Sample records for sex education employment

  1. Sex Discrimination in Employment Practices. (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

    The conference on sex discrimination in employment practices was held at the University of California at Los Angeles in cooperation with the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor. Speeches included: (1) "New Legislation--New Action" by Rosalind K. Loring and William Foster, (2) "Compliance Policies and Procedures for Business and Industry" by…

  2. On Campus with Women, Number 29, Winter 1981. [Employment, Education, Sex Discrimination, Health Services]. (United States)

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    Developments concerning women in the workplace, the courts, and schools are reported. Among the issues related to employment are the following: female faculty members earn less in salary than males, despite receiving slightly higher raises than males; unemployment among women doctorates in the humanities is higher than that of males; age…

  3. Sex Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Srivastava


    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function. Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development. Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life. Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Srivastava


    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also

  5. Sex Education: Another View (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer


    The mother of a 14-year-old mentally retarded boy comments on the viewpoints of Dr. Sol Gordon (a sex education columnist) regarding masturbation, questions on sex, marriage, and the parents' role. (SBH)

  6. Sex education in Portugal. (United States)

    Frade, A; Vilar, D


    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  7. Sex Education Materials. (United States)

    Singer-Magdoff, Laura


    After briefly discussing the philosophy of sex education and appraising generally the nature of the instructional methods and materials currently in use in the schools, the author provides brief but incisive reviews of a number of films, filmstrips, and other instructional materials dealing with sex. The reviews are continued in the succeeding…

  8. Sex education in Cyprus. (United States)

    Patsalides, N


    The objective of educating people on family planning and sexuality issues has been carried forth by the Family Planning Association of Cyprus (FPAC) since 1971. The promotion of sex education in schools has generated respect for their expertise. Sex education has reached the agenda of the General Assembly of Parliament only to be postponed due to the April 1991 end of term dismissal. A newly elected Parliament are not expected to act immediately. The Ministry of Education Committee on Health Education has been actively counseled since 1974, and most recently in their examination of the possibilities of school sex education and training of high school teachers. The Ministry of Education has authority over primary and secondary education, which is compulsory up to 3 years of secondary education. The approach of FPAC has been to work with parents first in education lectures at various well publicized locations. The agenda was to inform about FPAC, explain the purpose and meaning of sex education, and show the Merry-Go-Round educational film followed by a question and answer session. Eventually, presentations involved children with parent observation. In 1977, authorization from the Ministry of Education gave official approval to FPAC, but not on school premises. FPAC went directly to headmasters and gained support in primary schools to organize sessions on school premises, which successfully involved many primary schools even in the much needed rural areas. Home Economics and Child Care, offered in the 5th and 6th grades was the only vehicle for gaining permission to enter secondary schools. In Larnaca, secondary school headmasters at the 3rd and 6th grade levels permitted invitations which requested parental permission. Lecture topics on human reproduction, sex roles, and disease and contraception were also provided in a follow-up letter. Higher education levels were involved through youth clubs and evening lectures. In 1988, FPAC urged the Director General of the

  9. Sex education and ideals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, D.J.; Spiecker, B.


    This article argues that sex education should include sexual ideals. Sexual ideals are divided into sexual ideals in the strict sense and sexual ideals in the broad sense. It is argued that ideals that refer to the context that is deemed to be most ideal for the gratification of sexual ideals in the

  10. Sex Education: Challenges and Choices (United States)

    MacKenzie, Alison; Hedge, Nicki; Enslin, Penny


    Noting public concern about sexual exploitation, abuse and sexualisation, we argue that sex education in the UK needs revision. Choice is a feature of current sex education policy and, acknowledging that choice can be problematic, we defend its place in an approach to sex education premised on informed deliberation, relational autonomy, a…

  11. Teaching Sex Education in Thailand (United States)

    Kay, Noy S.; Jones, Megan R.; Jantaraweragul, Sudgasame


    The purposes of this study were to examine the current situation pertaining to the teaching of sex education and identify barriers to teaching sex education among Thai health education teachers. A survey questionnaire was administered to 193 health education teachers who participated in this study. The questionnaire was comprised of three parts:…

  12. Sex Education with Young Children. (United States)

    Koblinsky, Sally; And Others


    Discusses guidelines (developed by the Oregon State University Early Childhood Sex Education Project) for developing teacher-parent cooperation in providing sex education to young children. The guidelines concern how to talk about body differences and body functions; how to deal with masturbation, sex play and obscene language; and how to involve…

  13. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan


    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  14. Moral Pluralism and Sex Education (United States)

    Corngold, Josh


    How should common schools in a liberal pluralist society approach sex education in the face of deep disagreement about sexual morality? Should they eschew sex education altogether? Should they narrow its focus to facts about biology, reproduction, and disease prevention? Should they, in addition to providing a broad palette of information about…

  15. Leisure Education in Supported Employment. (United States)

    Employment Opportunities, Inc., Raleigh, NC.

    This manual provides a leisure education program for individuals with disabilities, to facilitate leisure functioning in their homes and communities. The program is first introduced to participants and families upon admission into supported employment and is designed to be facilitated by a training specialist or job coach. The program can be…

  16. Employers' Perspectives of Online Education (United States)

    Linardopoulos, Nikolaos


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of seven representative studies pertaining to the employers' perceptions of online education. Design/methodology/approach: The paper retrieved and analysed representative studies on the subject from two scholarly databases and Google. Findings: The results indicate that…

  17. The Employability of Young People in Spain: The Mismatch between Education and Employment (United States)

    Moreno Minguez, Almudena


    This paper reflects the ambiguous concept of employability and its use as an instrument to fight against youth unemployment. Generally, this concept refers to educational capital which workers acquire to enhance their possibilities of being employed and productive, without taking into account factors, such as sex, nationality, the social class…

  18. Disestablishing Sex: The Case for Released-Time Sex Education (United States)

    Glanzer, Perry L.


    Allowing nonschool organizations to provide sex education in a released-time format would disestablish state-funded sex education and give families a choice in the sex education that would be provided for their children. Released-time programs, as originally conceived and currently practiced, allow students to be released for a period of time…

  19. More on the New Sex Education. (United States)

    Kasun, Jacqueline


    Replies to Paul V. Crosbie's criticisms. Argues that: reports of teenage sexuality and pregnancy are exaggerated; sex education programs encourage acceptance of every form of sexual expression; parents cannot always control their children's participation in sex education; and teachers are not equipped to teach sex education in a neutral fashion.…

  20. Sense about Sex: Media, Sex Advice, Education and Learning (United States)

    Attwood, Feona; Barker, Meg John; Boynton, Petra; Hancock, Justin


    The media are widely acknowledged as important in sex and relationship education, but they are usually associated with "bad" effects on young people in contrast to the "good" knowledge represented by more informational and educational formats. In this paper we look at sex advice giving in newspapers, magazines and television in…

  1. Sex Education: Talking to Toddlers and Preschoolers about Sex (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health Sex education often begins with a child's curiosity about his or her body. Here's how to set the stage for ... Original article: . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  2. Employers' Perceptions of Online Accounting Education (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Manouchehr; Solomon, Alison; Strickland, Emily; Metrejean, Eddie


    The main focus of this research is on perceptions of accounting employers of those individuals obtaining their accounting education online. An online survey of accounting professionals was conducted, and the findings suggest that a candidate with a traditional education is more suitable for employment than a candidate with an online education.…

  3. Predicting Employer's Benefits from Cooperative Education. (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard L.; Page, Norman R.


    Attempts to predict employer benefits resulting from their involvement in cooperative education programs. Benefits include a good source of quality employees, increased worker motivation, and increased respect between students and employers. (JOW)

  4. Teaching Sex Education to Multiply Handicapped Adolescents. (United States)

    Smigielski, Patricia A.; Steinmann, Mary J.


    A sex education program for an adolescent who is mentally retarded or blind must emphasize concrete teaching, visual compensators, resource persons, repetition of content, and opportunities for social learning. Nurses and special educators can serve as consultants to health educators in planning a sex education program. (JN)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl P. Oleksyuk


    Full Text Available The article investigated the concept of «institutional repository» and determined the aspects of institutional repositories in higher education. Institutional Repositories are information systems that allow preserving, storing and disseminating scientific knowledge produced in higher education and scientific research institutions. This study presented the main aspects using institutional repositories in educational process (such as storage of scientific and educational information, means of organization activity of students, object of studying. This article produced the structure of communities and collections of the institutional. It is described the experience of implementing of DSpace in the learning process.

  6. enhancing employability through university education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    engineered to achieve these skills for the benefit of our students and society at large through the role of. National ... S. O. Onyeagbako, Department of Life Science Education, Faculty of Education, Imo State University, ... examination malpractice and unmotivated work ..... functions are met, NUC should ensure an orderly.

  7. The Advantages of Single-Sex Education (United States)

    Hughes, Teresa A.


    Traditionally, single-sex education has been provided in the form of private schooling. Title IX regulations have loosened as a result of the No Child Left Behind Legislation; therefore, public school districts now have the legal right to create single-sex classes or single-sex schools if they deem it to be in the best interest of their students.…

  8. Elusive Sex Acts: Pleasure and Politics in Norwegian Sex Education (United States)

    Svendsen, Stine H. Bang


    While there is little political opposition towards sex education as such in Norway, recent attempts at reforming the subject reveal underlying heteronormative presumptions that seem resistant to reform. While a focus on homosexuality is included in the national curriculum at all levels of compulsory education, the sexual practices involved in…

  9. Conflicting Philosophies of School Sex Education. (United States)

    Reiss, Michael J.


    Explores the strengths and weaknesses of the five main philosophical positions currently found in school sex education. Argues that valid sex education promotes rational sexual autonomy, requires pupils to consider the needs and wishes of others, and occurs within a moral framework. Suggests teachers adopt a supportive but neutral position. (MJP)

  10. What's Missing? Anti-Racist Sex Education! (United States)

    Whitten, Amanda; Sethna, Christabelle


    Contemporary sexual health curricula in Canada include information about sexual diversity and queer identities, but what remains missing is any explicit discussion of anti-racist sex education. Although there exists federal and provincial support for multiculturalism and anti-racism in schools, contemporary Canadian sex education omits crucial…

  11. Can Sex Education Delay Early Sexual Debut? (United States)

    Erkut, Sumru; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice A.; Ceder, Ineke; Charmaraman, Linda; Tracy, Allison J.


    In this study, we examine whether a nine-lesson sex education intervention, "Get Real: Comprehensive Sex Education That Works," implemented in sixth grade, can reduce the number of adolescents who might otherwise become "early starters" of sexual activity (defined as heterosexual intercourse) by seventh grade. Participants were…

  12. 29 CFR 1604.7 - Pre-employment inquiries as to sex. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-employment inquiries as to sex. 1604.7 Section 1604.7... DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.7 Pre-employment inquiries as to sex. A pre-employment inquiry may ask “Male... directly or indirectly any limitation, specification, or discrimination as to sex shall be unlawful unless...

  13. Office Employability Competencies Needed by Business Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Office Employability Competencies Needed by Business Education Graduates for Effective Job Performance in Modern Organisations in Nigeria. ... Mean-scores and standard deviation were used in the analysis of data. The study revealed that amongst others that 10 of the core office employability competencies and 13 ...

  14. Putting sex education in its place. (United States)

    Cassell, C


    In order to help reduce fears and anxieties regarding the influence of sex education in a public school setting, school and community sexuality educators need to better articulate the difference between formal and structured sex education and non-formal, informal and incidental sex learning. Sex education is only 1 aspect of the sexual learning process. 2 main points have to be clarified for parents and the general public to set the stage for a new way to view the school and community involvement in the sexual learning process: the schools' sexuality education courses constitute only a small portion of the sexual learning process; and sexual learning is not an event for youth only, but a process spanning life. Sex education (the process) connotates an academic setting with a specific curricula taught by a trained instructor, but sexual learning relates to environmental, non-formal incidental learning from a multitude of sources. Studies indicate that teenagers receive about 90% of their contraceptive and sexuality informaation from peers and mass media and that these sources of information are becoming their preferred sources of sex education. What is needed is a way to address and improve the conditions of sexual learning in the community. As home is the ideal environment for primary and positive sexual learning, parents need support in their role as sex educators. Classroom sexuality education curricula in all school settings have a solid place in the process of sexual learning.


    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.


  16. Learning about Sex: Resource Guide for Sex Educators. Revised Edition (United States)

    Huberman, Barbara


    Whether you are someone new to the field of sex education, trying to start a library or resource center on adolescent sexual health, or an old pro, this guide should give you a basic orientation to what's available to support your work. These resources are important to advancing positive attitudes toward adolescent sexual health and the author…

  17. Sex Education: Talking to Your Teen about Sex (United States)

    ... might miss the best opportunities. Instead, think of sex education as an ongoing conversation. Here are some ideas to help you get started — and keep the discussion going. Seize the moment. When a TV program or music video raises issues about responsible sexual behavior, use it ...

  18. It Isn't Sex Education unless... (United States)

    Hacker, Sylvia S.


    An effective sex education curriculum deals with both feelings and behaviors. It must address decision making and problem solving in regard to relationship formation, readiness for intercourse, use of contraception, child rearing, and social responsibility and should be incorporated into education throughout the educational process. (JN)

  19. Empowerment through Sex Education? Rethinking Paradoxical Policies (United States)

    Naezer, Marijke; Rommes, Els; Jansen, Willy


    Youth empowerment is the main goal of sex education according to Dutch Government and NGO policies. Academics from different disciplines have argued, however, that the ideal of empowerment through education is problematic, because of the unequal power relations implicated in educational practices. Building on one-and-a-half years of online and…

  20. Social Conflict and Sex Equity in Education. (United States)

    Quantz, Richard A.


    Holds that male/female differences in such behavior characteristics as aggression, cooperation/competition, compliance, and anxiety are not innate, but rather are social strategies available to both sexes and utilized whenever reasonable. Suggests that the sex equity problems in education can be solved by eliminating differential treatment of boys…

  1. Laws on Sex Discrimination in Employment. Federal Civil Rights Act, Title VII State Fair Employment Practices Laws, Executive Orders. (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report describes the applicable laws regarding sex discrimination in employment. In addition to Federal law and two relevant Executive Orders, the report includes 21 state laws and the District of Columbia's law prohibiting discrimination based on sex. This document is a revision of ED 014 611. (BH)

  2. Education and employment prospects in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Uldall, Peter; Kejs, Anne Mette T


    information was obtained from Denmark's unique registries. Of the participants with CP, 33% vs 77% of controls, had education beyond lower secondary school (i.e. after age 15-16y), 29% were competitively employed (vs 82% of controls), 5% were studying, and 5% had specially created jobs. Excluding participants......Parents and paediatric neurologists need information on the long-term social prognosis of children with cerebral palsy (CP). No large population-based study has been performed on this topic. On 31 December 1999, to find predictors in childhood of subsequent education and employment, 819...

  3. Self-Employment among Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Couples in Canada. (United States)

    Waite, Sean; Denier, Nicole


    This study presents novel evidence on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-employment. Using data from the 2001 and 2006 Census of Canada and the 2011 Canadian National Household Survey, we explore the propensity for self-employment among same- and opposite-sex couples. We examine the demographic, human capital, and family characteristics of coupled gay men and lesbians relative to their coupled heterosexual counterparts to offer potential mechanisms generating differences in rates of self-employment. Our analysis further considers occupational variability in the likelihood of self-employment. We find that gay men are less likely and lesbians more likely than heterosexuals to be self-employed; however, there is significant variation across occupations. Gay men are more likely to be self-employed in arts and culture, sales and service, and natural and applied sciences, but less likely in business, finance, and health-related occupations. Lesbians are much more likely to be self-employed in health-related occupations, natural and applied sciences, and arts and culture. Marriage and having children are significant predictors of self-employment for coupled heterosexual women but not lesbians. Cette étude présente des évidences empiriques concernant la relation entre l'orientation sexuelle et le travail indépendant. Utilisant des données provenant du Recensement du Canada de 2001 et de 2006, ainsi que l'Enquête nationale auprès des ménages (ENM) de 2011, nous explorons la tendance du travail indépendant parmi les couples de même sexe et ceux de sexe opposé. Ainsi, nous examinons les caractéristiques démographiques, du capital humain et familiales des couples gais et lesbiens par rapport à leurs homologues hétérosexuels, afin de démontrer une corrélation entre l'orientation sexuelle et la probabilité d'être travailleur indépendant - une causation qui nous semble évident et que nous analysons plus en profondeur. Nous concluons d

  4. Sex (Education) in the City: Singapore's Sexuality Education Curriculum (United States)

    Liew, Warren Mark


    This paper examines the Singapore Ministry of Education's sexuality education curriculum in relation to two leading approaches to sex education, namely, abstinence-only-until-marriage education (AOUME) and comprehensive sexuality education (CSE). Based on competing cultural, political, and religious beliefs, the arguments between the advocates of…

  5. Educational Mismatch and Self-Employment (United States)

    Bender, Keith A.; Roche, Kristen


    Previous research on educational mismatch concentrates on estimating its labor market consequences but with a focus on wage and salary workers. This paper examines the far less studied influence of mismatch on the self-employed. Using a sample of workers in science and engineering fields, results show larger earnings penalties for mismatch among…

  6. Educational attainment, formal employment and contraceptives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on this, the study examines educational attainment, formal employment and contraceptives practices among working women in Lagos State University. Survey design was adopted for the study. Using Stratified and simple random sampling techniques, quantitative data was gathered through the administration of ...

  7. Education and employment prospects in cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Uldall, Peter; Kejs, Anne Mette T


    information was obtained from Denmark's unique registries. Of the participants with CP, 33% vs 77% of controls, had education beyond lower secondary school (i.e. after age 15-16y), 29% were competitively employed (vs 82% of controls), 5% were studying, and 5% had specially created jobs. Excluding participants......Parents and paediatric neurologists need information on the long-term social prognosis of children with cerebral palsy (CP). No large population-based study has been performed on this topic. On 31 December 1999, to find predictors in childhood of subsequent education and employment, 819...... with epilepsy versus those without epilepsy. The severity of motor impairment among participants with CP able to walk had just a minor influence. Only half the participants with CP who had attended mainstream schooling were employed. In conclusion several childhood characteristics seemed to predict long...

  8. Musical taste, employment, education, and global region. (United States)

    North, Adrian C; Davidson, Jane W


    Sociologists have argued that musical taste should vary between social groups, but have not considered whether the effect extends beyond taste into uses of music and also emotional reactions to music. Moreover, previous research has ignored the culture in which participants are located. The present research employed a large sample from five post-industrial global regions and showed that musical taste differed between regions but not according to education and employment; and that there were three-way interactions between education, employment, and region in the uses to which participants put music and also their typical emotional reactions. In addition to providing partial support for existing sociological theory, the findings highlight the potential of culture as a variable in future quantitative research on taste. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  9. Employment growth, human capital and educational levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars


    human capital in understanding regional growth. We examine to what extent different labour competences and capabilities relate to municipal employment growth using nine stratified, educational categories as proxies for different levels of human capital. Dividing municipalities into four spatial...... categories ranging from the urban to the peripheral, we conclude that there is a strong spatial distinction of educational structures with an urban bias, and that educational categories other than academic human capital can make an important contribution to our understanding of what drives employment growth......Contemporary studies in urban and regional development stress the importance of large city-regions as key places in modern capitalism taking the form of agglomerations of economic activities by industries, firms and highly skilled people. In this article, we challenge the strong focus on academic...

  10. Appraising the Vatican's Approach to Sex Education. (United States)

    Thomas, David M.


    Analyzes the Vatican publication, "Educational Guidance in Human Love," which underscores the responsibilities of family and church in sex education. Affirms the positive aspects of the report and points to its weaknesses and omissions. Suggests possible responses to the document by parishes and schools. (DMM)

  11. Longitudinal Patterns of Employment and Postsecondary Education for Adults with Autism and Average-Range IQ (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Henninger, Natalie A.; Mailick, Marsha R.


    This study examined correlates of participation in postsecondary education and employment over 12?years for 73 adults with autism spectrum disorders and average-range IQ whose families were part of a larger, longitudinal study. Correlates included demographic (sex, maternal education, paternal education), behavioral (activities of daily living,…

  12. Sex Education and Sex Stereotypes: Theory and Practice. Working Paper No. 198. (United States)

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This paper presents an explanation of practitioners' reactions to sex equitable sex education. Several constraints can prohibit practitioners from engaging in sex equitable sex education: (1) lack of community support; (2) lack of expertise in human sexuality education; (3) vagueness of school committee views; and (4) lack of answers to logistical…

  13. Virtual Reality in education and for employability


    Minocha, Shailey; Tudor, Ana-Despina


    Virtual reality is becoming pervasive in several domains - in arts and film-making, for environmental causes, in medical education, in disaster management training, in sports broadcasting, in entertainment, and in supporting patients with dementia. An awareness of virtual reality technology and its integration in curriculum design will provide and enhance employability skills for current and future workplaces.\\ud \\ud In this webinar, we will describe the evolution of virtual reality technolog...

  14. Sex Discrimination in Employment. Research Report No. 171. (United States)

    Morris, J. David; Wood, Linda B.

    This report examines the status of women and the laws that have been enacted to protect women from discrimination in employment. Written in lay language, it examines employment and occupational statistics for women in the United States and in Kentucky. Following an introduction in Chapter 1, the report presents four chapters surveying the problem,…

  15. Sex education vital for Chinese adolescents. (United States)

    Zhang, Z


    This article summarizes findings from a survey conducted among adolescents in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Findings indicate that 89.3% of sex offenders were adolescents. Many high school students were engaged in premarital sexual relations, but lacked knowledge about sex and contraception. Premarital sex and sexually transmitted diseases are considered a social evil. The central government has direct jurisdiction in Tianjin and its population of 9 million. By 1989 there were 540,000, or 12% of total population, aged 12-16 years. A survey of 3231 junior middle school students aged 11-14 years revealed that 35% of girls did not know why menstruation occurred at a certain age. About 55% of boys did not know about erections. 35% considered an erect penis a part of normal physical development, but over 50% were confused. 30-50% of students who had reached menarche and sexual maturity found it difficult to find knowledgeable people. 50% received information from the mass media. 44% of girls learned from their mothers. 25% of boys and girls aged 11-12 years already had girlfriends and boyfriends. About 30% desired friends of the opposite sex and desired intimacy, love, and dependability among friends. It is argued that the backward notions of sex originated in a once feudal society that considered sex a taboo. Parents, teachers, and school authorities are resistant to introducing sex education; teachers are embarrassed by the subject matter. In Beijing about 4000 students aged 11-14 years were interviewed. These students had limited information on sex-related issues and misconceptions. Attitudes must be changed and teachers must be trained before adolescent health and sex education can be introduced into schools. The government can play a role in promoting programs for adolescents and coordinating the efforts of nongovernmental groups.

  16. Sex Education Knowledge Differences between Freshmen and Senior College Undergraduates (United States)

    Franklin, Ruth M.; Dotger, Sharon


    Abstinence sexuality education (sex ed) is the only federally funded sex ed in the United States. The strict curriculum of this education does not educate American adolescents about safer sex practices and leaves a knowledge gap in these adolescents that follows them into college. The Problem: This project aimed to identify sex knowledge…

  17. Sex Bias in Vocational Education. (United States)

    Kalinowski, Edward

    Practical information is provided on sexual harassment within the vocational education context. A definition of sexual harassment is followed by examples of practices or behaviors that may be used to determine sexual harassment, including both physical conduct and communication. Possible impacts of sexual harassment in a vocational training…

  18. The Multiple Choices of Sex Education (United States)

    Hamilton, Rashea; Sanders, Megan; Anderman, Eric M.


    Sex education in middle and high school health classes is critically important because it frequently comprises the primary mechanism for conveying information about sexual health to adolescents. Deliver evidence-based information on HIV and pregnancy prevention practices and they will be less likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors, the theory…

  19. Undergraduates Perspectives on Sex Education and Teenage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines undergraduates' perspective on sex education and teenage pregnancy in Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study population was 250 undergraduates of Covenant University. Frequency tables, linear regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data collected ...

  20. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject (United States)

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.


    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  1. Young Men, Masculinities and Sex Education (United States)

    Limmer, Mark


    This paper draws on focus group and interview data from 45 young men from the north of England to explore the barriers to effective sex and relationships education (SRE). Recent policy debates in relation to establishing statutory SRE in schools provide an opportunity to revisit how it is currently delivered to, and received by, young men. The…

  2. Single-Sex Schools and Classrooms. The Informed Educator Series (United States)

    Clarke, Suzanne


    In October 2006, the U.S. Department of Education introduced the so-called "single-sex regulations," which brought the issue of single-sex education to the forefront of discussion among educators, policymakers, and parents. Anecdotal evidence suggests that single-sex education can have a positive impact on student achievement. However,…

  3. Brief Highlights of Major Federal Laws and Order on Sex Discrimination in Employment. (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    The following laws and order are explained in this pamphlet: (1) Equal Pay Act of 1963 (concerns prohibiting employers from paying workers of one sex less than workers of the other sex for equal work on jobs that require equal skill, effort, and responsibility and that are performed under similar working conditions), (2) Title VII of the Civil…

  4. Recruiting for diversity: Sex differences in undergraduates’ choices of potential employers


    Freeman, Cheryl


    The aim of this research is to explore sex differences in undergraduates’ choices of potential employers. It focuses on a major employer (‘the Firm’), wishing to increase the number of job applications it receives from female undergraduates, and comprises three linked projects. No previous research was found that addresses sex differences in organisational choice. In the first project, a contribution is made by identifying, using Repertory Grids, eightyfour organisational at...

  5. Sex Discrimination in Higher Education and the Professions: An Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Donovan, Mary

    An annotated bibliography on sex discrimination in higher education and the professions is presented. Sex discrimination remains a major workplace problem and is found in virtually all levels of employment. The bibliography consists of 124 citations which appeared from 1984-1988. It excludes court cases and the "popular press," and although not…

  6. What should be the moral aims of compulsory sex education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steutel, J.W.; de Ruyter, D.J.


    With reference to the unsuccessful attempt of the Labour Government to make sex education a statutory part of the National Curriculum, this paper argues in favour of making liberal sex education compulsory at all state schools. First, the main characteristics of a liberal sex education are briefly

  7. Sex Education Attitudes and Outcomes among North American Women (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura


    Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…

  8. What Should Be the Moral Aims of Compulsory Sex Education? (United States)

    Steutel, Jan; de Ruyter, Doret J.


    With reference to the unsuccessful attempt of the Labour Government to make sex education a statutory part of the National Curriculum, this paper argues in favour of making liberal sex education compulsory at all state schools. First, the main characteristics of a liberal sex education are briefly explained. Promoting the virtue of respect for…

  9. Conclusions: Getting real about sex - embedding an embodied sex education in schools


    Alldred, P; David, ME


    GET REAL ABOUT SEX: The Politics and Practice of Sex Education explores how cultural ideas about gender, sexuality and parenthood play out in the sex and relationship education classroom. It presents new material from a detailed study and analyses the struggle to raise the status of sex and relationship education against academic and market-driven priorities. It locates the dynamics of the classroom within those of the school and asks: What do the different parties in teaching and learning -...

  10. Using Employer Hiring Behavior to Test the Educational Signaling Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, J.W.; van Ours, J.C.


    This paper presents a test of the educational signaling hypothesis.If employers use education as a signal in the hiring process, they will rely more on education when less is otherwise known about applicants.We nd that employers are more likely to lower educational standards when an informal, more

  11. Mothers' Preferences Regarding Sex Education in the Home


    Christopherson, Cynthia R


    There is a large amount of evidence suggesting a need to educate children concerning sexual issues. The extent of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and the spread of AIDS are all indicators of the lack of appropriate education. In view of these social concerns, along with the controversy concerning sex education taught in school, it would seem to be helpful if parents provided more adequate sex education. Parents are a primary source of sex education for their children, ...

  12. Multiculturalism and inconsistency in the perception of sex education in Australian society. (United States)

    Almahbobi, Ghanim


    A group of individuals who share common beliefs form a culture in which they communicate their values and attributes about certain aspects of society. Sex education remains one of the early teachings that humans experience irrespective of the race or level of development of a given society. However, different cultures perceive sex education differently due to differences in attitudes and beliefs, leading to significant diversity in the management of sex education among different societies across the globe. Many studies have found that in a traditional society with a homogeneous culture, the foremost reason for the different approaches to sex education is related to traditional values, in addition to other factors such as religion and political belief. In order to improve sex education, and consequently, sexual health in a modern multicultural society such as Australia, it becomes imperative to identify the inconsistency in beliefs about sex education among individuals with different cultural backgrounds in the Australian population. In this report, the author highlights similarities and differences in the methods employed by certain cultures of the Australian population. The report considers the different cultural environments of specific societies, the prevalence of sex education in these societies and how culture influences the prevalence. The concluding thoughts reflect on the success of the education programs in Australia, based on the idea that resolving the problems of sex education needs support from a number of bodies within Australian society.

  13. Conflicted Identification in the Sex Education Classroom: Balancing Professional Values With Organizational Mandates. (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Robin E


    Despite enormous resources spent on sex education, the United States faces an epidemic of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections among young people. Little research has examined the role sex educators play in alleviating or exacerbating this problem. In this study, we interviewed 50 sex educators employed by public schools throughout a Midwestern, U.S. state about their experiences in the sex education classroom. Twenty-two interviewees communicated feelings of conflicted identification and provided examples of the ways in which they experienced this subjectivity in the context of their employment. We find these interviews shed light on the as-yet-understudied communicative experience of conflicted identification by delineating key sources of such conflict and discursive strategies used in its negotiation. Our results suggest that those who experience conflicted identification and who have a sense of multiple or nested identifications within their overarching professional identity may be safeguarded to some extent from eventual organizational disidentification. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Sex education and adolescent sexual behavior: do community characteristics matter? (United States)

    Kraft, Joan Marie; Kulkarni, Aniket; Hsia, Jason; Jamieson, Denise J; Warner, Lee


    Studies point to variation in the effects of formal sex education on sexual behavior and contraceptive use by individual and community characteristics. Using the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, we explored associations between receipt of sex education and intercourse by age 15, intercourse by the time of the interview and use of effective contraception at first sex among 15-19-year-olds, stratified by quartiles of three community characteristics and adjusted for demographics. Across all quartiles of community characteristics, sex education reduced the odds of having sex by age 15. Sex education resulted in reduced odds of having sex by the date of the interview and increased odds of using contraception in the middle quartiles of community characteristics. Variation in the effects of sex education should be explored. Research might focus on programmatic differences by community type and programmatic needs in various types of communities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Education and Youth Employment in Less Developed Countries. (United States)

    Medina, Alberto Hernandez; And Others

    The education/employment situations of young people in Mexico and South Asia are examined as part of a project to broaden perspectives on social, educational, and employment issues in developing nations. In Mexico, economic growth between 1940 and 1970 was considerably greater than achievement of social goals such as full employment and…

  16. Part-Time Higher Education: Employer Engagement under Threat? (United States)

    Mason, Geoff


    Employer support for employees who are studying part-time for higher education qualifications constitutes a form of indirect employer engagement with higher education institutions that has contributed strongly to the development of work-related skills and knowledge over the years. However, this form of employer engagement with higher education…

  17. Adolescents' Preferences regarding Sex Education and Relationship Education (United States)

    Turnbull, Triece; van Schaik, Paul; van Wersch, Anna


    Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of the quality of a Sex and Relationship Education (SRE) intervention, their preferences for sources of SRE and how these vary as a function of gender, school's faith and school type. Design: A non-experimental design was used. Setting: The participants (N = 759…

  18. Developing Employability Skills: Peer Assessment in Higher Education (United States)

    Cassidy, Simon


    Purpose: Reports examining graduate employment issues suggest that employers are concerned by the lack of employability skills exhibited by entry-level job applications. It is also suggested that employers consider it the responsibility of educational institutions to develop such skills. The current study seeks to identify peer assessment as a…

  19. Perceptions of sources of sex education and targets of sex communication: sociodemographic and cohort effects. (United States)

    Sprecher, Susan; Harris, Gardenia; Meyers, Adena


    As part of a larger survey study on young adult sexuality conducted over a 17-year period at a Midwest U.S. university, more than 6,000 college students completed questions on the sources of their sex education and the degree to which they have communicated about sex with various types of individuals. Participants reported receiving more sex education from peers and media than from parents (and mothers more than fathers). Respondents also reported communicating more about sex with peers than with parents or any other categories of individuals. Differences were found in the degree of sex education from various sources and in communication with various targets based on gender, ethnic background, and social class. Furthermore, changes were found over the 17-year period. More recent cohorts of students perceived that they received more sex education from media, peers, and professionals, and communicated more about sex with professionals, relative to earlier cohorts.

  20. Sex and Employment-Setting Differences in Work-Family Conflict in Athletic Training. (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M; Pitney, William A; Mueller, Megan N


    Work-family conflict (WFC) has received much attention in athletic training, yet several factors related to this phenomenon have not been examined, specifically a practitioner's sex, occupational setting, willingness to leave the profession, and willingness to use work-leave benefits. To examine how sex and occupational differences in athletic training affect WFC and to examine willingness to leave the profession and use work-leave benefits. Cross-sectional study. Multiple occupational settings, including clinic/outreach, education, collegiate, industrial, professional sports, secondary school, and sales. A total of 246 athletic trainers (ATs) (men = 110, women = 136) participated. Of these, 61.4% (n = 151) were between 20 and 39 years old. Participants responded to a previously validated and reliable WFC instrument. We created and validated a 3-item instrument that assessed willingness to use work-leave benefits, which demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.88), as well as a single question about willingness to leave the profession. The mean (± SD) WFC score was 16.88 ± 4.4 (range = 5 [least amount of conflict] to 25 [highest amount of conflict]). Men scored 17.01 ± 4.5, and women scored 16.76 ± 4.36, indicating above-average WFC. We observed no difference between men and women based on conflict scores (t244 = 0.492, P = .95) or their willingness to leave the profession (t244 = -1.27, P = .21). We noted differences among ATs in different practice settings (F8,245 = 5.015, P work-leave benefits (2-tailed r = -0.533, P work-leave benefits was different among practice settings (F8,245 = 3.01, P = .003). The ATs employed in traditional practice settings reported higher levels of WFC. Male and female ATs had comparable experiences of WFC and willingness to leave the profession.

  1. Employment of mobile devices in chemistry education


    Švehla, Martin


    This diploma thesis is focused on the use of mobile devices in chemistry education. Describes various mobile devices, including different operating systems and technology and shows huge potential that these devices bring to education. It also includes an overview of existing educational programs with a chemical theme on mobile devices. Part of this work was to create a custom supportive program Chemical helper for mobile devices, which can be used in chemistry education, laboratory and also i...

  2. Employing Subgoals in Computer Programming Education (United States)

    Margulieux, Lauren E.; Catrambone, Richard; Guzdial, Mark


    The rapid integration of technology into our professional and personal lives has left many education systems ill-equipped to deal with the influx of people seeking computing education. To improve computing education, we are applying techniques that have been developed for other procedural fields. The present study applied such a technique, subgoal…

  3. Single-Sex Education in Public School Settings (United States)

    Crawford-Ferre, Heather Glynn; Wiest, Lynda R.


