulation of social behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M.; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2015-01-01

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) and their receptors in the brain are involved in the regulation of various social behaviors and have emerged as drug targets for the treatment of social dysfunction in several sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders. Sex differences in the VP and OT systems may therefore be implicated in sex-specific regulation of healthy as well as impaired social behaviors. We begin this review by highlighting the sex differences, or lack of sex differences, in VP and OT synthesis in the brain. We then discuss the evidence showing the presence or absence of sex differences in VP and OT receptors in rodents and humans, as well as showing new data of sexually dimorphic V1a receptor binding in the rat brain. Importantly, we find that there is lack of comprehensive analysis of sex differences in these systems in common laboratory species, and we find that, when sex differences are present, they are highly brain region- and species- specific. Interestingly, VP system parameters (VP and V1aR) are typically higher in males, while sex differences in the OT system are not always in the same direction, often showing higher OT expression in females, but higher OT receptor expression in males. Furthermore, VP and OT receptor systems show distinct and largely non-overlapping expression in the rodent brain, which may cause these receptors to have either complementary or opposing functional roles in the sex-specific regulation of social behavior. Though still in need of further research, we close by discussing how manipulations of the VP and OT systems have given important insights into the involvement of these neuropeptide systems in the sex-specific regulation of social behavior in rodents and humans. PMID:25951955

  15. Sex-specific effects of prenatal and postnatal nutritional conditions on the oxidative status of great tit nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, M; Costantini, D; Tschirren, B

    2015-01-01

    The early life period is characterized by fast growth and development, which can lead to high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Young animals thus have to balance their investment in growth versus ROS defence, and this balance is likely mediated by resource availability. Consequently resources transferred prenatally by the mother and nutritional conditions experienced shortly after birth may crucially determine the oxidative status of young animals. Here, we experimentally investigated the relative importance of pre- and early postnatal nutritional conditions on the oxidative status of great tit nestlings (Parus major). We show that resources transferred by the mother through the egg and nutritional conditions encountered after hatching affect the oxidative status of nestling in a sex-specific way. Daughters of non-supplemented mothers and daughters which did not receive extra food during the early postnatal period had higher oxidative damage than sons, while no differences between sons and daughters were found when extra food was provided pre- or postnatally. No effect of the food supplementations on growth, fledging mass or tarsus length was observed, indicating that female nestlings maintained their investment in growth at the expense of ROS defence mechanisms when resources were limited. The lower priority of the antioxidant defence system for female nestlings was also evidenced by lower levels of specific antioxidant components. These results highlight the important role of early parental effects in shaping oxidative stress in the offspring, and show that the sensitivity to these parental effects is sex-specific.

  16. Construction of physical maps for the sex-specific regions of papaya sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Jong-Kuk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. It is trioecious with three sex forms: male, female, and hermaphrodite. Sex determination is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes with two slightly different Y chromosomes, Y for male and Yh for hermaphrodite. The sex chromosome genotypes are XY (male, XYh (hermaphrodite, and XX (female. The papaya hermaphrodite-specific Yh chromosome region (HSY is pericentromeric and heterochromatic. Physical mapping of HSY and its X counterpart is essential for sequencing these regions and uncovering the early events of sex chromosome evolution and to identify the sex determination genes for crop improvement. Results A reiterate chromosome walking strategy was applied to construct the two physical maps with three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries. The HSY physical map consists of 68 overlapped BACs on the minimum tiling path, and covers all four HSY-specific Knobs. One gap remained in the region of Knob 1, the only knob structure shared between HSY and X, due to the lack of HSY-specific sequences. This gap was filled on the physical map of the HSY corresponding region in the X chromosome. The X physical map consists of 44 BACs on the minimum tiling path with one gap remaining in the middle, due to the nature of highly repetitive sequences. This gap was filled on the HSY physical map. The borders of the non-recombining HSY were defined genetically by fine mapping using 1460 F2 individuals. The genetically defined HSY spanned approximately 8.5 Mb, whereas its X counterpart extended about 5.4 Mb including a 900 Kb region containing the Knob 1 shared by the HSY and X. The 8.5 Mb HSY corresponds to 4.5 Mb of its X counterpart, showing 4 Mb (89% DNA sequence expansion. Conclusion The 89% increase of DNA sequence in HSY indicates rapid expansion of the Yh chromosome after genetic recombination was suppressed 2–3 million years ago. The

  17. Effects of Sex Steroids in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Ducharme, Simon; Karama, Sherif

    2017-11-01

    Sex steroids are thought to play a critical developmental role in shaping both cortical and subcortical structures in the human brain. Periods of profound changes in sex steroids invariably coincide with the onset of sex differences in mental health vulnerability, highlighting the importance of sex steroids in determining sexual differentiation of the brain. Yet, most of the evidence for the central effects of sex steroids relies on non-human studies, as several challenges have limited our understanding of these effects in humans: the lack of systematic assessment of the human sex steroid metabolome, the different developmental trajectories of specific sex steroids, the impact of genetic variation and epigenetic changes, and the plethora of interactions between sex steroids, sex chromosomes, neurotransmitters, and other hormonal systems. Here we review how multimodal strategies may be employed to bridge the gap between the basic and clinical understanding of sex steroid-related changes in the human brain.

  18. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, April F., E-mail: april.mohanty@va.gov [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Farin, Fred M., E-mail: freddy@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Bammler, Theo K., E-mail: tbammler@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); MacDonald, James W., E-mail: jmacdon@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Afsharinejad, Zahra, E-mail: zafshari@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Burbacher, Thomas M., E-mail: tmb@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Box: 357234, 1705 N.E. Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Siscovick, David S., E-mail: dsiscovick@nyam.org [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  19. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, April F.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Afsharinejad, Zahra; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Siscovick, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  20. Sex-specific mechanism of social hierarchy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Wouter E; Lamballais, Sander; Kushner, Steven A

    2015-05-01

    The establishment of social hierarchies is a naturally occurring, evolutionarily conserved phenomenon with a well-established impact on fitness and health. Investigations of complex social group dynamics may offer novel opportunities for translational studies of autism spectrum disorder. Here we describe a robust behavioral paradigm using an automated version of the tube test. Isogenic groups of male and female mice establish linear social hierarchies that remain highly stable for at least 14 days, the longest interval tested. Remarkably, however, their social strategy is sex-specific: females primarily utilize intrinsic attributes, whereas males are strongly influenced by prior social experience. Using both genetic and pharmacological manipulations, we identify testosterone as a critical sex-specific factor for determining which social strategy is used. Males inheriting a null mutation of the sex-determining region Y (Sry) gene used a similar social cognitive strategy as females. In contrast, females with transgenic expression of Sry utilized a typically male social strategy. Analogously, castration of males and testosterone supplementation of females yielded similar outcomes, with a reversal of their social cognitive strategy. Together, our results demonstrate a sex-specific mechanism underlying social hierarchy, in which both males and females retain the functional capacity to adapt their social strategy. More generally, we expect the automated tube test to provide an important complementary approach for both fundamental and translational studies of social behavior.

  1. A maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet has sex-specific effects on fetal glucocorticoids with little consequence for offspring metabolism and voluntary locomotor activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice H Chin

    Full Text Available Maternal overnutrition and obesity during pregnancy can have long-term effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. These developmental programming effects may be mediated by fetal exposure to glucocorticoids, which is regulated in part by placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD type 1 and 2. We tested whether a maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet would alter expression of placental 11β-HSD1 and 2, thereby increasing fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, with downstream effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS diet or a nutrient-matched low-fat, no-sucrose control diet prior to and during pregnancy and lactation. At day 17 of gestation, HFHS dams had ~20% lower circulating corticosterone levels than controls. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between maternal diet and fetal sex for circulating corticosterone levels in the fetuses, whereby HFHS males tended to have higher corticosterone than control males, with no effect in female fetuses. However, placental 11β-HSD1 or 11β-HSD2 expression did not differ between diets or show an interaction between diet and sex. To assess potential long-term consequences of this sex-specific effect on fetal corticosterone, we studied locomotor activity and metabolic traits in adult offspring. Despite a sex-specific effect of maternal diet on fetal glucocorticoids, there was little evidence of sex-specific effects on offspring physiology or behaviour, although HFHS offspring of both sexes had higher circulating corticosterone at 9 weeks of age. Our results suggest the existence of as yet unknown mechanisms that mitigate the effects of altered glucocorticoid exposure early in development, making offspring resilient to the potentially negative effects of a HFHS maternal diet.

  2. Somatic sex-specific transcriptome differences in Drosophila revealed by whole transcriptome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbeitman Michelle N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding animal development and physiology at a molecular-biological level has been advanced by the ability to determine at high resolution the repertoire of mRNA molecules by whole transcriptome resequencing. This includes the ability to detect and quantify rare abundance transcripts and isoform-specific mRNA variants produced from a gene. The sex hierarchy consists of a pre-mRNA splicing cascade that directs the production of sex-specific transcription factors that specify nearly all sexual dimorphism. We have used deep RNA sequencing to gain insight into how the Drosophila sex hierarchy generates somatic sex differences, by examining gene and transcript isoform expression differences between the sexes in adult head tissues. Results Here we find 1,381 genes that differ in overall expression levels and 1,370 isoform-specific transcripts that differ between males and females. Additionally, we find 512 genes not regulated downstream of transformer that are significantly more highly expressed in males than females. These 512 genes are enriched on the × chromosome and reside adjacent to dosage compensation complex entry sites, which taken together suggests that their residence on the × chromosome might be sufficient to confer male-biased expression. There are no transcription unit structural features, from a set of features, that are robustly significantly different in the genes with significant sex differences in the ratio of isoform-specific transcripts, as compared to random isoform-specific transcripts, suggesting that there is no single molecular mechanism that generates isoform-specific transcript differences between the sexes, even though the sex hierarchy is known to include three pre-mRNA splicing factors. Conclusions We identify thousands of genes that show sex-specific differences in overall gene expression levels, and identify hundreds of additional genes that have differences in the abundance of isoform-specific

  3. Sex-specific effects of weight-affecting gene variants in a life course perspective--The HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaløy, K; Kulle, B; Romundstad, P; Holmen, T L

    2013-09-01

    The impact of previously identified genetic variants directly or indirectly associated with obesity, were investigated at birth, adolescence and adulthood to provide knowledge concerning timing and mechanisms of obesity susceptibility with focus on sex differences. Twenty four previously identified obesity- and eating disorder susceptibility loci were tested for association with adiposity traits at birth (ponderal index (PI)), adolescence and young adulthood (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)) in 1782 individuals from the HUNT study. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were evaluated individually and by haplotype sliding-window approach for windows50 kb (near-MC4R, FTO and near-BDNF). The analyses were performed on the total and sex stratified samples. The most substantial effect on BMI was observed for the near-MC4R variants at adolescence and adulthood (adjusted P-values in adolescence: 0.002 and 0.003 for rs17782313 and rs571312, respectively). The same variants showed inverse association with PI in males (adjusted P-values: 0.019-0.036). Furthermore, significant effects were observed at adolescence with BMI for the near-KCTD15 variant (rs11084753) (adjusted P=0.038) in the combined sample. The near-INSIG2 (rs7566605) was significantly associated to WHR in males and near-BDNF (rs925946) in the combined sample (adjusted P=0.027 and P=0.033, respectively). The OPRD1 locus was associated to BMI and WC in males both at adolescence and adulthood with highest effect in adults (adjusted P=0.058). Interaction with sex was identified for near-MC4R, OPRD1, COMT, near-BDNF and DRD2. Most obesity susceptibility variants show stronger effect at adolescence than at birth and adulthood with a clear sex-specific effect at some loci. The near-MC4R locus exhibit inverse effect on weight at birth in boys compared with findings at adolescence and adulthood. Some variants less known for obesity-susceptibility such as OPRD1 were found to

  4. Facial Resemblance Exaggerates Sex-Specific Jealousy-Based Decisions1

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Platek; Jaime W. Thomson

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in reaction to a romantic partner's infidelity are well documented and are hypothesized to be attributable to sex-specific jealousy mechanisms which are utilized to solve adaptive problems associated with risk of extra-pair copulation. Males, because of the risk of cuckoldry become more upset by sexual infidelity, while females, because of loss of resources and biparental investment tend to become more distressed by emotional infidelity. However, the degree to which these sex-...

  5. Effect of Childhood Trauma on Adult Depression and Neuroendocrine Function: Sex-Specific Moderation by CRH Receptor 1 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Christine; Bradley, Bekh; Mletzko, Tanja C; Deveau, Todd C; Musselman, Dominique L; Nemeroff, Charles B; Ressler, Kerry J; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2009-01-01

    Variations of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene appear to moderate the development of depression after childhood trauma. Depression more frequently affects women than men. We examined sex differences in the effects of the CRHR1 gene on the relationship between childhood trauma and adult depression. We recruited 1,063 subjects from the waiting rooms of a public urban hospital. Childhood trauma exposure and symptoms of depression were assessed using dimensional rating scales. Subjects were genotyped for rs110402 within the CRHR1 gene. An independent sample of 78 subjects underwent clinical assessment, genotyping, and a dexamethasone/CRH test. The age range at recruitment was 18-77 years and 18-45, for the two studies respectively. In the hospital sample, the protective effect of the rs110402 A-allele against developing depression after childhood trauma was observed in men (N = 424), but not in women (N = 635). In the second sample, the rs110402 A-allele was associated with decreased cortisol response in the dexamethasone/CRH test only in men. In A-allele carriers with childhood trauma exposure women exhibited increased cortisol response compared men; there were no sex differences in A-allele carriers without trauma exposure. This effect may, however, not be related to gender differences per se, but to differences in the type of experienced abuse between men and women. CRHR x environment interactions in the hospital sample were observed with exposure to physical, but not sexual or emotional abuse. Physical abuse was the most common type of abuse in men in this cohort, while sexual abuse was most commonly suffered by women. Our results suggest that the CRHR1 gene may only moderate the effects of specific types of childhood trauma on depression. Gender differences in environmental exposures could thus be reflected in sex-specific CRHR1 x child abuse interactions.

  6. Altering the sex determination pathway in Drosophila fat body modifies sex-specific stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Kathryn J; Neckameyer, Wendi S

    2014-07-01

    The stress response in Drosophila melanogaster reveals sex differences in behavior, similar to what has been observed in mammals. However, unlike mammals, the sex determination pathway in Drosophila is well established, making this an ideal system to identify factors involved in the modulation of sex-specific responses to stress. In this study, we show that the Drosophila fat body, which has been shown to be important for energy homeostasis and sex determination, is a dynamic tissue that is altered in response to stress in a sex and time-dependent manner. We manipulated the sex determination pathway in the fat body via targeted expression of transformer and transformer-2 and analyzed these animals for changes in their response to stress. In the majority of cases, manipulation of transformer or transformer-2 was able to change the physiological output in response to starvation and oxidative stress to that of the opposite sex. Our data also uncover the possibility of additional downstream targets for transformer and transformer-2 that are separate from the sex determination pathway and can influence behavioral and physiological responses. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. The fetal programming effect of prenatal smoking on Igf1r and Igf1 methylation is organ- and sex-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Karolin F; Verkaik-Schakel, Rikst Nynke; Timens, Wim; Kobzik, Lester; Plösch, Torsten; Hylkema, Machteld N

    2017-01-01

    The impact of prenatal smoke exposure (PSE) on DNA methylation has been demonstrated in blood samples from children of smoking mothers, but evidence for sex-dependent smoke-induced effects is limited. As the identified differentially methylated genes can be associated with developmental processes, and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a critical role in prenatal tissue growth, we hypothesized that PSE induces fetal programming of Igf1r and Igf1. Using a mouse model of smoking during pregnancy, we show that PSE alters promoter methylation of Igf1r and Igf1 and deregulates their gene expression in lung and liver of fetal (E17.5) and neonatal (D3) mouse offspring. By further comparing female versus male, lung versus liver, or fetal versus neonatal time point, our results demonstrate that CpG site-specific aberrant methylation patterns sex-dependently vary per organ and time point. Moreover, PSE reduces gene expression of Igf1r and Igf1, dependent on organ, sex, and offspring's age. Our results indicate that PSE may be a source of organ-specific rather than general systemic fetal programming. This is exemplified here by gene promoter methylation and mRNA levels of Igf1r and Igf1, together with a sex- and organ-specific naturally established correlation of both parameters that is affected by prenatal smoke exposure. Moreover, the comparison of fetuses with neonates suggests a CpG site-dependent reversibility/persistence of PSE-induced differential methylation patterns.

  8. Sex-Specific Effects of Combined Exposure to Chemical and Non-chemical Stressors on Neuroendocrine Development: a Review of Recent Findings and Putative Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Whitney J; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-12-01

    Environmental toxicants and psychosocial stressors share many biological substrates and influence overlapping physiological pathways. Increasing evidence indicates stress-induced changes to the maternal milieu may prime rapidly developing physiological systems for disruption by concurrent or subsequent exposure to environmental chemicals. In this review, we highlight putative mechanisms underlying sex-specific susceptibility of the developing neuroendocrine system to the joint effects of stress or stress correlates and environmental toxicants (bisphenol A, alcohol, phthalates, lead, chlorpyrifos, and traffic-related air pollution). We provide evidence indicating that concurrent or tandem exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors during windows of rapid development is associated with sex-specific synergistic, potentiated and reversed effects on several neuroendocrine endpoints related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, sex steroid levels, neurotransmitter circuits, and innate immune function. We additionally identify gaps, such as the role that the endocrine-active placenta plays, in our understanding of these complex interactions. Finally, we discuss future research needs, including the investigation of non-hormonal biomarkers of stress. We demonstrate multiple physiologic systems are impacted by joint exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors differentially among males and females. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of evaluating sex-specific endpoints when investigating the neuroendocrine system and underscore the need to examine exposure to chemical toxicants within the context of the social environment.

  9. Aging obviates sex-specific physiological responses to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Michael R; Taylor, Jessica L; Mangis, Katherine A

    2013-01-01

    Both sex and aging have been shown to affect physiological responses to exercise. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether aging impacted the sex-specific nature of physiological responses to exercise commonly noted among young adults. Ten aged men (69.0 ± 1.7 years; mean ± SE) and 10 aged women (71.6 ± 1.3 years) reporting similar levels of habitual physical activity performed a 30-min exercise session at 60-65% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake. Cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic variables were assessed before exercise, at the 15th and 30th min of exercise, and at 5 and 15 min into a passive postexercise recovery period. Variables of interest were statistically analyzed via two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures; significance was set at P physiological variable of interest were identified, but not once was a significant effect of group (i.e., sex) detected. Exercise-induced physiological responses to prolonged, moderate intensity exercise were similar among aged men and aged women. This evidence that the sexually dimorphic nature of physiological responses to exercise is obviated with age should be taken into account when prescribing health-related exercise training programs for older individuals. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Antidepressant-like effects of guanfacine and sex-specific differences in effects on c-fos immunoreactivity and paired-pulse ratio in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineur, Yann S; Bentham, Matthew P; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Plantenga, Margreet E; McKee, Sherry A; Picciotto, Marina R

    2015-10-01

    The a2A-noradrenergic agonist guanfacine can decreases stress-induced smoking in female, but not male, human smokers. It is not known whether these effects are due to effects on mood regulation and/or result from nicotinic-cholinergic interactions. The objective of the study was to determine whether there are sex differences in the effect of guanfacine in tests of anxiolytic and antidepressant efficacy in mice at baseline and in a hypercholinergic model of depression induced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine. The effects of guanfacine were measured in the light/dark box, tail suspension, and the forced swim test in female and male C57BL/6J mice. In parallel, electrophysiological properties were evaluated in the prefrontal cortex, a critical brain region involved in stress responses. c-fos immunoreactivity was measured in other brain regions known to regulate mood. Despite a baseline sex difference in behavior in the forced swim test (female mice were more immobile), guanfacine had similar, dose-dependent, antidepressant-like effects in mice of both sexes (optimal dose, 0.15 mg/kg). An antidepressant-like effect of guanfacine was also observed following pre-treatment with physostigmine. A sex difference in the paired-pulse ratio in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) (male, 1.4; female, 2.1) was observed at baseline that was normalized by guanfacine. Other brain areas involved in cholinergic control of depression-like behaviors, including the basolateral amygdala and lateral septum, showed sex-specific changes in c-fos expression. Guanfacine has a robust antidepressant-like effect and can reverse a depression-like state induced by increased acetylcholine (ACh) signaling. These data suggest that different brain areas are recruited in female and male mice, despite similar behavioral responses to guanfacine.

  11. Sex-specific lateralization of event-related potential effects during mental rotation of polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellkofer, Julia; Jansen, Petra; Heil, Martin

    2014-08-06

    Mental rotation performance has been found to produce one of the largest sex differences in cognition. Many theories suggest that this effect should be accompanied by a sex difference in functional cerebral asymmetry, but empirical data are more than equivocal probably because of (a) the use of inappropriate stimuli and (b) insufficient power of most neurophysiological studies. Therefore, sex differences in mental rotation of polygons were investigated in 122 adults. Men outperformed women on mental rotation speed (as well as on response time and accuracy). On the basis of the electrophysiological brain correlates of mental rotation, we observed a bilateral brain activity for men, whereas women's brain activity was clearly lateralized toward the left hemisphere if and only if mental rotation was involved. Thus, sex differences in functional cerebral asymmetry can indeed be observed if appropriate stimuli are used in a sufficiently large sample.

  12. Sex-specific effects of intranasal oxytocin on autonomic nervous system and emotional responses to couple conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nater, Urs M.; Schaer, Marcel; La Marca, Roberto; Bodenmann, Guy; Ehlert, Ulrike; Heinrichs, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Unhappy couple relationships are associated with impaired individual health, an effect thought to be mediated through ongoing couple conflicts. Little is known, however, about the underlying mechanisms regulating psychobiological stress, and particularly autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity, during negative couple interaction. In this study, we tested the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin on ANS reactivity during couple conflict in a standardized laboratory paradigm. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 47 heterosexual couples (total n = 94) received oxytocin or placebo intranasally prior to instructed couple conflict. Participants’ behavior was videotaped and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a measure of sympathetic activity, and emotional arousal were repeatedly measured during the experiment. Oxytocin significantly reduced sAA during couple conflict in women, whereas men showed increases in sAA levels (sex × group interaction: B = −49.36, t = −2.68, P = 0.009). In men, these increases were related to augmented emotional arousal (r = 0.286, P = 0.028) and more positive behavior (r = 0.291, P = 0.026), whereas there was no such association in women. Our results imply sex-specific effects of oxytocin on sympathetic activity, to negative couple interaction, with the neuropeptide reducing sAA responses and emotional arousal in women while increasing them in men. PMID:22842905

  13. Datasets in Gene Expression Omnibus used in the study ORD-020969: Genomic effects of androstenedione and sex-specific liver cancer susceptibility in mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Datasets in Gene Expression Omnibus used in the study ORD-020969: Genomic effects of androstenedione and sex-specific liver cancer susceptibility in mice. This...

  14. Evolution of sex-biased maternal effects in birds: I. Sex-specific resource allocation among simultaneously growing oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R L; Badyaev, A V

    2004-11-01

    Females in species that produce broods of multiple offspring need to partition resources among simultaneously growing ova, embryos or neonates. In birds, the duration of growth of a single egg exceeds the ovulation interval, and when maternal resources are limited, a temporal overlap among several developing follicles in the ovary might result in a trade-off of resources among them. We studied growth of oocytes in relation to their future ovulation order, sex, and overlap with other oocytes in a population of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) where strongly sex-biased maternal effects are favoured by natural selection. We found pronounced differences in growth patterns between oocytes that produced males and females. Male oocytes grew up to five times faster and reached their ovulation size earlier than female oocytes. Early onset and early termination of male oocytes' growth in relation to their ovulation resulted in their lesser temporal overlap with other growing ova compared with female oocytes. Consequently, ovulation mass of female but not male oocytes was strongly negatively affected by temporal overlap with other oocytes. In turn, mass of male oocytes was mostly affected by the order of ovulation and by maternal incubation strategy. These results provide a mechanism for sex-biased allocation of maternal resources during egg formation and provide insights into the timing of the sex-determining meiotic division in relation to ovulation in this species.

  15. National and state-specific health insurance disparities for adults in same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Blewett, Lynn A

    2014-02-01

    We examined national and state-specific disparities in health insurance coverage, specifically employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) coverage, for adults in same-sex relationships. We used data from the American Community Survey to identify adults (aged 25-64 years) in same-sex relationships (n = 31,947), married opposite-sex relationships (n = 3,060,711), and unmarried opposite-sex relationships (n = 259,147). We estimated multinomial logistic regression models and state-specific relative differences in ESI coverage with predictive margins. Men and women in same-sex relationships were less likely to have ESI than were their married counterparts in opposite-sex relationships. We found ESI disparities among adults in same-sex relationships in every region, but we found the largest ESI gaps for men in the South and for women in the Midwest. ESI disparities were narrower in states that had extended legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, and broad domestic partnerships. Men and women in same-sex relationships experience disparities in health insurance coverage across the country, but residing in a state that recognizes legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, or broad domestic partnerships may improve access to ESI for same-sex spouses and domestic partners.

  16. Development of a PubMed Based Search Tool for Identifying Sex and Gender Specific Health Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Michael M; Simonsen, Cheryl K; Wilson, Joanna D; Jenkins, Marjorie R

    2016-02-01

    An effective literature search strategy is critical to achieving the aims of Sex and Gender Specific Health (SGSH): to understand sex and gender differences through research and to effectively incorporate the new knowledge into the clinical decision making process to benefit both male and female patients. The goal of this project was to develop and validate an SGSH literature search tool that is readily and freely available to clinical researchers and practitioners. PubMed, a freely available search engine for the Medline database, was selected as the platform to build the SGSH literature search tool. Combinations of Medical Subject Heading terms, text words, and title words were evaluated for optimal specificity and sensitivity. The search tool was then validated against reference bases compiled for two disease states, diabetes and stroke. Key sex and gender terms and limits were bundled to create a search tool to facilitate PubMed SGSH literature searches. During validation, the search tool retrieved 50 of 94 (53.2%) stroke and 62 of 95 (65.3%) diabetes reference articles selected for validation. A general keyword search of stroke or diabetes combined with sex difference retrieved 33 of 94 (35.1%) stroke and 22 of 95 (23.2%) diabetes reference base articles, with lower sensitivity and specificity for SGSH content. The Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center SGSH PubMed Search Tool provides higher sensitivity and specificity to sex and gender specific health literature. The tool will facilitate research, clinical decision-making, and guideline development relevant to SGSH.

  17. Passive limb movement: evidence of mechanoreflex sex specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Stephen J; McDaniel, John; Witman, Melissa A H; Richardson, Russell S

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have determined that premenopausal women exhibit an attenuated metaboreflex; however, little is known about sex specificity of the mechanoreflex. Thus, we sought to determine if sex differences exist in the central and peripheral hemodynamic responses to passive limb movement. Second-by-second measurements of heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output (CO), mean arterial pressure, and femoral artery blood flow (FBF) were recorded during 3 min of supine passive knee extension in 24 young healthy subjects (12 women and 12 men). Normalization of CO and stroke volume to body surface area, expressed as cardiac index and stroke index, eliminated differences in baseline central hemodynamics, whereas, peripherally, basal FBF and femoral vascular conductance were similar between the sexes. In response to passive limb movement, women displayed significantly attenuated peak central hemodynamic responses compared with men (heart rate: 9.0 ± 1 vs. 14.8 ± 2% change, stroke index: 4.5 ± 0.6 vs. 7.8 ± 1.2% change, cardiac index: 9.6 ± 1 vs. 17.2 ± 2% change, all P movement induced similar increases in peak FBF (167 ± 32 vs. 193 ± 17% change) and femoral vascular conductance (172 ± 31 vs. 203 ± 16% change) in both sexes (women vs. men, respectively). Additionally, there was a significant positive relationship between individual peak FBF and peak CO response to passive movement in men but not in women. Thus, although both sexes exhibited similar movement-induced hyperemia and peripheral vasodilatory function, the central hemodynamic response was blunted in women, implying an attenuated mechanoreflex. Therefore, this study reveals that, as already recognized with the metaboreflex, there is likely a sex-specific attenuation of the mechanoreflex in women.

  18. Sex-specific effects of mindfulness on romantic partners' cortisol responses to conflict and relations with psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Laurent, Sean; Hertz, Robin; Egan-Wright, Dorianne; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-12-01

    Mindfulness is known to improve individuals' and couples' subjective stress regulation, but little is known about how it impacts hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to acute psychosocial stress. The current study tested effects of dispositional mindfulness facets on young adult couples' cortisol responses to a conflict discussion stressor, as well as associations with psychological adjustment. One hundred heterosexual couples completed the five facet mindfulness questionnaire one week before engaging in a conflict discussion task. Each partner provided five saliva samples from pre- to post-conflict, which were assayed for cortisol. Measures of adjustment - depression and anxiety symptoms and global well-being - were also completed at this session. Hierarchical linear modeling of cortisol trajectories revealed sex-specific effects; whereas women's mindfulness (nonreactivity facet) predicted higher conflict stress cortisol levels, men's mindfulness (describing facet) predicted less pronounced cortisol reactivity/recovery curves. These patterns were related to better adjustment-lower depression symptoms for women and greater well-being for men. Implications for sex differences in mindfulness benefits are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex-Specific Effects of Gender Identification on Pain Study Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Tarman, Guliz Zeynep; Fontaine, Charlotte; Harrison, Richard; Johnstone, Tom; Salomons, Tim

    2018-02-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies show sex differences in pain responses, with women more sensitive to nociceptive stimulation and more vulnerable to long-term pain conditions than men. Because of evidence that men are culturally reinforced for the ability to endure (or under-report) pain, some of these findings might be explained by sociocultural beliefs about gender-appropriate behavior. One potential manifestation of these effects might be differential participation in pain studies, with men adhering to stereotypical masculine roles viewing participation as a way to demonstrate their masculinity. To test this possibility, we assessed gender identification in 137 healthy participants. At the end of the assessment, they were asked if they would like to participate in other research studies. Interested participants were then asked to participate in a study involving administration of pain-evoking stimulation. We compared individuals who agreed to participate in the pain study with those who declined. We observed a significant Sex × Participation interaction in masculine gender identification, such that men (but not women) who agreed to participate identified significantly more with masculine gender. Among masculine gender traits examined, we found that high levels of aggression and competitiveness were the strongest predictors of pain study participation. Our results suggest that men in pain studies might have higher levels of masculine gender identification than the wider male population. Taken together with previous findings of lower levels of pain sensitivity (or reporting) in masculine-identifying male participants, these results suggest an explanation for some of the sex-related differences observed in pain responses. To examine whether sex and gender affect willingness to participate in pain studies, we assessed gender identification in men and women, then attempted to recruit them to participate in a pain study. Men who agree to participate

  20. Sex-specific effects of maternal testosterone on lateralization in a cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Sara M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    Lateralization of cerebral functions is a fundamental aspect of the organization of brain and behaviour in vertebrates. Sex differences in human lateralization have inspired researchers to postulate several hypotheses concerning the effect of prenatal testosterone on lateralization, but few

  1. Individual diet has sex-dependent effects on vertebrate gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Daniel I.; Snowberg, Lisa K.; Hirsch, Philipp E.; Lauber, Christian L.; Org, Elin; Parks, Brian; Lusis, Aldons J.; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Svanbäck, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates harbour diverse communities of symbiotic gut microbes. Host diet is known to alter microbiota composition, implying that dietary treatments might alleviate diseases arising from altered microbial composition (‘dysbiosis’). However, it remains unclear whether diet effects are general or depend on host genotype. Here we show that gut microbiota composition depends on interactions between host diet and sex within populations of wild and laboratory fish, laboratory mice and humans. Within each of two natural fish populations (threespine stickleback and Eurasian perch), among-individual diet variation is correlated with individual differences in gut microbiota. However, these diet–microbiota associations are sex dependent. We document similar sex-specific diet–microbiota correlations in humans. Experimental diet manipulations in laboratory stickleback and mice confirmed that diet affects microbiota differently in males versus females. The prevalence of such genotype by environment (sex by diet) interactions implies that therapies to treat dysbiosis might have sex-specific effects. PMID:25072318

  2. Sex-specific selection under environmental stress in seed beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinossi-Allibert, I; Arnqvist, G; Berger, D

    2017-01-01

    Sexual selection can increase rates of adaptation by imposing strong selection in males, thereby allowing efficient purging of the mutation load on population fitness at a low demographic cost. Indeed, sexual selection tends to be male-biased throughout the animal kingdom, but little empirical work has explored the ecological sensitivity of this sex difference. In this study, we generated theoretical predictions of sex-specific strengths of selection, environmental sensitivities and genotype-by-environment interactions and tested them in seed beetles by manipulating either larval host plant or rearing temperature. Using fourteen isofemale lines, we measured sex-specific reductions in fitness components, genotype-by-environment interactions and the strength of selection (variance in fitness) in the juvenile and adult stage. As predicted, variance in fitness increased with stress, was consistently greater in males than females for adult reproductive success (implying strong sexual selection), but was similar in the sexes in terms of juvenile survival across all levels of stress. Although genetic variance in fitness increased in magnitude under severe stress, heritability decreased and particularly so in males. Moreover, genotype-by-environment interactions for fitness were common but specific to the type of stress, sex and life stage, suggesting that new environments may change the relative alignment and strength of selection in males and females. Our study thus exemplifies how environmental stress can influence the relative forces of natural and sexual selection, as well as concomitant changes in genetic variance in fitness, which are predicted to have consequences for rates of adaptation in sexual populations. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Adaptive Allocation of Attention: Effects of Sex and Sociosexuality on Visual Attention to Attractive Opposite-Sex Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lesley A; Park, Justin H; Faulkner, Jason; Schaller, Mark; Neuberg, Steven L; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2007-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, compared with sociosexually restricted individuals, those with an unrestricted approach to mating would selectively allocate visual attention to attractive opposite-sex others. We also tested for sex differences in this effect. Seventy-four participants completed the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, and performed a computer-based task that assessed the speed with which they detected changes in attractive and unattractive male and female faces. Differences in reaction times served as indicators of selective attention. Results revealed a Sex X Sociosexuality interaction: Compared with sociosexually restricted men, unrestricted men selectively allocated attention to attractive opposite-sex others; no such effect emerged among women. This finding was specific to opposite-sex targets and did not occur in attention to same-sex others. These results contribute to a growing literature on the adaptive allocation of attention in social environments.

  4. Effect of childhood trauma on adult depression and neuroendocrine function: sex-specific moderation by CRH receptor 1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Heim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Variations of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1 gene appear to moderate the development of depression after childhood trauma. Depression more frequently affects women than men. We examined sex differences in the effects of the CRHR1 gene on the relationship between childhood trauma and adult depression. Methods: We recruited 1,063 subjects from the waiting rooms of a public urban hospital. Childhood trauma exposure and symptoms of depression were assessed using dimensional rating scales. Subjects were genotyped for rs110402 within the CRHR1 gene. An independent sample of 78 subjects underwent clinical assessment, genotyping, and a dexamethasone/CRH test. The age range at recruitment was 18-77 years and 18-45, for the two studies respectively. Results: In the hospital sample, the protective effect of the rs110402 A-allele against developing depression after childhood trauma was observed in men (N=424, but not in women (N=635. In the second sample, the rs110402 A-allele was associated with decreased cortisol response in the dexamethasone/CRH test only in men. In A-allele carriers with childhood trauma exposure women exhibited increased cortisol response compared men; there were no sex differences in A-allele carriers without trauma exposure. This effect may, however, not be related to gender-differences per se, but to differences in the type of experienced abuse between men and women. CRHR x environment interactions in the hospital sample were observed with exposure to physical, but not sexual or emotional abuse. Physical abuse was the most common type of abuse in men in this cohort, while sexual abuse was most commonly suffered by women. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the CRHR1 gene may only moderate the effects of specific types of childhood trauma on depression. Gender differences in environmental exposures could thus be reflected in sex-specific CRHR1 x child abuse interactions.

  5. Dutch population specific sex estimation formulae using the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, K L; Janssen, M C L; Stull, K E; van Rijn, R R; Oostra, R J; de Boer, H H; van der Merwe, A E

    2018-05-01

    Sex estimation techniques are frequently applied in forensic anthropological analyses of unidentified human skeletal remains. While morphological sex estimation methods are able to endure population differences, the classification accuracy of metric sex estimation methods are population-specific. No metric sex estimation method currently exists for the Dutch population. The purpose of this study is to create Dutch population specific sex estimation formulae by means of osteometric analyses of the proximal femur. Since the Netherlands lacks a representative contemporary skeletal reference population, 2D plane reconstructions, derived from clinical computed tomography (CT) data, were used as an alternative source for a representative reference sample. The first part of this study assesses the intra- and inter-observer error, or reliability, of twelve measurements of the proximal femur. The technical error of measurement (TEM) and relative TEM (%TEM) were calculated using 26 dry adult femora. In addition, the agreement, or accuracy, between the dry bone and CT-based measurements was determined by percent agreement. Only reliable and accurate measurements were retained for the logistic regression sex estimation formulae; a training set (n=86) was used to create the models while an independent testing set (n=28) was used to validate the models. Due to high levels of multicollinearity, only single variable models were created. Cross-validated classification accuracies ranged from 86% to 92%. The high cross-validated classification accuracies indicate that the developed formulae can contribute to the biological profile and specifically in sex estimation of unidentified human skeletal remains in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the results indicate that clinical CT data can be a valuable alternative source of data when representative skeletal collections are unavailable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Single-Sex Secondary Schools on Student Achievement and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Valerie E.; Bryk, Anthony S.

    1986-01-01

    This study compares the effects of single-sex and coeducational secondary schooling. Results indicate that single-sex schools deliver specific advantages to their students, especially female students. Single-sex schools may facilitate adolescent academic development by providing an environment where social and academic concerns are separated.…

  7. Cattle Sex-Specific Recombination and Genetic Control from a Large Pedigree Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; VanRaden, Paul M; Shen, Botong; Padhi, Abinash; Sun, Chuanyu; Bickhart, Derek M; Cole, John B; Null, Daniel J; Liu, George E; Da, Yang; Wiggans, George R

    2015-11-01

    Meiotic recombination is an essential biological process that generates genetic diversity and ensures proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. From a large USDA dairy cattle pedigree with over half a million genotyped animals, we extracted 186,927 three-generation families, identified over 8.5 million maternal and paternal recombination events, and constructed sex-specific recombination maps for 59,309 autosomal SNPs. The recombination map spans for 25.5 Morgans in males and 23.2 Morgans in females, for a total studied region of 2,516 Mb (986 kb/cM in males and 1,085 kb/cM in females). The male map is 10% longer than the female map and the sex difference is most pronounced in the subtelomeric regions. We identified 1,792 male and 1,885 female putative recombination hotspots, with 720 hotspots shared between sexes. These hotspots encompass 3% of the genome but account for 25% of the genome-wide recombination events in both sexes. During the past forty years, males showed a decreasing trend in recombination rate that coincided with the artificial selection for milk production. Sex-specific GWAS analyses identified PRDM9 and CPLX1 to have significant effects on genome-wide recombination rate in both sexes. Two novel loci, NEK9 and REC114, were associated with recombination rate in both sexes, whereas three loci, MSH4, SMC3 and CEP55, affected recombination rate in females only. Among the multiple PRDM9 paralogues on the bovine genome, our GWAS of recombination hotspot usage together with linkage analysis identified the PRDM9 paralogue on chromosome 1 to be associated in the U.S. Holstein data. Given the largest sample size ever reported for such studies, our results reveal new insights into the understanding of cattle and mammalian recombination.

  8. A complex interaction of imprinted and maternal-effect genes modifies sex determination in Odd Sex (Ods) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Christophe; Qin, Yangjun; Adams, Carolyn P; Anaya, Yanett; Singer, Jonathan B; Hill, Annie E; Lander, Eric S; Nadeau, Joseph H; Bishop, Colin E

    2004-11-01

    The transgenic insertional mouse mutation Odd Sex (Ods) represents a model for the long-range regulation of Sox9. The mutation causes complete female-to-male sex reversal by inducing a male-specific expression pattern of Sox9 in XX Ods/+ embryonic gonads. We previously described an A/J strain-specific suppressor of Ods termed Odsm1(A). Here we show that phenotypic sex depends on a complex interaction between the suppressor and the transgene. Suppression can be achieved only if the transgene is transmitted paternally. In addition, the suppressor itself exhibits a maternal effect, suggesting that it may act on chromatin in the early embryo.

  9. Sex-Dependent Effects of Developmental Lead Exposure on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Garima; Singh, Vikrant; Sobolewski, Marissa; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Schneider, Jay S.

    2018-01-01

    The role of sex as an effect modifier of developmental lead (Pb) exposure has until recently received little attention. Lead exposure in early life can affect brain development with persisting influences on cognitive and behavioral functioning, as well as, elevated risks for developing a variety of diseases and disorders in later life. Although both sexes are affected by Pb exposure, the incidence, manifestation, and severity of outcomes appears to differ in males and females. Results from epidemiologic and animal studies indicate significant effect modification by sex, however, the results are not consistent across studies. Unfortunately, only a limited number of human epidemiological studies have included both sexes in independent outcome analyses limiting our ability to draw definitive conclusions regarding sex-differentiated outcomes. Additionally, due to various methodological differences across studies, there is still not a good mechanistic understanding of the molecular effects of lead on the brain and the factors that influence differential responses to Pb based on sex. In this review, focused on prenatal and postnatal Pb exposures in humans and animal models, we discuss current literature supporting sex differences in outcomes in response to Pb exposure and explore some of the ideas regarding potential molecular mechanisms that may contribute to sex-related differences in outcomes from developmental Pb exposure. The sex-dependent variability in outcomes from developmental Pb exposure may arise from a combination of complex factors, including, but not limited to, intrinsic sex-specific molecular/genetic mechanisms and external risk factors including sex-specific responses to environmental stressors which may act through shared epigenetic pathways to influence the genome and behavioral output. PMID:29662502

  10. Sex-Dependent Effects of Developmental Lead Exposure on the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Singh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of sex as an effect modifier of developmental lead (Pb exposure has until recently received little attention. Lead exposure in early life can affect brain development with persisting influences on cognitive and behavioral functioning, as well as, elevated risks for developing a variety of diseases and disorders in later life. Although both sexes are affected by Pb exposure, the incidence, manifestation, and severity of outcomes appears to differ in males and females. Results from epidemiologic and animal studies indicate significant effect modification by sex, however, the results are not consistent across studies. Unfortunately, only a limited number of human epidemiological studies have included both sexes in independent outcome analyses limiting our ability to draw definitive conclusions regarding sex-differentiated outcomes. Additionally, due to various methodological differences across studies, there is still not a good mechanistic understanding of the molecular effects of lead on the brain and the factors that influence differential responses to Pb based on sex. In this review, focused on prenatal and postnatal Pb exposures in humans and animal models, we discuss current literature supporting sex differences in outcomes in response to Pb exposure and explore some of the ideas regarding potential molecular mechanisms that may contribute to sex-related differences in outcomes from developmental Pb exposure. The sex-dependent variability in outcomes from developmental Pb exposure may arise from a combination of complex factors, including, but not limited to, intrinsic sex-specific molecular/genetic mechanisms and external risk factors including sex-specific responses to environmental stressors which may act through shared epigenetic pathways to influence the genome and behavioral output.

  11. Long-Term Impact of Intrauterine Neuroinflammation and Treatment with Magnesium Sulphate and Betamethasone: Sex-Specific Differences in a Preterm Labor Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-20

    intrauterine neuroinflammation and treatment with magnesium sulphate and betamethasone: Sex -specific differences in a preterm labor murine model...widespread use of Mg504 in clinical practice, its effects on adult offspring are not well known nor have sex -specific differences in therapeutic...injury. Prenatal treatment with MgSOJbetamethasone confers long-term benefits beyond cerebral palsy prevention with sex -specific differences in

  12. Sex-specific gonadal and gene expression changes throughout development in fathead minnow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are commonly used as a model fish in endocrine disruption studies, none have characterized sex-specific baseline expression of genes involved in sex differentiation during development in this species. Using a sex-linked DNA marker t...

  13. Effects of children on parental sex-role orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, L H; Coleman, M

    1987-09-01

    The predominant theories of gender-role development have focused primarily on childhood; socialization processes for gender roles are explained from birth through adolescence. The assumption appears to be that gender roles are developed in childhood and implemented, basically unchanged, in adulthood. There is evidence, however, that gender-role self-perceptions change in adulthood. This study investigates the effects of sex of children on parental sex-role orientation. More specifically, an attempt is made to determine if the presence of sons affects sex-role self-concept of parents more than the presence of daughters. The Bem Sex Role Inventory was administered to 153 parental dyads who had daughters only (n=41), sons only (n=41), or an equal number of both sons and daughters (n=71). Sex of child, especially sons, did appear to have an effect on parents' femininity. Fathers with sons have lower femininity scores than fathers with daughters only, and mothers with sons have higher femininity scores than mothers with daughters only.

  14. A Novel Method for Assessing Sex-Specific and Genotype-Specific Response to Injury in Astrocyte Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyue; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Yang, Rui; Murphy, Stephanie J; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2008-01-01

    Female astrocytes sustain less cell death from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) than male astrocytes. Arimidex, an aromatase inhibitor, abolishes these sex differences. To verify sex-dependent differences in P450 aromatase function in astrocyte cell death following OGD, we developed a novel method that uses sex-specific and genotype-specific single pup primary astrocyte cultures from wild-type (WT) and aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mice. After determining sex by external and internal examination as well as PCR and genotype by PCR amplification of tail cDNA, we established cultures from 1−3 day-old male and female, WT and ArKO mice pups and grew them to confluence in estrogen-free media. Cell death was measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Our study shows that, while WT female astrocytes are more resistant to OGD than WT male cells, sex differences disappear in ArKO cells. Cell death is significantly increased in ArKO compared to WT in female astrocytes but not male cells. Therefore, P450 aromatase appears to be essential in endogenous neuroprotection in females, and this finding may have clinical implications. This innovative technique may also be applied to other in vitro studies of sex-related functional differences. PMID:18436308

  15. Sex chromosome differentiation and the W- and Z-specific loci in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawaribuchi, Shuuji; Takahashi, Shuji; Wada, Mikako; Uno, Yoshinobu; Matsuda, Yoichi; Kondo, Mariko; Fukui, Akimasa; Takamatsu, Nobuhiko; Taira, Masanori; Ito, Michihiko

    2017-06-15

    Genetic sex-determining systems in vertebrates include two basic types of heterogamety; XX (female)/XY (male) and ZZ (male)/ZW (female) types. The African clawed frog Xenopus laevis has a ZZ/ZW-type sex-determining system. In this species, we previously identified a W-specific sex (female)-determining gene dmw, and specified W and Z chromosomes, which could be morphologically indistinguishable (homomorphic). In addition to dmw, we most recently discovered two genes, named scanw and ccdc69w, and one gene, named capn5z in the W- and Z-specific regions, respectively. In this study, we revealed the detail structures of the W/Z-specific loci and genes. Sequence analysis indicated that there is almost no sequence similarity between 278kb W-specific and 83kb Z-specific sequences on chromosome 2Lq32-33, where both the transposable elements are abundant. Synteny and phylogenic analyses indicated that all the W/Z-specific genes might have emerged independently. Expression analysis demonstrated that scanw and ccdc69w or capn5z are expressed in early differentiating ZW gonads or testes, thereby suggesting possible roles in female or male development, respectively. Importantly, the sex-determining gene (SDG) dmw might have been generated after allotetraploidization, thereby indicating the construction of the new sex-determining system by dmw after species hybridization. Furthermore, by direct genotyping, we confirmed that diploid WW embryos developed into normal female frogs, which indicate that the Z-specific region is not essential for female development. Overall, these findings indicate that sex chromosome differentiation has started, although no heteromorphic sex chromosomes are evident yet, in X. laevis. Homologous recombination suppression might have promoted the accumulation of mutations and transposable elements, and enlarged the W/Z-specific regions, thereby resulting in differentiation of the W/Z chromosomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex-specific antidepressant effects of dietary creatine with and without sub-acute fluoxetine in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patricia J.; D'Anci, Kristen E.; Kanarek, Robin B.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2013-01-01

    The potential role of metabolic impairments in the pathophysiology of depression is motivating researchers to evaluate the treatment efficacy of creatine, a naturally occurring energetic and neuroprotective compound found in brain and muscle tissues. Growing evidence is demonstrating the benefit of oral creatine supplements for reducing depressive symptoms in humans and animals. A novel question is whether dietary creatine, when combined with antidepressant drug therapy, would be more effective than either compound alone. To answer this question, four studies were conducted to investigate the behavioral effects of combined creatine and low-dose fluoxetine treatment using the forced swim test in male and female rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed powdered rodent chow supplemented with 0%, 2% or 4% w/w creatine monohydrate for 5 weeks. Rats were injected with fluoxetine (5.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) or saline according to a sub-acute dosing schedule. Female rats maintained on a 4% creatine diet displayed antidepressant-like effects compared to non-supplemented females prior to fluoxetine treatment. In contrast, creatine did not alter behavior reliably in males. Following drug treatment and a second forced swim trial, the antidepressant-like profile of creatine remained significant only in females co-administered 5.0 mg/kg fluoxetine. Moreover, in females only, supplementation with 4% creatine produced a more robust antidepressant-like behavioral profile compared to either dose of fluoxetine alone. Estrous cycle data indicated that ovarian hormones influenced the antidepressant-like effects of creatine. Addressing the issue of sex differences in response to treatment may affect our understanding of creatine, its relationship with depressive behavior, and may lead to sex-specific therapeutic strategies. PMID:22429992

  17. Sex-specific interaction effects of age, occupational status, and workplace stress on psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load among healthy Montreal workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Moskowitz, D S; Lavoie, Joel; D'Antono, Bianca

    2013-11-01

    Socio-demographics and workplace stress may affect men and women differently. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess sex-specific interactions among age, occupational status, and workplace Demand-Control-Support (D-C-S) factors in relation to psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load levels representing multi-systemic "wear and tear". It was hypothesized that beyond main effects, D-C-S factors would be moderated by occupational status and age in sex-specific directions predictive of subjective psychiatric symptoms and objective physiological dysregulations. Participants included healthy male (n = 81) and female (n = 118) Montreal workers aged 20 to 64 years (Men: M = 39.4 years, SD = 11.3; Women: M = 42.8 years, SD = 11.38). The Job Content Questionnaire was administered to assess workplace D-C-S factors that included psychological demands, decisional latitude, and social support. Occupational status was coded using the Nam--Powers--Boyd system derived from the Canadian census. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Sex-specific allostatic load indices were calculated based on fifteen biomarkers. Regression analyses revealed that higher social support was associated with less depressive symptoms in middle aged (p = 0.033) and older men (p = 0.027). Higher occupational status was associated with higher allostatic load levels for men (p = 0.035), while the reverse occurred for women (p = 0.048). Women with lower occupational status but with higher decision latitude had lower allostatic load levels, as did middle-aged (p = 0.031) and older women (p = 0.003) with higher psychological demands. In summary, age and occupational status moderated workplace stress in sex-specific ways that have occupational health implications.

