WorldWideScience

Sample records for severe environmental stress

  1. Metal balance shift induced in small fresh water fish by several environmental stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukawa, Masae; Iso, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Kumiko; Imaseki, Hitoshi; Aoki, Kazuko; Ishikawa, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    Balance of essential elements in organisms might be changed by environmental stresses. Small fresh water fish, Medaka, was burdened with X-ray irradiation (total dose: 17 Gy), keeping in salty water (70% NaCl of sea water) and keeping in metal containing water (10 ppm of Cr and Co). These stresses are not lethal doses. Essential elements in liver, gall bladder, kidney, spleen, heart and brain in the stress-loaded fish were measured by PIXE method and compared with a control fish to determine the effect of the stresses. Various changes of the elemental contents were observed. Effect of X-ray irradiation was the smallest among the stresses. Relatively high content elements such as P, S, Cl and K were hardly affected with the stresses examined in this work. The effect of Cr on the metal balance seems to be larger than the other stresses. As PIXE method can analyze many elements in a small sample simultaneously, change of elemental distribution in small organisms induced by environmental stresses can be determined readily. (author)

  2. Combat exposure severity as a moderator of genetic and environmental liability to post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, E J; Mitchell, K S; Koenen, K C; Miller, M W

    2014-05-01

    Twin studies of veterans and adults suggest that approximately 30-46% of the variance in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is attributable to genetic factors. The remaining variance is attributable to the non-shared environment, which, by definition, includes combat exposure. This study used a gene by measured environment twin design to determine whether the effects of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the etiology of PTSD are dependent on the level of combat exposure. The sample was drawn from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry (VETR) and included 620 male-male twin pairs who served in the US Military in South East Asia during the Vietnam War era. Analyses were based on data from a clinical diagnostic interview of lifetime PTSD symptoms and a self-report measure of combat exposure. Biometric modeling revealed that the effects of genetic and non-shared environment factors on PTSD varied as a function of level of combat exposure such that the association between these factors and PTSD was stronger at higher levels of combat exposure. Combat exposure may act as a catalyst that augments the impact of hereditary and environmental contributions to PTSD. Individuals with the greatest exposure to combat trauma were at increased risk for PTSD as a function of both genetic and environmental factors. Additional work is needed to determine the biological and environmental mechanisms driving these associations.

  3. Coral lipids and environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriott, V J

    1993-04-01

    Environmental monitoring of coral reefs is presently limited by difficulties in recognising coral stress, other than by monitoring coral mortality over time. A recent report described an experiment demonstrating that a measured lipid index declined in shaded corals. The technique described might have application in monitoring coral health, with a decline in coral lipid index as an indicator of coral stress. The application of the technique as a practical monitoring tool was tested for two coral species from the Great Barrier Reef. Consistent with the previous results, lipid index for Pocillopora damicornis initially declined over a period of three weeks in corals maintained in filtered seawater in the dark, indicating possible utilization of lipid stored as energy reserves. However, lipid index subsequently rose to near normal levels. In contrast, lipid index of Acropora formosa increased after four weeks in the dark in filtered seawater. The results showed considerable variability in lipid content between samples from the same colony. Results were also found to be dependent on fixation times and sample weight, introducing potential error into the practical application of the technique. The method as described would be unsuitable for monitoring environmental stress in corals, but the search for a practical method to monitor coral health should continue, given its importance in coral reef management.

  4. Stress influences environmental donation behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Silja; Bernauer, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Stress has been found to have both positive and negative effects on prosocial behavior, suggesting the involvement of moderating factors such as context and underlying motives. In the present study, we investigated the conditions under which acute stress leads to an increase vs. decrease in environmental donation behavior as an indicator of prosocial behavior. In particular, we examined whether the effects of stress depended on preexisting pro-environmental orientation and stage of the donation decision (whether or not to donate vs. the amount to be donated). Male participants with either high (N=40) or low (N=39) pro-environmental orientation were randomly assigned to a social stress test or a control condition. Salivary cortisol was assessed repeatedly before and after stress induction. At the end of the experiment, all subjects were presented with an opportunity to donate a portion of their monetary compensation to a climate protection foundation. We found that stress significantly increased donation frequency, but only in subjects with low pro-environmental orientation. Congruously, their decision to donate was positively associated with cortisol response to the stress test and the emotion regulation strategy mood repair, as well as accompanied by an increase in subjective calmness. In contrast, among the participants who decided to donate, stress significantly reduced the donated amount of money, regardless of pro-environmental orientation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that acute stress might generally activate more self-serving motivations, such as making oneself feel better and securing one's own material interests. Importantly, however, a strong pro-environmental orientation partially prevented these effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of stress in IBS symptom severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Pletikosic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is regarded as a biopsychosocial disorder, the result of a complex combination of predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors. Personality traits, affective status and stress are some of the relevant factors contributing to lower quality of life and symptom exacerbation in IBS patients. In order to examine the role of stress in IBS symptom exacerbation, the aims of this study were to explore the relationship of daily stressful events and symptom severity in a prospective manner and to explore the roles of neuroticism, anxiety, depression and stress in the vicious circle of symptom perpetuation. A total of 49 patients with IBS reported their symptom severity and daily stressful events intensity each day for 14 consecutive days. They also completed the Big five personality inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-trait anxiety inventory. Cross-correlation analyses were performed on the time series data for daily stress and symptom severity for each participant separately. Four different patterns of relationships were found in different subgroups of participants: positive cross-correlations of symptom severity and stress intensity on the same day; higher symptom severity on days following stressful days; lower symptom severity on days following stressful days; and lower stress intensity on days following severe symptoms. Using average scores for daily stress and symptom severity, as well as scores for neuroticism, anxiety and depression, we performed a path analysis to test a model of symptom exacerbation. It showed that, on the group level, average stress intensity predicts average symptom severity. Neuroticism and anxiety were not significant predictors of symptom severity, while depression showed a marginally significant relationship with symptom severity, mediated by stress intensity. In conclusion, depression and daily stress seem to be important contributors to the vicious circle of IBS symptom

  6. Coordination of frontline defense mechanisms under severe oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amardeep; Van, Phu T; Busch, Courtney R; Robinson, Courtney K; Pan, Min; Pang, Wyming Lee; Reiss, David J; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne; Baliga, Nitin S

    2010-07-01

    Complexity of cellular response to oxidative stress (OS) stems from its wide-ranging damage to nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. We have constructed a systems model of OS response (OSR) for Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 in an attempt to understand the architecture of its regulatory network that coordinates this complex response. This has revealed a multi-tiered OS-management program to transcriptionally coordinate three peroxidase/catalase enzymes, two superoxide dismutases, production of rhodopsins, carotenoids and gas vesicles, metal trafficking, and various other aspects of metabolism. Through experimental validation of interactions within the OSR regulatory network, we show that despite their inability to directly sense reactive oxygen species, general transcription factors have an important function in coordinating this response. Remarkably, a significant fraction of this OSR was accurately recapitulated by a model that was earlier constructed from cellular responses to diverse environmental perturbations--this constitutes the general stress response component. Notwithstanding this observation, comparison of the two models has identified the coordination of frontline defense and repair systems by regulatory mechanisms that are triggered uniquely by severe OS and not by other environmental stressors, including sub-inhibitory levels of redox-active metals, extreme changes in oxygen tension, and a sub-lethal dose of gamma rays.

  7. Environmental heat stress enhances crystallization in urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, H.; Pratiwi, Q. C.; Sjarifah, I.; Atmojo, T. B.; Khotijah

    2018-03-01

    Over the past several decades, agriculture and plantations have been used as the main livelihood of most of the Karanganyar residents. However, these two sources of living are now replaced by industrial areas that employ thousands of people in that district. The development of this industry triggers multiple environmental impacts, including ecosystem and temperature changes. In consequence, there is an increase in air temperature that can cause a variety of diseases, especially in the workplace. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) data in 2013, one worker dies every 15 second due to a work accident and 160 workers are suffering from the occupational disease. In Indonesia, the incidence of crystallization in urine is actually still unknown, but it is estimated that there are 170,000 cases annually. A high temperature or called heat stress is one among many factors causing this disease to appear. The workers in the textile industry, especially in the Finishing Department Kusumahadi Co. Ltd that exposed heat stress from the finishing machines and inadequate ventilation. This hot working climate causes the human body to adapt in the form of body cooling mechanism or called sweating This adaptation can cause an increase in sweat production and decrease the production of urine. If it is not followed by consuming the recommended amount of water intake, it can result in the precipitation of body salts that, in a long time, will cause crystallization in urine. The research used the analytic observational designs for a cross-sectional study. There were 34 samples collected from 57 finishing workers. The data were analyzed using Spearman correlation test. The results showed that heat stress (p=0,015) and water intake (p=0,034) has a significant correlation with crystallization in urine.

  8. Inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton, Elizabeth J; Zhang, Yafang; Green, Thomas A

    2015-02-01

    One hallmark of psychiatric conditions is the vast continuum of individual differences in susceptibility vs. resilience resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental enrichment paradigm is an animal model that is useful for studying a range of psychiatric conditions, including protective phenotypes in addiction and depression models. The major question is how environmental enrichment, a non-drug and non-surgical manipulation, can produce such robust individual differences in such a wide range of behaviors. This paper draws from a variety of published sources to outline a coherent hypothesis of inoculation stress as a factor producing the protective enrichment phenotypes. The basic tenet suggests that chronic mild stress from living in a complex environment and interacting non-aggressively with conspecifics can inoculate enriched rats against subsequent stressors and/or drugs of abuse. This paper reviews the enrichment phenotypes, mulls the fundamental nature of environmental enrichment vs. isolation, discusses the most appropriate control for environmental enrichment, and challenges the idea that cortisol/corticosterone equals stress. The intent of the inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment is to provide a scaffold with which to build testable hypotheses for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective phenotypes and thus provide new therapeutic targets to treat psychiatric/neurological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental stress and assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, D.C.; Brisbin, I.L.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Research progress is reported in sections entitled: Savannah River Plant (SRP) studies provide general models for thermal research; in vivo studies of thermal stabilities of cattail isozymes reveal interspecific differences; thermal regimes in Par Pond have little effect on micronutrient uptake by cattails; continued tree kill in the SRP swamp may have an adverse impact on the swamp's cooling capabilities; Par Pond provides understanding of complexity of lake ecosystems affected by thermal effluents; temperature affects size, species distribution, and emergence date of dragonfly larvae; the midge subcommunity in Par Pond maintains relative integrity across a multi-faceted environmental gradient; temperature does not alter contribution of predators to community stability; habitat affects enzyme activity levels in natural populations of Gambusia affinis; studies of large-mouth bass in Par Pond system reveal lipid cycles; long-term turtle research provides information on survivorship and longevity; data on SRP watersnakes contribute to understanding of sexual dimorphism in animals; terrestrial drift fences and pitfall traps prove to be an effective technique for quantitative sampling of animal populations; and, Steel Creek targeted for environmental assessment

  10. Severe occupational hand eczema, job stress and cumulative sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, D; Stock Gissendanner, S; Finkeldey, F; John, S M; Werfel, T; Diepgen, T L; Breuer, K

    2014-10-01

    Stress is known to activate or exacerbate dermatoses, but the relationships between chronic stress, job-related stress and sickness absence among occupational hand eczema (OHE) patients are inadequately understood. To see whether chronic stress or burnout symptoms were associated with cumulative sickness absence in patients with OHE and to determine which factors predicted sickness absence in a model including measures of job-related and chronic stress. We investigated correlations of these factors in employed adult inpatients with a history of sickness absence due to OHE in a retrospective cross-sectional explorative study, which assessed chronic stress (Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress), burnout (Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure), clinical symptom severity (Osnabrück Hand Eczema Severity Index), perceived symptom severity, demographic characteristics and cumulative days of sickness absence. The study group consisted of 122 patients. OHE symptoms were not more severe among patients experiencing greater stress and burnout. Women reported higher levels of chronic stress on some measures. Cumulative days of sickness absence correlated with individual dimensions of job-related stress and, in multiple regression analysis, with an overall measure of chronic stress. Chronic stress is an additional factor predicting cumulative sickness absence among severely affected OHE patients. Other relevant factors for this study sample included the 'cognitive weariness' subscale of the Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure and the physical component summary score of the SF-36, a measure of health-related life quality. Prevention and rehabilitation should take job stress into consideration in multidisciplinary treatment strategies for severely affected OHE patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atta-ur-Rehman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12 Campus, Islamabad 25000, Pakistan; Stress Physiology Lab Department of Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, India; Centre for Environmental Research, Near East University, 33010, Lefkosha, Turkish Republic ...

  12. Markers of environmental stress in forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha

    1999-01-01

    Gradual long-term changes in soil and environmental factors due to human activity, may affect forest trees and lead to loss of forest productivity. In most cases, the symptoms of stress appear too late for their effects to be reversed through management and/or treatment.

  13. The Association of Sever Stressful Life Events and Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rozita Naeeni; Zlbar Soltanzadeh; Homan Salimipour; Zahra Vahhabi; Samira Yadegari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stressful life events have suggested as one of etiologic cause of the disease from the middle of last century, but controversies still is going on. Materials and Methods: This study is a case- control study conducted on 100 MS patients in neurology clinic of Shariati Hospital during one year. History of stressful life events one year before beginning of the disease was questioned. These events, according to Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, were severe and affected the disease progres...

  14. Etyopathogenesis and Oxidative Stress Relationship in Mild Severe Alopecia Areata

    OpenAIRE

    Fadime Kilinç; Ayse Akbas; Ahu Yorulmaz; Sertaç Sener; Salim Neselioglu; Özcan Erel; Ahmet Metin

    2017-01-01

    Objective:Alopecia areata (AA) is a recurrent, autoimmune, inflammatory disease characterized by loss of scarless hair. The etiopathogenesis is not exactly known, however genetic, emotional, environmental factors and autoimmunity are accused. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of AA. Methods:Thirty seven AA patients and thirty five healthy volunteers as control group were included in the study. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calcu...

  15. The Yeast Environmental Stress Response Regulates Mutagenesis Induced by Proteotoxic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Erika; Fox, Catherine A.; Broach, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Conditions of chronic stress are associated with genetic instability in many organisms, but the roles of stress responses in mutagenesis have so far been elucidated only in bacteria. Here, we present data demonstrating that the environmental stress response (ESR) in yeast functions in mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. We show that the drug canavanine causes proteotoxic stress, activates the ESR, and induces mutagenesis at several loci in an ESR-dependent manner. Canavanine-induced mutagenesis also involves translesion DNA polymerases Rev1 and Polζ and non-homologous end joining factor Ku. Furthermore, under conditions of chronic sub-lethal canavanine stress, deletions of Rev1, Polζ, and Ku-encoding genes exhibit genetic interactions with ESR mutants indicative of ESR regulating these mutagenic DNA repair processes. Analyses of mutagenesis induced by several different stresses showed that the ESR specifically modulates mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. Together, these results document the first known example of an involvement of a eukaryotic stress response pathway in mutagenesis and have important implications for mechanisms of evolution, carcinogenesis, and emergence of drug-resistant pathogens and chemotherapy-resistant tumors. PMID:23935537

  16. Psychotic reactions to daily life stress and dopamine function in people with severe hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevonden, M. J.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van den Brink, W.; van Os, J.; Selten, J. P.; Booij, J.

    2015-01-01

    Minor stresses measured in daily life have repeatedly been associated with increased momentary psychotic experiences, both in individuals with psychotic disorders and in persons who are genetically at an increased risk for these disorders. Severe hearing impairment (SHI) is an environmental risk

  17. Parenting Stress Related to Behavioral Problems and Disease Severity in Children with Problematic Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkleij, Marieke; van de Griendt, Erik-Jonas; Colland, Vivian; van Loey, Nancy; Beelen, Anita; Geenen, Rinie

    2015-09-01

    Our study examined parenting stress and its association with behavioral problems and disease severity in children with problematic severe asthma. Research participants were 93 children (mean age 13.4 ± 2.7 years) and their parents (86 mothers, 59 fathers). As compared to reference groups analyzed in previous research, scores on the Parenting Stress Index in mothers and fathers of the children with problematic severe asthma were low. Higher parenting stress was associated with higher levels of internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems in children (Child Behavior Checklist). Higher parenting stress in mothers was also associated with higher airway inflammation (FeNO). Thus, although parenting stress was suggested to be low in this group, higher parenting stress, especially in the mother, is associated with more airway inflammation and greater child behavioral problems. This indicates the importance of focusing care in this group on all possible sources of problems, i.e., disease exacerbations and behavioral problems in the child as well as parenting stress.

  18. Parenting Stress Related to Behavioral Problems and Disease Severity in Children with Problematic Severe Asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkleij, Marieke; van de Griendt, Erik-Jonas; Colland, Vivian; van Loey, Nancy; Beelen, Anita; Geenen, Rinie

    2015-01-01

    Our study examined parenting stress and its association with behavioral problems and disease severity in children with problematic severe asthma. Research participants were 93 children (mean age 13.4 +/- A 2.7 years) and their parents (86 mothers, 59 fathers). As compared to reference groups

  19. Parenting Stress Related to Behavioral Problems and Disease Severity in Children with Problematic Severe Asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkleij, Marieke; van de Griendt, E-J.; Colland, V.; Van Loey, N.E.E.; Beelen, A.; Geenen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Our study examined parenting stress and its association with behavioral problems and disease severity in children with problematic severe asthma. Research participants were 93 children (mean age 13.4 ± 2.7 years) and their parents (86 mothers, 59 fathers). As compared to reference groups analyzed in

  20. The Association of Sever Stressful Life Events and Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Naeeni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stressful life events have suggested as one of etiologic cause of the disease from the middle of last century, but controversies still is going on. Materials and Methods: This study is a case- control study conducted on 100 MS patients in neurology clinic of Shariati Hospital during one year. History of stressful life events one year before beginning of the disease was questioned. These events, according to Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, were severe and affected the disease progression. The analysis of data was performed using SPSS 15. Results: The mean age of patients was 30.9 ± 7.1. Most of them (n=87 had relapsing- remitting MS. 51% of patients and 26% of controls had stressful life events (P<0.001. Odd's Ratio with confidence interval of 95% was 2.71. The most frequent stressful events were family problems and death of first degree relatives. Conclusion: This study showed that stressful life events were significantly more prevalent in MS, but we cannot conclude that stress lonely is a cause of MS. Although, major stress along with multiple other risk factors may be related to MS.

  1. Plant responses to environmental stresses-from gene to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanger, Mohammad Abass; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Ashraf, Muhammad; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Wijaya, Leonard; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2017-07-01

    Increasing global population, urbanization and industrialization are increasing the rate of conversion of arable land into wasteland. Supplying food to an ever-increasing population is one of the biggest challenges that agriculturalists and plant scientists are currently confronting. Environmental stresses make this situation even graver. Despite the induction of several tolerance mechanisms, sensitive plants often fail to survive under environmental extremes. New technological approaches are imperative. Conventional breeding methods have a limited potential to improve plant genomes against environmental stress. Recently, genetic engineering has contributed enormously to the development of genetically modified varieties of different crops such as cotton, maize, rice, canola and soybean. The identification of stress-responsive genes and their subsequent introgression or overexpression within sensitive crop species are now being widely carried out by plant scientists. Engineering of important tolerance pathways, like antioxidant enzymes, osmolyte accumulation, membrane-localized transporters for efficient compartmentation of deleterious ions and accumulation of essential elements and resistance against pests or pathogens is also an area that has been intensively researched. In this review, the role of biotechnology and its successes, prospects and challenges in developing stress-tolerant crop cultivars are discussed.

  2. Perceived Stress, Sources and Severity of Stress among medical undergraduates in a Pakistani Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Samina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. However, studies about the same are lacking from Pakistani medical schools. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress, sources of stress and their severity and to assess the determinants of stressed cases. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of CMH Lahore Medical College, Pakistan during January to March 2009. Perceived stress was assessed using the perceived stress scale. A 33-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Results The overall response rate was 80.5% (161 out of 200 students. The overall mean perceived stress was 30.84 (SD = 7.01 and was significantly higher among female students. By logistic regression analysis, stressed cases were associated with occurrence of psychosocial (OR 5.01, 95% CI 2.44-10.29 and academic related stressors (OR 3.17 95% CI 1.52-6.68. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. 'High parental expectations', 'frequency of examinations', 'vastness of academic curriculum', 'sleeping difficulties', 'worrying about the future', 'loneliness', 'becoming a doctor', 'performance in periodic examinations' were the most frequently and severely occurring sources of stress. There was a negative but insignificant correlation between perceived stress and academic performance (r = -0.099, p > 0.05. Conclusion A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The main stressors were related to academic and psychosocial domains. Further studies are required to test the association between stressed cases and gender, academic stressors and psychosocial stressors.

  3. Relationship of severity of depression, anxiety and stress with severity of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alok, R; Das, S K; Agarwal, G G; Salwahan, L; Srivastava, R

    2011-01-01

    Negative affects like depression, anxiety and stress are frequently observed in patients with fibromyalgia (FMS). Understanding the association between FMS and negative affects is likely to help in deciding the choice of treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the severity of FMS with the severity of depression, anxiety and stress. Sixty patients with fibromyalgia and 60 healthy controls were included in the study. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised (FIQR), and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) were administered to both the groups. The mean age of study population was 40.4±9.9 and 36±8.7 for FMS and control groups respectively. Most of the patients were females (93.3%). In subjects without FMS, depression was seen in 5% and was significantly associated with all three components of FIQR (pdepression, anxiety and stress were found significantly associated with the severity of all three components of FIQR, namely pain, function and symptoms (pdepression, anxiety and stress and in FMS magnitude of negative affects is significantly correlated with FIQR. However, depression alone in absence of FMS can also give rise to all three components of FIQR.

  4. Etyopathogenesis and Oxidative Stress Relationship in Mild Severe Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadime Kilinç

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Alopecia areata (AA is a recurrent, autoimmune, inflammatory disease characterized by loss of scarless hair. The etiopathogenesis is not exactly known, however genetic, emotional, environmental factors and autoimmunity are accused. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of AA. Methods:Thirty seven AA patients and thirty five healthy volunteers as control group were included in the study. Oxidative stress index (OSI was calculated by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidant capacity (TOC in patient and control group serum samples. Results:The TAC values of the patient group were found to be higher than the control group (p=0.036. A nonsignificant difference was found between the two groups statistically bordered by TOC (p=0.058. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of OSI (p=0.270.

  5. Plant Core Environmental Stress Response Genes Are Systemically Coordinated during Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Berendzen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR, e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner.

  6. Oxidative Stress in Fish induced by Environmental Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Kováčik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollutants represent a risk factor for human and animals in all areas of occurrence. Environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic activities is a major problem in many countries. Numbers of studies deals with cumulation of xenobiotics in tissues but not all respond to the real impact on living organisms. Freshwater fishes are exposed to several anthropogenic contaminants. The most commonly studied are three metals: mercury (Hg, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd. These contaminants could have several impacts to oxidative stress. In the normal healthy cell, ROS and pro-oxidant products are detoxified by antioxidant defences. Redox-active or Redox-inactive metals may cause an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Mercury has a high affinity for thiol groups, and can non-specifically affect several enzymes, e. g. GSH (glutathione, which can induce GSH depletion and oxidative stress in tissue, also can induce lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The toxicity of Cd to aquatic species depends on speciation, with the free ion, Cd2+ concentration being proportional to bioavailability. Cadmium toxicity worsened of Ca, Na, and Mg ions homeostasis. Lead can be toxic to nervous and skeletal systems; at cellular level can cause apoptosis, also can affect mitochondria, neurotransmitters, and can substitute for Ca.

  7. Assessment of Eco-Environmental Stress in the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyu Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eco-environmental stress refers to the pressure borne by the environment in sustaining the pre-existing non-industrialized state and/or in counteracting adverse impacts caused by natural and human factors. The present article introduces the concept, research progress, and method for assessing eco-environmental stress. An eco-environmental stress index (ESI is established to assess the eco-environmental stress of 13 cities in the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone during the period from 2000 to 2010. The research provides a reference for the strategic planning of industrial development and environmental protection. The results show that the overall eco-environmental stress of the Economic Zone was slight and did not have significant change during the past 10 years. The cities with the most severe eco-environmental stress are distributed in the north and south of the Economic Zone. Most areas of Fujian Province have a low degree of eco-environmental stress, a situation that is being constantly improved. The regions with high atmospheric and water pollutant emissions are concentrated in the northern, middle, and southern coastal regions of the Economic Zone. The pollutant emissions of coastal cities are higher than those of inland cities. In the future, ecological restoration and compensation mechanisms should be established for regions where environmental protection and remediation is urgently needed.

  8. Sex-specific selection under environmental stress in seed beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinossi-Allibert, I; Arnqvist, G; Berger, D

    2017-01-01

    Sexual selection can increase rates of adaptation by imposing strong selection in males, thereby allowing efficient purging of the mutation load on population fitness at a low demographic cost. Indeed, sexual selection tends to be male-biased throughout the animal kingdom, but little empirical work has explored the ecological sensitivity of this sex difference. In this study, we generated theoretical predictions of sex-specific strengths of selection, environmental sensitivities and genotype-by-environment interactions and tested them in seed beetles by manipulating either larval host plant or rearing temperature. Using fourteen isofemale lines, we measured sex-specific reductions in fitness components, genotype-by-environment interactions and the strength of selection (variance in fitness) in the juvenile and adult stage. As predicted, variance in fitness increased with stress, was consistently greater in males than females for adult reproductive success (implying strong sexual selection), but was similar in the sexes in terms of juvenile survival across all levels of stress. Although genetic variance in fitness increased in magnitude under severe stress, heritability decreased and particularly so in males. Moreover, genotype-by-environment interactions for fitness were common but specific to the type of stress, sex and life stage, suggesting that new environments may change the relative alignment and strength of selection in males and females. Our study thus exemplifies how environmental stress can influence the relative forces of natural and sexual selection, as well as concomitant changes in genetic variance in fitness, which are predicted to have consequences for rates of adaptation in sexual populations. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Protein Sulfenylation: A Novel Readout of Environmental Oxidant Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress is a commonly cited mechanism of toxicity of environmental agents. Ubiquitous environmental chemicals such as the diesel exhaust component 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ)induce oxidative stress by redox cycling, which generates hydrogen peroxide (H202). Cysteinylthio...

  10. Environmental Drivers of Variation in Bleaching Severity of Acropora Species during an Extreme Thermal Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia O. Hoogenboom

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High sea surface temperatures caused global coral bleaching during 2015–2016. During this thermal stress event, we quantified within- and among-species variability in bleaching severity for critical habitat-forming Acropora corals. The objective of this study was to understand the drivers of spatial and species-specific variation in the bleaching susceptibility of these corals, and to evaluate whether bleaching susceptibility under extreme thermal stress was consistent with that observed during less severe bleaching events. We surveyed and mapped Acropora corals at 10 sites (N = 596 around the Lizard Island group on the northern Great Barrier Reef. For each colony, bleaching severity was quantified using a new image analysis technique, and we assessed whether small-scale environmental variables (depth, microhabitat, competition intensity and species traits (colony morphology, colony size, known symbiont clade association explained variation in bleaching. Results showed that during severe thermal stress, bleaching of branching corals was linked to microhabitat features, and was more severe at reef edge compared with lagoonal sites. Bleaching severity worsened over a very short time-frame (~1 week, but did not differ systematically with water depth, competition intensity, or colony size. At our study location, within- and among-species variation in bleaching severity was relatively low compared to the level of variation reported in the literature. More broadly, our results indicate that variability in bleaching susceptibility during extreme thermal stress is not consistent with that observed during previous bleaching events that have ranged in severity among globally dispersed sites, with fewer species escaping bleaching during severe thermal stress. In addition, shaded microhabitats can provide a refuge from bleaching which provides further evidence of the importance of topographic complexity for maintaining the biodiversity and ecosystem

  11. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji eIshii

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells to demonstrate: 1. molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, 2. the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and 3. interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders.

  12. Longitudinal Associations between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Metabolic Syndrome Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Erika J.; Bovin, Michelle J.; Green, Jonathan D.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Stoop, Tawni B.; Barretto, Kenneth M.; Jackson, Colleen E.; Lee, Lewina O.; Fang, Shona C.; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Rosen, Raymond C.; Keane, Terence M.; Marx, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with elevated risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the direction of this association is not yet established, as most prior studies employed cross-sectional designs. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate bidirectional associations between PTSD and MetS using a longitudinal design. Methods 1,355 male and female veterans of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan underwent PTSD diagnostic assessments and their biometric profiles pertaining to MetS were extracted from the electronic medical record at two time points (spanning ~2.5 years, n = 971 at time 2). Results The prevalence of MetS among veterans with PTSD was just under 40% at both time points and was significantly greater than that for veterans without PTSD; the prevalence of MetS among those with PTSD was also elevated relative to age-matched population estimates. Cross-lagged panel models revealed that PTSD severity predicted subsequent increases in MetS severity (β = .08, p = .002), after controlling for initial MetS severity, but MetS did not predict later PTSD symptoms. Logistic regression results suggested that for every 10 PTSD symptoms endorsed at time 1, the odds of a subsequent MetS diagnosis increased by 56%. Conclusions Results highlight the substantial cardiometabolic concerns of young veterans with PTSD and raise the possibility that PTSD may predispose individuals to accelerated aging, in part, manifested clinically as MetS. This demonstrates the need to identify those with PTSD at greatest risk for MetS and to develop interventions that improve both conditions. PMID:27087657

  13. Environmental stresses can alleviate the average deleterious effect of mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leibler Stanislas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fundamental questions in evolutionary genetics, including the possible advantage of sexual reproduction, depend critically on the effects of deleterious mutations on fitness. Limited existing experimental evidence suggests that, on average, such effects tend to be aggravated under environmental stresses, consistent with the perception that stress diminishes the organism's ability to tolerate deleterious mutations. Here, we ask whether there are also stresses with the opposite influence, under which the organism becomes more tolerant to mutations. Results We developed a technique, based on bioluminescence, which allows accurate automated measurements of bacterial growth rates at very low cell densities. Using this system, we measured growth rates of Escherichia coli mutants under a diverse set of environmental stresses. In contrast to the perception that stress always reduces the organism's ability to tolerate mutations, our measurements identified stresses that do the opposite – that is, despite decreasing wild-type growth, they alleviate, on average, the effect of deleterious mutations. Conclusions Our results show a qualitative difference between various environmental stresses ranging from alleviation to aggravation of the average effect of mutations. We further show how the existence of stresses that are biased towards alleviation of the effects of mutations may imply the existence of average epistatic interactions between mutations. The results thus offer a connection between the two main factors controlling the effects of deleterious mutations: environmental conditions and epistatic interactions.

  14. The role of early adversity and recent life stress in depression severity in an outpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Dominic; Waeldin, Sandra; Hellhammer, Dirk; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2016-12-01

    Pre-, peri-, and postnatal stress have frequently been reported to be associated with negative health outcomes during adult life. However, it is unclear, if these factors independently predict mental health in adulthood. We estimated potential associations between reports of pre-, peri-, and postnatal stress and depression severity in outpatients (N = 473) diagnosed with depression, anxiety or somatoform disorders by their family physician. We retrospectively assessed pre-, peri-, and postnatal stress and measured depression severity as well as recent life stress using questionnaires. First, we estimated if depression severity was predicted by pre-, peri- and/or postnatal stress using multiple regression models. Second, we compared pre- and postnatal stress levels between patient subgroups of different degrees of depression severity, performing multilevel linear modeling. Third, we analyzed if an association between postnatal stress and current depression severity was mediated by recent life stress. We found no associations of pre-, or perinatal stress with depression severity (all p > 0.05). Higher postnatal stress was associated with higher depression severity (p stress as compared to patients with none to minimal, or mild depression (all p life stress of the association between postnatal stress and depression severity (p stress predicted depression severity in adult life. This association was mediated by recent life stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental and perceived stress in Australian dental undergraduates: Preliminary outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Astill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dental students have reported a high prevalence of psychological stress and the causes are associated with the challenging dental environmental and demographic factors. This study aimed to conduct a preliminary investigation on dental students’ stress status, using a sample of first-to-third-year Bachelor of Dental Surgery students in an Australian university. Special interests included causes of dental environmental stress and access to help services. Methods. A sample of 145 students was surveyed with a modified Dental Environmental Survey and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale in 2014. The participants’ demographic information was also collected. Results. The response rate was 95.4%. Second-year (P = 0.042, third-year (P < 0.001 and employed students (P = 0.027 were more likely to report stress resulting from transition to clinical learning. Third-year students were more often stressed about communicating and approaching staff (P = 0.023 as well as different opinions between staff (P < 0.001 and reduced holidays (P < 0.001. Students that were younger than 21 years of age (P = 0.001, that were first years (P < 0.001, and that were not in a relationship (P = 0.010 more often found difficulty of course work stressful. Students who were not in a relationship more often considered learning manual dexterity a source of stress (P = 0.034. Students previously seeking professional help were more likely to be stressed (P = 0.010. Conclusion. Causes of dental environment stress varied among years of study and demographic backgrounds. Professional support to stressed students should be enhanced. Further investigation is indicated.

  16. Restraint stress intensifies interstitial K+ accumulation during severe hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eSchnell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for three weeks (6 h/day. In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed rats, basal synaptic function and short-term plasticity at Schaffer collateral/CA1 neuron synapses were unchanged while long-term potentiation was markedly impaired. The spatiotemporal propagation pattern of hypoxia-induced spreading depression episodes was indistinguishable among control and stress slices. However, the duration of the extracellular direct current (DC potential shift was shortened after stress. Moreover, K+ fluxes early during hypoxia were more intense, and the postsynaptic recoveries of interstitial K+ levels and synaptic function were slower. Morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections suggested hippocampal shrinkage in stressed rats, and the number of cells that are immunoreactive for GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in the CA1 subfield indicating activation of astrocytes. Western blots showed a marked downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in stressed rats. Yet, resting membrane potentials, input resistance and K+-induced inward currents in CA1 astrocytes were indistinguishable from controls. These data indicate an intensified interstitial K+ accumulation during hypoxia in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats which seems to arise from a reduced interstitial volume fraction rather than impaired glial K+ buffering. One may speculate that chronic stress aggravates hypoxia-induced pathophysiological processes in the hippocampal network and that this has implications for the ischemic brain.