    Although researchers have studied the effectiveness of single-sex education (SSE), the findings have been mixed. This exploratory study reports the perceived goals and effectiveness of single-sex education based on interviews with a small group of educators involved with SSE in various ways. Research participants included a school principal and…

  4. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present (United States)

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee


    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  5. Thinking in Sex Education: Reading Prohibition through the Film "Desire" (United States)

    Gilbert, Jen


    This paper argues that sex education must move beyond a focus on compliance so that we may risk the uncertain work of thinking. How might we understand the work of thinking in sex education if we begin from the assumptions that learning is conflicted, that sexuality resists being educated even as it inspires curiosity, and that the subject of sex…

  6. The Use and Misuse of Pleasure in Sex Education Curricula (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon; Lustig, Kara; Graling, Kelly


    Since Michelle Fine's writing on the missing discourse of desire in sex education, there has been considerable prompting among sexuality educators and feminist scholars to incorporate talk of pleasure into sex education curricula. While the calls for inclusion continue, few have actually examined the curricula for a pleasure discourse or…

  7. 29 CFR 1620.22 - Employment cost not a “factor other than sex.” (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment cost not a âfactor other than sex.â 1620.22... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.22 Employment cost not a “factor other than sex.” A wage differential based on claimed differences between the average cost of employing workers of one sex as a group and the...

  8. Employing subgoals in computer programming education (United States)

    Margulieux, Lauren E.; Catrambone, Richard; Guzdial, Mark


    The rapid integration of technology into our professional and personal lives has left many education systems ill-equipped to deal with the influx of people seeking computing education. To improve computing education, we are applying techniques that have been developed for other procedural fields. The present study applied such a technique, subgoal labeled worked examples, to explore whether it would improve programming instruction. The first two experiments, conducted in a laboratory, suggest that the intervention improves undergraduate learners' problem-solving performance and affects how learners approach problem-solving. The third experiment demonstrates that the intervention has similar, and perhaps stronger, effects in an online learning environment with in-service K-12 teachers who want to become qualified to teach computing courses. By implementing this subgoal intervention as a tool for educators to teach themselves and their students, education systems could improve computing education and better prepare learners for an increasingly technical world.

  9. Access to Education and Employment Opportunities: Implications for Poverty Reduction (United States)

    Adewale, T. M.


    The study examined the linkages between Education and poverty and the possibility of poverty reduction through access to education and better employment opportunities. The paper also stressed that poverty acts as both cause and effect on lack of education. In particular the paper examined whether education is contributing to poverty reduction…

  10. Sex Education Justice: A Call for Comprehensive Sex Education and the Inclusion of Latino Early Adolescent Boys (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, Claudia; Guzman, Bianca L.


    Many sex education programs do not conceptualize adolescent sexuality as a normative process of development, thus sexuality is not part of a holistic picture of health education.The current project examines the multiple determinants of adolescent boys' sexual behaviors in the context of developing sex education. Limited research has examined the…

  11. Higher Education--The Flexible Employment Sector? (United States)

    Scott, Jill; Ridgley, Clare; Spurgeon, Peter


    Explored the extent to which policies and practices promoting work-life balance (family friendly policies) have been taken up within the English higher education sector. Responses from 50 higher education institutions show that flexible working practices are more widespread than the formal policies of institutions would suggest. (SLD)

  12. Higher Education and Employment Markets in France. (United States)

    Mingat, Alain; Eicher, J. C.


    The link between educational investment and individual earnings is discussed based on a 1974 study in Dijon. An investigation of the relationship between these two elements is shown to need to consider the choice model used by the individual student entering higher education. Academic and social background influence the student's choice.…

  13. Employability: A Contemporary Review for Higher Education Stakeholders (United States)

    Small, Lynlea; Shacklock, Kate; Marchant, Teresa


    Higher education institutions are under pressure to produce employable graduates who are required to contribute to the sustainability of strong economic growth and development. As such, the onus is on the higher education sector to present graduates to the labour market who are both work ready and have attained employability. This article…

  14. Challenges of Teacher Training in Sex Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Preinfalk-Fernández


    Full Text Available This article identifies the existing gaps in sex education in the student population of the Center for Research in Teaching and Education of the National University of Costa Rica, and its purpose is to contribute to the decision-making process to improve training for these students. A questionnaire was applied, using a structured sample stratified by unequal clusters, to 242 regular undergraduate students. The margin of error was 1.5 % and the confidence level was 95%. Data was tabulated using the CSPRO software and analyzed with the R software. A focus group was also held with teachers in sexuality courses in order to reflect on the results of the questionnaire application. Data was analyzed through the Integral Sexuality Approach and suggests that students lack the information necessary to exercise healthy, safe, and violence-free sexuality. This condition leads them to high risk situations because of the rare or lack of contraceptive use and the practice of coitus interruptus and makes them experience fears and guilt when being sexually active. Students have low sexual autonomy, which makes them vulnerable to violent situations and gives them stereotypes and prejudices that lead them to discriminate others for their sexual orientation or to become victims. In general, they are unaware of their reproductive and sexual rights and, therefore, are not capable of demanding them. These indicators should warn teacher training institutions to improve and strengthen their sexual education processes.

  15. Sex Education, Sexual Labor, and Education: The Need for Alternative Sexual Pedagogies (United States)

    Howlett, Caitlin


    This paper interrogates education's relationship to labor through a consideration of sex education's relationship to sexual labor. Beginning with a basic question--why does sex education exist as a federally funded project?--the author examines sex education's relationship to normativity and sexual labor throughout its history as a federally…

  16. Effect of Single-Sex Education on Progress in GCSE (United States)

    Malacova, Eva


    Multilevel modeling was carried out on national value-added data to study the effects of single-sex education on the progress of pupils from 2002 Key Stage 3 to 2004 GCSE. The analysis suggests that pupils in a selective environment achieve higher progress in single-sex schools; however, the advantage of single-sex schooling seems to decrease with…

  17. Formal Education, Women Employment and Poverty | Ankole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, more women than men live below poverty line in most countries as a result of their subordinate roles at the point of employment. It is therefore the submission of this paper that sustainable human development would be unrealizable if approximately half of the human-race – the women-folk – remain ignorant, ...

  18. Perceptions of sex education for young people in Lesotho. (United States)

    Mturi, Akim J; Hennink, Monique M


    This study aimed to identify the views of young people, parents and teachers concerning sex education in Lesotho. It was conducted at a time when the national government was considering the introduction of Population and Family Life Education, which includes sex education, into the national school curriculum. Forty-six focus group discussions were held with young people (10), parents (30) and teachers (6) to identify current sources of sex education and views of the proposed introduction of school-based sex education in Lesotho. Findings show the limited and problematic sources of sex education for adolescents in Lesotho. They also highlight broad support for the introduction of sex education in the national school curriculum among young people, parents and teachers. Of key importance for the development of a sex education curriculum is the balance between providing young people with information and developing their skills in sexual empowerment and negotiating sexual pressure. The use of pupil-centred interactive pedagogies was seen as essential. Teachers, however, highlighted the need for training in the delivery of sex education, which includes instruction on course materials, teaching methodologies and developing sensitivity to teaching sexual issues to young people.

  19. Survey of Consciousness on Sex Education : "A Series of Sex Education"


    小林, 壽子; 大西, 真由実; Hisako, KOBAYASHI; Mayumi, ONISHI; 鈴鹿短期大学; 鈴鹿短期大学; SUZUKA JUNIOR COLLEGE; SUZUKA JUNIOR COLLEGE


    It is 50 years since public sex education was adopted in Japan. Since then, remarkable and sometimes worrying changes have occurred in the attitudes of young people, particularly young women. This study reports our investigation of opinions among students from the third year of junior high school to the second year of junior college. These results will be a basis for future guidance. 1) To what extent do you think sexual intercourse may be permitted in dating? As a part of preserving friendsh...

  20. Cultural Employment by Level of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sava


    Full Text Available The sector of the creative economy brings benefits to the economy, more exactly, through the cultural sector, due to the unlimited resources needed to develop – the human resources represented by their mind or talent. The industrial development and innovation lead towards many changes in the cultural industries mostly due to the digitization effect, an irreversible change in the creation of various cultural goods and services, resulting even new cultural domains and also new regulation in the cultural field. The goods and services produced by the new cultural sector “encompass artistic, aesthetic, symbolic and spiritual values (… their system of valorisation, which includes a characteristic irreproducible, is linked to its appreciation or pleasure” makes them different from other goods and services as Throsby mentioned (UNESCO, 2009:22. This paper aims to show some positive impacts of the creative economy, highlighting social and economic aspects, such as cultural diversity, tolerance, freedom of expression of the cultural identity and by the other hand, new jobs for artists, earnings’ increases, creative clusters, cultural employment etc. We will also show more clearly the activities and the occupations which concern the cultural employment and figures regarding cultural employment in Europe.

  1. Should the Sexes Be Separated for Secondary Education--Comparisons of Single-Sex and Co-Educational Schools? (United States)

    Robinson, Pamela; Smithers, Alan


    English researchers compared the academic and social benefits of single sex and coeducational schools, examining test scores and interviewing 100 college students (balanced for sex and type of school) about their experiences and their ease of adjustment to higher education. Results indicated that segregating the sexes did not increase…

  2. Abstinence-Only Sex Education: College Students' Evaluations and Responses (United States)

    Gardner, Emily A.


    This qualitative study explores the abstinence-only sex education experiences of a small group of young adults in the southeastern USA. Most participants felt that their abstinence-only sex education had mixed value and low overall impact in their lives. Perceptions about abstinence, virginity, and marriage varied significantly from those stressed…

  3. Sex Education and Student Rights: Including the Missing Actor (United States)

    Clarke, Paul T.


    In the West, sex education has always been a taboo subject that continues to challenge the public schools. Drawing on recent developments in some Canadian provinces, I argue that we cannot begin to address the issue of responsible sex education until we first acknowledge that students themselves have a moral and constitutional right to this kind…

  4. Sex Education: New Resources Help Parents Talk with Kids. (United States)

    Witt, Virginia


    To help parents talk with children about sexual health, the Kaiser Family Foundation and National PTA developed a series of free resources for parents (e.g., the booklet "Talking with Kids: A Parent's Guide to Sex Education") to increase parent involvement and communication around sex education. This paper notes the importance of parents…

  5. Adolescents attitude towards sex education; a study of senior high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted specifically to find out about adolescents attitude towards sex education and their opinions on various sexual issues that are incumbent on development to adulthood sexuality. It was also to establish the need for sex education in schools. A descriptive design was used with a sample size for the ...

  6. Queering Sex Education: Young Adult Literature with LGBT Content as Complementary Sources of Sex and Sexuality Education (United States)

    Bittner, Robert


    This article explores the nature of young adult texts as complementary sources of informal queer sex and sexuality education, along with a close reading of a sample of this young adult (YA) literature. LGBT teens are often left out of discussions in sex education classrooms in the United States because of discriminatory curricula, ignorance on the…

  7. Parents' perception, students' and teachers' attitude towards school sex education. (United States)

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Assefa, Tsion; Alemseged, Fessahaye; Ambaw, Fentie


    Sex education is described as education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, reproductive health, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, abstinence, contraception, family planning, body image, sexual orientation, sexual pleasure, values, decision making, communication, dating, relationships, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and how to avoid them, and birth control methods. This study was conducted to explore perception of parents about school sex education and assess the attitude of teachers and students towards school sex education. A cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative study was conducted on randomly selected 386 students, total census of 94 teachers and 10 parents in Merawi Town from March 13-27, 2011. Data were collected using self-administered structured questionnaire and in-depth interview guideline. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed using total score to determine the effect of the independent variables on the outcome variable and thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. All study participants have favourable attitude towards the importance of school sex education. They also agreed that the content of school sex education should include abstinence-only and abstinence-plus based on mental maturity of the students. That means at early age (Primary school) the content of school sex education should be abstinence-only and at later age (secondary school) the content of school sex education should be added abstinence-plus. The students and the teachers said that the minimum and maximum introduction time for school sex education is 5 year and 25 year with mean of 10.97(SD±4.3) and 12.36(SD±3.7) respectively. Teacher teaching experiences and field of studies have supportive idea about the starting of school sex education. Watching romantic movies, reading romantic materials and listening romantic radio programs appear to have a contribution on the predictor of

  8. Factors affecting sex education in the school system. (United States)

    Woo, G W; Soon, R; Thomas, J M; Kaneshiro, B


    To describe the current status of school based sex education and to determine predictors of providing a comprehensive sex education curriculum. Cross-sectional mailed survey Hawaii Seventh and eighth grade health teachers Participants were surveyed regarding the content, quality, and influences on sex education for the 2007 to 2008 academic year. Measures of association (chi-square, ANOVA) and multiple logistic regression were used to determine predictors for teaching comprehensive sex education topics including sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy prevention. Approximately 80% of teachers incorporated some form of sex education into their curriculum and 54.4% of teachers incorporated a comprehensive education. Teachers indicated that personal values and the availability of curriculum had the greatest influence on the content of the curriculum. Specific factors which were associated with an increased likelihood of providing a comprehensive curriculum included teaching in a public school (public 66.7% versus private 34.6%, P = 0.01), receiving formal training in sex education (received training 77.8% versus did not receive training 50.0%, P = 0.03) and having contact with a student who became pregnant (contact 72.7% versus no contact 46.7%, P = 0.04). Although most teachers incorporate some form of sex education, only half incorporate a comprehensive curriculum. Personal values as well as teacher resources play an important role in the content of the curriculum. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nurses Urged to Prepare for Sex Education. (United States)


    Editors' note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives over more than a century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives highlights articles selected to fit today's topics and times.This month we reprint a brief "Professional Practice" note from the June 1969 issue about what was described as the first family planning conference for nurse educators. Speakers emphasized the need to make this subject a routine part of nursing school curricula (despite debates over the nurse's role in family planning), "so that nurses can counsel out of wisdom and not from piety or ignorance." Speakers included James Lieberman, MD, who years later coauthored with his daughter a teen sex guide, and Alan Guttmacher, MD, then president of Planned Parenthood, whose Center for Family Planning Program Development within that organization was later renamed the Guttmacher Institute in his honor.Nurses today are deeply involved in sexual and reproductive health care. In this issue, public health specialist Diane Santa Maria and colleagues offer ways to advance sexual and reproductive health care for adolescents by devising more friendly, youth-oriented clinical settings.

  10. Family planning / sex education / teenage pregnancy. (United States)


    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor provides legislative information on family planning, sex education, and teenage pregnancy. The listing contains information on pending bills; the state, the identifying legislation number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available, the bill's status. From January through February, 1993, the bills cover a wide range of regulation and social policy including: appropriations for family planning services; Norplant implants for women receiving AFDC benefits; the requirement that health insurance policies provide coverage for contraception services; the repeal of the sterilization procedure review committee; since a need for such a committee has vanished; requiring hotels, motels, and innkeepers to offer condoms for sale to registered guests; allowing male and female public assistance recipients between ages 18-35 who submit to sterilization operations to be eligible to receive a $2,000 grant; a provision that no more children may be included in the size of the family, for the purpose of determining the amount of AFDC benefits that a family may receive, than at the time that eligibility was determined, and that before a family with 2 or more children can receive AFDC benefits, the woman must consent to and have surgically implanted Norplant or a similar reversible birth control device with a 5-year or longer effectiveness.

  11. Where Do Chinese Adolescents Obtain Knowledge of Sex? Implications for Sex Education in China (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Shah, Iqbal H.


    Purpose: Sex education in China has been promoted for many years, but limited data are available regarding the sources from which adolescents receive sex-related knowledge. The present study was designed to examine the sources from which Chinese adolescents obtain their information on puberty, sexuality and STI/HIV/AIDS, and whether there are any…

  12. Enhancing employability through university education: the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 80% of graduates in Nigeria are unemployed in spite of their qualifications, they are employable yet they are not employed. The inability of the university education to meet the needs of these graduates as well as promotion of economic, self reliance and self sufficiency has resulted into youth joblessness ...

  13. Sex Education Representations in Spanish Combined Biology and Geology Textbooks (United States)

    García-Cabeza, Belén; Sánchez-Bello, Ana


    Sex education is principally dealt with as part of the combined subject of Biology and Geology in the Spanish school curriculum. Teachers of this subject are not specifically trained to teach sex education, and thus the contents of their assigned textbooks are the main source of information available to them in this field. The main goal of this study was to determine what information Biology and Geology textbooks provide with regard to sex education and the vision of sexuality they give, but above all to reveal which perspectives of sex education they legitimise and which they silence. We analysed the textbooks in question by interpreting both visual and text representations, as a means of enabling us to investigate the nature of the discourse on sex education. With this aim, we have used a qualitative methodology, based on the content analysis. The main analytical tool was an in-house grid constructed to allow us to analyse the visual and textual representations. Our analysis of the combined Biology and Geology textbooks for Secondary Year 3 revealed that there is a tendency to reproduce models of sex education that take place within a framework of the more traditional discourses. Besides, the results suggested that the most of the sample chosen for this study makes a superficial, incomplete, incorrect or biased approach to sex education.

  14. Importance of social work socio- educational intervention of sex education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Quiroz A.


    Full Text Available In education the figure of Social Services, is in a process of maturation-recognized, especially in terms of functions and professional work. Currently in the school social worker is carrying out his work in interdisciplinary teams of teachers, psychologists and other related educational field professionals, the development of actions, often passively and quietly. In search of the definitions given by the FITS (International Federation of Social Workers said that through educational institutions can identify problems at individual, household  and community level, considering this educational unit as a source of wealth for intervention and create opportunities for promotion and prevention social problems. The school environment is an area that can work in collaboration with the directors and management team to articulate the lines of action that are necessary to deal with any problems. That may arise in this area should guide the social worker, prevent and rehabilitate as specificity of their profession and recognize these bio-psycho-social changes that develop students and students who make up this educational unit, as during this educational process to develop their personality, learning social skills related to work in our society and interact with their environment. (Levels micro-meso-macro. It is for this and needs that arise in our youth and students is that we understand and incorporate processes involving atingentes for learning development issues and includes areas related to sex education, sexuality and identity to support families in this discovery.In education the figure of Social Services, is in a process of maturation-recognized, especially in terms of functions and professional work. Currently in the school social worker is carrying out his work in interdisciplinary teams of teachers, psychologists and other related educational field professionals, the development of actions, often passively andquietly. In search of the

  15. Triple punishment in employment access: the role of beauty, race and sex


    Francisco Galarza; Gustavo Yamada


    "We investigate the role of physical appearance, in addition to race and sex, in the rate of discrimination observed in the labour market of Lima. Our experimental design allows us to disentangle the effect of each of those three variables on the callback rates received by our fictitious job candidates. Since we are controlling for variables that are important in the selection process (mainly, education and job experience), our results provide better indicators of discrimination than the ones...

  16. Transitions from vocational education to employment in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Tønder, Anna Hagen


    , market-based regulation and institutionalised negotiation. In addition, it compares the organisation of young peoples’ educational choice and the selection process in the students’ transitions to work and examines employment protection in the four countries. Finally, it compares attempts to revive......This chapter examines how the systems of initial vocational education and training (VET-systems) in four Nordic countries connect to the labour market, and how they support the students’ transition to employment. It employs a conceptual lens of three different coordination regimes: state planning...

  17. Employability in Online Higher Education: A Case Study (United States)

    Silva, Ana Paula; Lourtie, Pedro; Aires, Luisa


    Over the past 15 years, learning in distance education universities has become more interactive, flexible, collaborative, and participative. Nevertheless, some accounts have highlighted the importance of developing more instrumental and standardized educational practices to answer the challenges of employability. In fact, the choice of skills that…

  18. Commentary on "Education, Employment and Human Development: Illustrations from Mexico" (United States)

    Strathdee, Rob


    Flores-Crespo has written a timely paper, "Education, employment and human development: illustrations from Mexico". Flores-Crespo uses Amartya Sen's ideas to bring a fresh perspective to bear on the relationship between higher education and human development. Although there is growing interest in applying Sen's ideas in a range of…

  19. Gender Segregation in the Employment of Higher Education Graduates (United States)

    Vuorinen-Lampila, Päivi


    This article examines the employment and placement in the working life of Finnish higher education graduates (i.e. graduates from universities and polytechnics), focusing on gender equality. It reports a study on gender segregation in higher education and working life, considered in relation to Nordic gender equality policies. The data were…

  20. Employment Effects of educational measures for work-injured people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning Bjerregaard; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Høgelund, Jan

    Vocational rehabilitation in the form of education is the cornerstone of governmental rehabilitation programs for the work-disabled in many countries. Merging a 2004 Danish survey to register information from the Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries, we assess the employment effects...... employers a partial wage subsidy for disabled workers’ wages, by distinguishing between education effects of a return to wage-subsidized work versus a return to ordinary work. Unlike previous studies, we find a positive impact of educational measures on the probability of returning to work for the work...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Zaharia


    Full Text Available South West Region includes the counties of Dolj, Gorj, Meheninţi, Olt and Valcea and together West Region make up the Macro 4. The geographical, economic and social structural changes in the last two decades, and the economic crisis have led to some peculiarities of labor market in this development region. This paper provides a comparative analysis of employment rates by level of education in the EU (27, some EU countries, as in Romania during 2000-2011. It also analyzes the structure of employment in South West Oltenia development region, by age, level of education, sex and area, in 2010 compared to the structure of employment in Macro 4 and in some cases, with that recorded in Western region. Compared to developments in Romania and Macro 4 level, the employment rates and the structure of employees have certain characteristics. Thus features occur in age groups 55-64 years and especially in the age group over 64 years, the South West region these represents 9.05% of total employment, compared to only 1.74% in the West region. Also, in rural areas, the percentage of employed population 25 to 64 years with low levels of education and medium education level, reach 96.8% of the total, which is a weakness of this region.

  2. Federal Funding to Promote Sex Equity in Education: 1980. (United States)

    Klein, Susan S.; Goodman, Melanie A.

    This publication discusses federal funds which are available for research and development in sex equity in education. A major objective is to identify specific Federal funding opportunities for projects focusing on sex equity. Another objective is to help individuals understand the overall Federal pattern of support for activities to promote sex…

  3. Talking with Kids: A Parent's Guide to Sex Education. (United States)

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    This guide is designed to help parents determine what is being taught to their children about sex education in school, offering tips on how to talk to children about these issues. The first section presents pointers from the "Talking with Kids" campaign: start early; initiate conversations; talk about sex and relationships; create an open…

  4. Teaching skills and personal characteristics of sex education teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Greetje; Timmerman, M.C.

    This article examines relationships between various dimensions of teachers' professionalism, that is, pedagogical content knowledge and personal characteristics. Using Shulman's notion of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) we explored the practical knowledge of twenty sex education teachers using

  5. Sex Education for Young Children with Special Needs. (United States)

    Clark, Edith Marie; Farley, Jack W.


    The article briefly reviews the research and controversy concerning sex education for handicapped children and offers five guidelines including build self-esteem, answer questions clearly and accurately, avoid threats and jokes, and respect children's privacy. (DB)

  6. Education System, Labour Market and Education System Graduates Employment in Romania


    Adina Popovici (Barbulescu)


    The objective of our paper is to highlight and analyse certain aspects related to the education system, labour market and education system graduates employment in Romania. It starts by pointing out the importance of education and some of the transformations the Romanian education system has undertaken after 1989 and during the process of passage to the Bologna system. It then focuses on the Romanian labour market and education system graduates employment. We conclude that the education system...

  7. Changes in Adolescents' Receipt of Sex Education, 2006–2013


    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Maddow-Zimet, Isaac; Boonstra, Heather


    Purpose Updated estimates of adolescents? receipt of sex education are needed to monitor changing access to information. Methods Using nationally representative data from the 2006?2010 and 2011?2013 National Survey of Family Growth, we estimated changes over time in adolescents? receipt of sex education from formal sources and from parents and differentials in these trends by adolescents? gender, race/ethnicity, age, and place of residence. Results Between 2006?2010 and 2011?2013, there were ...

  8. Sex work and modes of self-employment in the informal economy: diverse business practices and constraints to effective working. (United States)

    Pitcher, Jane


    This article draws on research with adult sex workers in indoor settings in Great Britain to explore diverse forms of self-employment, employment relationships and small business development, set within the context of changes to the wider economy. It considers how external constraints such as the legal context, social stigma and dominant policy discourses can impact on sex workers' autonomy and actively work against their safety and wellbeing. The article argues that broad policy and legal approaches which fail to recognise the complexity of sex work constrain sex workers' opportunities for business development and improvement of their working circumstances. It suggests the need for recognition of sex work as legitimate labour, as a prerequisite for policy changes to support sex workers and pave the way for improved working conditions, not only in managed settings but also facilitating collective arrangements and independent lone working.

  9. Need Assessment For Sex Educational Amongst The School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakor H.G


    Full Text Available Research question: Will the sex education given to the students help in STD prevention, population control and in their future sex life. Hypothesis : In order to have a successful school based sex education programme, it is necessary to involve the students at every stage of decision making. Objectives: (! To assess the perceived need of the students of both sexes about sex education. (2 To decide about age to start with, agencies to be involved, contents to be covered during such programme. (3 To compare the responses between two sexes and to identify the areas of intervention. Study design: Cross- sectional interview based on structured questionnaire. Settings: Two private higher secondary schools (one each for boys and girls of Surat city participants: 189 students(108 boys and 81 girls of 11th and 12 the standards Statistical analysis: Chi square test and standard error of the difference between means(z test. Results: Need of sex education is universal as out of 189 students, 97 percent of them agreed to it. The preferred age to start the sex education was lower by 2 years in girls (14.6 years than boys. Doctors or health workers were the preferred choice for giving the education, however, in their absence; regular school teachers were next choice. Knowledge about the STDs and their prevention was very poor in both the sexes. Condom was largely appreciated as a means of contraception and its role in preventing the STDs was not known to many student. The awareness was largely confined to AIDS. The knowledge about the time of conception was very poor even in these adolescent girls. The poor knowledge about the various methods of contraception and the prevalent myths about various sexual behaviours such as masturbation were the areas identified for intervention

  10. Adult learning, education, and the labour market inthe employability regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Nilsson


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to draw on the research and scholarly literature to explorethe changing discourses and perspectives concerning adult learning, education, and thelabour market in the employability regime. The focus of the nalysis is a Nordic context.The dominant employability regime maintains a technical-rational perspective onlearning and employability. Education is predominantly regarded as an instrumentalpreparation for the labour market. The future demands of the labour market are largelyunknown, however, and vocational and professional training may not provide sufficientpreparation for the increasing complexities of work. Theoretical discussions have beendominated by an alleged mismatch between individual competence and thequalifications that are required in the world of work. There is no consensus regardinghow the gap should be described, explained, or bridged. New demands on educationaldesign have emerged, and ideas related to liberal education and ‘bildung’ have beenreinserted into the political agenda, offering general preparation for a wider array ofchallenges.

  11. Higher education attainment does not improve the adult employment outcomes of adolescents with ill health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Joy Callander


    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether attaining a higher education improves the chances of employment in adulthood amongst those who had a chronic health condition in adolescence. Using longitudinal analysis of twelve waves of the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey, conducted between 2001 and 2012, a cohort of adolescents aged 15 to 21 in Wave 1 were followed through to age 24 (n=624. The results show that those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence were2.4 times more likely to  not be employed at age 24 compared to those who did not have a chronic health condition (95% CI: 1.4 – 4.4, p=0.0024.  The results were adjusted for age, sex, education attainment at age 24, health status at age 24 and household income poverty status at age 24. Amongst those who did have a chronic health condition during adolescence there was no significant difference in the likelihood of being employed for those with a Year 12 and below (p=0.1087 level of education attainment or those with a Diploma, Certificate III or IV (p=0.6366 compared to those with a university degree. Education attainment was not shown to mitigate the impact of having a chronic health condition during adolescence on adult employment outcomes. Keywords: employment; chronic health conditions; poverty; living standards; longitudinal.

  12. Educational Pathways to Remote Employment in Isolated Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Denkenberger


    Full Text Available Those who live in isolated communities often lack reliable, skilled employment opportunities, which fundamentally undermines their human security. For individuals who wish to remain in their isolated communities for family, religious, philosophical or other reasons, their attachment to their communities creates a disincentive for higher education. This promotes low educational achievement, which in turn results in low socioeconomic status, lack of social mobility, and a generational cycle of poverty. The human misery that results from such a feedback loop is observed in isolated communities throughout North America, including aboriginal communities in Canada. Fortunately, maturation of information and communication technologies now offers individuals the potential to gain high-skilled employment while living in an isolated community, using both (i virtual work/remote work and (ii remote training and education. To examine that potential, this study: 1 categorizes high-skill careers that demand a higher education and are widely viable for remote work, 2 examines options for obtaining the required education remotely, and 3 performs an economic analysis of investing in remote education, quantifying the results in return on investment. The results show that the Internet has now opened up the possibility of both remote education and remote work. Though the investment in college education is significant, there are loans available and the return on investment is generally far higher than the interest rate on the loans. The results identified several particularly promising majors and dozens of high-income careers. The ability to both obtain an education and employment remotely offers the potential to lift many people living in isolated communities out of poverty, reduce inequality overall, and provide those living in isolated communities with viable means of employment security, which not only allows personal sustainability, but also the potential for

  13. Sex-based harassment in employment: new insights into gender and context. (United States)

    Kabat-Farr, Dana; Cortina, Lilia M


    Legal definitions of sex-based harassment have evolved over the decades; it is important that social science perspectives on this phenomenon evolve as well. This study seeks to refine our understanding of conditions in which sex-based harassment thrives, with empirical evidence from three organizations. Previous research has suggested that underrepresentation of one's gender in the employment context increases risk for sex-based harassment. This work has focused mainly on sexual-advance forms of harassment, mainly in the lives of women. Less is known about the gender harassment of women, or about any kind of harassment of men. Extending this scholarship, we analyzed survey data from women and men working in three diverse domains: academia (N = 847), the court system (N = 1,158), and the military (N = 19,960). Across all samples, the underrepresentation of women in a workgroup related to increased odds of women experiencing gender harassment, but not sexual-advance harassment. For men, the opposite pattern emerged: underrepresentation did not increase men's risk for either type of harassment, instead relating to decreased odds of harassment in some contexts. We interpret these results in light of theories of tokenism, gender stereotyping, and sex role spillover in organizations. Our findings support the recommendation that, to reduce harassment (whether it be illegal or legal, gender- or sexuality-based, targeted at women or men), organizations should strive for gender balance in every job at every level. For male-dominated contexts, this implies a need to recruit, retain, and integrate more women throughout the organizational hierarchy.

  14. Surviving a childhood cancer: impact on education and employment. (United States)

    Maule, Milena; Zugna, Daniela; Migliore, Enrica; Alessi, Daniela; Merletti, Franco; Onorati, Roberta; Zengarini, Nicolás; Costa, Giuseppe; Spadea, Teresa


    Long-term consequences of childhood cancer encompass adverse psychosocial effects that may severely limit the opportunity to live a satisfying and productive life. We assessed the social integration of adults cured of a cancer in their first 14 years of life by record linkage between the population-based Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont and the Turin Longitudinal Study. We compared education and employment outcomes within the cohort of survivors and between the cohort of survivors and their peers in the general population through logistic regression. Individuals cured of a childhood tumour have a higher risk of not obtaining educational qualifications [odds ratio (OR) 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.40-1.11) for compulsory school, OR 0.81 (0.61-1.07) for higher education] or employment, OR 0.66 (0.45-0.98), than the general population. This problem is particularly severe for individuals cured of a central nervous system neoplasm: OR 0.56 (0.31-1.01) for higher education and OR 0.28 (0.13-0.58) for employment. Within-cohort comparisons show that men are less likely to obtain educational goals than women, OR 0.72 (0.40-1.29), but more likely to be employed, OR 2.18 (0.90-5.28); parental education (university qualifications) is positively associated with the success of the child's education, OR 9.54 (2.60-35.02), but not with their employment status, OR 1.02 (0.21-4.85). Strategies should be put in place to mitigate the risk of adverse psychosocial effects from the beginning of treatment to cure and beyond to offer those suffering a cancer at a young age the possibility of full integration into society.

  15. Secondary Education, Training, and Employment: Nationalizing Education and Employment Problems in Malaysia (United States)

    Kee, Chang Min


    The development of the Malaysian national educational system is described. An outline of the vocational component of the system is presented with an evaluation of descrepancies between output of the formal educational system and the manpower requirements of the economy. (KM)

  16. Comprehensive Sex Education: Research and Results (United States)

    Advocates for Youth, 2009


    Since 1997 the federal government has invested more than $1.5 billion dollars in abstinence-only programs--proven ineffective programs which censor or exclude important information that could help young people protect their health. In fact, until recently, programs which met a strict abstinence-only definition were the only type of sex education…

  17. Queer Breeding: Historicising Popular Culture, Homosexuality and Informal Sex Education (United States)

    Marshall, Daniel


    Through an analysis of gay protest music (1975) and an educational kit for students (1978), both sponsored by the Campaign for Homosexual Equality in the UK, this paper brings into focus a history of gay rights activists' efforts to marshal popular culture in the development of informal sex education for young people in the second half of the…

  18. Use of Sexuality-Focused Entertainment Media in Sex Education (United States)

    Neustifter, Ruth; Blumer, Markie L. C.; O'Reilly, Jessica; Ramirez, Francisco


    The literature on the impact of entertainment media on sex education is typically pathology-focused, unclear regarding the effects of such usage, and void of dialogue between those who actually work in the areas of sexuality education and entertainment. To address this gap, this paper is the product of joint authorship between media figures from…

  19. How Sex Education Research Methodologies Frame GLBTIQ Students (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany


    The "bullied" gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and otherwise Queer (GLBTIQ) student is a fairly recent figure in the sexuality education research literature. GLBTIQ students have previously been problematised by sex education research in a range of different ways and have been the subjects of varying methodological…

  20. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education (United States)

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011


    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  1. Employability in Online Higher Education: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva


    Full Text Available Over the past 15 years, learning in distance education universities has become more interactive, flexible, collaborative, and participative. Nevertheless, some accounts have highlighted the importance of developing more instrumental and standardized educational practices to answer the challenges of employability. In fact, the choice of skills that are important to learning communities and the labour market has been the subject of controversy because it involves heterogeneous motives among different groups.This paper compares the perceptions of employability skills in a sample of teachers from the Universidade Aberta and a sample of students who attend a local learning centre at this University. The research focused on the following dimensions: a the most important employability skills, and b the employability skills to be developed in online undergraduate degrees. To collect the required data, a questionnaire was prepared and applied to students and teachers, taking the theoretical model of Knight and Yorke (2006 as its main reference. In spite of the specificity of each group, the results revealed some similarities between students and teachers with regard to employability. The conclusions also highlighted the need to promote research on this matter in online education.