  18. Sex-specific inhibition and stimulation of worker-reproductive transition in a termite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qian; Haynes, Kenneth F.; Hampton, Jordan D.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2017-10-01

    In social insects, the postembryonic development of individuals exhibits strong phenotypic plasticity in response to the environment, thus generating the caste system. Different from eusocial Hymenoptera, in which queens dominate reproduction and inhibit worker fertility, the primary reproductive caste in termites (kings and queens) can be replaced by neotenic reproductives derived from functionally sterile individuals. Feedback regulation of nestmate differentiation into reproductives has been suggested, but the sex specificity remains inconclusive. In the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes, we tested the hypothesis that neotenic reproductives regulate worker-reproductive transition in a sex-specific manner. With this R. flavipes system, we demonstrate a sex-specific regulatory mechanism with both inhibitory and stimulatory functions. Neotenics inhibit workers of the same sex from differentiating into additional reproductives but stimulate workers of the opposite sex to undergo this transition. Furthermore, this process is not affected by the presence of soldiers. Our results highlight the reproductive plasticity of termites in response to social cues and provide insights into the regulation of reproductive division of labor in a hemimetabolous social insect.

  19. Sex-specific differences in the synaptonemal complex in the genus Oreochromis (Cichlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Ramos, Rafael; Harvey, Simon C; Penman, David J

    2009-04-01

    Total synaptonemal complex (SC) lengths were estimated from Oreochromis aureus Steindachner (which has a WZ/ZZ sex determination system), O. mossambicus Peters and O. niloticus L. (both of which have XX/XY sex determination systems). The total SC length in oocytes was greater than that in spermatocytes in all three species (194 +/- 30 microm and 134 +/- 13 microm, 187 +/- 22 microm and 127 +/- 17 microm, 193 +/- 37 microm and 144 +/- 19 microm, respectively). These sex-specific differences did not appear to be influenced by the type of sex determination system (the female/male total SC length ratio was 1.45 in O. aureus, 1.47 in O. mossambicus and 1.34 in O. niloticus) and do not correlate with the lack of any overall sex-specific length differences in the current Oreochromis linkage map. Although based on data from relatively few species, there appears to be no consistent relationship between sex-specific SC lengths and linkage map lengths in fish. Neomale (hormonally masculinized genetic female) O. aureus and O. mossambicus had total SC lengths of 138 +/- 13 microm and 146 +/- 13 microm respectively, more similar to normal males than to normal females. These findings agree with data from other vertebrate species that suggest that phenotypic sex, rather than genotype, determines traits such as total SC length, chiasmata position and recombination pattern, at least for the autosomes.

  20. Similar cold stress induces sex-specific neuroendocrine and working memory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Urboniene, Daiva; Eimantas, Nerijus; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Brazaitis, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Men have higher cold-induced neuroendocrine response than women; nevertheless, it is not known whether a different stress hormone rise elicits different effects on cognition during whole body cooling. The objective was to compare the effect of cold-induced neuroendocrine responses on the performance of working memory sensitive tasks between men and women. The cold stress continued until rectal temperature reached 35.5 degree C or for a maximum of 170 min. Working memory performance and stress hormone concentrations were monitored. During cold stress, body temperature variables dropped in all subjects (P < 0.001) and did not differ between sexes. Cold stress raised plasma epinephrine and serum cortisol levels only in men (P < 0.05). Cold stress adversely affected memory performance in men but not in women (P < 0.05). The present study indicated that similar moderate cold stress in men and women induces sex-specific neuroendocrine and working memory responses.

  1. Sex-Specific Effect of Recalled Parenting on Affective and Cognitive Empathy in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Minna T; Brewer, Gayle; Bethell, Emily J

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the influence of parenting on the development of children's empathy. However, few studies have considered the impact of parents on empathy in adulthood, specific components of empathy, or the importance of parent and child biological sex. In the present study, 226 participants (71 men) completed online versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker et al. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1-10 1979), Empathy Quotient (Baron-Cohen and Wheelwright Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 163-175 2004), and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85 1980). Paternal care and overprotection influenced affective empathy in men, whilst maternal overprotection predicted affective empathy in women. Further, maternal care related to cognitive empathy in men, whilst none of the parental care variables related to cognitive empathy in women. Findings are discussed in relation to sex differences in childhood parenting experiences on adult cognitive and affective empathy.

  2. Sex specific effects of heat induced hormesis in Hsf-deficient Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J G; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Kristensen, K V

    2007-01-01

    In insects mild heat stress early in life has been reported to increase life span and heat resistance later in life, a phenomenon termed hormesis. Here, we test if the induction of the heat shock response by mild heat stress is mediating hormesis in longevity and heat resistance at older age...... line, seemingly mediated by the production of heat shock proteins (Hsps). The results indicate that heat inducible Hsps are important for heat induced hormesis in longevity and heat stress resistance. However, the results also suggest that other processes are involved and that different mechanisms...... might have marked sex specific impact...

  3. Sex Differences in the Effects of Unilateral Brain Damage on Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, James; Lawson, J. S.

    1981-05-01

    A sexual dimorphism in the functional asymmetry of the damaged human brain is reflected in a test-specific laterality effect in male but not in female patients. This sex difference explains some contradictions concerning the effects of unilateral brain damage on intelligence in studies in which the influence of sex was overlooked.

  4. Vasopressin regulates social recognition in juvenile and adult rats of both sexes, but in sex- and age-specific ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, A H; Bredewold, R; De Vries, G J

    2012-01-01

    In adult male rats, vasopressin (AVP) facilitates social recognition via activation of V1a receptors within the lateral septum. Much less is known about how AVP affects social recognition in adult females or in juvenile animals of either sex. We found that administration of the specific V1a receptor antagonist d(CH(2))(5)[Tyr(Me)(2)]AVP into the lateral septum of adult rats impaired, whereas AVP extended, social discrimination in both sexes. In juveniles, however, we detected a sex difference, such that males but not females showed social discrimination. Interestingly, administration of the V1a receptor antagonist to juveniles (either intracerebroventricularly or locally in the lateral septum) did not prevent social discrimination, but instead significantly decreased the investigation of a novel as opposed to a familiar animal in both sexes, with stronger effects in males. V1a receptors were found to be abundantly expressed in the lateral septum with higher binding density in females than in males. These findings demonstrate that activation of V1a receptors in the lateral septum is important for social recognition in both sexes, and that the roles of septal V1a receptors in social recognition change during development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A single sex pheromone receptor determines chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Uchino, Keiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishioka, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2011-06-01

    In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol), is sufficient to elicit full sexual behavior. We have previously shown that the sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 mediates specific detection of bombykol in the antennae of male silkmoths. However, it is unclear whether the sex pheromone receptor is the minimally sufficient determination factor that triggers initiation of orientation behavior towards a potential mate. Using transgenic silkmoths expressing the sex pheromone receptor PxOR1 of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in BmOR1-expressing neurons, we show that the selectivity of the sex pheromone receptor determines the chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth. Bombykol receptor neurons expressing PxOR1 responded to its specific ligand, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald), in a dose-dependent manner. Male moths expressing PxOR1 exhibited typical pheromone orientation behavior and copulation attempts in response to Z11-16:Ald and to females of P. xylostella. Transformation of the bombykol receptor neurons had no effect on their projections in the antennal lobe. These results indicate that activation of bombykol receptor neurons alone is sufficient to trigger full sexual behavior. Thus, a single gene defines behavioral selectivity in sex pheromone communication in the silkmoth. Our findings show that a single molecular determinant can not only function as a modulator of behavior but also as an all-or-nothing initiator of a complex species-specific behavioral sequence.

  6. A single sex pheromone receptor determines chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sakurai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol, is sufficient to elicit full sexual behavior. We have previously shown that the sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 mediates specific detection of bombykol in the antennae of male silkmoths. However, it is unclear whether the sex pheromone receptor is the minimally sufficient determination factor that triggers initiation of orientation behavior towards a potential mate. Using transgenic silkmoths expressing the sex pheromone receptor PxOR1 of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in BmOR1-expressing neurons, we show that the selectivity of the sex pheromone receptor determines the chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth. Bombykol receptor neurons expressing PxOR1 responded to its specific ligand, (Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald, in a dose-dependent manner. Male moths expressing PxOR1 exhibited typical pheromone orientation behavior and copulation attempts in response to Z11-16:Ald and to females of P. xylostella. Transformation of the bombykol receptor neurons had no effect on their projections in the antennal lobe. These results indicate that activation of bombykol receptor neurons alone is sufficient to trigger full sexual behavior. Thus, a single gene defines behavioral selectivity in sex pheromone communication in the silkmoth. Our findings show that a single molecular determinant can not only function as a modulator of behavior but also as an all-or-nothing initiator of a complex species-specific

  7. The importance of sex-specific quantitative criteria in thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovitch, M.A.; Suissa, S.; Elstein, J.; Turek, M.; Addas, A.; Burgess, J.H.; Rosenthall, L.

    1984-01-01

    Breast attenuation is an important cause of artifactual cold spots on visually interpreted TL-201 myocardial images. This study was undertaken to determine the need for sex-specific criteria in the quantitative analysis of exercise-redistribution TL-201 myocardial scintigraphy (SCINT). The studies of 13 normal females (F) and 12 normal males (M) were processed according to the method of a previous study. Significant sexual differences were found in 7/12 regional uptake (U) proportions, 9/11 regional washout (WO) percentages, 0/3 image redistribution indices, and 0/1 lung to heart ratio. The differences primarily reflected a proportionately decreased anterior and septal uptake in F, a proportionately decreased inferior and inferoapical U in M, and faster WO in F. Sex-specific and total population normal boundaries were set a +- 3SD of the mean for each parameter. Sex-specific boundaries were narrower, and, for 5 parameters (4U and 1WO), contained within the total population boundaries. It was estimated that these differences in boundaries would result in a 6 to 25% discrepancy in patient classification. These results predict that a subset of M and F with coronary artery stenoses could be misclassified as normal by total population criteria, while properly classified as abnormal by sex-specific criteria. The authors conclude that since important differences exist between M and F in the detected pattern of TL-201 myocardial U and WO, sex-specific cr4iteria may enhance the predictive accuracy of SCINT

  8. Interactive effects of sex hormones and gender stereotypes on cognitive sex differences--a psychobiosocial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Markus; Schoofs, Daniela; Rosenthal, Harriet E S; Jordan, Kirsten

    2009-04-01

    Biological and social factors have been shown to affect cognitive sex differences. For example, several studies have found that sex hormones have activating effects on sex-sensitive tasks. On the other hand, it has been shown that gender stereotypes can influence the cognitive performance of (gender-) stereotyped individuals. However, few studies have investigated the combined effects of both factors. The present study investigated the interaction between sex hormones and gender stereotypes within a psychobiosocial approach. One hundred and fourteen participants (59 women) performed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tasks, including mental rotation, verbal fluency, and perceptual speed. Saliva samples were taken immediately after cognitive testing. Levels of testosterone (T) were analysed using chemiluminescence immunoassay (LIA). To activate gender stereotypes, a questionnaire was applied to the experimental group that referred to the cognitive tasks used. The control group received an identical questionnaire but with a gender-neutral content. As expected, significant sex differences favouring males and females appeared for mental rotation and verbal fluency tasks, respectively. The results revealed no sex difference in perceptual speed. The male superiority in the Revised Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Tests (MRT-3D) was mainly driven by the stereotype-active group. No significant sex difference in MRT-3D appeared in the control group. The MRT-3D was also the task in which a strong gender-stereotype favouring males was present for both males and females. Interestingly, T levels of the stereotype-activated group were 60% higher than that of male controls. The results suggest that sex hormones mediate the effects of gender stereotypes on specific cognitive abilities.

  9. Sex-Specific Associations Between Thyrotropin and Serum Lipid Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisinger, Christa; Ittermann, Till; Tiller, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based studies investigating the sex-specific association between thyrotropin (TSH) levels and serum lipid concentrations are scarce. We examined the association between TSH and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL......) cholesterol, and triglycerides in men and women from the general population. Furthermore, the association with TSH outside and within the reference range and lipid levels was studied. METHODS: Individual data of 13,571 men and women without lipid medication of four population-based studies conducted...... in Western European adults were pooled for cross-sectional analyses. The association between TSH levels and lipid concentrations were analyzed by calculating sex-specific multivariable median regression models. RESULTS: In the pooled population, serum TSH levels were significantly positively associated...

  10. Developmental trajectories of paediatric headache - sex-specific analyses and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isensee, Corinna; Fernandez Castelao, Carolin; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Headache is the most common pain disorder in children and adolescents and is associated with diverse dysfunctions and psychological symptoms. Several studies evidenced sex-specific differences in headache frequency. Until now no study exists that examined sex-specific patterns of change in paediatric headache across time and included pain-related somatic and (socio-)psychological predictors. Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) was used in order to identify different trajectory classes of headache across four annual time points in a population-based sample (n = 3 227; mean age 11.34 years; 51.2 % girls). In multinomial logistic regression analyses the influence of several predictors on the class membership was examined. For girls, a four-class model was identified as the best fitting model. While the majority of girls reported no (30.5 %) or moderate headache frequencies (32.5 %) across time, one class with a high level of headache days (20.8 %) and a class with an increasing headache frequency across time (16.2 %) were identified. For boys a two class model with a 'no headache class' (48.6 %) and 'moderate headache class' (51.4 %) showed the best model fit. Regarding logistic regression analyses, migraine and parental headache proved to be stable predictors across sexes. Depression/anxiety was a significant predictor for all pain classes in girls. Life events, dysfunctional stress coping and school burden were also able to differentiate at least between some classes in both sexes. The identified trajectories reflect sex-specific differences in paediatric headache, as seen in the number and type of classes extracted. The documented risk factors can deliver ideas for preventive actions and considerations for treatment programmes.

  11. Analysis of case-parent trios for imprinting effect using a loglinear model with adjustment for sex-of-parent-specific transmission ratio distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lam Opal; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Labbe, Aurélie

    2017-01-01

    Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) is a phenomenon where parental transmission of disease allele to the child does not follow the Mendelian inheritance ratio. TRD occurs in a sex-of-parent-specific or non-sex-of-parent-specific manner. An offset computed from the transmission probability of the ...

  12. The effects of female status on sex differentiated mate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Fhionna R.

    2007-01-01

    Mate preferences provide an opportunity to explore the validity of evolutionary and social role origin theories of sex differences in human behaviour. In evolutionary models, preferences are sex-specific adaptive responses to constraints to reproductive success. In social role models, sex differences arise from the allocation of men and women to different gender roles. I explored the effects of the status of women on preferences to assess the validity of the origin theories....

  13. Region-specific associations between sex, social status, and oxytocin receptor density in the brains of eusocial rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, S J; Coen, C W; Holmes, M M; Beery, A K

    2015-09-10

    Naturally occurring variations in neuropeptide receptor distributions in the brain contribute to numerous mammalian social behaviors. In naked mole-rats, which live in large social groups and exhibit remarkable reproductive skew, colony-related social behaviors vary with reproductive status. Here we examined whether variation in social status is associated with variations in the location and/or density of oxytocin binding in this species. Autoradiography was performed to assess forebrain oxytocin receptor (OTR) densities in breeding and non-breeding naked mole-rats of both sexes. Overall, males exhibited higher OTR binding in the medial amygdala in comparison to females. While there were no main effects of reproductive status in any region, a sex difference in OTR binding in the nucleus accumbens was mediated by status. Specifically, breeding males tended to have more OTR binding than breeding females in the nucleus accumbens, while no sex difference was observed in subordinates. These effects suggest that oxytocin may act in a sex- and region-specific way that corresponds to reproductive status and associated social behaviors. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Early-life lead exposure results in dose- and sex-specific effects on weight and epigenetic gene regulation in weanling mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, Christopher; Barks, Amanda; Liu, Kevin; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Dolinoy, Dana C

    2013-01-01

    Aims Epidemiological and animal data suggest that the development of adult chronic conditions is influenced by early-life exposure-induced changes to the epigenome. This study investigates the effects of perinatal lead (Pb) exposure on DNA methylation and bodyweight in weanling mice. Materials & methods Viable yellow agouti (Avy) mouse dams were exposed to 0, 2.1, 16 and 32 ppm Pb acetate before conception through weaning. Epigenetic effects were evaluated by scoring coat color of Avy/a offspring and quantitative bisulfite sequencing of two retrotransposon-driven (Avy and CDK5 activator-binding protein intracisternal A particle element) and two imprinted (Igf2 and Igf2r) loci in tail DNA. Results Maternal blood Pb levels were below the limit of detection in controls, and 4.1, 25.1 and 32.1 μg/dl for each dose, respectively. Pb exposure was associated with a trend of increased wean bodyweight in males (p = 0.03) and altered coat color in Avy/a offspring. DNA methylation at Avy and the CDK5 activator-binding protein intracisternal A-particle element was significantly different from controls following a cubic trend (p = 0.04; p = 0.01), with male-specific effects at the Avy locus. Imprinted genes did not shift in methylation across exposures. Conclusion Dose- and sex-specific responses in bodyweight and DNA methylation indicate that Pb acts on the epigenome in a locus-specific fashion, dependent on the genomic feature hosting the CpG site of interest, and that sex is a factor in epigenetic response. PMID:24059796

  15. Transgenic over-expression of YY1 induces pathologic cardiac hypertrophy in a sex-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Brian L.; Dockstader, Karen; Russell, Gloria; Hijmans, Jamie; Walker, Lisa; Cecil, Mackenzie; Demos-Davies, Kimberly; Medway, Allen; McKinsey, Timothy A.; Sucharov, Carmen C.

    2015-01-01

    YY1 can activate or repress transcription of various genes. In cardiac myocytes in culture YY1 has been shown to regulate expression of several genes involved in myocyte pathology. YY1 can also acutely protect the heart against detrimental changes in gene expression. In this study we show that cardiac over-expression of YY1 induces pathologic cardiac hypertrophy in male mice, measured by changes in gene expression and lower ejection fraction/fractional shortening. In contrast, female animals are protected against pathologic gene expression changes and cardiac dysfunction. Furthermore, we show that YY1 regulates, in a sex-specific manner, the expression of mammalian enable (Mena), a factor that regulates cytoskeletal actin dynamics and whose expression is increased in several models of cardiac pathology, and that Mena expression in humans with heart failure is sex-dependent. Finally, we show that sex differences in YY1 expression are also observed in human heart failure. In summary, this is the first work to show that YY1 has a sex-specific effect in the regulation of cardiac pathology. PMID:25935483

  16. Sex-specific neural circuits of emotion regulation in the centromedial amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Li, Huandong; Zhou, Yuan; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Yuanchao; Song, Ming; Qin, Wen; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-03-23

    Sex-related differences in emotion regulation (ER) in the frequency power distribution within the human amygdala, a brain region involved in emotion processing, have been reported. However, how sex differences in ER are manifested in the brain networks which are seeded on the amygdala subregions is unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate this issue from a brain network perspective. Utilizing resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis, we found that the sex-specific functional connectivity patterns associated with ER trait level were only seeded in the centromedial amygdala (CM). Women with a higher trait-level ER had a stronger negative RSFC between the right CM and the medial superior frontal gyrus (mSFG), and stronger positive RSFC between the right CM and the anterior insula (AI) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG). But men with a higher trait-level ER was associated with weaker negative RSFC of the right CM-mSFG and positive RSFCs of the right CM-left AI, right CM-right AI/STG, and right CM-left STG. These results provide evidence for the sex-related effects in ER based on CM and indicate that men and women may differ in the neural circuits associated with emotion representation and integration.

  17. Evolution of sexes from an ancestral mating-type specification pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa Geng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Male and female sexes have evolved repeatedly in eukaryotes but the origins of dimorphic sexes and their relationship to mating types in unicellular species are not understood. Volvocine algae include isogamous species such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, with two equal-sized mating types, and oogamous multicellular species such as Volvox carteri with sperm-producing males and egg-producing females. Theoretical work predicts genetic linkage of a gamete cell-size regulatory gene(s to an ancestral mating-type locus as a possible step in the evolution of dimorphic gametes, but this idea has not been tested. Here we show that, contrary to predictions, a single conserved mating locus (MT gene in volvocine algae-MID, which encodes a RWP-RK domain transcription factor-evolved from its ancestral role in C. reinhardtii as a mating-type specifier, to become a determinant of sperm and egg development in V. carteri. Transgenic female V. carteri expressing male MID produced functional sperm packets during sexual development. Transgenic male V. carteri with RNA interference (RNAi-mediated knockdowns of VcMID produced functional eggs, or self-fertile hermaphrodites. Post-transcriptional controls were found to regulate cell-type-limited expression and nuclear localization of VcMid protein that restricted its activity to nuclei of developing male germ cells and sperm. Crosses with sex-reversed strains uncoupled sex determination from sex chromosome identity and revealed gender-specific roles for male and female mating locus genes in sexual development, gamete fitness and reproductive success. Our data show genetic continuity between the mating-type specification and sex determination pathways of volvocine algae, and reveal evidence for gender-specific adaptations in the male and female mating locus haplotypes of Volvox. These findings will enable a deeper understanding of how a master regulator of mating-type determination in an ancestral unicellular species was

  18. Sex-Specific Effects of Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment on Neuroplasticity and Pharmacokinetics in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hodes, Georgia E.; Hill-Smith, Tiffany E.; Suckow, Raymond F.; Cooper, Thomas B.; Lucki, Irwin

    2010-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a mechanism through which antidepressants may produce therapeutic effects. There is a dearth of information regarding the effects of antidepressants on neurogenesis and neurotrophin mobilization in females. This study examined sex differences in the alteration of cell proliferation and survival in multiple regions of the brain. Additional experiments examined brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine to determine whether they mediate se...

  19. Maternal diets trigger sex-specific divergent trajectories of gene expression and epigenetic systems in mouse placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gabory

    Full Text Available Males and females responses to gestational overnutrition set the stage for subsequent sex-specific differences in adult onset non communicable diseases. Placenta, as a widely recognized programming agent, contibutes to the underlying processes. According to our previous findings, a high-fat diet during gestation triggers sex-specific epigenetic alterations within CpG and throughout the genome, together with the deregulation of clusters of imprinted genes. We further investigated the impact of diet and sex on placental histology, transcriptomic and epigenetic signatures in mice. Both basal gene expression and response to maternal high-fat diet were sexually dimorphic in whole placentas. Numerous genes showed sexually dimorphic expression, but only 11 genes regardless of the diet. In line with the key role of genes belonging to the sex chromosomes, 3 of these genes were Y-specific and 3 were X-specific. Amongst all the genes that were differentially expressed under a high-fat diet, only 16 genes were consistently affected in both males and females. The differences were not only quantitative but remarkably qualitative. The biological functions and networks of genes dysregulated differed markedly between the sexes. Seven genes of the epigenetic machinery were dysregulated, due to effects of diet, sex or both, including the Y- and X-linked histone demethylase paralogues Kdm5c and Kdm5d, which could mark differently male and female epigenomes. The DNA methyltransferase cofactor Dnmt3l gene expression was affected, reminiscent of our previous observation of changes in global DNA methylation. Overall, this striking sexual dimorphism of programming trajectories impose a considerable revision of the current dietary interventions protocols.

  20. Timing of Maternal Depression and Sex-Specific Child Growth, the Upstate KIDS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojun; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Gilman, Stephen E; Bell, Griffith; Louis, Germaine M Buck; Yeung, Edwina H

    2018-01-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported on the association between maternal depression and children's growth, possibly because of the limited attention to its disproportionate impact by child sex. The relationship between the timing of maternal depression and children's growth was assessed in a population-based prospective birth cohort, with particular attention to sex differences. The Upstate KIDS Study comprised 4,394 children followed through 3 years of age from 2008 to 2010. Maternal depression was measured antenatally by linkage with hospital discharge records before delivery and postnatally by depressive symptoms reported from questionnaires. Children's growth was measured by sex- and age-specific weight, height, weight for height, and BMI. Adjusted linear mixed effects models were used to estimate growth outcomes for the full sample and separately by plurality and sex. Antenatal depression was associated with lower weight for age (-0.24 z score units; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.43, -0.05) and height for age (-0.26 z score units; 95% CI: -0.51, -0.02) among singleton boys. Postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with higher weight for height (0.21 z score units; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.42) among singleton girls. The findings of this study suggest that antenatal depression was associated with lower weight and smaller height only for boys, whereas postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with higher weight for height only for girls. The timing of depression and the mechanisms of sex-specific responses require further examination. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Uptake of a women-only, sex-work-specific drop-in center and links with sexual and reproductive health care for sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoun Rachel; Goldenberg, Shira M; Duff, Putu; Nguyen, Paul; Gibson, Kate; Shannon, Kate

    2015-03-01

    To longitudinally examine female sex workers' (FSWs') uptake of a women-only, sex-work-specific drop-in service and its impact on their access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. For the present longitudinal analysis, data were drawn from the AESHA (An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access) study, a community-based, open, prospective cohort of FSWs from Vancouver, BC, Canada. Data obtained between January 2010 and February 2013 were analyzed. Participants are followed up on a semi-annual basis. Multivariable logistic regression using generalized estimating equations was used to identify correlates of service uptake. Of 547 FSWs included in the present analysis, 330 (60.3%) utilized the services during the 3-year study period. Service use was independently associated with age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.06), Aboriginal ancestry (AOR 2.18; 95% CI 1.61-2.95), injection drug use (AOR 1.67; 95% CI 1.29-2.17), exchange of sex for drugs (AOR 1.40; 95%CI 1.15-1.71), and accessing SRH services (AOR 1.65; 95% CI 1.35-2.02). A sex-work-specific drop-in space for marginalized FSWs had high uptake. Women-centered and low-threshold drop-in services can effectively link marginalized women with SRH services. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stressor-specific effects of sex on HPA axis hormones and activation of stress-related neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Jessica A; Masini, Cher V; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2013-11-01

    Experiencing stress can be physically and psychologically debilitating to an organism. Women have a higher prevalence of some stress-related mental illnesses, the reasons for which are unknown. These experiments explore differential HPA axis hormone release in male and female rats following acute stress. Female rats had a similar threshold of HPA axis hormone release following low intensity noise stress as male rats. Sex did not affect the acute release, or the return of HPA axis hormones to baseline following moderate intensity noise stress. Sensitive indices of auditory functioning obtained by modulation of the acoustic startle reflex by weak pre-pulses did not reveal any sexual dimorphism. Furthermore, male and female rats exhibited similar c-fos mRNA expression in the brain following noise stress, including several sex-influenced stress-related regions. The HPA axis response to noise stress was not affected by stage of estrous cycle, and ovariectomy significantly increased hormone release. Direct comparison of HPA axis hormone release to two different stressors in the same animals revealed that although female rats exhibit robustly higher HPA axis hormone release after restraint stress, the same effect was not observed following moderate and high intensity loud noise stress. Finally, the differential effect of sex on HPA axis responses to noise and restraint stress cannot readily be explained by differential social cues or general pain processing. These studies suggest the effect of sex on acute stress-induced HPA axis hormone activity is highly dependent on the type of stressor.

  3. Involvement of the oxytocin system in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the sex-specific regulation of social recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M.; Alonso, Andrea G.; Immormino, Marisa A.; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the oxytocin (OT) system in the brain may explain why OT often regulates social behaviors in sex-specific ways. However, a link between sex differences in the OT system and sex-specific regulation of social behavior has not been tested. Here, we determined whether sex differences in the OT receptor (OTR) or in OT release in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST) mediates sex-specific regulation of social recognition in rats. We recently showed that, compared to female rats, male rats have a three-fold higher OTR binding density in the pBNST, a sexually dimorphic area implicated in the regulation of social behaviors. We now demonstrate that OTR antagonist (5 ng/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST impairs social recognition in both sexes, while OT (100 pg/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST prolongs the duration of social recognition in males only. These effects seem specific to social recognition, as neither treatment altered total social investigation time in either sex. Moreover, baseline OT release in the pBNST, as measured with in vivo microdialysis, did not differ between the sexes. However, males showed higher OT release in the pBNST during social recognition compared to females. These findings suggest a sex-specific role of the OT system in the pBNST in the regulation of social recognition. PMID:26630388

  4. Involvement of the oxytocin system in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the sex-specific regulation of social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M; Alonso, Andrea G; Immormino, Marisa A; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H

    2016-02-01

    Sex differences in the oxytocin (OT) system in the brain may explain why OT often regulates social behaviors in sex-specific ways. However, a link between sex differences in the OT system and sex-specific regulation of social behavior has not been tested. Here, we determined whether sex differences in the OT receptor (OTR) or in OT release in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST) mediates sex-specific regulation of social recognition in rats. We recently showed that, compared to female rats, male rats have a three-fold higher OTR binding density in the pBNST, a sexually dimorphic area implicated in the regulation of social behaviors. We now demonstrate that OTR antagonist (5 ng/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST impairs social recognition in both sexes, while OT (100 pg/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST prolongs the duration of social recognition in males only. These effects seem specific to social recognition, as neither treatment altered total social investigation time in either sex. Moreover, baseline OT release in the pBNST, as measured with in vivo microdialysis, did not differ between the sexes. However, males showed higher OT release in the pBNST during social recognition compared to females. These findings suggest a sex-specific role of the OT system in the pBNST in the regulation of social recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-aging drugs reduce hypothalamic inflammation in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadagurski, Marianna; Cady, Gillian; Miller, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Aging leads to hypothalamic inflammation, but does so more slowly in mice whose lifespan has been extended by mutations that affect GH/IGF-1 signals. Early-life exposure to GH by injection, or to nutrient restriction in the first 3 weeks of life, also modulate both lifespan and the pace of hypothalamic inflammation. Three drugs extend lifespan of UM-HET3 mice in a sex-specific way: acarbose (ACA), 17-α-estradiol (17αE2), and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), with more dramatic longevity increases in males in each case. In this study, we examined the effect of these anti-aging drugs on neuro-inflammation in hypothalamus and hippocampus. We found that age-associated hypothalamic inflammation is reduced in males but not in females at 12 months of age by ACA and 17αE2 and at 22 months of age in NDGA-treated mice. The three drugs blocked indices of hypothalamic reactive gliosis associated with aging, such as Iba-1-positive microglia and GFAP-positive astrocytes, as well as age-associated overproduction of TNF-α. This effect was not observed in drug-treated female mice or in the hippocampus of the drug-treated animals. On the other hand, caloric restriction (CR; an intervention that extends the lifespan in both sexes) significantly reduced hypothalamic microglia and TNF-α in both sexes at 12 months of age. Together, these results suggest that the extent of drug-induced changes in hypothalamic inflammatory processes is sexually dimorphic in a pattern that parallels the effects of these agents on mouse longevity and that mimics the changes seen, in both sexes, of long-lived nutrient restricted or mutant mice. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Seasonal Variation in Parental Care Drives Sex-Specific Foraging by a Monomorphic Seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Chantelle M; Montevecchi, William A; Regular, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of sex-specific foraging in monomorphic seabirds is increasing though the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigate differential parental care as a mechanism for sex-specific foraging in monomorphic Common Murres (Uria aalge), where the male parent alone provisions the chick after colony departure. Using a combination of geolocation-immersion loggers and stable isotopes, we assess two hypotheses: the reproductive role specialization hypothesis and the energetic constraint hypothesis. We compare the foraging behavior of females (n = 15) and males (n = 9) during bi-parental at the colony, post-fledging male-only parental care and winter when parental care is absent. As predicted by the reproductive role specialization hypothesis, we found evidence of sex-specific foraging during post-fledging only, the stage with the greatest divergence in parental care roles. Single-parenting males spent almost twice as much time diving per day and foraged at lower quality prey patches relative to independent females. This implies a potential energetic constraint for males during the estimated 62.8 ± 8.9 days of offspring dependence at sea. Contrary to the predictions of the energetic constraint hypothesis, we found no evidence of sex-specific foraging during biparental care, suggesting that male parents did not forage for their own benefit before colony departure in anticipation of post-fledging energy constraints. We hypothesize that unpredictable prey conditions at Newfoundland colonies in recent years may limit male parental ability to allocate additional time and energy to self-feeding during biparental care, without compromising chick survival. Our findings support differential parental care as a mechanism for sex-specific foraging in monomorphic murres, and highlight the need to consider ecological context in the interpretation of sex-specific foraging behavior.

  7. Seasonal Variation in Parental Care Drives Sex-Specific Foraging by a Monomorphic Seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle M Burke

    Full Text Available Evidence of sex-specific foraging in monomorphic seabirds is increasing though the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigate differential parental care as a mechanism for sex-specific foraging in monomorphic Common Murres (Uria aalge, where the male parent alone provisions the chick after colony departure. Using a combination of geolocation-immersion loggers and stable isotopes, we assess two hypotheses: the reproductive role specialization hypothesis and the energetic constraint hypothesis. We compare the foraging behavior of females (n = 15 and males (n = 9 during bi-parental at the colony, post-fledging male-only parental care and winter when parental care is absent. As predicted by the reproductive role specialization hypothesis, we found evidence of sex-specific foraging during post-fledging only, the stage with the greatest divergence in parental care roles. Single-parenting males spent almost twice as much time diving per day and foraged at lower quality prey patches relative to independent females. This implies a potential energetic constraint for males during the estimated 62.8 ± 8.9 days of offspring dependence at sea. Contrary to the predictions of the energetic constraint hypothesis, we found no evidence of sex-specific foraging during biparental care, suggesting that male parents did not forage for their own benefit before colony departure in anticipation of post-fledging energy constraints. We hypothesize that unpredictable prey conditions at Newfoundland colonies in recent years may limit male parental ability to allocate additional time and energy to self-feeding during biparental care, without compromising chick survival. Our findings support differential parental care as a mechanism for sex-specific foraging in monomorphic murres, and highlight the need to consider ecological context in the interpretation of sex-specific foraging behavior.

  8. Effects of Early-Life Stress on Social and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Adult Mice: Sex-Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya P. Bondar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stressful events in an early postnatal period have critical implications for the individual’s life and can increase later risk for psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of early-life stress on the social behavior of adult male and female mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to maternal separation (MS, 3 h once a day or handling (HD, 15 min once a day on postnatal day 2 through 14. Adult male and female mice were tested for social behavior in the social interaction test and for individual behavior in the plus-maze and open-field tests. Female mice exposed to maternal separation had increased social behavior and increased anxiety. MS male mice had no changes in social behavior but had significantly disrupted individual behavior, including locomotor and exploratory activity. Handling had positive effects on social behavior in males and females and decreased anxiety in males. Our results support the hypothesis that brief separation of pups from their mothers (handling, which can be considered as moderate stress, may result in future positive changes in behavior. Maternal separation has deleterious effects on individual behavior and significant sex-specific effects on social behavior.

  9. Sex-specific effects of early life stress on social interaction and prefrontal cortex dendritic morphology in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M R; Holland, F H; Shansky, R M; Brenhouse, H C

    2016-09-01

    Early life stress has been linked to depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in adolescence and adulthood. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in stress-related psychopathology, is a target for stress hormones, and mediates social behavior. The present study investigated sex differences in early-life stress effects on juvenile social interaction and adolescent mPFC dendritic morphology in rats using a maternal separation (MS) paradigm. Half of the rat pups of each sex were separated from their mother for 4h a day between postnatal days 2 and 21, while the other half remained with their mother in the animal facilities and were exposed to minimal handling. At postnatal day 25 (P25; juvenility), rats underwent a social interaction test with an age and sex matched conspecific. Distance from conspecific, approach and avoidance behaviors, nose-to-nose contacts, and general locomotion were measured. Rats were euthanized at postnatal day 40 (P40; adolescence), and randomly selected infralimbic pyramidal neurons were filled with Lucifer yellow using iontophoretic microinjections, imaged in 3D, and then analyzed for dendritic arborization, spine density, and spine morphology. Early-life stress increased the latency to make nose-to-nose contact at P25 in females but not males. At P40, early-life stress increased infralimbic apical dendritic branch number and length and decreased thin spine density in stressed female rats. These results indicate that MS during the postnatal period influenced juvenile social behavior and mPFC dendritic arborization in a sex-specific manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The sex of specific neurons controls female body growth in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawala, Annick; Gould, Alex P

    2017-10-01

    Sexual dimorphisms in body size are widespread throughout the animal kingdom but their underlying mechanisms are not well characterized. Most models for how sex chromosome genes specify size dimorphism have emphasized the importance of gonadal hormones and cell-autonomous influences in mammals versus strictly cell-autonomous mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we use tissue-specific genetics to investigate how sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is established in Drosophila. We find that the larger body size characteristic of Drosophila females is established very early in larval development via an increase in the growth rate per unit of body mass. We demonstrate that the female sex determination gene, Sex-lethal (Sxl), functions in central nervous system (CNS) neurons as part of a relay that specifies the early sex-specific growth trajectories of larval but not imaginal tissues. Neuronal Sxl acts additively in 2 neuronal subpopulations, one of which corresponds to 7 median neurosecretory cells: the insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Surprisingly, however, male-female differences in the production of insulin-like peptides (Ilps) from the IPCs do not appear to be involved in establishing SSD in early larvae, although they may play a later role. These findings support a relay model in which Sxl in neurons and Sxl in local tissues act together to specify the female-specific growth of the larval body. They also reveal that, even though the sex determination pathways in Drosophila and mammals are different, they both modulate body growth via a combination of tissue-autonomous and nonautonomous inputs.

  11. Sex-specific genetic diversity is shaped by cultural factors in Inner Asian human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Nina; Hegay, Tatyana; Mennecier, Philippe; Georges, Myriam; Laurent, Romain; Whitten, Mark; Endicott, Philipp; Aldashev, Almaz; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Nasyrova, Firuza; Chichlo, Boris; Ségurel, Laure; Heyer, Evelyne

    2017-04-01

    Sex-specific genetic structures have been previously documented worldwide in humans, even though causal factors have not always clearly been identified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ethnicity, geography and social organization on the sex-specific genetic structure in Inner Asia. Furthermore, we explored the process of ethnogenesis in multiple ethnic groups. We sampled DNA in Central and Northern Asia from 39 populations of Indo-Iranian and Turkic-Mongolic native speakers. We focused on genetic data of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. First, we compared the frequencies of haplogroups to South European and East Asian populations. Then, we investigated the genetic differentiation for eight Y-STRs and the HVS1 region, and tested for the effect of geography and ethnicity on such patterns. Finally, we reconstructed the male demographic history, inferred split times and effective population sizes of different ethnic groups. Based on the haplogroup data, we observed that the Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-Mongolic-speaking populations have distinct genetic backgrounds. However, each population showed consistent mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups patterns. As expected in patrilocal populations, we found that the Y-STRs were more structured than the HVS1. While ethnicity strongly influenced the genetic diversity on the Y chromosome, geography better explained that of the mtDNA. Furthermore, when looking at various ethnic groups, we systematically found a genetic split time older than historical records, suggesting a cultural rather than biological process of ethnogenesis. This study highlights that, in Inner Asia, specific cultural behaviors, especially patrilineality and patrilocality, leave a detectable signature on the sex-specific genetic structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of biological sex on the pathophysiology of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Loubina; Azibani, Feriel; Vodovar, Nicolas; Cohen Solal, Alain; Delcayre, Claude; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2014-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death in men and women in industrialized countries. While the effects of biological sex on cardiovascular pathophysiology have long been known, the sex-specific mechanisms mediating these processes have been further elucidated over recent years. This review aims at analysing the sex-based differences in cardiac structure and function in adult mammals, and the sex-based differences in the main molecular mechanisms involved in the response of the heart to pathological situations. It emerged from this review that the sex-based difference is a variable that should be dealt with, not only in basic science or clinical research, but also with regards to therapeutic approaches. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Issue 3. Sex-specific asymmetry in eye development in interspecific hybrids in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Bashisth N. Singh Parul Banerjee. Research Note Volume 94 Issue 3 September 2015 pp 493-495 ...

  14. Sex-specific effects of altered competition on nestling growth and survival : an experimental manipulation of brood size and sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Wright, Jonathan

    An increase of competition among adults or nestlings usually negatively affects breeding output. Yet little is known about the differential effects that competition has on the offspring sexes. This could be important because it may influence parental reproductive decisions. In sexual size dimorphic

  15. Sexual Orientation, Drug Use Preference during Sex, and HIV Risk Practices and Preferences among Men Who Specifically Seek Unprotected Sex Partners via the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study entailed conducting a content analysis of 1,434 ads/profiles posted on one of the most popular “Men who have Sex with Men” (MSM websites that specifically fosters unprotected sex. Ads/profiles were selected randomly based on the American ZIP code of residence (n = 1,316, with a randomly-drawn oversampling of profiles of men who self-identified as heterosexual or ���curious” rather than gay or bisexual (n = 118. Data were collected between September 2006 and September 2007. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the conjoint effects of self-identified sexual orientation and preference for having/not having sex while high, on men’s sought-after sexual risk. Analytical comparisons of the four groups showed that, on most measures, the combination of sexual orientation and drug use preference during sex differentiated the men. Generally speaking, gay/bisexual men who advertised online for partners with whom they could have sex while high expressed the greatest interest in risky sexual behaviors (e.g., felching, unprotected oral sex, unprotected anal sex and various risk-related preferences (e.g., multiple partner sex, anonymous sex, eroticizing ejaculatory fluids. This is especially true when they are compared to their heterosexual/“curious” counterparts whose online profiles were not as likely to indicate a desire for having sex while high.

  16. Measuring the genetic influence on human life span: gene-environment interaction and sex-specific genetic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; De Benedictis, G; Yashin, Annatoli

    2001-01-01

    New approaches are needed to explore the different ways in which genes affect the human life span. One needs to assess the genetic effects themselves, as well as gene–environment interactions and sex dependency. In this paper, we present a new model that combines both genotypic and demographicinf......New approaches are needed to explore the different ways in which genes affect the human life span. One needs to assess the genetic effects themselves, as well as gene–environment interactions and sex dependency. In this paper, we present a new model that combines both genotypic...

  17. Sex-Specific Response to Stress in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya V. Melnikova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Populus is an effective model for genetic studies in trees. The genus Populus includes dioecious species, and the differences exhibited in males and females have been intensively studied. This review focused on the distinctions between male and female poplar and aspen plants under stress conditions, such as drought, salinity, heavy metals, and nutrient deficiency on morphological, physiological, proteome, and gene expression levels. In most studies, males of Populus species were more adaptive to the majority of the stress conditions and showed less damage, better growth, and higher photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant activity than that of the females. However, in two recent studies, no differences in non-reproductive traits were revealed for male and female trees. This discrepancy of the results could be associated with experimental design: different species and genotypes, stress conditions, types of plant materials, sampling sizes. Knowledge of sex-specific differences is crucial for basic and applied research in Populus species.

  18. Sex-specific modulation of juvenile social play behavior by vasopressin and oxytocin depends on social context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredewold, Remco; Smith, Caroline J. W.; Dumais, Kelly M.; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that vasopressin (AVP) in the lateral septum modulates social play behavior differently in male and female juvenile rats. However, the extent to which different social contexts (i.e., exposure to an unfamiliar play partner in different environments) affect the regulation of social play remains largely unknown. Given that AVP and the closely related neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) modulate social behavior as well as anxiety-like behavior, we hypothesized that these neuropeptides may regulate social play behavior differently in novel (novel cage) as opposed to familiar (home cage) social environments. Administration of the specific AVP V1a receptor (V1aR) antagonist (CH2)5Tyr(Me2)AVP into the lateral septum enhanced home cage social play behavior in males but reduced it in females, confirming our previous findings. These effects were context-specific because V1aR blockade did not alter novel cage social play behavior in either sex. Furthermore, social play in females was reduced by AVP in the novel cage and by OXT in the home cage. Additionally, females administered the specific OXT receptor antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5−[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4]OVT showed less social play in the novel as compared to the home cage. AVP enhanced anxiety-related behavior in males (tested on the elevated plus-maze), but failed to do so in females, suggesting that exogenous AVP alters social play and anxiety-related behavior via distinct and sex-specific mechanisms. Moreover, none of the other drug treatments that altered social play had an effect on anxiety, suggesting that these drug-induced behavioral alterations are relatively specific to social behavior. Overall, we showed that AVP and OXT systems in the lateral septum modulate social play in juvenile rats in neuropeptide-, sex- and social context-specific ways. These findings underscore the importance of considering not only sex, but also social context, in how AVP and OXT modulate social behavior. PMID:24982623

  19. Sex-specific modulation of juvenile social play behavior by vasopressin and oxytocin depends on social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco eBredewold

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that vasopressin (AVP in the lateral septum modulates social play behavior differently in male and female juvenile rats. However, the extent to which different social contexts (i.e., exposure to an unfamiliar play partner in different environments affect the regulation of social play remains largely unknown. Given that AVP and the closely related neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT modulate social behavior as well as anxiety-like behavior, we hypothesized that these neuropeptides may regulate social play behavior differently in novel (novel cage as opposed to familiar (home cage social environments. Administration of the specific AVP V1a receptor (V1aR antagonist (CH25Tyr(Me2AVP into the lateral septum enhanced home cage social play behavior in males but reduced it in females, confirming our previous findings. These effects were context-specific because V1aR blockade did not alter novel cage social play behavior in either sex. Furthermore, social play in females was reduced by AVP in the novel cage and by OXT in the home cage. Additionally, females administered the specific OXT receptor antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH25-[Tyr(Me2,Thr4]OVT showed less social play in the novel as compared to the home cage. AVP enhanced anxiety-related behavior in males (tested on the elevated plus-maze, but failed to do so in females, suggesting that exogenous AVP alters social play and anxiety-related behavior via distinct and sex-specific mechanisms. Moreover, none of the other drug treatments that altered social play had an effect on anxiety, suggesting that these drug-induced behavioral alterations are relatively specific to social behavior. Overall, we showed that AVP and OXT systems in the lateral septum modulate social play in juvenile rats in neuropeptide-, sex- and social context-specific ways. These findings underscore the importance of considering not only sex, but also social context, in how AVP and OXT modulate social behavior.

  20. Sex-Specificity of Mineralocorticoid Target Gene Expression during Renal Development, and Long-Term Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumeige, Laurence; Storey, Caroline; Decourtye, Lyvianne; Nehlich, Melanie; Lhadj, Christophe; Viengchareun, Say; Kappeler, Laurent; Lombès, Marc; Martinerie, Laetitia

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences have been identified in various biological processes, including hypertension. The mineralocorticoid signaling pathway is an important contributor to early arterial hypertension, however its sex-specific expression has been scarcely studied, particularly with respect to the kidney. Basal systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in adult male and female mice. Renal gene expression studies of major players of mineralocorticoid signaling were performed at different developmental stages in male and female mice using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and were compared to those of the same genes in the lung, another mineralocorticoid epithelial target tissue that regulates ion exchange and electrolyte balance. The role of sex hormones in the regulation of these genes was also investigated in differentiated KC3AC1 renal cells. Additionally, renal expression of the 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2) protein, a regulator of mineralocorticoid specificity, was measured by immunoblotting and its activity was indirectly assessed in the plasma using liquid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem (LC-MSMS) method. SBP and HR were found to be significantly lower in females compared to males. This was accompanied by a sex- and tissue-specific expression profile throughout renal development of the mineralocorticoid target genes serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (Sgk1) and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein (Gilz), together with Hsd11b2, Finally, the implication of sex hormones in this sex-specific expression profile was demonstrated in vitro, most notably for Gilz mRNA expression. We demonstrate a tissue-specific, sex-dependent and developmentally-regulated pattern of expression of the mineralocorticoid pathway that could have important implications in physiology and pathology. PMID:28230786

  1. Contact networks structured by sex underpin sex-specific epidemiology of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Matthew J; Weber, Nicola L; Steward, Lucy C; Hodgson, David J; Boots, Mike; Croft, Darren P; Delahay, Richard J; McDonald, Robbie A

    2018-02-01

    Contact networks are fundamental to the transmission of infection and host sex often affects the acquisition and progression of infection. However, the epidemiological impacts of sex-related variation in animal contact networks have rarely been investigated. We test the hypothesis that sex-biases in infection are related to variation in multilayer contact networks structured by sex in a population of European badgers Meles meles naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Our key results are that male-male and between-sex networks are structured at broader spatial scales than female-female networks and that in male-male and between-sex contact networks, but not female-female networks, there is a significant relationship between infection and contacts with individuals in other groups. These sex differences in social behaviour may underpin male-biased acquisition of infection and may result in males being responsible for more between-group transmission. This highlights the importance of sex-related variation in host behaviour when managing animal diseases. © 2017 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Analysis of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, A; Seil, R; Urhausen, A; Croisier, J L; Lair, M L; Theisen, D

    2009-12-01

    This study analyzed sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young athletes (n=256) from 12 sport disciplines practicing at the national or the international level in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Injury occurrence as a result of sport practice was analyzed retrospectively over the year 2006 using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Overall incidence was not different between girls and boys (1.20 and 1.21 injuries/1000 athlete-hours, respectively), but in the context of team sport competition girls tended to be at a greater risk (rate ratio 2.05, P=0.053). Girls had a higher proportion of injuries in the ankle/foot region compared with boys (34.8% vs 16.8%). No sex-related differences were found regarding injury severity. Multivariate logistic regression (controlling for age and practice volume) revealed that girls' team sports were associated with a greater injury risk compared with individual sports [odds ratio (OR) of 4.76], while in boys this was observed for racket sports (OR=3.31). Furthermore, physical or emotional stress tended to be a specific risk factor in girls. There was a tendency for injury outside sports to be coupled to a higher injury risk in girls and boys. Consideration of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors could be of importance for effective injury prevention.