  17. The effects of severe mixed environmental pollution on human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsantoni, A; Nakou, S; Antoniadou-Koumatou, I; Côté, G B

    1986-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies were conducted on healthy young mothers, shortly after child birth, in two residential areas each with an approximate population of 20,000, situated about 25 km from Athens, Greece. One of the areas, Elefsis, is subject to severe mixed industrial pollution, and the other, Koropi, is relatively free of pollution. Chromosomal aberrations were investigated in 16 women from each area in 72 hour lymphocyte cultures treated with gentian violet to enhance any chromosomal instability induced by the pollution. The women were of a comparable socioeconomic level, aged between 20 and 31 years, and with no history of factors associated with mutagenesis. Venous blood samples were taken from the two groups and processed concurrently. The slides were coded and examined independently by two observers, who were unaware of the source of the samples. A total of 100 cells was examined on each sample. The two observers obtained highly comparable results. Women from Elefsis had an average of 0.42 anomalies per cell and those from Koropi had 0.39. The absence of a statistically significant difference between the two groups clearly shows that the severe mixed environmental pollution of Elefsis has no significant visible effect on human chromosomes in most residents. However, two Elefsis women had abnormal results and could be at risk. Their presence is not sufficient to raise significantly their group's average, but the induction by pollution of an increased rate of chromosomal anomalies in only a few people at risk could account for the known association between urban residence and cancer mortality. PMID:3783622

  18. Integration of environmental and spectral data for sunflower stress determination. [Red River Valley, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillesand, T.; Seeley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Stress in sunflowers was assessed in western and northwestern Minnesota. Weekly ground observations (acquired in 1980 and 1981) were analyzed in concert with large scale aerial photography and concurrent LANDSAT data. Using multidate supervised and unsupervised classification procedures, it was found that all crops grown in association with sunflowers in the study area are spectrally separable from one another. Under conditions of extreme drought, severely stressed plants were differentiable from those not severely stressed, but between-crop separation was not possible. Initial regression analyses to estimate sunflower seed yield showed a sensitivity to environmental stress during the flowering and seed development stages. One of the most important biological factors related to sunflower production in the Red River Valley area was found to be the extent and severity of insect infestations.

  19. Brain atrophy in the visual cortex and thalamus induced by severe stress in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Takanobu; Oishi, Naoya; Ikoma, Kazuya; Nishimura, Isao; Sakai, Yuki; Matsuda, Kenichi; Yamada, Shunji; Tanaka, Masaki; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Narumoto, Jin; Fukui, Kenji

    2017-10-06

    Psychological stress induces many diseases including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the causal relationship between stress and brain atrophy has not been clarified. Applying single-prolonged stress (SPS) to explore the global effect of severe stress, we performed brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition and Voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Significant atrophy was detected in the bilateral thalamus and right visual cortex. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry for Iba-1 as the marker of activated microglia indicates regional microglial activation as stress-reaction in these atrophic areas. These data certify the impact of severe psychological stress on the atrophy of the visual cortex and the thalamus. Unexpectedly, these results are similar to chronic neuropathic pain rather than PTSD clinical research. We believe that some sensitisation mechanism from severe stress-induced atrophy in the visual cortex and thalamus, and the functional defect of the visual system may be a potential therapeutic target for stress-related diseases.

  20. Modeling heat stress under different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabaño, M J; Logar, B; Bormann, J; Minet, J; Vanrobays, M-L; Díaz, C; Tychon, B; Gengler, N; Hammami, H

    2016-05-01

    Renewed interest in heat stress effects on livestock productivity derives from climate change, which is expected to increase temperatures and the frequency of extreme weather events. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of temperature and humidity on milk production in highly selected dairy cattle populations across 3 European regions differing in climate and production systems to detect differences and similarities that can be used to optimize heat stress (HS) effect modeling. Milk, fat, and protein test day data from official milk recording for 1999 to 2010 in 4 Holstein populations located in the Walloon Region of Belgium (BEL), Luxembourg (LUX), Slovenia (SLO), and southern Spain (SPA) were merged with temperature and humidity data provided by the state meteorological agencies. After merging, the number of test day records/cows per trait ranged from 686,726/49,655 in SLO to 1,982,047/136,746 in BEL. Values for the daily average and maximum temperature-humidity index (THIavg and THImax) ranges for THIavg/THImax were largest in SLO (22-74/28-84) and shortest in SPA (39-76/46-83). Change point techniques were used to determine comfort thresholds, which differed across traits and climatic regions. Milk yield showed an inverted U-shaped pattern of response across the THI scale with a HS threshold around 73 THImax units. For fat and protein, thresholds were lower than for milk yield and were shifted around 6 THI units toward larger values in SPA compared with the other countries. Fat showed lower HS thresholds than protein traits in all countries. The traditional broken line model was compared with quadratic and cubic fits of the pattern of response in production to increasing heat loads. A cubic polynomial model allowing for individual variation in patterns of response and THIavg as heat load measure showed the best statistical features. Higher/lower producing animals showed less/more persistent production (quantity and quality) across the THI scale. The

  1. The thyroid and environmental stress in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, V. A.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of hyperoxia at ambient pressure on thyroid function and thyroid hormone metabolism have been assessed. Thyroidal activity was depressed in mice and rats by exposure to hyperoxia, due at least in part to a decrease in the rate of secretion of pituitary thyrotropin. The effects of hyperoxia on the peripheral deiodination of thyroxine were dependent on the concentration of oxygen employed and/or the duration of exposure. When significant changes were observed a reduction in the rate of deiodination and in the deiodinative clearance of T sub 4 occurred. Hyperoxia also resulted in a marked fall in circulating T sub 4 concentration and a decrease in T sub 4-binding activity in serum. Many of these effects of hyperoxia were prevented by the concomitant administration of large amounts of Vitamin E. These decreases in thyroid function and T sub 4 metabolism were associated with a decrease in the rate of whole body oxygen consumption. It was concluded that the deleterious effects of oxygen in the rat were not due to an oxygen induced hyperthyroid state in the peripheral tissues. Thyroxine was shown to be essential for survival during acute cold stress.

  2. Social Support, Perceived Stress, and Markers of Heart Failure Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    contends that social relationships influence health through the prevention or lessening of responses to stress. Cohen and Wills (1985) describe that...Sheffield, D., Jaumdally, R., & Lip, G. Y. H. (2010). Anger rumination , social support, and cardiac symptoms in patients undergoing angiography

  3. Environmental stress, displacement and the challenge of rights protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Zetter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Examination of migration histories and current politics in Kenya, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Ethiopia and Ghana sheds light on how rights are articulated for groups and individuals displaced in a context of environmental stress and climate change. Both migration and rights are sensitive issues in these case-study countries, and the conjunction of the two is especially sensitive."

  4. Use of biological indicators to evaluate environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, C.; Castonguay, J.

    1987-09-01

    This report examines the usefulness of biological analyses for evaluating environmental stress. All forms of stress are addressed; particular attention, however, is paid to the use of biological analyses to evaluate the impact on the environment from radioactive releases of the nuclear industry. First, we will review different biological analyses which are grouped into two approaches: the holistic approach (biotic and diversity indices) and the reductionist approach ('biological indicators' per se). Secondly, we will compare the usefulness of plants and animals as indicators based on the established criteria. This report ends with a compilation of letters received from different organizations which outline the present usage in Canada of biological indicators for evaluating environmental stress

  5. Use of biological indicators for evaluating environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, C.; Castonguay, J.

    1988-09-01

    This report examines the usefulness of biological analyses for evaluating environmental stress. All forms of stress are addressed; particular attention, however, is paid to the use of biological analyses to evaluate the impact on the environment from radioactive releases of the nuclear industry. First, we will review different biological analyses which are grouped into two approaches: the holistic approach (biotic and diversity indices) and the reductionist approach ('biological indicators' per se). Secondly, we will compare the usefulness of plants and animals as indicators based on the established criteria. This report ends with a compilation of letters received from different organizations which outline the present use in Canada of biological indicators for evaluating environmental stress

  6. Predicting the Transition From Acute Stress Disorder to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children With Severe Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth C; Nugent, Nicole R; Hawn, Sage E; Koenen, Karestan C; Miller, Alisa; Amstadter, Ananda B; Saxe, Glenn

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of risk for and the transition between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a longitudinal sample of youth with severe injuries admitted to the hospital. These data would assist with treatment and discharge planning. Youth were assessed for ASD during the initial hospital stay and were followed-up over an 18-month period for PTSD (n = 151). Youth were classified into four groups, including Resilient (ASD-, PTSD-), ASD Only (ASD+, PTSD-), PTSD Only (ASD-, PTSD+), and Chronic (ASD+, PTSD+). Demographic, psychiatric, social context, and injury-related factors were examined as predictors of diagnostic transition. The results of multivariate analysis of variance and pairwise comparisons found that peritraumatic dissociation, gender, and socioeconomic status were significant predictors after controlling for multiple testing. Results suggest that both within-child and contextual factors contribute to the longitudinal response to trauma in children. Clinicians should consider early screening and discharge planning, particularly for children most at risk. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental stress induces trinucleotide repeat mutagenesis in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Lin, Yunfu; Santillan, Beatriz A; Yotnda, Patricia; Wilson, John H

    2015-03-24

    The dynamic mutability of microsatellite repeats is implicated in the modification of gene function and disease phenotype. Studies of the enhanced instability of long trinucleotide repeats (TNRs)-the cause of multiple human diseases-have revealed a remarkable complexity of mutagenic mechanisms. Here, we show that cold, heat, hypoxic, and oxidative stresses induce mutagenesis of a long CAG repeat tract in human cells. We show that stress-response factors mediate the stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM) of CAG repeats. We show further that SIM of CAG repeats does not involve mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, or transcription, processes that are known to promote TNR mutagenesis in other pathways of instability. Instead, we find that these stresses stimulate DNA rereplication, increasing the proportion of cells with >4 C-value (C) DNA content. Knockdown of the replication origin-licensing factor CDT1 eliminates both stress-induced rereplication and CAG repeat mutagenesis. In addition, direct induction of rereplication in the absence of stress also increases the proportion of cells with >4C DNA content and promotes repeat mutagenesis. Thus, environmental stress triggers a unique pathway for TNR mutagenesis that likely is mediated by DNA rereplication. This pathway may impact normal cells as they encounter stresses in their environment or during development or abnormal cells as they evolve metastatic potential.

  8. Environmental heat stress, hyperammonemia and nucleotide metabolism during intermittent exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Rasmussen, Peter; Drust, Barry

    2006-01-01

    ) followed by five 15 s all-out sprints. Control trials were conducted in a 20°C environment while heat stress trials were performed at an ambient temperature of 40°C. Muscle biopsies and venous blood samples were obtained at rest, after 40 min of exercise and following the maximal sprints. Following......Abstract  This study investigated the influence of environmental heat stress on ammonia (NH3) accumulation in relation to nucleotide metabolism and fatigue during intermittent exercise. Eight males performed 40 min of intermittent exercise (15 s at 306±22 W alternating with 15 s of unloaded cycling...... exercise with heat stress, the core and muscle temperatures peaked at 39.5±0.2 and 40.2±0.2°C to be ~ 1°C higher (Pheat stress trial (P

  9. Young Children's Acute Stress After a Burn Injury: Disentangling the Role of Injury Severity and Parental Acute Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Ann-Christin; Landolt, Markus A

    2017-09-01

    Although injury severity and parental stress are strong predictors of posttraumatic adjustment in young children after burns, little is known about the interplay of these variables. This study aimed at clarifying mediation processes between injury severity and mother's, father's, and young child's acute stress. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between injury severity and parental and child acute stress. Parents of 138 burn-injured children (ages 1-4 years) completed standardized questionnaires on average 19 days postinjury. Sixteen children (11.7%) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, preschool criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (excluding time criterion). The model revealed a significant mediation of maternal acute stress, with the effect of injury severity on a child's acute stress mediated by maternal acute stress. Paternal acute stress failed to serve as a mediating variable. Our findings confirm mothers' crucial role in the posttraumatic adjustment of young children. Clinically, mothers' acute stress should be monitored. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Parental Stress and ASD: Relationship with Autism Symptom Severity, IQ, and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, M. Inmaculada; Tárraga-Mínguez, Raúl; Navarro-Peña, J. Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate parental stress in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD group) and compare it with the stress in parents of children with typical development (comparison group); (b) to study the relationship between parental stress, autism severity, and both verbal and performance IQ; and (c) to…

  11. Family Stress and Coping From Hospitalization of Clients With Severe Alcohol Use Disorder in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyu-Hee; Choi, Yun-Jung

    The rate of relapse and involuntary hospitalization among clients with alcohol use disorder exceeds 40% in South Korea. As a result, family members of clients experience considerable stress and require the assistance of professional services. This empirical study investigates levels of perceived stress and stress coping styles among family members of clients with severe alcohol use disorder and examines the correlations among these variables. Data were collected from three inpatient alcohol rehabilitation centers and five psychiatric hospitals in South Korea. Family stress levels and stress coping styles for 133 respondents were evaluated using the Hospital Stress Rating Scale for Family Members and the Stress Coping Style Checklist. There were significant differences in stress levels according to whether participants had attended a family educational program in the past or were doing so presently. Furthermore, significant differences in stress were observed among participants who were using the stress coping style of easing strained emotions during the client's hospitalization but who had never attended an educational program. Among the subcategories, stress levels had especially strong relationships with easing strained emotions, seeking advice, and solving problems. The results showed that families with severe alcohol use disorder experience stress from the client's hospitalization and seek advice from neighbors to deal with worries, privacy concerns, and economic problems. Family interventions are needed to provide family members with strategies to cope with stress, which can support recovery of clients with severe alcohol use disorder.

  12. The behavior of Kevlar fibers under environmental-stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark Charles

    There are a myriad of mechanisms by which polymers can degrade and fail. It is therefore important to understand the physical mechanics, chemistry, their interactions, and kinetics. This pursuit becomes more than just "academic" because these mechanisms might just change with service conditions (i.e. environment and loading). If one does not understand these processes from the molecular to macroscopic scale it would be exceedingly difficult to gain information from accelerated testing because the mechanisms just might change from one condition to another. The purpose of this study was to probe these processes on scales ranging from molecular to macroscopic in environmental stress conditions. This study reports the results of environmental-stress degradation of Kevlar 49 fibers. The environmental agent of focus was the ubiquitous air pollutant complex NOsb{x}. Other materials and environments were investigated to a lesser extent for purposes of comparison. Mechanical property (i.e., short-term strength, modulus, and creep lifetime) degradation was examined using single fiber, yarn, and epoxy coated yarn (composite) specimens under environmental-stress conditions. Optical and scanning electron microscopes were employed to examine and compare the appearance of fracture features resulting from the various testing conditions. Atomic force microscopy augmented these studies with detailed topographical mappings and measures of the fracture surface frictional and modulus properties. Molecular processes (i.e., chain scission and other mechanical-chemical reactions) were probed by measures of changes in viscosity average molecular weight and the infrared spectra. It was demonstrated that environmental-stress degradation effects do occur in the Kevlar-NOsb{x} gas system. Strength decay in environmentally exposed unloaded fibers was demonstrated and a synergistic response in creep reduced fiber lifetimes by three orders of magnitude at moderate loadings. That is to say, the

  13. Role of stress areas, stress severity, and stressful life events on the onset of depressive disorder: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueboonthavatchai, Peeraphon

    2009-09-01

    Although the stress and stressful life events are known as the precipitation of depressive disorder, the areas of stress and types of stressful life events found in depression are varied by different socio-cultural context. Identify the stress areas, stress severity, and types of stressful life events associated with the onset of depressive disorder in Thai depressed patients. Ninety depressed and ninety non-depressed subjects, aged above 18 years old, from the Department of Psychiatry, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, were recruited into the present study between July 2007 and January 2008. All subjects completed a demographic data form, and a 1-Year Life Stress Event Questionnaire. The association between the number of stressful life events, stress areas, stress severity, types of stressful life events, and the onset of depressive disorder were analyzed by independent t-test and chi-square test. Logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of depressive disorder. Most of the subjects were young and middle-aged women, living in Bangkok and the central region. The depressed subjects experienced more stressful life events than the non-depressed subjects (5.81 +/- 3.19 vs. 3.24 +/- 2.80 events in one year) (p stress areas (health-related, family-related, financial, occupational, and social stress), and overall stress were associated with the onset of depressive disorder (p stress in all areas were at the higher risk of depressive disorder than those with the mild stress (p stress was the stress area highest associated with the depressive disorder (OR = 5.93, 95% CI = 2.33-16.92, p stressful life events associated with the onset of depressive disorder were the medical hospitalization, medical illness leading to missing work or disturbed daily routine, change in sleeping habits, absence of recreation, arguments with spouse, sexual difficulties with spouse, family financial problems, job loss, and trouble with boss (p stress was the significant

  14. Mothers’ Depression and Stress, Severity of Autism among Children and Family Income

    OpenAIRE

    Athari, Pegah; Department of educational psychology, Faculty of Education Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; Ghaedi, Leila; Department of educational psychology, Faculty of Education Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between mothers’ depression and stress compared with severity of autism in children and the effect of family income on the relationship between these two latter variables. Levels of depression and stress among mothers (n=250) were measured based on Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale of 42 items (DASS¬-42). The severity of autism among children was assessed by Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) according to children’s teachers reports (n=2...

  15. Transcriptome analysis of severe hypoxic stress during development in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Woods

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia causes critical cellular injury both in early human development and in adulthood, leading to cerebral palsy, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Interestingly, a remarkable phenomenon known as hypoxic preconditioning arises when a brief hypoxia exposure protects target organs against subsequent, severe hypoxia. Although hypoxic preconditioning has been demonstrated in several model organisms and tissues including the heart and brain, its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Accordingly, we used embryonic and larval zebrafish to develop a novel vertebrate model for hypoxic preconditioning, and used this model to identify conserved hypoxia-regulated transcripts for further functional study as published in Manchenkov et al. (2015 in G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics. In this Brief article, we provide extensive annotation for the most strongly hypoxia-regulated genes in zebrafish, including their human orthologs, and describe in detail the methods used to identify, filter, and annotate hypoxia-regulated transcripts for downstream functional and bioinformatic assays using the source data provided in Gene Expression Omnibus Accession GSE68473.

  16. Environmental stress speeds up DNA replication in Pseudomonas putida in chemostat cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Sarah; Jahn, Michael; Koepff, Joachim; Müller, Susann; Takors, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Cellular response to different types of stress is the hallmark of the cell's strategy for survival. How organisms adjust their cell cycle dynamics to compensate for changes in environmental conditions is an important unanswered question in bacterial physiology. A cell using binary fission for reproduction passes through three stages during its cell cycle: a stage from cell birth to initiation of replication, a DNA replication phase and a period of cell division. We present a detailed analysis of durations of cell cycle phases, investigating their dynamics under environmental stress conditions. Applying continuous steady state cultivations (chemostats), the DNA content of a Pseudomonas putida KT2440 population was quantified with flow cytometry at distinct growth rates. Data-driven modeling revealed that under stress conditions, such as oxygen deprivation, solvent exposure and decreased iron availability, DNA replication was accelerated correlated to the severity of the imposed stress (up to 1.9-fold). Cells maintained constant growth rates by balancing the shortened replication phase with extended cell cycle phases before and after replication. Transcriptome data underpin the transcriptional upregulation of crucial genes of the replication machinery. Hence adaption of DNA replication speed appears to be an important strategy to withstand environmental stress. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Predicting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder severity from psychosocial stress and stress-response genes : A random forest regression approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Meer, D.; Hoekstra, P. J.; Van Donkelaar, M.; Bralten, J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.; Faraone, S. V.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Hartman, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Identifying genetic variants contributing to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is complicated by the involvement of numerous common genetic variants with small effects, interacting with each other as well as with environmental factors, such as stress exposure. Random forest regression

  18. Predicting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder severity from psychosocial stress and stress-response genes : a random forest regression approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, D.; Hoekstra, P. J.; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; Bralten, Janita; Oosterlaan, J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Faraone, S. V.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Hartman, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Identifying genetic variants contributing to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is complicated by the involvement of numerous common genetic variants with small effects, interacting with each other as well as with environmental factors, such as stress exposure. Random forest regression

  19. Brain neurotransmitters and hippocampal proteome in pigs under stress and environmental enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Arroyo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress and wellbeing are psychological conditions that are mediated by the central nervous system. In the brain, stress is mediated mainly by the hypothalamus, which will activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, leading to the secretion of cortisol, the paradigmatic stress hormone. Other brain areas as the amygdala, the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex (PFC are involved in emotions such as happiness, anxiety and fear. Communication between brain areas is achieved by chemical neurotransmitters (NTs, which are secreted by presynaptic neurons to reach postsynaptic neurons, where they will cause a variation in membrane polarization and other cell signaling actions, leading to physiological responses. Amongst these NTs, catecholamines (noradrenaline and dopamine and serotonin play an important role. On the other hand, the adverse effects of stress may be counteracted by housing the individuals under environmental enrichment conditions. This long-term situation should have an effect, not only on NTs, but also on the brain proteome. Under the hypothesis that different stress situations will lead to changes in NT composition that will be specific for crucial brain areas, we have tested the effects of transport stress, handling stress at the slaughterhouse, and the stress-susceptible genotype (Ryr1 on the amine NT concentration in amygdala, hippocampus, PFC and hypothalamus of pigs. The effects of living under environmentally enriched or control conditions on the NT concentration in several brain regions and on the hippocampus proteome has been also analyzed. In conclusion, genetic factors as well as management conditions related to housing, transport and slaughterhouse alter in different degree the catecholaminergic and the serotoninergic neurotransmission in the brain, and give clues about how different individual types are able to react to external challenges. Likewise, environmental enrichment leads to changes in the proteome

  20. Global gradients of coral exposure to environmental stresses and implications for local management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Maina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums, stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication, and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia. The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of

  1. Empirical applications of an environmental stress indicator and the environmental efficiency revolution in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the first aim is to apply the structure of material flow analysis (MFA and ecological footprint model to construct an environmental stress indicator. Secondly, an impact, population, affluence and technology (IPAT analysis is used to resolve indicators related to MFA and resource yield productivity. The research indicates following results: (1 The 2007 per capita ecological deficit in Taiwan is 6.3441 square hm.The figures reflect that productivity and life intensity of residents have exceeded the carrying capacity of Taiwan's ecological economic system. (2 Wealth becomes the most important factor in material needs and pollution discharge. (3 Environmental efficiency and ecological efficiency slowed down dramatically, demonstrating that use of resources and total amount of environmental stress stay at a developmental stage. Therefore, if proper measures are not adopted, the current weak sustainability will lead into the vicious circle which departs from sustainable development.

  2. The Influence of Environmental Consequences and Internalizing Symptoms on Children's Tic Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Cyd K; Jones, Anna M; Gutierrez-Colina, Ana M; Ivey, Emily K; Carlson, Olivia; Melville, Lauren; Kardon, Patricia; Blount, Ronald L

    2017-04-01

    Although there is evidence that environmental consequences for displaying tics and internalizing symptoms are related to tic severity in children with TS, less is known about the inter-relationships of these variables or how these factors jointly contribute to tic severity. This study included 45 children with Tourette syndrome. Caregivers reported on children's environmental consequences for displaying tics, internalizing symptoms, and tic severity. Results indicated that children with higher levels of internalizing symptoms experienced significantly more environmental consequences for displaying tics. Children with higher levels of separation anxiety symptoms demonstrated significantly greater tic severity. Environmental consequences for displaying tics accounted for significantly more variance in predicting tic severity than anxiety symptoms. This preliminary evidence suggests that environmental consequences for displaying tics, such as receiving accommodations or attention from others, have a greater influence on children's tic severity than emotional factors.

  3. Stress corrosion cracking of several high strength ferrous and nickel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of several high strength ferrous and nickel base alloys has been determined in a sodium chloride solution. Results indicate that under these test conditions Multiphase MP35N, Unitemp L605, Inconel 718, Carpenter 20Cb and 20Cb-3 are highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking. AISI 410 and 431 stainless steels, 18 Ni maraging steel (250 grade) and AISI 4130 steel are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under some conditions.

  4. Stress moderates the relationships between problem-gambling severity and specific psychopathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Kraus, Shane W; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which stress moderated the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychopathologies. We analyzed Wave-1 data from 41,869 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Logistic regression showed that as compared to a non-gambling (NG) group, individuals at-risk gambling (ARG) and problem gambling (PPG) demonstrated higher odds of multiple Axis-I and Axis-II disorders in both high- and low-stress groups. Interactions odds ratios were statistically significant for stress moderating the relationships between at-risk gambling (versus non-gambling) and Any Axis-I and Any Axis-II disorder, with substance-use and Cluster-A and Cluster-B disorders contributing significantly. Some similar patterns were observed for pathological gambling (versus non-gambling), with stress moderating relationships with Cluster-B disorders. In all cases, a stronger relationship was observed between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in the low-stress versus high-stress groups. The findings suggest that perceived stress accounts for some of the variance in the relationship between problem-gambling severity and specific forms of psychopathology, particularly with respect to lower intensity, subsyndromal levels of gambling. Findings suggest that stress may be particularly important to consider in the relationships between problem-gambling severity and substance use and Cluster-B disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and severe maternal morbidity: is there an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Carina R; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Parpinelli, Mary A; Silveira, Carla; Andreucci, Carla B; Ferreira, Elton C; Santos, Juliana P; Zanardi, Dulce M; Souza, Renato T; Cecatti, Jose G

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among women experiencing a severe maternal morbidity event and associated factors in comparison with those without maternal morbidity. In a retrospective cohort study, 803 women with or without severe maternal morbidity were evaluated at 6 months to 5 years postpartum for the presence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Interviews were conducted by telephone and electronic data was stored. Data analysis was carried out by using χ2, Fisher's Exact test, and logistic regression analysis. There was no significant change in the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder related to a previous severe maternal morbidity experience. There were also no differences in diagnostic criteria for severe maternal morbidity (hypertensive syndromes, hemorrhage, surgical intervention or intensive care unit admission required, among other management criteria). Low parity (2.5-fold risk) and increasing age were factors associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A severe maternal morbidity episode is not associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms within five years of the severe maternal morbidity event and birth. However, a more advanced maternal age and primiparity increased the risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. This does not imply that women who had experienced a severe maternal morbidity event did not suffer or need differentiated care.

  6. Microbiota and environmental stress: how pollution affects microbial communities in Manila clams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, M; Carraro, L; Fariselli, P; Martino, M E; Cavalieri, D; Vitali, F; Boffo, L; Patarnello, T; Bargelloni, L; Cardazzo, B

    2018-01-01

    Given the crucial role of microbiota in host development, health, and environmental interactions, genomic analyses focusing on host-microbiota interactions should certainly be considered in the investigation of the adaptive mechanisms to environmental stress. Recently, several studies suggested that microbiota associated to digestive tract is a key, although still not fully understood, player that must be considered to assess the toxicity of environmental contaminants. Bacteria-dependent metabolism of xenobiotics may indeed modulate the host toxicity. Conversely, environmental variables (including pollution) may alter the microbial community and/or its metabolic activity leading to host physiological alterations that may contribute to their toxicity. Here, 16s rRNA gene amplicon sequencing has been applied to characterize the hepatopancreas microbiota composition of the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. The animals were collected in the Venice lagoon area, which is subject to different anthropogenic pressures, mainly represented by the industrial activities of Porto Marghera (PM). Seasonal and geographic differences in clam microbiotas were explored and linked to host response to chemical stress identified in a previous study at the transcriptome level, establishing potential interactions among hosts, microbes, and environmental parameters. The obtained results showed the recurrent presence of putatively detoxifying bacterial taxa in PM clams during winter and over-representation of several metabolic pathways involved in xenobiotic degradation, which suggested the potential for host-microbial synergistic detoxifying actions. Strong interaction between seasonal and chemically-induced responses was also observed, which partially obscured such potentially synergistic actions. Seasonal variables and exposure to toxicants were therefore shown to interact and substantially affect clam microbiota, which appeared to mirror host response to environmental variation. It

  7. The ties that bind: perceived social support, stress, and IBS in severely affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, J M; Brasel, A M; Quigley, B M; Keefer, L; Krasner, S S; Powell, C; Katz, L A; Sitrin, M D

    2010-08-01

    This study assessed the association between social support and the severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms in a sample of severely affected IBS patients recruited to an NIH-funded clinical trial. In addition, we examined if the effects of social support on IBS pain are mediated through the effects on stress. Subjects were 105 Rome II diagnosed IBS patients (F = 85%) who completed seven questionnaires which were collected as part of a pretreatment baseline assessment. Partial correlations were conducted to clarify the relationships between social support and clinically relevant variables with baseline levels of psychopathology, holding constant number of comorbid medical diseases, age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, and education. Analyses indicated that social support was inversely related to IBS symptom severity. Social support was positively related with less severe pain. A similar pattern of data was found for perceived stress but not quality of life impairment. Regression analyses examined if the effects of social support on pain are mediated by stress. The effects of social support on bodily pain were mediated by stress such that the greater the social support the less stress and the less pain. This effect did not hold for symptom severity, quality of life, or psychological distress. This study links the perceived adequacy of social support to the global severity of symptoms of IBS and its cardinal symptom (pain). It also suggests that the mechanism by which social support alleviates pain is through a reduction in stress levels.

  8. Community violence exposure and severe posttraumatic stress in suburban American youth: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Lindblad, Frank; Stickley, Andrew; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-04-01

    The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24% of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.

  9. Thermoregulatory responses to environmental toxicants: The interaction of thermal stress and toxicant exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Lisa R.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal stress can have a profound impact on the physiological responses that are elicited following environmental toxicant exposure. The efficacy by which toxicants enter the body is directly influenced by thermoregulatory effector responses that are evoked in response to high ambient temperatures. In mammals, the thermoregulatory response to heat stress consists of an increase in skin blood flow and moistening of the skin surface to dissipate core heat to the environment. These physiological responses may exacerbate chemical toxicity due to increased permeability of the skin, which facilitates the cutaneous absorption of many environmental toxicants. The core temperature responses that are elicited in response to high ambient temperatures, toxicant exposure or both can also have a profound impact on the ability of an organism to survive the insult. In small rodents, the thermoregulatory response to thermal stress and many environmental toxicants (such as organophosphate compounds) is often biphasic in nature, consisting initially of a regulated reduction in core temperature (i.e., hypothermia) followed by fever. Hypothermia is an important thermoregulatory survival strategy that is used by small rodents to diminish the effect of severe environmental insults on tissue homeostasis. The protective effect of hypothermia is realized by its effects on chemical toxicity as molecular and cellular processes, such as lipid peroxidation and the formation of reactive oxygen species, are minimized at reduced core temperatures. The beneficial effects of fever are unknown under these conditions. Perspective is provided on the applicability of data obtained in rodent models to the human condition

  10. An Agent-Based Modeling Framework for Simulating Human Exposure to Environmental Stresses in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Emlyn Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches have been used to assess potential human exposure to environmental stresses and achieve optimal results under various conditions, such as for example, for different scales, groups of people, or points in time. A thorough literature review in this paper identifies the research gap regarding modeling approaches for assessing human exposure to environment stressors, and it indicates that microsimulation tools are becoming increasingly important in human exposure assessments of urban environments, in which each person is simulated individually and continuously. The paper further describes an agent-based model (ABM framework that can dynamically simulate human exposure levels, along with their daily activities, in urban areas that are characterized by environmental stresses such as air pollution and heat stress. Within the framework, decision-making processes can be included for each individual based on rule-based behavior in order to achieve goals under changing environmental conditions. The ideas described in this paper are implemented in a free and open source NetLogo platform. A basic modeling scenario of the ABM framework in Hamburg, Germany, demonstrates its utility in various urban environments and individual activity patterns, as well as its portability to other models, programs, and frameworks. The prototype model can potentially be extended to support environmental incidence management through exploring the daily routines of different groups of citizens, and comparing the effectiveness of different strategies. Further research is needed to fully develop an operational version of the model.

  11. Differences in frontal and limbic brain activation in a small sample of monozygotic twin pairs discordant for severe stressful life events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detre A. Godinez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Monozygotic twin pairs provide a valuable opportunity to control for genetic and shared environmental influences while studying the effects of nonshared environmental influences. The question we address with this design is whether monozygotic twins selected for discordance in exposure to severe stressful life events during development (before age 18 demonstrate differences in brain activation during performance of an emotional word-face Stroop task. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess brain activation in eighteen young adult twins who were discordant in exposure to severe stress such that one twin had two or more severe events compared to their control co-twin who had no severe events. Twins who experienced higher levels of stress during development, compared to their control co-twins with lower stress, exhibited significant clusters of greater activation in the ventrolateral and medial prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic regions. The control co-twins showed only the more typical recruitment of frontoparietal regions thought to be important for executive control of attention and maintenance of task goals. Behavioral performance was not significantly different between twins within pairs, suggesting the twins with stress recruited additional neural resources associated with affective processing and updating working memory when performing at the same level. This study provides a powerful glimpse at the potential effects of stress during development while accounting for shared genetic and environmental influences.

  12. Dealing with extreme environmental degradation: stress and marginalization of Sahel dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haaften, E H; Van de Vijver, F J

    1999-07-01

    Psychological aspects of environmental degradation are hardly investigated. In the present study these aspects were examined among Sahel dwellers, who live in environments with different states of degradation. The degradation was assessed in terms of vegetation cover, erosion, and loss of organic matter. Subjects came from three cultural groups: Dogon (agriculturalists, n = 225), Mossi (agriculturalists, n = 914), and Fulani (pastoralists, n = 844). Questionnaires addressing marginalization, locus of control, and coping were administered. Environmental degradation was associated with higher levels of stress, marginalization, passive coping (avoidance), a more external locus of control, and lower levels of active coping (problem solving and support seeking). Compared to agriculturalists, pastoralists showed a stronger variation in all psychological variables across all regions, from the least to the most environmentally degraded. Women showed higher scores of stress, (external) locus of control, problem solving, and support seeking than men. The interaction of gender and region was significant for several variables. It was concluded that environmental degradation has various psychological correlates: people are likely to display an active approach to environmental degradation as long as the level of degradation is not beyond their control.