  2. Pre-Employment Laboratory Education. Child Care Guidebook. (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This guidebook is designed for use in teaching students enrolled in secondary pre-employment laboratory education (PELE) child care programs. The first of two major sections includes an overview for teachers in planning, conducting, and evaluating a child care program. Specific topics discussed in section 1 include (1) the school-operated center,…

  3. Handbook for Home Economics Pre-Employment Laboratory Education Teachers. (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This handbook for home economics pre-employment laboratory education (PELE) teachers is divided into ten chapters. The first chapter provides detailed descriptions of each PELE program and possible career opportunities related to each program. Chapter 2 expounds upon the importance of the advisory council to the program. The third chapter…

  4. Women--Their Access to Education and Employment (United States)

    Literacy Discussion, 1975


    The Unesco National Commissions carried out a series of studies simultaneously in Argentina, the Ivory Coast, Lebanon, Sierra Leone, and Sri Lanka regarding the relationship between the educational opportunities and the opportunities of employment open to women. Basic conclusions of international scope are presented. (LH)

  5. Is education an engine for immigrants' employment outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.


    This paper assesses the role of (foreign) education in determining the adjustment profile of immigrants in employment using the Dutch Labour Force Survey and regression analysis techniques. The disadvantaged labour market position of immigrants from developing countries is often linked to their

  6. Implications of the Employment Equity Act for the higher education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that these crucial challenges B specialized higher education legislation and policy developments, the "pool" issue, funding and rationalization, universities as a unique workplace, and the individual legacies of universities B define the space in which the Employment Equity Act may be interpreted in the higher ...

  7. Race-Ethnicity, Education, and Employment after Spinal Cord Injury (United States)

    Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David


    The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…

  8. Strategic Human Resources Management of Employer Cooperative Education Programs. (United States)

    Nielsen, Richard P.; Porter, Ralph C.


    This article discusses effective strategic planning and management of employer cooperative education programs. It examines types of planning, the need for such programs, and implementation strategies. Several case studies are considered: Dayton-Hudson, IBM, AT&T, Delta Airlines, and Rockwell International. (CT)

  9. New Evidence to Enhance Employment and Education for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A decade of continuous growth, coupled with enhanced social investment, has reduced poverty and increased labour market opportunities in Latin America. However, some groups - in particular women and youth - are yet to see the benefits of this growth. Despite higher educational levels, the employment outlook for young ...

  10. Suspended Education Department Official Had Approved Waiver for Former Employer (United States)

    Basken, Paul


    Matteo Fontana, the student-aid official in the U.S. Department of Education who was suspended last month in an ethics case, issued a controversial high-stakes legal ruling in 2004 that benefited his former employer, Sallie Mae, on the day before the nation's top student lender completed its transition from a government-founded lender into a…

  11. Gender and Sexual Mores in Educational Employment. A Legal Memorandum. (United States)

    Nolte, M. Chester, Ed.

    Discrimination against women in public employment may soon be coming to an end. Since 1972, when the Equal Opportunity Act was expanded to include public schools, the cause of women's rights has been gaining momentum. Today, although there are no quotas for women and men in education, many districts are under affirmative action mandates to move…

  12. Using a Classification of Occupations to Describe Age, Sex, and Time Differences in Employment Patterns. Report No. 223. (United States)

    Gottfredson, Gary D.; Daiger, Denise C.

    Employment data from the 1960 and 1970 censuses were organized using the occupational classification system of John Holland to examine age, sex, and level differences in employment and to detect changes over the 10-year period. Data were organized by both kind and level of work in an attempt to answer the following questions: What are the relative…

  13. Greek students' knowledge and sources of information regarding sex education. (United States)

    Matziou, V; Perdikaris, P; Petsios, K; Gymnopoulou, E; Galanis, P; Brokalaki, H


    Human sexuality is a complex part of life and is considered a multidimensional phenomenon. Therefore there is an increased need for adequate and comprehensive sex education, especially for teenagers and young adults. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the level of students' sexual knowledge, as well as to identify their sources of information regarding sexual life and reproduction. A cross-sectional study using a designed self-report questionnaire was performed. The study population consisted of 936 students who were attending 10 high schools and four medical schools in Attica. Data were collected after obtaining permission from the Pedagogic Institute of the Greek Ministry of Education. The main sources of students' sexual information about reproduction were friends (29.1%) and parents (24.0%), whereas school was reported by 14.3% of them. The preferred sources of information, according to students' perceptions, were sex education specialists (65.6%), followed by school (39.1%), parents (32.2%) and friends (27.7%). The importance of school, peer and parent support upon adolescents' sexual life was revealed by the results of the study. Students' knowledge level on sex topics is not satisfactory and therefore there is a need for sex education specialists and special courses regarding sex education in Greek schools.

  14. 34 CFR 106.51 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 106.51 Section 106.51 Education Regulations... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.51 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  15. The State of Sex Education in North Carolina: Is Abstinence-Only Education Working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bach


    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy rates are falling in North Carolina. They are falling faster in counties where comprehensive sex education is allowed by law compared to those counties and cities where abstinence-only education is permitted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lichteria Panjaitan


    Full Text Available The role of technology, especially information technology in Indonesia in the building society XXI century. Indonesia has begun to enter the stage of the telematics community will certainly have a major impact on all levels of life of the Indonesian nation, especially in children. The emergence of a great revolution throughout the world of children's playground, Internet presence replaces the open airy space for children's play, besides presenting impression's Internet pornography and violence can harm the development of children's personality. Sexual deviance behavior at the level of schooling is quite surprising, of course. This is a challenge for education and should be used as a rationale for the need for innovation in learning. Things into consideration are for this. Sex education in early childhood is considered taboo in society. Guru is one of the determining factors of high and low quality of education has a strategic position in transforming sex education to learners. Therefore, this study tries to analyze how perceptions of teachers on sex education at the primary school level, the research method used is a descriptive method. Keywords: Perception of teachers, sex education, learners in primary schools.

  17. Changes in Adolescents' Receipt of Sex Education, 2006-2013. (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Maddow-Zimet, Isaac; Boonstra, Heather


    Updated estimates of adolescents' receipt of sex education are needed to monitor changing access to information. Using nationally representative data from the 2006-2010 and 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth, we estimated changes over time in adolescents' receipt of sex education from formal sources and from parents and differentials in these trends by adolescents' gender, race/ethnicity, age, and place of residence. Between 2006-2010 and 2011-2013, there were significant declines in adolescent females' receipt of formal instruction about birth control (70% to 60%), saying no to sex (89% to 82%), sexually transmitted disease (94% to 90%), and HIV/AIDS (89% to 86%). There was a significant decline in males' receipt of instruction about birth control (61% to 55%). Declines were concentrated among adolescents living in nonmetropolitan areas. The proportion of adolescents talking with their parents about sex education topics did not change significantly. Twenty-one percent of females and 35% of males did not receive instruction about methods of birth control from either formal sources or a parent. Declines in receipt of formal sex education and low rates of parental communication may leave adolescents without instruction, particularly in nonmetropolitan areas. More effort is needed to understand this decline and to explore adolescents' potential other sources of reproductive health information. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. "Use Condoms for Safe Sex!" Youth-Led Video Making and Sex Education (United States)

    Yang, Kyung-Hwa; MacEntee, Katie


    Situated at the intersection between child-led visual methods and sex education, this paper focuses on the potential of youth-led video making to enable young people to develop guiding principles to inform their own sexual behaviour. It draws on findings from a video-making project carried out with a group of South African young people, which…

  19. Sex Is Like Jelly Beans: Educating Students on the Risks of Oral Sex (United States)

    Moore, Erin; Harris, Terrance


    This study provides a description of an innovative workshop that educated college students about the risks of unprotected sexual behavior, particularly oral sex, and methods of risk reduction using a metaphor of "sharing and eating jelly beans." Intervention development was guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model.…

  20. Racial and/or Ethnic Differences in Formal Sex Education and Sex Education by Parents among Young Women in the United States. (United States)

    Vanderberg, Rachel H; Farkas, Amy H; Miller, Elizabeth; Sucato, Gina S; Akers, Aletha Y; Borrero, Sonya B


    We sought to investigate the associations between race and/or ethnicity and young women's formal sex education and sex education by parents. Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 1768 women aged 15-24 years who participated in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth. We assessed 6 main outcomes: participants' report of: (1) any formal sex education; (2) formal contraceptive education; (3) formal sexually transmitted infection (STI) education; (4) any sex education by parents; (5) contraceptive education by parents; and (6) STI education by parents. The primary independent variable was self-reported race and/or ethnicity. Nearly all of participants (95%) reported any formal sex education, 68% reported formal contraceptive education, and 92% reported formal STI education. Seventy-five percent of participants reported not having any sex education by parents and only 61% and 56% reported contraceptive and STI education by parents, respectively. US-born Hispanic women were more likely than white women to report STI education by parents (adjusted odds ratio = 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.99). No other significant racial and/or ethnic differences in sex education were found. There are few racial and/or ethnic differences in formal sex education and sex education by parents among young women. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. All rights reserved.

  1. The Role of Vocational Education in Economic Development in Malaysia: Educators' and Employers' Perspectives. (United States)

    Mustapha, Ramlee B.; Greenan, James P.


    Responses from 276 of 300 vocational educators and 53 of 120 employers in Malaysia indicated that both groups believed vocational education contributes to economic development and vocational graduates had good technical skills but needed better employability skills. They wanted more government collaboration with the private sector. (Contains 26…

  2. Education, employment, and sustainable development in the European union (United States)

    Gaballah, I.; Dufourg, A.; Tondeur, D.


    This paper examines the current and prospective status of education, employment, and sustainable development in the European Union (EU). Due to the decrease of the birth rate and the increase of life expectation, the size of the labor force is decreasing and its average age is increasing. Moreover, rapid technological evolution will necessitate “long-life learning” for the old workers and young people. It will be a challenge to supply the EU’s labor market with an adequate number of workers with the appropriate skill ad tempus. This will change profoundly the classical education system that will become the largest economic sector in the next decade.

  3. [Sex education of children and adolescent]. (United States)

    Montenegro, H


    There is a remarkable ignorance about sexuality among Chilean teenagers, as underscored by the paper by Fernández et al, published in this issue. The authors analyze the biological, psychological and social consequences of the lack of parental and school sexual education. Among them, there is an increasing incidence of unwanted pregnancies, abortions and sexually transmitted diseases in teenagers. Child abuse, neglect, battering, mortality and maternal deprivation are more frequent among the offspring of teenage parents. School desertion caused by unwanted pregnancies will seriously jeopardize the education and training of these teenagers, perpetuating the cycle of poverty.

  4. Workplace Integration: Key Considerations for Internationally Educated Nurses and Employers


    Zubeida Ramji; Josephine Etowa


    Integration of internationally educated nurses (IENs) in the workplace over the long term, has not been a clear focus in nursing. The role of the employer organization in facilitating workplace integration for IENs has also not been emphasized in research. The overall aim of this paper is to highlight findings from an instrumental qualitative case study research informed by critical social theory, which examined workplace integration of IENs. The study explored what is meant by ‘integration’ ...

  5. Hybrid configurations of leadership in higher education employer engagement


    Bolden, R.; Petrov, G.


    Recent literature has emphasised the distributed nature of leadership in higher education and the multitude of actors and factors that contribute towards organisational outcomes. Gronn (2009, 2011) suggests, however, that rather than using such evidence to provide broad, normative accounts of leadership practice, greater attention should be directed to mapping the ‘hybrid configurations’ through which leadership practice emerges. This paper responds to this call through an analysis of employe...

  6. Love grows with sex: teenagers negotiating sex and gender in the context of HIV and the implications for sex education. (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia


    How do teenagers located in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, the epicentre of the HIV pandemic, give meaning to sexuality? This paper examines teenage black Africans investments in sex and sexuality and the gendered dynamics through which sexuality is articulated. Whilst unequal gender relations of power continue to feature prominently within relationship dynamics fuelling the gendering of HIV, attention to the micro-processes through which relationships are forged remain significant in illustrating the complex connections between love, sex and gender. Drawing on empirical findings with teenagers between the ages of 16 and 17 years old, the paper shows how relationships are conceptualised based on discourses of love. Love is inextricably bound up with sex and when teenagers talk about love and sex they also talk about condom use, multiple sexual partners and gender inequalities. What teenagers were interested in for their sexual relationships was not raised in sex education programmes at school. Implications for addressing teenage constructions of sexuality are discussed in the conclusion.

  7. Adolescents' Preferences for Source of Sex Education (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.


    The primary purposes of this study were to examine what adolescents' identify as their preferred sources of sexual education (e.g., peers, family, school, media, professionals, etc.) about various topics, and whether patterns varied for each gender, race, grade, and economic group. Participants were 672 adolescents of both genders, three…

  8. [Beliefs, attitudes and knowledge about sex education]. (United States)

    Fernández, L; Bustos, L; González, L; Palma, D; Villagrán, J; Muñoz, S


    Previous reports show that Chilean teenagers have an inadequate knowledge about sexuality and reproduction. To compare the knowledge about sexuality among adolescents coming from private and public schools, with and without sexual education programs. A structured anonymous inquiry, containing multiple choice and open questions, was applied to a sample of 229 adolescents attending seventh and eighth grade of junior school, in private and public schools of Temuco, Chile. Eleven percent of adolescents had already their first sexual intercourse at a mean age of 12.2 +/- 2.4 years old. Of these, 96% came from public schools. An overall analysis of tests, disclosed a 53% of correct answers to the inquiry. Adolescents coming from private schools had a better performance than those coming from public schools. Sexual attitudes were not influenced by sexual education programs. Adolescents coming from private schools have a better sexual knowledge level and more conservative attitudes towards sexuality. Overall knowledge is inadequate albeit overvalued. These teenagers are high risk group for unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases and require efficient sexual education programs.

  9. Impact of Sex Education in Kogi State, Nigeria (United States)

    Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.


    The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…

  10. "Just Say No" Isn't Sex Education. (United States)

    Osborn, Anne


    Discusses the need for sex education and the inclusion of accurate information in materials produced for young people. Materials that address sexual reproduction, puberty, teenage pregnancy, AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases are reviewed, and recommended titles for print and nonprint materials are listed together with resources for…

  11. Reducing Barriers to Sex Education for Adults with Mental Retardation. (United States)

    Huntley, Cristy F.; Benner, Susan M.


    Opinions of professionals from 16 agencies were obtained to identify techniques that agencies serving adults or adolescents with mental retardation could utilize to provide systematic sex education and counseling. Recommendations are offered in five areas: self-advocacy and self-determination, individual design, staff training and support,…

  12. Impact of parental sex education on child sexual abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 10, 2015 ... reduce shame, stigma, and self-blame for youth who have experienced sexual abuse6. ... tional level of parents, sex education and child sexual abuse among ..... Jean R. Changes in self-esteem during the middle school ...

  13. Life Science Teachers' Decision Making on Sex Education (United States)

    Gill, Puneet Singh


    The desires of young people and especially young bodies are constructed at the intersections of policies that set the parameters of sex education policies, the embodied experiences of students in classrooms, and the way bodies are discussed in the complex language of science. Moreover, more research points to the lack of scientifically and…

  14. Sex Education, A Way Forward towards Biology Curriculum Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the need for the inclusion of sex education in the secondary school biology curriculum in Anambra State since the noninclusion was viewed as an inadequacy in the biology curriculum. The study was a survey design. Three research questions and one null hypothesis were formulated to guide the study.

  15. Curriculum Guide in Sex Education for the TMR. (United States)

    Steward, Kathy L.

    Presented is a sex education curriculum guide for teachers of trainable retarded students ages 12 to 21 years. The guide is divided into six units: body parts, gender identification, and restroom signs; living things; reproduction; growth; adolescence, menstruation, and street language; and maturity (including sexual feelings and birth control).…

  16. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles (United States)

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona


    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  17. Employability development in Higher Education institutions: a tourism student perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wakelin-Theron


    Full Text Available Tourism is the world‟s largest and fastest-growing industry. The South African tourism industry (TI contributes to the creation of employment (National Department of Tourism (NDT 2011, and the development and growth of the country's economy. Yet, the South African TI experiences a critical skills shortage. This results from the fact that many tourism graduates do not possess the skills required by the world of work. Put another way, tourism graduates are not adequately prepared for absorption in the tourism industry. This, in turn, prevents them from participating effectively in the tourism industry. As Fallows and Steven (2000 put it, the knowledge of an academic subject is no longer enough in today's challenging work environment; as such, it is important for graduates to develop skills that will increase their chances of finding employment. In light of the above, it is imperative for higher educational institutions to include the development of employability skills in their tourism-related programmes. Hence, it becomes essential to explore ways in which higher education institutions could respond more effectively to the needs and expectations of the tourism industry in order to reduce youth unemployment in South Africa. In this regard, focus group interviews constitute the most suitable qualitative research technique to elicit valuable information on employability development, from multiple student perspectives. In other words, focus groups allow for open, flexible, and democratic discussions. The researcher took the necessary precautions to ensure the high quality and trustworthiness of the focus group interviews. By getting students together, to discuss their experiences and opinions, the researcher obtained valuable and insightful information on the development of tourism students‟ employability attributes.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of the Adapted Physical Education Employment Market in Higher Education (United States)

    Zhang, Jiabei


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the employment market of adapted physical education (APE) careers in higher education since 1975 to see if the increase of this market has continued since 1998. Based on the data collected from the "Chronicle of Higher Education", a total of 887 APE job openings have been posted since 1975,…

  19. Cultural, religious and socio-economic factors affecting sex education in Turkey. (United States)

    Koral, S


    Although professional pressure groups attempted to address the need for formal sex education in the 1970's, the Family Planning Association of Turkey (FPAT) has successfully introduced sex education subjects into school programs. It has also been endorsed as a major resource by the Ministry of Health; however, the Ministry of Education has been backsliding recently on sex education and in general has not generated zealous supporters of sex education. Different attitudes and practices prevail. Sex education is not usually discussed in the home, but there is support for sex education in schools. Its importance is recognized. Turkish society tends to be conservative particularly among middle socioeconomic stratum. Upper classes tend to be more liberal, and lower classes perceive sexuality as the normal way of life. The term sex is associated with eroticism, sex education as sex techniques; so sexuality must fall within the confines of health education. Within the Muslim faith, views on sex support discussion of sexual issues with couples, for example, or among students of Islamic jurisprudence. According to Quaranic teachings, women have a right to a sex life, including divorce options if sexuality is not fulfilled. Misinterpretations of Quaranic teachings have hindered the effort to plan an appropriate sex education program. Islamic values are liberal in their support for family planning. The FPAT's objective is to change the image of sex education and eliminate the fear that established values will be challenged by sex education.

  20. Education - employment partnership for VET in the fashion sector (United States)

    Ursache, M.; Avădanei, M. L.; Ionesi, D. S.; Loghin, E.


    The paper presents the objectives, the innovative aspects, the planned outputs and the current results of the project entitled “Education - Employment Partnership for VET in the fashion sector”. The project is co-financed by the European Commission under the Erasmus+ Programme, Key Action 2 - Strategic Partnerships in the Field of Education, Training, Youth and Sport. The project aims mainly the at developing a European teaching and training Toolkit for supporting the implementation of Work-Based Learning (WBL) in all stages of vocational education and training (VET) in the fashion sector. Moreover, the project will support the implementation of quality assurance mechanisms for WBL in VET in the fashion sector with a specific focus on feedback loops between iVET and cVET systems. The project consortium is composed by nine partners from four countries (Romania, Bulgaria, Italy and Netherlands) representing two iVET providers, a university a Chamber of Commerce, a Federation of SMEs connected with fashion industries, one research institution, one company in clothing and fashion sector, two consulting companies with experience in education and training policies. The actual research results presented in the paper are based on the survey oriented to the training needs and the impact and benefits of WBL implementation. The data were collected from educational organizations. Also, examples of good practices showing the different challenges and benefits of WBL implementation, were identified.

  1. The Condom Works in All Situations? Paradoxical Messages in Mainstream Sex Education in Sweden (United States)

    Bolander, Eva


    The condom plays a vital part in safe sex, the ideal outcome of mainstream Swedish sex education. As researchers have pointed out, however, the condom is not a neutral object; rather, it plays a part in shaping, in different ways, both sexual practices and the idea of what sex is. This paper focuses on sex education television programmes produced…

  2. Resisting the "Condom Every Time for Anal Sex" Health Education Message (United States)

    Adams, Jeffery; Neville, Stephen


    Objective: Ensuring men who have sex with men (MSM) adopt and maintain condom use for anal sex is a challenging health education goal. In order to inform the development of social marketing practices to encourage safe-sex practices, the views of MSM about a key HIV health education message ("using a condom every time for anal sex") were…

  3. "This Is How You Hetero:" Sexual Minorities in Heteronormative Sex Education (United States)

    Hobaica, Steven; Kwon, Paul


    The efficacy of sex education has been questioned, as students participate in high rates of unsafe sex after completion. Without exploring various sexual minority (SM) identities (e.g., gay, lesbian, and bisexual) and forms of sex, sex education may be especially unhelpful for SMs by perpetuating the heteronormative (i.e., assuming heterosexuality…

  4. The Effects of Specifying Job Requirements and Using Explicit Warnings to Decrease Sex Discrimination in Employment Interviews. (United States)

    Siegfried, William D.


    To determine effectiveness of instructions designed to reduce sex discrimination in employment interviews, students were asked to rate resumes for a male and a female applicant under different instructional conditions. Results suggested that: legal warnings may bias ratings in favor of male applicants; and specifying job requirements reduces…

  5. Differences between men and women in substance use: the role of educational level and employment status. (United States)

    Teixidó-Compañó, Ester; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Bravo, María J; Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Indave, B Iciar; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Brugal, M Teresa

    To determine differences between men and women in hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use according to educational level and employment status in the economically active population in Spain. Cross-sectional study with data from 2013 Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs on individuals aged 25-64 [n=14,113 (women=6,171; men=7,942)]. Dependent variables were hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative consumption; the main independent variables were educational level and employment situation. Associations between dependent and independent variables were calculated with Poisson regression models with robust variance. All analyses were stratified by sex. Hazardous drinking and heavy cannabis use were higher in men, while women consumed more hypnosedatives. The lower the educational level, the greater the gender differences in the prevalence of this substances owing to different consumption patterns in men and women. While men with a lower educational level were higher hazardous drinkers [RII=2.57 (95%CI: 1.75-3.78)] and heavy cannabis users [RII=3.03 (95%CI: 1.88-4.89)] compared to higher educational level, in women the prevalence was the same. Women with a lower education level and men with a higher education level had higher hypnosedative consumption. Unemployment was associated with increased heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use in both women and men and with lower hazardous drinking only in women. There are differences between men and women in the use of psychoactive substances that can be explained by the unequal distribution of substance use in them according to educational level. Unemployment was associated with substance use in both men and women. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Configurations of Parental Preferences Concerning Sources of Sex Education for Adolescents (United States)

    Libby, Roger W.; And Others


    The research purpose of this study was not merely parental preferences concerning sources of sex education for adolescents, but more importantly, parental preferences of combinations of social institutions as sources of sex education. (Author)

  7. Attachment to employment and education before work disability pension due to a mental disorder among young adults. (United States)

    Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Joensuu, Matti; Ahola, Kirsi; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna


    We examined attachment to employment and education among young adults before they were granted a fixed-term work disability pension due to psychiatric diagnosis, and the factors associated with this attachment. The data comprised all persons aged 18-34 who received a new-onset fixed-term disability pension compensation due to a mental disorder in Finland in 2008 (N = 1163). The data were derived from pension applications and the enclosed medical records, and were linked to employment records from a period of three years before the disability pension. We analysed the factors associated with attachment to employment or education with log-binomial regression analysis. Fifty percent of the participants were attached to employment or education before work disability pension. The attached were more often women; had higher basic and vocational education; had mood disorder rather than psychosis diagnosis as a primary diagnosis; and had no record of harmful alcohol use or drug use, or recorded symptoms of mental disorders already at school-age. The level of attachment to employment or education before work disability pension is low among young adults with mental disorders and several risk factors predict poor attachment; severe or comorbid mental disorder, early-life psychiatric morbidity, substance use, male sex, low basic education, and lacking vocational education.

  8. Special Education Teachers Attitudes toward Teaching Sex Education to Students with Developmental Disabilities (United States)

    Hampton, Carolann


    The attitudes and opinions of special education teachers may potentially reveal insight as to how and why teachers choose to include sex education in their curriculum for self-contained special education classrooms designed to serve students with developmental disabilities. The main objective in developing this study was to gather information…

  9. Term-time Employment and Student Attainment in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cath Dennis


    Full Text Available The number of UK full-time university students engaging in term-time employment (TTE is rising. Students engaging in TTE have previously been found to achieve less well academically than those who do not. This study aimed to explore patterns of TTE and academic achievement of undergraduates at a large UK higher education institution. Self-reported TTE hours were matched to attainment data for 1304 undergraduate students in levels 1-4 of study (SQCF levels 7-10. The majority of students in TTE (71%, n=621 reported undertaking TTE to cover essential living expenses. Compared to students not undertaking TTE, attainment was significantly better at low levels of TTE (1-10 hours, and only significantly worse when TTE was >30 hours/week. This pattern was magnified when job type was taken into account – students employed in skilled roles for ≤10 hours/week on average attained grades 7% higher than those not in TTE; students working >10 hours/week in unskilled positions showed a mean 1.6% lower grade. The impact of ‘academic potential’ (measured via incoming UCAS tariff was accounted for in the model. The finding that students engaging in some categories of TTE achieve better academic outcomes than their non-employed peers is worthy of further investigation. This study is unable to provide direct evidence of possible causation, but would tentatively suggest that students may benefit from taking on 10 or fewer hours of TTE per week.

  10. Validity of a Scale to Measure Teachers' Attitudes towards Sex Education (United States)

    de Almeida Reis, Maria Helena; Vilar, Duarte Goncalo Rei


    Despite the current legislation requiring sex education as part of the school curriculum in Portugal, great obstacles to its implementation remain. Furthermore, sex education is far from being systematically administered. Thus, the main interest in our project was to validate a scale that measures teachers' attitudes towards sex education. There…

  11. The Salience and Utility of School Sex Education to Young Men (United States)

    Buston, Katie; Wight, Daniel


    This paper focuses on young men's views on the school sex education they have received, the influence of this sex education on their intended or actual behaviour, and the extent to which other sources of information complement or supplement school sex education. Thirty-five in-depth interviews and eight group discussions were conducted with male…

  12. Consequences of a Recent Campaign of Criticism against School Sex Education in Japan (United States)

    Hirose, Hiroko


    This paper aims to provide insights into recent events concerning school sex education in Japan. A campaign of criticism against school sex education emerged in 2002 at both national and regional levels, and included a court case in Tokyo. Despite leaving a depressing atmosphere regarding sex education teaching practices, this campaign also…

  13. Sex Education in Modern and Contemporary China: Interrupted Debates across the Last Century (United States)

    Aresu, Alessandra


    Since the late 1980s sex education has been widely promoted in the PRC, but this is not the first time in China's modern history that attempts to develop sex education have been made. The present essay traces the development of sex education debates over the last century, identifying the historical, political and social contexts in which they…

  14. Pupils' Perceptions of Sex and Reproductive Health Education in Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Phenomenological Study (United States)

    Kapinga, Orestes Silverius; Hyera, Daniel Frans


    This study explored pupils' perceptions of sex and reproductive health education in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at (i) exploring pupils' views on sex and reproductive health education in primary schools; (ii) determining opinions on the appropriateness of sex and reproductive health education for pupils in primary…

  15. The Importance of Team Sex Composition in Team-Training Research Employing Complex Psychomotor Tasks. (United States)

    Jarrett, Steven M; Glaze, Ryan M; Schurig, Ira; Arthur, Winfred


    The relationship between team sex composition and team performance on a complex psychomotor task was examined because these types of tasks are commonly used in the lab-based teams literature. Despite well-documented sex-based differences on complex psychomotor tasks, the preponderance of studies-mainly lab based-that use these tasks makes no mention of the sex composition of teams across or within experimental conditions. A sample of 123 four-person teams with varying team sex composition learned and performed a complex psychomotor task, Steal Beasts Pro PE. Each team completed a 5-hr protocol whereby they conducted several performance missions. The results indicated significant large mean differences such that teams with larger proportions of males had higher performance scores. These findings demonstrate the potential effect of team sex composition on the validity of studies that use complex psychomotor tasks to explore and investigate team performance-related phenomena when (a) team sex composition is not a focal variable of interest and (b) it is not accounted for or controlled. Given the proclivity of complex psychomotor action-based tasks used in lab-based team studies, it is important to understand and control for the impact of team sex composition on team performance. When team sex composition is not controlled for, either methodologically or statistically, it may affect the validity of the results in teams studies using these types of tasks.

  16. Teens could get new message on waiting for sex. Sex education. (United States)


    It's best to wait until you are older to have sex. But if you decide to have intercourse, use a condom. We'll show you how. That's the message most New Jersey teens get in their sex education classes. It's the law. But a new source of federal funding could help advocates of "abstinence-only" education find a way around that requirement. The state Department of Health and Senior Services is considering whether to apply for federal money limited to programs teaching teens that abstinence is the only certain way to prevent pregnancy and avoid contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. The federally funded programs also would have to teach that sex before marriage is morally wrong. About $50 million for these abstinence-only programs was quietly tucked into the welfare bill that President Clinton signed into law in 1996. New Jersey is eligible to receive $843,000. The health department is hearing from people on both sides of the issue, said Celeste Wood, who plans to submit a report to Health Commissioner Len Fishman by the end of the month. Fishman will then decide whether New Jersey should apply for the money, she said. Historically, debate between "comprehensive" and "abstinence-only" sex education has centered around the classroom and education department. Comprehensive programs teach both abstinence and contraception. Abstinence-only programs prohibit discussion of contraception. Comprehensive education advocates have won that battle in New Jersey public schools. The state's core curriculum standards currently call for schools to teach teens about both abstinence and contraception. But the new federal money is being funneled through state health departments. "This skates around the schools by bringing the money in through the public health arena," said Daniel Daley, director of public policy for the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the US. "They are trying to influence community-based programs and make an end-run around the schools

  17. Unintended pregnancy and sex education in Chile: a behavioural model. (United States)

    Herold, J M; Thompson, N J; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L


    This study analysed factors associated with unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women in Santiago, Chile. Three variations of a behavioural model were developed. Logistic regression showed that the effect of sex education on unintended pregnancy works through the use of contraception. Other significant effects were found for variables reflecting socioeconomic status and a woman's acceptance of her sexuality. The results also suggested that labelling affects measurement of 'unintended' pregnancy.

  18. Changes in formal sex education: 1995-2002. (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Santelli, John S; Singh, Susheela


    Although comprehensive sex education is broadly supported by health professionals, funding for abstinence-only education has increased. Using data from the 1995 National Survey of Adolescent Males, the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the 2002 NSFG, changes in male and female adolescents' reports of the sex education they have received from formal sources were examined. Life-table methods were used to measure the timing of instruction, and t tests were used for changes over time. From 1995 to 2002, reports of formal instruction about birth control methods declined among both genders (males, from 81% to 66%; females, from 87% to 70%). This, combined with increases in reports of abstinence education among males (from 74% to 83%), resulted in a lower proportion of teenagers' overall receiving formal instruction about both abstinence and birth control methods (males, 65% to 59%; females, 84% to 65%), and a higher proportion of teenagers' receiving instruction only about abstinence (males, 9% to 24%; females, 8% to 21%). Teenagers in 2002 had received abstinence education about two years earlier (median age, 11.4 for males, 11.8 for females) than they had received birth control instruction (median age, 13.5 for both males and females). Among sexually experienced adolescents, 62% of females and 54% of males had received instruction about birth control methods prior to first sex. A substantial retreat from formal instruction about birth control methods has left increasing proportions of adolescents receiving only abstinence education. Efforts are needed to expand teenagers' access to medically accurate and comprehensive reproductive health information.

  19. Education, Income, and Employment and Prevalence of Chronic Disease Among American Indian/Alaska Native Elders. (United States)

    Adamsen, Collette; Schroeder, Shawnda; LeMire, Steven; Carter, Paula


    Chronic disease studies have omitted analyses of the American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population, relied on small samples of AI/ANs, or focused on a single disease among AI/ANs. We measured the influence of income, employment status, and education level on the prevalence of chronic disease among 14,632 AI/AN elders from 2011 through 2014. We conducted a national survey of AI/AN elders (≥55 y) to identify health and social needs. Using these data, we computed cross-tabulations for each independent variable (annual personal income, employment status, education level), 2 covariates (age, sex), and presence of any chronic disease. We also compared differences in values and used a binary logistic regression model to control for age and sex. Most AI/AN elders (89.7%) had been diagnosed with at least one chronic disease. AI/AN elders were also more than twice as likely to have diabetes and more likely to have arthritis. AI/AN elders with middle-to-low income levels and who were unemployed were more likely to have a chronic disease than were high-income and employed AI/AN elders. Addressing disparities in chronic disease prevalence requires focus on more than access to and cost of health care. Economic development and job creation for all age cohorts in tribal communities may decrease the prevalence of long-term chronic diseases and may improve the financial status of the tribe. An opportunity exists to address health disparities through social and economic equity among tribal populations.