  3. Sociocultural behavior, sex-biased admixture, and effective population sizes in Central African Pygmies and non-Pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Paul; Becker, Noémie S A; Froment, Alain; Georges, Myriam; Grugni, Viola; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Sociocultural phenomena, such as exogamy or phylopatry, can largely determine human sex-specific demography. In Central Africa, diverging patterns of sex-specific genetic variation have been observed between mobile hunter-gatherer Pygmies and sedentary agricultural non-Pygmies. However, their sex-specific demography remains largely unknown. Using population genetics and approximate Bayesian computation approaches, we inferred male and female effective population sizes, sex-specific migration, and admixture rates in 23 Central African Pygmy and non-Pygmy populations, genotyped for autosomal, X-linked, Y-linked, and mitochondrial markers. We found much larger effective population sizes and migration rates among non-Pygmy populations than among Pygmies, in agreement with the recent expansions and migrations of non-Pygmies and, conversely, the isolation and stationary demography of Pygmy groups. We found larger effective sizes and migration rates for males than for females for Pygmies, and vice versa for non-Pygmies. Thus, although most Pygmy populations have patrilocal customs, their sex-specific genetic patterns resemble those of matrilocal populations. In fact, our results are consistent with a lower prevalence of polygyny and patrilocality in Pygmies compared with non-Pygmies and a potential female transmission of reproductive success in Pygmies. Finally, Pygmy populations showed variable admixture levels with the non-Pygmies, with often much larger introgression from male than from female lineages. Social discrimination against Pygmies triggering complex movements of spouses in intermarriages can explain these male-biased admixture patterns in a patrilocal context. We show how gender-related sociocultural phenomena can determine highly variable sex-specific demography among populations, and how population genetic approaches contrasting chromosomal types allow inferring detailed human sex-specific demographic history.

  4. Sex-specific effects of low-dose gestational estradiol-17β exposure on bone development in porcine offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flöter, Veronika L.; Galateanu, Gabriela; Fürst, Rainer W.; Seidlová-Wuttke, Dana; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Möstl, Erich; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sex-specific effects and non-monotonic dose responses were demonstrated after low-dose in utero E2 treatment in offspring. • Alterations in bone parameters were found in prepubertal male but not female offspring. • In postpubertal female offspring, cortical and total cross-sectional area were higher at the femoral midpoint. • In utero E2 treatment did neither significantly affect hormone concentrations nor puberty onset in offspring. • The results substantiate the high sensitivity of developing organisms to exogenous estrogens. - Abstract: Estrogens are important for the bone development and health. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during the early development has been shown to affect the bone phenotype later in life. Several studies have been performed in rodents, while in larger animals that are important to bridge the gap to humans there is a paucity of data. To this end, the pig as large animal model was used in the present study to assess the influence of gestational estradiol-17β (E2) exposure on the bone development of the prepubertal and adult offspring. Two low doses (0.05 and 10 μg E2/kg body weight) referring to the ‘acceptable daily intake’ (ADI) and the ‘no observed effect level’ (NOEL) as stated for humans, and a high-dose (1000 μg E2/kg body weight), respectively, were fed to the sows every day from insemination until delivery. In the male prepubertal offspring, the ADI dose group had a lower strength strain index (p = 0.002) at the proximal tibia compared to controls, which was determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Prepubertal females were not significantly affected. However, there was a higher cortical cross-sectional area (CSA) (p = 0.03) and total CSA (p = 0.02) at the femur midpoint in the adult female offspring of the NOEL dose group as measured by computed tomography. These effects were independent from plasma hormone concentrations (leptin, IGF1, estrogens), which remained

  5. Evolution of Sex Differences in Trait- and Age-Specific Vulnerabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C

    2016-11-01

    Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice generally have a heightened sensitivity to stressors. They have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and nutritional and social stressors, and they are compromised by exposure to man-made toxins. Although these traits can differ from one species or sex to the next, an understanding of the dynamics of competition and choice can in theory be used to generate a priori predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species. I provide a review of these dynamics and illustrate associated vulnerabilities in nonhuman species. The age- and sex-specific vulnerability of such traits is then illustrated for stressor-related disruptions of boys' and girls' physical growth and play behavior, as well as for aspects of boys' and girls' and men's and women's personality, language, and spatial abilities. There is much that remains to be determined, but enough is now known to reframe trait sensitivity in ways that will allow scientists and practitioners to better identify and understand vulnerable human traits, and eventually ameliorate or prevent their expression. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Sex matters: The effects of biological sex on adipose tissue biology and energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa G. Valencak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a complex and multi-faceted organ. It responds dynamically to internal and external stimuli, depending on the developmental stage and activity of the organism. The most common functional subunits of adipose tissue, white and brown adipocytes, regulate and respond to endocrine processes, which then determine metabolic rate as well as adipose tissue functions. While the molecular aspects of white and brown adipose biology have become clearer in the recent past, much less is known about sex-specific differences in regulation and deposition of adipose tissue, and the specific role of the so-called pink adipocytes during lactation in females. This review summarises the current understanding of adipose tissue dynamics with a focus on sex-specific differences in adipose tissue energy metabolism and endocrine functions, focussing on mammalian model organisms as well as human-derived data. In females, pink adipocytes trans-differentiate during pregnancy from subcutaneous white adipocytes and are responsible for milk-secretion in mammary glands. Overlooking biological sex variation may ultimately hamper clinical treatments of many aspects of metabolic disorders. Keywords: Body fatness, Adipose tissue, Sex-specific differences, Adipokines, Adipocytes, Obesity, Energy metabolism

  7. Pre- and postnatal stress and asthma in children: Temporal- and sex-specific associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Rosa, Maria José; Jara, Calvin; Wright, Robert O.; Coull, Brent A.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Temporal- and sex-specific effects of perinatal stress have not been examined for childhood asthma. OBJECTIVES We examined associations between pre- and/or postnatal stress and children's asthma (n=765) and effect modification by sex in a prospective cohort study. METHODS Maternal negative life events (NLEs) were ascertained prenatally and postpartum. NLEs scores were categorized as 0, 1-2, 3-4, or ≥5 to assess exposure-response relationships. We examined effects of pre- and postnatal stress on children's asthma by age 6 years modeling each as independent predictors; mutually adjusting for prenatal and postnatal stress; and finally considering interactions between pre- and postnatal stress. Effect modification by sex was examined in stratified analyses and by fitting interaction terms. RESULTS When considering stress in each period independently, among boys a dose-response relationship was evident for each level increase on the ordinal scale prenatally (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.06, 1.79; p-for-trend=0.03) and postnatally (OR=1.53, 95% CI 1.16, 2.01; p-for-trend=0.001); among girls only the postnatal trend was significant (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.14, 2.22; p-for-trend=0.005). Higher stress in both the pre- and postnatal periods was associated with increased odds of being diagnosed with asthma in girls [OR=1.37, 95% CI 0.98, 1.91 (pinteraction=0.07)] but not boys [OR=1.08, 95% CI 0.82, 1.42 (pinteraction=0.61)]. CONCLUSIONS While boys were more vulnerable to stress during the prenatal period, girls were more impacted by postnatal stress and cumulative stress across both periods in relation to asthma. Understanding sex and temporal differences in response to early life stress may provide unique insight into asthma etiology and natural history. PMID:26953156

  8. Sex-specific substance abuse treatment for female healthcare professionals: implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Erin; Brand, Michael; Rojas, Julio; Li, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Gender plays a significant role in the development and treatment of substance abuse disorders. Sex-specific treatment for girls and women has recurrently proven more effective, with better outcomes than traditional treatment. Research on impaired healthcare professionals (HCPs) has largely focused on men, garnering little attention for women and sex differences. With the increasing numbers of female HCPs, it is imperative to identify potential sex differences that may have implications for treatment. Our study compared a convenience sample of male and female HCPs with substance abuse disorders treated in an outpatient program to identify sex differences that may have implications for treatment. Our sample consisted of 96 HCPs (54 men, 42 women) and 17 non-healthcare professional (N-HCP) women. All of the participants were evaluated using the program's clinical interview and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Chart review data contained categorical variables, qualitative variables, diagnoses, and psychological test scores. A second analysis was conducted through two separate comparisons: the PAI results of comparing impaired female HCPs with impaired male HCPs and the PAI results of comparing impaired female HCPs with impaired female N-HCPs. Statistically significant differences indicated more male participants received prior treatment and more intensive treatment than female participants. More female subjects reported being diagnosed as having a comorbid psychiatric condition and taking psychotropic medications. Several statistically significant differences in the PAI scores were found. Among female HCPs, elevations were found in anxiety, depression, paranoia, and borderline personality disorder. Substantive differences, although not statistically significant, were elevations in somatic complaints and anxiety disorders in female HCPs. In the comparison of female HCPs and N-HCPs, the only statistically significant difference was the significantly higher

  9. Sex-Specific Arrival Times on the Breeding Grounds: Hybridizing Migratory Skuas Provide Empirical Support for the Role of Sex Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovski, Simeon; Fröhlich, Anne; von Tersch, Matthew; Klaassen, Marcel; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Ritz, Markus S

    2016-04-01

    In migratory animals, protandry (earlier arrival of males on the breeding grounds) prevails over protogyny (females preceding males). In theory, sex differences in timing of arrival should be driven by the operational sex ratio, shifting toward protogyny in female-biased populations. However, empirical support for this hypothesis is, to date, lacking. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed arrival data from three populations of the long-distance migratory south polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki). These populations differed in their operational sex ratio caused by the unidirectional hybridization of male south polar skuas with female brown skuas (Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi). We found that arrival times were protandrous in allopatry, shifting toward protogyny in female-biased populations when breeding in sympatry. This unique observation is consistent with theoretical predictions that sex-specific arrival times should be influenced by sex ratio and that protogyny should be observed in populations with female-biased operational sex ratio.

  10. Sex-specific responses of Populus yunnanensis exposed to elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling Li; Yuanbin Zhang; Chunyang Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences. Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chengdu (Switzerland); Jianxun Luo, Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu (Switzerland)); Korpelainen, H. [Univ. of Helsinki. Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    Populus yunnanensis Dode., a native dioecious woody plant in southwestern China, was employed as a model species to study sex-specific morphological, physiological and biochemical responses to elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity. To investigate the effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, salinity and their combination, the cuttings were exposed to two CO{sub 2} regimes (ambient CO{sub 2} and double ambient CO{sub 2}) and two salt treatments in growth chambers. Males exhibited greater downregulation of net photosynthesis rate (A{sub net}) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) than females at elevated CO{sub 2}, whereas these sexual differences were lessened under salt stress. On the other hand, salinity induced a higher decrease in Anet and CE, more growth inhibition and leaf Cl{sup -} accumulation and more damage to cell organelles in females than in males, whereas the sexual differences in photosynthesis and growth were lessened at elevated CO{sub 2}. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} exacerbated membrane lipid peroxidation and organelle damage in females but not in males under salt stress. Our results indicated that: (1) females are more sensitive and suffer from greater negative effects than do males under salt stress, and elevated CO{sub 2} lessens the sexual differences in photosynthesis and growth under salt stress; (2) elevated CO{sub 2} tends to aggravate the negative effects of salinity in females; and (3) sex-specific reactions under the combination of elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity are distinct from single-stress responses. Therefore, these results provide evidence for different adaptive responses between plants of different sexes exposed to elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity. (Author)

  11. Sex-specific respiratory effects of acute and chronic caffeine administration in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchi, Hayet; Uppari, NagaPraveena; Joseph, Vincent; Bairam, Aida

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine is widely used for the treatment of apnea of prematurity (AoP) but whether this effect varies with sex is unknown. To shed some light on this question, we present a summary of data obtained on the effects of caffeine on the respiratory chemoreflexes and apnea frequency in 1- and 12-days old male and female rats. Caffeine was either administered as a single acute injection (10mg/kg, i.p.) or for 10 consecutive days (7.5mg/kg/day between 3 and 12days of life by gavage, simulating its clinical use). Acute caffeine had little effects on breathing in 1-day old male and female rats. In 12-days old female rats caffeine reduced the response to hypercapnia (not hypoxia) compared to males. During the steady state of hypoxia females had a lower frequency of apneas than males, and acute injection of caffeine decreased the frequency of apnea, suppressing the differences between males and females. In 12-days old rats chronic administration of caffeine stimulated basal breathing and decreased the frequency of apnea similarly in males and females. In response to hypoxia, chronic caffeine administration also masked the difference in respiratory frequency between males and females observed in control rats. Female rats had lower frequency of apnea than males with or without caffeine treatment. These observations indicate that sex influences the respiratory responses to caffeine and this effect seems to depend on the modality of administration (acute vs chronic) and environmental oxygen (normoxia vs hypoxia). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A sex-specific metabolite identified in a marine invertebrate utilizing phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Kleps

    Full Text Available Hormone level differences are generally accepted as the primary cause for sexual dimorphism in animal and human development. Levels of low molecular weight metabolites also differ between men and women in circulating amino acids, lipids and carbohydrates and within brain tissue. While investigating the metabolism of blue crab tissues using Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, we discovered that only the male blue crab (Callinectes sapidus contained a phosphorus compound with a chemical shift well separated from the expected phosphate compounds. Spectra obtained from male gills were readily differentiated from female gill spectra. Analysis from six years of data from male and female crabs documented that the sex-specificity of this metabolite was normal for this species. Microscopic analysis of male and female gills found no differences in their gill anatomy or the presence of parasites or bacteria that might produce this phosphorus compound. Analysis of a rare gynandromorph blue crab (laterally, half male and half female proved that this sex-specificity was an intrinsic biochemical process and was not caused by any variations in the diet or habitat of male versus female crabs. The existence of a sex-specific metabolite is a previously unrecognized, but potentially significant biochemical phenomenon. An entire enzyme system has been synthesized and activated only in one sex. Unless blue crabs are a unique species, sex-specific metabolites are likely to be present in other animals. Would the presence or absence of a sex-specific metabolite affect an animal's development, anatomy and biochemistry?

  13. A conceptual muddle: an empirical analysis of the use of 'sex' and 'gender' in 'gender-specific medicine' journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hammarström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At the same time as there is increasing awareness in medicine of the risks of exaggerating differences between men and women, there is a growing professional movement of 'gender-specific medicine' which is directed towards analysing 'sex' and 'gender' differences. The aim of this article is to empirically explore how the concepts of 'sex' and 'gender' are used in the new field of 'gender-specific medicine', as reflected in two medical journals which are foundational to this relatively new field. METHOD AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data consist of all articles from the first issue of each journal in 2004 and an issue published three years later (n = 43. In addition, all editorials over this period were included (n = 61. Quantitative and qualitative content analyses were undertaken by the authors. Less than half of the 104 papers used the concepts of 'sex' and 'gender'. Less than 1 in 10 papers attempted any definition of the concepts. Overall, the given definitions were simple, unspecific and created dualisms between men and women. Almost all papers which used the two concepts did so interchangeably, with any possible interplay between 'sex' and gender' referred to only in six of the papers. CONCLUSION: The use of the concepts of 'sex' and gender' in 'gender-specific medicine' is conceptually muddled. The simple, dualistic and individualised use of these concepts increases the risk of essentialism and reductivist thinking. It therefore highlights the need to clarify the use of the terms 'sex' and 'gender' in medical research and to develop more effective ways of conceptualising the interplay between 'sex' and 'gender' in relation to different diseases.

  14. Sex-specific kleptoparasitic foraging in ant-eating spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martisová, Martina; Bilde, T.; Pekar, Stano

    2009-01-01

    . To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the effect of sex and life history stage on the frequency of kleptoparasitism in ant-eating spiders of the genus Zodarion in the field. These spiders use a special capture technique involving a quick attack on an ant that is left unguarded by spiders for several minutes......, providing ample opportunities for kleptoparasitism. We found that adult females consistently hunted actively, while adult males ceased active prey capture and instead engaged in kleptoparasitism. Juvenile spiders were active hunters irrespective of sex. Consistent with an ontogenetic shift in foraging...

  15. Sex-specific metabolic interactions between liver and adipose tissue in MCD diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Sou Hyun; Kim, Sang-Nam; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Oh, Ji Youn; Jung, Young-Suk

    2016-07-26

    Higher susceptibility to metabolic disease in male exemplifies the importance of sexual dimorphism in pathogenesis. We hypothesized that the higher incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in males involves sex-specific metabolic interactions between liver and adipose tissue. In the present study, we used a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced fatty liver mouse model to investigate sex differences in the metabolic response of the liver and adipose tissue. After 2 weeks on an MCD-diet, fatty liver was induced in a sex-specific manner, affecting male mice more severely than females. The MCD-diet increased lipolytic enzymes in the gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) of male mice, whereas it increased expression of uncoupling protein 1 and other brown adipocyte markers in the gWAT of female mice. Moreover, gWAT from female mice demonstrated higher levels of oxygen consumption and mitochondrial content compared to gWAT from male mice. FGF21 expression was increased in liver tissue by the MCD diet, and the degree of upregulation was significantly higher in the livers of female mice. The endocrine effect of FGF21 was responsible, in part, for the sex-specific browning of gonadal white adipose tissue. Collectively, these data demonstrated that distinctively female-specific browning of white adipose tissue aids in protecting female mice against MCD diet-induced fatty liver disease.

  16. Genes, Environments, and Sex Differences in Alcohol Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Cho, Seung Bin; Dick, Danielle M

    2017-07-01

    The study of sex differences has been identified as one way to enhance scientific reproducibility, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have implemented a new policy to encourage the explicit examination of sex differences. Our goal here is to address sex differences in behavioral genetic research on alcohol outcomes. We review sex differences for alcohol outcomes and whether the source and magnitude of genetic influences on alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are the same across sexes; describe common research designs for studying sex-specific gene-by-environment interaction (G × E) effects; and discuss the role of statistical power and theory when testing sex-specific genetic effects. There are robust sex differences for many alcohol outcomes. The weight of evidence suggests that the source and magnitude of genetic influences on alcohol consumption and AUD are the same across sexes. Whether there are sex-specific G × E effects has received less attention to date. The new NIH policy necessitates a systematic approach for studying sex-specific genetic effects in alcohol research. Researchers are encouraged to report power for tests of these effects and to use theory to develop testable hypotheses, especially for studies of G × E.

  17. Allele-specific marker generation and linkage mapping on the Xiphophorus sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcock, B; Kazianis, S; Lucito, R; Walter, R B; Kallman, K D; Morizot, D C; Vielkind, J R

    2006-01-01

    There is great interest in the sex chromosomes of Xiphophorus fishes because both WY/YY and XX/XY sex-determining mechanisms function in these species, with at least one taxon possessing all three types of sex chromosomes, and because in certain interspecific hybrids melanoma arises as a consequence of inheritance of the sex-linked macromelanophore determining locus (MDL). Representational difference analysis (RDA) has been used to clone two sequences from the sex-determining region of X. maculatus, including a cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, delta polypeptide (CHRND) orthologue. Allele-specific assays for these sequences, as well as for the sex-linked XMRK1 and XMRK2 genes, were developed to distinguish W, X, and Y chromosomes derived from a X. maculatus (XX/XY) strain and a X. helleri (WY/YY) strain. Linkage mapping localized these markers to linkage group (LG) 24. No recombinants were observed between XMRK2 and MDL, confirming a role for XMRK2 in macromelanophore development. Although the master sex-determining (SD) locus certainly resides on Xiphophorus LG 24, autosomal loci are probably involved in sex determination as well, as indicated by the abnormal sex ratios in the backcross hybrids that contrast theoretical predictions based on LG 24 genotyping. Marker development and allelic discrimination on the Xiphophorus sex chromosomes should prove highly useful for studies that utilize this genus as an animal model.

  18. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) leads to left ventricular dysfunction and adverse remodeling: A sex-specific gene profiling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Sun, Xuming; Chou, Jeff; Lin, Marina; Ferrario, Carlos M; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Groban, Leanne

    2017-08-01

    Activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) by its agonist, G1, protects the heart from stressors such as pressure-overload, ischemia, a high-salt diet, estrogen loss, and aging, in various male and female animal models. Due to nonspecific effects of G1, the exact functions of cardiac GPER cannot be concluded from studies using systemic G1 administration. Moreover, global knockdown of GPER affects glucose homeostasis, blood pressure, and many other cardiovascular-related systems, thereby confounding interpretation of its direct cardiac actions. We generated a cardiomyocyte-specific GPER knockout (KO) mouse model to specifically investigate the functions of GPER in cardiomyocytes. Compared to wild type mice, cardiomyocyte-specific GPER KO mice exhibited adverse alterations in cardiac structure and impaired systolic and diastolic function, as measured by echocardiography. Gene deletion effects on left ventricular dimensions were more profound in male KO mice compared to female KO mice. Analysis of DNA microarray data from isolated cardiomyocytes of wild type and KO mice revealed sex-based differences in gene expression profiles affecting multiple transcriptional networks. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) revealed that mitochondrial genes are enriched in GPER KO females, whereas inflammatory response genes are enriched in GPER KO males, compared to their wild type counterparts of the same sex. The cardiomyocyte-specific GPER KO mouse model provides us with a powerful tool to study the functions of GPER in cardiomyocytes. The gene expression profiles of the GPER KO mice provide foundational information for further study of the mechanisms underlying sex-specific cardioprotection by GPER. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional Specificity and Sex Differences in the Neural Circuits Supporting the Inhibition of Automatic Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darda, Kohinoor M; Butler, Emily E; Ramsey, Richard

    2018-06-01

    Humans show an involuntary tendency to copy other people's actions. Although automatic imitation builds rapport and affiliation between individuals, we do not copy actions indiscriminately. Instead, copying behaviors are guided by a selection mechanism, which inhibits some actions and prioritizes others. To date, the neural underpinnings of the inhibition of automatic imitation and differences between the sexes in imitation control are not well understood. Previous studies involved small sample sizes and low statistical power, which produced mixed findings regarding the involvement of domain-general and domain-specific neural architectures. Here, we used data from Experiment 1 ( N = 28) to perform a power analysis to determine the sample size required for Experiment 2 ( N = 50; 80% power). Using independent functional localizers and an analysis pipeline that bolsters sensitivity, during imitation control we show clear engagement of the multiple-demand network (domain-general), but no sensitivity in the theory-of-mind network (domain-specific). Weaker effects were observed with regard to sex differences, suggesting that there are more similarities than differences between the sexes in terms of the neural systems engaged during imitation control. In summary, neurocognitive models of imitation require revision to reflect that the inhibition of imitation relies to a greater extent on a domain-general selection system rather than a domain-specific system that supports social cognition.

  20. Evaluation of the Physiological Challenges in Extreme Environments: Implications for Enhanced Training, Operational Performance and Sex-Specific Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Operational Performance and Sex -Specific Responses PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brent C. Ruby CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The University of Montana Missoula...Implications for Enhanced Training, Operational Performance and Sex -Specific Responses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Evaluation of the physiological challenges in extreme environments: Implications for enhanced training, operational performance and sex -specific

  1. The geography of sex-specific selection, local adaptation, and sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connallon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Local adaptation and sexual dimorphism are iconic evolutionary scenarios of intraspecific adaptive differentiation in the face of gene flow. Although theory has traditionally considered local adaptation and sexual dimorphism as conceptually distinct processes, emerging data suggest that they often act concurrently during evolutionary diversification. Here, I merge theories of local adaptation in space and sex-specific adaptation over time, and show that their confluence yields several new predictions about the roles of context-specific selection, migration, and genetic correlations, in adaptive diversification. I specifically revisit two influential predictions from classical studies of clinal adaptation and sexual dimorphism: (1) that local adaptation should decrease with distance from the species' range center and (2) that opposing directional selection between the sexes (sexual antagonism) should inevitably accompany the evolution of sexual dimorphism. I show that both predictions can break down under clinally varying selection. First, the geography of local adaptation can be sexually dimorphic, with locations of relatively high local adaptation differing profoundly between the sexes. Second, the intensity of sexual antagonism varies across the species' range, with subpopulations near the range center representing hotspots for antagonistic selection. The results highlight the context-dependent roles of migration versus sexual conflict as primary constraints to adaptive diversification. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Gene-specific sex effects on eosinophil infiltration in leishmaniasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slapničková, Martina; Volkova, Valeriya; Čepičková, Marie; Kobets, Tetyana; Šíma, Matyáš; Svobodová, M.; Demant, P.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, podzim (2016), č. článku 59. ISSN 2042-6410 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-30186S; GA ČR GP13-41002P; GA MŠk LH12049; GA ČR GA16-22346S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Leishmania major * Mouse model * Eosinophii infiltration * Genetic control * QTL * Sex influence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.635, year: 2016

  3. Sex-specific mouse liver gene expression: genome-wide analysis of developmental changes from pre-pubertal period to young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conforto Tara L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early liver development and the transcriptional transitions during hepatogenesis are well characterized. However, gene expression changes during the late postnatal/pre-pubertal to young adulthood period are less well understood, especially with regards to sex-specific gene expression. Methods Microarray analysis of male and female mouse liver was carried out at 3, 4, and 8 wk of age to elucidate developmental changes in gene expression from the late postnatal/pre-pubertal period to young adulthood. Results A large number of sex-biased and sex-independent genes showed significant changes during this developmental period. Notably, sex-independent genes involved in cell cycle, chromosome condensation, and DNA replication were down regulated from 3 wk to 8 wk, while genes associated with metal ion binding, ion transport and kinase activity were up regulated. A majority of genes showing sex differential expression in adult liver did not display sex differences prior to puberty, at which time extensive changes in sex-specific gene expression were seen, primarily in males. Thus, in male liver, 76% of male-specific genes were up regulated and 47% of female-specific genes were down regulated from 3 to 8 wk of age, whereas in female liver 67% of sex-specific genes showed no significant change in expression. In both sexes, genes up regulated from 3 to 8 wk were significantly enriched (p p Ihh; female-specific Cdx4, Cux2, Tox, and Trim24 and may contribute to the developmental changes that lead to global acquisition of liver sex-specificity by 8 wk of age. Conclusions Overall, the observed changes in gene expression during postnatal liver development reflect the deceleration of liver growth and the induction of specialized liver functions, with widespread changes in sex-specific gene expression primarily occurring in male liver.

  4. The political economy of urban homicide: assessing the relative impact of gender inequality on sex-specific victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWees, Mari A; Parker, Karen F

    2003-02-01

    This research examines the ways in which the changing political economy of urban areas has contributed differently to the homicide victimization rates of females and males across US cities. Recent research, while relatively limited, has presented disparate results regarding the effect of gender inequality on urban sex-specific victimization. Our work further explores this relationship by taking into account relative gender disparities in income, education, labor market opportunities, and politics in an examination of sex-specific homicide victimization in 1990. Key to this current investigation is the evaluation of feminist and lifestyle arguments that suggest that structural gender inequality has a unique effect on female victimization. Overall, our findings reveal gender inequality to be a significant predictor of both male and female urban homicide. While these findings suggest mixed support for theoretical arguments regarding gender inequality, further analyses reveal significant differences in specific types of gender inequality on victimization patterns across genders. These additional results highlight the need for greater attention toward both methodological and theoretical issues when examining the interconnections between gender, political economy, and violence in research.

  5. GenderMedDB: an interactive database of sex and gender-specific medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Gohlke, Björn-Oliver; Dunkel, Mathias; Preissner, Robert; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Searches for sex and gender-specific publications are complicated by the absence of a specific algorithm within search engines and by the lack of adequate archives to collect the retrieved results. We previously addressed this issue by initiating the first systematic archive of medical literature containing sex and/or gender-specific analyses. This initial collection has now been greatly enlarged and re-organized as a free user-friendly database with multiple functions: GenderMedDB (http://gendermeddb.charite.de). GenderMedDB retrieves the included publications from the PubMed database. Manuscripts containing sex and/or gender-specific analysis are continuously screened and the relevant findings organized systematically into disciplines and diseases. Publications are furthermore classified by research type, subject and participant numbers. More than 11,000 abstracts are currently included in the database, after screening more than 40,000 publications. The main functions of the database include searches by publication data or content analysis based on pre-defined classifications. In addition, registrants are enabled to upload relevant publications, access descriptive publication statistics and interact in an open user forum. Overall, GenderMedDB offers the advantages of a discipline-specific search engine as well as the functions of a participative tool for the gender medicine community.

  6. Sex-specific heritability of spontaneous lipid levels in an extended pedigree of Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Vinson

    Full Text Available The rhesus macaque is an important model for human atherosclerosis but genetic determinants of relevant phenotypes have not yet been investigated in this species. Because lipid levels are well-established and heritable risk factors for human atherosclerosis, our goal was to assess the heritability of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in a single, extended pedigree of 1,289 Indian-origin rhesus macaques. Additionally, because increasing evidence supports sex differences in the genetic architecture of lipid levels and lipid metabolism in humans and macaques, we also explored sex-specific heritability for all lipid measures investigated in this study. Using standard methods, we measured lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels from fasted plasma in a sample of 193 pedigreed rhesus macaques selected for membership in large, paternal half-sib cohorts, and maintained on a low-fat, low cholesterol chow diet. Employing a variance components approach, we found moderate heritability for total cholesterol (h²=0.257, P=0.032, LDL cholesterol (h²=0.252, P=0.030, and triglyceride levels (h²=0.197, P=0.034 in the full sample. However, stratification by sex (N=68 males, N=125 females revealed substantial sex-specific heritability for total cholesterol (0.644, P=0.004, females only, HDL cholesterol (0.843, P=0.0008, females only, VLDL cholesterol (0.482, P=0.018, males only, and triglyceride levels (0.705, P=0.001, males only that was obscured or absent when sexes were combined in the full sample. We conclude that genes contribute to spontaneous variation in circulating lipid levels in the Indian-origin rhesus macaque in a sex-specific manner, and that the rhesus macaque is likely to be a valuable model for sex-specific genetic effects on lipid risk factors for human atherosclerosis. These findings are a first-ever report of heritability for cholesterol levels in this species, and support the need for expanded analysis of these traits in

  7. The effect of fetal sex on customized fetal growth charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Giuseppe; Prefumo, Federico; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Zanardini, Cristina; Di Martino, Daniela; Boito, Simona; Aiello, Elisa; Ghi, Tullio

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of fetal sex on singleton pregnancy growth charts customized for parental characteristics, race, and parity Methods: In a multicentric cross-sectional study, 8070 ultrasonographic examinations from low-risk singleton pregnancies between 16 and 40 weeks of gestation were considered. The fetal measurements obtained were biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length (FL). Quantile regression was used to examine the impact of fetal sex across the biometric percentiles of the fetal measurements considered together with parents' height, weight, parity, and race. Fetal gender resulted to be a significant covariate for BDP, HC, and AC with higher values for male fetuses (p ≤ 0.0009). Minimal differences were found among sexes for FL. Parity, maternal race, paternal height and maternal height, and weight resulted significantly related to the fetal biometric parameters considered independently from fetal gender. In this study, we constructed customized biometric growth charts for fetal sex, parental, and obstetrical characteristics using quantile regression. The use of gender-specific charts offers the advantage to define individualized normal ranges of fetal biometric parameters at each specific centile. This approach may improve the antenatal identification of abnormal fetal growth.

  8. Targeting brain tumor cAMP: the case for sex-specific therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Warrington

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between cyclic adenosine 3’, 5’-monophosphate (cAMP levels and brain tumor biology has been evident for nearly as long as cAMP and its synthetase, adenylate cyclase (ADCY have been known. The importance of the pathway in brain tumorigenesis has been demonstrated in vitro and in multiple animal models. Recently, we provided human validation for a cooperating oncogenic role for cAMP in brain tumorigenesis when we found that SNPs in ADCY8 were correlated with glioma (brain tumor risk in individuals with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. Together, these studies provide a strong rationale for targeting cAMP in brain tumor therapy. However, the cAMP pathway is well known to be sexually dimorphic, and SNPs in ADCY8 affected glioma risk in a sex-specific fashion, elevating the risk for females while protecting males. The cAMP pathway can be targeted at multiple levels in the regulation of its synthesis and degradation. Sex differences in response to drugs that target cAMP regulators indicate that successful targeting of the cAMP pathway for brain tumor patients is likely to require matching specific mechanisms of drug action with patient sex.

  9. Early sex differences are not autism-specific: A Baby Siblings Research Consortium (BSRC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Daniel S; Young, Gregory S; Webb, Sara Jane; Ozonoff, Sally; Bryson, Susan E; Carter, Alice; Carver, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Curtin, Suzanne; Dobkins, Karen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hutman, Ted; Iverson, Jana M; Landa, Rebecca; Nelson, Charles A; Stone, Wendy L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    high-risk children with ASD, but also in high-risk children without ASD and in low-risk children. Sex differences in young children with ASD do not appear to be ASD-specific but instead reflect typically occurring sex differences seen in children without ASD. Results did not support a female protective effect hypothesis.

  10. Human disturbances, habitat characteristics and social environment generate sex-specific responses in vigilance of Mediterranean mouflon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Benoist

    Full Text Available In prey species, vigilance is an important part of the decision making process related to predation risk effects. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms shaping vigilance behavior provides relevant insights on factors influencing individual fitness. We investigated the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on vigilance behavior in Mediterranean mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon×Ovis sp. in a study site spatially and temporally contrasted in human pressures. Both sexes were less vigilant in the wildlife reserve compared to surrounding unprotected areas, except for males during the hunting period. During this period, males tended to be less strictly restricted to the reserve than females what might lead to a pervasive effect of hunting within the protected area, resulting in an increase in male vigilance. It might also be a rutting effect that did not occur in unprotected areas because males vigilance was already maximal in response to human disturbances. In both sexes, yearlings were less vigilant than adults, probably because they traded off vigilance for learning and energy acquisition and/or because they relied on adult experience present in the group. Similarly, non-reproductive females benefited of the vigilance effort provided by reproductive females when belonging to the same group. However, in the absence of reproductive females, non-reproductive females were as vigilant as reproductive females. Increasing group size was only found to reduce vigilance in females (up to 17.5%, not in males. We also showed sex-specific responses to habitat characteristics. Females increased their vigilance when habitat visibility decreased (up to 13.8% whereas males increased their vigilance when feeding on low quality sites, i.e., when concomitant increase in chewing time can be devoted to vigilance with limited costs. Our global approach was able to disentangle the sex-specific sources of variation in mouflon vigilance and stressed the importance of

  11. Together or Separate: Disentangling the Effects of Single-Sex Schooling from the Effects of Single-Sex Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Do Won Kwak; Hyejin Ku

    2013-01-01

    To separately identify the effects of single-sex “schooling†versus single- sex “schools†, we exploit two unusual experiments in South Korea: students are randomly assigned to academic high schools within districts regardless of school types, and some schools changed their types from single-sex to coeducational over time. While the overall effects of attending a single-sex school are positive for both boys and girls, these are driven by the differences in resources between school types...

  12. Effects of age, sex, and university status on life-satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S M; Giannakopoulos, E

    1994-02-01

    Diener, et al.'s 1985 Satisfaction With Life Scale was administered to 1749 adult Australians to examine differences between men and women, university students and nonuniversity students, and among 17- to 22-, 23- to 29-, and 30- to 40-yr.-olds. No significant differences in life-satisfaction emerged in relation to sex or university status, but age showed a significant effect as higher life-satisfaction characterized older subjects. No interactions were found for any combination of the three variables. The results are interpreted in terms of egalitarian sex-role ideologies regarding sex, status-specific criteria in the assessment and conceptualisation of life-satisfaction for university status, and maturity trends in viewing life events concerning age.

  13. Fungal Infection Induces Sex-Specific Transcriptional Changes and Alters Sexual Dimorphism in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklaus Zemp

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism, including differences in morphology, behavior and physiology between females and males, is widespread in animals and plants and is shaped by gene expression differences between the sexes. Such expression differences may also underlie sex-specific responses of hosts to pathogen infections, most notably when pathogens induce partial sex reversal in infected hosts. The genetic changes associated with sex-specific responses to pathogen infections on the one hand, and sexual dimorphism on the other hand, remain poorly understood. The dioecious White Campion (Silene latifolia displays sexual dimorphism in floral traits and infection with the smut fungus Micobrotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces a partial sex reversal in females. We find strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection and reduced sexual dimorphism in infected S. latifolia. This provides a direct link between pathogen-mediated changes in sex-biased gene expression and altered sexual dimorphism in the host. Expression changes following infection affected mainly genes with male-biased expression in healthy plants. In females, these genes were up-regulated, leading to a masculinization of the transcriptome. In contrast, infection in males was associated with down-regulation of these genes, leading to a demasculinization of the transcriptome. To a lesser extent, genes with female-biased expression in healthy plants were also affected in opposite directions in the two sexes. These genes were overall down-regulated in females and up-regulated in males, causing, respectively, a defeminization in infected females and a feminization of the transcriptome in infected males. Our results reveal strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection in a dioecious plant and provide a link between pathogen-induced changes in sex-biased gene expression and sexual dimorphism.

  14. Fungal Infection Induces Sex-Specific Transcriptional Changes and Alters Sexual Dimorphism in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Niklaus; Tavares, Raquel; Widmer, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Sexual dimorphism, including differences in morphology, behavior and physiology between females and males, is widespread in animals and plants and is shaped by gene expression differences between the sexes. Such expression differences may also underlie sex-specific responses of hosts to pathogen infections, most notably when pathogens induce partial sex reversal in infected hosts. The genetic changes associated with sex-specific responses to pathogen infections on the one hand, and sexual dimorphism on the other hand, remain poorly understood. The dioecious White Campion (Silene latifolia) displays sexual dimorphism in floral traits and infection with the smut fungus Micobrotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces a partial sex reversal in females. We find strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection and reduced sexual dimorphism in infected S. latifolia. This provides a direct link between pathogen-mediated changes in sex-biased gene expression and altered sexual dimorphism in the host. Expression changes following infection affected mainly genes with male-biased expression in healthy plants. In females, these genes were up-regulated, leading to a masculinization of the transcriptome. In contrast, infection in males was associated with down-regulation of these genes, leading to a demasculinization of the transcriptome. To a lesser extent, genes with female-biased expression in healthy plants were also affected in opposite directions in the two sexes. These genes were overall down-regulated in females and up-regulated in males, causing, respectively, a defeminization in infected females and a feminization of the transcriptome in infected males. Our results reveal strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection in a dioecious plant and provide a link between pathogen-induced changes in sex-biased gene expression and sexual dimorphism.

  15. Sex-specific biotransformation and detoxification after xenobiotic exposure of primary cultured hepatocytes of European flounder (Platichthys flesus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winzer, Katja; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Köhler, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Sex-specific effects of sublethal concentrations of known effective pro-oxidants such as 100, 200 and 400 muM benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]p), 50 M nitrofurantoin (NF) and 100 muM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on biotransformation pathways were studied in isolated hepatocytes of immature female and male European

  16. Prenatal and postnatal stress and asthma in children: Temporal- and sex-specific associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Rosa, Maria José; Jara, Calvin; Wright, Robert O; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2016-09-01

    Temporal- and sex-specific effects of perinatal stress have not been examined for childhood asthma. We examined associations between prenatal and/or postnatal stress and children's asthma (n = 765) and effect modification by sex in a prospective cohort study. Maternal negative life events were ascertained prenatally and postpartum. Negative life event scores were categorized as 0, 1 to 2, 3 to 4, or 5 or greater to assess exposure-response relationships. We examined effects of prenatal and postnatal stress on children's asthma by age 6 years, modeling each as independent predictors, mutually adjusting for prenatal and postnatal stress, and finally considering interactions between prenatal and postnatal stress. Effect modification by sex was examined in stratified analyses and by fitting interaction terms. When considering stress in each period independently, among boys, a dose-response relationship was evident for each level increase on the ordinal scale prenatally (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.79; P value for trend = .03) and postnatally (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01; P value for trend = .001); among girls, only the postnatal trend was significant (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.14-2.22; P value for trend = .005). Higher stress in both the prenatal and postnatal periods was associated with increased odds of receiving a diagnosis of asthma in girls (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.98-1.91; Pinteraction = .07) but not boys (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.82-1.42; Pinteraction = .61). Although boys were more vulnerable to stress during the prenatal period, girls were more affected by postnatal stress and cumulative stress across both periods in relation to asthma. Understanding sex and temporal differences in response to early-life stress might provide unique insight into the cause and natural history of asthma. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Age and sex-specific relationships between phthalate exposures and obesity in Chinese children at puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Zhang

    Full Text Available To examine the age and sex-specific associations of urine levels of six mono-phthalates with body size and fat distribution in Chinese children at puberty.Four hundred and ninety-three school-aged children (247 boys, 246 girls were recruited. Obesity related anthropometric indices were measured and body fat proportion (BF% was calculated. Spot urine samples were collected and phthalate monoesters were detected by an API 2000 electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS. Associations between phthalate exposure and overweight/obesity measures and their trends were examined by multiple linear regression and Logistic regression analyses, respectively.Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP metabolites and monobutyl phthalate (MBP were found to be the most detectable chemicals. In 8-10 years (yrs group, concentrations of MEHP and MBP were significantly higher in girls than those in boys. However, concentrations of all phthalate monoesters, except for MEP and MEHP, in 11-13 yrs boys were significantly higher than those in girls. After adjusting for confounders including puberty onset, urinary concentrations of MBP and sum of low molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (∑LMP were positively associated with boys' obesity in a concentration-effect manner, while concentrations of MEHP, MEHHP and sum of DEHP metabolites (∑MEHP were negatively associated with girls' obesity. Associations between phthalate exposure levels and BMI z-score changes were age- and sex-specific in school-age children.There are age and sex-specific concentration-effect associations between phthalate exposure and fat distribution in Chinese children. Urinary phthalate levels in 11-13 yrs boys were about 30 percent higher than those in girls, and ∑MEHP levels in younger boys (10 yrs. Associations were positive for MBP and ∑LMP with both BMI z-score and fat distribution in boys >10 years of age, and negative for ∑MEHP with fat distribution in girls <10 years of age.

  18. Sex-specific responses of Populus deltoides to defoliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shuxin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing interest in understanding the differential effects of sexual dimorphism on plant stress responses. However, there is no clear pattern in the responses of the sexes to defoliation. In this study, the effects of different severity of artificial defoliation on biomass production, total nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC concentration, and photosynthetic rate (PN of male and female Populus deltoides were examined. We used half and full defoliation to observe the differences between the sexes in three harvest dates (1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatments. We hypothesized that female and male P. deltoides compared with an undefoliated control would have compensatory growth in response to defoliation treatments. Results showed that half and full defoliation reduced the growth of both sexes. Following half defoliation, root growth was reduced, especially in males, at T2 (4 weeks after defoliation and T3 (8 weeks after defoliation, while males showed an increase in height increment under the half defoliation compared with the nondefoliation treatments. By contrast, females were more negatively affected by defoliation than males in terms of biomass after 8 weeks. One week after defoliation, PN increased significantly in females and males under half defoliation (+30%, +32%, respectively and full defoliation (+58%, +56%, respectively. However, 8 weeks after defoliation, there was little difference in PN between defoliated and undefoliated female cuttings. Increases in stomatal conductance (gs and leaf nitrogen were observed under fully defoliated female and male cuttings. Moreover, males had less NSC concentrations following half defoliation compared with females. Our results indicate that leaf compensatory growth in male cuttings of P. deltoides was maintained by obtaining greater photosynthetic capacity, higher leaf nitrogen, and lower NSC concentration following half and full defoliation. Our results highlight that

  19. Sex influences eQTL effects of SLE and Sjögren's syndrome-associated genetic polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, Magdalena; Ramírez Sepúlveda, Jorge I; James, Tojo; Thorlacius, Gudny Ella; Brauner, Susanna; Gómez-Cabrero, David; Olsson, Tomas; Kockum, Ingrid; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie

    2017-10-25

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) are autoimmune disorders characterized by autoantibodies, dysregulated B cells, and notably high female-to-male incidence ratios. Genome-wide association studies have identified several susceptibility SNPs for both diseases. Many SNPs in the genome are expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), with context-dependent effects. Assuming that sex is a biological context, we investigated whether SLE/pSS SNPs act as eQTLs in B cells and used a disease-targeted approach to understand if they display sex-specific effects. We used genome-wide genotype and gene expression data from primary B cells from 125 males and 162 females. The MatrixEQTL R package was used to identify eQTLs within a genomic window of 2 Mb centered on each of 22 established SLE and/or pSS susceptibility SNPs. To find sex-specific eQTLs, we used a linear model with a SNP * sex interaction term. We found ten SNPs affecting the expression of 16 different genes (FDR rs7574865-INPP1, rs7574865-MYO1B, rs4938573-CD3D, rs11755393-SNRPC, and rs4963128-PHRF1 were novel observations for the immune compartment and B cells. By analyzing the SNP * sex interaction terms, we identified six genes with differentially regulated expression in females compared to males, depending on the genotype of SLE/pSS-associated SNPs: SLC39A8 (BANK1 locus), CD74 (TNIP1 locus), PXK, CTSB (BLK/FAM167A locus), ARCN1 (CXCR5 locus), and DHX9 (NCF2 locus). We identified several unknown sex-specific eQTL effects of SLE/pSS-associated genetic polymorphisms and provide novel insight into how gene-sex interactions may contribute to the sex bias in systemic autoimmune diseases.

  20. Sex-specific phenotypes of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakov, Helena; Engels, Kathrin; Hönes, Georg Sebastian; Strucksberg, Karl-Heinz; Moeller, Lars Christian; Köhrle, Josef; Zwanziger, Denise; Führer, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is more common in the female population, however, the impact of sex on disease characteristics has rarely been addressed. Using a murine model, we asked whether sex has an influence on phenotypes, thyroid hormone status, and thyroid hormone tissue response in hyper- and hypothyroidism. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced in 5-month-old female and male wildtype C57BL/6N mice, by LoI/MMI/ClO4 (-) or T4 i.p. treatment over 7 weeks, and control animals underwent sham treatment (N = 8 animals/sex/treatment). Animals were investigated for impact of sex on body weight, food and water intake, body temperature, heart rate, behaviour (locomotor activity, motor coordination, and strength), liver function, serum thyroid hormone status, and cellular TH effects on gene expression in brown adipose tissue, heart, and liver. Male and female mice showed significant differences in behavioural, functional, metabolic, biochemical, and molecular traits of hyper- and hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism resulted in increased locomotor activity in female mice but decreased muscle strength and motor coordination preferably in male animals. Hypothyroidism led to increased water intake in male but not female mice and significantly higher serum cholesterol in male mice. Natural sex differences in body temperature, body weight gain, food and water intake were preserved under hyperthyroid conditions. In contrast, natural sex differences in heart rate disappeared with TH excess and deprivation. The variations of hyper- or hypothyroid traits of male and female mice were not explained by classical T3/T4 serum state. TH serum concentrations were significantly increased in female mice under hyperthyroidism, but no sex differences were found under eu- or hypothyroid conditions. Interestingly, analysis of expression of TH target genes and TH transporters revealed little sex dependency in heart, while sex differences in target genes were present in liver and brown adipose tissue

  1. Gene co-expression networks in liver and muscle transcriptome reveal sex-specific gene expression in lambs fed with a mix of essential oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabino, Marcella; Carmelo, Victor Adriano Okstoft; Mazzoni, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    the potential of RNA-Sequencing data in order to evaluate the effect of an EO supplementary diet on gene expression in both lamb liver and muscle. Using a treatment and sex interaction model, 13 and 4 differentially expressed genes were identified in liver and muscle respectively. Sex-specific differentially...... on the expression profile of both liver and muscle tissues. We hypothesize that the presence of EOs could have beneficial effects on wellness of male lamb and further analyses are needed to understand the biological mechanisms behind the different effect of EO metabolites based on sex. Using lamb as a model...

  2. Anonymous sex and HIV risk practices among men using the Internet specifically to find male partners for unprotected sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H

    2012-06-01

    To examine the popularity of anonymous sex practices among men using the Internet to find male partners for unprotected sex, and how anonymous sex relates to involvement in other HIV-related risk behaviours, and to investigate the factors associated with engaging in anonymous sex. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with men who used the Internet specifically to find male partners for unprotected sex. Random sampling from 16 websites was used to obtain a national sample. The data reported in this paper were based on quantitative interviews collected with a cross-sectional study design. Between January 2008 and May 2009, confidential telephone interviews lasting approximately 1-2 h were completed with 332 men. Participants were paid $35 for their participation. Most of the men (67.4%) liked anonymous sex, and slightly more than half (51.2%) had engaged in the behaviour during the month prior to interview. Involvement in anonymous sex was associated with greater involvement in a variety of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk practices, such as illegal drug use, number of sex partners, and amount of unprotected sex. Four factors were associated with having vs not having anonymous sex: (1) being HIV positive; (2) answering all of the HIV-related knowledge questions correctly; (3) deriving greater enjoyment from having sex in public places, such as parks, public toilets, or adult book shops; and (4) greater impulsivity. Seven factors were associated with greater vs lesser involvement in anonymous sex among those practising the behaviour: (1) being involved in a relationship with a long-term partner; (2) liking to have sex in public places; (3) using bareback-oriented websites to identify sex partners; (4) greater impulsivity; (5) low level of condom use self-efficacy; (6) greater knowledge about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; and either (7a) severe childhood maltreatment or (7b) Caucasian race. Men in this population often sought

  3. COHORT EFFECTS OF SUICIDE MORTALITY ARE SEX SPECIFIC IN THE RAPIDLY DEVELOPED HONG KONG CHINESE POPULATION, 1976-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Roger Y; Yip, Benjamin H K; Chan, Sandra S M; Wong, Samuel Y S

    2016-06-01

    To examine temporal variations of age, period, and cohort on suicide mortality rate in Hong Kong (HK) from 1976 to 2010, and speculate the macroenvironmental mechanisms of the observed trends. Poisson age-period-cohort modeling was used to delineate the effects of age, period, and cohort on suicide mortality. Analysis by sex was also conducted to examine if gender difference exists for suicidal behaviours. Age-cohort model provides the best fit to the mortality data, implying that the cohort effect is likely to explain more of the contributions to HK's suicide mortality pattern than the period effect. Risk of suicide mortality increases nonlinearly with age and accelerates after age 65-69 for both sexes. Moreover, the cohort effects differ between the sexes-risk of mortality increases continually for men born after 1961, but no change is observed for women since the 1941 cohort. With increased risk of suicide mortality in younger cohorts and the age effect of suicide mortality, we may see future increase in suicide mortality as these younger cohorts age. Further studies are needed to clarify plausible associations between broader sociohistorical changes in the population impacting psychological risk factors and suicidal behaviour to better inform suicide prevention strategies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Response format, magnitude of laterality effects, and sex differences in laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the evidence for the claim that response format might affect the magnitude of laterality effects by means of a meta-analysis. The analysis included the 396 effect sizes drawn from 266 studies retrieved by Voyer (1996) and relevant to the main effect of laterality and sex differences in laterality for verbal and non-verbal tasks in the auditory, tactile, and visual sensory modality. The response format used in specific studies was the only moderator variable of interest in the present analysis, resulting in four broad response categories (oral, written, computer, and pointing). A meta-analysis analogue to ANOVA showed no significant influence of response format on either the main effect of laterality or sex differences in laterality when all sensory modalities were combined. However, when modalities were considered separately, response format affected the main effect of laterality in the visual modality, with a clear advantage for written responses. Further pointed analyses revealed some specific differences among response formats. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the measurement of laterality.