  13. Age differences in emotional responses to daily stress: the role of timing, severity, and global perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stacey B; Sliwinski, Martin J; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2013-12-01

    Research on age differences in emotional responses to daily stress has produced inconsistent findings. Guided by recent theoretical advances in aging theory (S. T. Charles, 2010, Strength and vulnerability integration: A model of emotional well-being across adulthood, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 136, pp. 1068-1091) that emphasize the importance of context for predicting when and how age is related to affective well-being, the current study examined age differences in emotional responses to everyday stressors. The present study examined how three contextual features (e.g., timing of exposure, stressor severity, global perceived stress [GPS]) moderate age differences in emotional experience in an ecological momentary assessment study of adults (N = 190) aged 18-81 years. Results indicated that older adults' negative affect (NA) was less affected by exposure to recent stressors than younger adults, but that there were no age differences in the effects of stressor exposure 3-6 hr afterward. Higher levels of GPS predicted amplified NA responses to daily stress, and controlling for GPS eliminated age differences in NA responses to stressors. No age differences in NA responses as a function of stressor severity were observed. In contrast, older age was associated with less of a decrease in PA when exposed to recent stressors or with more severe recent stressors. There were no age differences in the effect of previous stressor exposure or severity on PA, or any interactions between momentary or previous stress and GPS on PA. Together, these results support the notion that chronic stress plays a central role in emotional experience in daily life. We discuss the implications of these results for emotion theories of aging. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Resilience of networks to environmental stress: From regular to random networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho

    2018-04-01

    Despite the huge interest in network resilience to stress, most of the studies have concentrated on internal stress damaging network structure (e.g., node removals). Here we study how networks respond to environmental stress deteriorating their external conditions. We show that, when regular networks gradually disintegrate as environmental stress increases, disordered networks can suddenly collapse at critical stress with hysteresis and vulnerability to perturbations. We demonstrate that this difference results from a trade-off between node resilience and network resilience to environmental stress. The nodes in the disordered networks can suppress their collapses due to the small-world topology of the networks but eventually collapse all together in return. Our findings indicate that some real networks can be highly resilient against environmental stress to a threshold yet extremely vulnerable to the stress above the threshold because of their small-world topology.

  15. Parenting stress in pediatric IBD: relations with child psychopathology, family functioning, and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Wendy N; Graef, Danielle M; Schuman, Shana S; Janicke, David M; Hommel, Kevin A

    2013-05-01

    Parenting stress in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been under-examined. Data validating use of the Pediatric Inventory for Parents (PIP), a measure of parenting stress associated with caring for a chronically ill child, in chronic diseases with intermittent, unpredictable disease courses, such as IBD, are needed. This study presents validity data in support of the PIP in pediatric IBD and examines relations between parenting stress and important psychosocial and medical outcomes. Adolescents (N = 130) with IBD and their caregivers across 3 sites completed measures of parenting stress, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral functioning. Disease severity was also assessed for each participant. The PIP demonstrates excellent internal consistency. Parenting stress was significantly higher among those with unhealthy general family functioning and those with children with borderline or clinically elevated internalizing symptoms. Caregiving stress was greater among parents of youth with more active Crohn's disease. Results supported the reliability and validity of the PIP for assessing caregiving stress in pediatric IBD. Routine assessment of parenting stress is recommended, particularly among parents reporting unhealthy family functioning and parents of youth with borderline or clinically elevated internalizing symptoms and more active disease.

  16. Oxidative status and the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovac Štefanović, Leda; Kalinić, Dubravka; Mimica, Ninoslav; Beer Ljubić, Blanka; Aladrović, Jasna; Mandelsamen Perica, Marina; Curić, Maja; Grošić, Petra Folnegović; Delaš, Ivančica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the parameters of oxidative stress in the blood of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. The study included 80 male war veterans who participated actively in the Homeland war in Croatia. Volunteers were divided into two groups: 50 veterans diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder and 30 without diagnosis. The self-assessment Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory were used to detect the severity of depression and anxiety in the post-traumatic stress disorder patients. Catalytic concentrations of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes and the concentration of malondialdehyde in serum were measured spectrophotometrically. Although the catalytic concentrations of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase were within the reference range for both groups, the values obtained for the post-traumatic stress disorder group were significantly lower (Ppost-traumatic stress disorder may indicate a weaker response to oxidative stress due to impaired enzyme activity and/or decreased synthesis. Conversely, no significant changes in serum malondialdehyde concentrations suggest a compensated balance and adaptive response to (oxidative) stress. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Environmental blue light prevents stress in the fish Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpato G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to test the effects of blue, green or white light on the stress response of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.. Each color was tested on two groups of isolated adult Nile tilapia (8 replicates each: one being subjected to confinement stress, and the other not (control. A different environmental color was imposed on each compartment by covering the light source with cellophane of the respective color (green or blue; no cellophane was used for white light. The intensity of green, white and blue lights was 250, 590 and 250 lux, respectively. Basal plasma cortisol levels were determined for each fish prior to the experimental procedures. The fish were confined by being displaced toward one side of the aquarium using an opaque partition for 1 h both in the morning and the afternoon of the two consecutive days of the test. At the end of this 48-h period, plasma cortisol levels were measured again. Basal cortisol levels (ng/ml were similar for each group (ANOVA, F(2;42 = 0.77, P = 0.47. Thus, plasma cortisol levels were analyzed in terms of variation from their respective basal level. After confinement, plasma cortisol levels were not increased in fish submitted to a blue light environment. Thus, blue light prevents the confinement-induced cortisol response, an effect not necessarily related to light intensity.

  18. Several issues related to regional environmental investigation to inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xinshan; Zhang Xiaofeng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the goal of carrying out regional environmental investigation and review of recent environmental investigations toward inland nuclear power plant(NPP) site, and combined with the characteristics between inland and coastal sites, this paper is to make deeply analysis on population distribution, environmental characteristics, feasibility of performing emergency plan, characteristics of received water and external human-induced incident of NPP vicinity, then advance several significant issues related regional environmental investigation to inland sites, and make comparison with the investigation to coastal sites. Meantime, on guarantee of the integrity of collected materials during investigation, this paper also makes several proposals to provide reference for carrying out regional environmental investigation to inland NPP site. (authors)

  19. Prenatal stress challenge impairs fetal lung development and asthma severity sex-specifically in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazara, Dimitra E; Perani, Clara V; Solano, María E; Arck, Petra C

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is an increasing health problem worldwide. Interestingly, prenatal challenges such as stress have been associated with an increased risk for asthma during childhood. The underlying pathogenesis of how prenatal stress increases the risk for asthma still remains unclear. Potential targets could be that the fetal immune ontogeny or fetal lung development are compromised by prenatal challenges. Here, we aimed to identify whether prenatal stress challenge affects fetal lung development in mice. C57BL/6 pregnant mice were challenged with sound stress and fetal lung development was assessed histologically. Whilst prenatal stress challenge did not profoundly affect lung development in male fetuses, it resulted in less extensive terminal sacs, surrounded by thicker mesenchymal tissue in female fetuses. Thus, prenatal stress disrupted fetal lung development sex-specifically. Interestingly, upon prenatal stress challenge, the airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilic inflammation- two hallmarks of asthma - were significantly increased in adult female offspring, whilst regulatory CD4+ T cells were reduced. These findings strongly underpin the sex-specific association between s challenged fetal development and a sex-specific altered severity of asthma in adult offspring. Our model now allows to identify maternal markers through which the risk for asthma and possible other diseases is vertically transferred before birth in response to challenges. Such identification then opens avenues for primary disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the severity of anterior myocardial infarction (single-vessel disease) by stress myocardial scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Mitsuru; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Hayashi, Makoto; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya

    1986-01-01

    Stress thallium-201 scanning was performed in 57 patients with ≥ 75 % stenosis in the left anterior descending artery. The ratio of lung uptake to heart uptake was defined as lung thallium uptake. For quantitative assessment of infarct size and the severity of ischemia, defect score and ischemic score were derived, respectively, from circumferential profile analysis. Lung thallium uptake at stress tended to increase with an increase in both defect and ischemic scores. The increase in lung thallium uptake also tended to be associated with a decrease in LVEF as determined by cardiac catheterization. The results indicate that stress thallium scanning is of value in the evaluation of the severity of myocardial infarction. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Genetic and environmental components of female depression as a function of the severity of the disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, James S M; Tasker, Fiona; Cherkas, Lynn

    2016-10-01

    Both clinical care and genome-wide studies need to account for levels of severity in the etiology of depression. The purpose of the study is to estimate the genetic and environmental components of female depression as a function of the severity of the disorder. A genetic and environmental model analysis of depression incidence was made using the IOP Depression Severity Measure (IDSM). Details of lifetime depression incidence were obtained by questionnaire from twins on the DTR registry. Data from 1449 matched female twin pairs in the age range 19-85 years in four ordinal categories of increasing severity were employed in the analysis. Estimates of additive and dominance genetic components of 27% and 25% were found when all three levels of depression were included, and near zero and 33% when the recurrent/severe level was excluded. Shared environmental effects were not significant in either case, but the estimate for random environmental effects was greater when the severe level was excluded. These results suggest that the incidence of severe depression is associated with homozygotic alleles and the less severe with heterozygotic alleles. This is in accord with the finding that the hereditary component of severe depression is relatively high and that milder forms are more dependent on life-time environmental factors. Such conclusions have clinical implications for the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder by practicing psychiatrists. They also lead to the importance of focusing future genome-wide and linkage studies on those females with severe levels of depression if progress in identifying genetic risk loci is to be made.

  2. Severe, multimodal stress exposure induces PTSD-like characteristics in a mouse model of single prolonged stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Shane A; Eagle, Andrew L; George, Sophie A; Mulo, Kostika; Kohler, Robert J; Gerard, Justin; Harutyunyan, Arman; Hool, Steven M; Susick, Laura L; Schneider, Brandy L; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Galloway, Matthew P; Liberzon, Israel; Conti, Alana C

    2016-04-15

    Appropriate animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are needed because human studies remain limited in their ability to probe the underlying neurobiology of PTSD. Although the single prolonged stress (SPS) model is an established rat model of PTSD, the development of a similarly-validated mouse model emphasizes the benefits and cross-species utility of rodent PTSD models and offers unique methodological advantages to that of the rat. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop and describe a SPS model for mice and to provide data that support current mechanisms relevant to PTSD. The mouse single prolonged stress (mSPS) paradigm, involves exposing C57Bl/6 mice to a series of severe, multimodal stressors, including 2h restraint, 10 min group forced swim, exposure to soiled rat bedding scent, and exposure to ether until unconsciousness. Following a 7-day undisturbed period, mice were tested for cue-induced fear behavior, effects of paroxetine on cue-induced fear behavior, extinction retention of a previously extinguished fear memory, dexamethasone suppression of corticosterone (CORT) response, dorsal hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor protein and mRNA expression, and prefrontal cortex glutamate levels. Exposure to mSPS enhanced cue-induced fear, which was attenuated by oral paroxetine treatment. mSPS also disrupted extinction retention, enhanced suppression of stress-induced CORT response, increased mRNA expression of dorsal hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors and decreased prefrontal cortex glutamate levels. These data suggest that the mSPS model is a translationally-relevant model for future PTSD research with strong face, construct, and predictive validity. In summary, mSPS models characteristics relevant to PTSD and this severe, multimodal stress modifies fear learning in mice that coincides with changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, brain glucocorticoid systems, and glutamatergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex

  3. Family Stress Associated with Transition to Adulthood of Young People with Severe Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorin, Elizabeth J.; Irvin, Larry K.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of concerns expressed by 42 members of 19 families of young adults with severe developmental disabilities indicated concerns in such areas as self-care capabilities, sexuality, and quality of residential services. Concerns in the residential domain were most predictive of overall individual and family stress. Effects of questioning…

  4. Impact of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Injury Severity on Recovery in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenardy, Justin; Le Brocque, Robyne; Hendrikz, Joan; Iselin, Greg; Anderson, Vicki; McKinlay, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The adverse impact on recovery of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been demonstrated in returned veterans. The study assessed this effect in children's health outcomes following TBI and extended previous work by including a full range of TBI severity, and improved assessment of PTSD within a…

  5. Condition assessment of timber bridges. 2, Evaluation of several stress-wave tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Vatalaro; James P. Wacker; Robert J. Ross

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of several stress-wave devices widely used for locating deteriorated areas in timber bridge members. Bridge components containing different levels of natural decay were tested using various devices. The specimens were then sawn (along their length) into slabs to expose their interior condition. The...

  6. Stress and sleep duration predict headache severity in chronic headache sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Timothy T; Butschek, Ross A; Turner, Dana P; Smitherman, Todd A; Rains, Jeanetta C; Penzien, Donald B

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the time-series relationships between stress, sleep duration, and headache pain among patients with chronic headaches. Sleep and stress have long been recognized as potential triggers of episodic headache (headache days/month), though prospective evidence is inconsistent and absent in patients diagnosed with chronic headaches (≥15 days/month). We reanalyzed data from a 28-day observational study of chronic migraine (n=33) and chronic tension-type headache (n=22) sufferers. Patients completed the Daily Stress Inventory and recorded headache and sleep variables using a daily sleep/headache diary. Stress ratings, duration of previous nights' sleep, and headache severity were modeled using a series of linear mixed models with random effects to account for individual differences in observed associations. Models were displayed using contour plots. Two consecutive days of either high stress or low sleep were strongly predictive of headache, whereas 2 days of low stress or adequate sleep were protective. When patterns of stress or sleep were divergent across days, headache risk was increased only when the earlier day was characterized by high stress or poor sleep. As predicted, headache activity in the combined model was highest when high stress and low sleep occurred concurrently during the prior 2 days, denoting an additive effect. Future research is needed to expand on current findings among chronic headache patients and to develop individualized models that account for multiple simultaneous influences of headache trigger factors. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in inflammation, oxidative stress and adipokines following bariatric surgery among adolescents with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A S; Ryder, J R; Marlatt, K L; Rudser, K D; Jenkins, T; Inge, T H

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation, oxidative stress and dysregulation of adipokines are thought to be pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity to the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In adults, bariatric surgery reduces inflammation and oxidative stress, and beneficially changes the levels of several adipokines, but little is known about the postsurgical changes among adolescents. In two separate longitudinal cohorts we evaluated change from baseline of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL), adiponectin, leptin and resistin up to 12 months following elective laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) surgery in adolescents with severe obesity. In cohort 1, which consisted of 39 adolescents (mean age 16.5±1.6 years; 29 females) undergoing either RYGB or VSG, IL-6 (baseline: 2.3±3.4 pg ml(-1) vs 12 months: 0.8±0.6 pg ml(-1), Padolescents (mean age 16.5±1.6 years; 10 females) undergoing RYGB, results were similar: IL-6 (baseline: 1.7±0.9 pg ml(-1) vs 12 months: 0.4±0.9 pg ml(-1), PBariatric surgery produced robust improvements in markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and several adipokines among adolescents with severe obesity, suggesting potential reductions in risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  8. Severity of anxiety- but not depression- is associated with oxidative stress in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Lisa R; Hough, Christina M; Reus, Victor I; Jain, Felipe A; Epel, Elissa S; James, S Jill; Morford, Alexandra E; Mellon, Synthia H; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Lindqvist, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in both depression and anxiety, but it is currently unclear whether this relates to syndromal diagnoses or trans-diagnostic dimensional symptoms. We examined the relationship between oxidative stress and severity of depression and anxiety symptoms in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Plasma oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH), were assessed in 69 physically healthy, medication-free MDD subjects. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) Rating Scales. Total HAM-A and HAM-D scores, along with "core" anxiety and depression subscales, and individual HAM-D items "psychic anxiety" and "depressed mood," were related to oxidative stress markers. Analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, and smoking. Total HAM-A ratings were positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.26, p=.042) and GSSG (β=.25, p=.049), but not GSH (β=.05, p=.711). Core anxiety severity was positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.34, p=.012) and GSSG, although this did not reach significance (β=.24, p=.074). None of the biological markers were significantly associated with total HAM-D or core depression ratings (all p>.13). Subjects scoring high on "psychic anxiety" had elevated F2-isoprostanes (p=.030) and GSSG (p=.020). This was not seen with "depressed mood" scores (all p>.12). We assessed peripheral oxidative markers, but their relationship to the brain is unclear. Oxidative stress is more closely related to anxiety than depression symptoms in MDD. This highlights the importance of relating oxidative stress to specific symptoms and could provide new insights into the biological correlates of affective disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Woody plants in drylands: plastic responses to environmental stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.

    2012-01-01

    Plants in drylands are exposed to a suite of stress factors. The most obvious stress factor is drought stress induced by a strongly negative balance between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Drylands are increasingly being used for grazing livestock and with increasing human

  10. Clinical evaluation of lung rest/stress perfusion scintigraphy in patients with severe emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjikostova, Hr.

    1998-01-01

    Volume lung reduction surgery (LVRS) improves lung function and physical tolerance for selected patients with severe pulmonary emphysema by making conditions for developing of the vital parenchyma so far compressed by the emphysema blisters. The aim of this study was to establish the comparative functional information obtained from REST/STRESS lung perfusion tomoscintigraphies for identification of non functional lung tissue. Eleven patients (8 males and 3 females at age 41-60) were examined by two lung perfusions SPECT scintigraphies after intravenous application of 222 MBq 99m Tc-MAA: 1. after 30 min. lying rest and 2. 48 hours later after 6 min. walk test. Comparing the two scintigraphies the following changes in perfusion performance have been established at STRESS examination: increased at six patients (significant at three and slight also at three) and decreased at two. There was no difference between REST and STRESS examinations at 3 patients. Comparative REST/STRESS lung perfusion scintigraphy is important method for screening severe pulmonary patients for LVRS. (author)

  11. The Direct and Interactive Effects of Neuroticism and Life Stress on the Severity and Longitudinal Course of Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy A.; Rosellini, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of neuroticism and stressful life events (chronic and episodic stressors) on the severity and temporal course of depression symptoms were examined in 826 outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders, assessed on three occasions over a one-year period (intake, 6- and 12-month follow-ups). Neuroticism, chronic stress, and episodic stress were uniquely associated with intake depression symptom severity. A significant interaction effect indicated that the strength of the effect of neuroticism on initial depression severity increased as chronic stress increased. Although neuroticism did not have a significant direct effect on the temporal course of depression symptoms, chronic stress significantly moderated this relationship such that neuroticism had an increasingly deleterious effect on depression symptom improvement as the level of chronic stress over follow-up increased. In addition, chronic stress over follow-up (but not episodic stress) was uniquely predictive of less depression symptom improvement. Consistent with a stress generation framework, however, initial depression symptom severity was positively associated with chronic stress during follow-up. The results are discussed in regard to diathesis-stress conceptual models of emotional disorders and the various roles of stressful life events in the onset, severity, and maintenance of depressive psychopathology. PMID:21381799

  12. Environmental stress, resource management and demographic change in Northern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niboye, E.P.

    1999-12-01

    A multitude of environmental problems abound in Tanzania. The problems range from declining land resources, de-vegetation, urban and air pollution, degradation of the marine environment to the destruction of biological diversity. A thorough analysis of these manifestations of environments decline reveal the presence of linkages to economic, political, cultural and demographic constraints which have been at the crux of Tanzania's efforts towards emancipation. We attested that societies are always dialect and integral parts of the global entity. As such the analysis of any societal problem can not be sufficiently tackled by basing on a 'micro level' societal specific factors. We need to expand our horizon and include 'macro level' elements which impinges on the society under study. Imperatively, influences on any environment, social or biophysical, whether positive or negative, emanates either or both from within the specific society and or from without. In our study we set out to provide an insight into the nature and character of man and environment interaction in Arumeru district, Northern Tanzania. We intended to investigate the extent to which changes in the household production patterns as a result of environmental stress and the consequent resource management strategies influence and are hitherto influenced by population growth. The aspects of demographic changes especially patterns of growth and settlement, agrarian production such as land tenure, food and cash crop interventions, non-farm activities and management of the commons were studies. Further, local adaptation to crisis including environmental stress and emerging markets were explored. he theoretical model adopted in analysing the man-land environment relationship in Arumeru district and the ensuing findings, give legitimacy to the position that issues of population growth or decline cannot be separated from questions of economic and social development, or from the environmental concerns related to

  13. Physiological and molecular responses to drought in Petunia: the importance of stress severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongyun

    2012-01-01

    Plant responses to drought stress vary depending on the severity of stress and the stage of drought progression. To improve the understanding of such responses, the leaf physiology, abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, and expression of genes associated with ABA metabolism and signalling were investigated in Petunia × hybrida. Plants were exposed to different specific substrate water contents (θ = 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, or 0.40 m3·m–3) to induce varying levels of drought stress. Plant responses were investigated both during the drying period (θ decreased to the θ thresholds) and while those threshold θ were maintained. Stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (A) decreased with decreasing midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf). Leaf ABA concentration increased with decreasing midday Ψleaf and was negatively correlated with gs (r = –0.92). Despite the increase in leaf ABA concentration under drought, no significant effects on the expression of ABA biosynthesis genes were observed. However, the ABA catabolism-related gene CYP707A2 was downregulated, primarily in plants under severe drought (θ = 0.10 m3∙m–3), suggesting a decrease in ABA catabolism under severe drought. Expression of phospholipase Dα (PLDα), involved in regulating stomatal responses to ABA, was enhanced under drought during the drying phase, but there was no relationship between PLDα expression and midday Ψleaf after the θ thresholds had been reached. The results show that drought response of plants depends on the severity of drought stress and the phase of drought progression. PMID:23077204

  14. Compound risk: History of traumatic stress predicts posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and severity in sudden cardiac arrest survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Lindsey; Ford, Jessica; Whited, Amanda; Cahill, John; Lampert, Rachel; Mosesso, Vincent N; Lawless, Christine; Sears, Samuel F

    2016-08-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) survivors can develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) which is associated with worse clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of PTSD in a large sample of SCA survivors. Prior history of psychological trauma and the effects of repeated trauma exposure on subsequent PTSD and symptom severity after SCA were also explored. A retrospective, cross-sectional study of 188 SCA survivors from the Sudden Cardiac Arrest Association patient registry completed an online questionnaire that included measures of PTSD, trauma history, sociodemographics, general health, and cardiac history. Sixty-three (36.2%) SCA survivors in this sample scored above the clinical cutoff for PTSD. Female gender, worse general health, and younger age predicted PTSD symptoms after SCA. Additionally, 50.2% of SCA survivors (n = 95) reported a history of trauma exposure and 25.4% (n = 48) of the total sample endorsed a traumatic stress response to a historic trauma. Results indicated that a traumatic stress response to a historic trauma was a stronger predictor of PTSD after SCA (odds ratio = 4.77) than all other variables in the model. PTSD symptoms are present in over one-third of SCA survivors. While demographic or health history variables predicted PTSD after SCA, a history of traumatic stress response to a previous trauma emerged as the strongest predictor of these symptoms. Routine assessment and interdisciplinary management are discussed as potential ways to expedite survivors' recovery and return to daily living. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  15. Active war in Sri Lanka: Children's war exposure, coping, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysa, Champika K; Azar, Sandra T

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to active war is understudied among Sinhalese children in Sri Lanka. We investigated PTSD symptom severity in children using child (n = 60) and mother (n = 60) reports; child-reported war exposure and coping; as well as self-reported maternal PTSD symptom severity. The study addressed active war in 2 rural locations (acute and chronic community war exposure). Child-reports were significantly greater than mother-reports of child PTSD symptom severity. Furthermore, children's war exposure, child-reported and mother-reported child PTSD symptom severity, and maternal PTSD symptom severity were significantly greater in the acute versus chronic community war exposure location, but children's approach and avoidance coping did not significantly differ, indicating a potential ceiling effect. Children's war exposure significantly, positively predicted child-reported child PTSD symptom severity, controlling for age, gender, and maternal PTSD symptom severity, but only maternal PTSD symptom severity significantly, positively predicted mother-reported child PTSD symptom severity. Avoidance coping (in both acute and chronic war) significantly positively mediated the children's war exposure-child-reported child PTSD symptom severity relation, but not mother-reports of the same. Approach coping (in chronic but not acute war) significantly, positively mediated the children's war exposure-child-reported and mother-reported child PTSD symptom severity relations. We advanced the literature on long-term active war by confirming the value of children's self-reports, establishing that both approach and avoidance coping positively mediated the war-exposure-PTSD symptom severity relation, and that the mediation effect of approach coping was situationally moderated by acute verses chronic community war exposure among Sri Lankan children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Priorities for Addressing Severe Accident and L3PSA in Radiation Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, M. S.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, S. R. [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Y. H.; Yoon, Y. I. [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Domestic rules for the radiation environment impact assessment were enacted based on NUREG-0555, the guidance to the nuclear regulatory commission staff in implementing provisions of 10 CFR 51, 'environmental protection regulations for domestic licensing and related regulatory functions', related to NPPs. A revised document of NUREG-0555 was published in 2000 as NUREG-1555, Vol. 1 and 2. The related domestic rules would have made some revisions in accordance with NUREG-1555 in 2016. In this paper, we would introduce the new technical standards and review legal and technical issues on legislation. There are three legal and technical issues on revised legislation that includes severe accidents and L3PSA results in RER. First, it may need a regular and continuing education for the severe accident concept, probabilistic assessment method and conservative assumptions for severe accident, how to interpret the assessment results, the probability of a severe accident, SAMA and etc. to obtain the public understanding for severe accident. Second, it needs the development of strategy and technology not only to evaluate the risk of multi-unit accidents and failure case and the impacts of inter-unit shared systems and common events for the probabilistic assessment of severe accidents but also to solve many potential L3PSA challenges. Finally, the cost-beneficial SAMAs analysis would be added in radiation environmental impact and severe accident impact analysis.

  17. Identification of novel markers that demarcate the nucleolus during severe stress and chemotherapeutic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Haitong; Kodiha, Mohamed; Lee, Sunghoon; Stochaj, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    The nucleolus, the ribosomal factory of the cell, has emerged as a key player that regulates many aspects of cell biology. Several thousand proteins associate at least transiently with nucleoli, thereby generating a highly dynamic compartment with a protein profile which is sensitive to changes in cell physiology and pharmacological agents. Powerful tools that reliably demarcate the nucleoli are a prerequisite to measure their composition and activities. Previously, we developed quantitative methods to measure fluorescently labeled molecules in nucleoli. While these tools identify nucleoli under control and mild stress conditions, the accurate detection of nucleolar boundaries under harsh experimental conditions is complicated by the lack of appropriate markers for the nucleolar compartment. Using fluorescence microscopy we have now identified new marker proteins to detect nucleoli upon (a) severe stress and (b) drug treatments that trigger a pronounced reorganization of nucleoli. Our results demonstrate that nucleolin is an ideal marker to delimit nucleoli when cells are exposed to heat or oxidative stress. Furthermore, we show for the first time that cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS) and human antigen R protein (HuR) are excluded from nucleoli and can be employed to delimit these compartments under severe conditions that redistribute major nucleolar proteins. As proof-of-principle, we used these markers to demarcate nucleoli in cells treated with pharmacological compounds that disrupt the nucleolar organization. Furthermore, to gain new insights into the biology of the nucleolus, we applied our protocols and quantified stress- and drug-induced changes in nucleolar organization and function. Finally, we show that CAS, HuR and nucleolin not only identify nucleoli in optical sections, but are also suitable to demarcate the nucleolar border following 3D reconstruction. Taken together, our studies present novel marker proteins that delimit nucleoli with

  18. Identification of novel markers that demarcate the nucleolus during severe stress and chemotherapeutic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitong Su

    Full Text Available The nucleolus, the ribosomal factory of the cell, has emerged as a key player that regulates many aspects of cell biology. Several thousand proteins associate at least transiently with nucleoli, thereby generating a highly dynamic compartment with a protein profile which is sensitive to changes in cell physiology and pharmacological agents. Powerful tools that reliably demarcate the nucleoli are a prerequisite to measure their composition and activities. Previously, we developed quantitative methods to measure fluorescently labeled molecules in nucleoli. While these tools identify nucleoli under control and mild stress conditions, the accurate detection of nucleolar boundaries under harsh experimental conditions is complicated by the lack of appropriate markers for the nucleolar compartment. Using fluorescence microscopy we have now identified new marker proteins to detect nucleoli upon (a severe stress and (b drug treatments that trigger a pronounced reorganization of nucleoli. Our results demonstrate that nucleolin is an ideal marker to delimit nucleoli when cells are exposed to heat or oxidative stress. Furthermore, we show for the first time that cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS and human antigen R protein (HuR are excluded from nucleoli and can be employed to delimit these compartments under severe conditions that redistribute major nucleolar proteins. As proof-of-principle, we used these markers to demarcate nucleoli in cells treated with pharmacological compounds that disrupt the nucleolar organization. Furthermore, to gain new insights into the biology of the nucleolus, we applied our protocols and quantified stress- and drug-induced changes in nucleolar organization and function. Finally, we show that CAS, HuR and nucleolin not only identify nucleoli in optical sections, but are also suitable to demarcate the nucleolar border following 3D reconstruction. Taken together, our studies present novel marker proteins that

  19. Environmental and Personal Factors Related to Asthma Severity among Children: Hospital Based Study, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaima Ibrahim AboElkheir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood asthma is a complex disorder in which many environmental and personal factors play a role. However, the contribution of these factors to asthma severity is poorly understood. This study aims to determine the relationship between environmental exposures, personal factors and asthma severity among asthmatic children. Methods: This cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted on 180 asthmatic children; they were divided into mild, moderate and severe asthma according to forced expiratory volume in first second. Environmental factors (indoor and outdoor, food allergy, history of other allergic diseases, family history of allergic disorders, time trend of attacks as well as asthma outcome were reported. Results: Children with severe asthma were younger than those with mild or moderate asthma. Severe asthma was significantly linked to family history of allergy, presence of co-morbid allergic diseases, fish, egg and milk allergy, as well as exposure to passive smoking (73.7% and poor housing conditions. Also, it was significantly linked to presence of unauthorized factories in residential area (31.6 %, p=0.001. As well as, contact with pets (42.1%. Children with severe asthma had more limitations of physical activities (73.7%, missed school days (81.5%, with poor school performance (p=0.04 than those with mild moderate or asthma. Conclusion: Severe asthma was linked to female gender and younger age, co-morbid allergic diseases, family history of atopy and food allergy. It was higher among children residing in places with unauthorized factories and living in substandard housing condition. Children with severe asthma had poor asthma outcome.

  20. Prioritized expression of BTN2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under pronounced translation repression induced by severe ethanol stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukina Yamauchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe ethanol stress (>9% ethanol, v/v as well as glucose deprivation rapidly induces a pronounced repression of overall protein synthesis in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, transcriptional activation in yeast cells under severe ethanol stress does not always indicate the production of expected protein levels. Messenger RNAs of genes containing heat shock elements can be intensively translated under glucose deprivation, suggesting that some mRNAs are preferentially translated even under severe ethanol stress. In the present study, we tried to identify the mRNA that can be preferentially translated under severe ethanol stress. BTN2 encodes a v-SNARE binding protein, and its null mutant shows hypersensitivity to ethanol. We found that BTN2 mRNA was efficiently translated under severe ethanol stress but not under mild ethanol stress. Moreover, the increased Btn2 protein levels caused by severe ethanol stress were smoothly decreased with the elimination of ethanol stress. These findings suggested that severe ethanol stress extensively induced BTN2 expression. Further, the BTN2 promoter induced protein synthesis of non-native genes such as CUR1, GIC2, and YUR1 in the presence of high ethanol concentrations, indicating that this promoter overcame severe ethanol stress-induced translation repression. Thus, our findings provide an important clue about yeast response to severe ethanol stress and suggest that the BTN2 promoter can be used to improve the efficiency of ethanol production and stress tolerance of yeast cells by modifying gene expression in the presence of high ethanol concentration.

  1. Desiccation: An environmental and food industry stress that bacteria commonly face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbelin, Julia; Santos, Tiago; Hébraud, Michel

    2018-02-01

    Water is essential for all living organisms, for animals as well as for plants and micro-organisms. For these latter, the presence of water or a humid environment with a high air relative humidity (RH) is necessary for their survival and growth. Thus, variations in the availability of water or in the air relative humidity constitute widespread environmental stresses which challenge microorganisms, and especially bacteria. Indeed, in their direct environment, bacteria are often faced with conditions that remove cell-bound water through air-drying of the atmosphere. Bacterial cells are subject to daily or seasonal environmental variations, sometimes going through periods of severe desiccation. This is also the case in the food industry, where air dehumidification treatments are applied after the daily cleaning-disinfection procedures. In plants producing low-water activity products, it is also usual to significantly reduce or eliminate water usage. Periodic desiccation exposure affects bacteria viability and so they require strategies to persist. Negative effects of desiccation are wide ranging and include direct cellular damage but also changes in the biochemical and biophysical properties of cells for which planktonic cells are more exposed than cells in biofilm. Understanding the mechanisms of desiccation adaptation and tolerance has a biological and biotechnological interest. This review gives an overview of the factors influencing desiccation tolerance and the biological mechanisms involved in this stress response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Punica granatum juice effects on oxidative stress in severe physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghizadeh-Baghi, Abbas; Mazani, Mohammad; Shadman-Fard, Ali; Nemati, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate Punica granatum juice effects on oxidative stress in young healthy males during severe physical activity. Our subjects were selected from healthy males at 18 - 24 years. They were enrolled and randomly distributed into control and supplemented groups. 240 ml of Punica granatum juice and tap water were given to supplement and control groups daily for two weeks, respectively. Fasting blood samples were taken at the starting and the end of two weeks of intervention. Subjects were given once severe physical activity and then fasting blood samples were taken. Fasting blood samples were used for testing of oxidative and antioxidative factors. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tests, paired samples t-test, and independent samples t-test. The levels of arylesterase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant capacity after severe physical activity in supplement group were significantly increased (pPunica granatum juice significantly modulates oxidative stress and thus protects against severe physical activity oxidative injury in young healthy males.