  20. [Sex education through popular education for health in a Brazilian rural social movement]. (United States)

    Zanatta, Luiz Fabiano

    Based on the ideas of Paulo Freire, the methodological framework of Popular Education for Health (PEH) provides a more adaptable method for sex education, including societal participation as well as the social, historical and cultural dimensions of the population. The purpose of this work is to relate one such PEH experience in sex education, which took the form of a community project with a group of students from 10 to 28 years of age attending Itinerant Schools and with groups from the Landless Rural Workers Movement (MST) in the state of Parana, Brazil. This work provides knowledge of certain elements that may help in developing similar projects, not only for sex education but also education for other public health issues. PEH demonstrates a method of ensuring socially effective participation in the different dimensions of health-promotion strategies. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Workplace Integration: Key Considerations for Internationally Educated Nurses and Employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubeida Ramji


    Full Text Available Integration of internationally educated nurses (IENs in the workplace over the long term, has not been a clear focus in nursing. The role of the employer organization in facilitating workplace integration for IENs has also not been emphasized in research. The overall aim of this paper is to highlight findings from an instrumental qualitative case study research informed by critical social theory, which examined workplace integration of IENs. The study explored what is meant by ‘integration’ and how the employer organizational context affects workplace integration of IENs. A purposeful sample of twenty-eight participants was involved. The participants included: stakeholders from various vantage points within the case organization as well as IENs from diverse backgrounds who were beyond the process of transitioning into the Canadian workplace—they had worked in Canada for an average of eleven years. Four methods of data collection were used: semi-structured interviews; socio-demographic survey; review of documents; and focus group discussions (FGDs. Thematic analysis methods guided the within subcase analysis first, followed by an across subcase analysis. FGDs were used as a platform for member-checking to establish the credibility of study findings. The resulting definition and conceptual framework point to workplace integration of IENs as a two-way process requiring efforts on the part of the IENs as well as the employer organization. This paper elaborates on selected themes of how beyond transition, workplace integration entails IENs progressing on their leadership journey, while persevering to overcome challenges. Organizational factors such as workforce diversity, leadership commitment to equity and engagement with the broader community serve as critical enablers and the importance of workplaces striving to avoid common pitfalls in addressing the priority of IEN integration are also discussed. This paper concludes with implications and

  2. Sex Education, First Sex and Sexual Health Outcomes in Adulthood: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sexual Health Survey (United States)

    Bourke, Ashling; Boduszek, Daniel; Kelleher, Caroline; McBride, Orla; Morgan, Karen


    This study investigated the relationship between school sex education and sexual health behaviours at first sex and later in adulthood, using nationally representative data. Respondents were adults from the 2010 Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating…

  3. Seventy Years of Sex Education in "Health Education Journal": A Critical Review (United States)

    Iyer, Padmini; Aggleton, Peter


    This paper examines key debates and perspectives on sex education in "Health Education Journal" ("HEJ"), from the date of the journal's first publication in March 1943 to the present day. Matters relating to sexuality and sexual health are revealed to be integral to "HEJ'"s history. First published as Health…

  4. From I to We: Sex Education as a Form of Civics Education in a Neoliberal Context (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon; Randazzo, Renee


    This research explores the question of how a sex education curriculum can be a form of civics education, moving students from a discourse of personal responsibility to a discourse that represents a "we" voice and takes into consideration not only the other person but society. In two 8-week classes delivered in a charter school to a…

  5. Does the "Negro" "Still" Need Separate Schools? Single-Sex Educational Settings as Critical Race Counterspaces (United States)

    Terry, Clarence L., Sr.; Flennaugh, Terry K.; Blackmon, Samarah M.; Howard, Tyrone C.


    This article explores whether contemporary educators should consider single-sex educational settings as viable interventions in educating African American males. Using qualitative data from a 2-year study of single-sex educational spaces in two Los Angeles County high schools, the authors argue that when all-male spaces effectively function as…

  6. Collaborating to Plan and Implement a Sex Education Curriculum for Individuals with Disabilities (United States)

    Sinclair, James; Kahn, Laurie G.; Rowe, Dawn A.; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Hirano, Kara A.; Knowles, Christen


    Sex education is not only a necessary component of public school curriculum, but it is also an important opportunity for students with and without disabilities to learn about their own development as emerging adults. Although comprehensive sex education is not federally mandated, many states and districts choose to offer some form of sex education…

  7. Protective Effects of Middle School Comprehensive Sex Education with Family Involvement (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Tracy, Allison J.; Charmaraman, Linda; Ceder, Ineke; Erkut, Sumru


    Background: School-based comprehensive sex education programs can reduce early adolescents' risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year comprehensive sex education program in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students and whether the family component of the intervention contributes to its…

  8. Academic and Vocational Education for Incarcerated Adult and Juvenile Sex Offenders: A National Study. (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael S.


    Examined adult and juvenile sex offender academic and vocational education programs. Data were collected from 103 sex offender treatment providers. Findings revealed that both adult and juvenile sex offender education programs provided wide variety of service choices in academic and vocational programs. Adult programs averaged slightly more…

  9. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Schoolchildren's Educational Aspirations in Korea. (United States)

    Ju, Dong-Beom; Chung, Il-Hwan


    Examined the relationships between maternal employment and schoolchildren's educational aspirations in Korea. Found that children whose mothers were working full-time had lower educational aspirations, although maternal involvement and parents' educational expectations mitigated these effects. (JPB)

  10. Knowledge and attitude of secondary school teachers in Enugu to school based sex education. (United States)

    Aniebue, P N


    To assess the knowledge and attitude to sex education among secondary school teachers in Enugu. A cross sectional study of 300 teachers drawn from nine randomly selected secondary schools in Enugu metropolis was carried out. Pre-tested self administered structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Three hundred teachers, 215 females and 85 males were interviewed. The mean age of the teachers was 38.1+/-7.5 years. Sixty-nine (23.0%) had adequate knowledge of sex education and 282 (94.0%) approved the inclusion of sex education into the school curriculum. The commonest reason for disapproval of sex education was fear that it would lead to promiscuity amongst the students. Educational status and marital status of the teachers were significant determinants of positive attitude to sex education psex education according to the teachers is 11-15 years. Two hundred and thirty eight (79.3%) respondents were of the opinion that teachers needed to be trained to provide sex education to students and 244 (81.3%) admitted that sex education was not in the school curriculum. Secondary school teachers are in support of provision of sex education to students. However they need training and skills on how to present sex information in a positive manner to achieve the desired goal. There is need to include sex education in the school curriculum.

  11. Sex Discrimination in Employment: What to Know About It, What to Do About It. Second Edition. (United States)

    National Organization for Women, Boston, MA. Eastern Massachusetts Chapter.

    The opening question in this document is: Have you ever been confronted with sex discrimination? If you can answer yes to any of 42 more specific questions on discriminatory acts, you have a bona fide complaint. From this point the document serves as a guide on what evidence is needed in a complaint, where the complaint is to be filed, and sources…

  12. Continuing-education needs of the currently employed public health education workforce. (United States)

    Allegrante, J P; Moon, R W; Auld, M E; Gebbie, K M


    This study examined the continuing-education needs of the currently employed public health education workforce. A national consensus panel of leading health educators from public health agencies, academic institutions, and professional organizations was convened to examine the forces creating the context for the work of public health educators and the competencies they need to practice effectively. Advocacy; business management and finance; communication; community health planning and development, coalition building, and leadership; computing and technology; cultural competency; evaluation; and strategic planning were identified as areas of critical competence. Continuing education must strengthen a broad range of critical competencies and skills if we are to ensure the further development and effectiveness of the public health education workforce.

  13. Leadership Behaviour: Does Sex and Level of Education Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Sumnaya Kumasey


    Full Text Available We examined individual differences in leadership behaviour in the Ghanaian business sector. Specifically, sex differences as well as level of education on leadership behaviour were examined. Cross-sectional survey design was used to study 95 participants conveniently sampled from selected organizations within the Greater Accra Metropolis. Questionnaire was used to collect data from a cross-section of people in the organization. Test of normality and reliability testing were conducted as part of the preliminary analysis. Multivariate test was used to test the hypotheses in the study. The result showed that females showed significantly people-oriented leadership behaviour than their male counterparts. However, level of education did not significantly influence the leadership behaviour of participants. Implications and limitations of the study are provided.

  14. 10 CFR 5.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 5.500 Section 5.500 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from...

  15. 32 CFR 196.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 196.500 Section 196.500 National... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 196.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  16. 24 CFR 3.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 3.500 Section 3.500... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 3.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  17. 44 CFR 19.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 19.500 Section 19... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded...

  18. 13 CFR 113.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 113.500 Section 113... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs Or Activities Prohibited § 113.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  19. 36 CFR 1211.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 1211.500 Section... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1211.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  20. 18 CFR 1317.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 1317.500... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  1. 45 CFR 2555.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 2555.500 Section 2555.500 Public... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 2555.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  2. 38 CFR 23.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 23.500... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 23.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  3. People with Intellectual Disabilities Talk About Sexuality: Implications for the Development of Sex Education. (United States)

    Schaafsma, D; Kok, G; Stoffelen, J M T; Curfs, L M G


    Existing sex education programmes have failed in involving people with intellectual disabilities in the development of these programmes. Not involving the target population decreases the likelihood that the sex education programme will be effective. This study was conducted to assess the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities on several sexuality-related topics. Semi-structured interviews were held with 20 people with intellectual disabilities covering topics such as: sex education, relationships, sex, social media, parenthood and support. The reported frequency of sex education the participants receive is low. Their knowledge regarding sex education is mainly limited to topics such as safe sex, contraception and STI's and tends to be superficial. Additionally, knowledge on safe sex does not always translate to safe sex behaviour. Finally, relationships are important for most participants; mainly because they don't want to be alone. Findings from both this study and literature shows that there seems to be a need for high quality sex education. Topics to consider to include are: online relationships, social media and parenthood. It would also be beneficial to focus on sexuality-related skills. Finally, to increase the effectiveness of a sex education programme, it is advisable that a theory-and evidence-based framework, such as Intervention Mapping, is used for its development.

  4. Worth the Wait? The Consequences of Abstinence-Only Sex Education for Marginalized Students (United States)

    Hoefer, Sharon E.; Hoefer, Richard


    "Abstinence-only" sex education, which is still widely used across the United States, does not prepare students to engage in healthy adult relationships. Prior research evidence indicates that abstinence-only education is less effective at preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than comprehensive sex education.…

  5. The Effects of Sex Education on Psychological Counselling Students in Turkey (United States)

    Çuhadaroglu, Alper


    Sex education is not included in Turkey's national curriculum and is rarely referenced in school and university curricula. This is even true for those undertaking training in psychological counselling where the need may be great. Only a very few university schools of education offer an elective sex education course. A group of 64 guidance and…

  6. Constructing the Ideal Muslim Sexual Subject: Problematics of School-Based Sex Education in Iran (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Alireza


    School-based sex education is an underdeveloped and challenging issue to address in Iran. This paper provides insights into the main challenges in developing and implementing school-based sex education in Iran. Through an investigation of one Iranian boys' school that, in contrast to the majority of Iranian educational institutions, has an…

  7. Getting "Foolishly Hot and Bothered"? Parents and Teachers and Sex Education in the 1940s (United States)

    Cook, Hera


    The reluctance of parents to provide sex education has been a problem for educators since the first attempts at the modernisation of sex education in the early twentieth century, yet the sexual needs, desires and fears of parents are rarely even mentioned in pedagogical debates. This article examines the intense anxiety and embarrassment felt by…

  8. Poz-itively Transformational: Sex Workers and HIV/AIDS Education (United States)

    Hill, Robert J.


    HIV and AIDS are complex events that offer numerous opportunities for adult education. However, mainstream education on this issue has often not been relevant to a number of subpopulations, including sex workers. This chapter explores sources and content of HIV/AIDS education in the sex work industry (including art and the Internet) and suggests…

  9. Education for Employment in Nigeria in the 21st Century: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined education for employment in Nigeria in the 21st Century. This paper therefore looked at the demand of workplace employment skills, learning skills, literacy skills and life skills. This paper concludes by advocating how to teach 21st Century employment skills, how to guarantee gainful employment, and ...

  10. University Education and Employment in Malaysia. IIEP Research Report No. 66. (United States)

    Aziz, Ungku A., Ed.; And Others

    The role of university education in Malaysia in meeting the needs of the economy and employers was studied. To explore the relationship between education and employment, attention was focused on population characteristics, the labor market, the education system, and the economic system. Four major research concerns were: reasons for pursuing…

  11. Postschool Educational and Employment Experiences of Young People with Specific Language Impairment (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin


    Purpose: This study examined the postschool educational and employment experiences of young people with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Nineteen-year-olds with (n = 50) and without (n = 50) SLI were interviewed on their education and employment experiences since finishing compulsory secondary education. Results: On average,…

  12. School nurses and sex education: surveillance and disciplinary practices in primary schools. (United States)

    Hayter, Mark; Piercy, Hilary; Massey, Marie-Therese; Gregory, Trudy


    This paper is a report of a study to explore how school nurses perceive the influence of schools on their role in delivering sex and relationship education in primary schools. School nurses play a key role in sex education in English schools. However, sex education is a contentious issue meaning the sex education of children is often an area of tension within the curriculum. However, the impact of these tensions upon school nursing practice is poorly described. Three focus groups with a convenience sample of 16 nurses experienced in conducting sex and relationship education were conducted during 2006. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and subjected to a thematic analysis. Four themes were identified in the data: 'covert surveillance' refers to school staff conducting clandestine surveillance of the classroom actions of the nurse; 'overt surveillance' reflects how nurses felt they were being openly monitored by teachers in the classroom; 'Teacher attitude' refers to the interventions of the supervising teacher in the classroom during the sex education session and 'resistance practices' detailed how nurses attempted to manage the disciplinary practices of the school. School nurses need to be pragmatic about the fact that there will be some attempts by the school to regulate sex education. Developing an early dialogue with the school can mediate this. Closer working practices and the involvement of school nurses in the development of sex education policy and practice is vital to ensure that they continue to make a valuable contribution to sex education in schools.

  13. Need Assessment for Sex Education amongst the University Students –A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep Kumar


    Full Text Available Background: The morbidity associated with sexual ignorance, poor decision making and inadequate sexuality education is rising in India day by day. The possibility of sex related public health problems like sexual abuse, teenage pregnancies, abortions, unmarried motherhood, STD/HIV infections etc. are always remains high in university students. In this background to assess the student’s knowledge & perceived need for sex education this study was conducted. Objective Of Study: To assess the need of sex education in students To explore the views of students on content, source & preferred grade levels of education for sex education. Methods: It was a crosssectional study conducted among students of Panjab University, Chandigarh. Sample size was 86 (Boys=45, Girls=41. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents. The results were calculated in percentage. Results: 95% of students were in favors of mainstreaming of sex education. 76.74% students choose the teacher as the best source to provide sex education. Students preferred grade levels to start sex education was matriculation with curriculum containing the information on sexual body changes during growth, contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusions: Majority of students has received sex information from informal sources and they are not satisfied with their knowledge on sex education. Majority of them supports the implementation of sex education in educational institutes. The government needs to make sex education mandatory as well as plan the educational material in a way that incites not libidinous behavior but instills mature decision making skills in the students

  14. Need Assessment for Sex Education amongst the University Students –A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep Kumar


    Full Text Available Background: The morbidity associated with sexual ignorance, poor decision making and inadequate sexuality education is rising in India day by day. The possibility of sex related public health problems like sexual abuse, teenage pregnancies, abortions, unmarried motherhood, STD/HIV infections etc. are always remains high in university students. In this background to assess the student’s knowledge & perceived need for sex education this study was conducted. Objective Of Study: To assess the need of sex education in students To explore the views of students on content, source & preferred grade levels of education for sex education. Methods: It was a cross- sectional study conducted among students of Panjab University, Chandigarh. Sample size was 86 (Boys=45, Girls=41. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents. The results were calculated in percentage. Results: 95% of students were in favors of mainstreaming of sex education. 76.74% students choose the teacher as the best source to provide sex education. Students preferred grade levels to start sex education was matriculation with curriculum containing the information on sexual body changes during growth, contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusions: Majority of students has received sex information from informal sources and they are not satisfied with their knowledge on sex education. Majority of them supports the implementation of sex education in educational institutes. The government needs to make sex education mandatory as well as plan the educational material in a way that incites not libidinous behavior but instills mature decision making skills in the students

  15. Sex education sources and attitudes toward sexual precautions across a decade. (United States)

    Guthrie, Mandy L; Bates, Larry W


    75 college students responded to Moore and Barling's AIDS questionnaire. Coopersmith's Self-esteem Inventory, and a background survey regarding sex education and sexual and religious activity. The most commonly reported sources of sex education were peers, parents, and high school courses, respectively. Ratings of the most important of 10 potential sources of sex education included peers, high school courses, and religious institutions, respectively. None of these were significantly correlated with future condom use. Virgins reported more open communication with parents about sex. Sexual experience was positively related to more confusion about sexual precautions but negatively related to foreclosed attitudes toward such precautions. Some types of religious involvement (church attendance and campus religious organization membership) were related to foreclosed attitudes. Data in attitudinal and sex education were compared with data collected in 1991. Although students more frequently reported having received sex education in 2000, their attitudes toward utilizing sexual precautions have become somewhat more diffused.

  16. The Demand for Higher Education and Employment Opportunities in Nigeria


    Adeyemo, John Adeboye


    Introduction The UN Declaration of Human Rights provides, among other things, the right of the individual in society to education. This provision is contained in article 26 of the document to which Nigeria became a signatory, upon joining the United Nations at the attainment of independence in 1960. Article 26 states that: Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary Education shall be compulsory. Technical and prof...

  17. Sex education in the pedagogical practice of public school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Borges Rufino


    Full Text Available This descriptive study was performed with 29 teachers from three public state schools in Goiânia, Goiás state. The teachers answered a semi-structured questionnaire that aimed at verifying the pedagogical practice in sex education, difficulties related to the theme, and the need for training. Most teachers were male (69% and aged between 25 and 35 years (74%. Half held a graduate degree (54% in human sciences (49%. Nearly all teachers find difficulties in working the topic (89% and need training (93%. Contents on sexuality were not addressed in the Political Pedagogical Projects (76% and the biology program aimed at teaching the theme (55%, a reality that disagrees with the National Curricular Standards, which is based on transversality. Partnerships between health and education must be established, particularly between the Family Health Strategy the higher education institutions, providing public school teachers with the necessary didactic-pedagogical support to address sexuality in the classroom. Descriptors: Sexuality; Schools; Nursing; Public Health.

  18. Higher and Further Education Institution Policies on Student and Staff Involvement in Commercial Sex (United States)

    Cusick, Linda; Roberts, Ron; Paton, Susan


    This paper concerns higher and further education institutions' policies as they relate to the interactions of their staff and students with the sex industry. In Scotland and England, consenting adults may legally buy and sell sex and commercial sexual entertainment, such as erotic dance and phone sex, provided that they do not do so in a public…

  19. Contraception, Copulation Domination, and the Theoretical Barrenness of Sex Education Literature. (United States)

    Diorio, Joseph A.


    Sex education which deals with the problem of teenage pregnancy and is based upon the essentialist view of sex as heterosexual copulation constitutes misrepresentation of sexuality to young people. The alternative of encouraging adolescents to pursue sexual satisfaction through activities other than copulation is ignored in sex education…

  20. Importance of Sex Education Since Early Age for Preventing Sexual Harassment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christofora Megawati Tirtawinata


    Full Text Available Lack of sex education in children could cause the violence or sexual abuse done by adults. Parents should give the lesson about early sex education to the children so that they had the right knowledge about it and knew how to treat and look after it. The method in this research was a discourse analysis of the literature in which the readings were taken in context with the research topic. Besides that, it included the observations and everyday practical experience in social life. This article described the notion of sex education, the impact of sexual harassment, the importance of sex education for children, and who would be responsible for sex education for the children. The research finds that through the moral education and faith to God, the children are expected to get protection from sexual abuse, so the nation's children as successor generation get mentally active. 

  1. Associations Between Sex Education and Contraceptive Use Among Heterosexually Active, Adolescent Males in the United States. (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nicole; Buhi, Eric R; Elder, John P; Corliss, Heather L


    This study examined associations between reports of receiving education on topics commonly included in sex education (e.g., abstinence only, comprehensive) prior to age 18 years and contraceptive use at the last sex among heterosexually active, 15- to 20-year-old males in the United States. Cross-sectional data from 539 males participating in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for confounding estimated associations between receipt of seven sex education topics (e.g., information on HIV/AIDS, how to say no to sex) and contraceptive use at the last sex (i.e., dual barrier and female-controlled effective methods, female-controlled effective method only, barrier method only, and no method). Nearly, all participants (99%) reported receiving sex education on at least one topic. Education on sexually transmitted diseases (94.7%) and HIV/AIDS (92.0%) were the most commonly reported topics received; education on where to get birth control was the least common (41.6%). Instruction about birth control methods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-6.87) and how to say no to sex (AOR = 3.39; CI = 1.33-8.64) were positively associated with dual contraception compared to no use. For each additional sex education topic respondents were exposed to, their odds of using dual methods compared to no method was 47% greater (AOR = 1.47; CI = 1.16-1.86). Exposure to a larger number of sex education topics is associated with young men's report of dual contraception use at the last sex. Comprehensive sex education, focusing on a range of topics, may be most effective at promoting safer sex among adolescent males. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. From education to employment - Inspiring and strengthening the pathways to secure our nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, L.


    Investing in Education, Skills and Training: • Develop demand based education and skills pipelines for both short term construction and long term nuclear needs; • Links between Education and employment need vision and courage; • Major clients and employees have to lead and collaborate with supply chain,skills bodies, and education providers to create a legacy of sustainable skills

  3. Correlation of Sex Education and the Racial Composition of a School District (United States)

    Schaa, Kelly

    The purpose of the project was to determine whether there was a correlation between the racial makeup of a school district and the decision to provide sex education in its schools. Interviews were conducted with six different school districts across Santa Clara County, California. After the interviews, it was determined that the racial diversity did not play a role in deciding if sex education would be taught. This researcher did learn that a lack of educational funding had an effect on the school districts and their decisions. Due to this lack of funding for schools, educational programs, such as sex education, were not being provided to the students.

  4. Employment and educational outcomes in early intervention programmes for early psychosis: a systematic review. (United States)

    Bond, G R; Drake, R E; Luciano, A


    Young adults with early psychosis want to pursue normal roles - education and employment. This paper summarises the empirical literature on the effectiveness of early intervention programmes for employment and education outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of employment/education outcomes for early intervention programmes, distinguishing three programme types: (1) those providing supported employment, (2) those providing unspecified vocational services and (3) those without vocational services. We summarised findings for 28 studies. Eleven studies evaluated early intervention programmes providing supported employment. In eight studies that reported employment outcomes separately from education outcomes, the employment rate during follow-up for supported employment patients was 49%, compared with 29% for patients receiving usual services. The two groups did not differ on enrolment in education. In four controlled studies, meta-analysis showed that the employment rate for supported employment participants was significantly higher than for control participants, odds ratio = 3.66 [1.93-6.93], p < 0.0001. Five studies (four descriptive and one quasi-experimental) of early intervention programmes evaluating unspecified vocational services were inconclusive. Twelve studies of early intervention programmes without vocational services were methodologically heterogeneous, using diverse methods for evaluating vocational/educational outcomes and precluding a satisfactory meta-analytic synthesis. Among studies with comparison groups, 7 of 11 (64%) reported significant vocational/education outcomes favouring early intervention over usual services. In early intervention programmes, supported employment moderately increases employment rates but not rates of enrolment in education. These improvements are in addition to the modest effects early programmes alone have on vocational/educational outcomes compared with usual services.

  5. Entrepreneurship Education and Veterinary Medicine: Enhancing Employable Skills (United States)

    Henry, Colette; Treanor, Lorna


    Purpose: This paper has the purpose of exploring the potential for entrepreneurship education within veterinary medicine. It aims to examine some of the key themes in the entrepreneurship education literature, discuss the make-up of the UK veterinary sector, consider veterinary curricula requirements and illustrate how entrepreneurship education…

  6. Employer tolerance with educator misconduct versus learners' rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    approach to one that can be called "progressive discipline". In the. LRA as well .... on the side of the employee, which means that the educator is not intentionally or ... school and the educator's responsibilities, and fairness and balance are built into the ..... mission for an operation to remove a bullet from his leg. To gather all.

  7. Achievement Level and Sex Differences in Levels of Interests and the Interest-Educational Choice Relationship (United States)

    Schmitt, Neal


    The prediction of level of post-high-school educational choice was investigated using the theme scores of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, sex and achievement level as predictors. Results indicated significant relationships between interests and educational choice, moderated in some cases by sex and achievement level. (Author)

  8. A History of Sex Education in the United States since 1900 (United States)

    Huber, Valerie J.; Firmin, Michael W.


    We provide a historical perspective toward the current public school practices of American sex education. The primary time frames include the progressive era (1880-1920), intermediate era (1920-1960), the sexual revolution era (1960s and 1970s), and the modern sex education era (1980s to the present). In each period, we highlight key developments…

  9. The Role of Sexuality and Sex Equity in the Education of Disabled Women. (United States)

    Corbett, Katherine; And Others


    This article tackles the broad issue of the intersection of sexuality, disability, and sex education. Myths and stereotypes about the nonsexual disabled woman are examined, as are issues of identity, dating and other loving relationships, sexual abuse, sex education, sexuality related services, and inclusion of disabled students in curriculum and…

  10. A Review of Parental Involvement in Sex Education: The Role for Effective Communication in British Families (United States)

    Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; van Schaik, Paul


    A review of recent literature (2000--2006) has been undertaken to investigate the role of sex education within the family context, in order to engage with the problems of sexual health in British society. The findings which emerged were categorized under the following five themes: (1) Parental roles regarding sex education; (2) The importance of…

  11. Rethinking Difference and Sex Education: From Cultural Inclusivity to Normative Diversity (United States)

    Haggis, Jane; Mulholland, Monique


    This paper aimed to problematise what is meant by 'difference' and consider what such a reinterpretation might mean for methodological interventions in sex education research. Our concern is the tendency for sex education research to treat difference as a set of categories to be "added-on", such as religious difference, cultural…

  12. The Sex Education Debates: Teaching "Life Style" in West Bengal, India (United States)

    Chakravarti, Paromita


    This paper examines the recent controversies surrounding the decision to introduce sex education in secondary schools in India to combat the rapid spread of HIV and AIDS in the country. While 11 Indian states have banned it, the Left-ruled state of West Bengal has designed a teachers' manual to impart sex education. However, a close analysis of…

  13. Television sex education panics? An analysis of three public debates in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Mols (Anouk)


    textabstractIn 2013, television sex education show Dokter Corrie instigated a heated public debate in the Netherlands. This study places the Dokter Corrie uproar in a broader perspective and identifies the moral dimensions in the reactions to three Dutch television sex education shows: Open en Bloot

  14. Public Opinion on School-Based Sex Education in South Carolina (United States)

    Alton, Forrest L.; Valois, Robert F.; Oldendick, Robert; Drane, J. Wanzer


    The purpose of this article was to determine opinions on the use of abstinence only versus comprehensive sex education by registered voters in South Carolina. A cross-sectional, random-digit dial sample was utilized. Approximately 81% of respondents indicated support for sex education that emphasizes abstinence but also teaches about the benefits…

  15. Young Sexual Citizens: Reimagining Sex Education as an Essential Form of Civic Engagement (United States)

    Illes, Judit


    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) pose a significant threat to the health and well-being of populations worldwide, and to young people in particular. Despite empirical evidence that comprehensive sex education is an important tool for prevention, the legitimacy and content of sex education in schools continue to be challenged by conservative…

  16. Positioning Sex Educators: A Critical Ethnography of a Professional Development Workshop (United States)

    Scott, Brigitte C.


    In this ethnographic research, I offer an analysis of a state-sponsored professional development workshop for sex educators. Positioning theory is used to understand how the lived space of the workshop -- including texts, talk and silence -- positions sex education teachers as professionals and practitioners with certain (limited) speaking rights…

  17. Making Smart Choices: A Serious Game for Sex Education for Young Adolescents (United States)

    Kwan, Alvin C. M.; Chu, Samuel K. W.; Hong, Athena W. L.; Tam, Frankie; Lee, Grace M. Y.; Mellecker, Robin


    Current educational resources for sex education in Hong Kong are mainly designed to be used in classroom. They are mostly text-based and are unattractive to the most vulnerable adolescent group. As discussion on sex is still taboo in Chinese society, self-learning resources can supplement classroom teaching. This paper describes an interactive…

  18. Understanding Parental Views of Adolescent Sexuality and Sex Education in Ecuador: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Jerves, Elena; López, Silvia; Castro, Cecilia; Ortiz, William; Palacios, María; Rober, Peter; Enzlin, Paul


    Parents' contribution to sex education is increasingly receiving research attention. This growing interest stems from recognition of the influence that parental attitudes may have both on young people's sexual attitudes and behaviour, and on school-based sex education. Studies regarding parental attitudes towards sexuality are, however, still…

  19. The Employment and Postsecondary Educational Status of Transition-Age Youths with Visual Impairments (United States)

    McDonnall, Michele Capella


    A limited amount of information is available about the employment and postsecondary educational status of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Reports on the employment and postsecondary education tend to focus on overall results and usually do not provide detailed analyses by disability groups. In this article, the author presents the…

  20. Employers Assessment of Work Ethics Required of University Business Education Graduates in South-South Nigeria (United States)

    Okoro, James


    This study examined the employers assessment of work ethics required of university Business Education graduates in south south Nigeria. One research question and three hypotheses guided the study. The design of this study was a descriptive survey. The population of the study comprised 318 identified employers of Business Education graduates in…

  1. Employers' Demand for and the Provision of Part-Time Higher Education for Employees. (United States)

    Trotman-Dickenson, Danusia


    A study of public and private employers' demand for part-time higher education for their employees and the response of institutions is reported. The study focuses on Wales and on the regional economic and social trends affecting educational demand and supply. Improved communication between employers, employees, and institutions is recommended.…

  2. Employment among Older Workers and Inequality of Gender and Education: Evidence from a Taiwanese National Survey (United States)

    Lu, Luo


    The aim of this research was twofold: to examine the prevalence of employment and under-employment among Taiwanese older workers (aged 50 and above), and to explore personal correlates of their employment status, in particular gender and education. Using a national representative sample, we found that: 1) a rather substantial percentage of people…

  3. Trail Making Test: normative data for Turkish elderly population by age, sex and education. (United States)

    Cangoz, Banu; Karakoc, Ebru; Selekler, Kaynak


    Trail Making Test (TMT) is a neuropsychological test, which has parts A and B that can precisely measure executive functions, like complex visual-motor conceptual screening, planning, organization, abstract thinking and response inhibition. The main purpose of this study is to standardize TMT for Turkish adults and/or elderly population. This study primarily consists of two main parts; norm determination study and reliability/validity studies, respectively. The standardization study was carried on 484 participants (238 female and 246 male). Participants at the age of 50 years and older were selected from a pool of people employed in or retired from governmental and/or private institutions. The research design of this study involves the following variables mainly; age (7 subgroups), sex (2 subgroups) and education (3 subgroups). Age, sex and education variables have significant influence on eight different kinds of TMT scores. Statistical analysis by ANOVA revealed a major effect of age (pKruskal-Wallis Test was performed and chi-square (chi(2)) values revealed that, correction scores for Part A and B were found to be influenced by age groups (pTest-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability coefficients for time scores of Parts A and B were estimated as 0.78, 0.99 and 0.73, 0.93, respectively. This study provides normative data for a psychometric tool that reliably measures the executive functions in Turkish elderly population at the age of 50 and over.

  4. Pupil-led sex education in England (RIPPLE study): cluster-randomised intervention trial. (United States)

    Stephenson, J M; Strange, V; Forrest, S; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Allen, E; Babiker, A; Black, S; Ali, M; Monteiro, H; Johnson, A M

    Improvement of sex education in schools is a key part of the UK government's strategy to reduce teenage pregnancy in England. We examined the effectiveness of one form of peer-led sex education in a school-based randomised trial of over 8000 pupils. 29 schools were randomised to either peer-led sex education (intervention) or to continue their usual teacher-led sex education (control). In intervention schools, peer educators aged 16-17 years delivered three sessions of sex education to 13-14 year-old pupils from the same schools. Primary outcome was unprotected (without condom) first heterosexual intercourse by age 16 years. Analysis was by intention to treat. By age 16 years, significantly fewer girls reported intercourse in the peer-led arm than in the control arm, but proportions were similar for boys. The proportions of pupils reporting unprotected first sex did not differ for girls (8.4% intervention vs 8.3% control) or for boys (6.2% vs 4.7%). Stratified estimates of the difference between arms were -0.4% (95% CI -3.7% to 2.8%, p=0.79) for girls and -1.4% (-4.4% to 1.6%, p=0.36) for boys. At follow-up (mean age 16.0 years [SD 0.32]), girls in the intervention arm reported fewer unintended pregnancies, although the difference was borderline (2.3% vs 3.3%, p=0.07). Girls and boys were more satisfied with peer-led than teacher-led sex education, but 57% of girls and 32% of boys wanted sex education in single-sex groups. Peer-led sex education was effective in some ways, but broader strategies are needed to improve young people's sexual health. The role of single-sex sessions should be investigated further.

  5. Sex education among Asian American college females: who is teaching them and what is being taught. (United States)

    Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng


    Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health.

  6. Employment and First Year Experience of Beginner Primary School Teachers at Private Educational Institutions


    Turgay ÖNTAŞ


    In this study to demonstrate primary school teachers' employment process and their first year teaching in private educational organizations is aimed. The major employer of primary school teachers is public schools that are funded by state. There will be a gap between grade inflation and employment rate when all of the teacher candidates claim to be appointed to public schools. Hence private educational organizations provide alternative career opportunities for teacher candidates. Qualitative ...

  7. What do young people want from sex education? The results of a needs assessment from a peer-led sex education programme. (United States)

    Forrest, Simon; Strange, Vicki; Oakley, Ann; The Ripple Study Team


    This paper presents data on the need for sexual health information and advice of 4353 students aged 13/14 years in 13 English secondary schools. Data were collected by peer educators as part of a sex education programme, and through a questionnaire survey administered by researchers. Data illustrate young people's need for concrete information and advice on issues related to physical development and puberty; transmission of sexually transmitted diseases; accessing and using condoms and other contraception; using sexual health services; managing relationships and dealing with jealousy, love and sexual attraction; how people have sex; sexual pleasure; masturbation; and homosexuality. Differences between the concerns and interests raised by young people and current UK guidance on sex and relationships education are examined, and the implications of these findings for designing future policy and effective school based sex education programmes are discussed. The paper highlights some of the wider social norms around sex and sexuality that influence young people's understanding and sexual behaviour, and the importance of addressing these within sex education is noted. Factors influencing the processes of expressing and assessing needs are explored.

  8. Employing Case Study Methodology in Special Educational Settings (United States)

    Rouse, Angelise M.