  5. The Effectiveness of the Tupiq Program for Inuit Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lynn A; Hamilton, Ellen; Wilton, Geoff; Cousineau, Colette; Varrette, Steven K

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the Tupiq program, a culturally specific program for Inuit sex offenders that incorporates cognitive behavioural methods with traditional Inuit knowledge and culture led by Inuit healers and facilitators. Outcomes of 61 offenders who participated in the Tupiq program and were released were compared with outcomes of a cohort of 114 released Inuit sex offenders incarcerated during the same time period who had taken alternative sex offender treatment programs, or had not attended any sex offender program. On release, Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of general reoffending and violent reoffending than those in the combined comparison group. The hazard of reoffending for the comparison group was almost twice that of the Tupiq group. Although the sexual reoffending rate for the Tupiq participants was less than half of that of the comparison group, the difference between the two groups was not significant because of reduced statistical power. Survival analysis controlling for covariates confirmed significantly lower rates of general reoffending for the Tupiq group. Further analyses comparing the outcomes of the subgroup of offenders in the comparison group who participated in alternative sex offender treatment programs with those who participated in Tupiq indicated that Tupiq participants had significantly lower rates of both general and sexual reoffending. These positive results for this culturally specific program suggest that similarly designed interventions have a probability of contributing to the reduction of sexual offending within Inuit communities and, potentially, other jurisdictions that work with cultural minority sex offender groups from relatively isolated communities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Early life status epilepticus and stress have distinct and sex-specific effects on learning, subsequent seizure outcomes, including anticonvulsant response to phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ozlem; Moshé, Solomon L; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2015-02-01

    Neonatal status epilepticus (SE) is often associated with adverse cognitive and epilepsy outcomes. We investigate the effects of three episodes of kainic acid-induced SE (3KA-SE) and maternal separation in immature rats on subsequent learning, seizure susceptibility, and consequences, and the anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital, according to sex, type, and age at early life (EL) event. 3KA-SE or maternal separation was induced on postnatal days (PN) 4-6 or 14-16. Rats were tested on Barnes maze (PN16-19), or lithium-pilocarpine SE (PN19) or flurothyl seizures (PN32). The anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg/rat, intraperitoneally) pretreatment were tested on flurothyl seizures. FluoroJadeB staining assessed hippocampal injury. 3KA-SE or separation on PN4-6 caused more transient learning delays in males and did not alter lithium-pilocarpine SE latencies, but aggravated its outcomes in females. Anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital were preserved and potentiated in specific groups depending on sex, type, and age at EL event. Early life 3KA-SE and maternal separation cause more but transient cognitive deficits in males but aggravate the consequences of subsequent lithium-pilocarpine SE in females. In contrast, on flurothyl seizures, EL events showed either beneficial or no effect, depending on gender, type, and age at EL events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingappan, Krithika, E-mail: lingappa@bcm.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I. [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Barrios, Roberto [Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, The Methodist Hospital Physician Organization, 6565 Fannin Street, Suite M227, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Moorthy, Bhagavatula [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO{sub 2} > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F{sub 2} alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure.

  8. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingappan, Krithika; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Barrios, Roberto; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2013-01-01

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO 2 > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2 alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure

  9. Effects of genes, sex, age, and activity on BMC, bone size, and areal and volumetric BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havill, Lorena M; Mahaney, Michael C; L Binkley, Teresa; Specker, Bonny L

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative genetic analyses of bone data for 710 inter-related individuals 8-85 yr of age found high heritability estimates for BMC, bone area, and areal and volumetric BMD that varied across bone sites. Activity levels, especially time in moderate plus vigorous activity, had notable effects on bone. In some cases, these effects were age and sex specific. Genetic and environmental factors play a complex role in determining BMC, bone size, and BMD. This study assessed the heritability of bone measures; characterized the effects of age, sex, and physical activity on bone; and tested for age- and sex-specific bone effects of activity. Measures of bone size and areal and volumetric density (aBMD and vBMD, respectively) were obtained by DXA and pQCT on 710 related individuals (466 women) 8-85 yr of age. Measures of activity included percent time in moderate + vigorous activity (%ModVig), stair flights climbed per day, and miles walked per day. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted to model the effects of activity and covariates on bone outcomes. Accounting for effects of age, sex, and activity levels, genes explained 40-62% of the residual variation in BMC and BMD and 27-75% in bone size (all pBMC and cross-sectional area (CSA) at the 4% radius, but this was not observed among women (sex-by-activity interaction, both p sex-by-activity interaction, p=0.04). High heritability estimates for DXA and pQCT measures varied across bone sites. Percent time spent in moderate to vigorous activity had the most notable effect on bone, and in some cases, this effect was age or sex specific.

  10. Sex moderates the effects of positive and negative affect on clinical pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Traci J; Richards, Jessica M; Finan, Patrick H; Smith, Michael T

    2017-07-01

    Sex differences in clinical pain severity and response to experimental pain are commonly reported, with women generally showing greater vulnerability. Affect, including state (a single rating) and stable (average daily ratings over two weeks) positive affect and negative affect has also been found to impact pain sensitivity and severity, and research suggests that affect may modulate pain differentially as a function of sex. The current study aimed to examine sex as a moderator of the relationships between affect and pain-related outcomes among participants with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). One hundred and seventy-nine participants (59 men) with KOA completed electronic diaries assessing clinical pain, positive affect, and negative affect. A subset of participants (n=120) underwent quantitative sensory testing, from which a single index of central sensitization to pain was derived. We used multiple regression models to test for the interactive effects of sex and affect (positive versus negative and stable versus state) on pain-related outcomes. We used mixed effects models to test for the moderating effects of sex on the relationships between state affect and pain over time. Sex differences in affect and pain were identified, with men reporting significantly higher stable positive affect and lower central sensitization to pain indexed by quantitative sensory testing, as well as marginally lower KOA-specific clinical pain compared to women. Moreover, there was an interaction between stable positive affect and sex on KOA-specific clinical pain and average daily non-specific pain ratings. Post hoc analyses revealed that men showed trends towards an inverse relationship between stable positive affect and pain outcomes, while women showed no relationship between positive affect and pain. There was also a significant interaction between sex and stable negative affect and sex on KOA-specific pain such that men showed a significantly stronger positive relationship between

  11. HUMTRN and EFFECTS: Age and sex specific dosimetric and physiological human population dynamics models for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Wenzel, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    A human simulation model called HUMTRN and a population risk assessment model called EFFECTS were developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory as a major component of the BIOTRAN environmental risk assessment model. HUMTRN simulates growth using dietary and physiological characteristics and kinetics of radionuclides to predict radiation doses to selected organs of both sexes in different age groups. The model called EFFECTS was interfaced with output from HUMTRN to predict cancer risks in a dynamic human population. EFFECTS is based on the National Research Council Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR)-III radiation cancer mortality estimates from the U.S. population mortality and natality estimates for both sexes between the ages of 1 and 70. These models track radiation intake from air, water, and food, calculate uptake in major growing organs, and estimate cancer mortality risks. This report documents the use of an IBM Personal Computer AT to run HUMTRN and EFFECTS. Air, water, and food contaminant concentrations are provided as input to HUMTRN, which then provides input for EFFECTS. The limitations of this approach are also discussed

  12. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%, and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%. The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%, while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively. However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.Keywords: sports injury, sex, anterior cruciate ligament injury, Osgood–Schlatter disease, basketball

  13. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries...... between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. METHODS: We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey...... informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini...

  14. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries...... between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey...... informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini...

  15. Sex differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Willemsen, Gonneke; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2003-01-01

    pairs (including opposite sex pairs) aged 20-29 and 30-39 from eight different twin registries participating in the GenomEUtwin project. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted and sex differences were explored. Variation in BMI was greater for women than for men, and in both sexes was primarily...... explained by additive genetic variance in all countries. Sex differences in the variance components were consistently significant. Results from analyses of opposite sex pairs also showed evidence of sex-specific genetic effects suggesting there may be some differences between men and women in the genetic...... factors that influence variation in BMI. These results encourage the continued search for genes of importance to the body composition and the development of obesity. Furthermore, they suggest that strategies to identify predisposing genes may benefit from taking into account potential sex specific effects....

  16. Sex-specific mediation effect of the right fusiform face area volume on the association between variants in repeat length of AVPR1A RS3 and altruistic behavior in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junping; Qin, Wen; Liu, Feng; Liu, Bing; Zhou, Yuan; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2016-07-01

    Microsatellite variants in the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A) RS3 have been associated with normal social behaviors variation and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in a sex-specific manner. However, neural mechanisms underlying these associations remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that AVPR1A RS3 variants affect altruistic behavior by modulating the gray matter volume (GMV) of specific brain regions in a sex-specific manner. We investigated 278 young healthy adults using the Dictator Game to assess altruistic behavior. All subjects were genotyped and main effect of AVPR1A RS3 repeat polymorphisms and interaction of genotype-by-sex on the GMV were assessed in a voxel-wise manner. We observed that male subjects with relatively short repeats allocated less money to others and exhibited a significantly smaller GMV in the right fusiform face area (FFA) compared with male long homozygotes. In male subjects, the GMV of the right FFA exhibited a significant positive correlation with altruistic behavior. A mixed mediation and moderation analysis further revealed both a significant mediation effect of the GMV of the right FFA on the association between AVPR1A RS3 repeat polymorphisms and allocation sums and a significant moderation effect of sex (only in males) on the mediation effect. Post hoc analysis showed that the GMV of the right FFA was significantly smaller in male subjects carrying allele 426 than in non-426 carriers. These results suggest that the GMV of the right FFA may be a potential mediator whereby the genetic variants in AVPR1A RS3 affect altruistic behavior in healthy male subjects. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2700-2709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sex-specific weight loss mediates sexual size dimorphism in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Testa

    Full Text Available The selective pressures leading to the evolution of Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD have been well studied in many organisms, yet, the underlying developmental mechanisms are poorly understood. By generating a complete growth profile by sex in Drosophila melanogaster, we describe the sex-specific pattern of growth responsible for SSD. Growth rate and critical size for pupariation significantly contributed to adult SSD, whereas duration of growth did not. Surprisingly, SSD at peak larval mass was twice that of the uneclosed adult SSD with weight loss between peak larval mass and pupariation playing an important role in generating the final SSD. Our finding that weight loss is an important regulator of SSD adds additional complexity to our understanding of how body size is regulated in different sexes. Collectively, these data allow for the elucidation of the molecular-genetic mechanisms that generate SSD, an important component of understanding how SSD evolves.

  18. Association Between CNDP1 Genotype and Diabetic Nephropathy Is Sex Specific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooyaart, Antien L.; Zutinic, Ana; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Grootendorst, Diana C.; Kleefstra, Nanne; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Bohringer, Stefan; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Bruijn, Jan Anthonie; Navis, Gerjan; Janssen, Bart; Baelde, Hans J.; De Heer, Emile

    OBJECTIVE-The 5-5 homozygous CNDP1 (carnosinase) genotype is associated with a reduced risk of diabetic nephropathy. We investigated whether this association is sex specific and independent of susceptibility for type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Three separate groups of 114, 90, and 66

  19. Sex Mediates the Effects of High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on "Mind-Reading".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A K; Huang, J; Hunold, A; Meinzer, M

    2017-12-16

    Sex differences in social cognitive ability are well established, including measures of Theory of Mind (ToM). The aim of this study was to investigate if sex mediates the effects of high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) administered to a key hub of the social brain (i.e., the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dmPFC) on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). Forty healthy young adults (18-35 years) were randomly allocated to receive either anodal or cathodal HD-tDCS in sham HD-tDCS controlled, double blind designs. In each of the two sessions, subjects completed the RMET. Anodal stimulation to the dmPFC increased accuracy on the RMET in females only. To assure regional specificity we performed a follow-up study stimulating the right temporoparietal junction and found no effect in either sex. The current study is the first to show improved performance on the RMET after tDCS to the dmPFC in females only. The polarity-specific effects and use of focal HD-tDCS provide evidence for sex-dependent differences in dmPFC function in relation to the RMET. Future studies using tDCS to study or improve ToM, need to consider sex. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex-specific signaling in the blood-brain barrier is required for male courtship in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbona Hoxha

    Full Text Available Soluble circulating proteins play an important role in the regulation of mating behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. However, how these factors signal through the blood-brain barrier (bbb to interact with the sex-specific brain circuits that control courtship is unknown. Here we show that male identity of the blood-brain barrier is necessary and that male-specific factors in the bbb are physiologically required for normal male courtship behavior. Feminization of the bbb of adult males significantly reduces male courtship. We show that the bbb-specific G-protein coupled receptor moody and bbb-specific Go signaling in adult males are necessary for normal courtship. These data identify sex-specific factors and signaling processes in the bbb as important regulators of male mating behavior.

  1. Knee joint biomechanics and neuromuscular control during gait before and after total knee arthroplasty are sex-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astephen Wilson, Janie L; Dunbar, Michael J; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2015-01-01

    The future of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery will involve planning that incorporates more patient-specific characteristics. Despite known biological, morphological, and functional differences between men and women, there has been little investigation into knee joint biomechanical and neuromuscular differences between men and women with osteoarthritis, and none that have examined sex-specific biomechanical and neuromuscular responses to TKA surgery. The objective of this study was to examine sex-associated differences in knee kinematics, kinetics and neuromuscular patterns during gait before and after TKA. Fifty-two patients with end-stage knee OA (28 women, 24 men) underwent gait and neuromuscular analysis within the week prior to and one year after surgery. A number of sex-specific differences were identified which suggest a different manifestation of end-stage knee OA between the sexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Local and neighboring patch conditions alter sex-specific movement in banana weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carval, Dominique; Perrin, Benjamin; Duyck, Pierre-François; Tixier, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the movements and spread of a species over time and space is a major concern of ecology. Here, we assessed the effects of an individual's sex and the density and sex ratio of conspecifics in the local and neighboring environment on the movement probability of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus. In a "two patches" experiment, we used radiofrequency identification tags to study the C. sordidus movement response to patch conditions. We showed that local and neighboring densities of conspecifics affect the movement rates of individuals but that the density-dependent effect can be either positive or negative depending on the relative densities of conspecifics in local and neighboring patches. We demonstrated that sex ratio also influences the movement of C. sordidus, that is, the weevil exhibits nonfixed sex-biased movement strategies. Sex-biased movement may be the consequence of intrasexual competition for resources (i.e., oviposition sites) in females and for mates in males. We also detected a high individual variability in the propensity to move. Finally, we discuss the role of demographic stochasticity, sex-biased movement, and individual heterogeneity in movement on the colonization process.

  3. The Moderating Effect of Sex on the Prediction of Job Satisfaction in the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond

    1982-01-01

    Examined the moderating effect of sex on the contribution of specific job characteristics as sources of general job satisfaction. A survey of over 2,000 public employees showed only minimal sex differences. Supervision was more important to females. Females also tended to be more satisfied with their salaries. (JAC)

  4. Sex-Specific Prediction Models for Sleep Apnea From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neomi; Hanna, David B; Teng, Yanping; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Hall, Martica; Loredo, Jose S; Zee, Phyllis; Kim, Mimi; Yaggi, H Klar; Redline, Susan; Kaplan, Robert C

    2016-06-01

    We developed and validated the first-ever sleep apnea (SA) risk calculator in a large population-based cohort of Hispanic/Latino subjects. Cross-sectional data on adults from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (2008-2011) were analyzed. Subjective and objective sleep measurements were obtained. Clinically significant SA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events per hour. Using logistic regression, four prediction models were created: three sex-specific models (female-only, male-only, and a sex × covariate interaction model to allow differential predictor effects), and one overall model with sex included as a main effect only. Models underwent 10-fold cross-validation and were assessed by using the C statistic. SA and its predictive variables; a total of 17 variables were considered. A total of 12,158 participants had complete sleep data available; 7,363 (61%) were women. The population-weighted prevalence of SA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events per hour) was 6.1% in female subjects and 13.5% in male subjects. Male-only (C statistic, 0.808) and female-only (C statistic, 0.836) prediction models had the same predictor variables (ie, age, BMI, self-reported snoring). The sex-interaction model (C statistic, 0.836) contained sex, age, age × sex, BMI, BMI × sex, and self-reported snoring. The final overall model (C statistic, 0.832) contained age, BMI, snoring, and sex. We developed two websites for our SA risk calculator: one in English (https://www.montefiore.org/sleepapneariskcalc.html) and another in Spanish (http://www.montefiore.org/sleepapneariskcalc-es.html). We created an internally validated, highly discriminating, well-calibrated, and parsimonious prediction model for SA. Contrary to the study hypothesis, the variables did not have different predictive magnitudes in male and female subjects. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    OpenAIRE

    Ito E; Iwamoto J; Azuma K; Matsumoto H

    2014-01-01

    Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball player...

  6. Climatic conditions and child height: Sex-specific vulnerability and the protective effects of sanitation and food markets in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulmi, Prajula; Block, Steven A; Shively, Gerald E; Masters, William A

    2016-12-01

    Environmental conditions in early life are known to have impacts on later health outcomes, but causal mechanisms and potential remedies have been difficult to discern. This paper uses the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys of 2006 and 2011, combined with earlier NASA satellite observations of variation in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at each child's location and time of birth to identify the trimesters of gestation and periods of infancy when climate variation is linked to attained height later in life. We find significant differences by sex: males are most affected by conditions in their second trimester of gestation, and females in the first three months after birth. Each 100-point difference in NDVI at those times is associated with a difference in height-for-age z-score (HAZ) measured at age 12-59 months of 0.088 for boys and 0.054 for girls, an effect size similar to that of moving within the distribution of household wealth by close to one quintile for boys and one decile for girls. The entire seasonal change in NDVI from peak to trough is approximately 200-300 points during the 2000-2011 study period, implying a seasonal effect on HAZ similar to one to three quintiles of household wealth. This effect is observed only in households without toilets; in households with toilets, there is no seasonal fluctuation, implying protection against climatic conditions that facilitate disease transmission. We also use data from the Nepal Living Standards Surveys on district-level agricultural production and marketing, and find a climate effect on child growth only in districts where households' food consumption derives primarily from their own production. Robustness tests find no evidence of selection effects, and placebo regression results reveal no significant artefactual correlations. The timing and sex-specificity of climatic effects are consistent with previous studies, while the protective effects of household sanitation and food markets are

  7. Sex-specific effects of dietary fatty acids on saliva cortisol and social behavior in guinea pigs under different social environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Matthias; Millesi, Eva; Puehringer-Sturmayr, Verena; Kaplan, Arthur; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Quint, Ruth; Wallner, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Unbalanced dietary intakes of saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can profoundly influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and glucocorticoid secretions in relation to behavioral performances. The beneficial effects of higher dietary PUFA intakes and PUFA:SFA ratios may also affect social interactions and social-living per se, where adequate physiological and behavioral responses are essential to cope with unstable social environmental conditions. Effects of diets high in PUFAs or SFAs and a control diet were investigated in male and female guinea pigs after 60 days of supplementation. Plasma fatty acid patterns served as an indicator of the general fatty acid status. HPA-axis activities, determined by measuring saliva cortisol concentrations, social behaviors, and hierarchy ranks were analyzed during group housing of established single-sexed groups and during challenging social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals of the other groups. The plasma PUFA:SFA ratio was highest in PUFA supplemented animals, with female levels significantly exceeding males, and lowest in SFA animals. SFA males and females showed increased saliva cortisol levels and decreased aggressiveness during group housing, while sociopositive behaviors were lowest in PUFA males. Males generally showed higher cortisol increases in response to the challenging social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals than females. While increasing cortisol concentrations were detected in control and PUFA animals, no such effect was found in SFA animals. During social confrontations, PUFA males showed higher levels of agonistic and sociopositive behaviors and also gained higher dominance ranks among males, which was not detected for females. While SFAs seemingly impaired cortisol responses and social behaviors, PUFAs enabled adequate behavioral responses in male individuals under stressful new social environmental conditions. This sex-specific effect was possibly

  8. Effects of chromosomal sex and hormonal influences on shaping sex differences in brain and behavior: Lessons from cases of disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Matthew S; Lipson, Allen; Vashist, Neerja; Vilain, Eric

    2017-01-02

    Sex differences in brain development and postnatal behavior are determined largely by genetic sex and in utero gonadal hormone secretions. In humans however, determining the weight that each of these factors contributes remains a challenge because social influences should also be considered. Cases of disorders of sex development (DSD) provide unique insight into how mutations in genes responsible for gonadal formation can perturb the subsequent developmental hormonal milieu and elicit changes in normal human brain maturation. Specific forms of DSDs such as complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and 5α-reductase deficiency syndrome have variable effects between males and females, and the developmental outcomes of such conditions are largely dependent on sex chromosome composition. Medical and psychological works focused on CAH, CAIS, and 5α-reductase deficiency have helped form the foundation for understanding the roles of genetic and hormonal factors necessary for guiding human brain development. Here we highlight how the three aforementioned DSDs contribute to brain and behavioral phenotypes that can uniquely affect 46,XY and 46,XX individuals in dramatically different fashions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Youth's perceptions of HIV infection risk: a sex-specific test of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth's perceptions of HIV infection risk: a sex-specific test of two risk models. ... The analysis is based on data from the 2003 Demographic and Health survey ... multiple partners, Nigeria, risk perception, sexual behaviour, vulnerability to HIV ...

  10. Sex-specific effects of postnatal testosterone on lateralization in cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Sara M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    Lateralization is a fundamental principle in the organization of brain and behaviour in humans and nonhuman animals. To what extent lateralization is, in addition to genetic factors, under the influence of testosterone, which would also explain sex differences in laterality, is the topic of a

  11. Does the silver moss Bryum argenteum exhibit sex-specific patterns in vegetative growth rate, asexual fitness or prezygotic reproductive investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Kimberly; Stark, Lloyd R; McLetchie, D Nicholas

    2011-05-01

    Expected life history trade-offs associated with sex differences in reproductive investment are often undetected in seed plants, with the difficulty arising from logistical issues of conducting controlled experiments. By controlling genotype, age and resource status of individuals, a bryophyte was assessed for sex-specific and location-specific patterns of vegetative, asexual and sexual growth/reproduction across a regional scale. Twelve genotypes (six male, six female) of the dioecious bryophyte Bryum argenteum were subcultured to remove environmental effects, regenerated asexually to replicate each genotype 16 times, and grown over a period of 92 d. Plants were assessed for growth rates, asexual and sexual reproductive traits, and allocation to above- and below-ground regenerative biomass. The degree of sexual versus asexual reproductive investment appears to be under genetic control, with three distinct ecotypes found in this study. Protonemal growth rate was positively correlated with asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction, whereas asexual reproduction was negatively correlated (appeared to trade-off) with vegetative growth (shoot production). No sex-specific trade-offs were detected. Female sex-expressing shoots were longer than males, but the sexes did not differ in growth traits, asexual traits, sexual induction times, or above- and below-ground biomass. Males, however, had much higher rates of inflorescence production than females, which translated into a significantly higher (24x) prezygotic investment for males relative to females. Evidence for three distinct ecotypes is presented for a bryophyte based on regeneration traits. Prior to zygote production, the sexes of this bryophyte did not differ in vegetative growth traits but significantly differed in reproductive investment, with the latter differences potentially implicated in the strongly biased female sex ratio. The disparity between males and females for prezygotic reproductive investment is

  12. Sex-Specific Effects of Stress on Oxytocin Neurons Correspond With Responses to Intranasal Oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Michael Q; Duque-Wilckens, Natalia; Greenberg, Gian D; Hao, Rebecca; Campi, Katharine L; Laredo, Sarah A; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Manning, Claire E; Doig, Ian E; Lopez, Eduardo M; Walch, Keenan; Bales, Karen L; Trainor, Brian C

    2016-09-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is considered to be a stress-buffering hormone, dampening the physiologic effects of stress. However, OT can also be anxiogenic. We examined acute and long-lasting effects of social defeat on OT neurons in male and female California mice. We used immunohistochemistry for OT and c-fos cells to examine OT neuron activity immediately after defeat (n = 6-9) and 2 weeks (n = 6-9) and 10 weeks (n = 4-5) later. We quantified Oxt messenger RNA with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (n = 5-9). Intranasal OT was administered to naïve and stressed mice tested in social interaction and resident-intruder tests (n = 8-14). Acute exposure to a third episode of defeat increased OT/c-fos colocalizations in the paraventricular nucleus of both sexes. In the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, defeat increased Oxt messenger RNA, total OT neurons, and OT/c-fos colocalizations in female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT failed to reverse stress-induced social withdrawal in female mice and reduced social interaction behavior in female mice naïve to defeat. In contrast, intranasal OT increased social interaction in stressed male mice and reduced freezing in the resident-intruder test. Social defeat induces long-lasting increases in OT production and OT/c-fos cells in the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT largely reversed the effects of stress on behavior in male mice, but effects were mixed in female mice. These results suggest that changes in OT-sensitive networks contribute to sex differences in behavioral responses to stress. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Age and Sex Effects on Plasma Metabolite Association Networks in Healthy Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignoli, Alessia; Tenori, Leonardo; Luchinat, Claudio; Saccenti, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, the analysis of simple information like sex and age can increase the potential to better diagnose and treat conditions that occur more frequently in one of the two sexes, present sex-specific symptoms and outcomes, or are characteristic of a specific age group. We

  14. Fitness prospects: effects of age, sex and recruitment age on reproductive value in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Rebke, Maren; Becker, Peter H; Bouwhuis, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive value is an integrated measure of survival and reproduction fundamental to understanding life-history evolution and population dynamics, but little is known about intraspecific variation in reproductive value and factors explaining such variation, if any. By applying generalized additive mixed models to longitudinal individual-based data of the common tern Sterna hirundo, we estimated age-specific annual survival probability, breeding probability and reproductive performance, based on which we calculated age-specific reproductive values. We investigated effects of sex and recruitment age (RA) on each trait. We found age effects on all traits, with survival and breeding probability declining with age, while reproductive performance first improved with age before levelling off. We only found a very small, marginally significant, sex effect on survival probability, but evidence for decreasing age-specific breeding probability and reproductive performance with RA. As a result, males had slightly lower age-specific reproductive values than females, while birds of both sexes that recruited at the earliest ages of 2 and 3 years (i.e. 54% of the tern population) had somewhat higher fitness prospects than birds recruiting at later ages. While the RA effects on breeding probability and reproductive performance were statistically significant, these effects were not large enough to translate to significant effects on reproductive value. Age-specific reproductive values provided evidence for senescence, which came with fitness costs in a range of 17-21% for the sex-RA groups. Our study suggests that intraspecific variation in reproductive value may exist, but that, in the common tern, the differences are small. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  15. Effects of prenatal stress on anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors are sex-specific in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturra-Mena, Ann Mary; Arriagada-Solimano, Marcia; Luttecke-Anders, Ariane; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2018-05-17

    The fetal brain is highly susceptible to stress in late pregnancy, with lifelong effects of stress on physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and behavioral effects of prenatal stress during the prepubertal period of female and male rats. We subjected pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a restraint stress protocol from gestational day 14 until 21, a critical period for fetal brain susceptibility to stress effects. Male and female offspring were subsequently assessed at postnatal day 24 for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and spontaneous social interaction. We also assessed maternal behaviors and two stress markers: basal vs. acute-evoked stress levels of serum corticosterone and body weight gain. Prenatal stress did not affect the maternal behavior, while both female and male offspring had higher body weight gain. On the other hand, lower levels of corticosterone after acute stress stimulation as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors were only evident in stressed males compared to control males. These results suggest that prenatal stress induced sex-specific effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and on behavior during prepuberty. The HPA axis of prenatally stressed male rats was less active compared to control males, as well as they were more anxious and experienced depressive-like behaviors. Our results can be useful to study the neurobiological basis of childhood depression at a pre-clinical level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex-specific differences in transcriptome profiles of brain and muscle tissue of the tropical gar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbin, Kayla M; Quackenbush, Corey R; Taylor, Kyle; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Kelley, Joanna L

    2017-04-07

    The tropical gar (Atractosteus tropicus) is the southernmost species of the seven extant species of gar fishes in the world. In Mexico and Central America, the species is an important food source due to its nutritional quality and low price. Despite its regional importance and increasing concerns about overexploitation and habitat degradation, basic genetic information on the tropical gar is lacking. Determining genetic information on the tropical gar is important for the sustainable management of wild populations, implementation of best practices in aquaculture settings, evolutionary studies of ancient lineages, and an understanding of sex-specific gene expression. In this study, the transcriptome of the tropical gar was sequenced and assembled de novo using tissues from three males and three females using Illumina sequencing technology. Sex-specific and highly differentially expressed transcripts in brain and muscle tissues between adult males and females were subsequently identified. The transcriptome was assembled de novo resulting in 80,611 transcripts with a contig N50 of 3,355 base pairs and over 168 kilobases in total length. Male muscle, brain, and gonad as well as female muscle and brain were included in the assembly. The assembled transcriptome was annotated to identify the putative function of expressed transcripts using Trinotate and SwissProt, a database of well-annotated proteins. The brain and muscle datasets were then aligned to the assembled transcriptome to identify transcripts that were differentially expressed between males and females. The contrast between male and female brain identified 109 transcripts from 106 genes that were significantly differentially expressed. In the muscle comparison, 82 transcripts from 80 genes were identified with evidence for significant differential expression. Almost all genes identified as differentially expressed were sex-specific. The differentially expressed transcripts were enriched for genes involved in

  17. Neuroprotection of Sex Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyue; Kelley, Melissa H.; Herson, Paco S.; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2011-01-01

    Sex steroids are essential for reproduction and development in animals and humans, and sex steroids also play an important role in neuroprotection following brain injury. New data indicate that sex-specific responses to brain injury occur at the cellular and molecular levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of neuroprotection by sex steroids, particularly estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Better understanding of the role of sex steroids under physiological and pathological conditions will help us to develop novel effective therapeutic strategies for brain injury. PMID:20595940

  18. Identification and Validation of a New Male Sex-Specific ISSR Marker in Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinchan Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550 bp was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism.

  19. An Allometric Analysis of Sex and Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects on Subcortical Anatomy in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N.; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sex and sex-chromosome dosage (SCD) are known to modulate human brain size and cortical anatomy, but very little is known regarding their impact on subcortical structures that work with the cortex to subserve a range of behaviors in health and disease. Moreover

  20. Effects of age and sex on developmental neural networks of visual-spatial attention allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, Katya; Hyde, Zoe; Halari, Rozmin; Giampietro, Vincent; Smith, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Compared to our understanding of the functional maturation of brain networks underlying complex cognitive abilities, hardly anything is known of the neurofunctional development of simpler cognitive abilities such as visuo-spatial attention allocation. Furthermore, nothing is known on the effect of gender on the functional development of attention allocation. This study employed event related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate effects of age, sex, and sex by age interactions on the brain activation of 63 males and females, between 13 to 38years, during a visual-spatial oddball task. Behaviourally, with increasing age, speed was traded for accuracy, indicative of a less impulsive performance style in older subjects. Increasing age was associated with progressively increased activation in typical areas of selective attention of lateral fronto-striatal and temporo-parietal brain regions. Sex difference analysis showed enhanced activation in right-hemispheric inferior frontal and superior temporal regions in females, and in left-hemispheric inferior temporo-parietal regions in males. Importantly, the age by sex interaction findings showed that these sex-dimorphic patterns of brain activation may be the result of underlying sex differences in the functional maturation of these brain regions, as females had sex-specific progressive age-correlations in the same right inferior fronto-striato-temporal areas, while male-specific age-correlations were in left medial temporal and parietal areas. The findings demonstrate progressive functional maturation of fronto-striato-parieto-temporal networks of the relatively simple function of attention allocation between early adolescence and mid-adulthood. They furthermore show that sex-dimorphic patterns of enhanced reliance on right inferior frontal, striatal and superior temporal regions in females and of left temporo-parietal regions in males during attention allocation may be the result of underlying sex

  1. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Geary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play and cognitive (e.g., language fluency traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.

  2. Helping Behavior: Effects of Sex and Sex-Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Crawley, Donna M.

    1982-01-01

    Male and female experimenters requested adult shoppers (N=178) to fill out a questionnaire. Refusal data showed shoppers helping other-sex more than same-sex experimenters. Other results showed a significant three-way interaction among helper and helpee sex and sex-typing and situation sex-typing and that helper sex-typing did not have significant…

  3. Valence-Specific Laterality Effects in Vocal Emotion: Interactions with Stimulus Type, Blocking and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Geddes, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Valence-specific laterality effects have been frequently obtained in facial emotion perception but not in vocal emotion perception. We report a dichotic listening study further examining whether valence-specific laterality effects generalise to vocal emotions. Based on previous literature, we tested whether valence-specific laterality effects were…

  4. The impact of childhood abuse on inpatient substance users: specific links with risky sex, aggression, and emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana M; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-05-01

    Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report a high prevalence of childhood abuse. Research in the general population suggests specific types of abuse lead to particular negative outcomes; it is not known whether this pattern holds for adults with SUDs. We hypothesized that specific types of abuse would be associated with particular behavioral and emotional outcomes among substance users. That is, childhood sexual abuse would be associated with risky sex behaviors, childhood physical abuse with aggression, and childhood emotional abuse with emotion dysregulation. 280 inpatients (M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American) in substance use treatment completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Scale, Addiction Severity Index, Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and Affect Intensity and Dimensions of Affiliation Motivation (AIM). Consistent with our hypotheses, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale uniquely predicted exchanging sex for cocaine and heroin, number of arrests for prostitution, engaging in unprotected sex with a casual partner during the prior year, and experiencing low sexual arousal when sober. The physical abuse subscale uniquely predicted number of arrests for assault and weapons offenses. The emotional abuse subscale uniquely predicted the DERS total score, AIM score, and DTS score. Among substance users, different types of abuse are uniquely associated with specific negative effects. Assessment of specific abuse types among substance users may be informative in treatment planning and relapse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Sex-Specific Gene Expression in Archived Dried Blood Spots (DBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Jewell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Screening newborns for treatable serious conditions is mandated in all US states and many other countries. After screening, Guthrie cards with residual blood (whole spots or portions of spots are typically stored at ambient temperature in many facilities. The potential of archived dried blood spots (DBS for at-birth molecular studies in epidemiological and clinical research is substantial. However, it is also challenging as analytes from DBS may be degraded due to preparation and storage conditions. We previously reported an improved assay for obtaining global RNA gene expression from blood spots. Here, we evaluated sex-specific gene expression and its preservation in DBS using oligonucleotide microarray technology. We found X inactivation-specific transcript (XIST, lysine-specific demethylase 5D (KDM5D (also known as selected cDNA on Y, homolog of mouse (SMCY, uncharacterized LOC729444 (LOC729444, and testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 21 (TTTY21 to be differentially-expressed by sex of the newborn. Our finding that trait-specific RNA gene expression is preserved in unfrozen DBS, demonstrates the technical feasibility of performing molecular genetic profiling using such samples. With millions of DBS potentially available for research, we see new opportunities in using newborn molecular gene expression to better understand molecular pathogenesis of perinatal diseases.

  6. The contribution of the mitochondrial genome to sex-specific fitness variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shane R T; Connallon, Tim

    2017-05-01

    Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) facilitates the evolutionary accumulation of mutations with sex-biased fitness effects. Whereas maternal inheritance closely aligns mtDNA evolution with natural selection in females, it makes it indifferent to evolutionary changes that exclusively benefit males. The constrained response of mtDNA to selection in males can lead to asymmetries in the relative contributions of mitochondrial genes to female versus male fitness variation. Here, we examine the impact of genetic drift and the distribution of fitness effects (DFE) among mutations-including the correlation of mutant fitness effects between the sexes-on mitochondrial genetic variation for fitness. We show how drift, genetic correlations, and skewness of the DFE determine the relative contributions of mitochondrial genes to male versus female fitness variance. When mutant fitness effects are weakly correlated between the sexes, and the effective population size is large, mitochondrial genes should contribute much more to male than to female fitness variance. In contrast, high fitness correlations and small population sizes tend to equalize the contributions of mitochondrial genes to female versus male variance. We discuss implications of these results for the evolution of mitochondrial genome diversity and the genetic architecture of female and male fitness. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background

    Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188

  8. Sex-specific ecophysiological responses to environmental fluctuations of free-ranging Hermann's tortoises: implication for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeaux, Adélaïde; Michel, Catherine Louise; Bonnet, Xavier; Caron, Sébastien; Fournière, Kévin; Gagno, Stephane; Ballouard, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Physiological parameters provide indicators to evaluate how organisms respond to conservation actions. For example, individuals translocated during reinforcement programmes may not adapt to their novel host environment and may exhibit elevated chronic levels of stress hormones and/or decreasing body condition. Conversely, successful conservation actions should be associated with a lack of detrimental physiological perturbation. However, physiological references fluctuate over time and are influenced by various factors (e.g. sex, age, reproductive status). It is therefore necessary to determine the range of natural variations of the selected physiological metrics to establish useful baselines. This study focuses on endangered free-ranging Hermann's tortoises ( Testudo hermanni hermanni ), where conservation actions have been preconized to prevent extinction of French mainland populations. The influence of sex and of environmental factors (site, year and season) on eight physiological parameters (e.g. body condition, corticosterone concentrations) was assessed in 82 individuals from two populations living in different habitats. Daily displacements were monitored by radio-tracking. Most parameters varied between years and seasons and exhibited contrasting sex patterns but with no or limited effect of site. By combining behavioural and physiological traits, this study provides sex-specific seasonal baselines that can be used to monitor the health status of Hermann's tortoises facing environmental threats (e.g. habitat changes) or during conservation actions (e.g. translocation). These results might also assist in selection of the appropriate season for translocation.

  9. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  10. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys.......Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  11. Behavioral stress alters corticolimbic microglia in a sex- and brain region-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Justin L; Collins, Kaitlyn E; Patel, Rushi; Wellman, Cara L

    2017-01-01

    Women are more susceptible to numerous stress-linked psychological disorders (e.g., depression) characterized by dysfunction of corticolimbic brain regions critical for emotion regulation and cognitive function. Although sparsely investigated, a number of studies indicate sex differences in stress effects on neuronal structure, function, and behaviors associated with these regions. We recently demonstrated a basal sex difference in- and differential effects of stress on- microglial activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The resident immune cells of the brain, microglia are implicated in synaptic and dendritic plasticity, and cognitive-behavioral function. Here, we examined the effects of acute (3h/day, 1 day) and chronic (3h/day, 10 days) restraint stress on microglial density and morphology, as well as immune factor expression in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and dorsal hippocampus (DHC) in male and female rats. Microglia were visualized, classified based on their morphology, and stereologically counted. Microglia-associated transcripts (CD40, iNOS, Arg1, CX3CL1, CX3CR1, CD200, and CD200R) were assessed in brain punches from each region. Expression of genes linked with cellular stress, neuroimmune state, and neuron-microglia communication varied between unstressed male and female rats in a region-specific manner. In OFC, chronic stress upregulated a wider variety of immune factors in females than in males. Acute stress increased microglia-associated transcripts in BLA in males, whereas chronic stress altered immune factor expression in BLA more broadly in females. In DHC, chronic stress increased immune factor expression in males but not females. Moreover, acute and chronic stress differentially affected microglial morphological activation state in male and female rats across all brain regions investigated. In males, chronic stress altered microglial activation in a pattern consistent with microglial involvement in stress

  12. Behavioral stress alters corticolimbic microglia in a sex- and brain region-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Justin L.; Collins, Kaitlyn E.; Patel, Rushi

    2017-01-01

    Women are more susceptible to numerous stress-linked psychological disorders (e.g., depression) characterized by dysfunction of corticolimbic brain regions critical for emotion regulation and cognitive function. Although sparsely investigated, a number of studies indicate sex differences in stress effects on neuronal structure, function, and behaviors associated with these regions. We recently demonstrated a basal sex difference in- and differential effects of stress on- microglial activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The resident immune cells of the brain, microglia are implicated in synaptic and dendritic plasticity, and cognitive-behavioral function. Here, we examined the effects of acute (3h/day, 1 day) and chronic (3h/day, 10 days) restraint stress on microglial density and morphology, as well as immune factor expression in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and dorsal hippocampus (DHC) in male and female rats. Microglia were visualized, classified based on their morphology, and stereologically counted. Microglia-associated transcripts (CD40, iNOS, Arg1, CX3CL1, CX3CR1, CD200, and CD200R) were assessed in brain punches from each region. Expression of genes linked with cellular stress, neuroimmune state, and neuron-microglia communication varied between unstressed male and female rats in a region-specific manner. In OFC, chronic stress upregulated a wider variety of immune factors in females than in males. Acute stress increased microglia-associated transcripts in BLA in males, whereas chronic stress altered immune factor expression in BLA more broadly in females. In DHC, chronic stress increased immune factor expression in males but not females. Moreover, acute and chronic stress differentially affected microglial morphological activation state in male and female rats across all brain regions investigated. In males, chronic stress altered microglial activation in a pattern consistent with microglial involvement in stress

  13. Comment on "The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis

    2014-12-01

    In the recent Demography article titled "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Different-Sex Marriage: Evidence From the Netherlands," Trandafir attempted to answer the question, Are rates of opposite sex marriage affected by legal recognition of same-sex marriages? The results of his approach to statistical inference-looking for evidence of a difference in rates of opposite-sex marriage-provide an absence of evidence of such effects. However, the validity of his conclusion of no causal relationship between same-sex marriage laws and rates of opposite-sex marriage is threatened by the fact that Trandafir did not also look for equivalence in rates of opposite-sex marriage in order to provide evidence of an absence of such an effect. Equivalence tests in combination with difference tests are introduced and presented in this article as a more valid inferential approach to the substantive question Trandafir attempted to answer.

  14. Sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retschnig, Gina; Williams, Geoffrey R; Mehmann, Marion M; Yañez, Orlando; de Miranda, Joachim R; Neumann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone) and female (worker) honey bees (Apis mellifera), inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV). These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels.

  15. Gaming for Safer Sex: Young German and Turkish People Report No Specific Culture-Related Preferences Toward Educational Games Promoting Safer Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive sex education programs specifically designed for adolescents and young adults that take into account gender norms and cultural background have shown promise as a means of countering the high sexually transmitted infection rate in young people. Recently, digital gaming interventions delivered on computers or mobile devices have emerged as another way to promote safer sex behavior in a young population. Tailoring these computer-based interventions to their target population has been recognized to increase positive behavior outcomes. In this qualitative study, we investigated whether young female and male adults from two different cultural backgrounds (all living in Germany) would have different preferences and needs in relation to an educational game promoting safer sex. We conducted four semistructured focus group interviews comprising open-ended questions with male and female participants who had either a German or a Turkish background. In total, 20 individuals, aged between 18 and 22 years, from two socially diverse and ethnically mixed vocational schools in Germany participated. Independent of cultural background and gender, participants preferred a real-world design with a first-person visual perspective over a fantasy-like third-person perspective. Furthermore, they preferred highly customizable avatars. All participants mentioned the importance of including an alcohol-intoxicated avatar and most participants wanted there to be additional information available about various safer sex approaches and about the use of different barrier protection methods. Males and females reported similar preferences for the design of an educational game promoting safer sex, with the only difference being exactly how the topic of having sexual intercourse should be addressed in the game. Males preferred a direct approach, whereas females had a preference for treating this subject more sympathetically. Educational games offer anonymity and can provide young people

  16. Sex-specific metabolic profiles of androgens and its main binding protein SHBG in a middle aged population without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piontek, Uwe; Wallaschofski, Henri; Kastenmüller, Gabi

    2017-01-01

    The role of androgens in metabolism with respect to sex-specific disease associations is poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to provide molecular signatures in plasma and urine of androgen action in a sex-specific manner using state-of-the-art metabolomics techniques. Our study population...

  17. Beyond the reproductive effect of sex steroids: their role during immunity to helminth parasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bello, R; Nava-Castro, K; Muñiz-Hernández, S; Nava-Luna, P; Trejo-Sánchez, Itztli; Tiempos-Guzmán, N; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Y; Morales-Montor, J

    2012-10-01

    During the helminth infections, the immune system tends to be modulated by host's sex hormones. Actually, many studies show the reciprocal relationship between sex steroids, the immune system and the elimination or establishment of helminth parasites. Is well known that innate immune response determines the type of adaptive immune response, so the effects in the innate immune response by hormones may affect subsequent adaptive immunity. The sex steroids as estrogens, progesterone and testosterone regulate growth, differentiation, survival and function of many cell types that could be involved in process like homeostasis and immunity, but also have a direct effect on the helminthes, that may probably be mediated by specific receptors on these parasites. Sex steroids, parasites and immunity are closely connected, and their interconnection is involved in the maintenance of elimination or establishment of helminthes in an immunocompetent host. For that reason, understanding the action's mechanisms of sex steroids on immune cells and its direct effect on helminth parasites is important for further progress in the development of novel therapies for chronic helminth diseases associated to immune dysregulation. In this review, we will describe the effects of sex steroids on the immune response during helminth infections as well as the direct effect in these parasites, and the possible implications of these effects on the incidence of several helminth infections.

  18. Sex-Specific Response Strategies in Mental Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the marked sex difference in the original mental rotation test (MRT) is simply a result of sex differences in response strategies. Thirty-four participants (17 males, 17 females) completed the revised Vandenberg and Kuse MRT [Peters, M., Laeng, B., Latham, K., Jackson, M., Zaiyouna, R., & Richardson, C.…

  19. Effects of government registration on unprotected sex among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotin, Nicole; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Abramovitz, Daniela; Semple, Shirley J.; Bucardo, Jesús; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sex work is partially regulated in Tijuana, but little is known of its health effects. A recent behavioral intervention among female sex workers (FSWs) decreased incidence of HIV/STIs by 40%. We evaluated effects of sex worker regulation on condom use among FSWs randomized to this intervention. Methods FSWs aged ≥18 years who reported unprotected sex with ≥1 client in the last 2 months and whether they were registered with Tijuana’s Municipal Health Department underwent a brief, theory-based behavioral intervention to increase condom use. At baseline and 6 months, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the effect of registration on numbers of unprotected sex acts and cumulative HIV/STI incidence. Results Of 187 women, 83 (44%) were registered. Lack of registration was associated with higher rates of unprotected sex (rate ratio: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3), compared to FSWs who were registered, after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions Registration predicted increased condom use among FSWs enrolled in a behavioral intervention. Public health programs designed to improve condom use among FSWs may benefit from understanding the impact of existing regulation systems on HIV risk behaviors. PMID:20956076

  20. Effects of government registration on unprotected sex amongst female sex workers in Tijuana; Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotin, Nicole; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Abramovitz, Daniela; Semple, Shirley J; Bucardo, Jesús; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-11-01

    Sex work is partially regulated in Tijuana, but little is known of its health effects. A recent behavioural intervention amongst female sex workers (FSWs) decreased incidence of HIV/STIs by 40%. We evaluated effects of sex worker regulation on condom use amongst FSWs randomized to this intervention. FSWs aged ≥18 years who reported unprotected sex with ≥1 client in the last 2 months and whether they were registered with Tijuana's Municipal Health Department underwent a brief, theory-based behavioural intervention to increase condom use. At baseline and 6 months, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the effect of registration on numbers of unprotected sex acts and cumulative HIV/STI incidence. Of 187 women, 83 (44%) were registered. Lack of registration was associated with higher rates of unprotected sex (rate ratio: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3), compared to FSWs who were registered, after controlling for potential confounders. Registration predicted increased condom use amongst FSWs enrolled in a behavioural intervention. Public health programmes designed to improve condom use amongst FSWs may benefit from understanding the impact of existing regulation systems on HIV risk behaviours. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex-specific neuroanatomical correlates of fear expression in prefrontal-amygdala circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruene, Tina M; Roberts, Elian; Thomas, Virginia; Ronzio, Ashley; Shansky, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    The neural projections from the infralimbic region of the prefrontal cortex to the amygdala are important for the maintenance of conditioned fear extinction. Neurons in this pathway exhibit a unique pattern of structural plasticity that is sex-dependent, but the relationship between the morphologic characteristics of these neurons and successful extinction in male and female subjects is unknown. Using classic cued fear conditioning and an extinction paradigm in large cohorts of male and female rats, we identified subpopulations of both sexes that exhibited high (HF) or low (LF) levels of freezing on an extinction retrieval test, representing failed or successful extinction maintenance, respectively. We combined retrograde tracing with fluorescent intracellular microinjections to perform three-dimensional reconstructions of infralimbic neurons that project to the basolateral amygdala in these groups. The HF and LF male rats exhibited neuroanatomical distinctions that were not observed in HF or LF female rats. A retrospective analysis of behavior during fear conditioning and extinction revealed that despite no overall sex differences in freezing behavior, HF and LF phenotypes emerged in male rats during extinction and in female rats during fear conditioning, which does not involve infralimbic-basolateral amygdala neurons. Our results suggest that the neural processes underlying successful or failed extinction maintenance may be sex-specific. These findings are relevant not only to future basic research on sex differences in fear conditioning and extinction but also to exposure-based clinical therapies, which are similar in premise to fear extinction and which are primarily used to treat disorders that are more common in women than in men. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex- and Site-Specific Normative Data Curves for HR-pQCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Lauren A; Liang, Zhiying; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Hanley, David A; Boyd, Steven K

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop age-, site-, and sex-specific centile curves for common high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and finite-element (FE) parameters for males and females older than 16 years. Participants (n = 866) from the Calgary cohort of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) between the ages of 16 and 98 years were included in this study. Participants' nondominant radius and left tibia were scanned using HR-pQCT. Standard and automated segmentation methods were performed and FE analysis estimated apparent bone strength. Centile curves were generated for males and females at the tibia and radius using the generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS) package in R. After GAMLSS analysis, age-, sex-, and site-specific centiles (10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th) for total bone mineral density and trabecular number as well as failure load have been calculated. Clinicians and researchers can use these reference curves as a tool to assess bone health and changes in bone quality. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  3. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Eri; Iwamoto, Jun; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females) were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%), and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%). The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10-19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%), while the proportions of Osgood-Schlatter disease in the 10-19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy) in the 20-29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively). However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.