  3. Gradually Increased Oxygen Administration Improved Oxygenation and Mitigated Oxidative Stress after Resuscitation from Severe Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Yin, Yujing; You, Guoxing; Chen, Gan; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Jingxiang; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong

    2015-11-01

    The optimal oxygen administration strategy during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock (HS) is still controversial. Improving oxygenation and mitigating oxidative stress simultaneously seem to be contradictory goals. To maximize oxygen delivery while minimizing oxidative damage, the authors proposed the notion of gradually increased oxygen administration (GIOA), which entails making the arterial blood hypoxemic early in resuscitation and subsequently gradually increasing to hyperoxic, and compared its effects with normoxic resuscitation, hyperoxic resuscitation, and hypoxemic resuscitation in severe HS. Rats were subjected to HS, and on resuscitation, the rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8): the normoxic, the hyperoxic, the hypoxemic, and the GIOA groups. Rats were observed for an additional 1 h. Hemodynamics, acid-base status, oxygenation, and oxidative injury were observed and evaluated. Central venous oxygen saturation promptly recovered only in the hyperoxic and the GIOA groups, and the liver tissue partial pressure of oxygen was highest in the GIOA group after resuscitation. Oxidative stress in GIOA group was significantly reduced compared with the hyperoxic group as indicated by the reduced malondialdehyde content, increased catalase activity, and the lower histologic injury scores in the liver. In addition, the tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 expressions in the liver were markedly decreased in the GIOA group than in the hyperoxic and normoxic groups as shown by the immunohistochemical staining. GIOA improved systemic/tissue oxygenation and mitigated oxidative stress simultaneously after resuscitation from severe HS. GIOA may be a promising strategy to improve resuscitation from HS and deserves further investigation.

  4. A systematic review of the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Bick, Debra

    2012-11-10

    The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries as a consequence, in part, of increased obstetric intervention and increasingly complex medical needs of women who become pregnant. Access to emergency obstetric care means that for the majority of women in these countries, an experience of severe maternal morbidity is unlikely to result in loss of life. However, little is known about the subsequent impact on postnatal psychological health resulting in an evidence gap to support provision of appropriate care for these women. There has recently been increasing recognition that childbirth can be a cause of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The combination of experiencing a life-threatening complication and its management may culminate in psychological trauma. This systematic review examined the association between women's experience of severe maternal morbidity during labour, at the time of giving birth or within the first week following birth, and PTSD and its symptoms. Relevant literature was identified through multiple databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Cochrane library and the British Library, using predetermined search strategies. The search terms included "post-traumatic stress disorder", "PTSD", "stress disorders, post-traumatic", "maternal morbidity", "pregnancy complications" "puerperal disorders", "obstetric labo(u)r complication", "postpartum h(a)emorrhage", "eclampsia". Studies identified were categorised according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was assessed using the relevant CASP appraisal tools. Eleven primary studies met review criteria. Evidence of a relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD/PTSD symptoms was inconsistent and findings varied between studies. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that severe pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for PTSD and its symptoms, an association possibly

  5. The relationship between oxidative stress, smoking and the clinical severity of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre, S; Metin, A; Demirseren, D D; Kilic, S; Isikoglu, S; Erel, O

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies suggested that increased oxidant products and decreased antioxidant system functions may be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In this study, we investigated total oxidative status, Paraoxonase (PON)1/arylesterase enzyme activities and severity of the disease in smoker and non-smoker psoriatic patients. Fifty-four patients with plaque type psoriasis (28 smokers and 26 non-smokers) and 62 healthy volunteers (16 smokers and 46 non-smokers) were enrolled in the study. Serum total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and arylesterase levels were measured, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated in all participants. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index scores were significantly higher in smoker patients than in non-smoker patients (P = 0.014). Both smoker and non-smoker patients had significantly increased TOS levels and OSI values and decreased TAC levels than healthy subjects (all P values = 0.000). The TAC and TOS levels, OSI values and arylesterase activities were similar between smoker and non-smoker patients. The levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were not significantly different between smoker and non-smoker psoriasis patients. When compared with non-smoking controls, only smoking psoriasis patients had significantly higher TG (P = 0.005), lower HDL (P = 0.022) and lower arylesterase levels (P = 0.015). There were no significant correlations with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores and TAC, TOS, OSI, TG, TC, HDL and LDL levels in all psoriasis patients. Oxidative stress is increased in psoriasis patients regardless of their smoking status. The decreased arylesterase activity in smoker psoriasis patients suggested that smoking may be a considerable risk factor that increases the severity of psoriasis by increasing oxidative stress in these patients. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and

  6. Model approach for stress induced steroidal hormone cascade changes in severe mental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volko, Claus D; Regidor, Pedro A; Rohr, Uwe D

    2016-03-01

    Stress was described by Cushing and Selye as an adaptation to a foreign stressor by the anterior pituitary increasing ACTH, which stimulates the release of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones. The question is raised whether stress can induce additional steroidal hormone cascade changes in severe mental diseases (SMD), since stress is the common denominator. A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed, where the steroidal hormone cascade of patients with SMD was compared to the impact of increasing stress on the steroidal hormone cascade (a) in healthy amateur marathon runners with no overtraining; (b) in healthy well-trained elite soldiers of a ranger training unit in North Norway, who were under extreme physical and mental stress, sleep deprivation, and insufficient calories for 1 week; and, (c) in soldiers suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia (SI), and bipolar disorders (BD). (a) When physical stress is exposed moderately to healthy men and women for 3-5 days, as in the case of amateur marathon runners, only few steroidal hormones are altered. A mild reduction in testosterone, cholesterol and triglycerides is detected in blood and in saliva, but there was no decrease in estradiol. Conversely, there is an increase of the glucocorticoids, aldosterone and cortisol. Cellular immunity, but not specific immunity, is reduced for a short time in these subjects. (b) These changes are also seen in healthy elite soldiers exposed to extreme physical and mental stress but to a somewhat greater extent. For instance, the aldosterone is increased by a factor of three. (c) In SMD, an irreversible effect on the entire steroidal hormone cascade is detected. Hormones at the top of the cascade, such as cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), aldosterone and other glucocorticoids, are increased. However, testosterone and estradiol and their metabolites, and other hormones at the lower end of the cascade, seem to be reduced. 1

  7. Age and stress as determinants of the severity of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease in newly diagnosed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Xander G.; Smit, Natalie; Endert, Erik; Brosschot, Jos F.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The evidence that stress may provoke Graves' hyperthyroidism in genetically susceptible subjects is substantial. Whether exposure to stress is related to the severity of thyrotoxicosis has not been studied. Advancing age is associated with not only less severe Graves' hyperthyroidism but

  8. Accounting for posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity with pre- and posttrauma measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a longitudinal study of community-dwelling older adults, we analyzed the most extensive set of known correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms obtained from a single sample to examine the measures’ independent and combined utility in accounting for PTSD symptom...... attachment and factors related to the current trauma memory, such as self-rated severity, event centrality, frequency of involuntary recall, and physical reactions to the memory, accounted for symptom severity better than did measures of pretrauma factors. In an analysis restricted to prospective measures...... severity. Fifteen measures identified as PTSD risk factors in published meta-analyses as well as 12 theoretically and empirically supported individual difference and health-related measures were included in our analysis. Individual difference measures assessed after the trauma, including insecure...

  9. Comparison of stress-based and strain-based creep failure criteria for severe accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, S.A.; Kelly, D.L.; Witt, R.J.; Stirn, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a parametic analysis of stress-based and strain-based creep failure criteria to determine if there is a significant difference between the two criteria for SA533B vessel steel under severe accident conditions. Parametric variables include debris composition, system pressure, and creep strain histories derived from different testing programs and mathematically fit, with and without tertiary creep. Results indicate significant differences between the two criteria. Stress gradient plays an important role in determining which criterion will predict failure first. Creep failure was not very sensitive to different creep strain histories, except near the transition temperature of the vessel steel (900K to 1000K). Statistical analyses of creep failure data of four independent sources indicate that these data may be pooled, with a spline point at 1000K. We found the Manson-Haferd parameter to have better failure predictive capability than the Larson-Miller parameter for the data studied. (orig.)

  10. Stress hormones at rest and following exercise testing predict coronary artery disease severity and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Dejana; Damjanovic, Svetozar; Djordjevic, Tea; Martic, Dejana; Ignjatovic, Svetlana; Milinkovic, Neda; Banovic, Marko; Lasica, Ratko; Petrovic, Milan; Guazzi, Marco; Arena, Ross

    2017-09-01

    Despite considerable knowledge regarding the importance of stress in coronary artery disease (CAD) pathogenesis, its underestimation persists in routine clinical practice, in part attributable to lack of a standardized, objective assessment. The current study examined the ability of stress hormones to predict CAD severity and prognosis at basal conditions as well as during and following an exertional stimulus. Forty Caucasian subjects with significant coronary artery lesions (≥50%) were included. Within 2 months of coronary angiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) on a recumbent ergometer was performed in conjunction with stress echocardiography (SE). At rest, peak and after 3 min of recovery following CPET, plasma levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) were measured by immunoassay sandwich technique, radioimmunoassay, and radioimmunometric technique, respectively. Subjects were subsequently followed a mean of 32 ± 10 months. Mean ejection fraction was 56.7 ± 9.6%. Subjects with 1-2 stenotic coronary arteries (SCA) demonstrated a significantly lower plasma cortisol levels during CPET compared to those with 3-SCA (p  .05). Among CPET, SE, and hormonal parameters, cortisol at rest and during CPET recovery demonstrated the best predictive value in distinguishing between 1-, 2-, and 3-SCA [area under ROC curve 0.75 and 0.77 (SE = 0.11, 0.10; p = .043, .04) for rest and recovery, respectively]. ΔCortisol peak/rest predicted cumulative cardiac events (area under ROC curve 0.75, SE = 0.10, p = .049). Cortisol at rest and following an exercise test holds predictive value for CAD severity and prognosis, further demonstrating a link between stress and unwanted cardiac events.

  11. Salivary cortisol and self-reported stress among persons with environmental annoyance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Frida; Persson, Roger; Karlson, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Increased vulnerability to stress has been suggested as a possible mechanism behind medically unexplained conditions such as sensitivity to electricity and common smells. This study examined whether subjective environmental annoyance among the general population is associated with increased physi...

  12. [The role of environmental factors in managing labour stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rados, Melinda; Mészáros, Judit

    2017-07-01

    Emotional, cognitive and behavioural aspects of birth and labour stress are strongly associated with the underlying physiological processes. To study the factors of physical security and social support, the administration of synthetic oxytocin, and how they relate to perceived stress during childbirth. Women's experienced physical security, social support and oxytocin administration was measured with targeted questions, and their perceived stress with the short and modified version of the Perceived Stress Scale. A strong negative association was found between perceived stress and physical and social security. The group of women experiencing low physical and social security perceived significantly higher stress, while those given synthetic oxytocin perceived higher stress, and lower physical and social security. Since physiological, psychological processes and behaviours are strongly intertwined, the support of natural physiological birth without interventions is recommended, which considers not only short-term but long-term health consequences for mother and child. The contribution of calming physical surroundings, minimal interventions and empowering support of caregivers to safe and satisfying birth is demonstrated in a model. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(29): 1149-1156.

  13. Intracellular proteins produced by mammalian cells in response to environmental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goochee, Charles F.; Passini, Cheryl A.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the response of mammalian cells to environmental stress is examined by reviewing results of studies where cultured mouse L cells and baby hamster kidney cells were exposed to heat shock and the synthesis of heat-shock proteins and stress-response proteins (including HSP70, HSC70, HSP90, ubiquitin, and GRP70) in stressed and unstressed cells was evaluated using 2D-PAGE. The intracellular roles of the individual stress response proteins are discussed together with the regulation of the stress response system.

  14. Effect of environmental stress on clonal structure of Eucypris virens (Crustacea, Ostracoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Martins M. J. F.; Vandekerkhove J.; Adolfsson S.; Rossetti G.; Namiotko T.; Jokela J.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental stress imposes strong natural selection on clonal populations, promoting evolutionary change in clonal structure. Environmental stress may also lead to reduction in population size, which together with clonal selection may reduce genotypic diversity of the local populations. We examined how clonal structure in wild-collected samples of two parthenogenetic populations of the freshwater ostracod Eucypris virens responded to hypersalinity and starvation, and the combination of the ...

  15. The effects of stress, anxiety, and outdoor temperature on the frequency and severity of Raynaud's attacks: the Raynaud's Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K M; Middaugh, S J; Haythornthwaite, J A; Bielory, L

    2001-04-01

    It was expected that stress and anxiety would be related to Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) attack characteristics when mild outdoor temperatures produced partial or no digital vasoconstriction. Hypotheses were that in warmer temperature categories, compared to those below 40 degrees F, higher stress or anxiety would be associated with more frequent, severe, and painful attacks. The Raynaud's Treatment Study recruited 313 participants with primary RP. Outcomes were attack rate, severity, and pain. Predictors were average daily outdoor temperature, stress, anxiety, age, gender, and a stress-by-temperature or an anxiety-by-temperature interaction. Outcomes were tested separately in multiple linear regression models. Stress and anxiety were tested in separate models. Stress was not a significant predictor of RP attack characteristics. Higher anxiety was related to more frequent attacks above 60 degrees F. It was also related to greater attack severity at all temperatures, and to greater pain above 60 degrees F and between 40 degrees and 49.9 degrees F.

  16. Perturbation of cellular signaling cascades modulated by ionizing radiation and environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugolini, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular signaling plays a central role in the regulation of several cell functions, which can be perturbed by different external stimuli, including environmental stress and ionizing radiation. The dysregulation of intra- and extracellular mechanisms may alter the correct behaviour of cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the activation of strongly interlaced intracellular signaling pathways, following the exposure to low- and medium-doses of X-rays, with a focus on the mechanisms involved in the inflammatory- and apoptotic-related responses. In particular, the temporal dynamics of the ERK1/2 and PKB/AKT pathways and their possible dose dependences were investigated. The presented results indicate a clear dose dependence of such pathways only at early time points, suggesting a fast response of the system to X-rays and the need for further studies at shorter times after exposures.

  17. Assessment of Environmental Stresses for Enhanced Microalgal Biofuel Production – An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Dan; He, Qingfang

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates) tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  18. Assessment of environmental stresses for enhanced microalgal biofuel production-an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eCheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  19. Environmental Stress Responses and Biological Interactions Investigated in the Drosophila Model System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael

    on their ability to respond on a behavioral, physiological, morphological and/or evolutionary level according to the environmental cues. At the same time, if populations are small and fragmented, and have limited gene flow, environmental change and environmental stress might interact with intrinsic genetic stress...... such as inbreeding and genetic drift, which can exacerbate the effects of one or more environmental stresses. Furthermore, inbred populations often have low genetic variation that might constrain evolutionary responses to rapidly changing environments. This thesis investigates how, and to what extent, insect model......When organisms are faced with changes in their environment, they are forced to respond, if they are to maintain optimal function. Especially ectotherms must deal with environmental changes in e.g. temperature on a regular basis, and thus their survival and reproductive success depend...

  20. Assessment of Environmental Stresses for Enhanced Microalgal Biofuel Production – An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Dan, E-mail: dxcheng@ualr.edu; He, Qingfang, E-mail: dxcheng@ualr.edu [Department of Applied Science, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2014-07-07

    Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates) tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  1. Effects of environmental stress on forest crown condition in Europe. Part IV statistical analysis of relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klap, J.M.; Oude Voshaar, J.H.; Vries, de W.; Erisman, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Site-specific estimates for various environmental stress factors were related with measured crown condition data at a systematic 16 x: 16 km(2) grid over Europe, according to previously stated hypotheses, using a multiple regression approach, including interactions, and lagged effects of stress

  2. The relationship between potency of oxidative stress and severity of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbag, Recep; Yilmaz, Remzi; Erel, Ozcan; Gultekin, Unal; Asci, Durmus; Elbasan, Zafer

    2005-08-01

    It has been suggested that oxidative stress may have a role in the etiopathogenesis of congestive heart failure. To investigate and compare the oxidative-antioxidative status and oxidative stress index (OSI) of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) with those of healthy volunteers, and to determine the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and ejection fraction (EF). Twenty-eight patients with IDC and 24 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Antioxidative status was evaluated by measuring the TAC and the vitamin C and thiol levels in the plasma. Oxidative status was evaluated by measuring the total peroxide level. The per cent ratio of TAC to total peroxide level was accepted as the OSI. EF was measured using Simpson's method. TAC and vitamin C and thiol levels of plasma were found to be significantly lower in patients with IDC than in control subjects (P total peroxide levels and OSIs were significantly higher in patients with IDC than in control subjects (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002, respectively). An important positive correlation was found between TAC and EF (r = 0.772; P total peroxide levels in patients. Oxidants are increased and antioxidants are decreased in patients with IDC; as a result, the oxidative-antioxidative balance is shifted to the oxidative side. There is a significant correlation between the potency of oxidative stress and the severity of IDC. It is believed that supplementation of antioxidants in the treatment of IDC may be helpful to these patients.

  3. Stress, Inflammation and Pain: A Potential Role for Monocytes in Fibromyalgia-related Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann Gill; Fischer-White, Tamara G; Anderson, Joel G; Adelstein, Katharine E; Murugesan, Maheswari; Lewis, Janet E; Scott, Michael M; Gaykema, Ronald P A; Goehler, Lisa E

    2016-12-01

    The possibility that immunological changes might contribute to symptom severity in fibromyalgia (FM) prompted this proof-of-concept study to determine whether differences in monocyte subpopulations might be present in persons with FM compared with healthy controls. Relationships were assessed by comparing specific symptoms in those with FM (n = 20) and patterns of monocyte subpopulations with healthy age-matched and gender-matched controls (n = 20). Within the same time frame, all participants provided a blood sample and completed measures related to pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances, perceived stress, positive and negative affect and depressed mood (and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire for those with FM). Monocyte subpopulations were assessed using flow cytometry. No differences were observed in total percentages of circulating monocytes between the groups; however, pain was inversely correlated with percentages of circulating classical (r = -0.568, p = 0.011) and intermediate (r = -0.511, p = 0.025) monocytes in the FM group. Stress and pain were highly correlated (r = 0.608, p = 0.004) in the FM group. The emerging pattern of changes in the percentages of circulating monocyte subpopulations concomitant with higher ratings of perceived pain and the correlation between stress and pain found in the FM group warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Age and stress as determinants of the severity of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease in newly diagnosed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Xander G; Smit, Natalie; Endert, Erik; Brosschot, Jos F; Tijssen, Jan G P; Wiersinga, Wilmar M

    2009-02-01

    The evidence that stress may provoke Graves' hyperthyroidism in genetically susceptible subjects is substantial. Whether exposure to stress is related to the severity of thyrotoxicosis has not been studied. Advancing age is associated with not only less severe Graves' hyperthyroidism but also self-reported stress. We tested the hypothesis whether advancing age is associated with less exposure to stress, resulting in a lower immunological response, and less severe Graves' hyperthyroidism. Cross-sectional multicenter study. Two hundred and sixty-three consecutive untreated patients with a first episode of Graves' hyperthyroidism were included. The severity of Graves' hyperthyroidism was evaluated biochemically (freeT(4)-index and freeT(3)-index, thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII)) and clinically by the hyperthyroid symptom scale score (HSS score). Stress exposure was quantitated by three questionnaires. Advancing age was associated with less severe Graves' hyperthyroidism, both biochemically by lower serum freeT(3)-index and freeT(4)-index (Phyperthyroidism. Advancing age was associated with lower scores for stress exposure. Multivariate regression analysis showed that HSS score was independently related to the tendency to report negative feelings (Phyperthyroidism. Because no direct relationship exists between stress exposure and TBII or freeT(3)-index and freeT(4)-index, we reject our hypothesis that less stress is causally related to biochemically less severe Graves' hyperthyroidism in old age. HSS score is primarily determined by negative feelings and not by age.

  5. Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Knapp, Eric E.; Flint, Alan; Flint, Lorriane

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive warming can lead to chronic stress on forest trees, which may contribute to mortality resulting from fire-caused injuries. Longitudinal analyses of forest plots from across the western US show that high pre-fire climatic water deficit was related to increased post-fire tree mortality probabilities. This relationship between climate and fire was present after accounting for fire defences and injuries, and appeared to influence the effects of crown and stem injuries. Climate and fire interactions did not vary substantially across geographical regions, major genera and tree sizes. Our findings support recent physiological evidence showing that both drought and heating from fire can impair xylem conductivity. Warming trends have been linked to increasing probabilities of severe fire weather and fire spread; our results suggest that warming may also increase forest fire severity (the number of trees killed) independent of fire intensity (the amount of heat released during a fire).

  6. Detrimental effects of environmental tobacco smoke in relation to asthma severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy A A Comhair

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has adverse effects on the health of asthmatics, however the harmful consequences of ETS in relation to asthma severity are unknown.In a multicenter study of severe asthma, we assessed the impact of ETS exposure on morbidity, health care utilization and lung functions; and activity of systemic superoxide dismutase (SOD, a potential oxidative target of ETS that is negatively associated with asthma severity.From 2002-2006, 654 asthmatics (non-severe 366, severe 288 were enrolled, among whom 109 non-severe and 67 severe asthmatics were routinely exposed to ETS as ascertained by history and validated by urine cotinine levels. ETS-exposure was associated with lower quality of life scores; greater rescue inhaler use; lower lung function; greater bronchodilator responsiveness; and greater risk for emergency room visits, hospitalization and intensive care unit admission. ETS-exposure was associated with lower levels of serum SOD activity, particularly in asthmatic women of African heritage.ETS-exposure of asthmatic individuals is associated with worse lung function, higher acuity of exacerbations, more health care utilization, and greater bronchial hyperreactivity. The association of diminished systemic SOD activity to ETS exposure provides for the first time a specific oxidant mechanism by which ETS may adversely affect patients with asthma.

  7. The impact of environmental factors on nursing stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Diane; Fowler, Susan; Fiedler, Nancy; Osinubi, Omowunmi; Robson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between environmental factors of odor, noise, light, and color and perceived stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. The physical work environment may positively or negatively influence nurses' stress, and stress may negatively impact their job satisfaction and intention to change jobs. The research questions were answered using a descriptive, correlational design. The sample (n = 116) consisted of medical-surgical nurses working in acute-care settings. A 36-item questionnaire addressed odor, noise, light, color, perceived stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. Significant relationships were found between noise and perceived stress, perceived stress and job satisfaction, job satisfaction and turnover intention, and perceived stress and turnover intention. Nurses tend to overlook their physical environment and "do their job." Common environmental stressors in the work environment can be stressful to staff and influence job satisfaction and, ultimately, intention to change jobs. Mitigating or eliminating these environmental factors has the potential to improve staff satisfaction and retention. Stress influences nursing job satisfaction and, ultimately, intention to change jobs.

  8. The Evolution of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder following Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alway, Yvette; Gould, Kate Rachel; McKay, Adam; Johnston, Lisa; Ponsford, Jennie

    2016-05-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop following traumatic brain injury (TBI), despite most patients having no conscious memory of their accident. This prospective study examined the frequency, timing of onset, symptom profile, and trajectory of PTSD and its psychiatric comorbidities during the first 4 years following moderate-to-severe TBI. Participants were 85 individuals (78.8% male) with moderate or severe TBI recruited following admission to acute rehabilitation between 2005 and 2010. Using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Disorders (SCID-I), participants were evaluated for pre- and post-injury PTSD soon after injury and reassessed at 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years post-injury. Over the first 4 years post-injury, 17.6% developed injury-related PTSD, none of whom had PTSD prior to injury. PTSD onset peaked between 6 and 12 months post-injury. The majority of PTSD cases (66.7%) had a delayed-onset, which for a third was preceded by subsyndromal symptoms in the first 6 months post-injury. PTSD frequency increased over the first year post-injury, remained stable during the second year, and gradually declined thereafter. The majority of subjects with PTSD experienced a chronic symptom course and all developed one or more than one comorbid psychiatric disorder, with mood, other anxiety, and substance-use disorders being the most common. Despite event-related amnesia, post-traumatic stress symptoms, including vivid re-experiencing phenomena, may develop following moderate-to-severe TBI. Onset is typically delayed and symptoms may persist for several years post-injury.

  9. Physiological and biochemical responses to severe drought stress of nine Eucalyptus globulus clones: a multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granda, Víctor; Delatorre, Carolina; Cuesta, Candela; Centeno, María L; Fernández, Belén; Rodríguez, Ana; Feito, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    Seasonal drought, typical of temperate and Mediterranean environments, creates problems in establishing plantations and affects development and yield, and it has been widely studied in numerous species. Forestry fast-growing species such as Eucalyptus spp. are an important resource in such environments, selected clones being generally used for production purposes in plantations in these areas. However, use of mono-specific plantations increases risk of plant loss due to abiotic stresses, making it essential to understand differences in an individual clone's physiological responses to drought stress. In order to study clonal differences in drought responses, nine Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) clones (C14, C46, C97, C120, C222, C371, C405, C491 and C601) were gradually subjected to severe drought stress (<14% of field capacity). A total of 31 parameters, physiological (e.g., photosynthesis, gas exchange), biochemical (e.g., chlorophyll content) and hormonal (abscisic acid [ABA] content), were analysed by classic and multivariate techniques. Relationships between parameters were established, allowing related measurements to be grouped into functional units (pigment, growth, water and ABA). Differences in these units showed that there were two distinct groups of E. globulus clones on the basis of their different strategies when faced with drought stress. The C14 group (C14, C120, C405, C491 and C601) clones behave as water savers, maintaining high water content and showing high stomatal adjustment, and reducing their aerial growth to a great extent. The C46 group (C46, C97, C222 and C371) clones behave as water spenders, reducing their water content drastically and presenting osmotic adjustment. The latter maintains the highest growth rate under the conditions tested. The method presented here can be used to identify appropriate E. globulus clones for drought environments, facilitating the selection of material for production and repopulation environments. © The

  10. Outcomes in Asymptomatic Severe Aortic Stenosis With Preserved Ejection Fraction Undergoing Rest and Treadmill Stress Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huded, Chetan P; Masri, Ahmad; Kusunose, Kenya; Goodman, Andrew L; Grimm, Richard A; Gillinov, A Marc; Johnston, Douglas R; Rodriguez, L Leonardo; Popovic, Zoran B; Svensson, Lars G; Griffin, Brian P; Desai, Milind Y

    2018-04-12

    In asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, we sought to assess the incremental prognostic value of resting valvuloarterial impedence (Zva) and left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) to treadmill stress echocardiography. We studied 504 such patients (66±12 years, 78% men, 32% with coronary artery disease who underwent treadmill stress echocardiography between 2001 and 2012. Clinical and exercise variables (% of age-sex predicted metabolic equivalents [%AGP-METs]) were recorded. Resting Zva ([systolic arterial pressure+mean aortic valve gradient]/[LV-stroke volume index]) and LV-GLS (measured offline using Velocity Vector Imaging, Siemens) were obtained from the baseline resting echocardiogram. Death was the primary outcome. There were no major adverse cardiac events during treadmill stress echocardiography. Indexed aortic valve area, Zva, and LV-GLS were 0.46±0.1 cm 2 /m 2 , 4.5±0.9 mm Hg/mL per m 2 and -16±4%, respectively; only 50% achieved >100% AGP-METs. Sixty-four percent underwent aortic valve replacement. Death occurred in 164 (33%) patients over 8.9±3.6 years (2 within 30 days of aortic valve replacement). On multivariable Cox survival analysis, higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons score (hazard ratio or HR 1.06), lower % AGP-METS (HR 1.16), higher Zva (HR 1.25) and lower LV-GLS (HR 1.12) were associated with higher longer-term mortality, while aortic valve replacement (HR 0.45) was associated with improved survival (all P statistic from 0.65 to 0.69 and 0.75, respectively, both P stress echocardiography, LV-GLS and ZVa offer incremental prognostic value. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress: an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Centre for Environmental Research, Near East University, 33010, Lefkosha, Turkish Republic of the Northern Cyprus. 4Department of ...... Transcriptomic analysis of sense and antisense strands of .... 2008 Stem cell transcriptome profiling via.

  12. Contribution of early environmental stress to alcoholism vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Joannalee C.; Szumlinski, Karen K.; Kippin, Tod E.

    2009-01-01

    The most problematic aspects of alcohol abuse disorder are excessive alcohol consumption and the inability to refrain from alcohol consumption during attempted abstinence. The root causes that predispose certain individuals to these problems are poorly understood but are believed to be produced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Early environmental trauma alters neurodevelopmental trajectories that can predispose an individual to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, inc...

  13. Investigating the interactive role of stressful life events, reinforcement sensitivity and personality traits in prediction of the severity of Multiple Sclerosis (MS symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological condition recognized by demyelination in the central nervous system. The present study was conducted to investigate the interactive role of stressful life events, reinforcement sensitivity, and personality traits in prediction of the severity of symptoms of Multiple sclerosis (MS symptoms. Materials & Methods: This is a correlational study whose statistical population consisted of all the patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis in Shiraz in the first half of 1394, among whom 162 patients were included in this research by means of purposive sampling method. Five-Factor Personality Inventory, Jackson Personality Inventory, Stressful Life Events Scale, and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS were utilised as research tools. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential methods were used. The data were analysed using Pearson correlation and hierarchical regression. Results: The findings revealed that stressful life events (β = 0.41, p <0.001, Behavioral Inhibition System (β = 0.26, p<0.05, and neuroticism index (β = 0.92, p <0.05 were able to predict variance of scores of the severity of symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis significantly. Conclusion: Stressful life events, Behavioral Inhibition System, and neuroticism showed a significant relationship with the severity of symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis; thus, it seems that interaction of personality traits and environmental conditions are among influential factors of the severity of symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis. This fact implies that individuals' personal traits play an eminent role in the progression of the disease.

  14. Environmental stress, oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism, and mental health following collective stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Holman, E Alison

    2013-04-01

    We examined whether the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs53576 genotype buffers the combined impact of negative social environments (e.g., interpersonal conflict/constraint) and economic stress on post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and impaired daily functioning following collective stress (September 11th terrorist attacks). Saliva was collected by mail and used to genotype 704 respondents. Participants completed Web-based assessments of pre-9/11 mental health, acute stress 9-23 days after 9/11, the quality of social environments 1 year post-9/11, economic stress 18 months post-9/11, and PTS symptoms and impaired functioning 2 and 3 years post-9/11. Interactions between negative social environments and economic stress were examined separately based on OXTR rs53576 genotype (GG vs. any A allele). For individuals with an A allele, a negative social environment significantly increased PTS symptoms without regard to the level of economic stress experienced. However, for respondents with a GG genotype, negative social environments predicted elevated PTS symptoms only for those also experiencing high economic stress. Gender moderated associations between negative social environments, economic stress, and impaired functioning. The functioning of females was most affected by negative social environments regardless of genotype and economic stress, whereas the functioning of males was differentially susceptible to economic stress depending on OXTR genotype and negative social environments. These findings suggest that it is important to consider the combined impact of gender and ongoing stress in different domains as moderators of genetic vulnerability following collective stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Method for accelerated aging under combined environmental stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, K.T.

    1979-01-01

    An accelerated aging method which can be used to simulate aging in combined stress environment situations is described. It is shown how the assumptions of the method can be tested experimentally. Aging data for a chloroprene cable jacketing material in single and combined radiation and temperature environments are analyzed and it is shown that these data offer evidence for the validity of the method

  16. Oxidative stress and chromosomal aberrations in an environmentally exposed population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Šrám, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 707, 1-2 (2011), s. 34-41 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * oxidative stress * chromosomal aberrations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2011

  17. Habitat diversity and adaptation to environmental stress in encysted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    intense study (for example, Morimoto et al 1994; Fiege et al 1996; Feder and ... Current research on the stress response is aimed chiefly at the cellular and .... removed (1600 g, 5 min) and the supernatant applied to a column of Sepharose ...

  18. Environmental Stress and Biobehavioral Antecedents of Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of research on the biobehavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease, including stressful occupational settings characterized by high demands and little control over the job, and the Type A pattern, particularly hostility and mode of anger expression (anger-in). Discusses research on physiologic responsiveness (reactivity)…

  19. Environmental Stressors and Their Impact on Health and Disease with Focus on Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas

    2018-03-20

    Epidemiological, preclinical and interventional clinical studies have demonstrated that environmental stressors are associated with health problems, namely cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations of the World Health Organization (WHO), environmental risk factors account for an appreciable part of global deaths and life years spent with disability. This Forum addresses the impact of the environmental risk factors such as traffic noise exposure, air pollution by particulate matter (PM), mental stress/loneliness, and the life style risk factor (water-pipe) smoking on health and disease with focus on the cardiovascular system. We will critically discuss the use of observatory/modifiable biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in environmental research on the aforementioned risk factors highlighting the need of exposome studies. Another focus will be on the epigenetic regulation via microRNAs in environmental stress upon exposure to noise and toxins/heavy metals as well as mental stress conditions, providing mechanistic insights into the modulation of microRNA signaling by oxidative stress, and vice versa the contribution of microRNAs to oxidative stress conditions. We will also provide an in-depth overview on the mechanistic pathways that lead to health problems (e.g., cardiovascular diseases) in response to environmental psychosocial stress, air pollution exposure in the form of ambient PM and diesel exhaust, traffic noise exposure, and the life style drug (water-pipe) smoking. Almost all stressors share the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and of the sympathetic nervous system with subsequent onset of inflammation and oxidative stress, defining the here proposed therapeutic (antioxidant and exercise) strategies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 735-740.