    In general, case studies are a preferred strategy when "how" or "why" questions are being posed, when the investigator has little control over events, and when the focus is on a contemporary phenomenon within some real-life context (Yin, 2009). This article will examine the advantages and disadvantages of employing case study…

  9. 'Dear diary I saw an angel, she looked like heaven on earth': Sex talk and sex education. (United States)

    Pattman, Rob; Chege, Fatuma


    In this paper we highlight and address some of the problems involved in teaching HIV/AIDS education in southern and eastern Africa, and especially in generating open discussion among pupils about sex and sexuality. The paper draws on the findings of a UNICEF-funded study, in which we were involved, as research consultants (2001). The study focused on 'young people, gender, sexuality and HIV/AIDS education' and was conducted in Botswana, Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In Botswana, Rwanda and Kenya, teachers and young people were interviewed about their attitudes towards and experiences of teaching/learning HIV/AIDS education. Young people were also interviewed more generally, in all the countries, about what it was like being a boy or girl of their age. We argue that HIV/AIDS education, as it is commonly taught, as a series of moral injunctions (against pre marital sex) effectively silences young people, and means that sex 'becomes' naughty when they do talk about it. We propose HIV/AIDS pedagogies, which emulate the practices our researchers adopted when researching the identities and views of boys and girls, especially concerning gender and sexuality. By addressing young people as experts about themselves and in a holistic and non-judgemental way, our interviewees were able to speak about anxieties and pleasures, many of which related to sexuality. This, they had not been able to do with other adults, and even with other children. We focus on the regulation and production of gender identities through the ways boys and girls talked about sex in our interviews and also in their participation in HIV/AIDS classes. In particular we look at how boys and girls 'performed' gender when discussing sexuality with boys often very loud and girls quiet, with boys presenting themselves as sexual and girls presenting themselves as asexual. We argue for approaches to HIV/AIDS education which challenge gender power relations without alienating boys by

  10. "Virginity Is a Virtue: Prevent Early Sex"--Teacher Perceptions of Sex Education in a Ugandan Secondary School (United States)

    Iyer, Padmini; Aggleton, Peter


    Sex education is a politically contentious issue in many countries, and there are numerous, competing ideologies relating to the most appropriate methods to teach young people about sexual and reproductive health. This paper examines policy and practice in Uganda in light of two contrasting ideologies, namely morally conservative and comprehensive…

  11. School-Based Sex Education and Neuroscience: What We Know about Sex, Romance, Marriage, and Adolescent Brain Development (United States)

    Ballonoff Suleiman, Ahna; Johnson, Megan; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Galván, Adriana


    Background: Many school-based abstinence-only sex education curricula state that sexual activity outside of marriage is likely to have harmful psychological effects. Recent advances in neuroscience have expanded our understanding of the neural underpinnings of romantic love, marriage, sexual desire, and sexual behavior and improved our…

  12. Reproductive rights. Education and employment: the dividing line. (United States)


    In Argentina, the 1884 Public Education Law gave women access to education. According to the 1980 Census there is a 6% illiteracy rate for women, which is slightly higher than for men, (5.5%), but this advantage is reversed in the female 10-35 age group. Girls and boys attend primary and secondary schools with the same frequency, but boys are more likely to repeat grades or drop out. At the university level 46% of the total students are women, and in Buenos Aires the figure is 56%. Many university subjects that were once considered for men only (medicine, law, and architecture) are now being studied by women. In 1941 only 25% of women studied science, chemistry, pharmacy, biochemistry, and dentistry; by 1978 that figure had grown to 59%. Now equal numbers of men and women study medicine, law, and architecture. Education plays a determining role in the number of children a woman has or if she gets married. Among 20-24 year old women with a low level of education, 51% live with a partner. For middle-class women the figure is 31%, and for university-educated women the figure is 15%. Uneducated women have about 4 children, while university-educated women have 1 child each. 50% of university-educated women do not have children. Discrimination in the job market against women is often associated with their menstruation, pregnancies, or child care. However, this prejudice is based on the false assumption that women must have and raise children. It ignores the shared responsibility of raising children between men and women. Before the 1980s the typical female worker was a single woman 25. When she got married she would quit her job. Today women are staying in the work place either out of choice or necessity even if they have children.

  13. Feminism and the physical : sex education, physical education and dress reform in Victoria, 1880-1930


    Young, Lois


    In the late ninetheenth century Australia, an "ideal" woman was married and a mother. Limited to her domestic sphere, she depended completely for her well-being on men. Feministes wanted to improve woman's lot and make her more independent, both by extending her traditional spere and by giving her greater autonomy within it. I argue that the physical aspect of emancipation was the most important to women. Feminists justified sex education, physical exercise and dress ...

  14. Employability and work-related learning activities in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnell, Marie; Kolmos, Anette


    The focus of this paper is on how academic staff perceive their roles and responsibilities regarding work-related learning, and how they approach and implement work-related learning activities in curricula across academic environments in higher education. The study is based on case studies...

  15. Pre-Employment Laboratory Education. Food Service Guidebook. (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This guidebook is designed for use in teaching students enrolled in preemployment laboratory education (PELE) food service programs. The first of two major sections includes an overview for teachers on planning, conducting, and evaluating a PELE food service program. Specific topics discussed in section 1 include (1) facilities and equipment, (2)…

  16. Complex Pathways for Young Mothers outside Employment, Education and Training (United States)

    Russell, Lisa


    This article explores young mothers' experiences of turbulent pathways in and out of education and work in Northern England. Data are drawn from an ethnography conducted between 2010 and 2013 that incorporated participant observation, life-story maps, photographs and interviews carried out in young mothers' homes, parenting classes and…

  17. Education, Employment and Household Dynamics: Brazilian Migrants in Japan (United States)

    Green, Paul


    By treating the household as a primary unit of analysis and social production, this article considers the mutually influential ways in which migrant families shape the educational pathways and experiences of Brazilian children living in Japan. Through an ethnographic exploration of relations between parents, children and their working siblings I…

  18. Pre-Employment Training Handbook for Secondary Special Education. (United States)

    Pine Bluff School District 3, AR.

    Presented is a curriculum guide on job skills for special education secondary students. Listed are tasks, skills and related academic concepts (including reading, mathematics, and vocabulary) for the following 10 units: housekeeping, floor care, laundry worker, food service worker, grocery store worker, general shop worker, clerical aide, nurse's…

  19. Education, Employment and Human Development: Illustrations from Mexico (United States)

    Flores-Crespo, Pedro


    By applying Amartya Sen's capability approach, this article questions the functionalist idea that suggests that education can precipitate economic growth and development. It will be argued that the freedom-centred perspective advances the concept of human capital and that it allows a deeper understanding of the relationship between higher…

  20. Education Graduate Skill Development as Perceived by Employers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skill development and training in institution and industries serves as a veritable tool for the improvement of technical education graduates. Skill development through training and on-job-training constitute an inevitable strategy if standard must be improved in the institution and industries. It appears from available evidence ...

  1. Hybrid Configurations of Leadership in Higher Education Employer Engagement (United States)

    Bolden, Richard; Petrov, Georgy


    Recent literature has emphasised the distributed nature of leadership in higher education (HE) and the multitude of actors and factors that contribute towards organisational outcomes. Gronn suggests, however, that rather than using such evidence to provide broad, normative accounts of leadership practice, greater attention should be directed to…

  2. Pre-Employment Laboratory Education. Clothing/Fashion Design Guidebook. (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This guidebook is designed for use in teaching students enrolled in preemployment laboratory education (PELE) clothing/fashion design programs. The first of two major sections includes an overview for teachers on planning, conducting, and evaluating a PELE clothing/fashion design program. Specific topics discussed in section 1 include (1)…

  3. Non-Formal Education, Out-of-School Learning Needs and Employment Opportunities: Evidence from Mali (United States)

    Weyer, Frederique


    Non-formal education (NFE) is now considered as playing a critical role in the achievement of the objective of Education for All, by reaching the learning needs of youth and adults who do not have access to formal education, increasing their employment opportunities and therefore contributing to poverty alleviation. Yet there is still insufficient…

  4. Effect of Entrepreneurship Education on Self-Employment Initiatives among Nigerian Science & Technology Students (United States)

    Afolabi, Michael Oluseye; Kareem, Fatai Adebayo; Okubanjo, Idowu Olulanu; Ogunbanjo, Olufunmilola Adesola; Aninkan, Olubukola Omonike


    Entrepreneurship education is introduced into Nigeria educational system to provide the necessary skills, competence, understanding, and prepare the Nigerian graduate for self-reliant, thereby contributing in nation building. This paper examines the effect of entrepreneurship education on self-employment initiatives among science and technology…

  5. 45 CFR 618.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 618.500 Section 618.500 Public Welfare... the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.500 Employment. (a... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection...

  6. Evaluation of sex education curricula: measuring up to the SIECUS guidelines. Sex Information and Education Council of the U.S. (United States)

    Klein, N A; Goodson, P; Serrins, D S; Edmundson, E; Evans, A


    Most sexuality education curricula developed the past 20 years were not thoroughly evaluated. This study provides results from a content analysis of 10 sexuality education curricula for junior and senior high school students. Nine nationally available sexuality education curricula and one curriculum guide comprised the sample. The basis for analysis was the Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality Education, developed by the Sex Information and Education Council of the U.S. (SIECUS) and an instrument developed to measure bias in the curricula. Trained coders found that Sex Respect and Teen Aid addressed less than half the topics suggested by the SIECUS guidelines. Several of the curricula contained gender and sexual orientation bias. Certain key concepts such as "Sexual Behavior" and "Society and Culture" were not adequately addressed by most of the curricula. Findings indicate that of 10 curricula, only six are considered acceptable for educating junior and senior high school students.

  7. International education and the employability of UK students


    Brooks, R; Waters, J; Pimlott-Wilson, H


    A common theme within the literature on higher education is the congested nature of the graduate labour market. Researchers have highlighted the lengths to which many students now go, in response to this congestion, to ‘distinguish themselves’ from other graduates: paying increased attention to university status; engaging in a range of extra-curricular activities; and pursuing postgraduate qualifications. Studies that have focused on the strategies of Asian students, specifically, have pointe...

  8. Education and employment in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis - a standardized comparison to the German general population. (United States)

    Schlichtiger, Jenny; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Barth, Swaantje; Bisdorff, Betty; Hager, Lisa; Michels, Hartmut; Hügle, Boris; Radon, Katja


    Although several studies show that JIA-patients have significantly lower employment rates than the general population, the research on educational and occupational attainments in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) remain conflicting most likely due to small sample sizes. Therefore, aim of this study is to compare the educational achievements and employment status of 3698 JIA-patients with the German general population (GGP). "SEPIA" was a large cross-sectional study on the current status of a historic cohort of JIA-patients treated in a single center between 1952 and 2010. For the analyses of education and employment a sub-cohort was extracted, including only adult cases with a confirmed diagnosis of JIA (N = 2696). Participants were asked to fill out a standardized written questionnaire on education and employment. Outcome measures (education/unemployment) were directly standardized to the GGP using data obtained from the National Educational Panel Study 2013 (N = 11,728) and the German Unemployment Statistics 2012 of the Federal Statistical Office (N = 42,791,000). After age- and sex-standardization, 3% (95% Confidence Interval 1.9 to 4.1%) more of the JIA-patients (26%) than of the GGP (23%) had only reached primary education. In contrast, parents of JIA-patients had similar levels of education as parents in the GGP. With a standardized difference of 0.2% (95% CI: 0.16 to 0.19%), the unemployment rate in JIA-patients was slightly, but not significantly higher than in the GGP. Stratifying for disease duration and the current treatment status, differences were confirmed for persons diagnosed before 2001, whilst for patients diagnosed after 2000, differences were found only in JIA-patients with ongoing disease. Medium and high educational achievements did not differ statistically significant between JIA patients and the GPP. Educational achievements in German JIA-patients are significantly lower than in the GGP. Furthermore we were able to

  9. Developing a Sustainable Practical Model of Graduate Employability for Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Umar Rufai


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evolve a sustainable practical model of employability skills that is sure to capture relevant learning aspects of a particular occupational discipline to be used as framework for Undergraduate students to develop their employability potentials. The study was conducted in three Universities and Polytechnics each with three multi-national companies. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Using purposeful sampling 18 academic staff and 3 professionals representing company employers were selected as the study participants. The study evolved a model that is work-based, explicit in its outcome, fully articulated and realistic in terms of employability skill experiences. The proposed model can be used to establish a common higher education programme or curricula that is work-based and skill experience oriented, that can encourage students in higher education to think about work place learning more explicitly and reflectively, that will in turn help them to develop a broad range of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values, each of which ultimately contribute in some manner to graduate employability.  The paper is considered a contribution to the evolution and growth of knowledge on the linkage between higher education and workplace, through which the ‘skill gap’ occurring between the demand of employment and the level of educational preparation of graduates can be bridged. Keywords: Employability, Higher Education, Graduates, Model/Framework,   academic staff, Employers/Professionals

  10. Sex education and family planning services for young adults: alternative urban strategies in Mexico. (United States)

    Townsend, J W; Diaz de May, E; Sepúlveda, Y; Santos de Garza, Y; Rosenhouse, S


    In Mexico, youth face difficulties in obtaining reliable information on sex education and family planning through existing community programs. Two alternative strategies to provide these services are being tested in poor urban areas of Monterrey. In one experimental area, Integrated Youth Centers were established, which provide sex education and family planning services as well as counseling, academic tutoring, and recreational activities. In another area, trained young adults and community counselors work through informal networks to provide sex education and family planning information. Both utilization and the cost of these services are examined in the context of plans for expanding coverage in Mexico-U.S. border areas.

  11. Sex Squad: Engaging Humour to Reinvigorate Sexual Health Education (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Gere, David


    The Sex Squad is a collective of US-based college students, who create and perform monologues, scenes and musical parodies for ninth graders (ranging in age from 13 to 15). The Sex Squad is the central element in the "AMP!" programme for adolescent sexual health, developed at the University of California-Los Angeles in collaboration with…

  12. Single-Sex Education in the 21st Century. Education Policy Brief. Volume 6, Number 9, Fall 2008 (United States)

    Cable, Kelly E.; Spradlin, Terry E.


    Single-sex education describes a diverse range of situations, including individual classes, programs after school, required programs, voluntary programs, and programs to remedy gender inequities and encourage cultural and racial pride. This brief addresses the genesis and legality of single-sex classrooms, the merits and critiques of single-sex…

  13. Sex and Relationships Education and Gender Equality: Recent Experiences from Andalusia (Spain) (United States)

    Venegas, Mar


    Despite recent advances in sex and relationships education (SRE), the Spanish education system still lacks coherent policies in this field. This paper provides an overview of the current situation, focusing specifically on Andalusia, and discusses the importance of providing SRE for young people. It first describes current Spanish education policy…

  14. The Gendered Nature of South African Teachers' Discourse on Sex Education (United States)

    DePalma, R.; Francis, D. A.


    In South Africa, high pregnancy and infection rates show that many teenagers are having sex, and that they are not adequately protecting themselves against undesired pregnancies and disease. Sex education is usually taught as part of the subject area Life Orientation. In a qualitative study of 25 Life Orientation teachers in the South African Free…

  15. Educating Teenagers about Sex in the United States. NCHS Data Brief. Number 44 (United States)

    Martinez, Gladys; Abma, Joyce; Copen, Casey


    Sex education in schools and other places, as well as received from parents, provides adolescents with information to make informed choices about sex at a crucial period of their development. Using data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this report examines the percentage of male and female teenagers 15-19 years who…

  16. The Comparative Research on Sex Education for Adolescents of China and the US (United States)

    Yu-feng, Zhou


    Sex education refers to people's comprehension about sex, which involves not only sexual structure (anatomy, physiology, birth control, pregnancy, etc.), but also sexual relationships concerning human and moral problems. It includes at least sexual physiology, sexual psychology, sexual ethic, sexual law, etc., which aims to help people form the…

  17. Employment Shifts in the Technical and Further Education Workforce in Victoria. (United States)

    Shah, Chandra


    Analyzes changes in Technical and Further Education (TAFE) work force in Victoria, Australia, that occurred during the period 1993-98. Main changes include increased participation of women, significant growth in part-time employment, decline in full-time (mainly male) employment, and an increased use of seasonal teachers. (Includes 10 figures and…

  18. Skills Training for Young Adults with Special Educational Needs for Transition into Employment (United States)

    Sankardas, Sulata Ajit; Rajanahally, Jayashree


    The research reported here was conducted to investigate the perception that people with disabilities find it a challenge to seek employment (Hernandez et?al., 2007). It is suggested that this situation could be due to a lack of specific employment-based training. Hence young adults with special educational needs (SEN) may require job-specific…

  19. The Role of Higher Education Skills and Support in Graduate Self-Employment (United States)

    Greene, Francis J.; Saridakis, George


    This article examines the career progression of self-employed graduates immediately following graduation and four years subsequently. Using a career socialization theory specific to entrepreneurial settings, it links the role of skills acquired in UK higher education courses and the use of support with self-employment outcomes. Using a wide range…

  20. Supporting Second Chances: Education and Employment Strategies For People Returning from Correctional Facilities (United States)

    Jobs For the Future, 2015


    This brief highlights strategies for strengthening education and employment pathways for youth and adults returning from correctional facilities and notes key questions that new research should answer. It also explores barriers to employment for people with criminal records--whether or not they have been incarcerated--and potential policy…

  1. Education and Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Some Evidence from Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barassou DIAWARA


    Full Text Available This paper studies the education-employment nexus in the context of Senegal. Using the 2005 Senegal Household Survey, we find that households’ heads with higher education (lower secondary level and above are less likely to be self-employed but more likely to be working in the public sector. Disaggregation by gender and location (rural vs. urban does not affect the results. Besides, female headed households with secondary education and above are more likely to be employed in the private sector. The results suggest the importance of steps for extensive promotion of education (especially for an upward revision of the level of compulsory education in resolving the persistent unemployment problem and improving the job availability in the private sector.

  2. Effect of sex education programme on at-risk sexual behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of sex education programme on at-risk sexual behaviour of ... that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). ... The treatment group evaluated the intervention programme positively and their knowledge of sexual health ...

  3. Perspectives on sex education in relation to sexual health of teenagers in Zambia


    Simalimbu, Brenda


    This research explores the perspectives on sex education in relation to sexual health of teenagers in Zambia. The research aimed at exploring the perspectives of various stakeholders (teenagers, parents, teachers, pastors and traditional counsellors) on the role of sex education to promote the sexual health of young people in Zambia. The study is guided by the theoretical perspectives of the sociology of childhood, which consider childhood as a social construct and children as ...

  4. Need Assessment for Sex Education amongst the University Students –A Pilot Study


    Jaideep Kumar


    Background: The morbidity associated with sexual ignorance, poor decision making and inadequate sexuality education is rising in India day by day. The possibility of sex related public health problems like sexual abuse, teenage pregnancies, abortions, unmarried motherhood, STD/HIV infections etc. are always remains high in university students. In this background to assess the student’s knowledge & perceived need for sex education this study was conducted. Objective Of Study: To assess the nee...

  5. Using Computer Simulations for Investigating a Sex Education Intervention: An Exploratory Study. (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Anastasia; Bullock, Seth; Graham, Cynthia A; Ingham, Roger


    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are ongoing concerns. The best method for preventing the transmission of these infections is the correct and consistent use of condoms. Few studies have explored the use of games in interventions for increasing condom use by challenging the false sense of security associated with judging the presence of an STI based on attractiveness. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the potential use of computer simulation as a serious game for sex education. Specific aims were to (1) study the influence of a newly designed serious game on self-rated confidence for assessing STI risk and (2) examine whether this varied by gender, age, and scores on sexuality-related personality trait measures. This paper undertook a Web-based questionnaire study employing between and within subject analyses. A Web-based platform hosted in the United Kingdom was used to deliver male and female stimuli (facial photographs) and collect data. A convenience sample group of 66 participants (64%, 42/66) male, mean age 22.5 years) completed the Term on the Tides, a computer simulation developed for this study. Participants also completed questionnaires on demographics, sexual preferences, sexual risk evaluations, the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), and the Sexual Inhibition Subscale 2 (SIS2) of the Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales-Short Form (SIS/SES - SF). The overall confidence of participants to evaluate sexual risks reduced after playing the game (Psimulations as a serious game for sex education. Engaging in the Term on the Tides game had an impact on participants' confidence in evaluating sexual risks. ©Anastasia Eleftheriou, Seth Bullock, Cynthia A Graham, Roger Ingham. Originally published in JMIR Serious Games (, 03.05.2017.

  6. Parents' views on sex education in schools: How much do Democrats and Republicans agree? (United States)

    Kantor, Leslie; Levitz, Nicole


    More than 93 percent of parents place high importance on sex education in both middle and high school. Sex education in middle and high school is widely supported by parents regardless of their political affiliation. Using data from a large diverse sample of 1,633 parents of children aged 9 to 21 years, we examined whether views on sex education differed by parents' political affiliation. More than 89 percent of parents that identified as Republicans or Democrats support including a wide range of topics in sex education including puberty, healthy relationships, abstinence, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and birth control in high school. In middle school, 78 percent or more of both parents that identified as Republicans and Democrats support the inclusion of those topics. Controlling for key demographic factors, parents that identified as Democrats are more likely than those that identified as Republicans to support the inclusion of the topics of healthy relationships, birth control, STDs, and sexual orientation in both middle and high school. However, a strong majority of Republican parents want all these topics included in sex education. Sex education which includes a broad set of topics represents an area of strong agreement between parents of both political parties.

  7. Parents' views on sex education in schools: How much do Democrats and Republicans agree?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Kantor

    Full Text Available More than 93 percent of parents place high importance on sex education in both middle and high school. Sex education in middle and high school is widely supported by parents regardless of their political affiliation. Using data from a large diverse sample of 1,633 parents of children aged 9 to 21 years, we examined whether views on sex education differed by parents' political affiliation. More than 89 percent of parents that identified as Republicans or Democrats support including a wide range of topics in sex education including puberty, healthy relationships, abstinence, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and birth control in high school. In middle school, 78 percent or more of both parents that identified as Republicans and Democrats support the inclusion of those topics. Controlling for key demographic factors, parents that identified as Democrats are more likely than those that identified as Republicans to support the inclusion of the topics of healthy relationships, birth control, STDs, and sexual orientation in both middle and high school. However, a strong majority of Republican parents want all these topics included in sex education. Sex education which includes a broad set of topics represents an area of strong agreement between parents of both political parties.

  8. Work-based learning in Higher Education – impact on learning and employability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud


    The main theme: Work-based learning in higher education has been emphasised while changes at work and in society have challenged knowledge and competencies. Learning in higher education is needed to be seen differently, and more attention is paid to students’ employability and the sustainability of

  9. Repositioning Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Youths Employment and National Security in Nigeria (United States)

    Ogbunaya, T. C.; Udoudo, Ekereobong S.


    The paper focused on repositioning Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for youth's employment and national security in Nigeria. It examined briefly the concepts of technical vocational education and training (TVET), youths, unemployment and national security as well as the effects of unemployment on national security in Nigeria.…

  10. Listen Up! Be Responsible! What Graduate Students Hear about University Teaching, Graduate Education and Employment (United States)

    Aspenlieder, Erin; Kloet, Marie Vander


    What we hear at universities and in public conversations is that there is a crisis in graduate student education and employment. We are interested here in the (re)circulation of the discourses of crisis and responsibility. What do graduate students hear about their education, their career prospects, and their responsibilities? How does work in…

  11. A Qualitative Exploration of Management Education: Business School Offerings in Comparison to Employer Expectations (United States)

    LaPrince, Shelly L.


    The exploratory qualitative research study explored management education business school offerings in comparison to employer expectations. Through the lens of alumni and human-resources personnel participants, the research examined the skills deemed as transferrable to the workplace and competencies that undergraduate-management education alumni…

  12. Recruitment Gaming: A New Tool at the Interface of Education and Employers (United States)

    Porter, Gavin W.; Tanenbaum, Michael A.


    Recruitment gaming embodies an exciting new tool at the interface of the education and private sectors. Employers and recruitment platforms add new complications to the already problematic relationship between game designers and educators. To better understand the emerging recruitment aspects of gaming and identify areas for those in educational…

  13. Challenges Towards Employability: Higher Education's Engagement to Industrial Needs in Japan (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi


    This paper examines the challenges and strategies of twenty-three Japanese universities working towards the improvement of employability skills. These universities have been selected for the national project "Improving Higher Education for Meeting Industrial Needs" funded by Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and…

  14. Women and Higher Education in Iran: What Are the Implications for Employment and the "Marriage Market"? (United States)

    Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.; Moghadam, Valentine M.


    In contemporary Iran, women with higher education face both gender discrimination and an unfavourable economic system, one that is not conducive to employment-generation for women. This paper provides an analysis of women's access to higher education in Iran, which has varied over the last 30 years, and their continuously limited participation in…

  15. Methodological Appendix of Research Methods Employed in the Mexican American Education Study. (United States)

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights released Mexican American Education Study findings in a series of documents: (1) "The Ethnic Isolation of Mexican Americans in the Public Schools of the Southwest" (ED 052 849), "The Unfinished Education" (ED 056 821), and "The Excluded Student" (ED 062 069). The research methods employed in the study are…

  16. Individualisation and Social Exclusion: The Case of Young People Not in Education, Employment or Training (United States)

    Thompson, Ron


    The characteristics, experiences and long-term prospects of young people outside the labour market and education have attracted widespread international attention in recent decades, and the specific category of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET) has been a policy concern for the UK Government since 1997. This paper…

  17. Education as a signal of trainability: results from a vignette study with Italian employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Stasio, V.


    Drawing on queuing theory, this study explores the relationship between education and labour market entry from the perspective of employers. On the basis of vignette study, we simulated a hiring process with a sample of recruiters and human resource managers. We analysed the role of education in the

  18. Employers' Perceptions, Attitudes, and Policies on Hiring of Graduates of Online Dietetic Education (United States)

    Dehpahlavan, Jaleh


    This qualitative explorative study explored dietetic employers' perceptions, attitudes, and policies regarding hiring of online dietetic graduates; how their perceptions were formed; and factors contributing to their development. Higher educational institutions and learners have embraced online education, evidenced by increased online program…

  19. Competencies in Higher Education System: an Empirical Analysis of Employers` Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Deaconu


    Full Text Available This study offers insight into the European Qualifications Framework (EQF, as agreed and detailed by the Romanian qualifications framework, applied to the economic sector. By means of a survey conducted on 92 employing companies, it validates the importance of competencies for the Romanian labour market and employers` degree of satisfaction with the competencies of business graduates. In terms of typology, employers attach more importance to transversal competencies than to professional competencies, both at conceptual level and as degree of acquirement following higher education. The empirical analysis provides data on employers` ranking of transversal and professional competencies and identifies the classes of competencies deemed to be in short supply on the labour market. Through its results, the study enhances the relationship between the higher education system and the labour market, providing key information for an efficient implementation of the competence-based education system.

  20. Rousseau on Sex-Roles, Education and Happiness (United States)

    Jonas, Mark E.


    Over the last decade, philosophers of education have begun taking a renewed interest in Rousseau's educational thought. This is a welcome development as his ideas are rich with educational insights. His philosophy is not without its flaws, however. One significant flaw is his educational project for females, which is sexist in the highest degree.…

  1. A Sex Education Programme for Mothers in Iran: Does Preschool Children's Sex Education Influence Mothers' Knowledge and Attitudes? (United States)

    Martin, Jeno; Riazi, Hedyeh; Firoozi, Armin; Nasiri, Maliheh


    Mothers have an important role to play in teaching their children about sexual issues and shaping children's sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. In many cases, however, mothers themselves need help and support. This study was conducted to examine the effects of a sex education programme on the knowledge and attitudes of the mothers of…

  2. Transversal knowledge formations in Professional Bachelor Education employing Problem Based Learning (PBL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner


    This paper describes the principles underlying how various knowledge areas blend into transversal formations in two educational contexts employing PBL. Such ‘transversality’ has often been referred to as inter- cross- or trans-disciplinarity. However, these terms are ambiguous, especially...... case studies - Nursing and the Constructing Architect education - have been researched, compared and contrasted in order to demonstrate how institutional practices demonstrate different modalities of transversal knowledge in their PBL-courses. For the purpose of this paper Nursing Education...

  3. Utilization of Higher Education : A Review of Employment Challenges and Job Practice among Refugees in Norway


    Boayue, Kou Glaymehn


    Master i flerkulturell og internasjonal utdanning Purpose of the study: If refugees from Africa and Asia are able to use their foreign higher education in the labor market of Norway is the main topic of this study. Thus, the study explores the impact of Norwegian language training, foreign higher education recognition, NAV job seeker courses, service/job provision by employers, further higher education in Norway, etc., on the labor market outcomes of 18 refugees who fled to Norway with ter...

  4. Educational level and employment status in adults with congenital heart disease. (United States)

    Pfitzer, Constanze; Helm, Paul C; Rosenthal, Lisa-Maria; Walker, Christoph; Ferentzi, Hannah; Bauer, Ulrike M M; Berger, Felix; Schmitt, Katharina R L


    Purpose Through this study we aimed to assess the educational level and employment status of adults with CHD in Germany. Data were acquired from an online survey carried out in 2015 by the German National Register for Congenital Heart Defects. A total of 1458 adults with CHD participated in the survey (response rate: 37.6%). For 1198 participants, detailed medical information, such as main cardiac diagnosis and information from medical reports, was available. Of the participants surveyed (n=1198), 54.5% (n=653) were female, and the mean age was 30 years. The majority of respondents (59.4%) stated that they had high education levels and that they were currently employed (51.1%). Patients with simple CHD had significantly higher levels of education (peducation levels and the majority were employed. The association between CHD and its severity and individuals' educational attainment should be investigated more closely in future studies.

  5. Exploration of Experiences and Perceptions of Three Botswana Basic Education Stakeholders on Employment and Unemployment of Graduates of Basic Education (United States)

    Tidimane, Christopher


    This study used a phenomenological approach to explore the lived experiences of three groups of stakeholders of the Botswana basic education program related to the employment and unemployment of graduates of basic education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 participants from three groups of stakeholders, graduates of basic…

  6. The Role of Single-Sex Education in the Academic Engagement of College-Bound Women: A Multilevel Analysis (United States)

    Sax, Linda J.; Riggers, Tiffani A.; Eagan, M. Kevin


    Background/Context: As opportunities for public and private single-sex education have expanded, the debate surrounding this issue has become more heated. Recent reviews of research on single-sex education have concluded that the evidence is mixed, due in large part to the difficulty of attributing differences between single-sex and coeducational…

  7. Same-Sex Sexuality and Educational Attainment: The Pathway to College. (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey


    Research finds lower levels of academic performance among sexual minority high school students, but some studies suggest sexual minorities have higher levels of educational attainment in adulthood. To further our understanding of how and why sexual orientation is associated with educational success, this study turns attention to the pathways to college completion, examining points along educational trajectories in which sexual minorities fall behind or surpass their heterosexual peers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we find that sexual minority women are less likely than women with no same-sex sexuality to complete college, in part due to their high school performance and transition into college. Men who experience same-sex sexuality only in adolescence struggle in high school, but men who experience same-sex sexuality for the first time in adulthood are more likely to earn a college degree than men who do not experience same-sex sexuality.

  8. What is best practice in sex and relationship education? A synthesis of evidence, including stakeholders' views. (United States)

    Pound, Pandora; Denford, Sarah; Shucksmith, Janet; Tanton, Clare; Johnson, Anne M; Owen, Jenny; Hutten, Rebecca; Mohan, Leanne; Bonell, Chris; Abraham, Charles; Campbell, Rona


    Sex and relationship education (SRE) is regarded as vital to improving young people's sexual health, but a third of schools in England lacks good SRE and government guidance is outdated. We aimed to identify what makes SRE programmes effective, acceptable, sustainable and capable of faithful implementation. This is a synthesis of findings from five research packages that we conducted (practitioner interviews, case study investigation, National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, review of reviews and qualitative synthesis). We also gained feedback on our research from stakeholder consultations. Primary research and stakeholder consultations were conducted in the UK. Secondary research draws on studies worldwide. Our findings indicate that school-based SRE and school-linked sexual health services can be effective at improving sexual health. We found professional consensus that good programmes start in primary school. Professionals and young people agreed that good programmes are age-appropriate, interactive and take place in a safe environment. Some young women reported preferring single-sex classes, but young men appeared to want mixed classes. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should take a 'life skills' approach and not focus on abstinence. Young people advocated a 'sex-positive' approach but reported this was lacking. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should discuss risks, but young people indicated that approaches to risk need revising. Professionals felt teachers should be involved in SRE delivery, but many young people reported disliking having their teachers deliver SRE and we found that key messages could become lost when interpreted by teachers. The divergence between young people and professionals was echoed by stakeholders. We developed criteria for best practice based on the evidence. We identified key features of effective and acceptable SRE. Our best practice criteria can be used to evaluate existing programmes

  9. Education and Employment Participation in Young Adulthood: What Role Does Arthritis Play? (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Theis, Kristina A; Boring, Michael A; Barbour, Kamil E


    To examine the association between arthritis diagnosis and education and employment participation among young adults, and to determine whether findings differ by self-rated health and age. Data from the National Health Interview Survey, in the years 2009-2015, were combined and analyzed. The study sample was restricted to those ages 18-29 years, either diagnosed with arthritis (n = 1,393) or not (n = 40,537). The prevalence and correlates of employment and education participation were compared by arthritis status. Demographic characteristics, social role participation restrictions, health factors, and health system use variables were included as covariates. Models were stratified for age (18-23 versus 24-29 years) and self-rated health. Weighted proportions and univariate and multivariate associations were calculated to examine the association between arthritis and education and employment participation. Respondents with arthritis were more likely to be female, married, and report having more social participation restrictions, fair/poor health, and more functional limitations than those without arthritis. In multivariate models, arthritis was significantly associated with lower education (prevalence ratio [PR] 0.75 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.57-0.98]) and higher employment participation (PR 1.07 [95% CI 1.03-1.13]). Additional stratified analyses indicated an association between arthritis diagnosis and greater employment participation in those ages 18-23 years and reporting higher self-rated health. Young adults with arthritis may be transitioning into employment at an earlier age than their peers without arthritis. To inform the design of interventions that promote employment participation, future research on the education and employment experiences of young adults with arthritis is needed. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  10. A Study of Curriculum and Instruction in Sex Education : Toward the Better Formation of a Sense of Value through Classroom Activity and Guidance(Educational Philosophy)


    町田, 健一; マチダ, ケンイチ; Kenichi, Machida


    The Purpose of Research Much attention has recently been paid to the importance of sex education. Conversely, it is often said that in sex education we should teach only biological facts about human bodies, but no further aspects such as the sense of value towards sex. To support this opinion, it is said that in the modern world sex does not necessarily mean love and that sex issues are too complex to be able to clarify in the domain of educational purpose. Is this really the way sex educatio...

  11. Education and employment status of children and adults with thalassemia in North America. (United States)

    Pakbaz, Zahra; Treadwell, Marsha; Kim, Hae-Young; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Parmar, Nagina; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Cunningham, Melody J; Martin, Marie; Sweeters, Nancy; Neufeld, Ellis J; Giardina, Patricia J; Olivieri, Nancy; Yamashita, Robert C; Vichinsky, Elliott


    Advances in the management of thalassemia have resulted in increased life expectancy and new challenges. We conducted the first survey of education and employment status of people with thalassemia in North America. A total of 633 patients (349 adults and 284 school age children) enrolled in the Thalassemia Clinical Research Network (TCRN) registry in Canada and the U.S. were included in the data analysis. Predictors considered for analysis were age, gender, race/ethnicity, site of treatment (Canada vs. United States), transfusion and chelation status, serum ferritin, and clinical complications. Seventy percent of adults were employed of which 67% reported working full-time. Sixty percent had a college degree and 14% had achieved some post-college education. Eighty-two percent of school age children were at expected grade level. In a multivariate analysis for adults, Whites (OR = 2.76, 95% CI: 1.50-5.06) were more likely to be employed compared to Asians. Higher education in adults was associated with older age (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.29-2.15), female gender (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.32-3.23) and absence of lung disease (OR = 14.3, 95% CI: 2.04-100). Younger children (OR = 5.7 for 10-year increments, 95% CI: 2.0-16.7) and Canadian patients (OR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.5-20) were more likely to be at the expected education level. Neither transfusion nor chelation was associated with lower employment or educational achievement. Individuals with thalassemia in North America can achieve higher education; however, full-time employment remains a problem. Transfusion and chelation do not affect employment or education status of this patient population. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Sex Education beyond School: Implications for Practice and Research (United States)

    Yu, Juping


    The negative consequences of teenage sexual behaviour are issues of concern in Britain and many other western countries. Over one-quarter of British young people are reported to become sexually active prior to the age of 16 and the rate of teenage pregnancy remains one of the highest in Western Europe. Current UK Government policy on sex education…

  13. Sex Education, A Way Forward towards Biology Curriculum Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Isangedighi (1986) stresses that the social tension, stress and inner turmoil ... goes further to say that this is due to indiscriminate practice of premarital sexuality among ... innate drive to act out; exposure of children to modernity; parental attitudes .... premarital sex (e.g unwanted pregnancies, child abuse, child trafficking,.