  4. Acute effects of sex steroid hormones on susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias: a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute effects of sex steroid hormones likely contribute to the observation that post-pubescent males have shorter QT intervals than females. However, the specific role for hormones in modulating cardiac electrophysiological parameters and arrhythmia vulnerability is unclear. Here we use a computational modeling approach to incorporate experimentally measured effects of physiological concentrations of testosterone, estrogen and progesterone on cardiac ion channel targets. We then study the hormone effects on ventricular cell and tissue dynamics comprised of Faber-Rudy computational models. The "female" model predicts changes in action potential duration (APD at different stages of the menstrual cycle that are consistent with clinically observed QT interval fluctuations. The "male" model predicts shortening of APD and QT interval at physiological testosterone concentrations. The model suggests increased susceptibility to drug-induced arrhythmia when estradiol levels are high, while testosterone and progesterone are apparently protective. Simulations predict the effects of sex steroid hormones on clinically observed QT intervals and reveal mechanisms of estrogen-mediated susceptibility to prolongation of QT interval. The simulations also indicate that acute effects of estrogen are not alone sufficient to cause arrhythmia triggers and explain the increased risk of females to Torsades de Pointes. Our results suggest that acute effects of sex steroid hormones on cardiac ion channels are sufficient to account for some aspects of gender specific susceptibility to long-QT linked arrhythmias.

  5. Gaming for Safer Sex : Young German and Turkish People Report No Specific Culture-Related Preferences Toward Educational Games Promoting Safer Sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüll, P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Wiers, R.W.; Kok, G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive sex education programs specifically designed for adolescents and young adults that take into account gender norms and cultural background have shown promise as a means of countering the high sexually transmitted infection rate in young people. Recently, digital gaming

  6. Effects of sex composition by class and instructor's sex on physical self-efficacy of college men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, E S; Rust, D M; Blassingame, C L; Reed, J L

    2000-02-01

    The relationship of sex composition of class and instructor's sex to Physical Self-efficacy has yielded conflicting results in several studies. This study examined the relationship of sex composition of class and instructor's sex to scores on Physical Self-efficacy, Perceived Physical Ability, and Physical Self-presentation Confidence of 80 male students enrolled in one of four sections of a strength training class. Analysis indicated no significant difference on Physical Self-efficacy between male students who were enrolled in all male classes or in coeducational classes; improvements in scores on Physical Self-efficacy were not specific to the sex composition of the class or sex of the instructor and no significant difference on Perceived Physical Ability and Physical Self-presentation Confidence between male students who joined an all male class or a coeducational class. Perceived Physical Ability improved from the pretest to the posttest in all classes; and no improvement in scores for Physical Self-presentation Confidence was found in all classes. In conclusion, the analysis showed sex composition of the class and sex of the instructor were not significantly related to scores for self-efficacy.

  7. Sex-Specific Muscular Maturation Responses Following Prenatal Exposure to Methylation-Related Micronutrients in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oster

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation of micronutrients involved in DNA methylation, particularly during pregnancy, is recommended because of its impacts on human health, but further evidence is needed regarding the effects of over-supplementation and differences between sexes. Here, a porcine model was used to assess effects of maternal supplementation with one-carbon-cycle compounds during prenatal and postnatal stages on offspring muscle development. Sows received either a standard diet (CON or a standard diet supplemented with folate, B6, B12, methionine, choline, and zinc (MET throughout gestation. Myogenesis-, growth-, and nutrient utilization-related transcript expression was assessed using quantitative PCR. Organismal phenotype and gene expression effects differed significantly between males and females. Male MET-offspring showed increased fetal weight during late pregnancy but decreased live weight postnatally, with compensatory transcriptional responses comprising myogenic key drivers (Pax7, MyoD1, myogenin. In contrast, female weights were unaffected by diet, and mRNA abundances corresponded to a phenotype of cellular reorganization via FABP3, FABP4, SPP1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor-signaling. These findings in an animal model suggest that supplementation during pregnancy with methylation-related micronutrients can promote sex-specific myogenic maturation processes related to organismal growth and muscle metabolism. The usage of maternal dietary supplements should be more carefully considered regarding its ability to promote fetal and postnatal health.

  8. Chronic stress induces sex-specific alterations in methylation and expression of corticotropin-releasing factor gene in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Sterrenburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the higher prevalence of depression in women than in men is well known, the neuronal basis of this sex difference is largely elusive. METHODS: Male and female rats were exposed to chronic variable mild stress (CVMS after which immediate early gene products, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF mRNA and peptide, various epigenetic-associated enzymes and DNA methylation of the Crf gene were determined in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, oval (BSTov and fusiform (BSTfu parts of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and central amygdala (CeA. RESULTS: CVMS induced site-specific changes in Crf gene methylation in all brain centers studied in female rats and in the male BST and CeA, whereas the histone acetyltransferase, CREB-binding protein was increased in the female BST and the histone-deacetylase-5 decreased in the male CeA. These changes were accompanied by an increased amount of c-Fos in the PVN, BSTfu and CeA in males, and of FosB in the PVN of both sexes and in the male BSTov and BSTfu. In the PVN, CVMS increased CRF mRNA in males and CRF peptide decreased in females. CONCLUSIONS: The data confirm our hypothesis that chronic stress affects gene expression and CRF transcriptional, translational and secretory activities in the PVN, BSTov, BSTfu and CeA, in a brain center-specific and sex-specific manner. Brain region-specific and sex-specific changes in epigenetic activity and neuronal activation may play, too, an important role in the sex specificity of the stress response and the susceptibility to depression.

  9. Sex-specific variation in signaling pathways and gene expression patterns in human leukocytes in response to endotoxin and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Asghar; de Paula Vieira, Rodolfo; Bischof, Felix; Walter, Michael; Movassaghi, Masoud; Berchtold, Nicole C; Niess, Andreas M; Cotman, Carl W; Northoff, Hinnak

    2016-11-10

    While exercise effects on the immune system have received increasing attention in recent years, it remains unclear to what extent gender and fluctuations in sex hormones during menstrual cycle influence immunological responses to exercise. We investigated mRNA changes induced through exhaustive exercise (half-marathon; pre-exercise and post-exercise [30 min, 3 h, 24 h] on whole blood cultures ± lipopolysaccharide [LPS] [1 h]) with a specific focus on sex differences (men vs women in luteal phase) as an extension of our previous study. Inflammation related signaling pathways, TLRs, cytosolic DNA sensing and RIG-I like receptors were differentially activated between sexes in LPS-stimulated cultures. Genes differentially regulated between sexes included TNIP-1, TNIP-3, IL-6, HIVEP1, CXCL3, CCR3, IL-8, and CD69, revealing a bias towards less anti-inflammatory gene regulation in women compared to men. In addition, several genes relevant to brain function (KMO, DDIT4, VEGFA, IGF1R, IGF2R, and FGD4) showed differential activation between sexes. Some of these genes (e.g., KMO in women, DDIT4 in both sexes) potentially constitute neuroprotective mechanisms. These data reveal that the exercise-induced change in gene expression might be gender and menstrual cycle phase dependent.

  10. Sex-specific associations between peripheral oxytocin and emotion perception in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Carter, C Sue; Drogos, Lauren; Jamadar, Rhoda; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Sweeney, John A; Maki, Pauline M

    2011-08-01

    We previously reported that higher levels of peripheral oxytocin are associated with lower levels of positive, general, and overall symptoms in women but not in men with schizophrenia. Here we investigate the influence of sex, sex steroid hormone fluctuations, and peripheral oxytocin levels on emotional processing in men and women with schizophrenia. Twenty-two women with schizophrenia and 31 female controls completed the Penn Emotion Acuity Test (PEAT), a facial emotion recognition and perception task, during two menstrual cycle phases: 1) early follicular (Days 2-4; low estrogen/progesterone) and 2) midluteal (Days 20-22; high estrogen/progesterone). Twenty-six males with schizophrenia and 26 male controls completed testing at comparable intervals. We obtained plasma hormone assays of estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and oxytocin. No sex differences were noted on the PEAT. Plasma oxytocin levels did not fluctuate across phases of the menstrual cycle. However, female patients and controls more accurately identified facial emotions during the early follicular versus midluteal phase (pmen. Like healthy women, women with schizophrenia demonstrate menstrual-cycle dependent fluctuations in recognizing emotional cues. Like healthy women, female patients with higher levels of oxytocin perceived faces as happier. Future studies need to address whether this sex-specific relationship is associated with trust and other positive emotions, and whether exogenous oxytocin might enhance mood states and social interaction in female or all schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Skeletal muscle gene expression in response to resistance exercise: sex specific regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burant Charles F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms underlying the sex differences in human muscle morphology and function remain to be elucidated. The sex differences in the skeletal muscle transcriptome in both the resting state and following anabolic stimuli, such as resistance exercise (RE, might provide insight to the contributors of sexual dimorphism of muscle phenotypes. We used microarrays to profile the transcriptome of the biceps brachii of young men and women who underwent an acute unilateral RE session following 12 weeks of progressive training. Bilateral muscle biopsies were obtained either at an early (4 h post-exercise or late recovery (24 h post-exercise time point. Muscle transcription profiles were compared in the resting state between men (n = 6 and women (n = 8, and in response to acute RE in trained exercised vs. untrained non-exercised control muscle for each sex and time point separately (4 h post-exercise, n = 3 males, n = 4 females; 24 h post-exercise, n = 3 males, n = 4 females. A logistic regression-based method (LRpath, following Bayesian moderated t-statistic (IMBT, was used to test gene functional groups and biological pathways enriched with differentially expressed genes. Results This investigation identified extensive sex differences present in the muscle transcriptome at baseline and following acute RE. In the resting state, female muscle had a greater transcript abundance of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and gene transcription/translation processes. After strenuous RE at the same relative intensity, the time course of the transcriptional modulation was sex-dependent. Males experienced prolonged changes while females exhibited a rapid restoration. Most of the biological processes involved in the RE-induced transcriptional regulation were observed in both males and females, but sex specificity was suggested for several signaling pathways including activation of notch signaling and TGF-beta signaling in females

  12. First genetic quantification of sex- and stage-specific feeding in the ubiquitous copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismar, Stefanie M.H.; Kottmann, Johanna Sarah; Sommer, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    -specific feeding differences between Acartia life stages and sexes, which can have implications on food-web dynamics and specific nutrient transfer to higher trophic levels in copepod populations of varying age composition under changing environmental parameters, such as rising temperatures and increasing ocean...... acidification....

  13. COMT-by-Sex Interaction Effect on Psychosis Proneness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Castro-Catala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizotypy phenotypes in the general population share etiopathogenic mechanisms and risk factors with schizophrenia, supporting the notion of psychosis as a continuum ranging from nonclinical to clinical deviance. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia that is involved in the regulation of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. Several recent studies have reported a sex difference in the impact of COMT genotype on psychiatric and cognitive phenotypes and personality traits. The present study investigated the association of COMT Val158Met (rs4680 with psychometric positive and negative schizotypy and psychotic experiences in a sample of 808 nonclinical young adults. The main finding was that sex moderates the association of COMT genotype with the negative dimension of both schizotypy and psychotic experiences. Male subjects carrying the Val allele tended to score higher on the negative dimension of both trait and symptom-like measures. The results from the present study are consistent with recent work suggesting an association between negative schizotypy and diminished prefrontal dopamine availability. They support the idea that a biological differentiation underlies the positive and negative schizotypy dimensions. Additionally, these findings contribute to the growing literature on sex-specific effects of COMT on the predisposition to psychiatric disorders and personality traits.

  14. Prenatal stress challenge impairs fetal lung development and asthma severity sex-specifically in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazara, Dimitra E; Perani, Clara V; Solano, María E; Arck, Petra C

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is an increasing health problem worldwide. Interestingly, prenatal challenges such as stress have been associated with an increased risk for asthma during childhood. The underlying pathogenesis of how prenatal stress increases the risk for asthma still remains unclear. Potential targets could be that the fetal immune ontogeny or fetal lung development are compromised by prenatal challenges. Here, we aimed to identify whether prenatal stress challenge affects fetal lung development in mice. C57BL/6 pregnant mice were challenged with sound stress and fetal lung development was assessed histologically. Whilst prenatal stress challenge did not profoundly affect lung development in male fetuses, it resulted in less extensive terminal sacs, surrounded by thicker mesenchymal tissue in female fetuses. Thus, prenatal stress disrupted fetal lung development sex-specifically. Interestingly, upon prenatal stress challenge, the airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilic inflammation- two hallmarks of asthma - were significantly increased in adult female offspring, whilst regulatory CD4+ T cells were reduced. These findings strongly underpin the sex-specific association between s challenged fetal development and a sex-specific altered severity of asthma in adult offspring. Our model now allows to identify maternal markers through which the risk for asthma and possible other diseases is vertically transferred before birth in response to challenges. Such identification then opens avenues for primary disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stage- and sex-specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Gautier, Roland; Nick, Marcel; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A

    2014-12-01

    Thermal tolerance varies at all hierarchical levels of biological organization: among species, populations, individuals, and even within individuals. Age- or developmental stage- and sex-specific thermal effects have received relatively little attention in the literature, despite being crucial for understanding thermal adaptation in nature and responses to global warming. We document stage- and sex- specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), a species common throughout the northern hemisphere that generally favours cool climates. Exposure of eggs to temperatures up to 32°C did not affect larval hatching rate, but subsequent egg-to-adult survival at a benign temperature was reduced. Permanent transfer from benign (18°C) to hot temperatures (up to 31°C) at different larval and pupal stages strongly decreased egg-to-adult survival, though survival continuously improved the later the transfer occurred. Temporary transfer for only two days increased mortality more weakly, survival being lowest when temperature stress was imposed early during the larval or pupal stages. Adult flies provided with sugar and water tolerated 31°C longer than previously thought (5 days in males to 9 days in females). Eggs were thus less susceptible to thermal stress than larvae, pupae or adults, in agreement with the hypothesis that more mobile stages require less physiological protection against heat because they can behaviourally thermoregulate. The probability of mating, of laying a clutch, and hatching success were generally independently reduced by exposure of females or males to warm temperatures (24°C) during the juvenile or adult stages, with some interactions evident. High temperature stress thus affects survival differentially depending on when it occurs during the juvenile or the pre-reproductive adult life stage, and affects reproductive success via the mating behaviour of both sexes, female physiology in terms of

  16. No effect of sex steroids on compensatory muscle hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.

  17. Sex differences in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rena; Singh, Meharvan

    2014-08-01

    Studies have shown differences in specific cognitive ability domains and risk of Alzheimer's disease between the men and women at later age. However it is important to know that sex differences in cognitive function during adulthood may have their basis in both organizational effects, i.e., occurring as early as during the neuronal development period, as well as in activational effects, where the influence of the sex steroids influence brain function in adulthood. Further, the rate of cognitive decline with aging is also different between the sexes. Understanding the biology of sex differences in cognitive function will not only provide insight into Alzheimer's disease prevention, but also is integral to the development of personalized, gender-specific medicine. This review draws on epidemiological, translational, clinical, and basic science studies to assess the impact of sex differences in cognitive function from young to old, and examines the effects of sex hormone treatments on Alzheimer's disease in men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal obesity and sex-specific differences in placental pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Garcia, Sandra M; Roeder, Hilary A; Nelson, Katharine K; Liao, Xiaoyan; Pizzo, Donald P; Laurent, Louise C; Parast, Mana M; LaCoursiere, D Yvette

    2016-02-01

    Adverse effects of obesity have been linked to inflammation in various tissues, but studies on placental inflammation and obesity have demonstrated conflicting findings. We sought to investigate the influence of pregravid obesity and fetal sex on placental histopathology while controlling for diabetes and hypertension. Placental histopathology focusing on inflammatory markers of a cohort of normal weight (BMI = 20-24.9) and obese (BMI ≥ 30) patients was characterized. Demographic, obstetric and neonatal variables were assessed. 192 normal and 231 obese women were included. Placental characteristics associated with obesity and fetal sex independent of diabetes and hypertension were placental disc weight >90(th) percentile, decreased placental efficiency, chronic villitis (CV), fetal thrombosis, and normoblastemia. Additionally, female fetuses of obese mothers had higher rates of CV and fetal thrombosis. Increasing BMI increased the risk of normoblastemia and CV. The final grade and extent of CV was significantly associated with obesity and BMI, but not fetal gender. Finally, CV was less common in large-for-gestation placentas. Maternal obesity results in placental overgrowth and fetal hypoxia as manifested by normoblastemia; it is also associated with an increased incidence of CV and fetal thrombosis, both more prevalent in female placentas. We have shown for the first time that the effect of maternal obesity on placental inflammation is independent of diabetes and hypertension, but significantly affected by fetal sex. Our data also point to the intriguing possibility that CV serves to normalize placental size, and potentially fetal growth, in the setting of maternal obesity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Sex- and habitat-specific movement of an omnivorous semi-terrestrial crab controls habitat connectivity and subsidies: a multi-parameter approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Lena; Pennings, Steven C; Zimmer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    differed significantly between sexes, but habitat effects were greater than sex effects. By combining multiple measures of feeding ecology, we demonstrate that Armases exhibits sex-specific habitat choice and food preference. By using both coastal forest and saltmarsh habitats, but feeding predominantly in the latter, they possibly act as a key biotic vector of spatial subsidies across habitat borders. The degree of contributing to fluxes of matter, nutrients and energy, however, depends on their sex, indicating that changes in population structure would likely have profound effects on ecosystem connectivity and functioning.

  20. Non-coding changes cause sex-specific wing size differences between closely related species of Nasonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loehlin, David W.; Oliveira, Deodoro C. S. G.; Edwards, Rachel; Giebel, Jonathan D.; Clark, Michael E.; Cattani, M. Victoria; van de Zande, Louis; Verhulst, Eveline C.; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Werren, John H.

    The genetic basis of morphological differences among species is still poorly understood. We investigated the genetic basis of sex-specific differences in wing size between two closely related species of Nasonia by positional cloning a major male-specific locus, wing-size1 (ws1). Male wing size

  1. A Single Sex Pheromone Receptor Determines Chemical Response Specificity of Sexual Behavior in the Silkmoth Bombyx mori

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Uchino, Keiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishioka, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2011-01-01

    In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z...

  2. Effect of sex on ethanol consumption and conditioned taste aversion in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Francis, Reynold; MacDonald, Andrea; Keistler, Colby; O'Neill, Lauren; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2014-04-01

    Vulnerability to alcoholism is determined by many factors, including the balance of pleasurable vs. aversive alcohol-induced sensations: pleasurable sensations increase intake, while aversive sensations decrease it. Female sex and adolescent age are associated with lower sensitivity to intake-reducing effects and more rapid development of alcohol abuse. This study assessed voluntary drinking and the aversive effects of alcohol to determine whether these measures are inversely related across the sexes and development. Voluntary drinking of 20 % ethanol in an every-other-day (EOD) availability pattern and the dose-response relationship of ethanol conditioned taste aversion (CTA) were assessed in male and female adolescent and adult rats. CTA was sex specific in adult but not adolescent rats, with adult females exhibiting less aversion. Voluntary ethanol consumption varied according to age and individual differences but was not sex specific. Adolescents initially drank more than adults, exhibited greater day-to-day variation in consumption, were more susceptible to the alcohol deprivation effect, and took longer to establish individual differences in consumption patterns. These results show that the emergence of intake patterns differs between adolescents and adults. Adolescents as a group initiate drinking at high levels but decrease intake as they mature. A subset of adolescents maintained high drinking levels into adulthood. In contrast, most adults consumed at steady, low levels, but a small subset quickly established and maintained high-consumption patterns. Adolescents also showed marked deprivation-induced increases. Sex differences were not observed in EOD drinking during either adolescence or adulthood.

  3. Parallel distribution of sexes within left and right uterine horns in Holstein dairy cows: evidence that the effect of side of pregnancy on sex ratio could be breed-specific in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharagozlou, F; Vojgani, M; Akbarinejad, V; Niasari-Naslaji, A; Hemmati, M; Youssefi, R

    2013-11-30

    Dissimilar distribution of male and female calves within left and right uterine horns has been observed in beef cows. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the effect of side of pregnancy on secondary sex ratio in Holstein dairy cows. Data associated with sex of calves, side of pregnancy, sire, dam, parity number of dam, AI technician, season and year were retrieved from the database of a Holstein dairy farm. In total, data consisted of 6515 birth records from 3155 dams and 244 sires across years 2001-2010. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. There was no difference in proportion of male and female calves between left (52.9% and 47.1%, respectively) and right (53.2% and 46.8%, respectively) uterine horns (P>0.05). AI technician, year, season and parity of dam did not affect secondary sex ratio (P>0.05). Secondary sex ratio of left and right uterine horns, and consequently, overall secondary sex ratio (53.1%) were skewed toward males as compared with hypothetical secondary sex ratio of 50% (Pcows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An Estrogen-Responsive Module in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Selectively Drives Sex-Specific Activity in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Correa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen-receptor alpha (ERα neurons in the ventrolateral region of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHVL control an array of sex-specific responses to maximize reproductive success. In females, these VMHVL neurons are believed to coordinate metabolism and reproduction. However, it remains unknown whether specific neuronal populations control distinct components of this physiological repertoire. Here, we identify a subset of ERα VMHVL neurons that promotes hormone-dependent female locomotion. Activating Nkx2-1-expressing VMHVL neurons via pharmacogenetics elicits a female-specific burst of spontaneous movement, which requires ERα and Tac1 signaling. Disrupting the development of Nkx2-1+ VMHVL neurons results in female-specific obesity, inactivity, and loss of VMHVL neurons coexpressing ERα and Tac1. Unexpectedly, two responses controlled by ERα+ neurons, fertility and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, are unaffected. We conclude that a dedicated subset of VMHVL neurons marked by ERα, NKX2-1, and Tac1 regulates estrogen-dependent fluctuations in physical activity and constitutes one of several neuroendocrine modules that drive sex-specific responses.

  5. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented.

  6. Effects of sex change on the implications of marine reserves for fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Neil C S; Connolly, Sean R; Mapstone, Bruce D

    2012-04-01

    Marine reserves have become widely used in biodiversity conservation and are increasingly proposed as fisheries management tools. Previous modeling studies have found that reserves may increase or decrease yields, depending on local environmental conditions and on the specific life-history traits of the fishery species. Sex-changing (female-to-male) fish are targets of some of the most important commercial and recreational fisheries in the world. The potential for disproportionate removal of the larger, older sex of such species requires new theory to facilitate our understanding of how reserves will affect the yields of surrounding fisheries, relative to fishes with separate sexes. We investigated this question by modeling the effects of marine reserves on a non-sex-changing and a sex-changing population. We used demographic parameter estimates for the common coral trout as a baseline, and we conducted extensive sensitivity analyses to determine how sustainable yields of sex-changing species are likely to be affected by reserves across a broad range of life-history parameters. Our findings indicate that fisheries for sex-changing species are unlikely to receive the same yield-enhancing benefit that non-sex-changing fisheries enjoy from marine reserves, and that often reserves tend to reduce sustainable yields for a given overall population size. Specifically, the increased egg production and high fertilization success within reserves is more than offset by the reduced egg production and fertilization success in the fished areas, relative to a system in which fishing mortality is distributed more evenly over the entire system. A key reason for this appears to be that fertilization success is reduced, on average, when males are unevenly distributed among subpopulations, as is the case when reserves are present. These findings suggests that, for sex-changing populations, reserves are more suited to rebuilding overfished populations and sustaining fishery viability

  7. Poorer right ventricular systolic function and exercise capacity in women after repair of tetralogy of fallot: a sex comparison of standard deviation scores based on sex-specific reference values in healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikouch, Samir; Boethig, Dietmar; Peters, Brigitte; Kropf, Siegfried; Dubowy, Karl-Otto; Lange, Peter; Kuehne, Titus; Haverich, Axel; Beerbaum, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    In repaired congenital heart disease, there is increasing evidence of sex differences in cardiac remodeling, but there is a lack of comparable data for specific congenital heart defects such as in repaired tetralogy of Fallot. In a prospective multicenter study, a cohort of 272 contemporary patients (158 men; mean age, 14.3±3.3 years [range, 8-20 years]) with repaired tetralogy of Fallot underwent cardiac magnetic resonance for ventricular function and metabolic exercise testing. All data were transformed to standard deviation scores according to the Lambda-Mu-Sigma method by relating individual values to their respective 50th percentile (standard deviation score, 0) in sex-specific healthy control subjects. No sex differences were observed in age at repair, type of repair conducted, or overall hemodynamic results. Relative to sex-specific controls, repaired tetralogy of Fallot in women had larger right ventricular end-systolic volumes (standard deviation scores: women, 4.35; men, 3.25; P=0.001), lower right ventricular ejection fraction (women, -2.83; men, -2.12; P=0.011), lower right ventricular muscle mass (women, 1.58; men 2.45; P=0.001), poorer peak oxygen uptake (women, -1.65; men, -1.14; Pstandard deviation scores in repaired tetralogy of Fallot suggest that women perform poorer than men in terms of right ventricular systolic function as tested by cardiac magnetic resonance and exercise capacity. This effect cannot be explained by selection bias. Further outcome data are required from longitudinal cohort studies.

  8. Sex-specific effects of daily gavage with a mixed progesterone and glucocorticoid receptor antagonist on hypoxic ventilatory response in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Stéphanie; Doan, Van Diep; Joseph, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that daily gavage with mifepristone, a mixed progesterone/glucocorticoid receptor antagonist would alter hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) in newborn male and female rats. Rats were treated with mifepristone (40µg/g/day), or vehicle between postnatal days 3-12, and used at 10-12 days of age to record baseline ventilatory and metabolic values using whole body plethysmography. HVR was tested by exposing the animals to 14% and 12% O(2) for 20 minutes each. HVR was enhanced by mifepristone treatment, mainly due to an effect on tidal volume that remained higher in mifepristone treated rats during both levels of hypoxic exposure. This effect was sex-specific being apparent only in male rats. In Vehicle treated rats, HVR was higher in females than in males, which was also due to a higher tidal volume in hypoxia (at 14 and 12% O(2)). We conclude that the activity of the progesterone and/or glucocorticoid receptors modulates respiratory control in rat pups, and that these effects are different in males and females.

  9. Disregarding population specificity: its influence on the sex assessment methods from the tibia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotěrová, A.; Velemínská, J.; Dupej, J.; Brzobohatá, Hana; Pilný, A.; Brůžek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2017), s. 251-261 ISSN 0937-9827 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : forensic anthropology population data * sex determination * tibia * population specificity * discriminant function analysis * GAME method Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 2.382, year: 2016

  10. Extraordinary sex ratios: cultural effects on ecological consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Molnár

    Full Text Available We model sex-structured population dynamics to analyze pairwise competition between groups differing both genetically and culturally. A sex-ratio allele is expressed in the heterogametic sex only, so that assumptions of Fisher's analysis do not apply. Sex-ratio evolution drives cultural evolution of a group-associated trait governing mortality in the homogametic sex. The two-sex dynamics under resource limitation induces a strong Allee effect that depends on both sex ratio and cultural trait values. We describe the resulting threshold, separating extinction from positive growth, as a function of female and male densities. When initial conditions avoid extinction due to the Allee effect, different sex ratios cannot coexist; in our model, greater female allocation always invades and excludes a lesser allocation. But the culturally transmitted trait interacts with the sex ratio to determine the ecological consequences of successful invasion. The invading female allocation may permit population persistence at self-regulated equilibrium. For this case, the resident culture may be excluded, or may coexist with the invader culture. That is, a single sex-ratio allele in females and a cultural dimorphism in male mortality can persist; a low-mortality resident trait is maintained by father-to-son cultural transmission. Otherwise, the successfully invading female allocation excludes the resident allele and culture and then drives the population to extinction via a shortage of males. Finally, we show that the results obtained under homogeneous mixing hold, with caveats, in a spatially explicit model with local mating and diffusive dispersal in both sexes.

  11. Associations of prodynorphin sequence variation with alcohol dependence and related traits are phenotype-specific and sex-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Stacey J; Preuss, Ulrich W; Geske, Jennifer R; Zill, Peter; Heit, John A; Bakalkin, Georgy; Biernacka, Joanna M; Karpyak, Victor M

    2015-10-27

    We previously demonstrated that prodynorphin (PDYN) haplotypes and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2281285 are associated with alcohol dependence and the propensity to drink in negative emotional states, and recent studies suggest that PDYN gene effects on substance dependence risk may be sex-related. We examined sex-dependent associations of PDYN variation with alcohol dependence and related phenotypes, including negative craving, time until relapse after treatment and the length of sobriety episodes before seeking treatment, in discovery and validation cohorts of European ancestry. We found a significant haplotype-by-sex interaction (p  =  0.03), suggesting association with alcohol dependence in males (p = 1E-4) but not females. The rs2281285 G allele increased risk for alcohol dependence in males in the discovery cohort (OR = 1.49, p = 0.002), with a similar trend in the validation cohort (OR = 1.35, p = 0.086). However, rs2281285 showed a trend towards association with increased negative craving in females in both the discovery (beta = 10.16, p = 0.045) and validation samples (OR = 7.11, p = 0.066). In the discovery cohort, rs2281285 was associated with time until relapse after treatment in females (HR = 1.72, p = 0.037); in the validation cohort, it was associated with increased length of sobriety episodes before treatment in males (beta = 13.49, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that sex-dependent effects of PDYN variants in alcohol dependence are phenotype-specific.

  12. Activational effects of sex hormones on cognition in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulubaev, A; Lee, D M; Purandare, N; Pendleton, N; Wu, F C W

    2009-11-01

    Changing world demographic patterns, such as the increasing number of older people and the growing prevalence of cognitive impairment, present serious obstacles to preserving the quality of life and productivity of individuals. The severity of dementia varies from subclinical, mild cognitive impairment to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. In normally ageing men, these age-related cognitive declines are accompanied by gradual but marked decreases in androgen levels and changes in other hormone profiles. While developmental effects of sex hormones on cognition in the pre- and early postnatal period have been demonstrated, their activational effects in later life are still a focus of contemporary research. Although there is a plethora of published research on the topic, results have been inconsistent with different studies reporting positive, negative or no effects of sex hormones on various aspects of mental agility. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the biological plausibility of the activational effects of sex hormones upon cognition and describes the mechanisms of their actions. It offers a comprehensive summary of the studies of the effects of sex hormones on fluid intelligence in men utilizing elements from the Cochrane Collaboration Guidelines for Reviews. The results of both observational (cross-sectional and longitudinal) and interventional studies published to date are collated in table form and further discussed in the text. Factors contributing to the difficulties in understanding the effects of sex hormones on cognition are also examined. Although there is convincing evidence that steroid sex hormones play an organizational role in brain development in men, the evidence for activational effects of sex hormones affecting cognition in healthy men throughout adult life remains inconsistent. To address this issue, a new multifactorial approach is proposed which takes into account the status of other elements of the sex hormones axis

  13. Sex, Drugs, and Cognition: Effects of Marijuana†

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Beth M.; Rizzo, Matthew; Block, Robert I.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; O'Leary, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the knowledge that many drugs affect men and women differently, few studies exploring the effects of marijuana use on cognition have included women. Findings from both animal and human studies suggest marijuana may have more marked effects in women. This study examined sex differences in the acute effects of marijuana on cognition in 70 (n= 35 male, 35 female) occasional users of marijuana. Tasks were chosen to tap a wide variety of cognitive domains affected by sex and/or marijuana i...

  14. Sex-Specific Brain Deficits in Auditory Processing in an Animal Model of Cocaine-Related Schizophrenic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2013-04-01

    either sex. Thus, the data elucidate gender-specificity to the startle response in animals. Finally, preliminary studies show the effect of cocaine on acoustic startle in tandem with effects on estrous cycle. The data further suggest that hormones may play a role in these sex differences to acoustic startle reported herein.

  15. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko eMaekawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  16. Sex-specific incidence and temporal trends in solid tumours in young people from Northern England, 1968–2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnanti, Brooke L; Dorak, M Tevfik; Parker, Louise; Craft, Alan W; James, Peter W; McNally, Richard JQ

    2008-01-01

    This study examined sex-specific patterns and temporal trends in the incidence of solid tumours in the Northern Region of England from 1968 to 2005. This updates earlier analyses from the region where sex was not considered in depth. Sex-specific analyses were carried out to determine whether sex differences might provide clues to aetiology. Details of 3576 cases, aged 0–24 years, were obtained from a specialist population-based cancer registry. There were 1843 males (886 aged 0–14 years and 957 aged 15–24 years) and 1733 females (791 aged 0–14 years and 942 aged 15–24 years). Age-standardized incidence rates (per million population) were calculated. Linear regression was used to analyze temporal trends in incidence and annual percentage changes were estimated. Analyses were stratified by sex and by age-group. There were marked differences in incidence patterns and trends between males and females and also between age-groups. For males central nervous system (CNS) tumours formed the largest proportion of under-15 cases and germ cell tumours was the largest group in the 15–24's, whilst for females CNS tumours dominated in the under-15's and carcinomas in the older group. For 0–14 year olds there were male-specific increases in the incidence of rhabdomyosarcoma (2.4% per annum; 95% CI: 0.2%–4.5%) and non-melanotic skin cancer (9.6%; 95% CI: 0.0%–19.2%) and female-specific increases for sympathetic nervous system tumours (2.2%; 95% CI: 0.4%–3.9%), gonadal germ cell tumours (8.6%; 95% CI: 4.3%–12.9%) and non-gonadal germ cell tumours (5.4%; 95% CI: 2.8%–7.9%). For 15–24 year olds, there were male-specific increases in gonadal germ cell tumours (1.9%; 95% CI: 0.3%–3.4%), non-gonadal germ cell tumours (4.4%; 95% CI: 1.1%–7.7%) and non-melanotic skin cancer (4.7%; 95% CI: 0.5%–8.9%) and female-specific increases for osteosarcoma (3.5%; 95% CI: 0.5%–6.5%), thyroid cancer (2.8%; 95% CI: 0.1%–5.6%) and melanoma (4.6%; 95% CI: 2

  17. Sex-specific differential survival of extra-pair and within-pair offspring in song sparrows, Melospiza melodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardell, Rebecca J; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Reid, Jane M

    2011-11-07

    It is widely hypothesized that the evolution of female extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous species reflects indirect genetic benefits to females. However, a critical prediction of this hypothesis, that extra-pair young (EPY) are fitter than within-pair young (WPY), has rarely been rigorously tested. We used 18 years of data from free-living song sparrows, Melospiza melodia, to test whether survival through major life-history stages differed between EPY and WPY maternal half-siblings. On average, survival of hatched chicks to independence from parental care and recruitment, and their total lifespan, did not differ significantly between EPY and WPY. However, EPY consistently tended to be less likely to survive, and recruited EPY survived for significantly fewer years than recruited WPY. Furthermore, the survival difference between EPY and WPY was sex-specific; female EPY were less likely to survive to independence and recruitment and lived fewer years than female WPY, whereas male EPY were similarly or slightly more likely to survive and to live more years than male WPY. These data indicate that extra-pair paternity may impose an indirect cost on females via their female offspring and that sex-specific genetic, environmental or maternal effects may shape extra-pair reproduction.

  18. Preconception paternal bisphenol A exposure induces sex-specific anxiety and depression behaviors in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Fan

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, an environmental endocrine-disrupting compound, has drawn a great attention for its adverse effect on behavioral development. Maternal exposure to this compound has been reported to induce anxiety and depression in offspring, but the effect of its paternal exposure is rarely discussed. This study investigated whether preconception paternal BPA exposure can affect the emotions of male rats and their offspring. Eighteen adult male rats (F0 received either a vehicle or 50 μg/kg/day BPA diet for 21 weeks and were then mated with non-exposed females to produce offspring (F1. The affective behaviors of F0 and F1 rats were evaluated in the open-field test, the elevated-plus maze and the forced swimming test, and their serum corticosterone were then examined. BPA exposure induced increased anxiety behaviors along with increased serum corticosterone in F0 rats. This paternal exposure also led to increased anxiety behaviors in F1 females and aggravated depression behaviors in both sexes of F1 rats. Furthermore, only F1 females exhibited increased serum corticosterone. Overall, these data indicate that preconception paternal exposure to a low dose of BPA may induce transgenerational sex-specific impairments in the affection of adult rats.

  19. Genetic and environmental effects on same-sex sexual behavior: a population study of twins in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Långström, Niklas; Rahman, Qazi; Carlström, Eva; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2010-02-01

    There is still uncertainty about the relative importance of genes and environments on human sexual orientation. One reason is that previous studies employed self-selected, opportunistic, or small population-based samples. We used data from a truly population-based 2005-2006 survey of all adult twins (20-47 years) in Sweden to conduct the largest twin study of same-sex sexual behavior attempted so far. We performed biometric modeling with data on any and total number of lifetime same-sex sexual partners, respectively. The analyses were conducted separately by sex. Twin resemblance was moderate for the 3,826 studied monozygotic and dizygotic same-sex twin pairs. Biometric modeling revealed that, in men, genetic effects explained .34-.39 of the variance, the shared environment .00, and the individual-specific environment .61-.66 of the variance. Corresponding estimates among women were .18-.19 for genetic factors, .16-.17 for shared environmental, and 64-.66 for unique environmental factors. Although wide confidence intervals suggest cautious interpretation, the results are consistent with moderate, primarily genetic, familial effects, and moderate to large effects of the nonshared environment (social and biological) on same-sex sexual behavior.

  20. Sex-specific effects of the local social environment on juvenile post-fledging dispersal in great tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Nicolaus, Marion; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Gibson, R.

    2011-01-01

    An individual's decision to disperse from the natal habitat can affect its future fitness prospects. Especially in species with sex-biased dispersal, we expect the cost benefit balance for dispersal to vary according to the social environment (e.g., local sex ratio and density). However, little is

  1. A father effect explains sex-ratio bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Aurelio F; Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Garde, Julián; Ballou, Jonathan D; Lacy, Robert C

    2017-08-30

    Sex ratio allocation has important fitness consequences, and theory predicts that parents should adjust offspring sex ratio in cases where the fitness returns of producing male and female offspring vary. The ability of fathers to bias offspring sex ratios has traditionally been dismissed given the expectation of an equal proportion of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm (CBS) in ejaculates due to segregation of sex chromosomes at meiosis. This expectation has been recently refuted. Here we used Peromyscus leucopus to demonstrate that sex ratio is explained by an exclusive effect of the father, and suggest a likely mechanism by which male-driven sex-ratio bias is attained. We identified a male sperm morphological marker that is associated with the mechanism leading to sex ratio bias; differences among males in the sperm nucleus area (a proxy for the sex chromosome that the sperm contains) explain 22% variation in litter sex ratio. We further show the role played by the sperm nucleus area as a mediator in the relationship between individual genetic variation and sex-ratio bias. Fathers with high levels of genetic variation had ejaculates with a higher proportion of sperm with small nuclei area. This, in turn, led to siring a higher proportion of sons (25% increase in sons per 0.1 decrease in the inbreeding coefficient). Our results reveal a plausible mechanism underlying unexplored male-driven sex-ratio biases. We also discuss why this pattern of paternal bias can be adaptive. This research puts to rest the idea that father contribution to sex ratio variation should be disregarded in vertebrates, and will stimulate research on evolutionary constraints to sex ratios-for example, whether fathers and mothers have divergent, coinciding, or neutral sex allocation interests. Finally, these results offer a potential explanation for those intriguing cases in which there are sex ratio biases, such as in humans. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Sex-specific association between functional neuropeptide S receptor gene (NPSR1) variants and cortisol and central stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Fabian; Akdeniz, Ceren; Haddad, Leila; Kumsta, Robert; Entringer, Sonja; Frank, Josef; Yim, Ilona S; Zänkert, Sandra; Witt, Stephanie H; Kirsch, Peter; Rietschel, Marcella; Wüst, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The brain neuropeptide S (NPS) system has recently generated substantial interest and may be of major relevance for central stress regulation. The NPS receptor (NPSR1) is highly expressed in the limbic system, exogenous NPS exerts pronounced anxiolytic and fear-attenuating effects in rodents and extensive close crosstalk between the NPS system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been demonstrated. In humans, associations between NPSR1 variants and anxiety and panic disorder, as well as amygdala responsiveness to fear- relevant faces and prefrontal cortex activity in a fear conditioning paradigm have been reported. Moreover, a NPSR1 sequence variant was found to be associated with cortisol stress responses in males. Here, we performed a haplotype-based analysis covering three functional NPSR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter (rs2530547), in exon 3 (rs324981) and exon 6 (rs727162) in 277 healthy subjects who were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). A significant sex-specific association with salivary cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress was detected for the common TTC haplotype 2 (frequency of about 20%). In an additional study using an imaging genetics approach, 65 healthy subjects were exposed to a stress paradigm for scanner environments (“ScanSTRESS”). We found a significant and, again, sex-specific interaction between rs324981 (whose minor T-allele is harbored by haplotype 2) and the neural stress response in a cluster close to the parahippocampal gyrus (whole brain corrected). Moreover, as in the TSST sample, NPSR1 variation was associated with salivary cortisol responses (on a trend level) in a sex-specific way. In summary, our preliminary findings in two independent cohorts exposed to different stress paradigms suggest that the NPS system significantly influences acute stress responses and that sequence variation in NPSR1 may contribute to sex differences in stress regulation. Copyright © 2016

  3. Sex-specific vitellogenin production in immature rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D.B.; Williams, D.E.

    1999-10-01

    Many xenobiotics interact with hormone systems of animals, potentially leading to a phenomenon commonly called endocrine disruption. Much attention has focused on steroid hormone systems and corresponding receptor proteins, particularly estrogens. Vitellogenin (Vg) was measured in sexually immature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) in the diet. Mixed-sex populations of trout aged 3, 6, 12, or 18 months were maintained separately and fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 or 2.5 mg/kg for 7d. Females fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 mg/kg consistently produced three- to fourfold greater amounts of Vg than similarly aged males. Age- and sex-matched fish fed E{sub 2} at 2.5 mg/kg produced equivalent amounts of Vg. Sex differences in Vg production were apparent only at a dose of E{sub 2} (0.05 mg/kg) that results in submaximal Vg induction. Their results document the importance of considering the sex of juvenile fish when using Vg production as a marker of xenoestrogen exposure.

  4. Screening of Genes Specifically Expressed in Males of Fenneropenaeus chinensis and Their Potential as Sex Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The androgenic gland (AG, playing an important role in sex differentiation of male crustacean, is a target candidate to understand the mechanism of male development and to mine male-specific sex markers. An SSH library (designated as male reproduction-related tissues—SSH library, MRT-SSH library for short was constructed using cDNA from tissues located at the basal part of the 5th pereiopods, including AG and part of spermatophore sac, as tester, and the cDNA from the basal part of the 4th pereiopods of these male shrimp as driver. 402 ESTs from the SSH library were sequenced and assembled into 48 contigs and 104 singlets. Twelve contigs and 14 singlets were identified as known genes. The proteins encoded by the identified genes were categorized, according to their proposed functions, into neuropeptide hormone and hormone transporter, RNA posttranscriptional regulation, translation, cell growth and death, metabolism, genetic information processing, signal transduction/transport, or immunity-related proteins. Eleven highly expressed contigs in the SSH library were selected for validation of the MRT-SSH library and screening sex markers of shrimp. One contig, specifically expressed in male shrimp, had a potential to be developed as a transcriptomic sex marker in shrimp.

  5. Sex-specific effects of natural and sexual selection on the evolution of life span and ageing in Drosophila simulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, C.R.; Duffy, E.; Hosken, D.J.; Mokkonen, M.; Okada, K.; Oku, K.; Sharma, M.D.; Hunt, J.

    2015-01-01

    1. Variation in the strength of age-dependent natural selection shapes differences in ageing rates across species and populations. Likewise, sexual selection can promote divergent patterns of senescence across the sexes. However, the effects of these processes on the evolution of ageing have largely

  6. Epigenetics and sex-specific fitness: an experimental test using male-limited evolution in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jessica K; Innocenti, Paolo; Chippindale, Adam K; Morrow, Edward H

    2013-01-01

    When males and females have different fitness optima for the same trait but share loci, intralocus sexual conflict is likely to occur. Epigenetic mechanisms such as genomic imprinting (in which expression is altered according to parent-of-origin) and sex-specific maternal effects have been suggested as ways by which this conflict can be resolved. However these ideas have not yet been empirically tested. We designed an experimental evolution protocol in Drosophila melanogaster that enabled us to look for epigenetic effects on the X-chromosome-a hotspot for sexually antagonistic loci. We used special compound-X females to enforce father-to-son transmission of the X-chromosome for many generations, and compared fitness and gene expression levels between Control males, males with a Control X-chromosome that had undergone one generation of father-son transmission, and males with an X-chromosome that had undergone many generations of father-son transmission. Fitness differences were dramatic, with experimentally-evolved males approximately 20% greater than controls, and with males inheriting a non-evolved X from their father about 20% lower than controls. These data are consistent with both strong intralocus sexual conflict and misimprinting of the X-chromosome under paternal inheritance. However, expression differences suggested that reduced fitness under paternal X inheritance was largely due to deleterious maternal effects. Our data confirm the sexually-antagonistic nature of Drosophila's X-chromosome and suggest that the response to male-limited X-chromosome evolution entails compensatory evolution for maternal effects, and perhaps modification of other epigenetic effects via coevolution of the sex chromosomes.

  7. Maternal effects mediated by egg quality in the Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis in relation to laying order and embryo sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caprioli Manuela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects mediated by egg size and quality may profoundly affect offspring development and performance, and mothers may adjust egg traits according to environmental or social influences. In avian species, context-dependency of maternal effects may result in variation in egg composition, as well as in differential patterns of covariation among selected egg components, according to, for example, position in the laying sequence or offspring sex. We investigated variation in major classes of egg yolk components (carotenoids, vitamins and steroid hormones in relation to egg size, position in the laying sequence and embryo sex in clutches of the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis. We also investigated their covariation, to highlight mutual adjustments, maternal constraints or trade-offs in egg allocation. Results Laying sequence-specific patterns of allocation emerged: concentration of carotenoids and vitamin E decreased, while concentrations of androgens increased. Vitamin A, estradiol and corticosterone did not show any change. There was no evidence of sex-specific allocation or covariation of yolk components. Concentrations of carotenoids and vitamins were positively correlated. Egg mass decreased along the laying sequence, and this decrease was negatively correlated with the mean concentrations of carotenoids in clutches, suggesting that nutritionally constrained females lay low quality clutches in terms of carotenoid content. Finally, clutches with smaller decline in antioxidants between first- and last-laid eggs had a larger increase in yolk corticosterone, suggesting that a smaller antioxidant depletion along the laying sequence may entail a cost for laying females in terms of increased stress levels. Conclusions Since some of the analyzed yolk components (e.g. testosterone and lutein are known to exert sex-specific phenotypic effects on the progeny in this species, the lack of sex-specific egg allocation by

  8. Purification and Initial Functions of Sex-Specific Storage Protein 2 in Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqing; Shu, Tejun; Chen, Jian; Ye, Man; Lv, Zhengbing; Nie, Zuoming; Gai, Qijing; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Yaozhou

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we identified a heat-resistant protein from the chrysalis stage of the silkworm which we named sex-specific storage protein 2 (SSP2). This protein was stable even at 80 °C, and has an amino acid sequence that is 90.65 % homologous to SP2. We utilized the heat-resistant characteristics of SSP2 to purify the protein and maintain its biological activity. In addition, using flow cytometry and the MTT assay, we found that SSP2 had anti-apoptotic effects on BmN cells, and that SSP2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by chemical factors. These results suggest that SSP2 has a cell-protective function, and provides a basis for future work on the function of storage proteins in silkworm.

  9. Sex-specific criteria for interpretation of thallium-201 myocardial uptake and washout studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovitch, M.; Suissa, S.; Elstein, J.

    1986-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the effect of gender on criteria for the quantitative analysis of exercise-redistribution 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy. The studies of 26 normal females and 23 normal males were subjected to bilinear interpolative background subtraction and horizontal profile analysis. Significant sexual differences were found in both regional uptake ratios and washout rates. These differences primarily reflected a proportionately decreased anterior and upper septal uptake in females, and faster washout in females. Faster myocardial 201 Tl washout rates in females could not be clearly ascribed to either a physiological or artifactual explanation. It is concluded that since important differences exist between males and females in the detected pattern of 201 Tl myocardial uptake and washout, sex-specific criteria may enhance the predictive accuracy of exercise-redistribution 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy

  10. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment alters Na+ uptake in renal proximal tubule cells from adult offspring in a sex-specific manner

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Yixin; Bi, Jianli; Pulgar, Victor M.; Figueroa, Jorge; Chappell, Mark; Rose, James C.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown a sex-specific effect of fetal programming on Na+ excretion in adult sheep. The site of this effect in the kidney is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) from adult male sheep exposed to betamethasone (Beta) before birth have greater Na+ uptake than do RPTCs from vehicle-exposed male sheep and that RPTCs from female sheep similarly exposed are not influenced by antenatal Beta. In isolated RPTCs from 1- to 1.5-yr-old male and femal...

  11. Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and ......Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome...

  12. Age and sex specific variation in hematological and serum biochemical parameters of Beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akrami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the age- and sex-specific changes of various haematological and blood serum biochemical blood parameters of Beluga (Huso huso were investigated. Blood samples were collected from 4-, 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old beluga (n = 7 for each sex and age. The specimens were fed at a rate of 0.5-3% body weight per day. AST and LDH levels in 7- and 8-year-old fish of both sexes were significantly higher (P<0.05 than those in 4- and 6-year-old individuals. The mean ALT were significantly different (P<0.05 in both sexes of 4-, 6-, and 7-year-old sturgeon. However, the 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old female sturgeon had higher ALP levels (P<0.05. Additionally, mean RBC, PCV, and Hb values were significantly higher (P<0.05 in 7- and 8-year-old females and males than the others. Two-tailed Pearson’s correlation between the biochemical and haematological parameters obtained for beluga sturgeon indicated significant positive correlations between AST and ALP, AST and LDH, ALP and LDH, RBC and Hb, RBC and PCV, Hb and PCV, MCH and MCHC, and MCV and MCH. However, significant negative correlations were found between RBC and MCV and MCH. These results suggest that the blood parameters of beluga are influenced by age- and sex-specific factors.