  20. Perceived social stress and symptom severity among help-seeking adolescents with versus without clinical high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Zachary B; Pitts, Steven C; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily R; Demro, Caroline; Weintraub, Marc J; DeVylder, Jordan E; Mittal, Vijay A; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason

    2018-02-01

    Research suggests that social stress exposure influences illness presentation and course among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, though less is known about the extent to which self-reported perceptions of social stress relate to the severity of positive symptoms. Importantly, despite the notion that youth at CHR are especially susceptible to elevations in positive symptoms under conditions of stress, no study has examined this presumption relative to other psychiatric groups. Extending previous work demonstrating that perceived social stress was higher in a CHR group than in a clinical group of non-CHR, help-seeking controls, the current study aimed to: (1) examine whether perceived social stress is related to the severity of attenuated positive symptoms in the full sample (N=110); and (2) determine whether CHR status moderates the stress-symptom relation. Exploratory analyses examined relations of perceived social stress to negative, disorganized, and general symptoms. Greater perceptions of social stress were associated with more severe positive symptoms in the entire sample; however, although positive symptoms and perceived social stress were higher in the CHR group, the strength of this relation was statistically indistinguishable across groups. No differential effect of perceived social stress was observed for any symptom domain. Results provide some support for the diathesis-stress model of psychosis, while also suggesting that social stress and symptomatology are related independent of clinical vulnerability to psychosis. Future research would benefit from longitudinal studies of stress-symptom relations across CHR and help-seeking control groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental stress, oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism, and mental health following collective stress

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas-Thompson, RG; Holman, EA

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs53576 genotype buffers the combined impact of negative social environments (e.g., interpersonal conflict/constraint) and economic stress on post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and impaired daily functioning following collective stress (September 11th terrorist attacks). Saliva was collected by mail and used to genotype 704 respondents. Participants completed Web-based assessments of pre-9/11 mental h...

  2. Brain Correlates of the Interaction Between 5-HTTLPR and Psychosocial Stress Mediating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Dennis; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Zwiers, Marcel; Mennes, Maarten; Schweren, Lizanne J.; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    Objective: The serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR genotype has been found to moderate the effect of stress on severity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with stronger effects of stress in carriers of the short allele than in individuals homozygous for the tong allele. The underlying

  3. Predictors in Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy and behavioral stress management for severe health anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2015-01-01

    Severe health anxiety can be effectively treated with exposure-based Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but information about which factors that predict outcome is scarce. Using data from a recently conducted RCT comparing ICBT (n = 79) with Internet-delivered behavioral stress management (IBSM) (n = 79) the presented study investigated predictors of treatment outcome. Analyses were conducted using a two-step linear regression approach and the dependent variable was operationalized both as end state health anxiety at post-treatment and as baseline-to post-treatment improvement. A hypothesis driven approach was used where predictors expected to influence outcome were based on a previous predictor study by our research group. As hypothesized, the results showed that baseline health anxiety and treatment adherence predicted both end state health anxiety and improvement. In addition, anxiety sensitivity, treatment credibility, and working alliance were significant predictors of health anxiety improvement. Demographic variables, i.e. age, gender, marital status, computer skills, educational level, and having children, had no significant predictive value. We conclude that it is possible to predict a substantial proportion of the outcome variance in ICBT and IBSM for severe health anxiety. The findings of the present study can be of high clinical value as they provide information about factors of importance for outcome in the treatment of severe health anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Moderators of Coronary Vasomotion during Mental Stress in Coronary Artery Disease Patients: Stress Reactivity, Serum Lipoproteins, and Severity of Atherosclerosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howell, Robert H

    1996-01-01

    Impaired coronary artery vasomotion in response to behavioral triggers such as mental stress may be an important pathophysiological process involved in acute manifestations of coronary artery disease...

  5. Evaluation of Data Retention and Imprint Characteristics of FRAMs Under Environmental Stresses for NASA Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Asbok K.; Teverovsky, Alexander; Dowdy, Terry W.; Hamilton, Brett

    2002-01-01

    A major reliability issue for all advanced nonvolatile memory (NVM) technology devices including FRAMs is the data retention characteristics over extended period of time, under environmental stresses and exposure to total ionizing dose (TID) radiation effects. For this testing, 256 Kb FRAMs in 28-pin plastic DIPS, rated for industrial grade temperature range of -40 C to +85 C, were procured. These are two-transistor, two-capacitor (2T-2C) design FRAMs. In addition to data retention characteristics, the parts were also evaluated for imprint failures, which are defined as the failure of cells to change from a "preferred" state, where it has been for a significant period of time to an opposite state (e.g., from 1 to 0, or 0 to 1). These 256 K FRAMs were subjected to scanning acoustic microscopy (C-SAM); 1,000 temperature cycles from -65 C to +150 C; high temperature aging at 150 C, 175 C, and 200 C for 1,000 hours; highly accelerated stress test (HAST) for 500 hours; 1,000 hours of operational life test at 125 C; and total ionizing dose radiation testing. As a preconditioning, 10 K read/write cycles were performed on all devices. Interim electrical measurements were performed throughout this characterization, including special imprint testing and final electrical testing. Some failures were observed during high temperature aging test at 200 C, during HAST testing, and during 1,000 hours of operational life at 125 C. The parts passed 10 Krad exposure, but began showing power supply current increases during the dose increment from 10 Krad to 30 Krad, and at 40 Krad severe data retention and parametric failures were observed. Failures from various environmental group testing are currently being analyzed.

  6. Beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on behavior, stress reactivity and synaptophysin/BDNF expression in hippocampus following early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandi, Εvgenia; Kalamari, Aikaterini; Touloumi, Olga; Lagoudaki, Rosa; Nousiopoulou, Evangelia; Simeonidou, Constantina; Spandou, Evangelia; Tata, Despina A

    2018-06-01

    Exposure to environmental enrichment can beneficially influence the behavior and enhance synaptic plasticity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediated effects of environmental enrichment on postnatal stress-associated impact with regard to behavior, stress reactivity as well as synaptic plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus. Wistar rat pups were submitted to a 3 h maternal separation (MS) protocol during postnatal days 1-21, while another group was left undisturbed. On postnatal day 23, a subgroup from each rearing condition (maternal separation, no-maternal separation) was housed in enriched environmental conditions until postnatal day 65 (6 weeks duration). At approximately three months of age, adult rats underwent behavioral testing to evaluate anxiety (Elevated Plus Maze), locomotion (Open Field Test), spatial learning and memory (Morris Water Maze) as well as non-spatial recognition memory (Novel Object Recognition Test). After completion of behavioral testing, blood samples were taken for evaluation of stress-induced plasma corticosterone using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while immunofluorescence was applied to evaluate hippocampal BDNF and synaptophysin expression in dorsal hippocampus. We found that environmental enrichment protected against the effects of maternal separation as indicated by the lower anxiety levels and the reversal of spatial memory deficits compared to animals housed in standard conditions. These changes were associated with increased BDNF and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus. Regarding the neuroendocrine response to stress, while exposure to an acute stressor potentiated corticosterone increases in maternally-separated rats, environmental enrichment of these rats prevented this effect. The current study aimed at investigating the compensatory role of enriched environment against the negative outcomes of adverse experiences early in life concurrently on emotional and cognitive

  7. Plant resistance to cold stress: Mechanisms and environmental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Cold acclimation of plants; environmental signals; frost hardening; photoperiod; phytochrome; Scots pine http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci .... radical scavenging potential of the cells (Tao et al 1998; ...... tion in cell–free extracts; FEBS Lett. 410 206– ...

  8. Ultraviolet and environmental stresses involved in the induction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Light is one of the most important environmental factors regulating plant development and genes expression. Ultraviolet takes up 7% of sunlight and it stimulates distinct responses in plant. Both UV-A and low influence of UV-B can induce the accumulation of anthocyanin via induction of the expression of anthocyanin ...

  9. Macrobenthic community structure in a Brazilian chocked lagoon system under environmental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lima Torres Mendes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Saquarema-Jaconé lagoonal system (SJLS comprises a sequence of five interconnected shallow brackish lagoons with access to the sea by a single permanent tidal channel. It is a eutrophic system, receiving constant input of organic load from its urbanized catchments. The relationship between several environmental variables and the spatial-temporal distribution of the benthic macrofauna was assessed during four seasonal samplings (dry and wet periods of 2007-2009. Sediment replicates were sampled at seven sites for biological identification and analyzes of organic matter, carbonates, phytopigments, grain size and heavy metals. Salinity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were measured in situ. SJLS was characterized by sandy bottoms with very reducing conditions. Redox potential significantly discriminated between the dry and wet periods and anoxic conditions were observed in the latter. No significant seasonal differences were observed in the macrofauna. A total of 37 taxa were identified, of which Capitella sp, oligochaetes and Laeonereis culveri (Webster, 1880 were the dominant, representing the early stage of community recovery following dystrophic crises. The faunistic pattern seems to be determined by complex combinations of silt+clay with salinity, organic matter and redox potential. On the other hand, the low concentrations of heavy metals found did not seem to influence the structure and distribution of the biota. SJLS is undergoing persistent environmental stress, dominated by first-order opportunistic species linked to organically enriched sediments.

  10. A Virtual Rat for Simulating Environmental and Exertional Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    unsuitable for accurately determin- ing the spatiotemporal temperature distribution in the animal due to heat stress and for performing mechanistic analysis ...possible in the original experiments. Finally, we performed additional simu- lations using the virtual rat to facilitate comparative analysis of the...capability of the virtual rat to account for the circadian rhythmicity in core temperatures during an in- crease in the external temperature from 22

  11. Investigations into the fungal flora of forest stands under severe stress from immissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butin, H.

    1992-01-01

    This finalized research project on the fungal flora of forest stands under severe stress form immissions looked into the question of the contribution of fungi to the triggering of topical forest damage and investigated whether correlations between certain symptoms and needle yellowing or root damage can be established. The main tree species selected were spruce and pine; but spot sample checks were also carried out on other tree species. Fungal flora was determined both qualitatively and quantitatively, and the pathogenic significance of the individual species was determined. Further, it was investigated whether fungal species are correlated to certain symptoms of damage, and which fungal species are. For selected fungal species, their pathogenicity was investigated by infection experiments. (RHE) [de

  12. Micro-evolutionary responses and adaptive costs of Caenorhabditis elegans populations exposed to environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutilleul, M.

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary evolution of organisms is largely dependent on anthropogenic disturbances. In particular, pollution amplifies the intensity or the quantity of selection pressures on populations. However, these changes may have negative effects on the life, growth and reproduction of individuals, the demographics of the population, and its phenotypic and genetic characteristics over generations. Thus, micro-evolutionary changes are likely to occur in response to selection pressures. These phenomenon lead to collateral damages: adaptive costs. For example, a reduction of genetic diversity in a population entails a decrease in its potential to adapt to other stressors. Populations can be more susceptible to many environmental changes, especially with the increase of human activities. Hence in an ecological risk assessment, studying the mechanisms of action and immediate adverse effects of pollutants on organisms is no longer sufficient. It is also necessary to expand our knowledge on the evolution of populations in polluted environment. In this context, our study aims to determine the micro-evolutionary response of Caenorhabditis elegans populations exposed to environmental stressors, and to measure their costs of adaptation. Populations were experimentally exposed for 22 generations to a high concentration of uranium, sodium chloride or an alternation of both these pollutants. The analysis of phenotypic and genetic changes, observed through measures of life history traits, was accomplished using several quantitative genetics techniques. In particular, we confirmed the genetic differentiation between populations with an increase of resistance in populations exposed to different pollutions. The speed of evolutionary responses depended on the conditions of exposure and their effects on the expression of the genetic structure of traits (e.g. G matrix). Micro-evolutionary changes were linked to costs of adaptation, such as reduced fertility in stressful novel

  13. Environmental enrichment mitigates the impact of ancestral stress on motor skill and corticospinal tract plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, J Keiko; Erickson, Zachary T; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-10-06

    An adverse fetal environment in utero has been associated with long-term alterations in brain structure and function, and a higher risk of neurological disorders in later life. A common consequence of early adverse experience is impaired motor system function. A causal relationship for stress-associated impairments and a suitable therapy, however, have not been determined yet. To investigate the impact of ancestral stress on corticospinal tract (CST) morphology and fine motor performance in rats, and to determine if adverse programming by ancestral stress can be mitigated by environmental enrichment therapy in rats. The study examined F3 offspring generated by three lineages; one with prenatal stress only in the F1 generation, one with compounding effects of multigenerational prenatal stress, and a non-stress control lineage. F3 offspring from each lineage were injected with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the motor cortex for anterograde tracing of the CST. Examination of the CST revealed reduced axonal density in the ancestrally stressed lineages. These anatomical changes were associated with significant impairments in skilled walking, as indicated by reduced foot placement accuracy and disturbed inter-limb coordination. Therapeutic intervention by environmental enrichment reduced the neuromorphological consequences of ancestral stress and restored skilled walking ability. The data suggest a causal relationship between stress-induced abnormal CST function and loss of fine motor performance. Thus, ancestral stress may be a determinant of motor system development and motor skill. Environmental enrichment may represent an effective intervention for the adverse programming by ancestral stress and trauma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of life threat and betrayal with posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Lance P; Weathers, Frank W; Mason, Elizabeth A; Pruneau, Genevieve M

    2012-08-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000) emphasizes life threat as the defining feature of psychological trauma. Recent theoretical and empirical work, however, indicates the need to identify and evaluate other key aspects of trauma. Betrayal has been proposed as a pertinent, distinct, and complementary factor that can explain effects of trauma not accounted for by life threat alone. This study examined the relationship between injury, perceived life threat (PLT), and betrayal with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. Trauma-exposed college students (N = 185) completed self-report measures of trauma exposure and PTSD, as well as items regarding life threat, betrayal, and level of medical care received. In hierarchical regressions incorporating injury, PLT, and betrayal, betrayal was associated with all PTSD symptom clusters and PTSD total severity (f(2) = .08), whereas PLT was associated with hyperarousal (f(2) = .05) and PTSD total (f(2) = .03), and injury had no association with PTSD symptoms. In a revised model with trauma type as an additional variable, betrayal was associated with avoidance (f(2) = .03), numbing (f(2) = .04), and PTSD total (f(2) = .03), whereas PLT was associated with reexperiencing (f(2) = .04), hyperarousal (f(2) = .04), and PTSD total (f(2) = .03), and injury was associated with avoidance (f(2) = .03). These findings support the idea that betrayal is a core dimension of psychological trauma that may play an important role in the etiology of PTSD. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  15. Using the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA) to examine leisure time as a stress coping resource: Taking into account stress severity and gender difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Affective complexity (AC) is a marker of psychological well-being. According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful experiences reduce AC while positive events increase AC. One type of positive events is leisure, which was also identified as a coping resource. This study extended the DMA and leisure coping research by assessing gender difference in how daily stress severity and leisure time influence AC. Analyzing eight-day diary data, we found that females, compared to males, experienced greater decrease in AC with increase in stress severity but also bigger increase in AC with increase in leisure time. The finding highlights gender difference in affective reactivity to and coping with daily stress, the value of the DMA, and the importance of severity appraisal. PMID:25242824

  16. Interactive effects of environmental stress and inbreeding on reproductive traits in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, A B; Arcese, P; Hochachka, W M; Reid, J M; Keller, L F

    2006-11-01

    1. Conservation biologists are concerned about the interactive effects of environmental stress and inbreeding because such interactions could affect the dynamics and extinction risk of small and isolated populations, but few studies have tested for these interactions in nature. 2. We used data from the long-term population study of song sparrows Melospiza melodia on Mandarte Island to examine the joint effects of inbreeding and environmental stress on four fitness traits that are known to be affected by the inbreeding level of adult birds: hatching success, laying date, male mating success and fledgling survival. 3. We found that inbreeding depression interacted with environmental stress to reduce hatching success in the nests of inbred females during periods of rain. 4. For laying date, we found equivocal support for an interaction between parental inbreeding and environmental stress. In this case, however, inbred females experienced less inbreeding depression in more stressful, cooler years. 5. For two other traits, we found no evidence that the strength of inbreeding depression varied with environmental stress. First, mated males fathered fewer nests per season if inbred or if the ratio of males to females in the population was high, but inbreeding depression did not depend on sex ratio. Second, fledglings survived poorly during rainy periods and if their father was inbred, but the effects of paternal inbreeding and rain did not interact. 6. Thus, even for a single species, interactions between the inbreeding level and environmental stress may not occur in all traits affected by inbreeding depression, and interactions that do occur will not always act synergistically to further decrease fitness.

  17. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-11-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  18. New Solutions For Increasing Environmental Protection During Severe Accidents At Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulyukhin, Sergei A.; Mikheev, Nikolai B.; Falkovskii, Leo N.; Reshetov, Leo A.; Zvetkova, Marianna Ya.; Yagodkin, Ivan V.; Osipov, Viktor P.; Skvortsov, Sergei S.; Berkovich, Viktor M.; Taranov, Gennadii S.; Grigor'ev, Mikhail M.; Meshkov, Vladimir M.; Noskov, Andrei A.; Mitrofanov, Mikhail I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports new solutions for increasing environmental protection during severe accidents at NPPs. For NPPs with two protective shells and pressure release system such as WWER-1000 we suggest a new comprehensive, passive-mode environmental protection system of decontamination of the radioactive air-steam mixture from the containment and the inter-containment area, which includes the 'wet' stage (scrubbers, etc.), the 'dry' stage (sorption module), and also an ejector, which in a passive mode is capable of solving the multi-purpose task of decontamination of the air-steam mixture. For Russian WWER-440/230 NPPs we suggest three protection levels: 1) a jet-vortex condenser; 2) the spray system; 3) a sorption module. For modern designs of new generation NPPs, which do not provide for pressure release systems, we proposed a new passive filtering system together with the passive heat-removal system, which can be used during severe accidents in case all power supply units become unavailable. (authors)

  19. New Solutions For Increasing Environmental Protection During Severe Accidents At Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulyukhin, Sergei A.; Mikheev, Nikolai B. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkovskii, Leo N.; Reshetov, Leo A.; Zvetkova, Marianna Ya. [All-Russian Research Institute of Atomic Machine-Building, Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Yagodkin, Ivan V.; Osipov, Viktor P.; Skvortsov, Sergei S. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Berkovich, Viktor M.; Taranov, Gennadii S.; Grigor' ev, Mikhail M. [Institute ' Atomenergoproekt' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Meshkov, Vladimir M.; Noskov, Andrei A.; Mitrofanov, Mikhail I. [ROSENERGOATOM Concern, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports new solutions for increasing environmental protection during severe accidents at NPPs. For NPPs with two protective shells and pressure release system such as WWER-1000 we suggest a new comprehensive, passive-mode environmental protection system of decontamination of the radioactive air-steam mixture from the containment and the inter-containment area, which includes the 'wet' stage (scrubbers, etc.), the 'dry' stage (sorption module), and also an ejector, which in a passive mode is capable of solving the multi-purpose task of decontamination of the air-steam mixture. For Russian WWER-440/230 NPPs we suggest three protection levels: 1) a jet-vortex condenser; 2) the spray system; 3) a sorption module. For modern designs of new generation NPPs, which do not provide for pressure release systems, we proposed a new passive filtering system together with the passive heat-removal system, which can be used during severe accidents in case all power supply units become unavailable. (authors)

  20. Female caregivers and stroke severity determines caregiver stress in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Menon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is among the major causes of short- and long-term disability. This study aimed to understand the caregivers (CGs stress in stroke survivors. Materials and Methods: A 22-item questionnaire was administered to 201 CGs of stroke survivors. The variables tested were physical and mental health, social support, financial, and personal problems. CGs were divided into Group A (Barthel index [BI] 75 according to patient's BI, according to gender (male and female CG and relation; spouses (wife, husband, daughters, sons, daughter-in-law, grandchildren, and rest (father, mother, brother, sister, and in-laws. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version–21. Data were analyzed to determine which variables of the patient effects the CG stress. Results: Majority of the CGs (74.62% were females. 65% of CGs graded their burden as moderate to severe. 81% of CGs had left their work for caregiving. More than half of the CGs felt sleep disturbance and physical strain. Psychological instability and financial burdens were reported in 3/4th of CGs. Group A CGs faced more sleep, financial, health, and social life disturbance. Patient's bladder and bowel problems, shoulder pain, patients noncooperative attitude for medication administration, and physiotherapy were more upsetting for Group A CGs. Female CGs were subjected to more sleep disturbance, physical and psychological stress, faced more difficulty regarding the patient's bladder, bowel, personal hygiene needs, and physiotherapy. Female CGs felt less motivated in caregiving than male CGs. Wives and daughters-in-law experienced more burden. Time spent and burden perceived was more by female CGs (χ2 = 15.199, P = 0.002 than males (χ2 = 11.931, P = 0.018; wives and daughters than other relations (χ2 = 32.184, P = 0.000, (χ2 = 35.162, P = 0.019. Conclusion: Our study showed that caregiving burden was predominantly shouldered by females CGs. CGs faced physical, psychological, and socioeconomic

  1. Comparison of inflammation and oxidative stress levels by the severity of obesity in prepubertal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Surya Candra Eka Pertiwi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Children with severe obesity are more likely to develop diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. Inflammation and oxidative stress associated with childhood obesity may be important in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Objective To compare levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and malondialdehyde (MDA by the severity of obesity in prepubertal children aged 6 to 10 years. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Pediatric Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Clinic, Sanglah Hospital, Bali, from August to December 2015. Subjects were categorized into three body mass index (BMI groups, according to the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth chart: overweight (85th-94.9th percentile, obese (95th-98.9th percentile, or severely obese (≥ 99th percentile. Plasma MDA and serum hsCRP were analyzed in blood specimens obtained at enrollment. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney U test for post-hoc comparison between groups. Results Subjects were 20 overweight children, 29 obese children, and 28 severely obese children. Levels of MDA were significantly higher in the severely obese [median 0.25 (IQR 0.1 μmol/L] than in obese subjects [median 0.19 (IQR 0.1 μmol/L; P=0.001], and than in overweight subjects [median 0.16 (IQR 0.1 μmol/L; P<0.0001]. Also, the severely obese children had significantly higher hsCRP levels compared to obese [median 3.2 (IQR 2.0 mg/L vs. 1.3 (1.6 mg/L, respectively; P<0.0001] and compared to overweight children [median 0.7 (IQR 0.6 mg/L; P<0.0001].     Conclusion Prepubertal children at the ≥ 99th percentile for BMI (severely obese are more likely to have significantly higher hsCRP and MDA compared to those in the obese and overweight groups.

  2. Dying piece by piece: carbohydrate dynamics in aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings under severe carbon stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Erin; Hoch, Günter; Landhäusser, Simon M

    2017-11-02

    Carbon starvation as a mechanism of tree mortality is poorly understood. We exposed seedlings of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to complete darkness at 20 or 28 °C to identify minimum non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations at which trees die and to see if these levels vary between organs or with environmental conditions. We also first grew seedlings under different shade levels to determine if size affects survival time under darkness due to changes in initial NSC concentration and pool size and/or respiration rates. Darkness treatments caused a gradual dieback of tissues. Even after half the stem had died, substantial starch reserves were still present in the roots (1.3-3% dry weight), indicating limitations to carbohydrate remobilization and/or transport during starvation in the absence of water stress. Survival time decreased with increased temperature and with increasing initial shade level, which was associated with smaller biomass, higher respiration rates, and initially smaller NSC pool size. Dead tissues generally contained no starch, but sugar concentrations were substantially above zero and differed between organs (~2% in stems up to ~7.5% in leaves) and, at times, between temperature treatments and initial, pre-darkness shade treatments. Minimum root NSC concentrations were difficult to determine because dead roots quickly began to decompose, but we identify 5-6% sugar as a potential threshold for living roots. This variability may complicate efforts to identify critical NSC thresholds below which trees starve. © Society for Experimental Biology 2017.

  3. Evaluation of Quantitative Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) Methods. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    required information on screening strength from the curvefitting parameters. The underlying theory and approach taken are discussed in Appendix A. To...in field 1020 arm St.,Vas AJ Ptr 0.4i Currpnt. c- ugt ~ing DU?/SYS 2.7264 Wll/IY.3 at Factory Stress- NaxiLMw outgoing W?is’ys 0.288 DrW/5?S at Field...182 125 K.W.Fertig and V.X. Murthy, Models for Reliability Growth During Burn-in: Theory and Applicat’ons,Proceedings 1978 Annual Reliability and

  4. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppert, H Marieke; Albers, Casper J; Minderaa, Ruud B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Nauta, Maaike H

    2015-06-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress has not been examined in this group. The current study examined 101 adolescents (14-19 years old) with BPD symptoms and their mothers. Assessments were made on severity of BPD symptoms, youth-perceived maternal rearing styles, and psychopathology and parenting stress in mothers. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine potential predictors of borderline severity. No correlation was found between severity of BPD symptoms in adolescents and parenting stress. Only youth-perceived maternal overprotection was significantly related to BPD severity. The combination of perceived maternal rejection with cluster B traits in mothers was significantly related to BPD severity in adolescents. This study provides a contribution to the disentanglement of the developmental pathways that lead to BPD.

  5. Thermal stress analysis of reactor containment building considering severe weather condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun; Kim, Yun-Yong; Hyun, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Do-Gyeum

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine that through-wall crack risk in cold weather is high. • It is predicted that cracking in concrete wall will not happen in hot region. • Cracking due to hydration heat can be controlled by appropriate curing condition. • Temperature differences between inner and outer face is relatively small in hot weather. - Abstract: Prediction of concrete cracking due to hydration heat in mass concrete such as reactor containment building (RCB) in nuclear power plant is a crucial issue in construction site. In this study, the numerical analysis for heat transfer and stress development is performed for the containment wall in RCB by considering the severe weather conditions. Finally, concrete cracking risk in hot and cold weather is discussed based on analysis results. In analyses considering severe weather conditions, it is found that the through-wall cracking risk in cold weather is high due to the abrupt temperature difference between inside concrete and the ambient air in cold region. In hot weather, temperature differences between inner and outer face is relatively small, and accordingly the relevant cracking risk is relatively low in contrast with cold weather

  6. Consideration of microstructure evolution and residual stress measurement near severe worked surface using high energy x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Shobu, Takahisa

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to establish a measurement method that can evaluate accurate stress on the surface. However, the microstructure evolution takes place near the surface due to severe plastic deformation, since structural members have been superpositioned a lot of working processes to complete. As well known, a plane stress can't be assumed on the severe worked surface. Therefore we have been proposed the measurement method that can be measured the in-depth distribution of residual stress components by using high energy X-ray from a synchrotron radiation source. There is the combination of the constant penetration depth method and tri-axial stress analysis. Measurements were performed by diffraction planes for the orientation parameter Γ=0.25 of which elastic constants are nearly equal to the mechanical one. The stress components obtained must be converted to the stress components in real space by using optimization technique, since it corresponds to the weighted average stress components associated with the attenuation of X-ray in materials. The predicted stress components distribution agrees very well with the corrected one which was measured by the conventional removal method. To verify the availability of the proposed method, thermal aging variation of residual stress components on the severe worked surface under elevated temperature was investigated using specimen superpositioned working processes (i.e., welding, machining, peening). It is clarified that the residual stress components increase with thermal aging, using the diffraction planes in hard elastic constants to the bulk. This result suggests that the thermal stability of residual stress has the dependence of the diffraction plane. (author)

  7. Imposed Environmental Stresses Facilitate Cell-Free Nanoparticle Formation by Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela; Contreras, Lydia M; Keitz, Benjamin K

    2017-09-15

    The biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been examined in a wide range of organisms, due to increased interest in green synthesis and environmental remediation applications involving heavy metal ion contamination. Deinococcus radiodurans is particularly attractive for environmental remediation involving metal reduction, due to its high levels of resistance to radiation and other environmental stresses. However, few studies have thoroughly examined the relationships between environmental stresses and the resulting effects on nanoparticle biosynthesis. In this work, we demonstrate cell-free nanoparticle production and study the effects of metal stressor concentrations and identity, temperature, pH, and oxygenation on the production of extracellular silver nanoparticles by D. radiodurans R1. We also report the synthesis of bimetallic silver and gold nanoparticles following the addition of a metal stressor (silver or gold), highlighting how production of these particles is enabled through the application of environmental stresses. Additionally, we found that both the morphology and size of monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles were dependent on the environmental stresses imposed on the cells. The nanoparticles produced by D. radiodurans exhibited antimicrobial activity comparable to that of pure silver nanoparticles and displayed catalytic activity comparable to that of pure gold nanoparticles. Overall, we demonstrate that biosynthesized nanoparticle properties can be partially controlled through the tuning of applied environmental stresses, and we provide insight into how their application may affect nanoparticle production in D. radiodurans during bioremediation. IMPORTANCE Biosynthetic production of nanoparticles has recently gained prominence as a solution to rising concerns regarding increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics and a desire for environmentally friendly methods of bioremediation and chemical synthesis. To date, a range of organisms

  8. Environmental Stress Induces Trinucleotide Repeat Mutagenesis in Human Cells by Alt-Nonhomologous End Joining Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Lin, Yunfu; Yotnda, Patricia; Wilson, John H

    2016-07-31

    Multiple pathways modulate the dynamic mutability of trinucleotide repeats (TNRs), which are implicated in neurodegenerative disease and evolution. Recently, we reported that environmental stresses induce TNR mutagenesis via stress responses and rereplication, with more than 50% of mutants carrying deletions or insertions-molecular signatures of DNA double-strand break repair. We now show that knockdown of alt-nonhomologous end joining (alt-NHEJ) components-XRCC1, LIG3, and PARP1-suppresses stress-induced TNR mutagenesis, in contrast to the components of homologous recombination and NHEJ, which have no effect. Thus, alt-NHEJ, which contributes to genetic mutability in cancer cells, also plays a novel role in environmental stress-induced TNR mutagenesis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effect of environmental stress factors on the uptake and survival of Campylobacter jejuni in Acanthamoeba castellanii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan; Qvortrup, Klaus; Wolff, Anders

    2012-01-01

    -exposure to heat, starvation, oxidative or osmotic stresses encountered in the environment may affect the subsequent interaction of C. jejuni with free-living protozoa. To test this hypothesis, we examined the impact of environmental stress on expression of virulence-associated genes (ciaB, dnaJ, and htrA) of C......Background: Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in Europe and North America. The mechanisms allowing survival in the environment and transmission to new hosts are not well understood. Environmental free-living protozoa may facilitate both processes. Pre......, heat treated or osmotically stressed bacteria than with control bacteria. Also, while similar to 1.5 x 10(3) colony forming unit/ml internalized bacteria could typically be recovered 24 h post-gentamicin treatment with control bacteria, no starved, heat treated or osmotically stressed bacteria could...

  10. Residual Stress Analysis of Severe Plastic Deformed Materials using the Finite Element Method and the Neutron Diffraction Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Mi Hyun; Seong, Back Suck; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2009-01-01

    Severe plastic deformation (SPD) is one of the most promising top-down techniques, moving towards industrialization to fabricate bulk ultrafine grain materials. The strain distribution and deformation behavior during the ECAP (equal channel angular pressing), influenced by tool angles, friction and material behavior, was studied through experimental and numerical analyses. The residual stress of work piece which was straight before ECAP produces many serious problems in the next processing e.g. input of the work piece for the next ECAP. The bent work piece needs additional straightening or surface polishing even if the amount of bending is small, and residual stress need to be released before service applications. Residual stress, particularly tensile residual stress can be a very important factor in affecting the reliability and integrity of working parts. The formation of tensile residual stress may result in initiation of fatigue cracks, stress corrosion cracking, or other types of fracture. Hence, residual stress and resulting bending need to be controlled during ECAP. Thus, in current study the bending behavior and the residual stress of the work piece in ECAP are analyzed through experimental and finite element analyses by considering the effects of material, geometric, and processing parameters individually. The stress states in the ECAP processed work piece were measured by the non-destructive way using neutron diffraction. Efforts were made to suggest the alternate routes to reduce the residual stress and bending of work piece in ECAP

  11. Determining risk for severe leptospirosis by molecular analysis of environmental surface waters for pathogenic Leptospira.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Ganoza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Although previous data indicate that the overall incidence of human leptospirosis in the Peruvian Amazon is similar in urban and rural sites, severe leptospirosis has been observed only in the urban context. As a potential explanation for this epidemiological observation, we tested the hypothesis that concentrations of more virulent Leptospira would be higher in urban than in rural environmental surface waters.A quantitative real-time PCR assay was used to compare levels of Leptospira in urban and rural environmental surface waters in sites in the Peruvian Amazon region of Iquitos. Molecular taxonomic analysis of a 1,200-bp segment of the leptospiral 16S ribosomal RNA gene was used to identify Leptospira to the species level. Pathogenic Leptospira species were found only in urban slum water sources (Fisher's exact test; p = 0.013. The concentration of pathogen-related Leptospira was higher in urban than rural water sources (approximately 10(3 leptospires/ml versus 0.5 x 10(2 leptospires/ml; F = 8.406, p < 0.05. Identical 16S rRNA gene sequences from Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae were found in urban slum market area gutter water and in human isolates, suggesting a specific mode of transmission from rats to humans. In a prospective, population-based study of patients presenting with acute febrile illness, isolation of L. interrogans-related leptospires from humans was significantly associated with urban acquisition (75% of urban isolates; human isolates of other leptospiral species were associated with rural acquisition (78% of rural isolates (chi-square analysis; p < 0.01. This distribution of human leptospiral isolates mirrored the distribution of leptospiral 16S ribosomal gene sequences in urban and rural water sources.Our findings data support the hypothesis that urban severe leptospirosis in the Peruvian Amazon is associated with higher concentrations of more pathogenic leptospires at sites of exposure and transmission

  12. A speech-controlled environmental control system for people with severe dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Mark S; Enderby, Pam; Green, Phil; Cunningham, Stuart; Brownsell, Simon; Carmichael, James; Parker, Mark; Hatzis, Athanassios; O'Neill, Peter; Palmer, Rebecca

    2007-06-01

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) can provide a rapid means of controlling electronic assistive technology. Off-the-shelf ASR systems function poorly for users with severe dysarthria because of the increased variability of their articulations. We have developed a limited vocabulary speaker dependent speech recognition application which has greater tolerance to variability of speech, coupled with a computerised training package which assists dysarthric speakers to improve the consistency of their vocalisations and provides more data for recogniser training. These applications, and their implementation as the interface for a speech-controlled environmental control system (ECS), are described. The results of field trials to evaluate the training program and the speech-controlled ECS are presented. The user-training phase increased the recognition rate from 88.5% to 95.4% (p<0.001). Recognition rates were good for people with even the most severe dysarthria in everyday usage in the home (mean word recognition rate 86.9%). Speech-controlled ECS were less accurate (mean task completion accuracy 78.6% versus 94.8%) but were faster to use than switch-scanning systems, even taking into account the need to repeat unsuccessful operations (mean task completion time 7.7s versus 16.9s, p<0.001). It is concluded that a speech-controlled ECS is a viable alternative to switch-scanning systems for some people with severe dysarthria and would lead, in many cases, to more efficient control of the home.