  14. The Effectiveness of Sex Education in the United States (United States)


    least that much time to the study of body changes during puberty . More controversial topics such as masturbation , homosexuality, and sexual pleasure...menstruation, conception, pregnancy, and contraception. The second hour covered commonly asked questions about sex, ranging from orgasms to masturbation ...Abortion was defined briefly and sexually transmitted diseases were discussed. Emotional and physical changes in puberty were considered, and the last

  15. Race, Sex, and Their Influences on Introductory Statistics Education (United States)

    van Es, Cindy; Weaver, Michelle M.


    The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics or SATS was administered for three consecutive years to students in an Introductory Statistics course at Cornell University. Questions requesting demographic information and expected final course grade were added. Responses were analyzed to investigate possible differences between sexes and racial/ethnic…

  16. Single-Sex Classes in Co-Educational Schools (United States)

    Wills, Robin; Kilpatrick, Sue; Hutton, Biddy


    This research investigated social and academic outcomes from single-sex classrooms in a Tasmanian coeducational government primary school. Interviews, observations and surveys formed the basis of the evidence. Teachers, parents and children reported positive benefits from the class organisation, but these differed according to gender. Staff…

  17. Attitude and Opinion of Parents about Sex Education of Adolescents and Its Contents in Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammad-Alizadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexuality is a factor that is influenced by and cultural norms and rules, and these rules and norms determine acceptable behaviors in any culture. Variations of cultures existing in the world produce considerable variety in sexual norms and extensive spectrum of values and beliefs in this regards. Methods: This descriptive study was done to determine the attitude of Kermaninan parents toward sex education for adolescents and their opinion about its contents of sex education for adolescents. The sample of study was 275 couples selected by cluster sampling method form 5 city regions. In this study, a research- made questionnaire was used for data collection after determining suitable validity and reliability. Data were analyzed by using central and tendency indexes, ANOVA, t. test and Post Hoc tests (Fisher, Tukey. Results: Findings showed that on comparing attitude of both parents, there was a significant difference only in two items (14, 16. Mean 42.57± 5/9 in husbands and 43/71± 9/56 in wives attitude score. In regard to the contents of sex education, the least important item, according to both men and women, with a slight significant diference atitued approximately 50% of the total score. This finding shows that parents have no positive attitude towards sex education for adolescents. Comparing men and women in regard to their opinions about the contents of sex education, showed no significant difference between them. In regard to the items emphasized by both parents as necessary items to the items emphasized by both parents as necessary items in sex education, the results were similar. Conclusion: Considering the results and importance of sexual health as claimed by WHO, we should promote knowledge and attitude of the community towards sex education.

  18. Inequality in Education, Number 18, October 1974: Sex Discrimination. (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Center for Law and Education.

    The contents of this volume published by the Center for Law and Education, which was established to protect and advance the legal interests of the poor through research and action on the legal implications of educational policies, include the following articles: "Introduction" and "Sexism in Public Education: Litigation…

  19. Promoting Sex Education Among Teenagers Through an Interactive Game: Reasons for Success and Implications. (United States)

    Chu, Samuel Kai Wah; Kwan, Alvin C M; Reynolds, Rebecca; Mellecker, Robin R; Tam, Frankie; Lee, Grace; Hong, Athena; Leung, Ching Yin


    A game application, "Making Smart Choices", was developed to fill the gap of limited easy-to-access resources available on sex education in Hong Kong and to disseminate correct knowledge and positive attitudes toward sex to teenagers using popular platforms such as tablets, Facebook, and the Web. Three versions of the game (iPAD, Facebook, and Web-based) were developed using HTML5. A theoretical framework that involved game-based learning and participatory design approach was used to design, develop, modify, and optimize the game for use with secondary school students (n=1176) 12-16 years of age. Pre- and post-test scores of students' safer sex knowledge were compared to test the effectiveness of the game. Students' survey and interviews were analyzed to assess participant feelings and attitudes toward the game. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test indicated that students' sex knowledge (n=788) improved with a medium effect size (0.477) after playing the game. Increases in positive attitudes toward sex and relationship and in awareness of making smart sexual choices were reported from student surveys and interviews. Students described the game as "interesting," "interactive," "informative," and "real-to-life." We advocate that the participatory design approach, which supports collaborative efforts of different stakeholders, is an effective framework for developing game-based learning tools for sex education. Our work provides preliminary findings that suggest game-based learning, preferably delivered through popular interactive platforms, can be effective in promoting sex education to teenagers.

  20. Protective effects of middle school comprehensive sex education with family involvement. (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M; Tracy, Allison J; Charmaraman, Linda; Ceder, Ineke; Erkut, Sumru


    School-based comprehensive sex education programs can reduce early adolescents' risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year comprehensive sex education program in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students and whether the family component of the intervention contributes to its effectiveness. This longitudinal evaluation followed a cohort of 6th graders (N = 2453) through the end of 8th grade. The design used random assignment of 24 schools into treatment and comparison conditions. The analysis included multiple-group logistic regression to assess differences in delay of sex between intervention and comparison groups. In schools where the program was taught, 16% fewer boys and 15% fewer girls had had sex by the end of 8th grade compared to boys and girls at comparison schools. Completing family activities during the first year of the program predicted delayed sexual debut for boys. Theory-based, developmentally appropriate, comprehensive sex education programs that include parent involvement can be effective in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students. Parent involvement is particularly important for boys, as family activities may encourage parents to talk with their sons earlier and more frequently. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  1. Sex Education: Teachers’ Perceptions in the City of Cuenca 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elisabeth Manzano-Pauta


    Full Text Available The recognition given to the role teachers play in sex education, and, at the same time, the apparent lack of knowledge in the area of sexuality, reflected in current literature, has led to the development of this research study. The objective of this study was to know the teachers’ perceptions about sex education in Cuenca. Specifically, we aimed to understand the assessment they have about their own knowledge, teacher satisfaction, modality, conceptions and teachers’ prejudices in classrooms. The mixed method used a sequential, explanatory strategy according to which, during the first stage, we explored the teachers’ perceptions about sex education, using a quantitative study with a survey applied to 180 teachers. Based on the results of the quantitative phase, in the second stage, the teachers’ opinions were collected through a qualitative inquiry by implementing focus group discussions. The results are shown in four categories: 1 assessment of knowledge; 2 teaching satisfaction; 3 modality; and 4 conceptions and prejudices about sex education. The categories of the study showed that sex education presents shortcomings especially related to the lack of training and knowledge in teachers, resulting in providing an education with the same prejudices that those teachers have about sexuality.

  2. Impact of maternal education, employment and family size on nutritional status of children. (United States)

    Iftikhar, Aisha; Bari, Attia; Bano, Iqbal; Masood, Qaisar


    To determine the impact of maternal education, employment, and family size on nutritional status of children. It was case control study conducted at OPD of children Hospital Lahore, from September 2015 to April 2017. Total 340 children (170 cases and 170 controls) with age range of six months to five years along with their mothers were included. Anthropometric measurements were plotted against WHO growth Charts. 170 wasted (Maternal education, employment and family size were compared between the cases and control. Confounding variables noted and dichotomized. Univariate analysis was carried out for factors under consideration i.e.; Maternal Education, employment and family size to study the association of each factor. Logistic regression analysis was applied to study the independent association. Maternal education had significant association with growth parameters; OR of 1.32 with confidence interval of (CI= 1.1 to 1.623). Employment status of mothers had OR of 1.132 with insignificant confidence interval of (CI=0.725 to 1.768). Family size had OR of one with insignificant confidence interval (CI=0.8 -1.21). Association remained same after applying bivariate logistic regression analysis. Maternal education has definite and significant effect on nutritional status of children. This is the key factor to be addressed for prevention or improvement of childhood malnutrition. For this it is imperative to launch sustainable programs at national and regional level to uplift women educational status to combat this ever increasing burden of malnutrition.

  3. Formal and informal sex education as determinants of premarital sexual behavior. (United States)

    Spanier, G B


    Controversies exist regarding the effects of sex education in the schools and informal sex education obtained from parents, peers, the mass media, and other sources. Similarly, there is widespread interest in premarital sexual behavior, especially its determinants. This study presents several issues reflecting these concerns which have been the subject of much speculation but which have received little attention by researchers. The purpose of this study was to investigate--through the use of respondent reports--how formal and informal sex education influences premarital sexual behavior during college. A national probability sample of 1177 college students was studied using face-to-face interviews with approximately equal numbers of males and females. These interviews, which were conducted for the Institute for Sex Research, included questions about past and present sexual involvement and other attitudinal, behavioral and background variables. Accordingly, the data about sexual behavior and attitudes are based on the interviewees' self-reports. Indices were created which operationalized independent variables such as familial sexual conservatism, exposure to eroticism, perceived sex knowledge, and sexual exposure and assault during childhood and adolescence. Individual items reflecting childhood sex play, masturbation, current religiosity, religiosity while growing up, social class, sources of sex information, sex education in classrooms, and high school and college dating were used. The dependent variable, premarital sociosexual involvement, is a composite measure of incidence and prevalence of premarital heterosexual involvement which meets Guttman scaling criteria. An Automatic Interaction Detector analysis was used to determine the relative influences of reported sexualization variables on premarital sexual behavior. Major findings can be summarized as follows: Heterosexual behavior progresses in stepwise fashion from elementary to advanced levels of involvement

  4. 34 CFR 106.61 - Sex as a bona-fide occupational qualification. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sex as a bona-fide occupational qualification. 106.61..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or...

  5. Single-Sex Education versus Coeducation in North Georgia Public Middle Schools (United States)

    Blake, Catherine Danielle


    The U.S. Department of Education is giving more liberties to school districts to offer single-sex schools in order to adequately serve the needs of students. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to test the theory of students' performances based on their educational environment by comparing students who received…

  6. The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954 (United States)

    Ewing, E. Thomas


    This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

  7. Women's and Men's Choice of Higher Education--What Explains the Persistent Sex Segregation in Norway? (United States)

    Storen, Liv Anne; Arnesen, Clara Ase


    This article examines sex segregation in higher education in Norway. The extent to which parent's education and occupation and students' grades have an impact on the choice of male and female dominated subjects is analysed. The analysis uses a framework which integrates socialisation and rational choice perspectives. The data used are from a…

  8. Sources and Timing of Sex Education: Relations with American Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behavior (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.


    The purpose of this study was to explore the comparative contribution that (a) multiple sources of education about sexual topics (peers, media, school and other adults), and (b) the timing of this sex education, make on American adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. Participants were 672 ethnically and economically diverse male and female,…

  9. Predictors of Access to Sex Education for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Public Schools (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Chesnut, Steven; Wei, Tianlan; Richman, David


    Data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (SRI International, 2002) were analyzed to identify variables that predicted whether individuals with intellectual disability (ID) received sex education in public schools across the United States. Results suggested that individuals receiving special education services without ID were only…

  10. The Evolution of Sex Education and Students' Sexual Knowledge in Finland in the 2000s (United States)

    Kontula, Osmo


    Finland is probably the only country where sex education has been studied in two consecutive national surveys, in 1996 and 2006 directed at biology and health education teachers, and in 2000 and 2006 by measuring adolescents' sexual knowledge. In 2006, responses from teachers and students could be combined for 339 schools. The most important…

  11. Schools, Sex Education, and Support for Sexual Minorities: Exploring Historic Marginalization and Future Potential (United States)

    McCarty-Caplan, David Milo


    School-based adolescent sexual health education in the United States has long served as a means of combating emotional and physical threats to the well-being of youth. However, this sex education has since its inception marginalized the experiences and health concerns of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students and contributed to school…

  12. Sex Education for my Preschooler (ages 3 to 5? Parents’ Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Cevallos-Neira


    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted as a result of the lack of studies, specifically on children’s sex education and the role that parents play in it, despite the major advances in the knowledge on sexuality and its education. The main goal of this qualitative study was to understand parents’ perceptions regarding sexual education of their children ages 3 to 5. Three focus group sessions were conducted with parents from Cuenca pre-schools. Data was processed using thematic analysis. The study indicated that parents have a limited conception of sexuality, completely based on the biological aspect. In addition, it was clear that parents have traditional ideas, conceptions and beliefs, which are reflected when educating their children. This research shows parents’ lack of knowledge about sexuality and sex education and gives important data about the need for parents and the school to work jointly to provide children with adequate and appropriate sex education, as well as the need for parent training in order to establish a common language between home and school and to avoid a double discourse in children’s education and to ensure a proper implementation of sex education programs at this level.

  13. Teaching sex education: are Scottish school nurses prepared for the challenge? (United States)

    McFadyen, J


    Teaching sex education to school pupils in Scotland continues to be a controversial issue. In reality there is lack of leadership, strategy and an uncoordinated approach to delivering this important topic. The school nurse is frequently identified as a suitable professional to lead the way because it is assumed that school nurses are well educated in the field of sexual and reproductive health. Nationally, little is known about the educational status of Scottish school nurses and there is no research evidence available from which generalisations can be made. This study aims to explore the educational preparation of school nurses that underpins teaching sex education to school pupils in Scotland. A cross-sectional descriptive study was completed in September 1998. The results confirmed that school nurses in Scotland are predominantly female and 70% of the respondents (n=117) were over the age of 40 years of age. No common basic nursing qualification was identified. The majority of school nurses in Scotland perceive sex education to be part of their role and 39% (n=65) testified that specific sexual health training had been undertaken. Many lack confidence in this area of practice and are aware of extensive educational needs in relation to teaching sexual health and reproductive health. Despite these findings 75% (n=126) were actively involved in teaching sex education to school pupils.

  14. 22 CFR 229.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 229.500 Section 229.500 Foreign... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall...

  15. 10 CFR 1042.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 1042.500 Section 1042.500 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of...

  16. 22 CFR 146.500 - Employment. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 146.500 Section 146.500 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the...

  17. Sex differences in child and adolescent mortality by parental education in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissler, Mika; Rahkonen, Ossi; Mortensen, Laust Hvas


    ¿470). Data on the highest level of education in 2000 were obtained from national education registers, and data on mortality and causes of death were received from the national cause-of-death registers until the end of follow-up (20 years or 2003). Results Boys had a higher child and adolescent......Background Socioeconomic position inequalities in infant mortality are well known, but there is less information on how child mortality is socially patterned by sex and age. Objective To assess maternal and paternal socioeconomic inequalities in mortality by sex, whether these differences vary...... mortality than girls. The children of mothers and fathers who had had the shortest education time had the highest mortality for both sexes and for all ages and countries. The differences between the groups with longer than basic education were smaller, particularly among older children and girls...

  18. Education, employment, absenteeism, and work disability in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Ekblom-Kullberg, S; Kautiainen, H; Alha, P; Leirisalo-Repo, M; Julkunen, H


    To study education, employment, absenteeism, and work disability (WD) in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared to population controls. The study included 181 women of working age with SLE (mean age 44.0 years, disease duration 12.7 years) and 549 female population controls matched for age living in the same metropolitan area of Helsinki. Data regarding education, employment, absenteeism, and WD in patients and controls were obtained by questionnaire and personal interview. Basic education, vocational, or academic degrees and occupational categories in patients with SLE were similar to those in controls. In total, 62% of the patients were employed, compared to 77% of the controls (p Absenteeism and work disability are, however, 2-3 times more common than in controls. Less than half of the patients were on permanent disability pension due to SLE 20 years after diagnosis of the disease.

  19. Maternal education preferences moderate the effects of mandatory employment and education programs on child positive and problem behaviors. (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu


    Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8-10 years, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported child behavior problems and positive behavior. Children whose mothers were assigned to the education program were rated by teachers to have less externalizing behavior and more positive behavior than children whose mothers were assigned to the employment program but only when mothers had strong preferences for education. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. The peculiarities' study of higher education applicants' employment in pharmaceutical specialties of full-time training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kotvitska


    Full Text Available Employment of applicants of pharmaceutical higher education has both positive and negative impact on the quality of educational services provided by institutions, especially in terms of knowledge and skills acquired by student. Objective is to study peculiarities of higher education employment, full-time training, and features driving them to conclude labor agreements. Materials and methods. During the study, we used juridical and comparative legal methods of analysis. Results. The study has defined the following features of the employment of applicants of higher education in the health care institutions, pharmaceutical enterprises and organizations. The current legislation provides the applicants of higher education enrolled in HEIs for full-time training with a right to make a free choice of the field of study, profession, type of occupation and work. The relationship developed between an applicant and higher education institutions are not to be regarded as an employment relationship. The working under the items of labor agreement for person who combine it with the full-time education is not a part or combination or sharing, and is considered the main place of job. Thus, it stipulates maintenance of records book of the employed worker according to the general procedure. An applicant of higher education has discretion to choose working hours (full- or part-time working day, full- or part-time working week with taking into consideration the HEIs schedule and only in the free time. When full-time operating in frameworks of collective agreement at enterprise, institution, or organization, having accounted peculiarities of operation, non-standardized working day for some positions can be set. The current legislation stipulates possibility of employment for persons without higher pharmaceutical education to the health care institutions on the clearly defined positions. Conclusions.The country authority has created and is providing favorable

  1. Marketing health educators to employers: survey findings, interpretations, and considerations for the profession. (United States)

    Gambescia, Stephen F; Cottrell, Randall R; Capwell, Ellen; Auld, M Elaine; Mullen Conley, Kathleen; Lysoby, Linda; Goldsmith, Malcolm; Smith, Becky


    In July 2007, a market research report was produced by Hezel Associates on behalf of five sponsoring health education profession member organizations and the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing. The purpose of the survey was to learn about current or potential employers' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward health educators and the health education profession and their future hiring practices. This article presents the background leading up to the production of this report, the major findings of the survey of employers, recommendations from the market research group regarding core messages, and implications for the profession having discovered for the first time information about employers' understanding of professionally prepared health educators. The article discusses the umbrella and key messages that may be incorporated into a marketing plan and other recommendations by the firm that should assist health educators in marketing the profession. Furthermore, this article presents reactions by leaders in this field to these messages and recommendations and concludes with next steps in this project and a call for the overall need to market the profession of health education.

  2. Education and employment outcomes of young adults with a history of developmental language disorder (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew


    Abstract Background Developmental language disorder (DLD) presents a considerable barrier for young adults to engage in further education and training. Early studies with young adults with DLD revealed poor educational achievement and lack of opportunities to progress in education. More recent studies have provided more positive findings. Relatively sparse data exist, however, on current cohorts and the factors that predict outcomes. Aims To examine educational and employment outcomes in young adulthood in a sample of people with histories of DLD compared with an age‐matched peer group without DLD. We ask: How do educational pathways and early jobs compare between those with and without DLD? Are young adults with DLD receiving similar levels of income as their peers? To what extent are language and literacy abilities associated with outcomes? Methods & Procedures Participants included 84 individuals with DLD (67% males) and 88 age‐matched peers without DLD (56% males). Participants were on average 24 years of age. They completed a battery of psycholinguistic, literacy and nonverbal skills assessments. Data were also collected on educational qualifications, current educational status, extent of educational support received, employment status, history and support, as well as current income. Outcomes & Results Those with DLD obtained lower academic and vocational qualifications. Higher educational/vocational qualifications were associated with better language, better reading and higher performance IQ (PIQ). There were few differences between the two groups in terms of engagement with education, but the mean age at leaving education was significantly earlier in the participants with DLD. Substantially more participants with DLD reported receiving support or dispensation from their educational institution. There was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of young people currently employed, though a higher proportion of the age‐matched peers was

  3. Education and employment outcomes of young adults with a history of developmental language disorder. (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew


    Developmental language disorder (DLD) presents a considerable barrier for young adults to engage in further education and training. Early studies with young adults with DLD revealed poor educational achievement and lack of opportunities to progress in education. More recent studies have provided more positive findings. Relatively sparse data exist, however, on current cohorts and the factors that predict outcomes. To examine educational and employment outcomes in young adulthood in a sample of people with histories of DLD compared with an age-matched peer group without DLD. We ask: How do educational pathways and early jobs compare between those with and without DLD? Are young adults with DLD receiving similar levels of income as their peers? To what extent are language and literacy abilities associated with outcomes? Participants included 84 individuals with DLD (67% males) and 88 age-matched peers without DLD (56% males). Participants were on average 24 years of age. They completed a battery of psycholinguistic, literacy and nonverbal skills assessments. Data were also collected on educational qualifications, current educational status, extent of educational support received, employment status, history and support, as well as current income. Those with DLD obtained lower academic and vocational qualifications. Higher educational/vocational qualifications were associated with better language, better reading and higher performance IQ (PIQ). There were few differences between the two groups in terms of engagement with education, but the mean age at leaving education was significantly earlier in the participants with DLD. Substantially more participants with DLD reported receiving support or dispensation from their educational institution. There was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of young people currently employed, though a higher proportion of the age-matched peers was in work full time. Participants with DLD were much more likely to be

  4. Teachers' Views on Co-Education: Co-Education or Single-Sex Education? (United States)

    Sari, Mediha


    The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' views on co-education. The study, which adopted a descriptive screening model, involved 240 teachers (142 females and 84 males) working in four primary schools and four secondary schools located in the central towns of Adana. Data were collected using Views on Co-education Scale (VCS). Analysis…

  5. Factors associated with the content of sex education in U.S. public secondary schools. (United States)

    Landry, David J; Darroch, Jacqueline E; Singh, Susheela; Higgins, Jenny


    While sex education is almost universal in U.S. schools, its content varies considerably. Topics such as abstinence, and basic information on HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are commonly taught; birth control and how to access STD and contraceptive services are taught less often. Factors potentially associated with these variations need to be examined. Data on 1,657 respondents to a 1999 national survey of teachers providing sex education in grades 7-12 were assessed for variation in topics covered. Logistic regression was used to ascertain factors associated with instruction on selected topics. The content of sex education varied by region and by instructors' approach to teaching about abstinence and contraception. For example, teaching abstinence as the only means of pregnancy and STD prevention was more common in the South than in the Northeast (30% vs. 17%). Emphasizing the ineffectiveness of contraceptives was less common in the Northeast (17%) than in other regions (27-32%). Instructors teaching that methods are ineffective and presenting abstinence as teenagers' only option had significantly reduced odds of teaching various skills and topics (odds ratios, 0.1-0.5). Instructors' approach to teaching about methods is a very powerful indicator of the content of sex education. Given the well-documented relationship between what teenagers learn about safer sexual behavior and their use of methods when they initiate sexual activity, sex education in all U.S. high schools should include accurate information about condoms and other contraceptives.

  6. XXI Century Education and its contribution to the employment rate of romanian labour market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerb Diana Elena


    Full Text Available The reason for choosing this theme is that the employers show a lack of interest in the workforce that has benefited from the educational process, a lack of interest which begun to intensify lately, educational process meaning formal education, namely that obtained in universities. The development in the modern society in terms of information and communication technology makes employers modify their preferences. If up to the intensification of the financial crisis the university graduates were the ones being employed, now less educated people are sought. The central idea of the article is that young people show a skeptical attitude on further education after high school, and the fact that they do not want to surpass themselves and not focus on lifelong learning, poses a threat to society, an education that does not end once the individual no longer has the status of pupil or student. To support the argument over the scientific approach, we’re using linear regression, experiments, and opinion surveys using a questionnaire. The importance of this scientific endeavor is that it is a warning for the entrepreneurs, emphasizing the fact that labor resources with limited knowledge cannot perform tasks at the work place, practically do not perform well, and this is reflected in the company's financial data.

  7. Vocational education and employment over the life course using a new measure of occupational specificity. (United States)

    Forster, Andrea G; Bol, Thijs


    Vocational education is seen as beneficial for the labor market allocation of young people. However, recent studies point to disadvantages later in the life course, where the specific skills that are obtained from vocational education decrease employability. This paper re-evaluates this hypothesis for the Netherlands with an improved measure for the vocational specificity of educational programs, utilizing both vertical (level) and horizontal (field) information on education. More specifically, we use a gradual measure for the linkage strength between education and occupation to predict employment over the life course. Using data from the national Dutch labor force surveys, we show that there is considerable heterogeneity in occupational specificity within the categories of vocational and general educational programs that is masked when using a dichotomous classification of general versus vocational education. In the life course analyses we find that the large early benefits of having vocational education disappear later in the career and turn into a small disadvantage before retirement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Problems in education, employment and social integration of hard of hearing artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić-Šestić Marina


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the problems in education (primary, secondary and undergraduate academic studies, employment and social integration of hard of hearing artists based on a multiple case study. The sample consisted of 4 examinees of both genders, aged between 29 and 54, from the field of visual arts (a painter, a sculptor, a graphic designer, and an interior designer. The structured interview consisted of 30 questions testing three areas: the first area involved family, primary and secondary education; the second area was about the length of studying and socio-emotional problems of the examinees; the third area dealt with problems in employment and job satisfaction of our examinees. Research results indicate the existence of several problems which more or less reflect the success in education, employment and social integration of hard of hearing artists. One of the problems which can influence the development of language abilities, socioemotional maturity, and better educational achievement of hard of hearing artists in general, is prolongation in diagnosing hearing impairments, amplification and auditory rehabilitation. Furthermore, parents of hard of hearing artists have difficulties in adjusting to their children's hearing impairments and ignore the language and culture of the Deaf, i.e. they tend to identify their children with typically developing population. Another problem are negative attitudes of teachers/professors/employers and typically developing peers/ colleagues towards the inclusion of hard of hearing people into the regular education/employment system. Apart from that, unmodified instruction, course books, information, school and working area further complicate the acquisition of knowledge, information, and the progress of hard of hearing people in education and profession.

  9. 40 CFR 5.550 - Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sex as a bona fide occupational... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.550 Sex as a...

  10. 45 CFR 86.61 - Sex as a bona-fide occupational qualification. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sex as a bona-fide occupational qualification. 86... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.61 Sex as a...

  11. 6 CFR 17.550 - Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification. (United States)


    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.550 Sex as a...

  12. 15 CFR 8a.550 - Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sex as a bona fide occupational... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.550 Sex as a...

  13. 49 CFR 25.550 - Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification. 25... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.550 Sex as a...

  14. 28 CFR 54.550 - Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sex as a bona fide occupational... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.550 Sex as a...

  15. 31 CFR 28.550 - Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sex as a bona fide occupational... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 28.550 Sex as a...

  16. 43 CFR 41.550 - Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sex as a bona fide occupational... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.550 Sex as a...

  17. Increases in knowledge following a course of sex education for people with intellectual disabilities. (United States)

    Lindsay, W R; Bellshaw, E; Culross, G; Staines, C; Michie, A


    Although sex education programmes are thought to be useful in teaching people with intellectual disabilities, there is very little evidence that the material taught is retained by clients. This paper reports data which has been collected routinely on a sex education programme. Forty-six subjects were assessed on their level of sexual knowledge in seven areas: parts of the body, masturbation, male puberty, female puberty, intercourse, pregnancy and childbirth, and birth control and venereal disease. They were retested after a 9-month sex education programme and tested again at a 3-month follow-up. A control group of 14 subjects were tested on two occasions, 4 months apart. There were significant and substantial increases in sexual knowledge on all areas for the experimental group. The control group showed no corresponding increases in knowledge.

  18. An Analysis of Discourse Present in Sex Education Literature from Palm Beach County Middle Schools: Are Kids Really Learning? (United States)

    De Avila, Elizabeth

    Issues of sexual assault have become pervasive across all social strata in American society. Citizens need to start having conversations regarding these issues. To combat the issue of sexual assault, children need to be educated regarding the multifaceted aspects of sex through sex education in order to understand consent and resources they have available to them. Utilizing grounded theory methodology, this thesis analyzes sex education literature provided to Palm Beach County Middle School students. Using Burke's theory of terministic screens and Foucauldian theories of power and control; an understanding of the ideological underpinnings of this literature and discourse were acquired. After analysis, suggestions for disclosure and sex education programs are provided.

  19. Family homework and school-based sex education: delaying early adolescents' sexual behavior. (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru


    Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent adolescents from completing these family homework activities. This mixed methods study included 6th- and 7th-grade survey responses from 706 students at 11 middle school schools receiving a sex education intervention, as well as interviews from a subset of 33, 7th-grade students from the larger sample. Adolescents who completed more family homework assignments were less likely to have vaginal intercourse in 7th grade than those who completed fewer assignments, after controlling for self-reports of having had vaginal intercourse in 6th grade and demographic variables. Participants' explanations for not completing assignments included personal, curriculum, and family-based reasons. Family homework activities designed to increase family communication about sexual issues can delay sex among early adolescents and contribute to school-based sex education programs. Successful sex education programs must identify and address barriers to family homework completion. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  20. Young People Not in Employment, Education or Training (NEET): An Overview in ETF Partner Countries (United States)

    Bardak, Ummuhan; Maseda, Martiño Rubal; Rosso, Francesca


    This report provides the first analysis of young people who are not in employment, education or training (NEET) in the partner countries of the European Training Foundation (ETF), on the basis of available data, and includes a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of using this analysis for policy interventions. Bearing in mind the…

  1. Pre-Employment Laboratory Education. Home Furnishings/Interior Design Guidebook. (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This guidebook is designed for use in teaching students enrolled in pre-employment laboratory education (PELE) home furnishing/interior design programs. The first of two major sections includes an overview for teachers on planning, conducting, and evaluating a home furnishings/interior design program. Specific topics discussed in section 1 include…

  2. Enhancing Student Employability through Ethics-Based Outreach Activities and Open Educational Resources (United States)

    Lewis, David I.


    This paper reports on how science communication final year undergraduate research projects and educational internships can be utilised to provide opportunities for students to develop and utilise key employability skills. In the current difficult economic climate, the report "Working towards your future: Making the most of your time in higher…

  3. The Impact of Adolescent Stuttering on Educational and Employment Outcomes: Evidence from a Birth Cohort Study (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee


    Purpose: In interview and survey studies, people who stutter report the belief that stuttering has had a negative impact on their own education and employment. This population study sought objective evidence of such disadvantage for people who stutter as a group, compared with people who do not stutter. Method: A secondary analysis of a British…

  4. Modernisation of Higher Education in Europe 2014: Access, Retention and Employability. Eurydice Report (United States)

    Crosier, David; Horvath, Anna; Kerpanova, Viera; Kocanova, Daniela; Riiheläinen, Jari Matti


    The report sheds light on current national and institutional policies and practices aimed at increasing and widening access, reducing student dropout, and improving the employability of higher education graduates in Europe. The primary objective is to support Member States in their reform efforts by outlining and analysing national policies, and…

  5. The Short-Run Effects of the Croatian War on Education, Employment, and Earnings (United States)

    Kecmanovic, Milica


    The recent war in Croatia (1991-1995) has had numerous adverse affects on the country and the economy as a whole. This article investigates the effect that the war had on the educational, employment, and earnings trajectories of the 1971 birth cohort of men. This birth cohort was very likely to be drafted into the armed forces. Using data from the…

  6. Beyond Education and Employment: Exploring Youth Experiences of Their Communities, Place Attachment and Reasons for Migration (United States)

    Eacott, Chelsea; Sonn, Christopher C.


    The population in rural areas of Australia has been declining for many decades and it has become common practice to blame this decline on the migration of young people due to structural limitations (e.g. education and employment). This study explores factors associated with migration of youth from rural Victoria looking at their experience of…

  7. Employability: A Review of the Literature 2012 to 2016. A Report for the Higher Education Academy (United States)

    Artess, Jane; Hooley, Tristram; Mellors-Bourne, Robin


    This report for the Higher Education Academy, in partnership with the University of Derby and the Career Development Organisation, examined 187 pieces of research published between 2012 and 2016 that describe how the subject of employability has been addressed during this period. It draws out some of the key implications for higher education…

  8. Crisis of Youth or Youth in Crisis? Education, Employment and Legitimation Crisis (United States)

    Simmons, Robin; Smyth, John


    This paper uses the Habermasian concept of legitimation crisis to critique the relationship between post-compulsory education and training and the chronic levels of youth unemployment and under-employment which now characterise post-industrial Western economies, such as the UK. It draws on data from an ethnographic study of the lives of young…

  9. The Real Cost of Linking Homeless Young People to Employment, Education and Training (United States)

    Broadbent, Robyn


    This article explores the implementation of the Victorian Youth Employment, Education and Training Initiative (YEETI). This statewide initiative delivered brokerage funds to homeless young people through their housing advocates. One of the findings of the project was that the main barrier to young people achieving a stable continuum in their lives…

  10. Experiential Education Employment Opportunities in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria: Options and Informational Resources. (United States)

    Walker, William


    Discusses educational employment (EE) opportunities for students in German-speaking countries, and the implementation of EE programs by American colleges and universities. Also lists internship and EE opportunities administered by colleges, universities, and other organizations in the United States, Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. (six…

  11. Secondary Education, Training and Employment: The Qualitative Mismatch in Developing Countries (United States)

    Versluis, Jan


    The concepts and phenomena of unemployment, underemployment, and equivalent employment are discussed and illustrated by two case studies. The role and responsibility of the education system in dealing with the distribution of resources, are analyzed in terms of investment priorities, rate of return, and quality of output. (KM)

  12. Gender Inequity in Education and Employment in the Scheduled Castes and Tribes of India. (United States)

    Dunn, Dana


    Using ethnographic and statistical data, this paper presents a descriptive profile of scheduled caste and tribe women's status in Indian society. Findings indicate that relative to men, women in these groups have far more limited access to both educational and employment resources. (Contains 73 references.) (MDH)

  13. Illuminating the Experiences of African-American Nursing Faculty Seeking Employment in Higher Education in Nursing (United States)

    Loyd, Vanessa


    This study explored and described the experience of female African-American nursing faculty seeking employment in higher education in nursing. The lack of diversity in the nursing workforce has been attributed as a major underlying cause of disparity in healthcare in the United States. The importance of increasing the number of minority nursing…

  14. Development of Self-Belief for Employability in Higher Education: Ability, Efficacy and Control in Context (United States)

    Turner, Nancy K.