  13. Chronic metals ingestion by prairie voles produces sex-specific deficits in social behavior: an animal model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J Thomas; Hood, Amber N; Chen, Yue; Cobb, George P; Wallace, David R

    2010-11-12

    We examined the effects of chronic metals ingestion on social behavior in the normally highly social prairie vole to test the hypothesis that metals may interact with central dopamine systems to produce the social withdrawal characteristic of autism. Relative to water-treated controls, 10 weeks of chronic ingestion of either Hg(++) or Cd(++) via drinking water significantly reduced social contact by male voles when they were given a choice between isolation or contact with an unfamiliar same-sex conspecific. The effects of metals ingestion were specific to males: no effects of metals exposure were seen in females. Metals ingestion did not alter behavior of males allowed to choose between isolation or their familiar cage-mates, rather than strangers. We also examined the possibility that metals ingestion affects central dopamine functioning by testing the voles' locomotor responses to peripheral administration of amphetamine. As with the social behavior, we found a sex-specific effect of metals on amphetamine responses. Males that consumed Hg(++) did not increase their locomotor activity in response to amphetamine, whereas similarly treated females and males that ingested only water significantly increased their locomotor activities. Thus, an ecologically relevant stimulus, metals ingestion, produced two of the hallmark characteristics of autism - social avoidance and a male-oriented bias. These results suggest that metals exposure may contribute to the development of autism, possibly by interacting with central dopamine function, and support the use of prairie voles as a model organism in which to study autism. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids in cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drača Sanja

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The central and peripheral nervous system are important targets of sex steroids. Sex steroids affect the brain development and differentiation, and influence neuronal functions. Recent evidence emphasizes a striking sex-linked difference in brain damage after experimental stroke, as well as the efficacy of hormones in treating cerebral stroke injury. Several different models of cerebral ischemia have been utilized for hormone neuroprotection studies, including transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, transient global ischemia, and transient forebrain ischemia. Extensive experimental studies have shown that female sex steroids such as progesterone and 176-estradiol exert neuroprotective effects in the experimental models of stroke, although deleterious effects have also been reported. Also, a significance of numerous factors, including gender and age of experimental animals, localization of brain lesion, duration of ischemia and precise dose of steroids has been pointed out. There are multiple potential mechanisms that might be invoked to explain the beneficial effects of female sex steroids in brain injury, involving neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory properties, effects on vasculature and altered transcriptional regulation. A several clinical trials on the effects of sex hormones to traumatic brain injury have been performed, suggesting that hormone therapy may represent a new therapeutic tool to combat certain diseases, such as traumatic brain injury. Further basic science studies and randomized clinical trials are necessary to reveal a potential application of these molecules as a new therapeutic strategy.

  15. Sex differences, endogenous sex-hormone hormones, sex-hormone binding globulin, and exogenous disruptors in diabetes and related metabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Simin; Sun, Qi

    2016-12-19

    In assessing clinical and pathophysiological development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), the critical role of the sex steroids axis is underappreciated, particularly concerning the sex-specific relationships with many relevant cardiometabolic outcomes. In this issue of the Journal of Diabetes, we provide a comprehensive overview of these significant associations of germline variants in the genes governing the sex steroid pathways, plasma levels of steroid hormones, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with T2D risk that have been observed in many clinical and high-quality large prospective cohorts of men and women across ethnic populations. Together, this body of evidence indicates that sex steroids and SHBG should be routinely incorporated into clinical characterization of T2D patients, particularly in screening prediabetic patients, such as those with metabolic syndrome, using plasma levels of SHBG. Given that several germline mutations in the SHBG gene have also been directly related to both plasma concentrations of SHBG and clinical manifestation of T2D, targeting signals in the sex steroid axis, particularly SHBG, may have significant utility in the prediction and treatment of T2D. Further, many of the environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals may exert their potential adverse effects on cardiometabolic outcomes via either estrogenic or androgenic signaling pathways, highlighting the importance of using the sex steroids and SHBG as important biochemical markers in both clinical and population studies in studying sex-specific mechanisms in the pathogenesis of T2D and its complications, as well as the need to equitably allocate resources in studying both men and women. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Sex-specific features of emphysema among current and former smokers with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Megan; Foreman, Marilyn; Dransfield, Mark T; Hansel, Nadia; Han, MeiLan K; Cho, Michael H; Bhatt, Surya P; Ramsdell, Joe; Lynch, David; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Silverman, Edwin K; Washko, George; DeMeo, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that males with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have more emphysema than females. It is not known if these differences persist across degrees of COPD severity. Our aim was to identify sex-specific differences in quantitative emphysema within COPD subgroups based on COPD severity.We included non-Hispanic white and African-American subjects from the COPDGene study with at least 10 pack-years of smoking and COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometry grade II or greater. We examined sex-specific differences in log-transformed emphysema (log per cent low-attenuation area (%LAA)) by GOLD spirometry grade among subjects with early-onset COPD (25% emphysema).Compared with females, males had higher log %LAA: overall (1.97±1.4 versus 1.69±1.6, β=0.32 (0.04), p=1.34×10(-14)), and among non-Hispanic white (p=8.37×10(-14)) and African-American subjects (p=0.002). Females with early-onset COPD, severe emphysema and GOLD grade IV COPD had similar emphysema as males, but markedly fewer pack-years smoking (early-onset, p=0.01; severe emphysema and GOLD grade IV, psmokers with COPD who are particularly susceptible to parenchymal destruction. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  17. Sex differences in stress effects on emotional learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian J; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-01-02

    Stress influences emotional learning and memory processes. These effects are thought to underlie stress-associated mental disorders. Sex differences in stress reactivity and in central nervous system stress sensitivity illustrate the important modulatory role of sex hormones. This Review outlines how stress hormones influence different stages of the fear conditioning process, such as fear acquisition, extinction, and retrieval. Results will be compared with findings on the impact of stress on episodic memory. The focus is on the available human data on sex differences and the impact sex hormones have on the stress effects on emotional learning and memory. It will become apparent that the menstrual cycle but also the intake of hormonal contraceptives modulates the impact of stress on brain and behavior. Additional basic research is needed for a deeper insight regarding the interplay between stress and sex hormones in emotion and cognition. In addition, new treatment options might be derived to optimize existing strategies such as exposure therapy, which relies on the principles of fear conditioning. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sex differences in locomotor effects of morphine in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Craft, Rebecca M.; Clark, James L.; Hart, Stephen P.; Pinckney, Megan K.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in reinforcing, analgesic and other effects of opioids have been demonstrated; however, the extent to which sex differences in motoric effects of opioids contribute to apparent sex differences in their primary effects is not known. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of the prototypic mu opioid agonist morphine on locomotor activity in male vs. female rats. Saline or morphine (1-10 mg/kg) was administered s.c. to adult Sprague-Dawley rats, which were placed into ...

  19. Sex-specific effects of social networks on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jiwon; Hur, Nam Wook; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Youm, Yoosik

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension is a common chronic disease among older adults, and is associated with medical complications and mortality. This study aimed to examine the effects of social network characteristics on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among older adults. The Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) interviewed 814 ≥ 60-year-old residents and their spouses from a rural township between December 2011 and March 2012 (response rate: 95%). We evaluated the data from 595 participants. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effects of network characteristics on hypertension. We observed strong sex-specific network effects on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension. Among older women, network density was associated with hypertension awareness [odds ratio (OR): 2.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-5.37] and control (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 0.94-3.13). Among older men, large networks were associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58-0.96). Compared to older women, older men with coarse networks exhibited better hypertension awareness (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14-0.95) and control (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.91). Network size interacted with density for hypertension control (P = 0.051), with controlled hypertension being associated with large and course networks. A large network was associated with a lower risk for hypertension, and a coarse network was associated with hypertension awareness and control among older men. Older women with dense networks were most likely to exhibit hypertension awareness and control.

  20. Alcohol and Sex Offending: What Do Child Sex Offenders Think about Drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Candice M.; Jones, Lisa M.; Rivers, P. Clayton; Blum, Steven B.

    1998-01-01

    Examines relationships between general and sex-specific alcohol expectancies and drinking before offending with child sex offenders. Results show that sex-specific expectancies were the best predictor of the proportion of times the offenders reported drinking before offending. Highlights the importance of assessing expectancies related to…

  1. Casual sex-debuts among female adolescents in Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the era of HIV/AIDS epidemic understanding the nature of sexual debuts among female adolescents is critical in developing effective preventive strategies. Objectives: The objectives of the study where to investigate the specific age at sex-debuts, to identify the specific reasons for sex-debuts, and to examine ...

  2. Legal recognition of same-sex couples and family formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    It has long been debated how legalizing same-sex marriage would impact (different-sex) family formation. In this paper, I use data on OECD member countries for the period 1980–2009 to examine the effects of the legal recognition of same-sex couples (through marriage or an alternative institution......) on different-sex marriage, divorce, and extramarital births. Estimates from difference-in-difference models indicate that the introduction of same-sex marriage or of alternative institutions has no negative effects on family formation. These findings are robust to a multitude of specification checks, including...

  3. Sex-specific differences in the presenting location of a first venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheres, L J J; Brekelmans, M P A; Beenen, L F M; Büller, H R; Cannegieter, S C; Middeldorp, S

    2017-07-01

    Essentials Whether the location of venous thromboembolism (VTE) differs between the sexes is not known. Pulmonary embolism as presenting location was relatively more common in women than in men. The difference was consistent among age groups and most prominent in unprovoked VTE. The underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Background The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) differs between men and women. Some risk factors seem to influence the presenting location of VTE. Sex-specific differences in the presenting VTE location have not been studied extensively. Methods We analyzed data from the MEGA case-control study and the Hokusai-VTE study, and used published data from the RIETE registry. Data from patients with a symptomatic first VTE were included (MEGA, n = 4953; Hokusai-VTE, n = 6720; RIETE, n = 40 028). Distributions of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) and combined DVT and PE as the presenting VTE location were calculated for men and women, and presented as proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sex-specific differences were explored for different age categories and for unprovoked and provoked events. Results In the MEGA study, PE was the presenting location in 35.5% of women and in 29.5% of men with VTE (difference 6.0%, 95% CI 3.4-8.6). In the Hokusai-VTE study, these proportions were 35.1% for women and 25.2% for men (difference 10.0%, 95% CI 7.8-12.2). In the RIETE registry, PE (with or without DVT) was also observed more often as the presenting location in women (53.3%) than in men (47.7%), with a difference of 5.6% (95% CI 4.7-6.6). The observed higher proportion of PE as the presenting location in women was present in all age groups and was most prominent among unprovoked VTE events. Conclusions In three large studies, the distribution of the presenting VTE location differed consistently between the sexes, whereby PE was more often the primary location of presentation in women than in men. © 2017

  4. Conservation and Sex-Specific Splicing of the transformer Gene in the Calliphorids Cochliomyia hominivorax, Cochliomyia macellaria and Lucilia sericata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Vensko, Steven P.; Belikoff, Esther J.; Scott, Maxwell J.

    2013-01-01

    Transformer (TRA) promotes female development in several dipteran species including the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina, the Mediterranean fruit fly, housefly and Drosophila melanogaster. tra transcripts are sex-specifically spliced such that only the female form encodes full length functional protein. The presence of six predicted TRA/TRA2 binding sites in the sex-specific female intron of the L. cuprina gene suggested that tra splicing is auto-regulated as in medfly and housefly. With the aim of identifying conserved motifs that may play a role in tra sex-specific splicing, here we have isolated and characterized the tra gene from three additional blowfly species, L. sericata, Cochliomyia hominivorax and C. macellaria. The blowfly adult male and female transcripts differ in the choice of splice donor site in the first intron, with males using a site downstream of the site used in females. The tra genes all contain a single TRA/TRA2 site in the male exon and a cluster of four to five sites in the male intron. However, overall the sex-specific intron sequences are poorly conserved in closely related blowflies. The most conserved regions are around the exon/intron junctions, the 3′ end of the intron and near the cluster of TRA/TRA2 sites. We propose a model for sex specific regulation of tra splicing that incorporates the conserved features identified in this study. In L. sericata embryos, the male tra transcript was first detected at around the time of cellular blastoderm formation. RNAi experiments showed that tra is required for female development in L. sericata and C. macellaria. The isolation of the tra gene from the New World screwworm fly C. hominivorax, a major livestock pest, will facilitate the development of a “male-only” strain for genetic control programs. PMID:23409170

  5. Mitochondrial DNA paradox: sex-specific genetic structure in a marine mussel – despite maternal inheritance and passive dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teske Peter R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When genetic structure is identified using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, but no structure is identified using biparentally-inherited nuclear DNA, the discordance is often attributed to differences in dispersal potential between the sexes. Results We sampled the intertidal rocky shore mussel Perna perna in a South African bay and along the nearby open coast, and sequenced maternally-inherited mtDNA (there is no evidence for paternally-inherited mtDNA in this species and a biparentally-inherited marker. By treating males and females as different populations, we identified significant genetic structure on the basis of mtDNA data in the females only. Conclusions This is the first study to report sex-specific differences in genetic structure based on matrilineally-inherited mtDNA in a passively dispersing species that lacks social structure or sexual dimorphism. The observed pattern most likely stems from females being more vulnerable to selection in habitats from which they did not originate, which also manifests itself in a male-biased sex ratio. Our results have three important implications for the interpretation of population genetic data. First, even when mtDNA is inherited exclusively in the female line, it also contains information about males. For that reason, using it to identify sex-specific differences in genetic structure by contrasting it with biparentally-inherited markers is problematic. Second, the fact that sex-specific differences were found in a passively dispersing species in which sex-biased dispersal is unlikely highlights the fact that significant genetic structure is not necessarily a function of low dispersal potential or physical barriers. Third, even though mtDNA is typically used to study historical demographic processes, it also contains information about contemporary processes. Higher survival rates of males in non-native habitats can erase the genetic structure present in their mothers within a single

  6. Sex-specific consequences of an induced immune response on reproduction in a moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Andrea; Staudacher, Heike; Schmaltz, Antje; Heckel, David G; Groot, Astrid T

    2015-12-16

    Immune response induction benefits insects in combatting infection by pathogens. However, organisms have a limited amount of resources available and face the dilemma of partitioning resources between immunity and other life-history traits. Since males and females differ in their life histories, sex-specific resource investment strategies to achieve an optimal immune response following an infection can be expected. We investigated immune response induction of females and males of Heliothis virescens in response to the entomopathogenic bacterium Serratia entomophila, and its effects on mating success and the female sexual signal. We found that females had higher expression levels of immune-related genes after bacterial challenge than males. However, males maintained a higher baseline expression of immune-related genes than females. The increased investment in immunity of female moths was negatively correlated with mating success and the female sexual signal. Male mating success was unaffected by bacterial challenge. Our results show that the sexes differed in their investment strategies: females invested in immune defense after a bacterial challenge, indicating facultative immune deployment, whereas males had higher baseline immunity than females, indicating immune maintenance. Interestingly, these differences in investment were reflected in the mate choice assays. As female moths are the sexual signallers, females need to invest resources in their attractiveness. However, female moths appeared to invest in immunity at the cost of reproductive effort.

  7. Sex-specific allelic transmission bias suggests sexual conflict at MC1R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducret, Valérie; Gaigher, Arnaud; Simon, Céline; Goudet, Jérôme; Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    Sexual conflict arises when selection in one sex causes the displacement of the other sex from its phenotypic optimum, leading to an inevitable tension within the genome - called intralocus sexual conflict. Although the autosomal melanocortin-1-receptor gene (MC1R) can generate colour variation in sexually dichromatic species, most previous studies have not considered the possibility that MC1R may be subject to sexual conflict. In the barn owl (Tyto alba), the allele MC1RWHITE is associated with whitish plumage coloration, typical of males, and the allele MC1RRUFOUS is associated with dark rufous coloration, typical of females, although each sex can express any phenotype. Because each colour variant is adapted to specific environmental conditions, the allele MC1RWHITE may be more strongly selected in males and the allele MC1RRUFOUS in females. We therefore investigated whether MC1R genotypes are in excess or deficit in male and female fledglings compared with the expected Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Our results show an overall deficit of 7.5% in the proportion of heterozygotes in males and of 12.9% in females. In males, interannual variation in assortative pairing with respect to MC1R explained the year-specific deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, whereas in females, the deficit was better explained by the interannual variation in the probability of inheriting the MC1RWHITE or MC1RRUFOUS allele. Additionally, we observed that sons inherit the MC1RRUFOUS allele from their fathers on average slightly less often than expected under the first Mendelian law. Transmission ratio distortion may be adaptive in this sexually dichromatic species if males and females are, respectively, selected to display white and rufous plumages. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Bulked segregant analysis of the pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) genome for identification of sex-specific molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I G; Ianella, P; Faria, M T; Paiva, S R; Caetano, A R

    2013-12-04

    Arapaima gigas (Osteoglossidae) is one of the largest fish species in the Amazon Basin, attaining lengths of over 2.5 m and weights of over 100 kg. Its flesh is prized, and it has great potential for production in aquaculture systems. However, live pirarucu cannot be reliably sexed visually, even after sexual development, since this species does not have clear external sexual dimorphism. Simple and inexpensive methods for sexing immature pirarucu based on DNA markers would facilitate production of this species in commercial operations. We analyzed A. gigas male and female DNA pools with 566 RAPD primers, generating 2609 fragments, with an estimated 1341 segregating polymorphic markers, and an estimated average spacing of 714 kb, which corresponds to less than 0.1% of the species' genome. Two putative sex-specific fragments were initially identified in bulked samples; but they were not confirmed in a study of individual male and female samples. We suggest that A. gigas has developed a non-chromosomal system of sex determination or, alternatively, that the species has undergone a recent loss of the chromosome carrying the sex-determining locus.

  9. Effects of Age and Sex on Hospital Readmission in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Ying; Karmarkar, Amol; Adhikari, Deepak; Ottenbacher, Kenneth; Kuo, Yong-Fang

    2018-01-04

    To investigate the effects of age and sex on 30-, 60-, and 90-day hospital readmission after acute hospital discharge for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Retrospective cohort study. Acute hospitals and postacute discharge settings. Individuals (N=52,877) with Diagnosis Related Group codes of TBI, who were divided into 4 age groups: 18 to 40, 41 to 65, 66 to 75, and ≥76 years. Not applicable. All-cause hospital readmission. Sex differences in 30-, 60-, and 90-day hospital readmission were found among all age groups (Preadmission were in the 2 oldest groups (66-75 and ≥76y). For both sexes, the oldest group (≥76y) had the highest adjusted 90-day readmission risk (eg, 90-d readmission: odds ratio, 2.32 [95% confidence interval, 2.01-2.69] for men; odds ratio, 1.96 [95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.43] for women). Among those readmitted within 90 days, the youngest group (18-40y) had the highest cumulative readmission percentage (35% for both sexes) within the first week of hospital discharge. Age and sex were significantly associated with hospital readmission during the first 90 days postdischarge in our TBI sample. Specifically, those aged 66 to 75 or ≥76 years had the highest readmission risk over 90 days for both sexes. The findings suggest that clinicians should consider age and sex in discharge planning and for the entire episode of care for the population with TBI. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Avian sex, sex chromosomes, and dosage compensation in the age of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2014-04-01

    Comparisons of the sex chromosome systems in birds and mammals are widening our view and deepening our understanding of vertebrate sex chromosome organization, function, and evolution. Birds have a very conserved ZW system of sex determination in which males have two copies of a large, gene-rich Z chromosome, and females have a single Z and a female-specific W chromosome. The avian ZW system is quite the reverse of the well-studied mammalian XY chromosome system, and evolved independently from different autosomal blocs. Despite the different gene content of mammal and bird sex chromosomes, there are many parallels. Genes on the bird Z and the mammal X have both undergone selection for male-advantage functions, and there has been amplification of male-advantage genes and accumulation of LINEs. The bird W and mammal Y have both undergone extensive degradation, but some birds retain early stages and some mammals terminal stages of the process, suggesting that the process is more advanced in mammals. Different sex-determining genes, DMRT1 and SRY, define the ZW and XY systems, but DMRT1 is involved in downstream events in mammals. Birds show strong cell autonomous specification of somatic sex differences in ZZ and ZW tissue, but there is growing evidence for direct X chromosome effects on sexual phenotype in mammals. Dosage compensation in birds appears to be phenotypically and molecularly quite different from X inactivation, being partial and gene-specific, but both systems use tools from the same molecular toolbox and there are some signs that galliform birds represent an early stage in the evolution of a coordinated system.

  11. Identification of sex-specific urinary biomarkers for major depressive disorder by combined application of NMR- and GC-MS-based metabonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, P; Chen, J-J; Zhou, C-J; Zeng, L; Li, K-W; Sun, L; Liu, M-L; Zhu, D; Liang, Z-H; Xie, P

    2016-11-15

    Women are more vulnerable to major depressive disorder (MDD) than men. However, molecular biomarkers of sex differences are limited. Here we combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)- and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics to investigate sex differences of urinary metabolite markers in MDD, and further explore their potential of diagnosing MDD. Consequently, the metabolite signatures of women and men MDD subjects were significantly different from of that in their respective healthy controls (HCs). Twenty seven women and 36 men related differentially expressed metabolites were identified in MDD. Fourteen metabolites were changed in both women and men MDD subjects. Significantly, the women-specific (m-Hydroxyphenylacetate, malonate, glycolate, hypoxanthine, isobutyrate and azelaic acid) and men-specific (tyrosine, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, N-methylnicotinamide, indoxyl sulfate, citrate and succinate) marker panels were further identified, which could differentiate men and women MDD patients from their respective HCs with higher accuracy than previously reported sex-nonspecific marker panels. Our findings demonstrate that men and women MDD patients have distinct metabonomic signatures and sex-specific biomarkers have promising values in diagnosing MDD.

  12. Sex-specific genetic determinants for arterial stiffness in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decano, Julius L; Pasion, Khristine A; Black, Nicole; Giordano, Nicholas J; Herrera, Victoria L; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2016-01-11

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients including myocardial infarction, fatal stroke, cerebral micro-bleeds which predicts cerebral hemorrhage in hypertensive patients, as well as progression to hypertension in non-hypertensive subjects. The association between arterial stiffness and various cardiovascular outcomes (coronary heart disease, stroke) remains after adjusting for age, sex, blood pressure, body mass index and other known predictors of cardiovascular disease, suggesting that arterial stiffness, measured via carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, has a better predictive value than each of these factors. Recent evidence shows that arterial stiffening precedes the onset of high blood pressure; however their molecular genetic relationship (s) and sex-specific determinants remain uncertain. We investigated whether distinct or shared genetic determinants might underlie susceptibility to arterial stiffening in male and female Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Thus, we performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting arterial stiffness in six-week old F2 (Dahl S x R)-intercross male and female rats characterized for abdominal aortic pulse wave velocity and aortic strain by high-resolution ultrasonography. We detected five highly significant QTLs affecting aortic stiffness: two interacting QTLs (AS-m1 on chromosome 4 and AS-m2 on chromosome16, LOD 8.8) in males and two distinct interacting QTLs (AS-f1 on chromosome 9 and AS-f2 on chromosome11, LOD 8.9) in females affecting pulse wave velocity. One QTL (AS-1 on chromosome 3, LOD 4.3) was found to influence aortic strain in a sex-independent manner. None of these arterial stiffness QTLs co-localized with previously reported blood pressure QTLs detected in equivalent genetic intercrosses. These data reveal sex-specific genetic determinants for aortic pulse wave velocity and suggest distinct polygenic susceptibility for arterial stiffness and

  13. B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

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    Kohta Yoshida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85% in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.

  14. Sex-specific factors for bone density in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chieh-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Yuan; Huang, Tiao-Lai; Wang, Hong-Song; Chang, Yue-Cune; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are susceptible to low bone mineral density (BMD). Many risk factors have been suggested. However, it remains uncertain whether the risk factors differ between men and women. In addition, the study of bone density in men is neglected more often than that in women. This study aims to examine specific risk factors of low BMD in different sexes. Men (n=80) and women (n=115) with schizophrenia, similar in demographic and clinical characteristics, were enrolled in three centers. Clinical and laboratory variables (including blood levels of prolactin, sex and thyroid hormones, cortisol, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase) were collected. BMD was measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer. Men had lower BMD than women. Predictors for BMD in men included hyperprolactinemia (B=-0.821, P=0.009), body weight (B=0.024, P=0.046), and Global Assessment of Functioning score (B=0.027, P=0.043); in women, BMD was associated with menopause (B=-1.070, Pweight (B=0.027, P=0.003), and positive symptoms (B=0.094, Ploss in patients with schizophrenia. Physicians should pay particular attention to bone density in men with hyperprolactinemia and postmenopausal women. Further prospective studies in other populations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  15. Sex-Specific Patterns of Aberrant Brain Function in First-Episode Treatment-Naive Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wei; Li, Mingli; Deng, Wei; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Xiaohong; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Wanjun; Li, Yinfei; Jiang, Lijun; Han, Yuanyuan; Huang, Chaohua; Hu, Xun; Li, Tao

    2015-07-16

    Male and female patients with schizophrenia show significant differences in a number of important clinical features, yet the neural substrates of these differences are still poorly understood. Here we explored the sex differences in the brain functional aberrations in 124 treatment-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (61 males), compared with 102 age-matched healthy controls (50 males). Maps of degree centrality (DC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) were constructed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared between groups. We found that: (1) Selective DC reduction was observed in the right putamen (Put_R) in male patients and the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in female patients; (2) Functional connectivity analysis (using Put_R and MFG as seeds) found that male and female patients have disturbed functional integration in two separate networks, i.e., the sensorimotor network and the default mode network; (3) Significant ALFF alterations were also observed in these two networks in both genders; (4) Sex specific brain functional alterations were associated with various symptoms in patients. These results suggested that sex-specific patterns of functional aberration existed in schizophrenia, and these patterns were associated with the clinical features both in male and female patients.

  16. Sex-specific responses to winter flooding, spring waterlogging and post-flooding recovery in Populus deltoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ling-Feng; Yang, Fan; Han, Chun-Yu; Pu, Yu-Jin; Ding, Yang; Zhang, Li-Jia

    2017-05-31

    Winter flooding events are common in some rivers and streams due to dam constructions, and flooding and waterlogging inhibit the growth of trees in riparian zones. This study investigated sex-specific morphological, physiological and ultrastructural responses to various durations of winter flooding and spring waterlogging stresses, and post-flooding recovery characteristics in Populus deltoides. There were no significant differences in the morphological, ultrastructural and the majority of physiological traits in trees subjected to medium and severe winter flooding stresses, suggesting that males and females of P. deltoides were winter flooding tolerant, and insensitive to winter flooding duration. Males were more tolerant to winter flooding stress in terms of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence than females. Females displayed greater oxidative damage due to flooding stress than males. Males developed more efficient antioxidant enzymatic systems to control reactive oxygen species. Both sexes had similarly strong post-flooding recovery capabilities in terms of plant growth, and physiological and ultrastructural parameters. However, Males had better recovery capabilities in terms of pigment content. These results increase the understanding of poplars's adaptation to winter flooding stress. They also elucidate sex-specific differences in response to flooding stress during the dormant season, and during post-flooding recovery periods.

  17. Temporal and sex-specific variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet in the central California Current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Ryan D.; Beck, Jessie N.; Calleri, David M.; Hester, Michelle M.

    2015-06-01

    We used stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) and compared prey provided to chicks by each sex to evaluate seasonal and sex-specific diets in Rhinoceros Auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) in the central California Current system during 2012-2013. Mixing models indicated northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) were important prey for adults during fall/winter and juvenile rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) were important prey during incubation both years. Adult trophic level increased between incubation and chick-rearing periods in both years. During 2012, δ15N and δ13C of chick-rearing males and females differed significantly; mixing models indicated that females ate more Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and less market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) than males. Likewise, females delivered significantly more Pacific saury and less market squid to chicks than males during 2012. Chick growth (g d- 1) and chick survival to fledging were significantly lower during 2012 than 2013, likely because chicks were fed lesser quality prey or fed less frequently in 2012. Lesser body mass of females during incubation in 2012 indicated sex-specific diet differences may have been related to female energetic constraints. The observed variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet underscores the importance of managing multiple prey populations in this system so that generalist predators have sufficient resources through changing conditions.

  18. Sex-Specific Patterns of Aberrant Brain Function in First-Episode Treatment-Naive Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Male and female patients with schizophrenia show significant differences in a number of important clinical features, yet the neural substrates of these differences are still poorly understood. Here we explored the sex differences in the brain functional aberrations in 124 treatment-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (61 males, compared with 102 age-matched healthy controls (50 males. Maps of degree centrality (DC and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF were constructed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and compared between groups. We found that: (1 Selective DC reduction was observed in the right putamen (Put_R in male patients and the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG in female patients; (2 Functional connectivity analysis (using Put_R and MFG as seeds found that male and female patients have disturbed functional integration in two separate networks, i.e., the sensorimotor network and the default mode network; (3 Significant ALFF alterations were also observed in these two networks in both genders; (4 Sex specific brain functional alterations were associated with various symptoms in patients. These results suggested that sex-specific patterns of functional aberration existed in schizophrenia, and these patterns were associated with the clinical features both in male and female patients.

  19. Effect of Single-Sex Education on Progress in GCSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacova, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was carried out on national value-added data to study the effects of single-sex education on the progress of pupils from 2002 Key Stage 3 to 2004 GCSE. The analysis suggests that pupils in a selective environment achieve higher progress in single-sex schools; however, the advantage of single-sex schooling seems to decrease with…

  20. Sex- and habitat-specific responses of a high arctic willow, Salix arctica, to experimental climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.H.; Macdonald, S.E. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Henry, G.H.R. [Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Geography, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Dioecious plant species and those occupying diverse habitats may present special analytical problems to researchers examining effects of climate change. Here we report the results from two complementary studies designed to determine the importance of sex and habitat on gas exchange and growth of male and female individuals of a dioecious, circumpolar willow, Salix arctica, in the Canadian High Arctic. In field studies, male and female willows from dry and wet habitats were subjected to passively enhanced summer temperature ({approx} to 1.3 deg C) using small open-top chambers over three years. Peak season gas exchange varied significantly by willow sex and habitat. Overall net assimilation was higher in the dry habitat than in the wet, and higher in females than in males. In the dry habitat, net assimilation of females was enhanced by experimental warming, but decreased in males. In the wet habitat, net assimilation of females was substantially depressed by experimental warming, while males showed an inconsistent response. Development and growth of male and female catkins were enhanced by elevated temperature more than leaf fascicles, but leaf fascicle development and growth varied more between the two habitats, particularly in males. In a controlled environment study, male and female willows from these same wet and dry habitats were grown in a 2x2 factorial experiment including 1 x or 2 x ambient [CO{sub 2}] and 5 or 12 deg. C. The sexes responded very differently to the experimental treatments, but we found no effect of original habitat. Net assimilation in males was affected by the interaction of temperature and CO{sub 2}, but in females by CO{sub 2} only. Our results demonstrate (a) significant intraspecific and intersexual differences in arctic willow physiology and growth, (b) that these differences are affected by environmental conditions expected to accompany global climate change, and (c) that sex- and habitat-specific responses should be explicitly

  1. Testing the hypothesis that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine has negative non-specific and sex-differential effects on child survival in high-mortality countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine; Nielsen, Jens; Lisse, Ida Maria; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Measles vaccines (MV) have sex-differential effects on mortality not explained by protection against measles infection. The authors examined whether whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine has sex-differential and non-specific effects. Following previous reviews and a new search, the effect of DTP on mortality up to the next vaccination was assessed in all studies where DTP was given after BCG or DTP was given after MV and there was prospective follow-up after ascertainment of vaccination status. High-mortality countries in Africa and Asia. The initial observation of negative effect of DTP generated six hypotheses, which were examined in all available studies and two randomised trials reducing the time of exposure to DTP. Consistency between studies. In the first study, DTP had negative effects on survival in contrast to the beneficial effects of BCG and MV. This pattern was repeated in the six other studies available. Second, the two 'natural experiments' found significantly higher mortality for DTP-vaccinated compared with DTP-unvaccinated children. Third, the female-male mortality ratio was increased after DTP in all nine studies; in contrast, the ratio was decreased after BCG and MV in all studies. Fourth, the increased female mortality associated with high-titre measles vaccine was found only among children who had received DTP after high-titre measles vaccine. Fifth, in six randomised trials of early MV, female but not male mortality was increased if DTP was likely to be given after MV. Sixth, the mortality rate declined markedly for girls but not for boys when DTP-vaccinated children received MV. The authors reduced exposure to DTP as most recent vaccination by administering a live vaccine (MV and BCG) shortly after DTP. Both trials reduced child mortality. These observations are incompatible with DTP merely protecting against the targeted diseases. With herd immunity to whooping cough, DTP is associated with higher mortality for girls

  2. Interactive Effects of Culture and Sex Hormones on Sex Role Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda ePletzer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex role orientation, i.e. a person’s masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use, the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European. Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant’s masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity.

  3. Integrative Analysis of Sex-Specific microRNA Networks Following Stress in Mouse Nucleus Accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Madeline L; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Feng, Jian; Golden, Sam A; Aleyasin, Hossein; Lorsch, Zachary S; Cates, Hannah M; Flanigan, Meghan E; Menard, Caroline; Heshmati, Mitra; Wang, Zichen; Ma'ayan, Avi; Shen, Li; Hodes, Georgia E; Russo, Scott J

    2016-01-01

    Adult women are twice as likely as men to suffer from affective and anxiety disorders, although the mechanisms underlying heightened female stress susceptibility are incompletely understood. Recent findings in mouse Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) suggest a role for DNA methylation-driven sex differences in genome-wide transcriptional profiles. However, the role of another epigenetic process-microRNA (miR) regulation-has yet to be explored. We exposed male and female mice to Subchronic Variable Stress (SCVS), a stress paradigm that produces depression-like behavior in female, but not male, mice, and performed next generation mRNA and miR sequencing on NAc tissue. We applied a combination of differential expression, miR-mRNA network and functional enrichment analyses to characterize the transcriptional and post-transcriptional landscape of sex differences in NAc stress response. We find that male and female mice exhibit largely non-overlapping miR and mRNA profiles following SCVS. The two sexes also show enrichment of different molecular pathways and functions. Collectively, our results suggest that males and females mount fundamentally different transcriptional and post-transcriptional responses to SCVS and engage sex-specific molecular processes following stress. These findings have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of stress-related disorders in women.

  4. The sex-specific associations of the aromatase gene with Alzheimer's disease and its interaction with IL10 in the Epistasis Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medway, Christopher; Combarros, Onofre; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Butler, Helen T; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Koudstaal, Peter J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ikram, M Arfan; Mateo, Ignacio; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Lehmann, Michael G; Heun, Reinhard; Kölsch, Heike; Deloukas, Panos; Hammond, Naomi; Coto, Eliecer; Alvarez, Victoria; Kehoe, Patrick G; Barber, Rachel; Wilcock, Gordon K; Brown, Kristelle; Belbin, Olivia; Warden, Donald R; Smith, A David; Morgan, Kevin; Lehmann, Donald J

    2014-02-01

    Epistasis between interleukin-10 (IL10) and aromatase gene polymorphisms has previously been reported to modify the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, although the main effects of aromatase variants suggest a sex-specific effect in AD, there has been insufficient power to detect sex-specific epistasis between these genes to date. Here we used the cohort of 1757 AD patients and 6294 controls in the Epistasis Project. We replicated the previously reported main effects of aromatase polymorphisms in AD risk in women, for example, adjusted odds ratio of disease for rs1065778 GG=1.22 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.48, P=0.03). We also confirmed a reported epistatic interaction between IL10 rs1800896 and aromatase (CYP19A1) rs1062033, again only in women: adjusted synergy factor=1.94 (1.16-3.25, 0.01). Aromatase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of estrogens, is expressed in AD-relevant brain regions ,and is downregulated during the disease. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Given that estrogens have neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities and regulate microglial cytokine production, epistasis is biologically plausible. Diminishing serum estrogen in postmenopausal women, coupled with suboptimal brain estrogen synthesis, may contribute to the inflammatory state, that is a pathological hallmark of AD.

  5. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks' GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks' GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks' GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetuses that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences.

  6. Functional specificity of sex pheromone receptors in the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available Male moths can accurately perceive the sex pheromone emitted from conspecific females by their highly accurate and specific olfactory sensory system. Pheromone receptors are of special importance in moth pheromone reception because of their central role in chemosensory signal transduction processes that occur in olfactory receptor neurons in the male antennae. There are a number of pheromone receptor genes have been cloned, however, only a few have been functionally characterized. Here we cloned six full-length pheromone receptor genes from Helicoverpa armigera male antennae. Real-time PCR showing all genes exhibited male-biased expression in adult antennae. Functional analyses of the six pheromone receptor genes were then conducted in the heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes. HarmOR13 was found to be a specific receptor for the major sex pheromone component Z11-16:Ald. HarmOR6 was equally tuned to both of Z9-16: Ald and Z9-14: Ald. HarmOR16 was sensitively tuned to Z11-16: OH. HarmOR11, HarmOR14 and HarmOR15 failed to respond to the tested candidate pheromone compounds. Our experiments elucidated the functions of some pheromone receptor genes of H. armigera. These advances may provide remarkable evidence for intraspecific mating choice and speciation extension in moths at molecular level.

  7. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, E Keith; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2015-03-01

    A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed, and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability overproduced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also overproduced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that parents are

  8. Sex-specific differences of craniofacial traits in Croatia: the impact of environment in a small geographic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buretic-Tomljanovic, Alena; Giacometti, Jasminka; Ostojic, Sasa; Kapovic, Miljenko

    2007-01-01

    , characterized by higher average sunshine duration, higher average precipitation and higher average air temperatures, was associated with longer, higher and narrower skulls, higher head circumference, lower cephalic index, and higher and narrower faces (lower facial index). Calcium concentrations in drinking water did not correlate significantly with any dependent variable. A significant effect of environmental factors on body height and craniofacial variability was found in Croatian young adult population. This effect was more pronounced in females, revealing sex-specific craniofacial differentiation. However, the impact of environment was low and may explain only 1.0-7.32% variation of the investigated traits.

  9. BISPHENOL A EXPOSURE DURING EARLY DEVELOPMENT INDUCES SEX-SPECIFIC CHANGES IN ADULT ZEBRAFISH SOCIAL INTERACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniel N.; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Hoke, Elizabeth S.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure is associated with adverse behavioral effects, although underlying modes of action remain unclear. Because BPA is a suspected xenoestrogen, the objective was to identify sex-based changes in adult zebrafish social behavior developmentally exposed to BPA (0.0, 0.1 or 1 μM) or one of two control compounds (0.1μM 17β-estradiol [E2], and 0.1 μM GSK4716, a synthetic estrogen-related receptor γ ligand). A test chamber was divided lengthwise so each arena held one fish unable to detect the presence of the other fish. A mirror was inserted at one end of each arena; baseline activity levels were determined without mirror. Arenas were divided into 3, computer-generated zones to represent different distances from mirror image. Circadian rhythm patterns were evaluated at 1–3 (= AM) and 5–8 (= PM) hr postprandial. Adult zebrafish were placed into arenas and monitored by digital camera for 5 min. Total distance traveled, % time spent at mirror image, and number of attacks on mirror image were quantified. E2, GSK4716, and all BPA treatments dampened male activity and altered male circadian activity patterns; there was no marked effect on female activity. BPA induced non-monotonic effects (response curve changes direction within range of concentrations examined) on male % time at mirror only in AM. All treatments produced increased % time at the mirror during PM. Male attacks on the mirror were reduced by BPA exposure only during AM. There were sex-specific effects of developmental BPA on social interactions and time-of-day of observation affected results. PMID:25424546

  10. Sex and death: the effects of innate immune factors on the sexual reproduction of malaria parasites.

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    Ricardo S Ramiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites must undergo a round of sexual reproduction in the blood meal of a mosquito vector to be transmitted between hosts. Developing a transmission-blocking intervention to prevent parasites from mating is a major goal of biomedicine, but its effectiveness could be compromised if parasites can compensate by simply adjusting their sex allocation strategies. Recently, the application of evolutionary theory for sex allocation has been supported by experiments demonstrating that malaria parasites adjust their sex ratios in response to infection genetic diversity, precisely as predicted. Theory also predicts that parasites should adjust sex allocation in response to host immunity. Whilst data are supportive, the assumptions underlying this prediction - that host immune responses have differential effects on the mating ability of males and females - have not yet been tested. Here, we combine experimental work with theoretical models in order to investigate whether the development and fertility of male and female parasites is affected by innate immune factors and develop new theory to predict how parasites' sex allocation strategies should evolve in response to the observed effects. Specifically, we demonstrate that reactive nitrogen species impair gametogenesis of males only, but reduce the fertility of both male and female gametes. In contrast, tumour necrosis factor-α does not influence gametogenesis in either sex but impairs zygote development. Therefore, our experiments demonstrate that immune factors have complex effects on each sex, ranging from reducing the ability of gametocytes to develop into gametes, to affecting the viability of offspring. We incorporate these results into theory to predict how the evolutionary trajectories of parasite sex ratio strategies are shaped by sex differences in gamete production, fertility and offspring development. We show that medical interventions targeting offspring development are more likely

  11. Pre-learning stress that is temporally removed from acquisition exerts sex-specific effects on long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Warnecke, Ashlee J; Woelke, Sarah A; Burke, Hanna M; Frigo, Rachael M; Pisansky, Julia M; Lyle, Sarah M; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2013-02-01

    We have examined the influence of sex and the perceived emotional nature of learned information on pre-learning stress-induced alterations of long-term memory. Participants submerged their dominant hand in ice cold (stress) or warm (no stress) water for 3 min. Thirty minutes later, they studied 30 words, rated the words for their levels of emotional valence and arousal and were then given an immediate free recall test. Twenty-four hours later, participants' memory for the word list was assessed via delayed free recall and recognition assessments. The resulting memory data were analyzed after categorizing the studied words (i.e., distributing them to "positive-arousing", "positive-non-arousing", "negative-arousing", etc. categories) according to participants' valence and arousal ratings of the words. The results revealed that participants exhibiting a robust cortisol response to stress exhibited significantly impaired recognition memory for neutral words. More interestingly, however, males displaying a robust cortisol response to stress demonstrated significantly impaired recall, overall, and a marginally significant impairment of overall recognition memory, while females exhibiting a blunted cortisol response to stress demonstrated a marginally significant impairment of overall recognition memory. These findings support the notion that a brief stressor that is temporally separated from learning can exert deleterious effects on long-term memory. However, they also suggest that such effects depend on the sex of the organism, the emotional salience of the learned information and the degree to which stress increases corticosteroid levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dissociable effects of Sry and sex chromosome complement on activity, feeding and anxiety-related behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsida, Eleni; Lynn, Phoebe M; Humby, Trevor; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Davies, William

    2013-01-01

    Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine 'four core genotype' (FCG) model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression) and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry ('sex chromosome complement' effects) to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry) exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry); in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes) XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water) consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i) the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii) dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions.

  13. Dissociable effects of Sry and sex chromosome complement on activity, feeding and anxiety-related behaviours in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Kopsida

    Full Text Available Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine 'four core genotype' (FCG model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry ('sex chromosome complement' effects to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry; in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions.

  14. Sex differences in DNA methylation and expression in zebrafish brain: a test of an extended 'male sex drive' hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Rodger, Euan J; Zhen, Li; Stockwell, Peter A; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Horsfield, Julia A; Jeyakani, Justin; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Ozaki, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2016-09-30

    The sex drive hypothesis predicts that stronger selection on male traits has resulted in masculinization of the genome. Here we test whether such masculinizing effects can be detected at the level of the transcriptome and methylome in the adult zebrafish brain. Although methylation is globally similar, we identified 914 specific differentially methylated CpGs (DMCs) between males and females (435 were hypermethylated and 479 were hypomethylated in males compared to females). These DMCs were prevalent in gene body, intergenic regions and CpG island shores. We also discovered 15 distinct CpG clusters with striking sex-specific DNA methylation differences. In contrast, at transcriptome level, more female-biased genes than male-biased genes were expressed, giving little support for the male sex drive hypothesis. Our study provides genome-wide methylome and transcriptome assessment and sheds light on sex-specific epigenetic patterns and in zebrafish for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. What was the ancestral sex-determining mechanism in amniote vertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2016-02-01

    Amniote vertebrates, the group consisting of mammals and reptiles including birds, possess various mechanisms of sex determination. Under environmental sex determination (ESD), the sex of individuals depends on the environmental conditions occurring during their development and therefore there are no sexual differences present in their genotypes. Alternatively, through the mode of genotypic sex determination (GSD), sex is determined by a sex-specific genotype, i.e. by the combination of sex chromosomes at various stages of differentiation at conception. As well as influencing sex determination, sex-specific parts of genomes may, and often do, develop specific reproductive or ecological roles in their bearers. Accordingly, an individual with a mismatch between phenotypic (gonadal) and genotypic sex, for example an individual sex-reversed by environmental effects, should have a lower fitness due to the lack of specialized, sex-specific parts of their genome. In this case, evolutionary transitions from GSD to ESD should be less likely than transitions in the opposite direction. This prediction contrasts with the view that GSD was the ancestral sex-determining mechanism for amniote vertebrates. Ancestral GSD would require several transitions from GSD to ESD associated with an independent dedifferentiation of sex chromosomes, at least in the ancestors of crocodiles, turtles, and lepidosaurs (tuataras and squamate reptiles). In this review, we argue that the alternative theory postulating ESD as ancestral in amniotes is more parsimonious and is largely concordant with the theoretical expectations and current knowledge of the phylogenetic distribution and homology of sex-determining mechanisms. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  16. Sex Genotyping of Archival Fixed and Immunolabeled Guinea Pig Cochleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depreux, Frédéric F; Czech, Lyubov; Whitlon, Donna S

    2018-03-26

    For decades, outbred guinea pigs (GP) have been used as research models. Various past research studies using guinea pigs used measures that, unknown at the time, may be sex-dependent, but from which today, archival tissues may be all that remain. We aimed to provide a protocol for sex-typing archival guinea pig tissue, whereby past experiments could be re-evaluated for sex effects. No PCR sex-genotyping protocols existed for GP. We found that published sequence of the GP Sry gene differed from that in two separate GP stocks. We used sequences from other species to deduce PCR primers for Sry. After developing a genomic DNA extraction for archival, fixed, decalcified, immunolabeled, guinea pig cochlear half-turns, we used a multiplex assay (Y-specific Sry; X-specific Dystrophin) to assign sex to tissue as old as 3 years. This procedure should allow reevaluation of prior guinea pig studies in various research areas for the effects of sex on experimental outcomes.

  17. Sex differences in the psychopharmacological treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramek, John J; Murphy, Michael F; Cutler, Neal R

    2016-12-01

    Although a number of studies have observed that females respond better to serotonergic antidepressants than males and that postmenopausal females have a diminished response to antidepressants compared with younger females, there are also studies that conflict with both of these findings, making any generalizations regarding sex differences difficult to make. Sex variance in antidepressant efficacy and pharmacokinetics profiles have been attributed to sex-based physiological differences, behavioral differences, related disorders, and sex-specific conditions, including pregnancy and menopause. This paper will review the history and current research on sex effects of antidepressant treatment.

  18. Cytological studies of human meiosis: sex-specific differences in recombination originate at, or prior to, establishment of double-strand breaks.

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    Jennifer R Gruhn

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is sexually dimorphic in most mammalian species, including humans, but the basis for the male:female differences remains unclear. In the present study, we used cytological methodology to directly compare recombination levels between human males and females, and to examine possible sex-specific differences in upstream events of double-strand break (DSB formation and synaptic initiation. Specifically, we utilized the DNA mismatch repair protein MLH1 as a marker of recombination events, the RecA homologue RAD51 as a surrogate for DSBs, and the synaptonemal complex proteins SYCP3 and/or SYCP1 to examine synapsis between homologs. Consistent with linkage studies, genome-wide recombination levels were higher in females than in males, and the placement of exchanges varied between the sexes. Subsequent analyses of DSBs and synaptic initiation sites indicated similar male:female differences, providing strong evidence that sex-specific differences in recombination rates are established at or before the formation of meiotic DSBs. We then asked whether these differences might be linked to variation in the organization of the meiotic axis and/or axis-associated DNA and, indeed, we observed striking male:female differences in synaptonemal complex (SC length and DNA loop size. Taken together, our observations suggest that sex specific differences in recombination in humans may derive from chromatin differences established prior to the onset of the recombination pathway.

  19. Sex differences and stress across the lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in stress responses can be found at all stages of life and are related to both the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones and to genes on the sex chromosomes. As stress dysregulation is the most common feature across neuropsychiatric diseases, sex differences in how these pathways develop and mature may predict sex-specific periods of vulnerability to disruption and increased disease risk or resilience across the lifespan. The aging brain is also at risk to the effects of stress, where the rapid decline of gonadal hormones in women combined with cellular aging processes promote sex biases in stress dysregulation. In this Review, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms driving sex differences in stress responses and their relevance to disease. Although stress is involved in a much broader range of diseases than neuropsychiatric ones, we highlight here this area and its examples across the lifespan. PMID:26404716

  20. Sex differences and stress across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill

    2015-10-01

    Sex differences in stress responses can be found at all stages of life and are related to both the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones and to genes on the sex chromosomes. As stress dysregulation is the most common feature across neuropsychiatric diseases, sex differences in how these pathways develop and mature may predict sex-specific periods of vulnerability to disruption and increased disease risk or resilience across the lifespan. The aging brain is also at risk to the effects of stress, where the rapid decline of gonadal hormones in women combined with cellular aging processes promote sex biases in stress dysregulation. In this Review, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms driving sex differences in stress responses and their relevance to disease. Although stress is involved in a much broader range of diseases than neuropsychiatric ones, we highlight here this area and its examples across the lifespan.