  13. Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of circadian clock genes under environmental stress conditions in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Ju; Park, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Baldwin, Ian T; Park, Chung-Mo

    2014-05-19

    The circadian clock enables living organisms to anticipate recurring daily and seasonal fluctuations in their growth habitats and synchronize their biology to the environmental cycle. The plant circadian clock consists of multiple transcription-translation feedback loops that are entrained by environmental signals, such as light and temperature. In recent years, alternative splicing emerges as an important molecular mechanism that modulates the clock function in plants. Several clock genes are known to undergo alternative splicing in response to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting that the clock function is intimately associated with environmental responses via the alternative splicing of the clock genes. However, the alternative splicing events of the clock genes have not been studied at the molecular level. We systematically examined whether major clock genes undergo alternative splicing under various environmental conditions in Arabidopsis. We also investigated the fates of the RNA splice variants of the clock genes. It was found that the clock genes, including EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL) that have not been studied in terms of alternative splicing, undergo extensive alternative splicing through diverse modes of splicing events, such as intron retention, exon skipping, and selection of alternative 5' splice site. Their alternative splicing patterns were differentially influenced by changes in photoperiod, temperature extremes, and salt stress. Notably, the RNA splice variants of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and ELF3 were degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, whereas those of other clock genes were insensitive to NMD. Taken together, our observations demonstrate that the major clock genes examined undergo extensive alternative splicing under various environmental conditions, suggesting that alternative splicing is a molecular scheme that underlies the linkage between the clock and environmental stress

  14. Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of circadian clock genes under environmental stress conditions in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The circadian clock enables living organisms to anticipate recurring daily and seasonal fluctuations in their growth habitats and synchronize their biology to the environmental cycle. The plant circadian clock consists of multiple transcription-translation feedback loops that are entrained by environmental signals, such as light and temperature. In recent years, alternative splicing emerges as an important molecular mechanism that modulates the clock function in plants. Several clock genes are known to undergo alternative splicing in response to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting that the clock function is intimately associated with environmental responses via the alternative splicing of the clock genes. However, the alternative splicing events of the clock genes have not been studied at the molecular level. Results We systematically examined whether major clock genes undergo alternative splicing under various environmental conditions in Arabidopsis. We also investigated the fates of the RNA splice variants of the clock genes. It was found that the clock genes, including EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL) that have not been studied in terms of alternative splicing, undergo extensive alternative splicing through diverse modes of splicing events, such as intron retention, exon skipping, and selection of alternative 5′ splice site. Their alternative splicing patterns were differentially influenced by changes in photoperiod, temperature extremes, and salt stress. Notably, the RNA splice variants of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and ELF3 were degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, whereas those of other clock genes were insensitive to NMD. Conclusion Taken together, our observations demonstrate that the major clock genes examined undergo extensive alternative splicing under various environmental conditions, suggesting that alternative splicing is a molecular scheme that underlies the linkage between the clock

  15. Combat Blast Injuries: Injury Severity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Interaction on Career Outcomes in Male Servicemembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    post - traumatic stress disorder . INTRODUCTION Blasts are the most...Metzler TJ, Golding JM, Stewart A, Schlenger WE, Wells KB. Post - traumatic stress disorder and functioning and quality of life outcomes in a nationally...proportions were higher in those with posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) than in those without PTSD . There was a significant interaction between PTSD

  16. Environmental Social Stress, Paranoia and Psychosis Liability: A Virtual Reality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Wim; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van Os, Jim; van der Gaag, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The impact of social environments on mental states is difficult to assess, limiting the understanding of which aspects of the social environment contribute to the onset of psychotic symptoms and how individual characteristics moderate this outcome. This study aimed to test sensitivity to environmental social stress as a mechanism of psychosis using Virtual Reality (VR) experiments. Fifty-five patients with recent onset psychotic disorder, 20 patients at ultra high risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of patients with psychosis, and 53 controls walked 5 times in a virtual bar with different levels of environmental social stress. Virtual social stressors were population density, ethnic density and hostility. Paranoia about virtual humans and subjective distress in response to virtual social stress exposures were measured with State Social Paranoia Scale (SSPS) and self-rated momentary subjective distress (SUD), respectively. Pre-existing (subclinical) symptoms were assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), Green Paranoid Thoughts Scale (GPTS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Paranoia and subjective distress increased with degree of social stress in the environment. Psychosis liability and pre-existing symptoms, in particular negative affect, positively impacted the level of paranoia and distress in response to social stress. These results provide experimental evidence that heightened sensitivity to environmental social stress may play an important role in the onset and course of psychosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Rab from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: characterization and its regulation upon environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Jin; Chen, Chu-Xian; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-10-01

    With the destruction of the ecological environment, shrimp cultivation in China has been seriously affected by outbreaks of infectious diseases. Rab, which belong to small GTPase Ras superfamily, can regulate multiple steps in eukaryotic vesicle trafficking including vesicle budding, vesicle tethering, and membrane fusion. Knowledge of Rab in shrimp is essential to understanding regulation and detoxification mechanisms of environmental stress. In this study, we analyzed the functions of Rab from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Full-length cDNA of Rab was obtained, which was 751 bp long, with open reading frame encoding 206 amino acids. In this study, for the first time, the gene expression of Rab of L. vannamei was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR after exposure to five kinds of environmental stresses (bacteria, pH, Cd, salinity and low temperature). The results demonstrate that Rab is sensitive and involved in bacteria, pH, and Cd stress responses and Rab is more sensitive to bacteria than other stresses. Therefore we infer that Rab may have relationship with the anti-stress mechanism induced by environment stress in shrimp and Rab could be used as critical biomarkers for environmental quality assessment.

  18. Morphological changes in textile fibres exposed to environmental stresses: atomic force microscopic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Montiel, Kimberley; Adya, Ashok K

    2009-10-30

    The ability of the atomic force microscope (AFM) to investigate the nanoscopic morphological changes in the surfaces of fabrics was examined for the first time. This study focussed on two natural (cotton and wool), and a regenerated cellulose (viscose) textile fibres exposed to various environmental stresses for different lengths of times. Analyses of the AFM images allowed us to measure quantitatively the surface texture parameters of the environmentally stressed fabrics as a function of the exposure time. It was also possible to visualise at the nanoscale the finest details of the surfaces of three weathered fabrics and clearly distinguish between the detrimental effects of the imposed environmental conditions. This study confirmed that the AFM could become a very powerful tool in forensic examination of textile fibres to provide significant fibre evidence due to its capability of distinguishing between different environmental exposures or forced damages to fibres.

  19. Effects of Temperament, Symptom Severity and Level of Functioning on Maternal Stress in Greek Children and Youth with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantareas, M. Mary; Papageorgiou, Vaya

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of child temperament, symptom severity, verbal ability and level of functioning on maternal stress in 43 Greek mothers of children and young people with autism spectrum disorder. Symptom severity was assessed by the CARS, level of functioning by the PEP, temperament by the Dimensions of Temperament Scale (DOTS-R) and…

  20. Pre-treatment Social Anxiety Severity Moderates the Impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or Aerobic Exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. PMID:25684277

  1. Individual, social and environmental predictors of physical activity in severe to morbid obese African American adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Martin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to predict low, moderate, hard and very hard physical activity (PA and walking/biking/jogging based PA. One-hundred and fifty-nine severe to morbid obese African-American adolescents participated. We predicted 8% of the variance in hard PA largely due to family support and 10% of the variance in very hard PA due to other support (e.g. counselor and having home PA equipment. We also predicted 10% of the variance in walking/biking/jogging due to the walkability of the neighborhood. Our findings support the value of social support and environmental supports in helping obese African American adolescents increase PA.

  2. Metabolomic analysis of the selection response of Drosophila melanogaster to environmental stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmendal, Anders; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Overgaard, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    -regulated in response to selection for some of the stresses in this study. Overall, the results illustrate that selection markedly alters the metabolite profile and that the coupling between different levels of biological organization indeed is present though not very strong for stress selection at this level......We investigated the global metabolite response to artificial selection for tolerance to stressful conditions such as cold, heat, starvation, and desiccation, and for longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Our findings were compared to data from other levels of biological organization, including gene...... expression, physiological traits, and organismal stress tolerance phenotype. Overall, we found that selection for environmental stress tolerance changes the metabolomic (1)H NMR fingerprint largely in a similar manner independent of the trait selected for, indicating that experimental evolution led...

  3. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Severity of Obstructive Pulmonary Complications in Sputum of Sulfur Mustard-Injured Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Heydari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM is a strong bifunctional alkylating agent that causes delayed complications in organs such as lung. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of many pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress in sputum of SM exposed patients with mild, moderate and severe pulmonary dysfunction and assessing their relationship with pulmonary function. Methods: In this cross–sectional study, oxidative stress biomarkers in sputum were examined on 26 patients with SM-induced bronchiolitis obliterans (9 mild, 14 moderate and 3 severe and 12 matched healthy controls referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran between October 2015 and April 2016. Results: Sputum superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and malondialdehyde level in moderate and severe groups were significantly higher than in the control group (P=0.002, P=0.004, P=0.014 and P=0.009, respectively. Glutathione (GSH level in moderate (22.29%, P=0.025 and severe (45.07%, P=0.004 groups were significantly lower than the control. A decreased in GSH level in severe (41.7% groups was observed as compared with the mild group. Pearson analysis revealed strong correlations between disease severity and oxidative stress biomarkers in sputum of patients with moderate and severe injuries. Conclusions: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of patients with moderate and severe pulmonary dysfunction following SM exposure. The presence of enhanced oxidative stress relates to the decline lung function and the progression of the disease. Sputum induction in SM-injured patients can be used to the assessment of the antioxidant status of bronchial secretions.

  4. Liver proteome response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to several environmental contaminants: Potential insights into biomarker development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Brian C.; Ralston-Hooper, Kimberly J.; Kowalski, Kevin A.; Dorota Inerowicz, H.; Adamec, Jiri; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2009-01-01

    Liver proteome response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to environmental contaminants was analyzed to identify novel biomarkers of exposure. Adult male bass were exposed to cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ), atrazine, PCB 126, phenanthrene, or toxaphene via intraperitoneal injection with target body burdens of 0.00067, 3.0, 2.5, 50, and 100 μg/g, respectively. After a 96 h exposure, hepatic proteins were separated with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins (vs. controls) recognized and identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. We identified, 30, 18, eight, 19, and five proteins as differentially expressed within the CdCl 2 , atrazine, PCB 126, phenanthrene, and toxaphene treatments, respectively. Alterations were observed in the expression of proteins associated with cellular ion homeostasis (toxaphene), oxidative stress (phenanthrene, PCB 126), and energy production including glycolysis (CdCl 2 , atrazine) and ATP synthesis (atrazine). This work supports the further evaluation of several of these proteins as biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fish.

  5. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Therapy in Critically Ill Polytrauma Patients with Severe Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Loredana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of death among critically ill patients from the Intensive Care Units (ICU. After primary traumatic injuries, secondary complications occur, which are responsible for the progressive degradation of the clinical status in this type of patients. These include severe inflammation, biochemical and physiological imbalances and disruption of the cellular functionality. The redox cellular potential is determined by the oxidant/antioxidant ratio. Redox potential is disturbed in case of TBI leading to oxidative stress (OS. A series of agression factors that accumulate after primary traumatic injuries lead to secondary lesions represented by brain ischemia and hypoxia, inflammatory and metabolic factors, coagulopathy, microvascular damage, neurotransmitter accumulation, blood-brain barrier disruption, excitotoxic damage, blood-spinal cord barrier damage, and mitochondrial dysfunctions. A cascade of pathophysiological events lead to accelerated production of free radicals (FR that further sustain the OS. To minimize the OS and restore normal oxidant/antioxidant ratio, a series of antioxidant substances is recommended to be administrated (vitamin C, vitamin E, resveratrol, N-acetylcysteine. In this paper we present the biochemical and pathophysiological mechanism of action of FR in patients with TBI and the antioxidant therapy available.

  6. Secondhand tobacco smoke and severity in wheezing children: Nasal oxidant stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozge; Turkeli, Ahmet; Onur, Ece; Bilge, Sema; Yuksel, Hasan

    2018-05-01

    Prenatal and postnatal smoke exposures are associated with many lung diseases in children due to impaired lung function, increased inflammation, and oxidative stress. We aimed to determine the influence of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on the levels of nasal glutathione, IL-8, IL-17, MMP-9, and TIMP-1, as well as serum surfactant protein-D (SP-D) in wheezy children. We enrolled 150 children with recurrent wheezing and recorded wheezing characteristics at enrollment. We measured the levels of serum cotinine, SP-D, nasal glutathione, IL-8, IL-17, MMP-9, and TIMP-1. Serum cotinine levels between 3 and 12 ng/mL, and above 12 ng/mL were defined as lower and higher level secondhand tobacco smoke exposure, respectively. The ANOVA test, Pearson's correlation analysis and multivariate analysis with a linear regression test were used for the statistical analysis. Ninety-one children had been exposed to lower level secondhand tobacco smoke, while 24 children were exposed to higher level secondhand tobacco smoke. Thirty-five children were not exposed to cigarette smoke. Wheezing symptom scores were higher in exposed children (p = 0.03). Levels of other biomarkers showed no significant difference. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is associated with more severe respiratory symptoms in wheezing children. However, levels of nasal or serum inflammatory markers fail to explain this association, either because of different mechanical factors in the process or due to low levels of the biomarkers especially in nasal secretions.

  7. Ecological modulation of environmental stress: interactions between ultraviolet radiation, epibiotic snail embryos, plants and herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Martin

    2008-05-01

    1. The distribution of egg masses of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus on the undersides of water lily leaves (e.g. Nuphar lutea) is related to the prevalence of the leaf-mining beetle Galerucella nymphaeae. 2. When given the choice, Planorbarius significantly avoids leaves that were infested by the mining beetle. Conversely, Lymnaea did not discriminate against mined leaves. 3. Intact Nuphar leaves block over 95% of incident ultraviolet radiation. Yet, ultraviolet transmission reaches almost 100% under beetle mining scars. These are several times wider than snail embryos. 4. When exposed to natural sunlight, Lymnaea embryos proved to be resistant to ambient ultraviolet, while Planorbarius embryos were rapidly killed. Thus, one selective advantage of Planorbarius discrimination against mined leaves when depositing its eggs could be the avoidance of ultraviolet radiation passing through mining scars. 5. Other mining-related modifications of the leaves, reduced area, decreased longevity, altered aufwuchs (i.e. biofilm and epibionts) are discussed but seem less relevant for the oviposition preference of Planorbarius. 6. The discriminatory behaviour of this snail species was triggered by water-borne cues emitted by the damaged leaf, not by the eggs or larvae of the beetle. 7. This study illustrates how environmental stress on a given species, ultraviolet radiation in this case, can be ecologically buffered (shading by Nuphar) or enhanced (reduction of Nuphar shading through beetle mining) by associated species. It highlights how the impact of a given stress depends on the identity of the target species as well as on the identity and role of other species in the community.

  8. Resistance to Aspergillus flavus in maize and peanut: Molecular biology, breeding, environmental stress, and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake C. Fountain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The colonization of maize (Zea mays L. and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus results in the contamination of kernels with carcinogenic mycotoxins known as aflatoxins leading to economic losses and potential health threats to humans. The regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis in various Aspergillus spp. has been extensively studied, and has been shown to be related to oxidative stress responses. Given that environmental stresses such as drought and heat stress result in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS within host plant tissues, host-derived ROS may play an important role in cross-kingdom communication between host plants and A. flavus. Recent technological advances in plant breeding have provided the tools necessary to study and apply knowledge derived from metabolomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic studies in the context of productive breeding populations. Here, we review the current understanding of the potential roles of environmental stress, ROS, and aflatoxin in the interaction between A. flavus and its host plants, and the current status in molecular breeding and marker discovery for resistance to A. flavus colonization and aflatoxin contamination in maize and peanut. We will also propose future directions and a working model for continuing research efforts linking environmental stress tolerance and aflatoxin contamination resistance in maize and peanut.

  9. The University of California Institute of Environmental Stress Marathon Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    In 1973, the Institute of Environmental Stress of the University of California-Santa Barbara, under the direction of Steven M. Horvath, began a series of field and laboratory studies of marathon runners during competition. As one of Horvath's graduate students, many of these studies became part of my doctoral dissertation. The rationale for…

  10. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity moderates the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction and aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Fluxomics of the Eastern Oyster for Environmental Stress Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey P. Tikunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism of 2-13C/15N-glycine and U-13C-glucose was determined in four tissue blocks (adductor muscle, stomach and digestive gland, mantle, and gills of the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica using proton (1H and carbon-13 (13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. The oysters were treated in aerated seawater with three treatments (5.5 mM U-13C-glucose, 2.7 mM 2-13C/15N-glycine, and 5.5 mM U-13C-glucose plus 2.7 mM 2-13C/15N-glycine and the relative mass balance and 13C fractional enrichments were determined in the four tissue blocks. In all tissues, glycine was metabolized by the glycine cycle forming serine exclusively in the mitochondria by the glycine cleavage system forming 2,3-13C-serine. In muscle, a minor amount of serine-derived pyruvate entered the Krebs cycle as substantiated by detection of a trace of 2,3-13C-aspartate. In all tissues, U-13C-glucose formed glycogen by glycogen synthesis, alanine by glycolysis, and glutamate and aspartate through the Krebs cycle. Alanine was formed exclusively from glucose via alanine transaminase and not glycine via alanine-glyoxylate transaminase. Based on isotopomer analysis, pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase appeared to be equal points for pyruvate entry into the Krebs cycle. In the 5.5 mM U-13C-glucose plus 2.7 mM 2-13C/15N-glycine emergence treatment used to simulate 12 h of “low tide”, oysters accumulated more 13C-labeled metabolites, including both anaerobic glycolytic and aerobic Krebs cycle intermediates. The aerobic metabolites could be the biochemical result of the gaping behavior of mollusks during emergence. The change in tissue distribution and mass balance of 13C-labeled nutrients (U-13C-glucose and 2-13C/15N-glycine provides the basis for a new quantitative fluxomic method for elucidating sub-lethal environmental effects in marine organisms called whole body mass balance phenotyping (WoMBaP.

  12. Environmental Maternal Effects Mediate the Resistance of Maritime Pine to Biotic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, María; Zas, Rafael; Sampedro, Luis; Solla, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The resistance to abiotic stress is increasingly recognised as being impacted by maternal effects, given that environmental conditions experienced by parent (mother) trees affect stress tolerance in offspring. We hypothesised that abiotic environmental maternal effects may also mediate the resistance of trees to biotic stress. The influence of maternal environment and maternal genotype and the interaction of these two factors on early resistance of Pinus pinaster half-sibs to the Fusarium circinatum pathogen was studied using 10 mother genotypes clonally replicated in two contrasting environments. Necrosis length of infected seedlings was 16% shorter in seedlings grown from favourable maternal environment seeds than in seedlings grown from unfavourable maternal environment seeds. Damage caused by F. circinatum was mediated by maternal environment and maternal genotype, but not by seed mass. Mechanisms unrelated to seed provisioning, perhaps of epigenetic nature, were probably involved in the transgenerational plasticity of P. pinaster, mediating its resistance to biotic stress. Our findings suggest that the transgenerational resistance of pines due to an abiotic stress may interact with the defensive response of pines to a biotic stress. PMID:23922944

  13. Environmental maternal effects mediate the resistance of maritime pine to biotic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vivas

    Full Text Available The resistance to abiotic stress is increasingly recognised as being impacted by maternal effects, given that environmental conditions experienced by parent (mother trees affect stress tolerance in offspring. We hypothesised that abiotic environmental maternal effects may also mediate the resistance of trees to biotic stress. The influence of maternal environment and maternal genotype and the interaction of these two factors on early resistance of Pinus pinaster half-sibs to the Fusarium circinatum pathogen was studied using 10 mother genotypes clonally replicated in two contrasting environments. Necrosis length of infected seedlings was 16% shorter in seedlings grown from favourable maternal environment seeds than in seedlings grown from unfavourable maternal environment seeds. Damage caused by F. circinatum was mediated by maternal environment and maternal genotype, but not by seed mass. Mechanisms unrelated to seed provisioning, perhaps of epigenetic nature, were probably involved in the transgenerational plasticity of P. pinaster, mediating its resistance to biotic stress. Our findings suggest that the transgenerational resistance of pines due to an abiotic stress may interact with the defensive response of pines to a biotic stress.

  14. Global monthly water stress: II. Water demand and severity of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Viviroli, D.; Dürr, H.H.; Weingartner, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses global water stress at a finer temporal scale compared to conventional assessments. To calculate time series of global water stress at a monthly time scale, global water availability, as obtained from simulations of monthly river discharge from the companion paper, is confronted

  15. Environmental resources reduce income inequality and the prevalence, depth and severity of poverty in rural Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Bir Bahadur Khanal; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic importance of environmental income to rural households in Nepal and how environmental income influences poverty and inequality measures. Qualitative contextual information was collected from two village development committees in middle Gorkha District followed...

  16. Environmental Heat Stress Among Young Working Women: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Juma; Fakhruddin, S H M; Rahman, A K M Fazlur; Halim, M A

    Heat waves are increasing significantly in frequency and severity and threaten the health and income of outdoor workers. Pregnant women workers are particularly at risk due to their delicate physiological systems and accountabilities to future generations. Animal and human studies propose that elevated body temperatures during pregnancy can induce adverse pregnancy outcomes. To measure the change in internal body temperature (Tcore) in young working women before, after, and during work (both outdoor and indoor) on hot humid days and relate threshold temperature to the upshot adverse effects of pregnancy (teratogenicity and related miscarriage). Tympanic temperatures were measured using infrared ear thermometers and workplace temperatures were collected using Lascar Data Logger. Brief exploratory interviews were conducted to gather qualitative data, and content analysis was also carried out. Body temperatures were found elevated among outdoor women workers compared with that of indoor women workers. The present study found that outdoor work during pregnancy in hot, humid days might increase body temperature up to levels that could induce fetal destruction or anomaly. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel hybrid stress-function finite element method immune to severe mesh distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Song; Zhou Mingjue; Fu Xiangrong

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a hybrid stress-function finite element method proposed recently for developing 2D finite element models immune to element shapes. Deferent from the first version of the hybrid-stress element constructed by Pian, the stress function φ of 2D elastic or fracture problem is regarded as the functional variable of the complementary energy functional. Then, the basic analytical solutions of φ are taken as the trial functions for finite element models, and meanwhile, the corresponding unknown stress-function constants are introduced. By using the principle of minimum complementary energy, these unknown stress-function constants can be expressed in terms of the displacements along element edges. Finally, the complementary energy functional can be rewritten in terms of element nodal displacement vector, and thus, the element stiffness matrix of such hybrid-function element can be obtained. As examples, two (8- and 12-node) quadrilateral plane elements and an arbitrary polygonal crack element are constructed by employing different basic analytical solutions of different stress functions. Numerical results show that, the 8- and 12-node plane models can produce the exact solutions for pure bending and linear bending problems, respectively, even the element shape degenerates into triangle and concave quadrangle; and the crack element can also predict accurate results with very low computational cost in analysis of stress-singularity problems.

  18. Environmental factors influencing butterfly abundance after a severe wildfire in Mediterranean vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrat, A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the attention given to the ecology of butterflies, little is known about their community response to wildfires in the Mediterranean region. Here, we evaluated the butterfly assemblage two years after a severe, 13,000 ha wildfire in Catalonia (NE Spain in relation to the surrounding unburned habitat. Using visual transect censuses we assessed community parameters such as abundance, diversity, species richness and equitability in burned and unburned areas. Correspondence analysis was used to analyse specific composition and relative abundance of species in the community. The influence of environmental variables on the abundance of some common species was analysed using generalized linear mixed models, taking spatial effects into account. No significant differences were found between areas for any of the community parameters, and no dominance was detected in the burned area. The structure of the vegetation and the geographical distribution of transects influenced the ordination of species and transects on the correspondence analysis plot. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM results underscored the role of nectar availability, fire and vegetation structure on the abundance of most species studied.

  19. Genetic and environmental modulation of neurotrophic and anabolic stress response: Counterbalancing forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marcus K; Carpenter, Jennifer; Stone, Michael; Hernandez, Lisa M; Rauh, Mitchell J; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-11-01

    The serotonin transporter genetic variant 5HTTLPR influences activation and feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and has been shown to influence the effect of stressful life events on behavioral health. We recently reported that 5HTTLPR modulates cortisol response in healthy military men exposed to intense stress. Less is known of its combined effects with environmental factors in this context, or of its effect on neuroprotective stress responses. In this follow-up study, we examined the unique and combined effects of 5HTTLPR and prior trauma exposure on neuroprotective (salivary nerve growth factor [sNGF]), anabolic (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEAS] and testosterone), and catabolic (cortisol) stress responses. Ninety-three healthy, active-duty military men were studied before, during, and 24h after a stressful 12-day survival course. Distinct and interactive effects of 5HTTLPR long allele carriage [L] versus homozygous short allele carriage [SS]) and prior trauma exposure (low versus high) were evaluated, after which a priori group comparisons were performed between hypothesized high resilience (L/low) and low resilience (SS/high) groups. For sNGF, L/low produced the greatest sNGF throughout stress exposure while SS/high demonstrated the smallest; L/high and SS/low bisected these two extremes and were nearly identical to each other (i.e., SS/high counterbalancing (additive) forces. Similar patterns were found for DHEAS. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report counterbalancing genetic and environmental effects on novel biomarkers related to resilience in humans exposed to real-world stress. These findings have profound implications for health, performance and training in high-stress occupational settings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The parenting attitudes and the stress of mothers predict the asthmatic severity of their children: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Jun; Kakuta, Chikage; Motomura, Chikako; Odajima, Hiroshi; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Nishima, Sankei; Kubo, Chiharu

    2010-10-07

    To examine relationships between a mother's stress-related conditions and parenting attitudes and their children's asthmatic status. 274 mothers of an asthmatic child 2 to 12 years old completed a questionnaire including questions about their chronic stress/coping behaviors (the "Stress Inventory"), parenting attitudes (the "Ta-ken Diagnostic Test for Parent-Child Relationship, Parent Form"), and their children's disease status. One year later, a follow-up questionnaire was mailed to the mothers that included questions on the child's disease status. 223 mothers (81%) responded to the follow-up survey. After controlling for non-psychosocial factors including disease severity at baseline, multiple linear regression analysis followed by multiple logistic regression analysis found chronic irritation/anger and emotional suppression to be aggravating factors for children aged types of parental stress/coping behaviors and parenting styles may differently predict their children's asthmatic status, and such associations may change as children grow.

  1. Water stress exacerbates the severity of Botryosphaeria dieback in grapevines infected by Neofusicoccum parvum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botryosphaeria dieback (causal fungus Neofusicoccum parvum) is a detrimental grapevine trunk disease, causing internal wood degradation, killing shoots, and reducing yields. We examined the interactive effects of drought and N. parvum infection, common vineyard stresses, on wood-lesion development. ...

  2. Finite element analysis of thermal stresses of the reactor vessel in a severe light water reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovkov, A.I.; Semenov, A.S.; Granovsky, V.S.; Kovtunova, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal stress and damage analysis of the light water reactor (LWR) vessel is considered in a severe accident conditions. The high temperature corium accumulates on the vessel bottom and necessary condition of its holding is intensive cooling of vessel. External flooding with outside cooling of the LWR vessel is one of the accident management strategies being proposed to ensure the integrity of the vessel after a severe accident. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs

  3. Finite element analysis of thermal stresses of the reactor vessel in a severe light water reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovkov, A.I.; Semenov, A.S. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Granovsky, V.S.; Kovtunova, S.V. [Research Inst. of Technology, Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The thermal stress and damage analysis of the light water reactor (LWR) vessel is considered in a severe accident conditions. The high temperature corium accumulates on the vessel bottom and necessary condition of its holding is intensive cooling of vessel. External flooding with outside cooling of the LWR vessel is one of the accident management strategies being proposed to ensure the integrity of the vessel after a severe accident. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Stress and Sleep Duration Predict Headache Severity in Chronic Headache Sufferers

    OpenAIRE

    Houle, Timothy T.; Butschek, Ross A.; Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Rains, Jeanetta C.; Penzien, Donald B.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the time-series relationships between stress, sleep duration, and headache pain among patients with chronic headaches. Sleep and stress have long been recognized as potential triggers of episodic headache (< 15 headache days/month), though prospective evidence is inconsistent and absent in patients diagnosed with chronic headaches (≥ 15 days/month). We reanalyzed data from a 28-day observational study of chronic migraine (n = 33) and chronic tension...

  5. Probing Resilience: Daily Environmental Mastery, Self-Esteem, and Stress Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Mignon A; Tiberio, Stacey S

    2016-10-01

    The current study explores one way the process of resilience arises by investigating the underlying process of stress appraisal. In particular, the analyses examine how resilience resources function each day to attenuate the extent to which life experiences are perceived as threatening, and how trait-like resilience resources shape the appraisal process. Daily diary and questionnaire data from 96 participants of Successful Aging in Context: The Macroenvironment and Daily Lived Experience (SAIC; MAge = 67 years, SDAge = 4.9 years; range: 58-86 years) were analyzed using multilevel random coefficient modeling to investigate how individuals' daily perceptions of control and self-esteem impacted perceived stress on a given day. Results suggested that both self-esteem and environmental mastery help mitigate the experience of stress; furthermore, dispositional resilience and self-esteem stability predict differences between individuals in the extent to which self-esteem tempers the perception of stress each day. The results inform theoretical and empirical work on the nature of resilience, especially regarding how the process arises in ordinary life. From an application perspective, results imply that augmenting environmental mastery and self-esteem, both of which are malleable, can facilitate resilience by helping elders challenge their perceptions of stress each day. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression. While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney, Rigoli, and Piek (2013 provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD. The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. This evidence promotes the external validity of the framework for use across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualisation, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended.

  7. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association Between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Vincent O.; Rigoli, Daniela; Cairney, John; Roberts, Lynne D.; Piek, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression). While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney et al. (2013) provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualization, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended. PMID:26941690

  8. Environmental Enrichment during Gestation Improves Behavior Consequences and Synaptic Plasticity in Hippocampus of Prenatal-Stressed Offspring Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingbo; Wang, Miao; Ding, Siqing; Li, Changqi; Luo, Xuegang

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal stress can result in various behavior deficits in offspring. Here we tested the effects of environmental enrichment during gestation used as a preventive strategy on the behavior deficits of prenatal-stressed offspring rats as well as the underlying structure basis. We compared the effect size of environmental enrichment during gestation on prenatal-stressed offspring to that of environmental enrichment after weaning. Our results showed that environmental enrichment during gestation partially prevented anxiety and the damage in learning and memory in prenatal-stressed offspring as evaluated by elevated plus-maze test and Morris water maze test. At the same time, environmental enrichment during gestation inhibited the decrease in spine density of CA1 and dentate gyrus neurons and preserved the expression of synaptophysin and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus of prenatal-stressed offspring. There was no significant difference in offspring behavior between 7-day environmental enrichment during gestation and 14-day offspring environmental enrichment after weaning. These data suggest that environmental enrichment during gestation effectively prevented the behavior deficits and the abnormal synapse structures in prenatal-stressed offspring, and that it can be used as an efficient preventive strategy against prenatal stresses

  9. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; D'haen, Sarah Ann Lise; Maiga, Abdou

    2012-01-01

    Environmental change in the Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa (SSWA) has been much debated since the droughts of the 1970s. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic...... to household perceptions, observed rainfall patterns showed an increasing trend over the past 20 years. However, August rainfall declined, and could therefore potentially explain the contrasting negative household perceptions of rainfall trends. Most households reported degradation of soils, water resources......, vegetation, and fauna, but more so in the 500–900 mm zones. Adaptation measures to counter environmental degradation included use of manure, reforestation, soil and water conservation, and protection of fauna and vegetation. The results raise concerns for future environmental management in the region...