    Self-belief is argued here to be a key aspect of employability development that has been largely under conceptualisation in terms of what the construct may mean and how it may be developed through higher education (HE) study. This paper proposes three fundamental beliefs that need to be fostered in order to develop student self-belief: (1) that…

  15. The Impact of Employer-Sponsored Educational Assistance Benefits on Community College Student Outcomes (United States)

    Tran, Henry; Smith, Douglas


    Studies of community college finance often focus on revenue sources from the state and local government, private foundations, and tuition. While these resources are important, an often-neglected source of revenue is employer-sponsored educational assistance benefits for students. Given the dearth of literature on the benefits of this funding…

  16. Predicting Postsecondary Education and Employment Outcomes Using Results from the Transition Assessment and Goal Generator (United States)

    Burnes, Jennifer J.; Martin, James E.; Terry, Robert; McConnell, Amber E.; Hennessey, Maeghan N.


    We conducted an exploratory study to investigate the relation between nonacademic behavior constructs measured by the "Transition Assessment and Goal Generator" (TAGG) and postsecondary education and employment outcomes for 297 high school leavers who completed the TAGG during their high school years. Four of eight TAGG constructs…

  17. Returns on Vocational Education over the Life Cycle: Between Immediate Labour Market Preparation and Lifelong Employability (United States)

    Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Nicaise, Ides


    An important issue in the design of secondary-level education is the balance between conveying general and occupation-specific (vocational) skills. On the one hand, vocationally oriented programmes, providing occupation-specific skills with immediate labour market relevance, have repeatedly been shown to secure safe pathways into employment. On…

  18. Business Undergraduates' Perceptions of Their Capabilities in Employability Skills: Implications for Industry and Higher Education (United States)

    Jackson, Denise


    In response to the continuing disparity between industry expectations and higher education provision, this study examines the self-assessed capabilities of 1,024 business undergraduates in employability skills typically considered important by industry in developed economies. The findings indicate relative perceived strengths in "social…

  19. Women and higher education in Iran: What are the implications for employment and the ``marriage market''? (United States)

    Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.; Moghadam, Valentine M.


    In contemporary Iran, women with higher education face both gender discrimination and an unfavourable economic system, one that is not conducive to employment-generation for women. This paper provides an analysis of women's access to higher education in Iran, which has varied over the last 30 years, and their continuously limited participation in the job market. Based on qualitative field research, this paper includes the voices of individual women, discussing their experience of higher education and factors they think are contributing to their limited choice of employment. The paper suggests that while the recent trend in negotiating mehrieh (a nuptial gift which is payable by the groom to the bride) has been a strategy employed by Iranian women to overcome some of the discriminatory laws they are subject to, this trend cannot actually be explained by the fact that women's employment opportunities are limited. The paper concludes by asserting that limited labour force participation for educated women is a consequence of both political economy and gender ideology.

  20. On the Determinants of Employment-Related Organised Education and Informal Learning (United States)

    Nilsson, Staffan; Rubenson, Kjell


    This paper analyses the distribution of employment-related organised education and informal learning in the Canadian workforce. The paper draws on a large-scale survey, the Changing Nature of Work and Lifelong Learning (WALL), which was based on structured and standardised telephone interviews with a representative sample of 5783 Canadian members…

  1. Employer Learning and the Signaling Value of Education. National Longitudinal Surveys Discussion Paper. (United States)

    Altonji, Joseph G.; Pierret, Charles R.

    A statistical analysis was performed to test the hypothesis that, if profit-maximizing firms have limited information about the general productivity of new workers, they may choose to use easily observable characteristics such as years of education to discriminate statistically among workers. Information about employer learning was obtained by…

  2. The Power of Career- and Employer-Focused Training and Education. Looking Forward (United States)

    MDRC, 2017


    Many adults--particularly those with just a high school education--struggle to get and keep jobs that pay enough to support their families and permit upward mobility. At the same time, some employers report difficulty finding people with the right skills to meet their needs. Programs that target in-demand industries or sectors and heavily involve…

  3. Women's Declining Employment with Access to Higher Education: Issues and Challenges (United States)

    Sangar, Sunita


    Access to higher education opened up avenues for more women workforce in decent employment contributing to the national economy. Government policies/schemes played a significant role in improving this significant indicator of women empowerment. This access also had an impact on their enrolment and choice of subjects but was accompanied by several…

  4. Profile of currently employed European Food Scientists and Technologists: Education, experience and skills

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    Katherine Flynn


    Full Text Available The food & drink (F&D sector in Europe ranks low in innovation and the European F&D industry has been losing importance in the global market. The food professionals, i.e., food scientists and technologists (FSTs, may not be meeting the varied demands of the sector. Here, we identify education, experience and skills of current FSTs and compare  geographic regions and employment areas. Between 2009 and 2012, 287 questionnaires representing over 4000 FSTs were collected from employers in 16 countries. Analyses showed that more than 80% of FSTs have a university degree; but only in Industry in the Central European region are most degrees in food science/technology. More than half of FSTs, and almost 60% in the South, have less than 10 years’ experience. The most common FST job title is Quality Manager, but with several variations based on region and employment area. Among skills, the most common is Communicating; found in over 90% of FSTs in all regions and employment areas. Food Safety is the most common of the food sector-specific skills, present in more than 75% of FSTs, yet there are differences in food sector skills based on employment area. Overall, these data suggest similarities among currently employed food professionals throughout Europe; they are young and highly educated, but also differences, especially in their food sector-specific skills. An understanding of the current FST should contribute to the improvement of FST training and thus benefit the European food sector.

  5. Male fertility in Greece: Trends and differentials by education level and employment status

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    Alexandra Tragaki


    Full Text Available Background: More than downplayed, the role of men in the demographic analysis of reproduction has been entirely neglected. However, male fertility can be an important issue for exploring how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics. Objective: This paper intends to study fertility variations over time, relying solely on data referring to father's socio-demographic characteristics; in particular, their age, education level, and employment status. Methods: We use a combination of Labor Force Survey and Demographic Statistics data on population and Vital Statistics on births to estimate male fertility indicators and fertility differentials by education level and employment status, for the period 1992-2011 in Greece. In addition, over-time developments in male TFR are separated into structural (education-specific and employment-specific distributions and behavioral (fertility, per se changes. Results: We find that the male fertility level is declining, the fertility pattern is moving into higher ages, and the reproduction period for men is getting shorter. From 1992 up to 2008, changes in male fertility were mostly driven by behavioral rather than compositional factors. However, the decline of male fertility over the period of economic recession (2008-2011 is largely attributed to the continuous decrease in the proportions of employed men. Conclusions: The study suggests that male fertility merits further exploration. In particular, years of economic downturn and countries where household living standards are mostly associated with male employment, a father's employability is likely to emerge as an increasingly important factor of fertility outcomes.

  6. Effect of employment planning with professional education on expectation and personal development

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    Suat Aşkın


    Full Text Available In recent years in Turkey, it has been observed that workforce education programs within the active workforce marketing policies implemented by the Turkish Labour Institution especially towards the disadvantaged groups such as the women, the long term unemployed, the youth with low skill levels in the workforce market are increasingly gaining importance by the support of European Union. In today’s world, one of the most important points to be considered is the high-quality education. For a quality education, it is necessary to understand very well the expectations and perceptions of trainees who receive training services. Thus, expectations would be met and employment planning related to the vocational training services received would be increased. The main objective of this study is to increase the employment rate of the trainees who have received vocational training services and to be able to analyse its effect on their personal developments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras


    Full Text Available The quality and the skills of human resources are important factors in the success of every organization wherever it act. Moreover this is really true in a very competitive market such as European Union. In the European Union the number of persons who are taking part in high education studies after the age of 25 years has seen an upward trend in recent years, increasing thus the share of employed graduates of tertiary education in total employment over 25 years. This increase is generated by the access to education forms adapted in terms of time and location of training. The appearance and development of these forms can be explained by the use of information technology (Internet access. Statistics show that in the EU, household access to the Internet and its frequency of use was also increasing, approximately 80% of all persons aged 16 to 74 years have ever used this information and communication tool.

  8. Skills Required by Agricultural Education Students of Colleges of Education for Employment in Compterized Office of Agribusiness Organizations (United States)

    Ugwuoke, Cajethan Uche; Onah, Benardine Ifeoma


    One of the major concerns of employers of labour in this information age is the recruitment of employees with requisite computerized office skills to fit into the various organization's jobs and positions. In Agricultural education, acquisition of these computerized office skills do not only depends on whether one is able to fulfill the paper…

  9. Promoting Educational Equity through School Libraries. Module 2: Sexism and Sex-Role Stereotyping in School Materials. (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Tyler, Karen Beyard

    The second learning module in a continuing education program for inservice school media specialists focuses on sex stereotyping and ways in which inaccurate ideas about sex differences are transmitted through instructional materials in exploring the following questions: (1) Why do school materials communicate sexist ideas and sex-role stereotypes?…

  10. Needs and preferences regarding sex education among Chinese college students: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Li, Ying; Cottrell, Randall R; Wagner, Donald I; Ban, Maosheng


    College students are more likely than other student populations to be sexually active. To improve sex education in China among this group, educators must know college students' needs and their preferences for receiving information on sexuality. In 2002, students at a large Chinese university completed surveys about their history of school-based sex education and their other sources of information on sexuality. The survey also explored students' preferences for topics to be included in a college-level sex education course, comfort level with receiving information on these topics and views of effective teaching strategies. Before college, 47% of respondents had received no school-based education on sexual behavior; however, all respondents had taken a class covering reproduction, typically beginning in middle school (78%). Reading material, radio, classroom lecture and parents were more popular sources of information among females than among males; friends, the Internet and personal sexual experience were more frequent sources for males than for females. Higher proportions of males than females favored including sex therapy and masturbation in a hypothetical course. In addition, males felt more comfortable than females discussing 11 of 20 subjects; the two genders indicated similar levels of comfort in talking about the other topics. Males and females differed on how best to convey information on sexuality, with females generally favoring private methods, such as reading. More comprehensive school-based sex education is needed for Chinese youth. When developing and implementing such programs, health educators should consider differences between males' and females' preferred ways for receiving information on sexuality.

  11. Sex differences in genetic and environmental influences on educational attainment and income. (United States)

    Orstavik, Ragnhild E; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Røysamb, Espen; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Tambs, Kristian; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted


    In many Western countries, women now reach educational levels comparable to men, although their income remains considerably lower. For the past decades, it has become increasingly clear that these measures of socio-economic status are influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. Less is known about the relationship between education and income, and sex differences. The aim of this study was to explore genetic and environmental factors influencing education and income in a large cohort of young Norwegian twins, with special emphasis on gender differences. National register data on educational level and income were obtained for 7,710 twins (aged 29-41 years). Bivariate Cholesky models were applied to estimate qualitative and quantitative gender differences in genetic and environmental influences, the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the correlation between education and income, and genetic correlations within and between sexes and phenotypes. The phenotypic correlation between educational level and income was 0.34 (0.32-0.39) for men and 0.45 (0.43-0.48) for women. An ACE model with both qualitative and quantitative sex differences fitted the data best. The genetic correlation between men and women (rg) was 0.66 (0.22-1.00) for educational attainment and 0.38 (0.01-0.75) for income, and between the two phenotypes 0.31 (0.08-0.52) for men and 0.72 (0.64-0.85) for women. Our results imply that, in relatively egalitarian societies with state-supported access to higher education and political awareness of gender equality, genetic factors may play an important role in explaining sex differences in the relationship between education and income.

  12. Evaluation outcomes of a sex education strategy in high schools of Pavia (Italy). (United States)

    Benni, Emanuela; Sacco, Sara; Bianchi, Leonardo; Carrara, Roberto; Zanini, Chiara; Comelli, Mario; Tenconi, Maria Teresa


    We aimed to provide process and effectiveness evaluations of a sex education intervention realized with interactive techniques in high schools of Pavia (Italy). Six public high schools, divided into 'treated' and 'control' units, voluntarily joined this mixed-methods study. Only second-year classes were enrolled: treated adolescents followed a sex education course, performed by trained 'near-peer educators' (undergraduate medical students) with interactive techniques. All adolescents compiled an anonymous effectiveness evaluation questionnaire at baseline (pre-test) and 3 months later (post-test). Sexual knowledge and reported behavioural changes were compared between the two groups through linear mixed-effects models. The process was assessed through a satisfaction questionnaire for treated students, monitoring cards for working group members and cards/diaries for educators. The final sample consisted of 547 treated and 355 control adolescents (mean age = 15.28 ± 0.61 years). Highly significant changes (p educators generally provided positive evaluations, although difficult communication was perceived. The intervention was effective in improving adolescents' sexual knowledge. The present work highlighted that in Italy sex education in adolescence is still neglected: this could encourage misinformation and health-risk behaviour. Young people perceive the need for a serious health-promoting action in which they could play an active role, spreading educational messages with organized interactive methods. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Sex Differences in Intergenerational Income Transmission and Educational Attainment: Testing the Trivers-Willard Hypothesis

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    Katharina E. Pink


    Full Text Available From an evolutionary point of view, sex differences in intergenerational transmission of income may be influenced by the Trivers-Willard (T-W effect: Low status parents should invest more in daughters, whereas high status parents are expected to invest more in sons. This bias in parental investment may result in status-dependent sex biased parental support for higher education and educational attainment and should therefore affect the level of intergenerational income transmission for the sons and daughters. We used the data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS to model the effect of parental financial investment on the child's income and educational attainment controlling for the number of siblings. The observed sex differences in intergenerational income transmission demonstrate that sons profited more from parental income and education in terms of their own income than daughters. Furthermore, we showed that fathers with a high socioeconomic index (SEI invest more in their sons' education in terms of completed years of education and financial support during college. In contrast daughters of low SEI fathers completed more years of education and received more financial support than sons of low SEI fathers. However, the pattern in intergenerational income transmission might be better explained as a product of sociological factors and reproductive trade-offs in later life rather than as a consequence of the T-W effect.

  14. A partnership-based model for embedding employability in urban planning education

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    Neale Blair


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a partnership-based model for embedding employability in urban planning education. The model is based on the author’s experiences of implementing an international project which supported the development of employability skills in urban and regional planning education in Malawi. Since independence, urban planners have typically trained outside the country, attending university in the UK and other Commonwealth countries. More recently, the paradigm has shifted towards in-country education delivered by academic staff cognisant with the opportunities and challenges of development in Malawi. There remains, though, a gap between graduate knowledge of the subject and the skills necessary to pursue a professional career in the sector. Although there is no consensus yet on the meaning of employability in the literature, lessons from the project indicate that academic–public–private collaboration helps incorporate in curriculum skills that employers anticipate. Applicability of these principles is however context dependent, particularly in the emerging economy context where institutional capacity may be less developed compared to elsewhere.

  15. A Teacher's Point of View on Family Life (Sex) Education (United States)

    Gawlinski, Judy R.


    As a Family and Consumer Science educator at Union City High School in Union City, Pennsylvania, I have heard and seen a great deal. I have been teaching for 24 years at this rural Pennsylvania Middle/High School where teen pregnancy has always been a problem. Teaching students abstinence as the only method of birth control has been a major…

  16. Short-Term and Long-Term Educational Mobility of Families: A Two-Sex Approach. (United States)

    Song, Xi; Mare, Robert D


    We use a multigenerational perspective to investigate how families reproduce and pass their educational advantages to succeeding generations. Unlike traditional mobility studies that have typically focused on one-sex influences from fathers to sons, we rely on a two-sex approach that accounts for interactions between males and females-the process in which males and females mate and have children with those of similar educational statuses and jointly determine the educational status attainment of their offspring. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we approach this issue from both a short-term and a long-term perspective. For the short term, grandparents' educational attainments have a direct association with grandchildren's education as well as an indirect association that is mediated by parents' education and demographic behaviors. For the long term, initial educational advantages of families may benefit as many as three subsequent generations, but such advantages are later offset by the lower fertility of highly educated persons. Yet, all families eventually achieve the same educational distribution of descendants because of intermarriages between families of high- and low-education origin.

  17. Parental employment, income, education and allergic disorders in children: a prebirth cohort study in Japan. (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Sasaki, S; Hirota, Y


    Epidemiological evidence on the relationship between socio-economic status and allergic disorders has been inconsistent. We examined the associations between maternal employment, maternal job type, household income, and paternal and maternal educational levels and the risk of allergic disorders in Japanese children aged 4.5 years. Subjects were 480 mother-child pairs. Definitions of wheeze and eczema symptoms were based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed asthma and atopic eczema were available. Compared with children whose mothers had received less than 13 years of education, those with mothers with ≥15 years of education had a significantly increased risk of wheeze and doctor-diagnosed asthma: the adjusted ORs were respectively 2.41 (95%CI 1.18-5.17) and 2.70 (95%CI 1.03-8.08). Fifteen years or more of paternal education was independently associated with an increased risk of eczema, but not of doctor-diagnosed atopic eczema (adjusted OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.07-3.42). Mother's employment, mother's job type and household income were not related to any of the outcomes. Higher maternal educational level may increase the risk of wheeze and asthma, while higher paternal educational level may increase the risk of eczema.

  18. Impacts of education level and employment status on healthrelated quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients

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    Selma Šabanagić-Hajrić


    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the impacts of education level and employment status on health-related quality of life (HRQoL in multiple sclerosis patients. Methods This study included 100 multiple sclerosis patients treated at the Department of Neurology, Clinical Center of the University of Sarajevo. Inclusion criteria were the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score between 1.0 and 6.5, age between 18 and 65 years, stable disease on enrollment. Quality of life (QoL was evaluated by the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire (MSQoL-54. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for comparisons. Linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate prediction value of educational level and employment status in predicting MSQOL-54 physical and mental composite scores. Results Full employment status had positive impact on physical health (54.85 vs. 37.90; p<0.001 and mental health (59.55 vs. 45.90; p<0.001 composite scores. Employment status retained its independent predictability for both physical (r2=0.105 and mental (r2=0.076 composite scores in linear regression analysis. Patients with college degree had slightly higher median value of physical (49.36 vs. 45.30 and mental health composite score (66.74 vs. 55.62 comparing to others, without statistically significant difference. Conclusion Employment proved to be an important factor in predicting quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. Higher education level may determine better QOL but without significant predictive value. Sustained employment and development of vocational rehabilitation programs for MS patients living in the country with high unemployment level is an important factor in improving both physical and mental health outcomes in MS patients.

  19. Separated by Sex: A Critical Look at Single-Sex Education for Girls (edited by Susan Morse) (United States)

    Ceraulo, Reviewed By Sandra C.


    As Cornelius Riordan states in his round-table paper, "The challenge of effective and equitable schooling in the next century is to overcome the resistance and recalcitrance of youth cultures in and out of school" (p 58). While this is admittedly not a new problem, it is more complex in its modern form and innovative ways to solve it are needed. In an old tradition, one such attempt has been single-sex schools, which have had particular success with the disadvantaged and white females in American society, with the notable involvement of Catholic religious communities. The report does not make clear whether their successes can be reproduced in some modification of the public school format. However, the AAUW report on single-sex schools sheds light on some of the characteristics that make true learning communities out of ordinary schools and on what it takes to reach disadvantaged girls. For these reasons, the AAUW report is good reading for educators at all levels.

  20. Abstinence-only education and teen pregnancy rates: why we need comprehensive sex education in the U.S.

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    Kathrin F Stanger-Hall

    Full Text Available The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005 from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48, we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future.

  1. Abstinence-Only Education and Teen Pregnancy Rates: Why We Need Comprehensive Sex Education in the U.S (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.; Hall, David W.


    The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005) from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48), we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future. PMID:22022362

  2. "Knowledge" in English Primary Schools' Decision-Making about Sex and Relationships Education (United States)

    Wilder, Rachel


    Objective: To assess what kinds of knowledge policymakers in a sample of English primary schools utilised to make decisions about their school's sex and relationships education policy. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policymakers at three primary schools in the southwest of England, and documentary analysis of the schools'…

  3. Experiences of Sex Education and Sexual Awareness in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Hannah, Laura A.; Stagg, Steven D.


    The research investigated feelings towards sex education and sexual awareness in young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data were generated from the sexual knowledge, experiences, feelings and needs questionnaire (McCabe et al. 1999), the sexual awareness questionnaire (Snell et al. 1991) and semi-structured interviews. Twenty typically…

  4. Impact Evaluation of FACTS & Feelings: A Home-Based Video Sex Education Curriculum. (United States)

    Miller, Brent C.; And Others


    Families (n=548) with seventh- or eighth-grade adolescents were randomly assigned to receive videotape sex education curriculum including videos with mailed newsletters, videos without newsletters, or neither (control group). Found no significant effect of the program on key outcome variables of teenagers' sexual intentions or behaviors.…

  5. Teenage Pregnancy and Sex and Relationship Education: Myths and (Mis)conceptions (United States)

    Vincent, Kerry


    This paper explores the role of sex and relationship education (SRE) in reducing teenage pregnancy rates. It critically examines some of the assumptions underlying the emphasis placed on SRE within the teenage pregnancy strategy ( SEU, 1999)--in particular, the view that ignorance of sexual matters plays a key part in teenage conception. An…

  6. A Survey of English Teenagers' Sexual Experience and Preferences for School-Based Sex Education (United States)

    Newby, Katie; Wallace, Louise M.; Dunn, Orla; Brown, Katherine E.


    Rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancy amongst the under-16s are causing increasing concern. There is limited evidence about the sexual behaviour and sex education preferences of this age group, especially of those from Black and minority ethnic groups. This study aimed to provide data on early heterosexual risk behaviour,…

  7. Looked-After Children's Views of Sex and Relationships Education and Sexual Health Services.


    Billings, Jenny R.; Hashem, Ferhana; Macvarish, Jan


    This document reports on the findings from a project exploring teenage looked-after children's views of sex and relationships education and sexual health services. Commissioned and funded by the Kent Teenage Pregnancy Partnership, this project formed part of a larger programme of study on teenage pregnancy that took place across Kent between 2004 and 2007.

  8. How Do National Newspapers Report on Sex and Relationship Education in England? (United States)

    Simey, Piers; Wellings, Kaye


    Issues relating to the sexual behaviour and sexual health of young people consistently capture newspaper headlines in the UK. The present paper provides a qualitative analysis of national newspaper articles reporting on sex and relationship education (SRE) within the context of teenage pregnancy. Overall, conservative newspapers were generally…

  9. The protective value of parental sex education: a clinic-based exploratory study of adolescent females. (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Hanson, Amy; Rager, Kristin


    This exploratory study compared the impact of sex education provided by parents to female adolescents against the same education provided in formal settings to female adolescents. Females, 16-24 years old, attending an adolescent medicine clinic in an urban area of the South were recruited prior to examination. Each patient completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Data from 110 respondents were analyzed to compare those indicating they had learned about each of four topics from parents to those not indicating learning about all four topics from a parent. The same process was repeated relative to learning about the four topics in formal educational settings. In controlled, multivariate, analyses, adolescents not communicating with parents on all four topics were nearly five times more likely to report having multiple sex partners in the past three months. Further, these adolescents were 3.5 times more likely to have low self-efficacy for condom negotiation, 2.7 times more likely to report ever using alcohol or drugs before sex, and about 70% less likely to have ever talked about HIV prevention with a partner before engaging in sex. Differences relative to learning about the four topics in formal settings were not found. Findings suggest that teen females (attending teen clinics) may experience a protective benefit based on communication with parents. This protective effect was not observed for education delivered in formal settings.

  10. "I Hope Someone Castrates You, You Perverted Bastard": Martin Cole's Sex Education Film, "Growing Up" (United States)

    Limond, David


    This paper concerns the response to the sex education film "Growing Up", made in 1971 by Dr Martin Cole, which used a combination of animation and live action to offer a frank and uncompromising account of sexual reproduction. As part of this, both male and female masturbation and an unsimulated act of male-female coitus featured in the…

  11. Outcomes of a systematically designed strategy for the implementation of sex education in Dutch secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiefferink, C.H.; Poelman, J.; Linthorst, M.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Wijngaarden, J.C.M. van; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.


    This study examines the effects of a systematically designed innovation strategy on teachers' implementation of a sex education curriculum and its related determinants. A quasi-experimental group design was used to assess the effectiveness of the innovation strategy. Teachers filled in

  12. The Effects of Children's Age and Sex on Acquiring Pro-Environmental Attitudes through Environmental Education (United States)

    Liefländer, Anne Kristin; Bogner, Franz Xaver


    Environmental education programs aiming to enhance children's environmental attitudes in a pro-environmental direction require background information, such as age and sex differences, to ensure appropriate design. We used the 2-MEV model with its domains "preservation" and "utilization" of nature to assess a four-day program at…

  13. Character Development in Business Education: A Comparison of Coeducational and Single-Sex Environments (United States)

    Davis, James H.; Ruhe, John; Lee, Monle; Rajadhyaksha, Ujvala


    This study questions the widely held assumption, particularly in the United States, that coeducation is best. Previous research supports the development of single-sex education for both female and male students. This study examines how the learning climate of the coeducation environment seems to affect the character development of female business…

  14. Sex-Typing of Occupations in the Israeli Education System: Students versus Teachers. (United States)

    Kulik, Liat


    Rating of the femininity/masculinity of 27 occupations was undertaken by four age groups in the Israeli education system: 14-year-olds (n=194); 17-year-olds (n=183); university students (n=89); and teachers (n=148). Results indicated that sex-related stereotypes of occupations continue to be maintained among youth and adults. (JOW)

  15. Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) Members' Engagement with Sex Education in Canadian High Schools (United States)

    Lapointe, Alicia


    This paper offers an examination of gay-straight alliance (GSA) members' engagement with sex education, sexual health, and prejudice and discrimination in Canadian public high schools. It explores how five students' (four straight and one gay-identifying) participation in GSAs served as a springboard for learning about and challenging stereotypes;…

  16. Family Life and Human Development (Sex Education): The Prince George's County Public Schools Experience. (United States)

    Schaffer, Michael J.


    The Prince George's County schools' sex education program for grades K-12 was developed and implemented in the late 1960s and has three focus areas: family life and interpersonal relationships; the physiological and personality changes during puberty; and advanced physiology and psychology of human sexual behavior. The program augments what the…

  17. Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality, Islam, and Problematics of Sex Education: A Call for Re-Examination (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Alireza


    This paper offers a critical examination of the problematics of childhood and adolescent sexuality and sex education in an Islamic context. By exploring conceptions of (pre-marital) sexuality, childhood, and maturity/adulthood, it is suggested that: (i) "childhood" and "sexuality" do not coexist harmoniously in Islamic…

  18. Cognitive Sex Differences in Reasoning Tasks: Evidence from Brazilian Samples of Educational Settings (United States)

    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Widaman, Keith F.; Rindermann, Heiner; Primi, Ricardo; Mansur-Alves, Marcela; Pena, Carla Couto


    Sex differences on the Attention Test (AC), the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and the Brazilian Cognitive Battery (BPR5), were investigated using four large samples (total N=6780), residing in the states of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. The majority of samples used, which were obtained from educational settings, could be considered a…

  19. Young Cypriots on Sex Education: Sources and Adequacy of Information Received on Sexuality Issues (United States)

    Lesta, Stalo; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Essen, Birgitta


    Introduction: In the absence of standardised sex education and because schools usually limit their teaching to the "health" aspects of sexuality, young people in Cyprus rely on their peers and the media for information on sexuality. This study examines the sources and adequacy of the information received by young people from various…

  20. Sex and Relationships Education in Schools: The Views and Experiences of Young People (United States)

    Selwyn, Neil; Powell, Eryl


    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate how young people are using school-based sources of sex and relationships education (SRE) to obtain information and advice. Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows how anonymous self-completion questionnaires were administered to young people aged between 12 and 19 years in three secondary…

  1. Learning about Sex in Later Life: Sources of Education and Older Australian Adults (United States)

    Fileborn, Bianca; Lyons, Anthony; Hinchliff, Sharron; Brown, Graham; Heywood, Wendy; Minichiello, Victor


    This paper examines the preferred sexuality education sources of older Australian adults in later life. Drawing on findings from qualitative interviews with 30 men and 23 women aged 60 years and older, we consider the sources that participants currently use, or would like to use, in seeking information about sex. Where relevant, we examine…

  2. Sex Education Targeting African Communities in the United Kingdom: Is It Fit for Purpose? (United States)

    Schmidt, E.; Olomo, F.; Corcoran, N.


    This study addresses the issue of the sexual needs of ethnic minority groups in the UK. Using focus group discussions with health service users and third-sector providers, it explores the perception of sex education by Black African communities living in a culturally diverse area in East London, focusing specifically on participants' understanding…

  3. The Power in Pleasure: Practical Implementation of Pleasure in Sex Education Classrooms (United States)

    Koepsel, Erica R.


    Pleasure is an important aspect of healthy sexual development. Moreover, public health researchers and feminist scholars suggest that pleasure-inclusive sex education is effective for reducing pregnancy and rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and may create a more inclusive classroom environment for underserved individuals.…

  4. Doug Kirby's Contribution to the Field of Sex Education (United States)

    Kantor, Leslie M.; Rolleri, Lori; Kolios, Katherine


    Doug Kirby transformed the field of sex education by conducting rigorous research that led to new, critical insights about ways to strengthen programmes, evaluation and policies related to sexual health throughout the world. Throughout his career, Kirby was meticulous in compiling evidence and translating findings into actionable recommendations…

  5. Family Homework and School-Based Sex Education: Delaying Early Adolescents' Sexual Behavior (United States)

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru


    Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent…

  6. Sex Education and Cultural Values: Experiences and Attitudes of Latina Immigrant Women (United States)

    Villar, Maria Elena; Concha, Maritza


    The paper aims to further explore the role that culture plays in the provision and assimilation of sex education among Latina immigrants in the USA. To accomplish this, researchers conducted focus groups and interviews with 30 women from Central and South America who have lived in the USA for at least five years. Participants were asked to reflect…

  7. A Multi-Disciplinary Inquiry of Secular and Christian Approaches to Sex Education (United States)

    Yu, Chong Ho; Lee, Hyun Seo


    Secular scholars have criticized Christian education and counseling on sex as restrictive, ineffective, and outdated. The authors of the current study explored both common non-Christian and Christian approaches to human sexuality with reference to overarching domains of religion, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Secular…

  8. Does Russia Need Sex Education? The Views of Stakeholders in Three Russian Regions (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Ruzanna; Schmidt, Elena; Wall, Martin; Garnett, Geoffrey; Atun, Rifat; Maksimova, Svetlana; Davidenko, Ludmila; Renton, Adrian


    Objective: To investigate the attitudes of the main stakeholders towards the introduction of sex education in schools in Russia. Design: Qualitative semi-structured interview study. Setting: Altai Krai, Volgograd Oblast, Moscow, Russian Federation. Participants: One hundred and fifty-three interviews with Intersectoral HIV/AIDS Committee members,…

  9. Effects of Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling on the Gender Gap in Educational Achievement (United States)

    Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John


    This study examined the effects of single-sex and coeducational schooling on the gender gap in educational achievement to age 25. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 individuals born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. After adjustment for a series of covariates…

  10. Reimagining Gender through Policy Development: The Case of a "Single-Sex" Educational Organisation (United States)

    Douthirt Cohen, Beth


    In 2005, a feminist educational organisation in the USA for young women, ages 14-21, adopted a policy in order to clarify their target constituency of girls and young women. The policy defined "girls and young women" not as a designation associated with fixed biological sex, but instead as a self-determined identity label creating an explicit…

  11. What Does "Empowerment" Mean in School-Based Sex and Relationships Education? (United States)

    Spencer, Grace; Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter


    Policy and practice on sex and relationships education (SRE) in England often has the stated objectives of delaying sexual activity, reducing sexually transmitted infections and lowering rates of teenage conception. Underlying these objectives is the desire to support young people in making "informed choices" and developing the skills…

  12. "What if you already know everything about sex?" Content analysis of questions from early adolescents in a middle school sex education program. (United States)

    Charmaraman, Linda; Lee, Alice J; Erkut, Sumru


    To assess sixth graders' knowledge and curiosity about sex-related topics that can guide the development of sexual health education and healthcare delivery. Sixth graders (n = 795) in eight ethnically diverse schools participating in an evaluation of a sex education curriculum submitted 859 anonymous questions that were content analyzed. The χ(2) analysis examined whether the themes varied by coed/single-sex environments or by school-level sexual risk. Sexual activity, female anatomy, reproduction, and puberty were the most frequently mentioned topics, whereas, questions on STIs, sexual violence, and drug/alcohol use were fewer. Questions that avoided sexual topics came from lower sexual-risk schools; students at higher-risk schools asked about sexual initiation, contraception, vaginal and anal sex, general health, and pain during sex. Single-sex classrooms elicited more direct and explicit questions about sex. The results are relevant to educators and healthcare providers who ask and answer questions from early adolescents regarding sexual health. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Action Research Project to Assess Middle School Educators' Professional Development Needs in Single-Sex Classrooms (United States)

    Simm, Lynnette Marie Gresham


    According to the National Association of Single-Sex Public Education (NASSPE, 2010), an increase of 540 public schools offering single-sex classrooms in the United States has occurred since 2001. Educators who understand the gender differences between boys and girls can inspire students to learn to the best of their ability; however, the problem…

  14. Impact of Sex Education Programs on Sexual Knowledge and Feelings of Men with a Mild Intellectual Disability. (United States)

    Garwood, Monique; McCabe, Marita P.


    After participating in 6 to 10 sex education sessions, six adolescent and adult men with mild mental retardation showed minimal increases in their knowledge of friendship, contraception, pregnancy, sexual interaction, and social skills. Following sex education, negative feelings developed about marriage, having children, and being present during…

  15. Sex Education Materials in The Netherlands and in England and Wales : a comparison of content, use and teaching practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, Jane; Knijn, Trudie


    Sex education in The Netherlands and in the UK [1] has attracted attention because of the huge differences between the teenage pregnancy rates. There are substantial similarities in the way in which sex education is structured in the two countries, and yet the approach to the subject is very

  16. Putting trained labour power to work: the dilemma of education and employment. (United States)

    Keyfitz, N


    Demographic factors and educational changes are producing, in many less developed countries, a "pushdown effect" in which recent graduates are forced to take jobs that would earlier have been filled by those with less education. In Indonesia, for example, 1990 senior high school graduates will have to take jobs that were filled by junior high school graduates in 1980 as a result of increases in the supply of educated manpower. While the increase in employment positions in Indonesia is under 5%/year, the number of graduates from junior high school, senior high school, and universities is exceeding this increase. Each year, there is an excess of 2.60 junior high school graduates and 3.83 senior high school graduates/1000 labor force in terms of availability of the types of jobs filled by people with these educational qualifications in 1980. The pushdown effect has further resulted in a fall in the educational differential of income. Between 1976-86, earnings for employees with less than a primary school education quintupled while those for employees with college degrees did not even triple. The presence of large numbers of disillusioned, overqualified workers in the labor force is a potential source of social unrest and there is a need for serious attention to the changing relationship of job and educational status. Possible solutions to this discrepancy include: expansion of the economy; restructuring of economic workers; reorientation of the educational system to enhance the productivity of graduates; raising the status of employment in agriculture and rural small industry; and acceptance by the labor force that the pushdown effect is an inevitable stage of the development process.