  1. Sex Effects of Marijuana on Brain Structure and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Ketcherside, Ariel; Baine, Jessica; Filbey, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Background Tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), the primary ingredient in marijuana, exerts its effects across several neurological and biological systems that interact with the endocrine system. Thus, differential effects of ?9-THC are likely to exist based on sex and hormone levels. Methods We reviewed the existing literature to determine sex-based effects of ?9-THC on neural structure and functioning. Results The literature demonstrates differences in male and female marijuana users on brain str...

  2. The Effect of Parental Modeling on Child Pain Responses: The Role of Parent and Child Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Katelynn E; Chambers, Christine T; McGrath, Patrick J; LoLordo, Vincent; Uher, Rudolf

    2017-06-01

    Social modeling is a process by which pain behaviors are learned, and research has found parents act as models for their children's behavior. Despite social learning theory predicting that same-sex models have greater effect, no experimental investigation to date has examined the role of sex of the model or observer in social learning of pediatric pain. The present study recruited 168 parent-child dyads (equal father-son, father-daughter, mother-son, and mother-daughter dyads) in which children were generally healthy and 6 to 8 years old. Unbeknownst to their child, parents were randomly assigned to exaggerate their expression of pain, minimize their expression of pain, or act naturally during the cold pressor task (CPT). Parents completed the CPT while their child observed, then children completed the CPT themselves. Children whose parents were in the exaggerate condition reported higher anxiety than children of parents in the minimize condition. Additionally, girls in the exaggerate condition rated their overall pain intensity during the CPT significantly higher than boys in the same condition. No child sex differences were observed in pain intensity for the control or minimize conditions. Parent expressions of pain affects children's anxiety, and sex-specific effects of parental exaggerated pain expression on children's own subsequent pain experience are present. This article describes how parental expressions of pain influence children's pain and anxiety, specifically examining the relevance of parent and child sex in this process. These findings have implications for children of parents with chronic pain, or situations in which parents experience pain in the presence of their child (eg, vaccinations). Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gametogenesis in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas: a microarrays-based analysis identifies sex and stage specific genes.

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    Nolwenn M Dheilly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca, Lophotrochozoa is an alternative and irregular protandrous hermaphrodite: most individuals mature first as males and then change sex several times. Little is known about genetic and phenotypic basis of sex differentiation in oysters, and little more about the molecular pathways regulating reproduction. We have recently developed and validated a microarray containing 31,918 oligomers (Dheilly et al., 2011 representing the oyster transcriptome. The application of this microarray to the study of mollusk gametogenesis should provide a better understanding of the key factors involved in sex differentiation and the regulation of oyster reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression was studied in gonads of oysters cultured over a yearly reproductive cycle. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering showed a significant divergence in gene expression patterns of males and females coinciding with the start of gonial mitosis. ANOVA analysis of the data revealed 2,482 genes differentially expressed during the course of males and/or females gametogenesis. The expression of 434 genes could be localized in either germ cells or somatic cells of the gonad by comparing the transcriptome of female gonads to the transcriptome of stripped oocytes and somatic tissues. Analysis of the annotated genes revealed conserved molecular mechanisms between mollusks and mammals: genes involved in chromatin condensation, DNA replication and repair, mitosis and meiosis regulation, transcription, translation and apoptosis were expressed in both male and female gonads. Most interestingly, early expressed male-specific genes included bindin and a dpy-30 homolog and female-specific genes included foxL2, nanos homolog 3, a pancreatic lipase related protein, cd63 and vitellogenin. Further functional analyses are now required in order to investigate their role in sex differentiation in oysters

  4. The effect of sex on the repeatability of evolution in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Josianne; Colegrave, Nick

    2017-04-01

    The adaptive function of sex has been extensively studied, while less consideration has been given to the potential downstream consequences of sex on evolution. Here, we investigate one such potential consequence, the effect of sex on the repeatability of evolution. By affecting the repeatability of evolution, sex could have important implications for biodiversity, and for our ability to make predictions about the outcome of environmental change. We allowed asexual and sexual populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to evolve in novel environments and monitored both their change in fitness and variance in fitness after evolution. Sex affected the repeatability of evolution by changing the importance of the effect of selection, chance, and ancestral constraints on the outcome of the evolutionary process. In particular, the effects of sex were highly dependent on the initial genetic composition of the population and on the environment. Given the lack of a consistent effect of sex on repeatability across the environments used here, further studies to dissect in more detail the underlying reasons for these differences as well as studies in additional environments are required if we are to have a general understanding of the effects of sex on the repeatability of evolution. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Sex-dependent effects of cannabis-induced analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    Preclinical studies demonstrate that cannabinoid-mediated antinociceptive effects vary according to sex; it is unknown if these findings extend to humans. This retrospective analysis compared the analgesic, subjective and physiological effects of active cannabis (3.56-5.60% THC) and inactive cannabis (0.00% THC) in male (N=21) and female (N=21) cannabis smokers under double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions. Pain response was measured using the Cold-Pressor Test (CPT). Participants immersed their hand in cold water (4°C); times to report pain (pain sensitivity) and withdraw the hand (pain tolerance) were recorded. Subjective drug ratings were also measured. Among men, active cannabis significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to inactive cannabis (pcannabis failed to decrease pain sensitivity relative to inactive. Active cannabis increased pain tolerance in both men women immediately after smoking (pcannabis also increased subjective ratings of cannabis associated with abuse liability ('Take again,' 'Liking,' 'Good drug effect'), drug strength, and 'High' relative to inactive in both men and women (pcannabis smokers, men exhibit greater cannabis-induced analgesia relative to women. These sex-dependent differences are independent of cannabis-elicited subjective effects associated with abuse-liability, which were consistent between men and women. As such, sex-dependent differences in cannabis's analgesic effects are an important consideration that warrants further investigation when considering the potential therapeutic effects of cannabinoids for pain relief. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The women's heart health programme: a pilot trial of sex-specific cardiovascular management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ting Ting; Chan, Siew Pang; Wai, Shin Hnin; Ang, Zhou; Kyu, Kyu; Lee, Kim Yee; Ching, Anne; Comer, Sarah; Tan, Naomi Qiu Pin; Thong, Elizabeth Grace Hui En; Nang, Tracy; Dutta, Mohan; Lam, Carolyn S P

    2018-04-16

    There is increasing knowledge of sex-specific differences in cardiovascular disease and recognition of sex disparities in management. In our study, we investigated whether a cardiovascular programme tailored to the specific needs of women could lead to improved outcomes. We randomised 100 female patients to receive cardiology follow-up with the conventional sex-neutral cardiac programme (control), or the sex-tailored Women's Heart Health Programme (intervention). The intervention group was managed by an all-women multidisciplinary team and received culture-centred health intervention workshops, designed through in-depth interviews with the participants. The primary outcome was cardiovascular risk factor improvement at 1 year. Secondary outcomes include cardiovascular event rates, quality of life scores, and self-reported improvement in knowledge, attitudes, intentions and practices. Generalised structural equation model analysis was used to determine if the intervention group had better outcomes at alpha level 0.1. The mean age was 67.3 ± 12.7 years, with an ethnic distribution of 70% Chinese, 18% Malays, and 12% Indians. The majority of these patients had no formal or primary level of education (63%), and were mostly unemployed (78%). Patients in intervention group had better control of diabetes mellitus (lower HbA1c of 0.63% [CI 0.21-1.04], p = 0.015) and lower body-mass-index (0.74 kg/m 2 [CI 0.02-1.46], p = 0.092) at 1 year, but there was no significant difference in blood pressure or lipid control. Overall, there was a trend towards better risk factor control, 31.6% of intervention group versus 26.5% of control group achieved improvement in at least 1 CV risk factor control to target range. There was no significant difference in incidence of cardiovascular events, quality of life, or domains in knowledge, attitudes, intention and practices. This pilot study is the first of its kind evaluating a new model of care for women with heart disease

  7. Sex-related and tissue-specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy: assessment in a large longitudinal cohort of healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eDuriez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy in a large cohort of healthy elderly participants (65 to 80 years. MRI was used for measuring whole brain (WB, gray matter (GM, white matter (WM, and hippocampus (HIP volumes at study entry time (baseline, N=1,451, and the annualized rates of variation of these volumes using a 4-year follow-up MRI in a subpart of the cohort (N=1,111. Effects of smoking status (never, former, or current smoker at study entry and of lifetime tobacco consumption on these brain phenotypes were studied using sex-stratified AN(COVAs, including other health parameters as covariates. At baseline, male current smokers had lower GM, while female current smokers had lower WM. In addition, female former smokers exhibited reduced baseline HIP, the reduction being correlated with lifetime tobacco consumption. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that current smokers, whether men or women, had larger annualized rates of HIP atrophy, as compared to either current or former smokers, independent of their lifetime consumption of tobacco. There was no effect of smoking on the annualized rate of WM loss. In all cases, measured sizes of these tobacco-smoking effects were of the same order of magnitude than those of age, and larger than effect sizes of any other covariate. These results demonstrate gender- and tissue specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy. They indicate that tobacco smoking is a major factor of brain aging, with notable effects on the hippocampus annualized-rate of atrophy after the age of 65.

  8. Sex differences in the effects of juvenile and adult diet on age-dependent reproductive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houslay, T M; Hunt, J; Tinsley, M C; Bussière, L F

    2015-05-01

    Sexual selection should cause sex differences in patterns of resource allocation. When current and future reproductive effort trade off, variation in resource acquisition might further cause sex differences in age-dependent investment, or in sensitivity to changes in resource availability over time. However, the nature and prevalence of sex differences in age-dependent investment remain unclear. We manipulated resource acquisition at juvenile and adult stages in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and assessed effects on sex-specific allocation to age-dependent reproductive effort (calling in males, fecundity in females) and longevity. We predicted that the resource and time demands of egg production would result in relatively consistent female strategies across treatments, whereas male investment should depend sharply on diet. Contrary to expectations, female age-dependent reproductive effort diverged substantially across treatments, with resource-limited females showing much lower and later investment in reproduction; the highest fecundity was associated with intermediate lifespans. In contrast, long-lived males always signalled more than short-lived males, and male age-dependent reproductive effort did not depend on diet. We found consistently positive covariance between male reproductive effort and lifespan, whereas diet altered this covariance in females, revealing sex differences in the benefits of allocation to longevity. Our results support sex-specific selection on allocation patterns, but also suggest a simpler alternative: males may use social feedback to make allocation decisions and preferentially store resources as energetic reserves in its absence. Increased calling effort with age therefore could be caused by gradual resource accumulation, heightened mortality risk over time, and a lack of feedback from available mates. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary

  9. Adaptive allocation of attention : effects of sex and sociosexuality on visual attention to attractive opposite-sex faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, Lesley A.; Park, Justin H.; Faulkner, Jason; Schaller, Mark; Neuberg, Steven L.; Kenrick, Douglas T.

    We tested the hypothesis that, compared with sociosexually restricted individuals, those with an unrestricted approach to mating would selectively allocate visual attention to attractive opposite-sex others. We also tested for sex differences in this effect. Seventy-four participants completed the

  10. The ecology of sex explains patterns of helping in arthropod societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Nicholas G; Ross, Laura; Gardner, Andy

    2016-08-01

    Across arthropod societies, sib-rearing (e.g. nursing or nest defence) may be provided by females, by males or by both sexes. According to Hamilton's 'haplodiploidy hypothesis', this diversity reflects the relatedness consequences of diploid vs. haplodiploid inheritance. However, an alternative 'preadaptation hypothesis' instead emphasises an interplay of ecology and the co-option of ancestral, sexually dimorphic traits for sib-rearing. The preadaptation hypothesis has recently received empirical support, but remains to be formalised. Here, we mathematically model the coevolution of sex-specific helping and sex allocation, contrasting these hypotheses. We find that ploidy per se has little effect. Rather, the ecology of sex shapes patterns of helping: sex-specific preadaptation strongly influences who helps; a freely adjustable sex ratio magnifies sex biases and promotes helping; and sib-mating, promiscuity, and reproductive autonomy also modulate the sex and abundance of helpers. An empirical survey reveals that patterns of sex-specific helping in arthropod taxa are consistent with the preadaptation hypothesis. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2014-02-01

    It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a "registered partnership") and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988-2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995-2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings in the aggregate analysis. The effects of the two laws are heterogeneous, with presumably more-liberal individuals (as defined by their residence or ethnicity) marrying less after passage of both laws and potentially more-conservative individuals marrying more after passage of each law.

  12. Age- and sex-specific mortality patterns in an emerging wildlife epidemic: the phocine distemper in European harbour seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Härkönen

    Full Text Available Analyses of the dynamics of diseases in wild populations typically assume all individuals to be identical. However, profound effects on the long-term impact on the host population can be expected if the disease has age and sex dependent dynamics. The Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV caused two mass mortalities in European harbour seals in 1988 and in 2002. We show the mortality patterns were highly age specific on both occasions, where young of the year and adult (>4 yrs animals suffered extremely high mortality, and sub-adult seals (1-3 yrs of both sexes experienced low mortality. Consequently, genetic differences cannot have played a main role explaining why some seals survived and some did not in the study region, since parents had higher mortality levels than their progeny. Furthermore, there was a conspicuous absence of animals older than 14 years among the victims in 2002, which strongly indicates that the survivors from the previous disease outbreak in 1988 had acquired and maintained immunity to PDV. These specific mortality patterns imply that contact rates and susceptibility to the disease are strongly age and sex dependent variables, underlining the need for structured epidemic models for wildlife diseases. Detailed data can thus provide crucial information about a number of vital parameters such as functional herd immunity. One of many future challenges in understanding the epidemiology of the PDV and other wildlife diseases is to reveal how immune system responses differ among animals in different stages during their life cycle. The influence of such underlying mechanisms may also explain the limited evidence for abrupt disease thresholds in wild populations.

  13. Prenatal particulate air pollution exposure and body composition in urban preschool children: Examining sensitive windows and sex-specific associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Wilson, Ander; Coull, Brent A; Pendo, Mathew P; Baccarelli, Andrea; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Taveras, Elsie M; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-10-01

    Evolving animal studies and limited epidemiological data show that prenatal air pollution exposure is associated with childhood obesity. Timing of exposure and child sex may play an important role in these associations. We applied an innovative method to examine sex-specific sensitive prenatal windows of exposure to PM 2.5 on anthropometric measures in preschool-aged children. Analyses included 239 children born ≥ 37 weeks gestation in an ethnically-mixed lower-income urban birth cohort. Prenatal daily PM 2.5 exposure was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporal model. Body mass index z-score (BMI-z), fat mass, % body fat, subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, waist and hip circumferences and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed at age 4.0 ± 0.7 years. Using Bayesian distributed lag interaction models (BDLIMs), we examined sex differences in sensitive windows of weekly averaged PM 2.5 levels on these measures, adjusting for child age, maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Mothers were primarily Hispanic (55%) or Black (26%), had ≤ 12 years of education (66%) and never smoked (80%). Increased PM 2.5 exposure 8-17 and 15-22 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased BMI z-scores and fat mass in boys, but not in girls. Higher PM 2.5 exposure 10-29 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased WHR in girls, but not in boys. Prenatal PM 2.5 was not significantly associated with other measures of body composition. Estimated cumulative effects across pregnancy, accounting for sensitive windows and within-window effects, were 0.21 (95%CI = 0.01-0.37) for BMI-z and 0.36 (95%CI = 0.12-0.68) for fat mass (kg) in boys, and 0.02 (95%CI = 0.01-0.03) for WHR in girls, all per µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 . Increased prenatal PM 2.5 exposure was more strongly associated with indices of increased whole body size in boys and with an indicator of body shape in girls. Methods to better characterize

  14. Voluntary Wheel Running Reduces the Acute Inflammatory Response to Liver Carcinogen in a Sex-specific Manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, M L; Gehl, Julie; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2017-01-01

    demonstrated to inhibit tumor growth, including diethylnitrosamine-(DEN)-induced hepatocarcinoma. Having observed a sex-dependent development of DEN-induced hepatocarcinoma, we aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise and sex on the acute inflammatory response to DEN. Thus, we randomized male and female mice...

  15. Fetal sex-specific differences in gestational age at delivery in pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Arends, Lidia R.; Alsaker, Elin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a major pregnancy disorder complicating up to 8% of pregnancies. Increasing evidence indicates a sex-specific interplay between the mother,placenta and fetus. This may lead to different adaptive mechanisms during pregnancy. Methods: We performed an individual...... fetus as compared with pregnancies with a male fetus (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.17-1.59). Conclusions: Sexual dimorphic differences in the occurrence of PE exist, with preterm PE being more prevalent among pregnancies with a female fetus as compared with pregnancies with a male fetus and with no differences...

  16. Sex hormone activity in alcohol addiction: integrating organizational and activational effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Bernd; Müller, Christian P; Stoessel, Christina; Sperling, Wolfgang; Biermann, Teresa; Hillemacher, Thomas; Bleich, Stefan; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    There are well-known sex differences in the epidemiology and etiopathology of alcohol dependence. Male gender is a crucial risk factor for the onset of alcohol addiction. A directly modifying role of testosterone in alcohol addiction-related behavior is well established. Sex hormones exert both permanent (organizational) and transient (activational) effects on the human brain. The sensitive period for these effects lasts throughout life. In this article, we present a novel early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction. We propose that early exposure to sex hormones triggers structural (organizational) neuroadaptations. These neuroadaptations affect cellular and behavioral responses to adult sex hormones, sensitize the brain's reward system to the reinforcing properties of alcohol and modulate alcohol addictive behavior later in life. This review outlines clinical findings related to the early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction (handedness, the second-to-fourth-finger length ratio, and the androgen receptor and aromatase) and includes clinical and preclinical literature regarding the activational effects of sex hormones in alcohol drinking behavior. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axes and the opioid system in mediating the relationship between sex hormone activity and alcohol dependence. We conclude that a combination of exposure to sex hormones in utero and during early development contributes to the risk of alcohol addiction later in life. The early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex and caste-specific variation in compound eye morphology of five honeybee species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Streinzer

    Full Text Available Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana. In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the

  18. [Age- and sex-specific reference intervals for 10 health examination items: mega-data from a Japanese Health Service Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suka, Machi; Yoshida, Katsumi; Kawai, Tadashi; Aoki, Yoshikazu; Yamane, Noriyuki; Yamauchi, Kuniaki

    2005-07-01

    To determine age- and sex-specific reference intervals for 10 health examination items in Japanese adults. Health examination data were accumulated from 24 different prefectural health service associations affiliated with the Japan Association of Health Service. Those who were non-smokers, drank less than 7 days/week, and had a body mass index of 18.5-24.9kg/m2 were sampled as a reference population (n = 737,538; 224,947 men and 512,591 women). After classified by age and sex, reference intervals for 10 health examination items (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, uric acid, AST, ALT, gamma-GT, and hemoglobin) were estimated using the parametric and nonparametric methods. In every item except for hemoglobin, men had higher reference intervals than women. Systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and glucose showed an upward trend in values with increasing age. Hemoglobin showed a downward trend in values with increasing age. Triglyceride, ALT, and gamma-GT reached a peak in middle age. Overall, parametric estimates showed narrower reference intervals than non-parametric estimates. Reference intervals vary with age and sex. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals may contribute to better assessment of health examination data.

  19. Mendelian randomization shows sex-specific associations between long-chain PUFA-related genotypes and cognitive performance in Danish schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Sorensen, Louise B.; Harslof, Laurine B.

    2017-01-01

    , and performance in the d2 Test of Attention and a reading test were analyzed in multiple regression models including all SNPs, SNP-sex interactions, and covariates related to testing conditions.Results:FADS, rs1535 minor allele carriage associated with lower whole-blood arachidonic acid (P ≤ 0.002), and minor...... alleles of rs174448 tended to associate with lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (P = 0.052). We identified sex interactions in 50% of the SNP performance sets. Sex-dependent associations were observed for rs174448 and rs1535 on the d2 Test of Attention outcomes (P ... reading scores and rs174448 and rs2397142 (P sex-specific analyses showed associations in opposite directions in girls and boys. The minor allele carriage of rs174448 was associated with lower d2 Test of Attention performance (P

  20. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Andersen, Anders D.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of fish oil (FO) on infant growth, but little is known about the effects of FO and sex on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the main regulator of growth in childhood. We explored whether FO v. sunflower oil (SO) supplementation from 9 to 18 months...... of age affected IGF-1 and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and whether the potential effects were sex specific. Danish infants (n 115) were randomly allocated to 5 ml/d FO (1·2 g/d n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA)) or SO. We measured growth, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and erythrocyte EPA, a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA...... intake and status, at 9 and 18 months. Erythrocyte EPA increased strongly with FO compared with SO (PIGF-1 in the total population, but a sex×group interaction (P=0·02). Baseline-adjusted IGF-1 at 18 months was 11·1 µg/l (95 % CI 0·4, 21·8;P=0...

  1. Annual variation in the levels of transcripts of sex-specific genes in the mantle of the common mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Anantharaman

    Full Text Available Mytilus species are used as sentinels for the assessment of environmental health but sex or stage in the reproduction cycle is rarely considered even though both parameters are likely to influence responses to pollution. We have validated the use of a qPCR assay for sex identification and related the levels of transcripts to the reproductive cycle. A temporal study of mantle of Mytilus edulis found transcripts of male-specific vitelline coat lysin (VCL and female-specific vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL could identify sex over a complete year. The levels of VCL/VERL were proportional to the numbers of sperm/ova and are indicative of the stage of the reproductive cycle. Maximal levels of VCL and VERL were found in February 2009 declining to minima between July - August before increasing and re-attaining a peak in February 2010. Water temperature may influence these transitions since they coincide with minimal water temperature in February and maximal temperature in August. An identical pattern of variation was found for a cryptic female-specific transcript (H5 but a very different pattern was observed for oestrogen receptor 2 (ER2. ER2 varied in a sex-specific way with male > female for most of the cycle, with a female maxima in July and a male maxima in December. Using artificially spawned animals, the transcripts for VCL, VERL and H5 were shown to be present in gametes and thus their disappearance from mantle is indicative of spawning. VCL and VERL are present at equivalent levels in February and July-August but during gametogenesis (August to January and spawning (March to June VCL is present at lower relative amounts than VERL. This may indicate sex-specific control mechanisms for these processes and highlight a potential pressure point leading to reduced reproductive output if environmental factors cause asynchrony to gamete maturation or release.

  2. Protective effects of middle school comprehensive sex education with family involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M; Tracy, Allison J; Charmaraman, Linda; Ceder, Ineke; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-11-01

    School-based comprehensive sex education programs can reduce early adolescents' risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year comprehensive sex education program in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students and whether the family component of the intervention contributes to its effectiveness. This longitudinal evaluation followed a cohort of 6th graders (N = 2453) through the end of 8th grade. The design used random assignment of 24 schools into treatment and comparison conditions. The analysis included multiple-group logistic regression to assess differences in delay of sex between intervention and comparison groups. In schools where the program was taught, 16% fewer boys and 15% fewer girls had had sex by the end of 8th grade compared to boys and girls at comparison schools. Completing family activities during the first year of the program predicted delayed sexual debut for boys. Theory-based, developmentally appropriate, comprehensive sex education programs that include parent involvement can be effective in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students. Parent involvement is particularly important for boys, as family activities may encourage parents to talk with their sons earlier and more frequently. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  3. The science of sex and gender in human health: online courses to create a foundation for sex and gender accountability in biomedical research and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank-Bazinet, Jennifer L; Sampson, Annie; Miller, Leah R; Fadiran, Emmanuel O; Kallgren, Deborah; Agarwal, Rajeev K; Barfield, Whitney; Brooks, Claudette E; Begg, Lisa; Mistretta, Amy C; Scott, Pamela E; Clayton, Janine Austin; Cornelison, Terri L

    2016-01-01

    Sex and gender differences play a significant role in the course and outcome of conditions that affect specific organ systems in the human body. Research on differences in the effects of medical intervention has helped scientists develop a number of sex- and gender-specific guidelines on the treatment and management of these conditions. An online series of courses, "The Science of Sex and Gender in Human Health," developed by the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Office of Women's Health, examines sex and gender differences and their implications. Thus far, three online courses have been generated. The first course offers an overview of the scientific and biological basis for sex- and gender-related differences. The second course is focused on disease-specific sex and gender differences in health and behavior and their implications. Finally, the third course covers the influence of sex and gender on disease manifestation, treatment, and outcome. Data were obtained using website analytics and post-course surveys. To date, over 1000 individuals have completed at least one course. Additionally, 600 users have received continuing education credit for completing a course in the series. Finally, the majority of respondents to the online course survey have indicated that the courses considerably enhanced their professional effectiveness. "The Science of Sex and Gender in Human Health" online courses are freely available sources of information that provide healthcare providers and researchers with the resources to successfully account for sex and gender in their medical practice and research programs.

  4. Genetic detection of sex-specific dispersal in historical and contemporary populations of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2004-01-01

    The study of sex-biased dispersal has attracted considerable attention in birds and mammals, but less in other taxa, including fishes. We analysed sex-specific dispersal in historical (1910s and 1950s) and contemporary (1990s) samples of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta. We tested the hypothesis...... that dispersal is unbiased using information from microsatellite DNA and applying an assignment index for 11 temporally and spatially separated samples. Our results are most consistent with brown trout dispersal being male biased, and provide no evidence of female bias. We found no evidence that dispersal...

  5. Observations of parent reactions to sex-stereotyped behaviors: age and sex effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, B I; Hagan, R

    1991-06-01

    To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves.

  6. Maternal fructose and/or salt intake and reproductive outcome in the rat: effects on growth, fertility, sex ratio, and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Clint; Long, Sophie; Green, Charlotte; Gardiner, Sheila M; Craigon, Jim; Gardner, David S

    2013-09-01

    Maternal diet can significantly skew the secondary sex ratio away from the expected value of 0.5 (proportion males), but the details of how diet may do this are unclear. Here, we altered dietary levels of salt (4% salt in the feed) and/or fructose (10% in the drinking water) of pregnant rats to model potential effects that consumption of a "Western diet" might have on maternofetal growth, development, and sex ratio. We demonstrate that excess fructose consumption before and during pregnancy lead to a marked skew in the secondary sex ratio (proportion of males, 0.60; P < 0.006). The effect was not mediated by selective developmental arrest of female embryos or influenced by fetal position in the uterine horn or sex-specific effects on sperm motility, suggesting a direct effect of glycolyzable monosaccharide on the maternal ovary and/or ovulated oocyte. Furthermore, combined excess maternal consumption of salt and fructose-sweetened beverage significantly reduced fertility, reflected as a 50% reduction in preimplantation and term litter size. In addition, we also noted birth order effects in the rat, with sequential implantation sites tending to be occupied by the same sex.

  7. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  8. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  9. Neurogenin 3 Mediates Sex Chromosome Effects on the Generation of Sex Differences in Hypothalamic Neuronal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Julia Scerbo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The organizational action of testosterone during critical periods of development is the cause of numerous sex differences in the brain. However, sex differences in neuritogenesis have been detected in primary neuronal hypothalamic cultures prepared before the peak of testosterone production by fetal testis. In the present study we assessed the hypothesis of that cell-autonomous action of sex chromosomes can differentially regulate the expression of the neuritogenic gene neurogenin 3 (Ngn3 in male and female hypothalamic neurons, generating sex differences in neuronal development. Neuronal cultures were prepared from male and female E14 mouse hypothalami, before the fetal peak of testosterone. Female neurons showed enhanced neuritogenesis and higher expression of Ngn3 than male neurons. The silencing of Ngn3 abolished sex differences in neuritogenesis, decreasing the differentiation of female neurons. The sex difference in Ngn3 expression was determined by sex chromosomes, as demonstrated using the four core genotypes mouse model, in which a spontaneous deletion of the testis-determining gene Sry from the Y chromosome was combined with the insertion of the Sry gene onto an autosome. In addition, the expression of Ngn3, which is also known to mediate the neuritogenic actions of estradiol, was increased in the cultures treated with the hormone, but only in those from male embryos. Furthermore, the hormone reversed the sex differences in neuritogenesis promoting the differentiation of male neurons. These findings indicate that Ngn3 mediates both cell-autonomous actions of sex chromosomes and hormonal effects on neuritogenesis.

  10. Sex-specific nonlinear associations between serum lipids and different domains of cognitive function in middle to older age individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhui; An, Yu; Yu, Huanling; Che, Fengyuan; Zhang, Xiaona; Rong, Hongguo; Xi, Yuandi; Xiao, Rong

    2017-08-01

    To examine how serum lipids relates to specific cognitive ability domains between the men and women in Chinese middle to older age individuals. A complete lipid panel was obtained from 1444 individuals, ages 50-65, who also underwent a selection of cognitive tests. Participants were 584 men and 860 women from Linyi city, Shandong province. Multiple linear regression analyses examined serum lipids level as quadratic predictors of sex-specific measure of performance in different cognitive domains, which were adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. In men, a significant quadratic effect of total cholesterol (TC) was identified for Digit Symbol (B = -0.081, P = 0.044) and also quadratic effect of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was identified for Trail Making Test B (B = -0.082, P = 0.045). Differently in women, there were significant quadratic associations between high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and multiple neuropsychological tests. The nonlinear lipid-cognition associations differed between men and women and were specific to certain cognitive domains and might be of potential relevance for prevention and therapy of cognitive decline.

  11. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: Evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A.; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks’ GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks’ GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks’ GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetus that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences. PMID:19726143

  12. Sex-specific patterns in abundance, temporary emigration and survival of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus in coastal and estuarine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate R Sprogis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inherent difficulties in determining the sex of free-ranging sexually monomorphic species often prevents a sex-specific focus on estimating abundance, movement patterns and survival rates. This study provides insights into sex-specific population parameters of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus. Systematic, boat-based photo-identification surveys (n = 417 were conducted year-round from 2007-2013 in coastal and estuarine waters off Bunbury, Western Australia. Pollock’s Robust Design was used to quantify population parameters for three datasets: i adults and juveniles combined, ii adult females and iii adult males. For all datasets, abundance estimates varied seasonally, with general highs during summer and/or autumn, and lows during winter. Dolphins had seasonally structured temporary emigration rates with similar trends between sexes. The derived return rate (1-γ’ of temporary emigrants into the study area was highest from winter to spring, indicating that dolphins had a high probability of return into the study area during spring. We suggest that the return of dolphins into the study area and increase in abundance is influenced by the breeding season (summer/autumn. Prey availability is likely a main driver responsible for the movement of dolphins out of the study area during winter. Seasonal apparent survival rates were constant and high (0.98-0.99 for all datasets. High apparent survival rates suggest there is no permanent emigration from the study area. Our sex-specific modeling approach offers a comprehensive interpretation of the population dynamics of a top predator in a coastal and estuarine environment and acts as a model for future sex-based population studies on sexually monomorphic species.

  13. The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: Evidence from the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical...... to marriage (a “registered partnership”) and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988–2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different......-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995–2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings...

  14. National sex work policy and HIV prevalence among sex workers: an ecological regression analysis of 27 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Steele, Sarah; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Amato-Gauci, Andrew; Semenza, Jan C

    2017-03-01

    Sex workers are disproportionately affected by HIV compared with the general population. Most studies of HIV risk among sex workers have focused on individual-level risk factors, with few studies assessing potential structural determinants of HIV risk. In this Article, we examine whether criminal laws around sex work are associated with HIV prevalence among female sex workers. We estimate cross-sectional, ecological regression models with data from 27 European countries on HIV prevalence among sex workers from the European Centre for Disease Control; sex-work legislation from the US State Department's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices and country-specific legal documents; the rule of law and gross-domestic product per capita, adjusted for purchasing power, from the World Bank; and the prevalence of injecting drug use among sex workers. Although data from two countries include male sex workers, the numbers are so small that the findings here essentially pertain to prevalence in female sex workers. Countries that have legalised some aspects of sex work (n=17) have significantly lower HIV prevalence among sex workers than countries that criminalise all aspects of sex work (n=10; β=-2·09, 95% CI -0·80 to -3·37; p=0·003), even after controlling for the level of economic development (β=-1·86; p=0·038) and the proportion of sex workers who are injecting drug users (-1·93; p=0·026). We found that the relation between sex work policy and HIV among sex workers might be partly moderated by the effectiveness and fairness of enforcement, suggesting legalisation of some aspects of sex work could reduce HIV among sex workers to the greatest extent in countries where enforcement is fair and effective. Our findings suggest that the legalisation of some aspects of sex work might help reduce HIV prevalence in this high-risk group, particularly in countries where the judiciary is effective and fair. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Copyright

  15. Primate brain architecture and selection in relation to sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenfors, Patrik; Nunn, Charles L; Barton, Robert A

    2007-05-10

    Social and competitive demands often differ between the sexes in mammals. These differing demands should be expected to produce variation in the relative sizes of various brain structures. Sexual selection on males can be predicted to influence brain components handling sensory-motor skills that are important for physical competition or neural pathways involving aggression. Conversely, because female fitness is more closely linked to ecological factors and social interactions that enable better acquisition of resources, social selection on females should select for brain components important for navigating social networks. Sexual and social selection acting on one sex could produce sexual dimorphism in brain structures, which would result in larger species averages for those same brain structures. Alternatively, sex-specific selection pressures could produce correlated effects in the other sex, resulting in larger brain structures for both males and females of a species. Data are presently unavailable for the sex-specific sizes of brain structures for anthropoid primates, but under either scenario, the effects of sexual and social selection should leave a detectable signal in average sizes of brain structures for different species. The degree of male intra-sexual selection was positively correlated with several structures involved in autonomic functions and sensory-motor skills, and in pathways relating to aggression and aggression control. The degree of male intra-sexual selection was not correlated with relative neocortex size, which instead was significantly positively correlated with female social group size, but negatively correlated with male group size. Sexual selection on males and social selection on females have exerted different effects on primate brain architecture. Species with a higher degree of male intra-sexual selection carry a neural signature of an evolutionary history centered on physical conflicts, but no traces of increased demands on

  16. Primate brain architecture and selection in relation to sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunn Charles L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and competitive demands often differ between the sexes in mammals. These differing demands should be expected to produce variation in the relative sizes of various brain structures. Sexual selection on males can be predicted to influence brain components handling sensory-motor skills that are important for physical competition or neural pathways involving aggression. Conversely, because female fitness is more closely linked to ecological factors and social interactions that enable better acquisition of resources, social selection on females should select for brain components important for navigating social networks. Sexual and social selection acting on one sex could produce sexual dimorphism in brain structures, which would result in larger species averages for those same brain structures. Alternatively, sex-specific selection pressures could produce correlated effects in the other sex, resulting in larger brain structures for both males and females of a species. Data are presently unavailable for the sex-specific sizes of brain structures for anthropoid primates, but under either scenario, the effects of sexual and social selection should leave a detectable signal in average sizes of brain structures for different species. Results The degree of male intra-sexual selection was positively correlated with several structures involved in autonomic functions and sensory-motor skills, and in pathways relating to aggression and aggression control. The degree of male intra-sexual selection was not correlated with relative neocortex size, which instead was significantly positively correlated with female social group size, but negatively correlated with male group size. Conclusion Sexual selection on males and social selection on females have exerted different effects on primate brain architecture. Species with a higher degree of male intra-sexual selection carry a neural signature of an evolutionary history centered on

  17. KCNE1 D85N polymorphism — a sex-specific modifier in type 1 long QT syndrome?

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    Marjamaa Annukka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long QT syndrome (LQTS is an inherited ion channel disorder manifesting with prolongation of the cardiac repolarization phase and severe ventricular arrhythmias. The common KCNE1 D85N potassium channel variant prolongs QT interval by inhibiting IKs (KCNQ1 and IKr (KCNH2 currents and is therefore a suitable candidate for a modifier gene in LQTS. Methods We studied the effect of D85N on age-, sex-, and heart rate-adjusted QT-interval duration by linear regression in LQTS patients carrying the Finnish founder mutations KCNQ1 G589D (n = 492, KCNQ1 IVS7-2A>G (n = 66, KCNH2 L552S (n = 73, and KCNH2 R176W (n = 88. We also investigated the association between D85N and clinical variables reflecting the severity of the disease. Results D85N was associated with a QT prolongation by 26 ms (SE 8.6, p = 0.003 in males with KCNQ1 G589D (n = 213, but not in females with G589D (n = 279. In linear regression, the interaction between D85N genotype and sex was significant (p = 0.028. Within the KCNQ1 G589D mutation group, KCNE1 D85N carriers were more often probands of the family (p = 0.042 and were more likely to use beta blocker medication (p = 0.010 than non-carriers. The number of D85N carriers in other founder mutation groups was too small to assess its effects. Conclusions We propose that KCNE1 D85N is a sex-specific QT-interval modifier in type 1 LQTS and may also associate with increased severity of disease. Our data warrant additional studies on the role of KCNE1 D85N in other genetically homogeneous groups of LQTS patients.

  18. Sex differences and serotonergic mechanisms in the behavioural effects of psilocin.

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    Tylš, Filip; Páleníček, Tomáš; Kadeřábek, Lukáš; Lipski, Michaela; Kubešová, Anna; Horáček, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Psilocybin has recently attracted a great deal of attention as a clinical research and therapeutic tool. The aim of this paper is to bridge two major knowledge gaps regarding its behavioural pharmacology - sex differences and the underlying receptor mechanisms. We used psilocin (0.25, 1 and 4 mg/kg), an active metabolite of psilocybin, in two behavioural paradigms - the open-field test and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reaction. Sex differences were evaluated with respect to the phase of the female cycle. The contribution of serotonin receptors in the behavioural action was tested in male rats with selective serotonin receptor antagonists: 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (WAY100635 1 mg/kg), 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (MDL100907 0.5 mg/kg), 5-HT2B receptor antagonist (SB215505 1 mg/kg) and 5-HT2C receptor antagonist (SB242084 1 mg/kg). Psilocin induced dose-dependent inhibition of locomotion and suppression of normal behaviour in rats (behavioural serotonin syndrome, impaired PPI). The effects were more pronounced in male rats than in females. The inhibition of locomotion was normalized by 5-HT1A and 5-HT2B/C antagonists; however, PPI was not affected significantly by these antagonists. Our findings highlight an important issue of sex-specific reactions to psilocin and that apart from 5-HT2A-mediated effects 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C/B receptors also play an important role. These findings have implications for recent clinical trials.

  19. Sex-specific influences of mtDNA mitotype and diet on mitochondrial functions and physiological traits in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen C Aw

    Full Text Available Here we determine the sex-specific influence of mtDNA type (mitotype and diet on mitochondrial functions and physiology in two Drosophila melanogaster lines. In many species, males and females differ in aspects of their energy production. These sex-specific influences may be caused by differences in evolutionary history and physiological functions. We predicted the influence of mtDNA mutations should be stronger in males than females as a result of the organelle's maternal mode of inheritance in the majority of metazoans. In contrast, we predicted the influence of diet would be greater in females due to higher metabolic flexibility. We included four diets that differed in their protein: carbohydrate (P:C ratios as they are the two-major energy-yielding macronutrients in the fly diet. We assayed four mitochondrial function traits (Complex I oxidative phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, and mtDNA copy number and four physiological traits (fecundity, longevity, lipid content, and starvation resistance. Traits were assayed at 11 d and 25 d of age. Consistent with predictions we observe that the mitotype influenced males more than females supporting the hypothesis of a sex-specific selective sieve in the mitochondrial genome caused by the maternal inheritance of mitochondria. Also, consistent with predictions, we found that the diet influenced females more than males.

  20. Piloting a Sex-Specific, Technology-Enhanced, Active Learning Intervention for Stroke Prevention in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirickson, Amanda; Stutzman, Sonja E; Alberts, Mark J; Novakovic, Roberta L; Stowe, Ann M; Beal, Claudia C; Goldberg, Mark P; Olson, DaiWai M

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies reveal deficiencies in stroke awareness and knowledge of risk factors among women. Existing stroke education interventions may not address common and sex-specific risk factors in the population with the highest stroke-related rate of mortality. This pilot study assessed the efficacy of a technology-enhanced, sex-specific educational program ("SISTERS") for women's knowledge of stroke. This was an experimental pretest-posttest design. The sample consisted of 150 women (mean age, 55 years) with at least 1 stroke risk factor. Participants were randomized to either the intervention (n = 75) or control (n = 75) group. Data were collected at baseline and at a 2-week posttest. There was no statistically significant difference in mean knowledge score (P = .67), mean confidence score (P = .77), or mean accuracy score (P = .75) between the intervention and control groups at posttest. Regression analysis revealed that older age was associated with lower knowledge scores (P < .001) and lower confidence scores (P < .001). After controlling for age, the SISTERS program was associated with a statistically significant difference in knowledge (P < .001) and confidence (P < .001). Although no change occurred overall, after controlling for age, there was a statistically significant benefit. Older women may have less comfort with technology and require consideration for cognitive differences.

  1. Sex-Specific Associations Between Self-reported Sleep Duration, Cardiovascular Disease, Hypertension, and Mortality in an Elderly Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Anders; Wahlin, Ake; Alehagen, Urban; Ulander, Martin; Johansson, Peter

    2017-01-05

    Both short and long sleep durations have been associated to increased mortality. Knowledge about sex-specific differences among elderly regarding associations between sleep duration, cardiovascular health, and mortality is sparse. The aims of this study are to examine the association between self-reported sleep duration and mortality and to investigate whether this association is sex specific and/or moderated by cardiovascular morbidity, and also to explore potential mediators of sleep duration effects on mortality. A population-based, observational, cross-sectional design with 6-year follow-up with mortality as primary outcome was conducted. Self-rated sleep duration, clinical examinations, echocardiography, and blood samples (N-terminal fragment of proBNP) were collected. A total of 675 persons (50% women; mean age, 78 years) were divided into short sleepers (≤6 hours; n = 231), normal sleepers (7-8 hours; n = 338), and long sleepers (≥9 hours; n = 61). Data were subjected to principal component analyses. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension factors were extracted and used as moderators and as mediators in the regression analyses. During follow-up, 55 short sleepers (24%), 68 normal sleepers (20%), and 21 long sleepers (34%) died. Mediator analyses showed that long sleep was associated with mortality in men (hazard ratio [HR], 1.8; P = .049), independently of CVD and hypertension. In men with short sleep, CVD acted as a moderator of the association with mortality (HR, 4.1; P = .025). However, when using N-terminal fragment of proBNP, this effect became nonsignificant (HR, 3.1; P = .06). In woman, a trend to moderation involving the hypertension factor and short sleep was found (HR, 4.6; P = .09). Short and long sleep duration may be seen as risk markers, particularly among older men with cardiovascular morbidity.

  2. Oceanic, Latitudinal, and Sex-Specific Variation in Demography of a Tropical Deepwater Snapper across the Indo-Pacific Region

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    Ashley J. Williams

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Deepwater tropical fisheries provide an important source of income and protein to Pacific and Indian Ocean coastal communities who are highly dependent on fish for food security. The development of quantitative assessments and management strategies for these deepwater fisheries has been hindered by insufficient biological and fisheries data. We examine the age-specific demography of the pygmy ruby snapper Etelis carbunculus, an important target species in tropical deepwater fisheries, across 90° of longitude and 20° of latitude in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Our results show that growth of E. carbunculus varies significantly between oceans and sexes and across latitudes in both oceans. Estimates of natural and fishing mortality were similar between oceans, but higher for females than males in both oceans. Evidence of greater fishing pressure on females than males is likely due to the larger size-at-age of females compared to males, assuming that selectivity of the fishing gear is related directly to fish size. Sex ratios were significantly female biased in both oceans despite this species being gonochoristic, and maturity schedules were similar between sexes in the Pacific Ocean. This species exhibits a protracted spawning season from mid-spring to autumn (i.e., October to May in the Pacific Ocean. These results represent the first estimates of age-specific demographic parameters for E. carbunculus, and provide the foundation for the development of the first species-specific assessment models and harvest strategies for the species. Future stock assessment models for E. carbunculus should consider sex-specific demographic parameters and spatial variation in demography. Our results reveal substantial differences in biology between E. carbunculus and the giant ruby snapper E. sp., a cryptic congeneric species, and thus contribute to greater clarity in managing fisheries that are dependent on these two species. Furthermore, the improved

  3. Sex identification of four penguin species using locus-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peijun; Han, Jiabo; Liu, Quansheng; Zhang, Junxin; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods for sex identification are not applicable to sexually monomorphic species, leading to difficulties in the management of their breeding programs. To identify sex in sexually monomorphic birds, molecular methods have been established. Two established primer pairs (2550F/2718R and p8/p2) amplify the CHD1 gene region from both the Z and W chromosomes. Here, we evaluated the use of these primers for sex identification in four sexually monomorphic penguin species: king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome), gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua), and Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). For all species except rockhopper penguins, primer pair 2550F/2718R resulted in two distinct CHD1Z and CHD1W PCR bands, allowing for sex identification. For rockhopper penguins, only primer pair p8/p2 yielded different CHD1Z and CHD1W bands, which were faint and similar in size making them difficult to distinguish. As a result, we designed a new primer pair (PL/PR) that efficiently determined the gender of individuals from all four penguin species. Sequencing of the PCR products confirmed that they were from the CHD1 gene region. Primer pair PL/PR can be evaluated for use in sexing other penguin species, which will be crucial for the management of new penguin breeding programs. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sex work among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Bogotá.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    This qualitative study examined sex work among internally displaced male and transgender female sex workers in Bogotá, Colombia. Internal displacement has occurred in Colombia as a result of decades of conflict among armed groups and has created large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Informed by the polymorphous model of sex work, which posits that contextual conditions shape the experience of sex work, we examined three main research questions. The first dealt with how internal displacement was related to the initiation of sex work; the second concerned the effect of agency on sex worker satisfaction; and the third examined how sex work in this context was related to HIV and other risks. Life history interviews were conducted with 26 displaced individuals who had done sex work: 14 were men who have sex with men and 12 were transgender women (natal males). Findings revealed that many participants began doing sex work in the period immediately after displacement, because of a lack of money, housing, and social support. HIV risk was greater during this time due to limited knowledge of HIV and inexperience negotiating safer sex with clients. Other findings indicated that sex workers who exerted more control and choice in the circumstances of their work reported greater satisfaction. In addition, we found that although many sex workers insisted on condom use with clients, several noted that they would sometimes have unprotected sex for additional money. Specific characteristics affecting the experience of sex work among the transgender women were also discussed.

  5. Protective Effects of Middle School Comprehensive Sex Education with Family Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Tracy, Allison J.; Charmaraman, Linda; Ceder, Ineke; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-01-01

    Background: School-based comprehensive sex education programs can reduce early adolescents' risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year comprehensive sex education program in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students and whether the family component of the intervention contributes to its…

  6. Sex-specific phenotypes of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rakov, Helena; Engels, Kathrin; H?nes, Georg Sebastian; Strucksberg, Karl-Heinz; Moeller, Lars Christian; K?hrle, Josef; Zwanziger, Denise; F?hrer, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid dysfunction is more common in the female population, however, the impact of sex on disease characteristics has rarely been addressed. Using a murine model, we asked whether sex has an influence on phenotypes, thyroid hormone status, and thyroid hormone tissue response in hyper- and hypothyroidism. Methods Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced in 5-month-old female and male wildtype C57BL/6N mice, by LoI/MMI/ClO4 ? or T4 i.p. treatment over 7?weeks, and control animals unde...

  7. Age, Sex, and Dose Effects of Nonbenzodiazepine Hypnotics on Hip Fracture in Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, David D; Zullo, Andrew R; Mor, Vincent; Lee, Yoojin; Berry, Sarah D

    2018-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recommends a reduced dose of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics in women, yet little is known about the age-, sex-, and dose-specific effects of these drugs on risk of hip fracture, especially among nursing home (NH) residents. We estimated the age-, sex-, and dose-specific effects of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics on the rate of hip fracture among NH residents. Case-crossover study in US NHs. A total of 691 women and 179 men with hip fracture sampled from all US long-stay NH residents. Measures of patient characteristics were obtained from linked Medicare and the Minimum Data Set (2007-2008). The outcome was hospitalization for hip fracture with surgical repair. We estimated rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from conditional logistic regression models for nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics (vs nonuse) comparing 0 to 29 days before hip fracture (hazard period) with 60 to 89 and 120 to 149 days before hip fracture (control periods). We stratified analyses by age, sex, and dose. The average RR of hip fracture was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.9) for any use. The RR of hip fracture was higher for residents aged ≥90 years vs <70 years (2.2 vs 1.3); however, the CIs overlapped. No differences in the effect of the hypnotic on risk of hip fracture were evident by sex. Point estimates for hip fracture were greater with high-dose versus low-dose hypnotics (RR 1.9 vs 1.6 for any use), but these differences were highly compatible with chance. The rate of hip fracture in NH residents due to use of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics was greater among older patients than among younger patients and, possibly, with higher doses than with lower doses. When clinicians are prescribing a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic to any NH resident, doses of these drugs should be kept as low as possible, especially among those with advanced age. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effectiveness of same-sex versus opposite-sex role models in advertisements to reduce alcohol consumption in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, S

    1994-01-01

    The differential effectiveness of same- versus opposite-sex role models in persuading teenagers to reduce alcohol consumption was investigated. Based on an actual set of commercials, four 1-min videos were constructed, in which either boys or girls discuss how alcohol adversely affects either boys or girls. These were shown to either teenage boys or girls, resulting in a 2(Sex of Source) x 2(Sex of Subjects [Ss]) factorial design. Ss rated the credibility of the source, the persuasibility of the message, said how much and how often they drank currently, and whether they intended to decrease their future alcohol consumption. Three studies were conducted, in a coeducational (N = 95), boys' (N = 98), and girls' (N = 102) school, respectively. The overall pattern in the data showed that as predicted, same-sex role models were more effective, and that moderate drinkers were more influenced than heavy drinkers; both findings having implications for teenage health education campaigns.