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptom Severities Are Differentially Associated With Hippocampal Subfield Volume Loss in Combat Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Christopher L; Satodiya, Ritvij M; Scott, J Cobb; Wrocklage, Kristen M; Schweinsburg, Brian; Averill, Lynnette A; Akiki, Teddy J; Amoroso, Timothy; Southwick, Steven M; Krystal, John H; Abdallah, Chadi G

    2017-01-01

    Two decades of human neuroimaging research have associated volume reductions in the hippocampus with posttraumatic stress disorder. However, little is known about the distribution of volume loss across hippocampal subfields. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made it possible to accurately delineate 10 gray matter hippocampal subfields. Here, we apply a volumetric analysis of hippocampal subfields to data from a group of combat-exposed Veterans. Veterans (total, n = 68, posttraumatic stress disorder, n = 36; combat control, n = 32) completed high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging. Based on previously validated methods, hippocampal subfield volume measurements were conducted using FreeSurfer 6.0. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale assessed posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity; Beck Depression Inventory assessed depressive symptom severity. Controlling for age and intracranial volume, partial correlation analysis examined the relationship between hippocampal subfields and symptom severity. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using false discovery rate. Gender, intelligence, combat severity, comorbid anxiety, alcohol/substance use disorder, and medication status were investigated as potential confounds. In the whole sample, total hippocampal volume negatively correlated with Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale and Beck Depression Inventory scores. Of the 10 hippocampal subfields, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale symptom severity negatively correlated with the hippocampus-amygdala transition area (HATA). Beck Depression Inventory scores negatively correlated with dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis 4 (CA4), HATA, CA2/3, molecular layer, and CA1. Follow-up analysis limited to the posttraumatic stress disorder group showed a negative correlation between Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale symptom severity and each of HATA, CA2/3, molecular layer, and CA4. This study provides the first evidence relating posttraumatic stress

  11. A definition of normovolaemia and consequences for cardiovascular control during orthostatic and environmental stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truijen, Jasper; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2010-01-01

    The Frank-Starling mechanism describes the relationship between stroke volume and preload to the heart, or the volume of blood that is available to the heart--the central blood volume. Understanding the role of the central blood volume for cardiovascular control has been complicated by the fact...... stress including bed rest/microgravity, exercise and training, thermal loading, illness, and trauma/haemorrhage is likely to restrict venous return and Q. Consequently the cardiovascular responses are determined primarily by their effect on the central blood volume. Thus during environmental stress, flow...

  12. Effect of mental stress on left ventricular ejection fraction and its relationship to the severity of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Toru; Kuwabara, Yoichi; Watanabe, Satoshi; Nakaya, Jiro; Hasegawa, R.; Shikama, Takeshi; Matsuno, Kouki; Mikami, Yuji; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Saito, Toshihiro; Masuda, Yoshiaki

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the mental stress-induced decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and the severity of exercise-induced ischaemia, 20 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent radionuclide ventriculography during mental stress testing and stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET). We also examined whether changes in haemodynamic and neurohormonal parameters are related to changes in LVEF during mental stress. The LVEF decreased from 54.8%±17.7% to 49.8%±16.2% with mental stress (P<0.0005). Ten of the 20 patients (50.0%) had a ≥5% decrease in LVEF. The remaining ten patients had no or a <5% decrease in LVEF. There was a significant correlation between the change in LVEF during mental stress and the size of the reversible defect on stress myocardial perfusion SPET (r=-0.80, P<0.0005), with close regional correspondence (75% identical). This correlation was less strong in the 12 patients with a total defect score at rest of <10 (r=-0.69, P=0.014) than in the eight patients with a total defect score at rest of ≥10 (r=-0.94, P=0.001). The changes in blood pressure and heart rate were not significantly correlated with the change in LVEF, but the percent change in adrenaline concentration correlated with the change in LVEF. It is suggested that mental stress impairs systolic function by inducing transient myocardial ischaemia. The effect of neurohormonal responses during mental stress on LV systolic function may also be important in patients with CAD. (orig.)

  13. Effect of mental stress on left ventricular ejection fraction and its relationship to the severity of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Toru; Kuwabara, Yoichi; Watanabe, Satoshi; Nakaya, Jiro; Hasegawa, R.; Shikama, Takeshi; Matsuno, Kouki; Mikami, Yuji; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Saito, Toshihiro; Masuda, Yoshiaki [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Chiba Univ. (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the mental stress-induced decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and the severity of exercise-induced ischaemia, 20 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent radionuclide ventriculography during mental stress testing and stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET). We also examined whether changes in haemodynamic and neurohormonal parameters are related to changes in LVEF during mental stress. The LVEF decreased from 54.8%{+-}17.7% to 49.8%{+-}16.2% with mental stress (P<0.0005). Ten of the 20 patients (50.0%) had a {>=}5% decrease in LVEF. The remaining ten patients had no or a <5% decrease in LVEF. There was a significant correlation between the change in LVEF during mental stress and the size of the reversible defect on stress myocardial perfusion SPET (r=-0.80, P<0.0005), with close regional correspondence (75% identical). This correlation was less strong in the 12 patients with a total defect score at rest of <10 (r=-0.69, P=0.014) than in the eight patients with a total defect score at rest of {>=}10 (r=-0.94, P=0.001). The changes in blood pressure and heart rate were not significantly correlated with the change in LVEF, but the percent change in adrenaline concentration correlated with the change in LVEF. It is suggested that mental stress impairs systolic function by inducing transient myocardial ischaemia. The effect of neurohormonal responses during mental stress on LV systolic function may also be important in patients with CAD. (orig.)

  14. Environmental adaptability and stress tolerance of Laribacter hongkongensis: a genome-wide analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Susanna KP

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laribacter hongkongensis is associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis and traveler's diarrhea and it can reside in human, fish, frogs and water. In this study, we performed an in-depth annotation of the genes in its genome related to adaptation to the various environmental niches. Results L. hongkongensis possessed genes for DNA repair and recombination, basal transcription, alternative σ-factors and 109 putative transcription factors, allowing DNA repair and global changes in gene expression in response to different environmental stresses. For acid stress, it possessed a urease gene cassette and two arc gene clusters. For alkaline stress, it possessed six CDSs for transporters of the monovalent cation/proton antiporter-2 and NhaC Na+:H+ antiporter families. For heavy metals acquisition and tolerance, it possessed CDSs for iron and nickel transport and efflux pumps for other metals. For temperature stress, it possessed genes related to chaperones and chaperonins, heat shock proteins and cold shock proteins. For osmotic stress, 25 CDSs were observed, mostly related to regulators for potassium ion, proline and glutamate transport. For oxidative and UV light stress, genes for oxidant-resistant dehydratase, superoxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, exclusion and export of redox-cycling antibiotics, redox balancing, DNA repair, reduction of disulfide bonds, limitation of iron availability and reduction of iron-sulfur clusters are present. For starvation, it possessed phosphorus and, despite being asaccharolytic, carbon starvation-related CDSs. Conclusions The L. hongkongensis genome possessed a high variety of genes for adaptation to acid, alkaline, temperature, osmotic, oxidative, UV light and starvation stresses and acquisition of and tolerance to heavy metals.

  15. Environmental and Intrinsic Correlates of Stress in Free-Ranging Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Barbara; Fattebert, Julien; Palme, Rupert; Ciucci, Paolo; Betschart, Bruno; Smith, Douglas W; Diehl, Peter-Allan

    2015-01-01

    When confronted with a stressor, animals react with several physiological and behavioral responses. Although sustained or repeated stress can result in severe deleterious physiological effects, the causes of stress in free-ranging animals are yet poorly documented. In our study, we aimed at identifying the main factors affecting stress levels in free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus). We used fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) as an index of stress, after validating the method for its application in wolves. We analyzed a total of 450 fecal samples from eleven wolf packs belonging to three protected populations, in Italy (Abruzzo), France (Mercantour), and the United States (Yellowstone). We collected samples during two consecutive winters in each study area. We found no relationship between FCM concentrations and age, sex or social status of individuals. At the group level, our results suggest that breeding pair permanency and the loss of pack members through processes different from dispersal may importantly impact stress levels in wolves. We measured higher FCM levels in comparatively small packs living in sympatry with a population of free-ranging dogs. Lastly, our results indicate that FCM concentrations are associated with endoparasitic infections of individuals. In social mammals sharing strong bonds among group members, the death of one or several members of the group most likely induces important stress in the remainder of the social unit. The potential impact of social and territorial stability on stress levels should be further investigated in free-ranging populations, especially in highly social and in territorial species. As persistent or repeated stressors may facilitate or induce pathologies and physiological alterations that can affect survival and fitness, we advocate considering the potential impact of anthropogenic causes of stress in management and conservation programs regarding wolves and other wildlife.

  16. Environmental and Intrinsic Correlates of Stress in Free-Ranging Wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Molnar

    Full Text Available When confronted with a stressor, animals react with several physiological and behavioral responses. Although sustained or repeated stress can result in severe deleterious physiological effects, the causes of stress in free-ranging animals are yet poorly documented. In our study, we aimed at identifying the main factors affecting stress levels in free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus.We used fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM as an index of stress, after validating the method for its application in wolves. We analyzed a total of 450 fecal samples from eleven wolf packs belonging to three protected populations, in Italy (Abruzzo, France (Mercantour, and the United States (Yellowstone. We collected samples during two consecutive winters in each study area. We found no relationship between FCM concentrations and age, sex or social status of individuals. At the group level, our results suggest that breeding pair permanency and the loss of pack members through processes different from dispersal may importantly impact stress levels in wolves. We measured higher FCM levels in comparatively small packs living in sympatry with a population of free-ranging dogs. Lastly, our results indicate that FCM concentrations are associated with endoparasitic infections of individuals.In social mammals sharing strong bonds among group members, the death of one or several members of the group most likely induces important stress in the remainder of the social unit. The potential impact of social and territorial stability on stress levels should be further investigated in free-ranging populations, especially in highly social and in territorial species. As persistent or repeated stressors may facilitate or induce pathologies and physiological alterations that can affect survival and fitness, we advocate considering the potential impact of anthropogenic causes of stress in management and conservation programs regarding wolves and other wildlife.

  17. Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin Sapmaz, Şermin; Ergin, Dilek; Özek Erkuran, Handan; Şen Celasin, Nesrin; Öztürk, Masum; Karaarslan, Duygu; Köroğlu, Ertuğrul; Aydemir, Ömer

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form for use among the Turkish population. The study group consisted of 30 patients that had been treated in a child psychiatry unit and diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder and 83 healthy volunteers that were attending middle or high school during the study period. For reliability analyses, the internal consistency coefficient and the test-retest correlation coefficient were measured. For validity analyses, the exploratory factor analysis and correlation analysis with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index for concurrent validity were measured. The Cronbach's alpha (the internal consistency coefficient) of the scale was 0.909, and the test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.663. One factor that could explain 58.5% of the variance was obtained and was congruent with the original construct of the scale. As for concurrent validity, the scale showed high correlation with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index. It was concluded that the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form can be used as a valid and reliable tool.

  18. Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jacqueline; Spain, Debbie; Furuta, Marie; Murrells, Trevor; Norman, Ian

    2017-01-24

    Increasing evidence indicates that individuals who develop severe mental illness (SMI) are also vulnerable to developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), due to increased risk of exposure to traumatic events and social adversity. The effectiveness of trauma-focused psychological interventions (TFPIs) for PTSD in the general population is well-established. TFPIs involve identifying and changing unhelpful beliefs about traumatic experiences, processing of traumatic memories, and developing new ways of responding to cues associated with trauma. Little is known about the potential feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of TFPIs for individuals who have a SMI and PTSD. To evaluate the effectiveness of psychological interventions for PTSD symptoms or other symptoms of psychological distress arising from trauma in people with SMI. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Study-Based Register (up until March 10, 2016), screened reference lists of relevant reports and reviews, and contacted trial authors for unpublished and/or specific outcome data. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which investigated TFPIs for people with SMI and PTSD, and reported useable data. Three review authors (DS, MF, IN) independently screened the titles and abstracts of all references identified, and read short-listed full text papers. We assessed risk of bias in each case. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for binary outcomes, and the mean difference (MD) and 95% CI for continuous data, on an intention-to-treat basis. We assessed quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) and created 'Summary of findings' tables. Four trials involving a total of 300 adults with SMI and PTSD are included. These trials evaluated three active intervention therapies: trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT), eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR

  19. Assessing adaptability and reactive scope: Introducing a new measure and illustrating its use through a case study of environmental stress in forest-living baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLarnon, A M; Sommer, V; Goffe, A S; Higham, J P; Lodge, E; Tkaczynski, P; Ross, C

    2015-05-01

    In order to maintain regulatory processes, animals are expected to be adapted to the range of environmental stressors usually encountered in their environmental niche. The available capacity of their stress responses is termed their reactive scope, which is utilised to a greater or lesser extent to deal with different stressors. Typically, non-invasive hormone assessment is used to measure the physiological stress responses of wild animals, but, for methodological reasons, such measurements are not directly comparable across studies, limiting interpretation. To overcome this constraint, we propose a new measure of the relative strength of stress responses, 'demonstrated reactive scope', and illustrate its use in a study of ecological correlates (climate, food availability) of faecal glucocorticoid (fGC) levels in two forest-living troops of baboons. Results suggest the wild-feeding troop experiences both thermoregulatory and nutritional stress, while the crop-raiding troop experiences only thermoregulatory stress. This difference, together with the crop-raiding troop's lower overall physiological stress levels and lower demonstrated fGC reactive scope, may reflect nutritional stress-buffering in this troop. The relatively high demonstrated fGC reactive scope levels of both troops compared with other baboons and primate species, may reflect their extreme habitat, on the edge of the geographic range for baboons. Demonstrated reactive scope provides a means of gauging the relative strengths of stress responses of individuals, populations, or species under different conditions, enhancing the interpretive capacity of non-invasive studies of stress hormone levels in wild populations, e.g. in terms of animals' adaptive flexibility, the magnitude of their response to anthropogenic change, or the severity of impact of environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased oxidative stress associated with the severity of the liver disease in various forms of hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan Mehmet

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress can be defined as an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity. There is limited information about the oxidative status in subjects with hepatitis B virus infection. We aimed to evaluate the oxidative status in patients with various clinical forms of chronic hepatitis B infection. Methods Seventy-six patients with hepatitis B virus infection, in whom 33 with chronic hepatitis, 31 inactive carriers and 12 with cirrhosis, and 16 healthy subjects were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurement, and calculation of oxidative stress index were performed in all participants. Results Total antioxidant response was significantly lower in cirrhotics than inactive HbsAg carriers and controls (p = 0.008 and p = 0.008, respectively. Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index was significantly higher in cirrhotic (p 0.05/6. Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were also comparable in inactive HBsAg carriers and controls (both, p > 0.05/6. Serum alanine amino transferase level was positively correlated with total peroxide level and oxidative stress index only in chronic hepatitis B subjects (p = 0.002, r = 0.519 and p = 0.008, r = 0.453, respectively. Conclusion Oxidative stress occurs secondarily to increased total lipid peroxidation and inadequate total antioxidant response and is related to severity of the disease and replication status of virus in hepatitis B infection.

  1. Increased oxidative stress associated with the severity of the liver disease in various forms of hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun Filiz; Horoz, Mehmet; Aslan, Mehmet; Celik, Hakim; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-10-31

    Oxidative stress can be defined as an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity. There is limited information about the oxidative status in subjects with hepatitis B virus infection. We aimed to evaluate the oxidative status in patients with various clinical forms of chronic hepatitis B infection. Seventy-six patients with hepatitis B virus infection, in whom 33 with chronic hepatitis, 31 inactive carriers and 12 with cirrhosis, and 16 healthy subjects were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurement, and calculation of oxidative stress index were performed in all participants. Total antioxidant response was significantly lower in cirrhotics than inactive HbsAg carriers and controls (p = 0.008 and p = 0.008, respectively). Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index was significantly higher in cirrhotic (p Total antioxidant response was comparable in chronic hepatitis B subjects, inactive HbsAg carriers and controls (both, p > 0.05/6). Total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were also comparable in inactive HBsAg carriers and controls (both, p > 0.05/6). Serum alanine amino transferase level was positively correlated with total peroxide level and oxidative stress index only in chronic hepatitis B subjects (p = 0.002, r = 0.519 and p = 0.008, r = 0.453, respectively). Oxidative stress occurs secondarily to increased total lipid peroxidation and inadequate total antioxidant response and is related to severity of the disease and replication status of virus in hepatitis B infection.

  2. OsAPX4 gene response to several environmental stresses in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) over-expressing ascorbate peroxidase exhibited greater tolerance to NaCl and NaHCO3 and transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing OsAPX4 had a greater salt tolerance than wild-type plants in 1/2 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 150, 200 mM NaCl and 5, 7.5 mM NaHCO3.

  3. Environmental stress, TRH and lactation effects on plasma growth hormone of cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.D.; DeDios, O.; Lippincott, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone (GH) levels of cattle are influenced by numerous environmental and metabolic factors. Acute heat stress increases GH threefold with maximum value at 30 minutes post-exposure. TRH infusion also shows a threefold increase as early as 2 minutes post-infusion but with a continual elevation for approximately 20 minutes. Longer-term environmental heat stress exposure, as occurs in tropics and the summer season, lowers plasma GH of cattle. GH levels in high-producing, lactating cows are greater than in low producers. In summary, plasma increases in levels of GH immediately reflect the stressor effects on cattle, presumably through involvement of TRH release. Long-term heat stressors, such as seasonal or tropic acclimatization, lowers GH of lactating cattle. (author)

  4. A definition of normovolaemia and consequences for cardiovascular control during orthostatic and environmental stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truijen, Jasper; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2010-01-01

    that a given central blood volume may be associated with markedly different central vascular pressures. The central blood volume varies with posture and, consequently, stroke volume and cardiac output (Q) are affected, but with the increased central blood volume during head-down tilt, stroke volume and Q do...... not increase further indicating that in the supine resting position the heart operates on the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve which, therefore, may be taken as a functional definition of normovolaemia. Since the capacity of the vascular system surpasses the blood volume, orthostatic and environmental...... stress including bed rest/microgravity, exercise and training, thermal loading, illness, and trauma/haemorrhage is likely to restrict venous return and Q. Consequently the cardiovascular responses are determined primarily by their effect on the central blood volume. Thus during environmental stress, flow...

  5. Energy and Environmental Drivers of Stress and Conflict in Multi scale Models of Human Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    resolved by the recognition that cities are first and foremost self- organizing social networks embedded in space and enabled by urban infrastructure and...AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT TERMS b. ABSTRACT 2. REPORT TYPE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 5d...Report: Energy and Environmental Drivers of Stress and Conflict in Multi-scale Models of Human Social Behavior The views, opinions and/or findings

  6. Increased intracellular proteolysis reduces disease severity in an ER stress-associated dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Lorna A; Mularczyk, Ewa J; Kung, Louise H; Forouhan, Mitra; Wragg, Jordan Ma; Goodacre, Royston; Bateman, John F; Swanton, Eileithyia; Briggs, Michael D; Boot-Handford, Raymond P

    2017-10-02

    The short-limbed dwarfism metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid (MCDS) is linked to mutations in type X collagen, which increase ER stress by inducing misfolding of the mutant protein and subsequently disrupting hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation. Here, we show that carbamazepine (CBZ), an autophagy-stimulating drug that is clinically approved for the treatment of seizures and bipolar disease, reduced the ER stress induced by 4 different MCDS-causing mutant forms of collagen X in human cell culture. Depending on the nature of the mutation, CBZ application stimulated proteolysis of misfolded collagen X by either autophagy or proteasomal degradation, thereby reducing intracellular accumulation of mutant collagen. In MCDS mice expressing the Col10a1.pN617K mutation, CBZ reduced the MCDS-associated expansion of the growth plate hypertrophic zone, attenuated enhanced expression of ER stress markers such as Bip and Atf4, increased bone growth, and reduced skeletal dysplasia. CBZ produced these beneficial effects by reducing the MCDS-associated abnormalities in hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation. Stimulation of intracellular proteolysis using CBZ treatment may therefore be a clinically viable way of treating the ER stress-associated dwarfism MCDS.

  7. Stress and Coping Styles Are Associated with Severe Fatigue in Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Mizuno, Kei; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Fatigue is a common complaint among medical students and researchers consider it to be related to poor academic outcomes. The authors' goal in the present study was to determine whether stress and coping strategies were associated with fatigue in medical students. The study group consisted of 73 second-year healthy students attending the Osaka…

  8. Glucocorticoid receptor number predicts increase in amygdala activity after severe stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, Elbert; van Wingen, Guido A.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Rademaker, Arthur R.; Vermetten, Eric; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Fernández, Guillén; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals who are exposed to a traumatic event are at increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have shown that increased amygdala activity is frequently found in patients with PTSD. In addition, pre-trauma glucocorticoid

  9. Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip J. van Mantgem; Jonathan C.B. Nesmith; MaryBeth Keifer; Eric E. Knapp; Alan Flint; Lorriane Flint

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive warming can lead to chronic stress on forest trees, which may contribute to mortality resulting from fire-caused injuries. Longitudinal analyses of forest plots from across the western US show that high pre-fire climatic water deficit was related to increased post-fire tree mortality probabilities. This relationship between climate and fire was present after...

  10. Behavior of stressed and unstressed 304L specimens in tuff repository environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhas, M.C.; McCright, R.D.; Garrison, R.E.

    1984-11-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of an investigation of the behavior of candidate barrier material for high-level nuclear waste storage, Type 304L stainless steel, in tuff repository environmental conditions. Tuff is a densely welded, devitrified, igneous rock common to the proposed repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results discussed include: irradiation corrosion tests, U-bend irradiation corrosion tests, slow strain rate tests, and bent beam stress corrosion tests. Results indicate that Type 304L stainless steel shows excellent resistance to general, localized, and stress corrosion under the environmental and microstructural conditions tested so far. The environmental test conditions are 50 to 100 0 C J-13 well water (non-saline, near neutral pH, and oxic in nature) and saturated steam at 100 0 C. Microstructural conditions include solution annealed and long furnace heat treatments to provoke a sensitized structure. However, this particular type of stainless steel may be susceptible to long-term, low-temperature sensitization because of the combination of expected time at elevated temperature and residual stress in the container after emplacement in the repository. Other grades of austenitic stainless steels are reported to be more resistant to low-temperature sensitization. Future work will therefore include more extensive testing of these grades. 15 references, 5 figures, 7 tables

  11. Remote in vivo stress assessment of aquatic animals with microencapsulated biomarkers for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkov, Anton; Shchapova, Ekaterina; Bedulina, Daria; Baduev, Boris; Borvinskaya, Ekaterina; Meglinski, Igor; Timofeyev, Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Remote in vivo scanning of physiological parameters is a major trend in the development of new tools for the fields of medicine and animal physiology. For this purpose, a variety of implantable optical micro- and nanosensors have been designed for potential medical applications. At the same time, the important area of environmental sciences has been neglected in the development of techniques for remote physiological measurements. In the field of environmental monitoring and related research, there is a constant demand for new effective and quick techniques for the stress assessment of aquatic animals, and the development of proper methods for remote physiological measurements in vivo may significantly increase the precision and throughput of analyses in this field. In the present study, we apply pH-sensitive microencapsulated biomarkers to remotely monitor the pH of haemolymph in vivo in endemic amphipods from Lake Baikal, and we compare the suitability of this technique for stress assessment with that of common biochemical methods. For the first time, we demonstrate the possibility of remotely detecting a change in a physiological parameter in an aquatic organism under ecologically relevant stressful conditions and show the applicability of techniques using microencapsulated biomarkers for remote physiological measurements in environmental monitoring.

  12. Oxidative Stress and Ageing: The Influence of Environmental Pollution, Sunlight and Diet on Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khimara Naidoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin ageing is a complex process that is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which leads to a progressive loss of structure and function. There is extensive evidence indicating that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the process of human skin ageing. Mitochondria are the major source of cellular oxidative stress and are widely implicated in cutaneous ageing. Extrinsic skin ageing is driven to a large extent by environmental factors and external stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR, pollution and lifestyle factors which have been shown to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species and generate oxidative stress. The oxidative damage from these exogenous sources can impair skin structure and function, leading to the phenotypic features of extrinsic skin ageing. The following review highlights the current evidence surrounding the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress in the ageing process and the influence of environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation, pollution and diet on skin ageing.

  13. Responses to social and environmental stress are attenuated by strong male bonds in wild macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christopher; Majolo, Bonaventura; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In humans and obligatory social animals, individuals with weak social ties experience negative health and fitness consequences. The social buffering hypothesis conceptualizes one possible mediating mechanism: During stressful situations the presence of close social partners buffers against the adverse effects of increased physiological stress levels. We tested this hypothesis using data on social (rate of aggression received) and environmental (low temperatures) stressors in wild male Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Morocco. These males form strong, enduring, and equitable affiliative relationships similar to human friendships. We tested the effect of the strength of a male’s top three social bonds on his fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels as a function of the stressors’ intensity. The attenuating effect of stronger social bonds on physiological stress increased both with increasing rates of aggression received and with decreasing minimum daily temperature. Ruling out thermoregulatory and immediate effects of social interactions on fGCM levels, our results indicate that male Barbary macaques employ a tend-and-befriend coping strategy in the face of increased environmental as well as social day-to-day stressors. This evidence of a stress-ameliorating effect of social bonding among males under natural conditions and beyond the mother–offspring, kin or pair bond broadens the generality of the social buffering hypothesis. PMID:25489097

  14. Oxidative stress contributes to outcome severity in a Drosophila melanogaster model of classic galactosemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia P. Jumbo-Lucioni

    2013-01-01

    Classic galactosemia is a genetic disorder that results from profound loss of galactose-1P-uridylyltransferase (GALT. Affected infants experience a rapid escalation of potentially lethal acute symptoms following exposure to milk. Dietary restriction of galactose prevents or resolves the acute sequelae; however, many patients experience profound long-term complications. Despite decades of research, the mechanisms that underlie pathophysiology in classic galactosemia remain unclear. Recently, we developed a Drosophila melanogaster model of classic galactosemia and demonstrated that, like patients, GALT-null Drosophila succumb in development if exposed to galactose but live if maintained on a galactose-restricted diet. Prior models of experimental galactosemia have implicated a possible association between galactose exposure and oxidative stress. Here we describe application of our fly genetic model of galactosemia to the question of whether oxidative stress contributes to the acute galactose sensitivity of GALT-null animals. Our first approach tested the impact of pro- and antioxidant food supplements on the survival of GALT-null and control larvae. We observed a clear pattern: the oxidants paraquat and DMSO each had a negative impact on the survival of mutant but not control animals exposed to galactose, and the antioxidants vitamin C and α-mangostin each had the opposite effect. Biochemical markers also confirmed that galactose and paraquat synergistically increased oxidative stress on all cohorts tested but, interestingly, the mutant animals showed a decreased response relative to controls. Finally, we tested the expression levels of two transcripts responsive to oxidative stress, GSTD6 and GSTE7, in mutant and control larvae exposed to galactose and found that both genes were induced, one by more than 40-fold. Combined, these results implicate oxidative stress and response as contributing factors in the acute galactose sensitivity of GALT-null Drosophila and, by

  15. Why small and medium chemical companies continue to pose severe environmental risks in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Mol, Arthur P J; Wang, Tieyu; Lu, Yonglong

    2014-02-01

    In China, rural chemical SMEs are often believed to still largely operate below the sustainability radar. This paper investigates to what extent and how chemical SMEs are already experiencing pressure to improve their environmental performance, using an in-depth case study in Jasmine County, Hebei province. The results show that local residents had rather low trust in the environmental improvement promises made by the enterprises and the local government, and disagreed with the proposed improvement plans. Although the power of local residents to influence decision making remained limited, the chemical SMEs started to feel increasing pressures to clean up their business, from governments, local communities and civil society, and international value chain stakeholders. Notwithstanding these mounting pressures chemical SME's environmental behavior and performance has not changed radically for the better. The strong economic ties between local county governments and chemical SMEs continue to be a major barrier for stringent environmental regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does attenuated skin blood flow lower sweat rate and the critical environmental limit for heat balance during severe heat exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Matthew N; Gagnon, Daniel; Crandall, Craig G; Jay, Ollie

    2017-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does attenuated skin blood flow diminish sweating and reduce the critical environmental limit for heat balance, which indicates maximal heat loss potential, during severe heat stress? What is the main finding and its importance? Isosmotic hypovolaemia attenuated skin blood flow by ∼20% but did not result in different sweating rates, mean skin temperatures or critical environmental limits for heat balance compared with control and volume-infusion treatments, suggesting that the lower levels of skin blood flow commonly observed in aged and diseased populations may not diminish maximal whole-body heat dissipation. Attenuated skin blood flow (SkBF) is often assumed to impair core temperature (T c ) regulation. Profound pharmacologically induced reductions in SkBF (∼85%) lead to impaired sweating, but whether the smaller attenuations in SkBF (∼20%) more often associated with ageing and certain diseases lead to decrements in sweating and maximal heat loss potential is unknown. Seven healthy men (28 ± 4 years old) completed a 30 min equilibration period at 41°C and a vapour pressure (P a ) of 2.57 kPa followed by incremental steps in P a of 0.17 kPa every 6 min to 5.95 kPa. Differences in heat loss potential were assessed by identifying the critical vapour pressure (P crit ) at which an upward inflection in T c occurred. The following three separate treatments elicited changes in plasma volume to achieve three distinct levels of SkBF: control (CON); diuretic-induced isosmotic dehydration to lower SkBF (DEH); and continuous saline infusion to maintain SkBF (SAL). The T c , mean skin temperature (T sk ), heart rate, mean laser-Doppler flux (forearm and thigh; LDF mean ), mean local sweat rate (forearm and thigh; LSR mean ) and metabolic rate were measured. In DEH, a 14.2 ± 5.7% lower plasma volume resulted in a ∼20% lower LDF mean in perfusion units (PU) (DEH, 139 ± 23 PU; CON, 176 ± 22 PU; and SAL

  17. The relationship between stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption and severe alcohol problems in an urban general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romelsjö, A; Hasin, D; Hilton, M

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between 15 measures of stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption (35 g 100% ethanol per day or more for men and 25 g or more for women) was studied, using cross-sectional data from a general population survey of 1344 males and 1494 females; the ages 25-64 years......-adjusted odds ratios, were positive and some were negative when high alcohol consumption was the endpoint, but there was a clear variation by sex and social class. Generally the positive associations were stronger among male non-manual employees. Among males, there was a clear association between stressful...... increased odds ratios were lower when subjects with an alcohol diagnosis at inpatient care during 1980-84 were excluded in the analyses. On the whole, our findings are not conclusive. The strong, but imprecise associations between stressful working conditions and severe alcohol problems, are however...

  18. Severe Burn-Induced Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction Is Associated With Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yalan; Feng, Yanhai; Wang, Yu; Wang, Pei; Wang, Fengjun; Ren, Hui

    2018-01-01

    The disruption of intestinal barrier plays a vital role in the pathophysiological changes after severe burn injury, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Severe burn causes the disruption of intestinal tight junction (TJ) barrier. Previous studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy are closely associated with the impairment of intestinal mucosa. Thus, we hypothesize that ER stress and autophagy are likely involved in burn injury-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction. Mice received a 30% total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness burn, and were sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h postburn. The results showed that intestinal permeability was increased significantly after burn injury, accompanied by the damage of mucosa and the alteration of TJ proteins. Severe burn induced ER stress, as indicated by increased intraluminal chaperone binding protein (BIP), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1(IRE1)/X-box binding protein 1 splicing (XBP1). Autophagy was activated after burn injury, as evidenced by the increase of autophagy related protein 5 (ATG5), Beclin 1 and LC3II/LC3I ratio and the decrease of p62. Besides, the number of autophagosomes was also increased after burn injury. The levels of p-PI3K(Ser191), p-PI3K(Ser262), p-AKT(Ser473), and p-mTOR were decreased postburn, suggesting that autophagy-related PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is involved in the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction following severe burn. In summary, severe burn injury induces the ER stress and autophagy in intestinal epithelia, leading to the disruption of intestinal barrier. PMID:29740349

  19. Burnout and Hypocortisolism - A Matter of Severity? A Study on ACTH and Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Währborg, Peter; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2015-01-01

    Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women) and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women), underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after, and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol, or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition, patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. However, there was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol. This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  20. Burnout and hypocortisolism – a matter of severity? A study on ACTH and cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin eLennartsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Methods: Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women, underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. Results: In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. There was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol however. Conclusion: This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  1. Chloroplast NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Reductase from Chlorella vulgaris Alleviates Environmental Stresses in Yeast Together with 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Takeshi; Ishibashi, Akiko; Kirino, Ai; Sato, Jun-ichi; Kawasaki, Shinji; Niimura, Youichi; Honjoh, Ken-ichi; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2012-01-01

    Chloroplast NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTRC) catalyzes the reduction of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (2-Cys Prx) and, thus, probably functions as an antioxidant system. The functions of the enzyme in oxidative and salt stresses have been reported previously. We have previously identified and characterized NTRC in Chlorella vulgaris. In the present study, we isolated a full-length cDNA clone encoding 2-Cys Prx from C. vulgaris and investigated the involvement of Chlorella NTRC/2-Cys Prx system in several environmental stress tolerances by using yeast as a eukaryotic model. Deduced Chlorella 2-Cys Prx was homologous to those of chloroplast 2-Cys Prxs from plants, and two conserved cysteine residues were found in the deduced sequence. Enzyme assay showed that recombinant mature C. vulgaris NTRC (mCvNTRC) transferred electrons from NADPH to recombinant mature C. vulgaris 2-Cys Prx (mCvPrx), and mCvPrx decomposed hydrogen peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and peroxynitrite by cooperating with mCvNTRC. Based on the results, the mCvNTRC/mCvPrx antioxidant system was identified in Chlorella. The antioxidant system genes were expressed in yeast separately or coordinately. Stress tolerances of yeast against freezing, heat, and menadione-induced oxidative stresses were significantly improved by expression of mCvNTRC, and the elevated tolerances were more significant when both mCvNTRC and mCvPrx were co-expressed. Our results reveal a novel feature of NTRC: it functions as an antioxidant system with 2-Cys Prx in freezing and heat stress tolerances. PMID:23029353

  2. Multidirectional Translation of Environmental Health Science in Community Settings: The Case of Oxidative Stress Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Natalie R; Tetteh, Myra M; Schulz, Amy J; Ramirez, Erminia; Wilkins, Donele; de Majo, Ricardo; Mentz, Graciela; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Translation of environmental health science in vulnerable communities is particularly important to promote public health and reduce health inequities. We describe a structured, multidirectional process used to develop a suite of health promotion tools (e.g., fact sheets, video, maps) documenting patterning of local air pollution sources and availability of antioxidant-rich foods in Detroit, Michigan as factors that jointly affect oxidative stress (OS). OS underlies many pathological processes associated with air pollution, including asthma, metabolic syndrome, cancer, diabetes, and obesity. This translational effort involved a 2-year dialogue among representatives from community-based and environmental organizations, health service providers, and academic researchers. This dialogue led to development of tools, as well as new opportunities to inform related policies and research. Through this example, we highlight how collaborative partnerships can enhance multidirectional dialogue to inform translation of environmental health science by promoting consideration of multilevel risk factors, local priorities and context, and diverse audiences.