  17. Women's autonomy, education and employment in Oman and their influence on contraceptive use. (United States)

    Al Riyami, Asya; Afifi, Mustafa; Mabry, Ruth M


    Since 1970 political and economic changes have brought about great improvements in health and education in Oman, and since 1994 the government has provided free contraceptives to all married couples in primary health care centres. Despite rapid socio-economic development, the fertility rate was 4.2 in 2001. The aim of this study was to define baseline data on ever-married women's empowerment in Oman from a national study in 2000, analyse the correlates of women's empowerment and the effect of empowerment on unmet need for contraception. Two indicators of empowerment were used: women's involvement in decision-making and freedom of movement. Bivariate analysis was used to link these measures and their proxies, education and employment status, with use of a family planning method. Education was a key indicator of women's status. Unmet contraceptive need for women exposed to pregnancy was nearly 25%, but decreased significantly with educational level and paid employment. While empowered women were more likely to use contraception, women's education was a better predictor of "met need" than autonomy, as traditional factors and community influence remain strong. For nearly half the 1,830 women in the study, the husband decided whether contraception was used. Fewer than 1% were using contraception before their first child as women are expected to have a child within the first year of marriage.

  18. An Analysis of the Demographic, Educational, and Employment Characteristics of Participants in the Continuing Education Program of the Medical Library Association, Denver, Colorado, June 1968 * (United States)

    Rees, Alan M.; Rothenberg, Lesliebeth


    A survey was performed to elicit details about attendees of the continuing education program given in Denver at the 1968 MLA Annual Meeting. Factors considered included sex, age, geographic distribution, professional mobility, educational background, current jobs, and interest in further continuing education. PMID:5439905

  19. An analysis of the demographic, educational, and employment characteristics of participants in the continuing education program of the Medical Library Association, Denver, Colorado, June 1968. (United States)

    Rees, A M; Rothenberg, L


    A survey was performed to elicit details about attendees of the continuing education program given in Denver at the 1968 MLA Annual Meeting. Factors considered included sex, age, geographic distribution, professional mobility, educational background, current jobs, and interest in further continuing education.

  20. [Sex education as a cornerstone for a healthy teenage sexuality]. (United States)

    Montero V, Adela


    Sexuality is more than reproduction, it is an intrinsic part of each of us, is how we develop and relate with others and with the environment of the society to which we belong. Adolescence is a period with special vulnerability for the development of risky behaviors. In Chile, a progressive decrease in the age of sexual activity onset is observed, particularly in lower socioeconomic strata. The main consequences in sexual health are teenage pregnancies and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections such as HIV. The main strategy for the prevention of this risks is a thorough sexual education, that has to be timely, objective, based on scientific evidence, friendly and confidential.

  1. Education, employment, and independent living of young adults who are deaf and hard of hearing. (United States)

    Appelman, Karen I; Callahan, Judy Ottren; Mayer, Margaret H; Luetke, Barbara S; Stryker, Deborah S


    Little information is available on the education, employment, and independent living status of young deaf and hard of hearing adults who have transitioned from high school. The present article reports postsecondary outcomes of 46 young adults who had attended for at least 4 years a non-public agency school in the northwestern United States specializing in deaf education. School administrators had developed a specific philosophy and operationalized it in an academic and literacy-based curriculum incorporating a grammatically accurate signing system. The researchers found that most or all participants had finished high school, had earned a college degree, were employed, and were living independently. Findings are discussed in terms of the available literature and the study's contribution to a limited body of recent research on young postsecondary deaf and hard of hearing adults.

  2. The education and employment status of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. (United States)

    Marri, Sheetal R; Buchman, Alan L


    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has the propensity to affect patients who are in their late teens and early 20s, an age when most people decide on their educational and career directions. This review describes the effects that IBD has on the continuum of education and employment. Patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis attain a similar level of education as that of the general population. The quality of life of such patients in school, as measured by both patients' and teachers' perceptions, indicates that, despite the difficulties that students face in terms of missed school time and physical inconveniences, teachers are generally perceived by students to have favorable attitudes toward helping them. Even though earlier work in the area of employment has suggested that the occurrence of IBD is clustered among people in white-collar positions, recent data have suggested that certain environmental risks for IBD (i.e., sedentary or indoor jobs) may be associated with jobs classified as being white-collar, and therefore having a white-collar job may in itself not be a risk factor for the development of IBD. Patients with IBD have a higher rate of nonparticipation in the labor force, and the participation rate seems to maintain steady levels over time. A majority of patients with IBD continue in the same employment positions over a period of years. Patients with IBD, especially those who have undergone surgery, took more sick leave than their counterparts without IBD. A majority of patients with IBD favored the disclosure of their diagnosis to their employers and perceived little discrimination in the workplace. Furthermore, most employers were perceived by their employees with IBD as having fair attitudes toward the compensation provided for their employees with IBD.

  3. Social and Psychological Adjustment in Foster Care Alumni: Education and Employment


    Archakova T.O.


    The article analyses issues in social and psychological adjustment of young adults, grown up in foster families. The psychological and socio-pedagogical factors facilitating professional education, successful employment and financial independence are emphasized. The methods and results of several large simple design researches of adjustment in foster care alumni, conducted in USA, are described. Recommendations for services and specialists working with young adults leaving state care are prov...

  4. [Employment and education in the 2nd economic and social development plan of Togo]. (United States)

    Dovi-sodemekou, F B


    Togo is a developing country whose population is increasing at the rapid rate of 2.7%/year. Economic development is therefore a necessity to ensure at least an average standard of living. Plans of development include objectives of structural societal changes, including improvements in education and employment. This study analyzes the evolution of population activities. It identifies obstacles to the improvement of education and employment. The investigation examines the employment and education situation before adoption of the 2nd plan of Togo and predicts the probable evolution of the situation. Despite the priority accorded to agriculture, the 2nd plan appears to give greater importance to industry. The industrial and commercial sector has witnessed a 65.2% investment increase, whereas the rural sector had an investment increase of 11.8%. The 2nd plan, in view of its relation to the evolution of economic activities, took into account the demand for manual labor. In the private sector, industries should occupy an important position. The dualism of a modern and a traditional sector is considered a cause of underdevelopment. The modern sector should be developed in order to suppress the traditional sector and allow progress in society. As a result of this approach, agriculture is given a 2ndary role.

  5. Is Queer Sex Education in Ontario Finally Out of the Closet?

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    Cameron McKenzie


    Full Text Available In 2010, Ontario’s Ministry of Education introduced a revised Health and Physical Education (H&PE curriculum that promised to be a vital health promotion initiative. Yet, after a minority conservative backlash, the Ontario government withdrew the sexual health sections from the elementary school curriculum, reverting it back to its 1998 content. This study is a content analysis, informed by queer theory and institutional ethnography, of the current and proposed H&PE documents, with a focus on the sex education component. This research aims to examine i the specific differences between the new and old H&PE documents with respect to referencing and delivering sex education, and more specifically sex education on queer/trans* issues; and ii the potential social exclusion that the absence of queer/trans* curriculum content imposes on youth. The findings demonstrate that evidence-informed policy development cannot always overcome political power imbalances, such as those created by the socially constructed ideology of heteronormativity. As the Ontario government prepares to implement the reformed curriculum, this study provides insight into its controversial history and the complexities of policy development—insights that may extend beyond this moment.

  6. Masculinities and young men's sex education needs in Ireland: problematizing client-centred health promotion approaches. (United States)

    Hyde, Abbey; Howlett, Etaoine; Drennan, Jonathan; Brady, Dympna


    In recent decades, dominant discourses in health promotion have emphasized empowerment, client participation and the notion of people identifying and being facilitated to meet their own health needs. However, there has been little analysis of the concept of 'need' and the possibility, at least, that the fulfillment of some such self-defined needs are not in the interest of social justice and equality. In this article, we present an account of the sex education needs of secondary school pupils from their own perspectives, and problematize the concept of self-identified needs in health education. Twenty-nine focus group interviews were conducted with 226 secondary school pupils in Ireland, and data were subjected to a qualitative analysis. Findings suggested that young men tended to prioritize practical guidance that would provide them with the skills and confidence to take the lead in sexual encounters, and display competence in the act of penetrative sex. We argue that these self-defined sex education needs emanate from a culture of traditional masculinity where, for a male, one's place in the pecking order is derived from one's capacity to conquer, lead and display mastery with regard to sex. In the discussion, we attempt to unpack the notion of clients identifying their own needs and the concept of empowerment as it relates to our data, in the context of gender-based structural inequalities.

  7. Differences in caregiver daily impression by sex, education and career length. (United States)

    Ae, Ryusuke; Kojo, Takao; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Okayama, Masanobu; Kuwabara, Masanari; Makino, Nobuko; Aoyama, Yasuko; Sano, Takashi; Nakamura, Yosikazu


    We previously proposed the concept of caregiver daily impression (CDI) as a practical tool for emergency triage. We herein assessed how CDI varies by sex, education and career length by determining CDI scores as quantitative outcome measures. We carried out a cross-sectional study using a self-reported questionnaire among caregivers in 20 long-term care facilities in Hyogo, Japan. A total of 10 CDI variables measured participants' previous experience of emergency transfers using a scale from 0-10. The resulting total was defined as the CDI score. We hypothetically considered that higher scores indicated greater caregiver focus. The CDI scores were compared by sex, education and career length using analysis of covariance. A total of 601 personal caregivers were evaluated (mean age 36.7 years; 36% men). The mean career length was 6.9 years, with the following groupings: 1-4 years (38%), 5-9 years (37%) and >10 years (24%). After adjustment for sex and education, the CDI scores for the variable, "poor eye contact," significantly differed between caregivers with ≥10 and Sex-related differences in CDI might also exist. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 17: 410-415. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. An exploratory study of Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality: Implications for sex education and prevention

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    Smerecnik Chris


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the results of an exploratory qualitative study on Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality in the Netherlands. Methods Data were gathered from an Internet forum on which 44 Muslim and 33 non-Muslim adolescents discussed sexuality as it relates to Islam. These discussions were subsequently analyzed for content using Nvivo 2.0. Results Our analysis revealed several issues that are relevant for the design of future sex education programs targeting Muslim youth. Apart from some expected outcomes regarding, for example, taboos on sexuality, sex outside marriage, abortion, homosexuality and conservative gender roles, our analyses showed that in cases of disputes 1 discussions were polarized, 2 opponents used the same Qur'anic passages to support their views, and 3 the authority of an Imam was questioned when his interpretation of Qur'anic passages was not in line with the views of participants. Conclusions Our findings show that current approaches to sex education among Muslim youth are likely to be unsuccessful given the rigidity of sexual norms in Muslim society. In addition, we also identified new barriers to sex education among Muslim youth (e.g. lack of respect for an Imam who opposes a youth's views on sexuality.

  9. Sex differences in child and adolescent mortality by parental education in the Nordic countries. (United States)

    Gissler, Mika; Rahkonen, Ossi; Mortensen, Laust; Arntzen, Annett; Cnattingius, Sven; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Hemminki, Elina


    Socioeconomic position inequalities in infant mortality are well known, but there is less information on how child mortality is socially patterned by sex and age. To assess maternal and paternal socioeconomic inequalities in mortality by sex, whether these differences vary by age and country, and how much of the sex differences can be explained by external causes of death. Data on all live-born children were received from national birth registries for 1981-2000 (Denmark: n=1,184,926; Norway: n=1,090,127; and Sweden n=1,961,911) and for 1987-2000 (Finland: n=841,470). Data on the highest level of education in 2000 were obtained from national education registers, and data on mortality and causes of death were received from the national cause-of-death registers until the end of follow-up (20 years or 2003). Boys had a higher child and adolescent mortality than girls. The children of mothers and fathers who had had the shortest education time had the highest mortality for both sexes and for all ages and countries. The differences between the groups with longer than basic education were smaller, particularly among older children and girls. The gradient in mortality was mostly similar for boys and girls. Among 1-19-year-olds, 32% of boys' deaths and 27% of girls' deaths were due to external causes. Boys' excess mortality was only partly explained by educational inequalities or by deaths from external causes. A more detailed analysis is needed to study whether the share of avoidable deaths is higher among children whose parents have had a shorter education time.

  10. The Use of Sexually Explicit Material in Clinical, Educational and Research Settings in the United Kingdom and Its Relation to the Development of Psychosexual Therapy and Sex Education (United States)

    Brewster, Marnie; Wylie, Kevan R.


    The present review describes the development and use of sexually explicit material in sex education within UK psychosexual therapy clinics, medical schools and also in state-maintained secondary schools with reference to interests that have shaped the provision of sex education since the early twentieth century. A short summary of published books…

  11. E-Commerce Topics for Business Education: Perceptions of Employers and Educators (United States)

    Gueldenzoph, Lisa E.


    E-commerce is a relatively new content area for business educators even though it includes a variety of business concepts such as marketing and desktop publishing. Whether developing a new course or integrating e-commerce concepts into existing courses, determining the topics that are important can be a challenge. This study sought to identify the…

  12. Taking account of what young women want from school sex education: two groups from Scotland and Uganda. (United States)

    Cook, Sinead


    This study seeks to explore what young women want from their school-based sex education. Qualitative methods were used to explore the perspectives of two groups of young women from Uganda and Scotland. Of particular importance to all the young women were: a diverse sex education curriculum appropriate to the ages of the students, being taught by an outside female facilitator, single-sex classes and access to a female teacher. Furthermore, they proposed that discussion between small groups of friends is very useful. The Scottish group said that having a young teacher, teaching about emotions and relationships and being guided through their own decision making is also important. The Ugandan group emphasized the importance of being taught by female family members and having written materials provided on sex education. The study showed that young women from different backgrounds have strong opinions about sex education, and are an important resource for policy makers.

  13. Effects of employment and education on preterm and full-term infant mortality in Korea. (United States)

    Ko, Y-J; Shin, S-H; Park, S M; Kim, H-S; Lee, J-Y; Kim, K H; Cho, B


    The infant mortality rate is a sensitive and commonly used indicator of the socio-economic status of a population. Generally, studies investigating the relationship between infant mortality and socio-economic status have focused on full-term infants in Western populations. This study examined the effects of education level and employment status on full-term and preterm infant mortality in Korea. Data were collected from the National Birth Registration Database and merged with data from the National Death Certification Database. Prospective cohort study. In total, 1,316,184 singleton births registered in Korea's National Birth Registration Database between January 2004 and December 2006 were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Paternal and maternal education levels were inversely related to infant mortality in preterm and full-term infants following multivariate adjusted logistic models. Parental employment status was not associated with infant mortality in full-term infants, but was associated with infant mortality in preterm infants, after adjusting for place of birth, gender, marital status, paternal age, maternal age and parity. Low paternal and maternal education levels were found to be associated with infant mortality in both full-term and preterm infants. Low parental employment status was found to be associated with infant mortality in preterm infants but not in full-term infants. In order to reduce inequalities in infant mortality, public health interventions should focus on providing equal access to education. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tetralogy of Fallot in men: quality of life, family, education, and employment. (United States)

    Bygstad, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Lia C V M; Pedersen, Thais A L; Hjortdal, Vibeke E


    Little is known about the quality of life, health, family, education, and employment status among adult men with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. A total of 68 men who underwent repair of tetralogy of Fallot between 1971 and 1991 were studied. Fifty-three patients answered the SF-36 health survey and additional questions regarding offspring, education, and employment status. The men with repaired tetralogy of Fallot were compared with 32 healthy men and 40 women who also underwent repair of tetralogy of Fallot in the same period. The patients scored lower than healthy men in the SF-36 categories physical functioning, general health, and physical component summary. There were no statistically significant differences in the scores from male and female patients except a lower score in bodily pain among women. Educational level for men operated for tetralogy of Fallot was similar to the general male population, whereas fewer were employed and more were retired, undergoing rehabilitation or receiving social benefits. The reproduction rate was lower compared with the general population (0.65 versus 1.02 children per man) but relatively higher than the rate among women with tetralogy of Fallot (0.88 versus 1.84 children per woman). The risk of having a child with congenital heart disease was 8.3%. Men operated for tetralogy of Fallot have good quality of life and educational status. They start a family, although their reproduction rate is two-thirds that of the general population. The risk of having a child with congenital heart disease is higher compared with the background population. The overall quality of life is similar for men and women operated for tetralogy of Fallot.


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    Rosaldo de Albuquerque Souza


    Full Text Available A large portion of the population consists of adolescents aged by 12 to 19 years. During this period of human life occur several behavioral factors involving sexuality that intrigues many researchers, teachers and parents and according to the Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCNs, sex education must be taught in schools as a crosscutting theme. The aim of this study was to investigate perceptions and attitudes towards sexual education among elementary school Indigenous teachers in a rural school in Dourados-MS. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire completed by individual teachers. The results show that teachers consider important to work with sex education in elementary schools involving different areas of knowledge and with the help of health professionals. Most teachers work or have worked this theme in his classes, and consider the students receptive and interested, however, some teachers have difficulty in approaching the subject. One of the difficulties encountered are related to the low acceptance of their parents, highlighting the need for guidance on the same theme. The Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais ensures that the sex education should begin in early school years.

  16. Growth of Korean preterm infants in a family-centered tradition during early infancy: the influence of health risks, maternal employment, and the sex of infants. (United States)

    Ahn, Youngmee; Sohn, Min; Lee, Sangmi


    The physical growth of mild preterm infants (maternal employment status, and the infant sex. There were four noteworthy findings on growth variation in Korean mild preterm infants during early infancy: (i) the secular trend of intrauterine growth; (ii) the cumulative adverse effects of four risk factors; (iii) the possible burden of maternal employment if insufficient support; and (iv) the possibility of the cultural favoritism to male infants regardless of the modern industrialized society. The study suggests that, in a modern society, while mild preterm infants could sustain typical fetal growth, the early postnatal growth may vary based on health risks and sociocultural circumstances related to child-bearing and -rearing practices surrounding them. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  17. Simulations Test Impact Of Education, Employment, And Income Improvements On Minority Patients With Mental Illness. (United States)

    Alegria, Margarita; Drake, Robert E; Kang, Hyeon-Ah; Metcalfe, Justin; Liu, Jingchen; DiMarzio, Karissa; Ali, Naomi


    Social determinants of health, such as poverty and minority background, severely disadvantage many people with mental disorders. A variety of innovative federal, state, and local programs have combined social services with mental health interventions. To explore the potential effects of such supports for addressing poverty and disadvantage on mental health outcomes, we simulated improvements in three social determinants-education, employment, and income. We used two large data sets: one from the National Institute of Mental Health that contained information about people with common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, and another from the Social Security Administration that contained information about people who were disabled due to severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Our simulations showed that increasing employment was significantly correlated with improvements in mental health outcomes, while increasing education and income produced weak or nonsignificant correlations. In general, minority groups as well as the majority group of non-Latino whites improved in the desired outcomes. We recommend that health policy leaders, state and federal agencies, and insurers provide evidence-based employment services as a standard treatment for people with mental disorders. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Employment and First Year Experience of Beginner Primary School Teachers at Private Educational Institutions

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    Turgay ÖNTAŞ


    Full Text Available In this study to demonstrate primary school teachers' employment process and their first year teaching in private educational organizations is aimed. The major employer of primary school teachers is public schools that are funded by state. There will be a gap between grade inflation and employment rate when all of the teacher candidates claim to be appointed to public schools. Hence private educational organizations provide alternative career opportunities for teacher candidates. Qualitative methods will be used in this study to display real evidence from the eyes of teachers and also principals. The data have been obtained through documents and interview techniques. After the data have been collected, descriptive analysis has been used. The findings of the study were given within the frame of themes and codes which were determined based on the problem statement. The first theme, career was presented in the context of choosing sector, recruitment and selecting process, professional development, leave the profession. The second theme, factors affecting first years' success was explained in the context of teaching factors, consistency and skills focus. The third theme was presented in a category of pressure, workload, complaining psychological and physical exhaustion, flexible working conditions.

  19. Coordinated analysis of age, sex, and education effects on change in MMSE scores. (United States)

    Piccinin, Andrea M; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Clouston, Sean; Reynolds, Chandra A; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Deary, Ian J; Deeg, Dorly J H; Johansson, Boo; Mackinnon, Andrew; Spiro, Avron; Starr, John M; Skoog, Ingmar; Hofer, Scott M


    We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ.

  20. 45 CFR 86.7 - Effect of employment opportunities. (United States)


    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 86.7 Effect of employment opportunities. The obligation to comply with this part is not obviated...

  1. 40 CFR 5.130 - Effect of employment opportunities. (United States)


    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 5.130 Effect of employment opportunities. The obligation to comply with these Title IX...

  2. Enabling Labour Market Entry for Adults through Non-Formal Education and Training for Employment in South Africa (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin


    Adult non-formal education and training (NFET) in South Africa was adopted in 1990 to address the problem of unemployment of non-educated and unskilled adults. Public and private NFET centres aim to meet the training needs of adults who were deprived of formal education that would foster access to opportunities for employment. The paper reports on…

  3. Credential Inflation and Employment in "Universal" Higher Education: Enrolment, Expansion and (In)Equity via Privatisation in Japan (United States)

    Kariya, Takehiko


    The emergence of a global knowledge-based economy has given rise to drastic changes in both higher education and employment. On one hand, governments in advanced societies have launched policies to expand higher education to compete internationally in educating and attracting highly skilled workers. At the same time, both global economic…

  4. The Knowledge Gap Versus the Belief Gap and Abstinence-Only Sex Education. (United States)

    Hindman, Douglas Blanks; Yan, Changmin


    The knowledge gap hypothesis predicts widening disparities in knowledge of heavily publicized public affairs issues among socioeconomic status groups. The belief gap hypothesis extends the knowledge gap hypothesis to account for knowledge and beliefs about politically contested issues based on empirically verifiable information. This analysis of 3 national surveys shows belief gaps developed between liberals and conservatives regarding abstinence-only sex education; socioeconomic status-based knowledge gaps did not widen. The findings partially support both belief gap and knowledge gap hypotheses. In addition, the unique contributions of exposure to Fox News, CNN, and MSNBC in this process were investigated. Only exposure to Fox News was linked to beliefs about abstinence-only sex education directly and indirectly through the cultivation of conservative ideology.

  5. [Sex education and knowledge of venerial disease among public school 9th graders]. (United States)

    Nielsen, Jacob Lauesgaard; Boelskifte, Jane; Falk, Jørgen; Lauszus, Finn Friis; Rasmussen, Kjeld Leisgård


    A study on knowledge of venereal diseases, opinions on sexual matters, and satisfaction with sex education at school. A questionnaire was handed out on the same day in all ninth grade classes in the municipality of Viborg without prior notification of teachers and pupils. A total of 394 of 398 questionnaires were answered and returned. Only 36% were fully satisfied with the sex education imparted at school, while 70% of the teenagers were satisfied with the quantity. Satisfaction was similar between genders, but more marked among those without sexual debut as 66% were satisfied, while just 47% of those with sexual debut thought sex education was satisfactory (p Knowledge of venereal disease like hiv/aids, chlamydia and herpes simplex was high (> 80% of pupils). A total of 58% of boys and 76% of girls identified chlamydia as the most common venereal disease (p sexual debut increased knowledge of chlamydia's status as the most common venereal disease to 85% among girls (p Knowledge of the symptoms and risks of chlamydia is rather limited. The girls were more aware of the fact that it may cause sterility (p sexual debut was not associated with gender but with own sexual debut. Those with no sexual debut guessed better than the pupils with sexual debut, as 77% of boys and 81% of girls with no sexual debut guessed correctly. The sex education curriculum should be differentiated with regard to sexual debut or not in order to increase satisfaction with teaching and increase the school's contribution to improve sexual knowledge and behaviour.


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    Tamboli Kshitij S, Avachat Subhada S, Tamboli Suchit S


    Full Text Available Context: Adolescents comprise one-fifth of India’s total population. There is widespread ignorance associated with unprotected sex, contraceptives, among young people. As majority adolescents in slum areas have illiterate and ignorant family backgrounds; they are misguided by the myths. Hence providing sex education for them is the need of the hour. Aims: 1 To assess the knowledge and awareness of adolescents in an urban slum area regarding some aspects of reproductive health. 2 To assess the need of sex education among them. 3 To study the impact of sex education on their knowledge Material and Methods: An interventional study was done on 132 adolescents of urban slum area, selected by simple random sampling. Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire prepared by literature search. Response of adolescents was recorded through questionnaires. A sensitization workshop was organized as intervention. The same questionnaire was given to them and the effect of intervention was assessed. Statistical analysis of data was done using percentage, proportion and appropriate tests of significance. Result and Conclusions: Only 31.06% adolescents had discussed the topic of reproductive health with some or other person and out of them friends were the major sources (39.2% of information. Only 38.63% knew the hazards of teenage pregnancy which significantly rose to 89.4% after intervention workshop. The study concludes that the slum adolescents profoundly lack adequate knowledge of sexuality related matters. Even before intervention workshop, unmet need of reproductive health education was 59.1% and 93.93% was the felt need in the post test.

  7. [Sex education and prevention of sexual violence : Contributions to a differential-sensitive prevention of sexualised violence]. (United States)

    Wazlawik, Martin; Christmann, Bernd; Dekker, Arne


    Prevention of sexual violence against children and adolescents obtains high priority in educational contexts. This is due to the massive (possible) psychosocial impacts of sexual victimization as well as to the considerable prevalence rates that are reported in current studies. Preventive approaches are predominantly native to violence prevention and sex education where they are characterized by independent lines of tradition and positions. This contribution outlines their empirically largely unexplained relation with a focus on the history and development of the discourses of sex education. Diverging disciplinary attempts of positioning towards the prevention of sexual violence reveal an area of conflict between sex-positive and preventive educational objectives. A primacy of preventive contents is seen to be threatening a comprehensive sex education that emphasizes the positive aspects of sexuality. On the other hand, its standards are opposed to excluding and to tabooing sexual violence as a topic. Yet unfinished is therefore the search for a "third way" that might transfer the opposites of both approaches into integrative educational concepts. Unsettled questions about possible contributions of sex education to the prevention of sexual violence, and especially to which extent they are sensitive to difference are discussed based on international research and the theory of sex education.

  8. Sex during Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  9. Effect of Sex Education Programme on at-risk sexual behaviour of school-going adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria. (United States)

    Esere, Mary Ogechi


    Adolescents display sexual behaviours and developmental characteristics that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Because young people experiment sexually and because of the consequences of indiscriminate sexual activities on the youth, there is the need to mount sex education programmes that are geared towards enlightenment and appropriate education about sex and sexuality. To determine whether Sex Education Intervention Programme would reduce at-risk sexual behaviours of school-going adolescents. Pre-test, post-test control group quasi-experimental design. A randomly selected co-educational school in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria. 24 school-going adolescents aged 13-19 years. Sex Education Programme (treatment group) versus Control programme (placebo). Self-reported exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, multiple sex partners, anal sex, oral sex, non use of condom. When the treatment (intervention) group was compared with the control group in an intention to treat analysis, there were significant differences in at-risk sexual behaviours of the two groups. Those in the intervention group reported less at-risk sexual behaviours than their counterparts in the control group. The treatment group evaluated the intervention programme positively and their knowledge of sexual health improved. Lack of behavioural effect on the control group could be linked to differential quality of delivery of intervention. Compared with the control group, this specially designed intervention sex education programme reduced at-risk sexual behaviour in adolescents. Based on this finding, it was recommended that sex education be introduced into the curriculum of secondary school education in Nigeria.

  10. Information Management in Portugal: education and employment conditions and some prospects

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    Maria Cristina Vieira de Freitas


    Full Text Available The Professors Cristina Freitas and Maria da Graça Simões answer questions prepared by teachers from the Faculdade de Informação e Comunicação (Gestão da Informação Undergraduate Degree da Universidade Federal de Goiás - UFG. The questions are related to the educational structure dedicated to the issues of information management in Portugal, the influence of the "Big Data" phenomenon on education and training in the area - including discussions on data governance, the fundation areas of Information Management and the main approaches to information research in the Country. Besides, they discuss the employment conditions (threats and opportunities for professionals in Information Management in Portugal and in Europe [Available Language: Portuguese/Portugal].

  11. The Interplay of Employment Uncertainty and Education in explaining Second Births in Europe. (United States)

    Adsera, Alicia


    This paper analyzes how labor market instability since the late 1980s in Europe mediated decisions to second births. In particular, it examines which are the dimensions of economic uncertainty that affect women with different educational backgrounds. First, employing time varying measures of aggregate market conditions for women in twelve European countries as well as micro-measures of each woman's labor market history, it shows that delays in second births are significant in countries with high unemployment, among women who are unemployed, particularly the least educated, and who have temporary jobs. Holding a very short contract is more critical than unemployment for college graduates. Second, using the 2006 Spanish Fertility Survey, it presents remarkably similar findings for Spain, the country with the most dramatic changes in both fertility and unemployment in the last decades: a high jobless rate and the widespread use of limited-duration contracts were correlated with a substantial postponement of second births.

  12. Treatment with women: action socio educational and for the employment in prisons

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    Francisco José del Pozo Serrano


    Full Text Available This article aims to study and analyze the set of programs that make up the landscape of Spanish prison environment. Here we will prioritize and classify programs that, with emphasis socio-educational and socio-labor,may have a greater impact on social integration or reintegration work, in contrast to the perception ofwomenwho participate in these programs. From a multi-method research methodology (538 questionnaires and 61 in-depth interviews of women prisoners throughout the country, this article discusses the categories and data used for intervention in prisons state of art,with powerful reflections for the specialized field of SocialEducation Penitentiary (ESP.The conclusions drawn in this area are based on some small successes of the prison systemas access and proliferation of software, or the presence of certain gender and socio-cultural programs. However, there remainmajor challengeswithin the recovering constitutional purposes awarded to custodial sentences, within our democratic framework. The results show a role for recreational programs with leisure and recreational focus, to the detriment of socio-educational programs focus on emancipation and freedom. Similarly, there is an overwhelming failure of the itineraries that allowsocial and labormarket participation in active employment in the period of release (perpetuating also traditional gender roles. This reality, therefore, shows that the Correctional Institution continues to exert multiple violence and exclusion toward people punished, that undermine the dignity and potential re-education and rehabilitation.

  13. Principals’ Leadership Styles and Strategies Employed to Motivate Teachers in Ronaki Hawler Educational Institutions, Erbil, Iraq

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    Selcuk Koran


    Full Text Available Effective management is one of the determining factors that play a critical role in teacher motivation. It is also the main factor behind a successful educational institution. Moreover, effective management is necessary to motivate people into action and propel an institution to reach its established objectives. In an educational institution, where managerial structure fails to function well, teachers obviously lose their motivation to teach as well as their commitment to the organization. Therefore, administrators’ leadership styles can affect teacher motivation which will eventually affect learners’ performance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the administrators’ leadership styles, their awareness of teacher motivation peculiarities and strategies they use to motivate the teaching staff at Ronaki Educational Institutions in Erbil, Iraq. It further aims to investigate what makes an effective administrator. To achieve the research goal, the study firstly uses the theoretical analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on the research problem and makes use of a semi-structured interview with Ronaki Hawler Educational Institutions’ administrators. In the interview with 24 administrators, the information on organizational practices and their frequencies, employed by administrators, was obtained. It included elements such as; whether/how often advancement opportunities, promotion, autonomy, bonuses were granted to the teaching staff, what sort of responsibility they possessed, how their recognition as teachers was expressed, and how secure they felt their jobs were. The findings were analyzed and discussed in the discussion part of this research study.

  14. Influence of Gender, Single-Sex and Co-Educational Schooling on Students' Enjoyment and Achievement in Mathematics (United States)

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John


    This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment)…

  15. A Comparison of Single-Sex and Coeducational Catholic Secondary Schooling: Evidence from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988. (United States)

    LePore, Paul C.; Warren, John Robert


    Results from a comparison of single-sex and coeducational Catholic secondary schools using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 suggest that single-sex Catholic high schools are not especially favorable academic settings, and that any advantages of the schools only benefited boys. Pre-enrollment differences may explain…

  16. Secrets and Lies: Sex Education and Gendered Memories of Childhood's End in an Australian Provincial City, 1930s-1950s (United States)

    May, Josephine


    There are few historical studies about the sex education of Australian youth. Drawing on a range of sources, including the oral histories of 40 women and men who attended two single-sex, selective high schools in a provincial Australian city (Newcastle, New South Wales) in the 1930s-1950s, this paper explores the adolescent experience of sex…

  17. Assessing the Impact of Peer Educator Outreach on the Likelihood and Acceleration of Clinic Utilization among Sex Workers. (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Parthasarathy; Hui, Sam K; Shivkumar, Narayanan; Gowda, Chandrasekhar; Pushpalatha, R


    Peer-led outreach is a critical element of HIV and STI-reduction interventions aimed at sex workers. We study the association between peer-led outreach to sex workers and the time to utilize health facilities for timely STI syndromic-detection and treatment. Using data on the timing of peer-outreach interventions and clinic visits, we utilize an Extended Cox model to assess whether peer educator outreach intensity is associated with accelerated clinic utilization among sex workers. Our data comes from 2705 female sex workers registered into Pragati, a women-in-sex-work outreach program, and followed from 2008 through 2012. We analyze this data using an Extended Cox model with the density of peer educator visits in a 30-day rolling window as the key predictor, while controlling for the sex workers' age, client volume, location of sex work, and education level. The principal outcome of interest is the timing of the first voluntary clinic utilization. More frequent peer visit is associated with earlier first clinic visit (HR: 1.83, 95% CI, 1.75-1.91, p educator outreach. Peer outreach density is associated with increased likelihood of-and shortened duration to-clinic utilization among female sex workers, suggesting potential staff resourcing implications. Given the observational nature of our study, however, these findings should be interpreted as an association rather than as a causal relationship.

  18. The World Starts With Me : A multilevel evaluation of a comprehensive sex education programme targeting adolescents in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Leerlooijer, Joanne N.; de Haas, Billie; Schaalma, Herman P.


    Background: This paper evaluates the effect of the World Starts With Me (WSWM), a comprehensive sex education programme in secondary schools in Uganda. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of WSWM on socio-cognitive determinants of safe sex behaviour (delay; condom use and

  19. The World Starts With Me: A multilevel evaluation of a comprehensive sex education programme targeting adolescents in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsdijk, L.E.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Haas, B.; Schaalma, H.P.


    Background This paper evaluates the effect of the World Starts With Me (WSWM), a comprehensive sex education programme in secondary schools in Uganda. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of WSWM on socio-cognitive determinants of safe sex behaviour (delay; condom use and

  20. Exploring the Development of Existing Sex Education Programmes for People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Intervention Mapping Approach (United States)

    Schaafsma, Dilana; Stoffelen, Joke M. T.; Kok, Gerjo; Curfs, Leopold M. G.


    Background: People with intellectual disabilities face barriers that affect their sexual health. Sex education programmes have been developed by professionals working in the field of intellectual disabilities with the aim to overcome these barriers. The aim of this study was to explore the development of these programmes. Methods: Sex education…