  9. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and maternal plant sex on seed germination and early plant establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi usually enhance overall plant performance, yet their effects on seed germination and early plant establishment, crucial steps in plant cycles, are generally overlooked. In gynodioecious species, sexual dimorphism in these traits has been reported, with females producing seeds that germinate at a faster rate than seeds from hermaphrodites.• Using the gynodioecious plant Geranium sylvaticum, I investigated in a greenhouse experiment whether the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal spores affects seed germination and early plant establishment, examining at the same time whether the sex of the mother producing the seeds also influences these parameters and whether sex-specific interactions between these two factors exist.• The presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal spores in the soil decreased seed germination, did not affect plant survival, but did increase plant growth. Moreover, no significant differences in seed traits were detected between the sexes of the plants producing the seeds.• This study demonstrates that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may have contrasting effects for plants during early life stages and that mycorrhizal effects can take place even at the precolonization stage. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  10. Gender symmetry in intimate aggression: an effect of intimacy or target sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Catharine P; Tee, William; Campbell, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Men's greater use of direct aggression is not evident in studies of intimate partner aggression. In previous research, the effects of target sex and relationship intimacy have frequently been confounded. This study sought to examine these effects separately. One hundred and seventy-four participants (59 male and 115 female) read vignette scenarios in which they were provoked by a same-sex best friend, an opposite-sex best friend, and a partner. For each target, participants estimated their likely use of direct physical and verbal aggression as well as noninjurious forms of anger expression. Results showed that men lower their aggression in the context of an intimate partnership and that this is an effect of the target's sex. In contrast, women raise their aggression in the context of an intimate partnership and this is an effect of intimacy with the target. The use of noninjurious angry behavior did not vary between targets for either sex of the participant, which suggests that the effects of target are confined to behaviors which carry an intention to harm. Possible effects of social norms and oxytocin-mediated emotional disinhibition on intimate partner aggression are discussed. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Sex differences in effective fronto-limbic connectivity during negative emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Ovidiu; Potvin, Stéphane; Tikàsz, Andràs; Mendrek, Adrianna

    2015-12-01

    In view of the greater prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in women than in men, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have examined sex-differences in brain activations during emotion processing. Comparatively, sex-differences in brain connectivity received little attention, despite evidence for important fronto-limbic connections during emotion processing across sexes. Here, we investigated sex-differences in fronto-limbic connectivity during negative emotion processing. Forty-six healthy individuals (25 women, 21 men) viewed negative, positive and neutral images during an fMRI session. Effective connectivity between significantly activated regions was examined using Granger causality and psychophysical interaction analyses. Sex steroid hormones and feminine-masculine traits were also measured. Subjective ratings of negative emotional images were higher in women than in men. Across sexes, significant activations were observed in the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the right amygdala. Granger connectivity from right amygdala was significantly greater than that from dmPFC during the 'high negative' condition, an effect driven by men. Magnitude of this effect correlated negatively with highly negative image ratings and feminine traits and positively with testosterone levels. These results highlight critical sex differences in brain connectivity during negative emotion processing and point to the fact that both biological (sex steroid hormones) and psychosocial (gender role and identity) variables contribute to them. As the dmPFC is involved in social cognition and action planning, and the amygdala-in threat detection, the connectivity results suggest that compared to women, men have a more evaluative, rather than purely affective, brain response during negative emotion processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impersonal sex orientation and multitasking influence the effect of sexual media content on involvement with a sexual character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Peter, J.; van Oosten, J.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether responses to sexual media content depend on personal and situational factors. Specifically, we studied the role of the personal factor impersonal sex orientation (IS) and the situational factor multitasking in the effect of sexual media content

  13. Developmental and sex-specific differences in expression of neuropeptides derived from allatotropin gene in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednár, Branislav; Roller, Ladislav; Čižmár, Daniel; Mitrová, Diana; Žitňan, Dušan

    2017-05-01

    Allatotropin (AT) and related neuropeptides are widespread bioactive molecules that regulate development, food intake and muscle contractions in insects and other invertebrates. In moths, alternative splicing of the at gene generates three mRNA precursors encoding AT with different combinations of three structurally similar AT-like peptides (ATLI-III). We used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to map the differential expression of these transcripts during the postembryonic development of Bombyx mori. Transcript encoding AT alone was expressed in numerous neurons of the central nervous system and frontal ganglion, whereas transcripts encoding AT with ATLs were produced by smaller specific subgroups of neurons in larval stages. Metamorphosis was associated with considerable developmental changes and sex-specific differences in the expression of all transcripts. The most notable was the appearance of AT/ATL transcripts (1) in the brain lateral neurosecretory cells producing prothoracicotropic hormone; (2) in the male-specific cluster of about 20 neurons in the posterior region of the terminal abdominal ganglion; (3) in the female-specific medial neurons in the abdominal ganglia AG2-7. Immunohistochemical staining showed that these neurons produced a mixture of various neuropeptides and innervated diverse peripheral organs. Our data suggest that AT/ATL neuropeptides are involved in multiple stage- and sex-specific functions during the development of B. mori.

  14. Sex chromosome repeats tip the balance towards speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Michael J; O'Neill, Rachel J

    2018-04-06

    Because sex chromosomes, by definition, carry genes that determine sex, mutations that alter their structural and functional stability can have immediate consequences for the individual by reducing fertility, but also for a species by altering the sex ratio. Moreover, the sex-specific segregation patterns of heteromorphic sex chromosomes make them havens for selfish genetic elements that not only create sub-optimal sex ratios, but can also foster sexual antagonism. Compensatory mutations to mitigate antagonism or return sex ratios to a Fisherian optimum can create hybrid incompatibility and establish reproductive barriers leading to species divergence. The destabilizing influence of these selfish elements is often manifest within populations as copy number variants (CNVs) in satellite repeats and transposable elements (TE) or as CNVs involving sex determining genes, or genes essential to fertility and sex chromosome dosage compensation. This review catalogs several examples of well-studied sex chromosome CNVs in Drosophilids and mammals that underlie instances of meiotic drive, hybrid incompatibility and disruptions to sex differentiation and sex chromosome dosage compensation. While it is difficult to pinpoint a direct cause/effect relationship between these sex chromosome CNVs and speciation, it is easy to see how their effects in creating imbalances between the sexes, and the compensatory mutations to restore balance, can lead to lineage splitting and species formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Mad men, women and steroid cocktails: a review of the impact of sex and other factors on anabolic androgenic steroids effects on affective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakomaiya, Marie M; Henderson, Leslie P

    2016-02-01

    For several decades, elite athletes and a growing number of recreational consumers have used anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) as performance enhancing drugs. Despite mounting evidence that illicit use of these synthetic steroids has detrimental effects on affective states, information available on sex-specific actions of these drugs is lacking. The focus of this review is to assess information to date on the importance of sex and its interaction with other environmental factors on affective behaviors, with an emphasis on data derived from non-human studies. The PubMed database was searched for relevant studies in both sexes. Studies examining AAS use in females are limited, reflecting the lower prevalence of use in this sex. Data, however, indicate significant sex-specific differences in AAS effects on anxiety-like and aggressive behaviors, interactions with other drugs of abuse, and the interplay of AAS with other environmental factors such as diet and exercise. Current methods for assessing AAS use have limitations that suggest biases of both under- and over-reporting, which may be amplified for females who are poorly represented in self-report studies of human subjects and are rarely used in animal studies. Data from animal literature suggest that there are significant sex-specific differences in the impact of AAS on aggression, anxiety, and concomitant use of other abused substances. These results have relevance for human females who take these drugs as performance-enhancing substances and for transgender XX individuals who may illicitly self-administer AAS as they transition to a male gender identity.

  16. Functional neuroimaging of sex differences in autobiographical memory recall in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K D; Bodurka, J; Drevets, W C

    2017-11-01

    Females are more likely than males to develop major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study used fMRI to compare the neural correlates of autobiographical memory (AM) recall between males and females diagnosed with MDD. AM overgenerality is a persistent cognitive deficit in MDD, the magnitude of which is correlated with depressive severity only in females. Delineating the neurobiological correlates of this deficit may elucidate the nature of sex-differences in the diathesis for developing MDD. Participants included unmedicated males and females diagnosed with MDD (n = 20/group), and an age and sex matched healthy control group. AM recall in response to positive, negative, and neutral cue words was compared with a semantic memory task. The behavioral properties of AMs did not differ between MDD males and females. In contrast, main effects of sex on cerebral hemodynamic activity were observed in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus during recall of positive specific memories, and middle prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and precuneus during recall of negative specific memories. Moreover, main effects of diagnosis on regional hemodynamic activity were observed in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and mPFC during positive specific memory recall, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during negative specific memory recall. Sex × diagnosis interactions were evident in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, caudate, and precuneus during positive memory recall, and in the posterior cingulate cortex, insula, precuneus and thalamus during negative specific memory recall. The differential hemodynamic changes conceivably may reflect sex-specific cognitive strategies during recall of AMs irrespective of the phenomenological properties of those memories.

  17. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Winkler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI, a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE, sex-specific effects (G x SEX or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX. For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel that showed significant (FDR<5% age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y than in older adults (≥50y. No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.

  18. Fetal sex determination in the first trimester of pregnancy using a Y chromosome-specific DNA probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Y.; Huang, S.; Chen, M.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, M.; Dong, J.; Ku, A.; Xu, S.

    1987-05-01

    Prenatal determination of fetal sex is important for the prevention of X-linked disorders such as hemophilia, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The complex procedures of prenatal diagnosis for X-linked disorders are unnecessary if the fetus is female, because usually no clinical symptoms ever appear in female. pY 3.4 probe used in this work for sex determination is a 3.4 kilobase human repeat sequence. The probe is specific for the Y chromosome of males and can be used for sex determination. The other prove pBLUR used in this paper as control is a widely dispersed, highly repeated human Alu family DNA sequence, represented equally in male and female DNA. On the basis of the relative densities of the autoradiographic spots produced by hybridization of fetal DNA with pY3.4 and pBLUR, the sex of fetus can be clearly identified. Further the authors can determine the radioactive intensity (cpm) of the hybridized DNA spots and the ratio of hybridization with Y3.4 to pBLUR (Y3.4/pBLUR x 10). Results show that the hybridization ratio of DNA from chorionic villi of male (1.03 +/- 0.24) is significantly higher than that of female (0.16 +/- 0.09). Therefore, sex determination of the fetus can be made, based on the ratio of pY3.4/pBLUR x 10. If necessary they can also use Southern hybridization with pY 3.4 probe of DNA isolated from chorionic villi to confirm the result of dot hybridization.

  19. Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences: Sex-Specific Differences in Parental Influences among Ninth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.; Hausheer, Robin; Esp, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Parents impact adolescent substance abuse, but sex-specific influences are not well-understood. This study examined parental influences on adolescent drinking behavior in a sample of ninth-grade students (N = 473). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated parental monitoring, disapproval of teen alcohol use, and quality of parent-teen general…

  20. Sex-specific responses to winter flooding, spring waterlogging and post-flooding recovery in Populus deltoides

    OpenAIRE

    Ling-Feng Miao; Fan Yang; Chun-Yu Han; Yu-Jin Pu; Yang Ding; Li-Jia Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Winter flooding events are common in some rivers and streams due to dam constructions, and flooding and waterlogging inhibit the growth of trees in riparian zones. This study investigated sex-specific morphological, physiological and ultrastructural responses to various durations of winter flooding and spring waterlogging stresses, and post-flooding recovery characteristics in Populus deltoides. There were no significant differences in the morphological, ultrastructural and the majority of ph...

  1. Sex differences in the effect of aging on dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn JH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jong Ho Ahn,1 Yoon-Hyeong Choi,2 Hae Jung Paik,1 Mee Kum Kim,3 Won Ryang Wee,3 Dong Hyun Kim1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: Aging is a major risk factor in dry eye disease (DED, and understanding sexual differences is very important in biomedical research. However, there is little information about sex differences in the effect of aging on DED. We investigated sex differences in the effect of aging and other risk factors for DED.Methods: This study included data of 16,824 adults from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012, which is a population-based cross-sectional survey. DED was defined as the presence of frequent ocular dryness or a previous diagnosis by an ophthalmologist. Basic sociodemographic factors and previously known risk factors for DED were included in the analyses. Linear regression modeling and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used to compare the sex differences in the effect of risk factors for DED; we additionally performed tests for interactions between sex and other risk factors for DED in logistic regression models.Results: In our linear regression models, the prevalence of DED symptoms in men increased with age (R=0.311, P=0.012; however, there was no association between aging and DED in women (P>0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that aging in men was not associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: odds ratio [OR] =1.01/1.04, each P>0.05, while aging in women was protectively associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: OR =0.94/0.91, P=0.011/0.003. Previous ocular surgery was significantly associated with DED in both men and women (men/women: OR =2.45/1.77 [DED symptoms] and 3.17/2.05 [DED diagnosis], each P<0.001. Tests for

  2. Evaluation of sex specificity on oxidative stress induced in lungs of mice irradiated by 12C6+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Zhang Hong; Zhang Luwei

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify if there is sex specificity on 12 C 6+ ion-induced oxidative damage in mouse lung at different time points. Kun-Ming mice were divided into two groups, each composed of six males and six females: control group and irradiation group with a single acute dose of 4 Gy. Animals were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 12 h respectively, there lungs were removed immediately, and the oxidative stress-related biomarkers were measured by Diagnostic Reagent Kits. The results showed that the relative activities of superoxide dismutase (4 h), catalase (2 h) and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (12 h) have significant changes (P 12 C 6+ ion is pronounced in the lungs of males. We thought that these sex-responded differences may be attributed to the influence of sex hormones. (authors)

  3. Adaptive Allocation of Attention: Effects of Sex and Sociosexuality on Visual Attention to Attractive Opposite-Sex Faces

    OpenAIRE

    DUNCAN, LESLEY A.; PARK, JUSTIN H.; FAULKNER, JASON; SCHALLER, MARK; NEUBERG, STEVEN L.; KENRICK, DOUGLAS T.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, compared with sociosexually restricted individuals, those with an unrestricted approach to mating would selectively allocate visual attention to attractive opposite-sex others. We also tested for sex differences in this effect. Seventy-four participants completed the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, and performed a computer-based task that assessed the speed with which they detected changes in attractive and unattractive male and female faces. Differences in r...

  4. A sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) sex pheromone mixture increases trap catch relative to a single synthesized component in specific environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Tix, John A.; Hlina, Benjamin L.; Wagner, C. Michael; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10 % increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  5. Sex-Dependent and Independent Effects of Long-Term Voluntary Wheel Running on Bdnf mRNA and Protein Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Venezia, Andrew C.; Guth, Lisa M.; Sapp, Ryan M.; Spangenburg, Espen E.; Roth, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effects of physical activity on brain health (synaptogenesis, neurogenesis, enhanced synaptic plasticity, improved learning and memory) appear to be mediated through changes in region-specific expression of neurotrophins, transcription factors, and postsynaptic receptors, though investigations of sex differences in response to long-term voluntary wheel running are limited.

  6. Associations between Antisocial Personality Disorder and Sex on Discounting Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Leonardo F; Riven, Levi; Petry, Nancy M

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies show that individuals with substance use and gambling problems discount delayed and probabilistic outcomes at different rates than controls. Few studies, however, investigated the association of discounting with antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), and none evaluated whether sex impacts these relationships. Because females with ASPD exhibit different patterns of antisocial behavior than their male counterparts, they may also differ in their decision-making tendencies. This study examined the effects of ASPD and sex on discounting in pathological gamblers. Results revealed effects of ASPD, and an interaction between ASPD and sex, on probability discounting rates. None of these variables, however, were related to delay discounting. Females with ASPD highly preferred probabilistic outcomes, suggesting that female gamblers with ASPD are particularly impulsive when it comes to probabilistic rewards. Greater understanding of sex differences in ASPD might help guide the selection of more effective sex-specific prevention and treatment programs.

  7. Binge drinking in undergraduates: relationships with sex, drinking behaviors, impulsivity, and the perceived effects of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, Iris M; Potenza, Marc N; Olmstead, Mary C

    2009-09-01

    Binge drinking on university campuses is associated with social and health-related problems. To determine the factors that may predict this behavior, we collected information on alcohol use, alcohol expectations, and impulsivity from 428 undergraduate students attending a Canadian university. The subjective effects of a binge drinking dose of alcohol were assessed in a subset of participants. In the larger sample, 72% of students reported drinking at or above binge drinking thresholds on a regular basis. Men reported alcohol consumption per drinking occasion, which was consistent with other studies, but the frequency of drinking occasions among women was higher than in earlier studies, suggesting that consumption in women may be increasing. Compared with men, women reported different expectations of alcohol, specifically related to sociability and sexuality. Self-reported impulsivity scores were related, albeit weakly, to drinking behaviors and to expectations in both the sexes. Finally, intoxicated binge drinkers reported feeling less intoxicated, liking the effects more, and wanting more alcohol than did non-binge drinkers receiving an equivalent dose of alcohol. These results have implications for sex-specific prevention strategies for binge drinking on university campuses.

  8. Effectiveness of Sex Pheromone in Controlling Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella  nell. is a dangerous pest of cocoa which seriously reduce cocoa production mainly in Southeast Asia and Pasific. Prevention of CPB attack can be done by pod sleeving to prevent CPBs lay eggs on pod, or reduction of source of CPB infestation by using pheromone or kairomone as attractant in an insect trap. A preliminary research using sex pheromone has been conducted at endemic cocoa area infested by CPB in East Java. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sex pheromonesin controlling CPB. Trial was arranged by randomized completely block design in four treatments and four blocks as replication. Four densities trap/ha (0, 4, 8, and 12 traps/ha were used as a treatments. Sex pheromone trap consisted of synthetic pheromone (lure and sticky liner was hanged on 0.5 m above the cocoa canopy. The results showed that the number of CPB captured during four months was significantly decreased. The number of CPB captured per trap during the first two months in the treatment of 0, 4, 8 and 12 traps/ha were 0, 6.5, 4.72, and 5.58 CPBs, respectively. Four months after treatment, the number of CPB captured in the respective treatments was reduced to 0, 0.25, 0.6, and 0.96 CPBs. Estimate calculation on yield loss due to CPB attack showed that before treatment the yield loss ranged 37.4—45.6%, however six months after treatment, the yield loss in treatment plots decreased to 9.4—21%, whereas on control 38.47%. Use of sex pheromones to attract CPB at a density of 4 traps/ha reduced yield losses due to CPB damage by 67.7%. The significant correlation betweenthe number of CPB captured with the damage intensity followed regression equation of Y = - 0,00044X + 0,32059. Use of sex pheromone for monitoring or masstrapping of CPB, as a component in IPM of CPB is promising, due to its nature for specific target, environmentally friendly, effectiveness, and economic values

  9. Distribution of sex steroid hormone receptors in the avian brain: functional implications for neural sex differences and sexual behaviors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahr, M.

    2001-01-01

    Developmental and seasonal changes in the production of androgens, estrogens, and progestins seem to control sex-specific differentiation and seasonal changes in appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors of birds. This results in profound sex differences in the quality (sex-specific) or quantity

  10. Organizing effects of sex steroids on brain aromatase activity in quail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Cornil

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1 brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2 whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizing the novel strategy of basing the microdissections on the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells. The largest sex difference was found in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (mBST followed by the medial preoptic nucleus (POM and the tuberal hypothalamic region. A second experiment tested the effect of embryonic treatments known to sex-reverse male copulatory behavior (i.e., estradiol benzoate [EB] or the aromatase inhibitor, Vorozole on brain AA in gonadectomized adult males and females chronically treated as adults with testosterone. Embryonic EB demasculinized male copulatory behavior, while vorozole blocked demasculinization of behavior in females as previously demonstrated in birds. Interestingly, these treatments did not affect a measure of appetitive sexual behavior. In parallel, embryonic vorozole increased, while EB decreased AA in pooled POM and mBST, but the same effect was observed in both sexes. Together, these data indicate that the early action of estrogens demasculinizes AA. However, this organizational action of estrogens on AA does not explain the behavioral sex difference in copulatory behavior since AA is similar in testosterone-treated males and females that were or were not exposed to embryonic treatments with estrogens.

  11. How important are sex differences in cannabinoid action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Fratta, Walter

    2010-06-01

    In humans as in animals, males and females are dissimilar in their genetic and hormonally driven behaviour; they process information differently, perceive experience and emotions in different ways, display diverse attitudes, language and social skills, and show sex-related differences in the brain anatomy and organization. Drug addiction is a widespread relapsing illness that affects both men and women. Sex-dependent differences have been frequently observed in the biological and behavioural effects of substances of abuse, including cannabis. Beside sex differences observed in the cannabinoid-induced effects related to cannabis abuse and dependence, cannabinoids have been shown to exert sex-dependent effects also in other physiological and behavioural aspects, such as food intake and energy balance (more evident in males), or anxiety and depression (more evident in females). Research has just begun to identify factors which could provide a neurobiological basis for gender-based differences in cannabinoid effects, among which, gonadal hormones seem to play a crucial role. Yet, cannabinoid pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic may also be important, as sex differences in cannabinoid effects might be due, at least in part, to differences in muscle mass and fat tissue distribution between males and females. Here, we will review both clinical and laboratory-based research evidence revealing important sex-related differences in cannabinoid effects, and put forward some suggestions for future studies to fill the gap in our knowledge of gender-specific bias in cannabinoid pharmacology.

  12. Friendship Selection and Influence Processes for Physical Aggression and Prosociality: Differences between Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent selection and influence processes for physical aggression and prosociality in friendship networks differed between sex-specific contexts (i.e., all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms), while controlling for perceived popularity. Whereas selection processes reflect how behaviors shape friendships, influence processes reveal the reversed pattern by indicating how friends affect individual behaviors. Data were derived from a longitudinal sample of early adolescents from Chile. Four all-male classrooms ( n  = 150 male adolescents), four all-female classrooms ( n  = 190 female adolescents), and eight mixed-sex classrooms ( n  = 272 students) were followed one year from grades 5 to 6 ( M age  = 13). Analyses were conducted by means of stochastic-actor-based modeling as implemented in RSIENA. Although it was expected that selection and influence effects for physical aggression and prosociality would vary by context, these effects showed remarkably similar trends across all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms, with physical aggression reducing and with prosociality increasing the number of nominations received as best friend in all-male and particularly all-female classrooms. Further, perceived popularity increased the number of friendship nominations received in all contexts. Influence processes were only found for perceived popularity, but not for physical aggression and prosociality in any of the three contexts. Together, these findings highlight the importance of both behaviors for friendship selection independent of sex-specific contexts, attenuating the implications of these gendered behaviors for peer relations.

  13. Sex Differences in Human and Animal Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochfeld, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Sex, the states of being female or male, potentially interacts with all xenobiotic exposures, both inadvertent and deliberate, and influences their toxicokinetics (TK), toxicodynamics, and outcomes. Sex differences occur in behavior, exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics, accounting for female-male differences in responses to environmental chemicals, diet, and pharmaceuticals, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Often viewed as an annoying confounder, researchers have studied only one sex, adjusted for sex, or ignored it. Occupational epidemiology, the basis for understanding many toxic effects in humans, usually excluded women. Likewise, Food and Drug Administration rules excluded women of childbearing age from drug studies for many years. Aside from sex-specific organs, sex differences and sex × age interactions occur for a wide range of disease states as well as hormone-influenced conditions and drug distribution. Women have more ADRs than men; the classic sex hormone paradigm (gonadectomy and replacement) reveals significant interaction of sex and TK including absorption, distribution, metabolisms, and elimination. Studies should be designed to detect sex differences, describe the mechanisms, and interpret these in a broad social, clinical, and evolutionary context with phenomena that do not differ. Sex matters, but how much of a difference is needed to matter remains challenging.

  14. Effect of sex on meat quality characteristics of Qinchuan cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 18 Qinchuan cattle, six intact males (IM), six castrated males (CM) and six females (FM), were used to investigate the effect of sex on the physicochemical characteristics (PCC) and fatty acid (FA) composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM). Obvious sex differences were found in the PCC of LDM: the IM ...

  15. Sex differences in drug use among polysubstance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ben; Hoffman, Lauren A; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2014-12-01

    Available evidence indicates women with substance use disorders may experience more rapid progression through usage milestones (telescoping). The few investigations of sex differences in treatment-seeking populations often focus on single substances and typically do not account for significant polysubstance abuse. The current study examined sex differences in a heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking polysubstance users. We examined patterns of drug use, age at drug use milestones (e.g., initial use, regular use), and progression rates between milestones. Nicotine and alcohol use were also evaluated. Participants (n = 543; 288 women) completed personal histories of substance use, including chronicity, frequency, and regularity, as well as inventories assessing affect, and intellectual ability. Rates of drug use and milestone ages varied by sex and specific drug. Analyses suggested pronounced telescoping effects for pain medication and marijuana, with women progressing more rapidly through usage milestones. Our data were generally supportive of telescoping effects, although considerable variance in progression measures was noted. The contrast between the marked telescoping observed in pain medication use and the absence of telescoping in other opioids was of particular interest. The discrepancy in telescoping effects, despite shared pharmacologies, suggests the need for further work examining underlying psychosocial factors. These results highlight that the specific sample population, substance, and outcome measure should be carefully considered when interpreting sex differences in substance use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Same sex marriage and the perceived assault on opposite sex marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.

  17. Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536

  18. Sex differences in prenatal epigenetic programming of stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Tracy L

    2011-07-01

    Maternal stress experience is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Recent studies have examined mechanisms by which changes in the maternal milieu may be transmitted to the developing embryo and potentially translated into programming of the epigenome. Animal models of prenatal stress have identified important sex- and temporal-specific effects on offspring stress responsivity. As dysregulation of stress pathways is a common feature in most neuropsychiatric diseases, molecular and epigenetic analyses at the maternal-embryo interface, especially in the placenta, may provide unique insight into identifying much-needed predictive biomarkers. In addition, as most neurodevelopmental disorders present with a sex bias, examination of sex differences in the inheritance of phenotypic outcomes may pinpoint gene targets and specific windows of vulnerability in neurodevelopment, which have been disrupted. This review discusses the association and possible contributing mechanisms of prenatal stress in programming offspring stress pathway dysregulation and the importance of sex.

  19. Local and sex-specific biases in crossover vs. noncrossover outcomes at meiotic recombination hot spots in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Esther; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination initiated by programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) yields two types of interhomolog recombination products, crossovers and noncrossovers, but what determines whether a DSB will yield a crossover or noncrossover is not understood. In this study, we analyzed the influence of sex and chromosomal location on mammalian recombination outcomes by constructing fine-scale recombination maps in both males and females at two mouse hot spots located in different regions of the same chromosome. These include the most comprehensive maps of recombination hot spots in oocytes to date. One hot spot, located centrally on chromosome 1, behaved similarly in male and female meiosis: Crossovers and noncrossovers formed at comparable levels and ratios in both sexes. In contrast, at a distal hot spot, crossovers were recovered only in males even though noncrossovers were obtained at similar frequencies in both sexes. These findings reveal an example of extreme sex-specific bias in recombination outcome. We further found that estimates of relative DSB levels are surprisingly poor predictors of relative crossover frequencies between hot spots in males. Our results demonstrate that the outcome of mammalian meiotic recombination can be biased, that this bias can vary depending on location and cellular context, and that DSB frequency is not the only determinant of crossover frequency. PMID:26251527

  20. Intersections of Stigma, Mental Health, and Sex Work: How Canadian Men Engaged in Sex Work Navigate and Resist Stigma to Protect Their Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Sunny; Bungay, Vicky

    2018-05-01

    Men engaged in sex work experience significant stigma that can have devastating effects for their mental health. Little is known about how male sex workers experience stigma and its effects on mental health or their strategies to prevent its effects in the Canadian context. This study examined the interrelationships between stigma and mental health among 33 Canadian indoor, male sex workers with a specific goal of understanding how stigma affected men's mental health and their protective strategies to mitigate against its effects. Men experienced significant enacted stigma that negatively affected their social supports and ability to develop and maintain noncommercial, romantic relationships. Men navigated stigma by avoidance and resisting internalization. Strategy effectiveness to promote mental health varied based on men's perspectives of sex work as a career versus a forced source of income. Programming to promote men's mental health must take into consideration men's diverse strategies and serve to build social supports.

  1. Sex-specific differences in hemodialysis prevalence and practices and the male-to-female mortality rate: the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hecking

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A comprehensive analysis of sex-specific differences in the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of individuals with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis might reveal treatment inequalities and targets to improve sex-specific patient care. Here we describe hemodialysis prevalence and patient characteristics by sex, compare the adult male-to-female mortality rate with data from the general population, and evaluate sex interactions with mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the Human Mortality Database and 206,374 patients receiving hemodialysis from 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the US participating in the international, prospective Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS between June 1996 and March 2012. Among 35,964 sampled DOPPS patients with full data collection, we studied patient characteristics (descriptively and mortality (via Cox regression by sex. In all age groups, more men than women were on hemodialysis (59% versus 41% overall, with large differences observed between countries. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate at hemodialysis initiation was higher in men than women. The male-to-female mortality rate ratio in the general population varied from 1.5 to 2.6 for age groups <75 y, but in hemodialysis patients was close to one. Compared to women, men were younger (mean = 61.9 ± standard deviation 14.6 versus 63.1 ± 14.5 y, were less frequently obese, were more frequently married and recipients of a kidney transplant, more frequently had coronary artery disease, and were less frequently depressed. Interaction analyses showed that the mortality risk associated with several comorbidities and hemodialysis catheter use was lower for men (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11 than women (HR = 1.33, interaction p<0.001. This study is limited by its inability to establish causality for the observed sex-specific

  2. Sex differences in pain: a brief review of clinical and experimental findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, E J; Fillingim, R B

    2013-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed substantially increased research regarding sex differences in pain. The expansive body of literature in this area clearly suggests that men and women differ in their responses to pain, with increased pain sensitivity and risk for clinical pain commonly being observed among women. Also, differences in responsivity to pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain interventions have been observed; however, these effects are not always consistent and appear dependent on treatment type and characteristics of both the pain and the provider. Although the specific aetiological basis underlying these sex differences is unknown, it seems inevitable that multiple biological and psychosocial processes are contributing factors. For instance, emerging evidence suggests that genotype and endogenous opioid functioning play a causal role in these disparities, and considerable literature implicates sex hormones as factors influencing pain sensitivity. However, the specific modulatory effect of sex hormones on pain among men and women requires further exploration. Psychosocial processes such as pain coping and early-life exposure to stress may also explain sex differences in pain, in addition to stereotypical gender roles that may contribute to differences in pain expression. Therefore, this review will provide a brief overview of the extant literature examining sex-related differences in clinical and experimental pain, and highlights several biopsychosocial mechanisms implicated in these male-female differences. The future directions of this field of research are discussed with an emphasis aimed towards further elucidation of mechanisms which may inform future efforts to develop sex-specific treatments.

  3. Sex-, tissue-, and exposure duration-dependent effects of imidacloprid modulated by piperonyl butoxide and menadione in rats. Part I: oxidative and neurotoxic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardimci, Mustafa; Sevgiler, Yusuf; Rencuzogullari, Eyyup; Arslan, Mehmet; Buyukleyla, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2014-12-01

    Earlier research has evidenced the oxidative and neurotoxic potential of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, in different animal species. The primary aim of this study was to determine how metabolic modulators piperonyl butoxide and menadione affect imidacloprid's adverse action in the liver and kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes. The animals were exposed to imidacloprid alone (170 mg kg⁻¹) or in combination with piperonyl butoxide (100 mg kg⁻¹) or menadione (25 mg kg⁻¹) for 12 and 24 h. Their liver and kidney homogenates were analysed spectrophotometrically for glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase, total cholinesterase specific activities, total glutathione, total protein content, and lipid peroxidation levels. Imidacloprid displayed its prooxidative and neurotoxic effects predominantly in the kidney of male rats after 24 h of exposure. Our findings suggest that the observed differences in prooxidative and neurotoxic potential of imidacloprid could be related to differences in its metabolism between the sexes. Co-exposure (90-min pre-treatment) with piperonyl butoxide or menadione revealed tissue-specific effect of imidacloprid on total cholinesterase activity. Increased cholinesterase activity in the kidney could be an adaptive response to imidacloprid-induced oxidative stress. In the male rat liver, co-exposure with piperonyl butoxide or menadione exacerbated imidacloprid toxicity. In female rats, imidacloprid+menadione co-exposure caused prooxidative effects, while no such effects were observed with imidacloprid alone or menadione alone. In conclusion, sex-, tissue-, and duration-specific effects of imidacloprid are remarkable points in its toxicity.

  4. Sex guilt and life satisfaction in Iranian-american women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolsalehi-Najafi, Emon; Beckman, Linda J

    2013-08-01

    Although the experience of sex guilt has been considered among a variety of ethnic groups, the area has not yet been empirically explored among Iranian American women. The present study investigated the relationship between sexual self-schema (i.e., beliefs about the sexual aspects of oneself), acculturation, and sex guilt, and it further examined the association between sex guilt and life satisfaction in Iranian American women. A total of 65 Iranian American women, with a mean age of 31.3 years (SD = 11.7), completed five self-administered questionnaires. Findings indicated a significant inverse correlation between sexual self-schema and sex guilt. More specifically, women who endorsed negative self-views regarding their sexual self reported higher levels sex guilt. Results revealed that acculturation was unrelated to sex guilt, when the effect of being Muslim or non-Muslim was controlled. Women with high sex guilt reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Moreover, analyses for mediation effects supported sex guilt as a partially mediating variable between sexual self-schema and life satisfaction. Levels of sex guilt were higher among Muslim women when compared to women of other religious affiliations. Additionally, Muslim women appeared to be significantly less acculturated to Western ideals than other religious groups. The present findings suggest that mental health professionals who provide services to Iranian American women need to consider the negative effects of sex guilt, particularly among Muslim women.

  5. The relative effectiveness of single-sex and coeducational schools in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, Emmanuel; Lockheed, Marlaine E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides evidence regarding the relative effects of single-sex and coeducational school in enhancing eighth grade mathematics achievement in Thailand. It uses pre and post eighth grade test scores to estimate value added equations for single-sex and coeducational schools. The preliminary conclusions are the following. First, girls in single-sex schools do significantly better than their coeducational school counterparts, while boys in coeducational schools do better. Thus there is ...

  6. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Sex-specific associations between birth weight and adult primary liver cancer in a large cohort of Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Berentzen, Tina L.; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Whether the prenatal period is critical for the development of adult primary liver cancer (PLC) is sparsely investigated. Recently, attention has been drawn to potential sex-differences in the early origins of adult disease. We investigated the association between birth weight and adult PLC...... separately in men and women, using a large cohort of 217,227 children (51% boys), born from 1936 to 1980, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, and followed them until 2010 in national registers. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of PLC (30 years or older) were estimated by Cox...... regression models stratified by birth cohort. During 5.1 million person-years of follow-up, 185 men and 65 women developed PLC. Sex modified the association between birth weight and adult PLC (p-value for interaction=0.0005). Compared with a sex-specific reference group of birth weights between 3.25-3.75 kg...

  8. "It All depends...": Middle School Teachers Evaluate Single-Sex Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielhagen, Frances R.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explored the effectiveness of single-sex classes according to key stakeholders in this educational reform--the teachers who choose or are hired to teach in single-sex classes and schools. Specifically, this study examined the on-the-ground experiences of middle school teachers as they attempted to implement a relatively…

  9. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas W; Justice, Anne E; Graff, Mariaelisa

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially...... (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR... effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape....

  10. Age and Sex Effects in Anchoring Vignette Studies: Methodological and Empirical Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Grol-Prokopczyk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Anchoring vignettes are an increasingly popular tool for identifying and correcting for group differences in use of subjective ordered response categories. However, existing techniques to maximize response consistency (use of the same standards for self-ratings as for vignette-ratings, which center on matching vignette characters’ demographic characteristics to respondents’ own characteristics, appear at times to be ineffective or to pose interpretive difficulties. Specifically, respondents often appear to neglect instructions to treat vignette characters as age peers. Furthermore, when vignette characters’ sex is matched to respondents’ sex, interpretation of sex differences in rating style is rendered problematic. This study applies two experimental manipulations to a national American sample (n=1,765 to clarify best practices for enhancing response consistency. First, an analysis of two methods of highlighting vignette characters’ age suggests that both yield better response consistency than previous, less prominent means. Second, a comparison of ratings of same- and opposite-sex vignette characters suggests that, with avoidable exceptions, the sex of the respondent rather than of the vignette character drives observed sex differences in rating style. Implications for interpretation and design of anchoring vignette studies are discussed. Findings also show significant sex, educational, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating health, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating political efficacy. These findings underscore the incomparability of unadjusted subjective self-ratings across demographic groups.

  11. The association between major depression prevalence and sex becomes weaker with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Wang, Jian Li; Bulloch, Andrew G M; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2016-02-01

    Women have a higher prevalence of major depressive episodes (MDE) than men, and the annual prevalence of MDE declines with age. Age by sex interactions may occur (a weakening of the sex effect with age), but are easily overlooked since individual studies lack statistical power to detect interactions. The objective of this study was to evaluate age by sex interactions in MDE prevalence. In Canada, a series of 10 national surveys conducted between 1996 and 2013 assessed MDE prevalence in respondents over the age of 14. Treating age as a continuous variable, binomial and linear regression was used to model age by sex interactions in each survey. To increase power, the survey-specific interaction coefficients were then pooled using meta-analytic methods. The estimated interaction terms were homogeneous. In the binomial regression model I (2) was 31.2 % and was not statistically significant (Q statistic = 13.1, df = 9, p = 0.159). The pooled estimate (-0.004) was significant (z = 3.13, p = 0.002), indicating that the effect of sex became weaker with increasing age. This resulted in near disappearance of the sex difference in the 75+ age group. This finding was also supported by an examination of age- and sex-specific estimates pooled across the surveys. The association of MDE prevalence with sex becomes weaker with age. The interaction may reflect biological effect modification. Investigators should test for, and consider inclusion of age by sex interactions in epidemiological analyses of MDE prevalence.

  12. Development of Gender Discrimination: Effect of Sex-Typical and Sex-Atypical Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaugh, Claire; Duits, Terri L.

    Toddlers (41 girls and 35 boys) between 18 and 37 months of age were given four gender discrimination tasks each consisting of 6 pairs of color drawings. Three of the tasks employed color drawings of preschool girls and boys holding either a sex-typical toy, a sex-atypical toy, or no toy. The fourth employed pictures of sex-typical masculine and…

  13. Sex differences in immune responses: Hormonal effects, antagonistic selection, and evolutionary consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roved, Jacob; Westerdahl, Helena; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    Males and females differ in both parasite load and the strength of immune responses and these effects have been verified in humans and other vertebrates. Sex hormones act as important modulators of immune responses; the male sex hormone testosterone is generally immunosuppressive while the female sex hormone estrogen tends to be immunoenhancing. Different sets of T-helper cells (Th) have important roles in adaptive immunity, e.g. Th1 cells trigger type 1 responses which are primarily cell-mediated, and Th2 cells trigger type 2 responses which are primarily humoral responses. In our review of the literature, we find that estrogen and progesterone enhance type 2 and suppress type 1 responses in females, whereas testosterone suppresses type 2 responses and shows an inconsistent pattern for type 1 responses in males. When we combine these patterns of generally immunosuppressive and immunoenhancing effects of the sex hormones, our results imply that the sex differences in immune responses should be particularly strong in immune functions associated with type 2 responses, and less pronounced with type 1 responses. In general the hormone-mediated sex differences in immune responses may lead to genetic sexual conflicts on immunity. Thus, we propose the novel hypothesis that sexually antagonistic selection may act on immune genes shared by the sexes, and that the strength of this sexually antagonistic selection should be stronger for type 2- as compared with type 1-associated immune genes. Finally, we put the consequences of sex hormone-induced effects on immune responses into behavioral and ecological contexts, considering social mating system, sexual selection, geographical distribution of hosts, and parasite abundance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Age-, sex-, and education-specific norms for an extended CERAD Neuropsychological Assessment Battery-Results from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Tobias; Pabst, Alexander; Rodriguez, Francisca S; Schroeter, Matthias L; Witte, Veronica; Hinz, Andreas; Mehnert, Anja; Engel, Christoph; Loeffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2018-03-08

    To provide new age-, sex-, and education-specific reference values for an extended version of the well-established Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) that additionally includes the Trail Making Test and the Verbal Fluency Test-S-Words. Norms were calculated based on the cognitive performances of n = 1,888 dementia-free participants (60-79 years) from the population-based German LIFE-Adult-Study. Multiple regressions were used to examine the association of the CERAD-NAB scores with age, sex, and education. In order to calculate the norms, quantile and censored quantile regression analyses were performed estimating marginal means of the test scores at 2.28, 6.68, 10, 15.87, 25, 50, 75, and 90 percentiles for age-, sex-, and education-specific subgroups. Multiple regression analyses revealed that younger age was significantly associated with better cognitive performance in 15 CERAD-NAB measures and higher education with better cognitive performance in all 17 measures. Women performed significantly better than men in 12 measures and men than women in four measures. The determined norms indicate ceiling effects for the cognitive performances in the Boston Naming, Word List Recognition, Constructional Praxis Copying, and Constructional Praxis Recall tests. The new norms for the extended CERAD-NAB will be useful for evaluating dementia-free German-speaking adults in a broad variety of relevant cognitive domains. The extended CERAD-NAB follows more closely the criteria for the new DSM-5 Mild and Major Neurocognitive Disorder. Additionally, it could be further developed to include a test for social cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Sex-specific associations between particulate matter exposure and gene expression in independent discovery and validation cohorts of middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijens, Karen; Winckelmans, Ellen; Tsamou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) exposure leads to premature death, mainly due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Objectives: Identification of transcriptomic biomarkers of air pollution exposure and effect in a healthy adult population. Methods: Microarray analyses were performed in 98...... healthy volunteers (48 men, 50 women). The expression of eight sex-specific candidate biomarker genes (significantly associated with PM10 in the discovery cohort and with a reported link to air pollution-related disease) was measured with qPCR in an independent validation cohort (75 men, 94 women...

  16. What happens to offspring when parents are inbred, old or had a poor start in life? Evidence for sex-specific parental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Trejo, Regina; Kruuk, Loeske E B; Jennions, Michael D; Head, Megan L

    2018-05-23

    Parental effects on offspring performance have been attributed to many factors such as parental age, size and condition. However, we know little about how these different parental characteristics interact to determine parental effects, or the extent to which their effect on offspring depends on either the sex of the parent or that of the offspring. Here we experimentally tested for effects of variation in parents' early diet and inbreeding levels, as well as effects of parental age, and for potential interactive effects of these three factors on key aspects of offspring development in the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). Older mothers produced offspring that were significantly smaller at birth. This negative effect of maternal age on offspring size was still evident at maturation as older mothers had smaller daughters, but not smaller sons. The daughters of older mothers did, however, reach maturity sooner. Paternal age did not affect offspring body size, but it had a complex effect on their sons' relative genital size. When initially raised on a food-restricted diet, older fathers sired sons with relatively smaller genitalia, but when fathers were initially raised on a control diet their sons had relatively larger genitalia. The inbreeding status of mothers and fathers had no significant effects on any of the measured offspring traits. Our results indicate that the manifestation of parental effects can be complex. It can vary with both parent and offspring sex; can change over an offspring's life; and is sometimes evident as an interaction between different parental traits. Understanding this complexity will be important to predict the role of parental effects in adaptation. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Usage of the Terms Prostitution, Sex Work, Transactional Sex, and Survival Sex: Their Utility in HIV Prevention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Karen; Worth, Heather; Rawstorne, Patrick

    2018-07-01

    This article considers the terms prostitution, sex work, transactional sex, and survival sex, the logic of their deployment and utility to research concerned with people who are paid for sex, and HIV. The various names for paid sex in HIV research are invested in strategically differentiated positionings of people who receive payment and emphasize varying degrees of choice. The terminologies that seek to distinguish a range of economically motivated paid sex practices from sex work are characterized by an emphasis on the local and the particular, efforts to evade the stigma attached to the labels sex worker and prostitute, and an analytic prioritizing of culture. This works to bestow cultural legitimacy on some locally specific forms of paid sex and positions those practices as artifacts of culture rather than economy. This article contends that, in HIV research in particular, it is necessary to be cognizant of ways the deployment of alternative paid sex categories relocates and reinscribes stigma elsewhere. While local identity categories may be appropriate for program implementation, a global category is necessary for planning and funding purposes and offers a purview beyond that of isolated local phenomena. We argue that "sex work" is the most useful global term for use in research into economically motivated paid sex and HIV, primarily because it positions paid sex as a matter of labor, not culture or morality.

  18. Sex-specific aspects of endogenous retroviral insertion and deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Patrick; Hein, Jotun; Katzourakis, Aris

    2013-11-07

    We wish to understand how sex and recombination affect endogenous retroviral insertion and deletion. While theory suggests that the risk of ectopic recombination will limit the accumulation of repetitive DNA in areas of high meiotic recombination, the experimental evidence so far has been inconsistent. Under the assumption of neutrality, we examine the genomes of eighteen species of animal in order to compute the ratio of solo-LTRs that derive from insertions occurring down the male germ line as opposed to the female one (male bias). We also extend the simple idea of comparing autosome to allosome in order to predict the ratio of full-length proviruses we would expect to see under conditions of recombination linked deletion or otherwise. Using our model, we predict the ratio of allosomal to autosomal full-length proviruses to lie between32 and 23 under increasing male bias in mammals and between 1 and 2 under increasing male bias in birds. In contrast to our expectations, we find that a pattern of male bias is not universal across species and that there is a frequent overabundance of full-length proviruses on the allosome beyond the ratios predicted by our model. We use our data as a whole to argue that full-length proviruses should be treated as deleterious mutations or as effectively neutral mutations whose persistence in a full-length state is linked to the rate of meiotic recombination and whose origin is not universally male biased. These conclusions suggest that retroviral insertions on the allosome may be more prolific and that it might be possible to identify mechanisms of replication that are enhanced in the female sex.

  19. Sex-specific sleep patterns among university students in Lebanon: impact on depression and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabrita, Colette S; Hajjar-Muça, Theresa A

    2016-01-01

    Good sleep quality and quantity are fundamental to the maintenance of normal physiological processes. Changes in sleep patterns are commonly observed among young adults and are shown to impact neurocognitive, academic, and psychological well-being. Given the scarcity of sleep information about Lebanon and acknowledging the sex differences in various sleep dimensions, we conducted a study that aimed at assessing sex differences in sleep habits among university students in Lebanon in relation to psychoacademic status. A total of 540 students (50.6% females) completed a questionnaire that inquired about sociodemographics and evaluated sleep quality and depression using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. The mean PSQI global score (6.57±3.49) indicated poor sleep, with no significant differences between men and women. The sleep/wake rhythm was delayed on weekends for both sexes. Females exhibited earlier bedtimes and rise times and longer sleep durations on both weekdays and weekends. However, unlike males females showed a greater phase delay in wake times than bedtimes on weekends (149 minutes vs 74 minutes, respectively). In all, 70.9% of females suffered from depressive symptoms, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with 58.5% of males (Pacademic performance of females was significantly better than that of males (2.8±0.61 vs 2.65±0.61, Psleep duration (r=-0.221, Psleep timing, such as bedtime/rise time and nocturnal sleep duration, rather than sleep quality exist among Lebanese university students. Sex-specific sleep patterns have differential impact on psychological and academic well-being.

  20. Sexually selected sex differences in competitiveness explain sex differences in changes in drinking game participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Liana S E; McCullough, Michael

    2015-05-14

    Drinking games are a risk factor for behavioral and health problems among university students. Previous cross-sectional research by Hone, Carter, and McCullough (2013) replicated well-established sex differences in drinking game behaviors (i.e., that men are more active drinking game participants than are women) and university drinking problems more generally. Hone et al. (2013) also found that these male-specific behavioral patterns are attributable in part to the fact that men's generally unrestricted sexual strategies, plus their social competitiveness, motivate them to participate in drinking games to display their fortitude and compete with same-sex rivals. Here, the authors conducted a study to evaluate with greater causal rigor whether sex differences in sexual restrictedness and social competitiveness-and sex differences in motivations for participating in drinking games in particular-are partially responsible for the sex differences in university students' drinking game behaviors and drinking problems. Sex differences in changes in frequency of drinking game participation were partially mediated by competitive motivations for participating in drinking games and by the effects of social competitiveness on competitive drinking game motivation. These findings lend additional support to the proposition that participation in drinking games is motivated in part by their suitability as a venue for sexual competition in university students' day-to-day lives.

  1. Woman's Profession and Female Role--The Development of Sex-specific Structures of Education and of the Labor Market before the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Vera

    1989-01-01

    Examines the intrusion of female employees into the traditionally male domain of office work from 1860 to 1914. Shows that sex-specific segregation was supported by a lack of training facilities for girls and by fact that these facilities supported the dominant sex-role structure. Focuses on the development of vocational schools for girls.…

  2. Predicting psychiatric readmission: sex-specific models to predict 30-day readmission following acute psychiatric hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Lucy Church; Gruneir, Andrea; Fung, Kinwah; Herrmann, Nathan; Kurdyak, Paul; Lin, Elizabeth; Rochon, Paula A; Seitz, Dallas; Taylor, Valerie H; Vigod, Simone N

    2018-02-01

    Psychiatric readmission is a common negative outcome. Predictors of readmission may differ by sex. This study aimed to derive and internally validate sex-specific models to predict 30-day psychiatric readmission. We used population-level health administrative data to identify predictors of 30-day psychiatric readmission among women (n = 33,353) and men (n = 32,436) discharged from all psychiatric units in Ontario, Canada (2008-2011). Predictor variables included sociodemographics, health service utilization, and clinical characteristics. Using derivation data sets, multivariable logistic regression models were fit to determine optimal predictive models for each sex separately. Results were presented as adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The multivariable models were then applied in the internal validation data sets. The 30-day readmission rates were 9.3% (women) and 9.1% (men). Many predictors were consistent between women and men. For women only, personality disorder (aOR 1.21, 95% CI 1.03-1.42) and positive symptom score (aOR 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.82 for score of 1 vs. 0; aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.26-1.64 for ≥ 2 vs. 0) increased odds of readmission. For men only, self-care problems at admission (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.36) and discharge (aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.26-1.64 for score of 1 vs. 0; aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.17-2.74 for 2 vs. 0), and mild anxiety rating (score of 1 vs. 0: aOR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.64, derivation model only) increased odds of readmission. Models had moderate discriminative ability in derivation and internal validation samples for both sexes (c-statistics 0.64-0.65). Certain key predictors of psychiatric readmission differ by sex. This knowledge may help to reduce psychiatric hospital readmission rates by focusing interventions.

  3. Age-specific mortality trends in France and Italy since 1900: period and cohort effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, G; Vallin, J; Vaupel, J W; Yashin, A

    1987-1