  3. Role of environmental stress in the physiological response to chemical toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental physiology is the study of the physiological mechanisms that allow animals to cope with and adapt to changes in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and other natural factors of their physical environment. Nearly all toxicological and pharmacological studies are performed in resting (i.e., non exercising) experimental animals acclimatized to standard environmental conditions that are usually considered ideal to the animal's physiological well-being. These ideal test conditions are clearly not representative of the fluctuations in the natural environment encountered by humans and other animals on a day-to-day basis. It behooves the toxicologist, especially those interested in extrapolating experimental data from laboratory animals to humans, to consider how variations in the natural environment will alter physiological responses to toxicants. Temperature and exercise are the two most well-studied parameters in the fields of environmental physiology and toxicology. In general, high temperatures exacerbate the toxic effects of many environmental toxicants. Moreover, exercising subjects are generally more vulnerable to airborne toxic agents. The prospect of global warming also warrants a better assessment of how higher environmental temperatures may impact on the response of humans and other species to toxic chemicals. Hence, this paper and accompanying papers from the proceedings of a symposium focus on the salient aspects of the interaction between environmental stress and physiological response to toxic agents with particular emphasis on temperature and exercise

  4. EXOTIC PLANTS IN THE CIBODAS BOTANIC GARDENS REMNANT FOREST: INVENTORY AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decky Indrawan Junaedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to potential impact of invasive alien (exotic species to the natural ecosystems, inventory of exotic species in the Cibodas Botanic Gardens (CBG remnant forest area is an urgent need for CBG. Inventory of exotic species can assist gardens manager to set priorities and plan better responses for possible or existed invasive plants in the CBG remnants forest. The objectives of this study are to do inventory of the exotic species in the CBG remnant forest and to determine whether several environmental variables play role to the existence of exotic species in the CBG remnant forests. There are 26 exotic plant species (23 genera, 14 families found and recorded from all four remnant forests in CBG. Cluster analysis of four environmental variables shows that clustering of environmental factors of exotic species correlates with the abundances of those exotic species. The relation between environmental factor clusters and the abundance of those exotics signify the role of environmental variables on the existence of exotic plant species. The information of exotic plant species in the remnants forest is the base information for gardens manager to manage exotic species in CBG remnants forest. The relation of several environmental factors with exotic species abundance could assist gardens manager to understand better the supportive and or suppressor factors of exotics in the CBG remnants forest. Further study on these species is needed to set priorities to decide which species should be treated first in order to minimize the impact of exotic plant species to native ecosystem of CBG.

  5. EXOTIC PLANTS IN THE CIBODAS BOTANIC GARDENS REMNANT FOREST: INVENTORY AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decky Indrawan Junaedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to potential impact of invasive alien (exotic species to the natural ecosystems, inventory of exotic species in the Cibodas Botanic Gardens (CBG remnant forest area is an urgent need for CBG. Inventory of exotic species can assist gardens manager to set priorities and plan better responses for possible or existed invasive plants in the CBG remnants forest. The objectives of this study are to do inventory of the exotic species in the CBG remnant forest and to determine whether several environmental variables play role to the existence of exotic species in the CBG remnant forests. There are 26 exotic plant species  (23 genera, 14 families found and recorded from all four remnant forests in CBG. Cluster analysis of four environmental variables shows that clustering of environmental factors of exotic species correlates with the abundances of those exotic species. The relation between environmental factor clusters and the abundance of those exotics signify the role of environmental variables on the existence of exotic plant species. The information of exotic plant species in the remnants forest is the base information for gardens manager to manage exotic species in CBG remnants forest. The relation of several environmental factors with exotic species abundance could assist gardens manager to understand better the supportive and or suppressor factors of exotics in the CBG remnants forest. Further study on these species is needed to set priorities to decide which species should be treated first in order to minimize the impact of exotic plant species to native ecosystem of CBG.

  6. Environmental factors predict the severity of delirium symptoms in long-term care residents with and without delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Voyer, Philippe; Vu, Minh; Ciampi, Antonio; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Belzile, Eric; Dyachenko, Alina

    2013-04-01

    To identify potentially modifiable environmental factors (including number of medications) associated with changes over time in the severity of delirium symptoms and to explore the interactions between these factors and resident baseline vulnerability. Prospective, observational cohort study. Seven long-term care (LTC) facilities. Two hundred seventy-two LTC residents aged 65 and older with and without delirium. Weekly assessments (for up to 6 months) of the severity of delirium symptoms using the Delirium Index (DI), environmental risk factors, and number of medications. Baseline vulnerability measures included a diagnosis of dementia and a delirium risk score. Associations between environmental factors, medications, and weekly changes in DI were analyzed using a general linear model with correlated errors. Six potentially modifiable environmental factors predicted weekly changes in DI (absence of reading glasses, aids to orientation, family member, and glass of water and presence of bed rails and other restraints) as did the prescription of two or more new medications. Residents with dementia appeared to be more sensitive to the effects of these factors. Six environmental factors and prescription of two or more new medications predicted changes in the severity of delirium symptoms. These risk factors are potentially modifiable through improved LTC clinical practices. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Increased utilisation of primary healthcare in persons exposed to severe stress in prenatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Yang, Hu; Guldin, Mai-Britt

    2015-01-01

    Meget tyder på, at stress i graviditeten kan skade det ufødte barn. Dette studie viser, at sorg hos moderen under graviditeten kan betyde, at barnet senere i livet søger læge mere hyppigt sammenlignet med børn, hvor moderen ikke har været i sorg under graviditeten. Det er især, hvis moderen under...... menneskes liv, og at det kan påvirke det ufødte barn, når moderen bliver stresset under graviditeten. Vi ved dog ikke helt, om den øgede lægesøgning hos børnene kun skyldes stress i graviditeten, eller om de også påvirkes af, om moderen fx har mistet sin ægtefælle, og den betydning det kan have for barnets...

  8. Severe Trauma Stress Inoculation Training for Combat Medics using High Fidelity Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    expressions; and improved sensors and communication systems for current medical training simulators. He has prior experience in software development for DoD...the "look and feel" of such injuries by providing the highly realistic visual, auditory, and haptic (touch) stimuli necessary to elicit stress...addressed during development included the following: • Microcontroller-based control system for monitoring sensors and automating the actions of the

  9. Effect of N-acetylcysteine treatment on oxidative stress and inflammation after severe burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, C; Rezman, B; Foldi, V; Bogar, L; Drenkovics, L; Röth, E; Weber, G; Lantos, J

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation generate edema in burns. The aim of our study was to assess effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on oxidative stress, inflammation, fluid requirement, multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) score and vasoactive drug requirement. In this study 15 patients were on standard therapy, whereas for other 15 patients NAC was supplemented. Blood samples were taken on admission and on the next five consecutive mornings. Levels of malondialdehyde, protein sulfhydril (PSH) groups, reduced gluthation (GSH), activity of myeloperoxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes and induced free radical generating capacity were measured as well as concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. MOD score, use of vasopressor agents and fluid utilisation were recorded daily. NAC treatment increased GSH level on days 4-5 (ptreatment is associated with a diminished oxidative stress reflected in preserved antioxidant levels, lower inflammation mirrored in lower interleukin levels and less vasopressor requirement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Climate-related environmental stress in intertidal grazers: scaling-up biochemical responses to assemblage-level processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maggi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Organisms are facing increasing levels of environmental stress under climate change that may severely affect the functioning of biological systems at different levels of organization. Growing evidence suggests that reduction in body size is a universal response of organisms to global warming. However, a clear understanding of whether extreme climate events will impose selection directly on phenotypic plastic responses and how these responses affect ecological interactions has remained elusive. Methods We experimentally investigated the effects of extreme desiccation events on antioxidant defense mechanisms of a rocky intertidal gastropod (Patella ulyssiponensis, and evaluated how these effects scaled-up at the population and assemblage levels. Results With increasing levels of desiccation stress, limpets showed significant lower levels of total glutathione, tended to grow less and had reduced per capita interaction strength on their resources. Discussion Results suggested that phenotypic plasticity (i.e., reduction in adults’ body size allowed buffering biochemical responses to stress to scale-up at the assemblage level. Unveiling the linkages among different levels of biological organization is key to develop indicators that can anticipate large-scale ecological impacts of climate change.

  11. Why small and medium chemical companies continue to pose severe environmental risks in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Wang, Tieyu; Lu, Yonglong

    2014-01-01

    In China, rural chemical SMEs are often believed to still largely operate below the sustainability radar. This paper investigates to what extent and how chemical SMEs are already experiencing pressure to improve their environmental performance, using an in-depth case study in Jasmine County, Hebei province. The results show that local residents had rather low trust in the environmental improvement promises made by the enterprises and the local government, and disagreed with the proposed improvement plans. Although the power of local residents to influence decision making remained limited, the chemical SMEs started to feel increasing pressures to clean up their business, from governments, local communities and civil society, and international value chain stakeholders. Notwithstanding these mounting pressures chemical SME's environmental behavior and performance has not changed radically for the better. The strong economic ties between local county governments and chemical SMEs continue to be a major barrier for stringent environmental regulation. -- Highlights: • Rural chemical SMEs are often below the sustainability radar in China. • Close local government-SMEs tie remained as a barrier for effective environmental enforcement. • Rural communities proved unable to collectively raise their voice. • National government must adopt environment-oriented political incentives. -- The paper provides a major understanding of how and why the large number of existing chemical SMEs in rural China still form major chemical risks

  12. Evaluation of severe accident environmental conditions taking accident management strategy into account for equipment survivability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Soong Pyung

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology utilizing accident management strategy in order to determine accident environmental conditions in equipment survivability assessments. In case that there is well-established accident management strategy for specific nuclear power plant, an application of this tool can provide a technical rationale on equipment survivability assessment so that plant-specific and time-dependent accident environmental conditions could be practically and realistically defined in accordance with the equipment and instrumentation required for accident management strategy or action appropriately taken. For this work, three different tools are introduced; Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) outcomes, major accident management strategy actions, and Accident Environmental Stages (AESs). In order to quantitatively investigate an applicability of accident management strategy to equipment survivability, the accident simulation for a most likely scenario in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPs) is performed with MAAP4 code. The Accident Management Guidance (AMG) actions such as the Reactor Control System (RCS) depressurization, water injection into the RCS, the containment pressure and temperature control, and hydrogen concentration control in containment are applied. The effects of these AMG actions on the accident environmental conditions are investigated by comparing with those from previous normal accident simulation, especially focused on equipment survivability assessment. As a result, the AMG-involved case shows the higher accident consequences along the accident environmental stages

  13. Environmental Enrichment Blunts Ethanol Consumption after Restraint Stress in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Marianno

    Full Text Available Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h or continuous (24 h EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a two-bottle choice drinking-in-the-dark paradigm for 15 days (20% ethanol and water, 2 h/day, acquisition phase. Control mice were housed under standard conditions (SC. In the first experiment, one group of mice was housed under EE conditions 24 h/day (EE24h. In the second experiment, the exposure to EE was reduced to 3 h/day (EE3h. After the acquisition phase, the animals were deprived of ethanol for 6 days, followed by 2 h ethanol access once a week. Animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM during ethanol withdrawal. During the last 2 weeks, the mice were exposed to 24 h ethanol access. A 1-h restraint stress test was performed immediately before the last ethanol exposure. EE24h but not EE3h increased anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal compared to controls. Neither EE24h nor EE3h affected ethanol consumption during the 2 h weekly exposure periods. However, EE24h and EE3h mice that were exposed to acute restraint stress consumed less ethanol than controls during a 24 h ethanol access. These results showed that EE reduces alcohol intake after an acute restraint stress.

  14. Induction of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Prophage by Abiotic Environmental Stress in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Mercer, Ryan G; McMullen, Lynn M; Gänzle, Michael G

    2017-10-01

    The prophage-encoded Shiga toxin is a major virulence factor in Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Toxin production and phage production are linked and occur after induction of the RecA-dependent SOS response. However, food-related stress and Stx-prophage induction have not been studied at the single-cell level. This study investigated the effects of abiotic environmental stress on stx expression by single-cell quantification of gene expression in STEC O104:H4 Δ stx2 :: gfp :: amp r In addition, the effect of stress on production of phage particles was determined. The lethality of stressors, including heat, HCl, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and high hydrostatic pressure, was selected to reduce cell counts by 1 to 2 log CFU/ml. The integrity of the bacterial membrane after exposure to stress was measured by propidium iodide (PI). The fluorescent signals of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PI were quantified by flow cytometry. The mechanism of prophage induction by stress was evaluated by relative gene expression of recA and cell morphology. Acid (pH stress were additionally assessed. H 2 O 2 and mitomycin C induced expression of the prophage and activated a SOS response. In contrast, HCl and lactic acid induced the Stx-prophage but not the SOS response. The lifestyle of STEC exposes the organism to intestinal and extraintestinal environments that impose oxidative and acid stress. A more thorough understanding of the influence of food processing-related stressors on Stx-prophage expression thus facilitates control of STEC in food systems by minimizing prophage induction during food production and storage. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Abscisic Acid and Abiotic Stress Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Tuteja, Narendra

    2007-01-01

    Abiotic stress is severe environmental stress, which impairs crop production on irrigated land worldwide. Overall, the susceptibility or tolerance to the stress in plants is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also cross-talk with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. Plant responses to abiotic stress can be determined by the severity of the stress and by the metabolic status of the plant. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone critical for plant ...

  16. Physiological Indices of Stress Prior to and Following Total Knee Arthroplasty Predict the Occurrence of Severe Post-Operative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremeans-Smith, Julie K; Greene, Kenneth; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2016-05-01

    The severe pain and disability associated with osteoarthritis often motivate individuals to undergo arthroplastic surgery. However, a significant number of surgical patients continue to experience pain following surgery. Prior research has implicated both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in the sensitization of pain receptors and chronic pain conditions. This study uses a prospective, observational, cohort design to examine whether physiological stress responses before and after surgery could predict post-operative pain severity. Participants included 110 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Physiological indices of stress included the measurement of catecholamine and cortisol levels in 15-hour urine samples collected prior to and 1 month following surgery, as well as in-hospital heart rate and blood pressure (before and after surgery), which were abstracted from medical records. Patients completed the pain subscale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) [Bellamy et al., J Orthop Rheumatol 1: , 95 (1988)] 2.5 weeks prior to surgery and at a 3-month follow-up. Contrary to expectations, lower stress hormone levels at baseline were related to more severe post-operative pain. Data at later time points, however, supported our hypothesis: cardiovascular tone shortly before surgery and urinary levels of epinephrine 1 month following surgery were positively related to pain severity 3 months later. Results suggest that the occurrence of post-operative pain can be predicted on the basis of stress physiology prior to and following arthroplastic surgery. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Activation analysis of several species of marine invertebrates as indicators of environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.; Nakano, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are well known to accumulate trace metals from seawater, plankton, sea plants, and sediments. To test the usefulness of such organisms as a bio-indicator of environmental conditions, we have determined levels of trace elements in tissue of twelve species of marine invertebrates by photon and neutron activation analysis. Relatively higher concentration of elements were observed for Ni and Sn in mid-gut gland, for Cu and Zn in oyster tissues, for Se in swimming crabs, for Cu, Fe, and Se in gills of swimming crabs. Our results indicate that mid-gut gland of ear-shell will be useful as the indicator of environmental conditions. (author)

  18. The effect of self efficacy and meaning in life on posttraumatic stress disorder and depression severity among veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Laura; Owens, Gina P

    2015-03-01

    The current study examined the relationships among combat exposure, presence of and search for meaning in life, general and social self-efficacy, and both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptom severity for a Veteran sample (N = 93). Participants completed an online survey comprising the Combat Exposure Scale, Meaning in Life Questionnaire, Self-Efficacy Scale, Depression subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales-21, and PTSD Checklist-Specific Stressor version. The majority of participants were male and Caucasian. Participants served in various service eras To determine factors that predicted PTSD and depression severity, separate hierarchical linear regressions were performed. In the final PTSD model, rank, combat exposure, and general self-efficacy were significant predictors, with officer rank, lower combat exposure, and higher general self-efficacy associated with lower PTSD severity. The interaction between combat exposure and general self-efficacy was also significant, with self-efficacy moderating the relationship between combat exposure and PTSD severity. For depression, rank, presence of meaning in life, and general self-efficacy were significant predictors in the model, with officer rank, higher presence of meaning in life, and general self-efficacy associated with lower depression severity. A focus on strengthening self-efficacy may assist with lower levels of PTSD and depression symptomatology after combat trauma. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Webinar Presentation: Assessing the Combined Effects of Environmental and Social Stress: A Review of the Evidence and Implications for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Assessing the Combined Effects of Environmental and Social Stress: A Review of the Evidence and Implications for Research, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Exposome held on May 11, 2016.

  20. Increased extracellular heat shock protein 90α in severe sepsis and SIRS associated with multiple organ failure and related to acute inflammatory-metabolic stress response in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitrolaki, Michaela-Diana; Dimitriou, Helen; Venihaki, Maria; Katrinaki, Marianna; Ilia, Stavroula; Briassoulis, George

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian heat-shock-protein (HSP) 90α rapidly responses to environmental insults. We examined the hypothesis that not only serum HSP72 but also HSP90α is increased in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), severe-sepsis (SS), and/or sepsis (S) compared to healthy children (H); we assessed HSP90α relation to (a) multiple organ system failure (MOSF) and (b) inflammatory-metabolic response and severity of illness.A total of 65 children with S, SS, or SIRS and 25 H were included. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSP90α and HSP72, chemiluminescence interleukins (ILs), flow-cytometry neutrophil-CD64 (nCD64)-expression.HSP90α, along with HSP72, were dramatically increased among MOSF patients. Patients in septic groups and SIRS had elevated HSP90α compared to H (P stress, fever, outcome endpoints, and predicted mortality and inversely related to the low-LDL/low-HDL stress metabolic pattern.

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Trauma-Exposed Inpatient Adolescents: The Role of Emotional Nonacceptance and Anxiety Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Andres G; Hanna, Abigail E; Raines, Elizabeth M; Woodward, Emma C; Paulus, Daniel J; Berenz, Erin C; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    The present investigation examined the role of anxiety symptom severity in the relation between emotional nonacceptance and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a diverse sample of trauma-exposed adolescents admitted for acute psychiatric care at an inpatient state hospital (N = 50; 52.0% women; 44% white; mean [SD] age, 15.1 [0.51] years; range, 12-17 years). Anxiety symptom severity partially accounted for the association between emotional nonacceptance and PTSD total symptoms, and fully accounted for the association between emotional nonacceptance and PTSD symptom cluster severity, even after controlling for covariates. Reverse model testing provided confidence in the direction of hypothesized effects. These findings add to a body of literature underscoring the detrimental effect of nonaccepting reactions to negative emotions in the context of PTSD and provide preliminary support for a possible underlying role of anxiety symptom severity in the association between emotional nonacceptance and PTSD symptoms.

  2. Interdisciplinary Residential Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on Symptom Severity and Occupational Performance and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Sarah M.; Walter, Kristen H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examined outcomes of an 8-wk residential treatment program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD. Twenty-six veterans completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory–2nd Edition, and PTSD Checklist before and after treatment. RESULTS. Veterans demonstrated significant improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction with their performance, as well as in PTSD and depression symptom severity after residential PTSD/TBI treatment. Additionally, improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction were associated with decreases in depression symptom severity. CONCLUSION. Although preliminary, results suggest that veterans with PTSD and a history of TBI experienced significant decreases in PTSD and depression symptom severity and improvement in self-perception of performance and satisfaction in problematic occupational areas. Changes in occupational areas and depression symptom severity were related, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25005504

  3. Towards integrated environmental quality objectives for several compounds with a potential for secondary poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plassche EJ van de; ACT; VW/RWS-DGW; AIDE

    1994-01-01

    Values are derived which can be used to set integrated environmental quality objectives (limit and target values) for 25 compounds with a potential for secondary poisoning. First, Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) are derived for water, sediment and soil

  4. Expression and Enzyme Activity of Catalase in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Is Responsive to Environmental Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhui; Bai, Qi; Zheng, Xusong; Lu, Zhongxian

    2017-08-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme that protects organisms against oxidative stresses by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we cloned and characterized a full-length cDNA of CAT from Chilo suppressalis (CsCAT) and examined the influence of environmental stresses on CsCAT expression and enzyme activity. The cDNA contains a 1659-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 553 amino acids most closely related (90.14%) to Papilio polytes catalases. The CsCAT was expressed in all developmental stages with the highest expression in the fat body, and the CsCAT enzyme activity closely mirrored its observed mRNA expression patterns. The CsCAT mRNA was up-regulated when the larvae were exposed to high temperature (≥30 °C), insecticides (abamectin and chlorantraniliprole), chemicals (H2O2, CHP, CdCl2, and CuSO4), and a dead-end trap plant (vetiver grass), and the CsCAT enzyme activity again mirrored the observed CsCAT expression patterns. These results suggest that up-regulation of CsCAT may enhance the defense response of C. suppressalis by weakening the effects of environmental stresses, and provide insight into the role of CsCAT during development of C. suppressalis. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Patterns of circulating corticosterone in a population of rattlesnakes afflicted with snake fungal disease: Stress hormones as a potential mediator of seasonal cycles in disease severity and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M.; Moore, Ignacio T.; Akçay, Çağlar; Vernasco, Ben J.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Farrell, Terence M.

    2018-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging threat to snake populations in the United States. Fungal pathogens are often associated with a physiological stress response mediated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), and afflicted individuals may incur steep coping costs. The severity of SFD can vary seasonally; however, little is known regarding (1) how SFD infection relates to HPA activity and (2) how seasonal shifts in environment, life history, or HPA activity may interact to drive seasonal patterns of infection severity and outcomes. To test the hypothesis that SFD is associated with increased HPA activity and to identify potential environmental or physiological drivers of seasonal infection, we monitored baseline corticosterone, SFD infection severity, foraging success, body condition, and reproductive status in a field-active population of pigmy rattlesnakes. Both plasma corticosterone and the severity of clinical signs of SFD peaked in the winter. Corticosterone levels were also elevated in the fall before the seasonal rise in SFD severity. Severely symptomatic snakes were in low body condition and had elevated corticosterone levels compared to moderately infected and uninfected snakes. The monthly mean severity of SFD in the population was negatively related to population-wide estimates of body condition and temperature measured in the precedent month and positively correlated with corticosterone levels measured in the precedent month. Symptomatic females were less likely to enter reproductive bouts compared to asymptomatic females. We propose the hypothesis that the seasonal interplay among environment, host energetics, and HPA activity initiates trade-offs in the fall that drive the increase in SFD prevalence, symptom severity, and decline in condition observed in the population through winter.

  6. An integrated model of environmental factors in adult asthma lung function and disease severity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Patricia P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diverse environmental exposures, studied separately, have been linked to health outcomes in adult asthma, but integrated multi-factorial effects have not been modeled. We sought to evaluate the contribution of combined social and physical environmental exposures to adult asthma lung function and disease severity. Methods Data on 176 subjects with asthma and/or rhinitis were collected via telephone interviews for sociodemographic factors and asthma severity (scored on a 0-28 point range. Dust, indoor air quality, antigen-specific IgE antibodies, and lung function (percent predicted FEV1 were assessed through home visits. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, proximity to traffic, land use, and ambient air quality data were linked to the individual-level data via residential geocoding. Multiple linear regression separately tested the explanatory power of five groups of environmental factors for the outcomes, percent predicted FEV1 and asthma severity. Final models retained all variables statistically associated (p Results Mean FEV1 was 85.0 ± 18.6%; mean asthma severity score was 6.9 ± 5.6. Of 29 variables screened, 13 were retained in the final model of FEV1 (R2 = 0.30; p 2 = 0.16; p 1 as an independent variable to the severity model further increased its explanatory power (R2 = 0.25. Conclusions Multivariate models covering a range of individual and environmental factors explained nearly a third of FEV1 variability and, taking into account lung function, one quarter of variability in asthma severity. These data support an integrated approach to modeling adult asthma outcomes, including both the physical and the social environment.

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and control beliefs as the predictors of academic burnout amongst adolescents following the Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Zhen, Rui; Wu, Xinchun

    2017-01-01

    Background : Previous studies indicate that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control beliefs can affect burnout and their unique role in this situation has been examined, but fewer studies have examined their combined role in adolescent's academic burnout following traumatic events. Objective : This study examined the combined effect of PTSD symptom severity and control beliefs on academic burnout among adolescents, and assessed the moderating role of primary and secondary control beliefs in the relation between PTSD symptom severity and academic burnout. Methods : Seven hundred and forty-five adolescents were investigated using self-report questionnaires, and a series of regression equations examined the impact of PTSD severity and control beliefs on academic burnout. Results : PTSD symptom severity is associated positively with academic burnout, while primary and secondary control beliefs have a negative relation with academic burnout. In addition, primary control beliefs buffer the positive effects of PTSD symptom severity on academic burnout. We found that the positive relation between PTSD symptom severity and academic burnout in the low primary control beliefs group is more intense than that found in the high primary control beliefs group. Conclusions : PTSD symptom severity is a risk factor, whereas primary and secondary control beliefs are protective factors in academic burnout. In addition, PTSD symptom severity and primary control beliefs have a combined effect on academic burnout in adolescents following natural disasters.

  8. Environmental tests of a digital safety channel: An investigation of stress-related vulnerabilities of computer-based safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Wilson, T.L.; Wood, R.; Tanaka, T.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the results of environmental stress tests performed on an experimental digital safety channel (EDSC) assembled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Controls Systems Research program, which was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program is expected to provide recommendations for environmental qualification of digital safety systems. The purpose of the study was to investigate potential vulnerabilities of distributed computer systems used in safety applications when subjected to environmental stressors. The EDSC assembled for the tests employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in advanced light-water reactors or as retrofits in existing plants. Subsystems include computers, electrical and optical serial communication links, fiber-optic network links, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, and multiplexers. The EDSC was subjected to selected stressors that are a potential risk to digital equipment in a mild environment. The selected stressors were electromagnetic and radiofrequency interferences (EMI-RFI), temperature, humidity, and smoke exposure. The stressors were applied at levels of intensity considerably higher than the safety channel is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment. Ranges of stress were selected at a sufficiently high level to induce errors so that failure modes that are characteristic of the technologies employed could be identified. On the basis of the incidence of functional errors observed during testing, EMI-RFI, smoke exposure, and high temperature coupled with high relative humidity, in that order, were found to have the greatest impact of the stressors investigated. The most prevalent stressor-induced upsets, as well as the most severe, were found to occur during the EMI-RFI tests

  9. Environmental conditions can modulate the links among oxidative stress, age, and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Valeria; Stier, Antoine; Boner, Winnie; Griffiths, Kate; Heidinger, Britt; Monaghan, Pat

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the links between environmental conditions and longevity remains a major focus in biological research. We examined within-individual changes between early- and mid-adulthood in the circulating levels of four oxidative stress markers linked to ageing, using zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): a DNA damage product (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG), protein carbonyls (PC), non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (OXY), and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD). We further examined whether such within-individual changes differed among birds living under control (ad lib food) or more challenging environmental conditions (unpredictable food availability), having previously found that the latter increased corticosterone levels when food was absent but improved survival over a three year period. Our key findings were: (i) 8-OHdG and PC increased with age in both environments, with a higher increase in 8-OHdG in the challenging environment; (ii) SOD increased with age in the controls but not in the challenged birds, while the opposite was true for OXY; (iii) control birds with high levels of 8-OHdG died at a younger age, but this was not the case in challenged birds. Our data clearly show that while exposure to the potentially damaging effects of oxidative stress increases with age, environmental conditions can modulate the pace of this age-related change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tonic immobility during sexual assault - a common reaction predicting post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Anna; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2017-08-01

    Active resistance is considered to be the 'normal' reaction during rape. However, studies have indicated that similar to animals, humans exposed to extreme threat may react with a state of involuntary, temporary motor inhibition known as tonic immobility. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of tonic immobility during rape and subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression. Tonic immobility at the time of the assault was assessed using the Tonic Immobility Scale in 298 women who had visited the Emergency clinic for raped women within 1 month of a sexual assault. Information about the assault and the victim characteristics were taken from the structured clinical data files. After 6 months, 189 women were assessed regarding the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Of the 298 women, 70% reported significant tonic immobility and 48% reported extreme tonic immobility during the assault. Tonic immobility was associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.50-5.03, p = 0.001) and severe depression (OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.51-7.72, p = 0.003) at 6 months. Further, previous trauma history (OR 2.36; 95% CI 1.48-3.77, p stress disorder and severe depression. Knowledge of this reaction in sexual assault victims is important in legal matters and for healthcare follow up. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. [Environmental uncertainty and arousal/stress as the direct determinants of animal behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S V

    2010-01-01

    A model of direct behavioural mechanisms is suggested. The suggestion is founded on the following prerequisites: the law of optimum arousal by Yerkes-Dodson; the data on animals' purposeful striving towards the optimum; and the data on effect of stimuli uncertainty (unpredictability and/or uncontrollability) on susceptibility to the stimuli. The key postulate of the model is animals' ability to affect the environment uncertainty with their behaviour and, hence, to change their susceptibility to various stimuli and optimize their stress/arousal level. This function of behaviour had never been discussed and seems to be rather important for proximal behavioural mechanisms and for forming direct motives of behaviour. Optimization of arousal level may be viewed as "universal benefit" at the level of direct behavioural mechanisms (similar to "joint genetic fitness" at the level of evolutional mechanisms). Within the model framework it is possible to take up some sophisticated aspects of ethology such as social relations forming, "begging for punishment", "zoo stereotypy", and so on. Among verifiable predictions that can be derived from its analysis, the following ones are worthwhile: (1) the stronger of two similar social relations cannot be more stressful than the weaker one; (2) the intensity of marking activity never increases as arousal/stress level decreases; (3) stress/arousal level of an animal having been experienced "zoo stereotypy" for a long time can never be higher than that of a conspecific individual showing the behaviour for the first time; (4) the rate of "begging for punishment" behaviour of an individual should positively correlate with environmental uncertainty; (5) arousal/stress level of an individual looking for novelty can never be higher than arousal/stress level of the same individual when avoiding novelty; (6) the striving of a specimen for displaying the behaviour promoting an increase in uncertainty can be suppressed by raising the

  12. Role of Wall Shear Stress in Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Attachment to Environmental Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xia; Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Jellison, Kristen L

    2017-12-15

    This study investigated Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst deposition onto biofilms as a function of shear stress under laminar or turbulent flow. Annular rotating bioreactors were used to grow stabilized stream biofilms at shear stresses ranging from 0.038 to 0.46 Pa. These steady-state biofilms were then used to assess the impact of hydrodynamic conditions on C. parvum oocyst attachment. C. parvum deposition onto biofilms followed a pseudo-second-order model under both laminar (after a lag phase) and turbulent flows. The total number of oocysts attached to the biofilm at steady state decreased as the hydrodynamic wall shear stress increased. The oocyst deposition rate constant increased with shear stress but decreased at high shear, suggesting that increasing wall shear stress results in faster attachment of Cryptosporidium due to higher mass transport until the shear forces exceed a critical limit that prevents oocyst attachment. These data show that oocyst attachment in the short and long term are impacted differently by shear: higher shear (to a certain limit) may be associated with faster initial oocyst attachment, but lower shear is associated with greater numbers of oocysts attached at equilibrium. IMPORTANCE This research provides experimental evidence to demonstrate that shear stress plays a critical role in protozoan-pathogen transport and deposition in environmental waters. The data presented in this work expand scientific understanding of Cryptosporidium attachment and fate, which will further influence the development of timely and accurate sampling strategies, as well as advanced water treatment technologies, to target protozoan pathogens in surface waters that serve as municipal drinking water sources. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Relative Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Brucella abortus Reveals Metabolic Adaptation to Multiple Environmental Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Xiaodong; Yang, Qiaoling; Yin, Ying; Li, Ruihua; Qian, Mengying; Zhao, Taoran; Li, Yaohui; Zhang, Jun; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    balance under stress. In conclusion, our results provide a better understanding of the global metabolic adaptations of B. abortus associated with distinct environmental stresses. The identification of proteins necessary for stress resistance is crucial toward elucidating the infectious process in order to control brucellosis, and may facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic targets and effective vaccines.

  14. Relative Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Brucella abortus Reveals Metabolic Adaptation to Multiple Environmental Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zai

    2017-11-01

    homeostasis and metabolic balance under stress. In conclusion, our results provide a better understanding of the global metabolic adaptations of B. abortus associated with distinct environmental stresses. The identification of proteins necessary for stress resistance is crucial toward elucidating the infectious process in order to control brucellosis, and may facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic targets and effective vaccines.

  15. Dying piece by piece: carbohydrate dynamics in aspen seedlings under severe carbon stress and starvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Erin; Chow, Pak; Landhäusser, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Carbon stress and starvation remain poorly understood in trees, despite their potential role in mortality from a variety of agents. To explore the effects of carbon stress on nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) dynamics and recovery potential and to examine the process of starvation, we grew aspen seedlings under one of three levels of shade: 40% (light shade), 8% (medium shade), and 4% (dark shade) of full sunlight. We then exposed seedlings to 24 hours darkness at either 20° or 28° C until trees had died. Periodically, seedlings were harvested for NSC analysis and to measure stem and root respiration. In addition, some seedlings were moved back into the light to determine if recovery was possible at certain points during starvation. Specifically, we sought to address the following questions: 1) Do NSC concentrations or mass influence tree survival under carbon stress? 2) At what carbohydrate levels do trees fail to recover and starve? 3) Does temperature affect the NSC level at which trees starve? Increasing shade reduced growth, but surprisingly did not reduce NSC levels, except in a portion of deep shade seedlings that experienced dieback. Once in darkness, leaves died first, with final NSC levels ranging from ~4% (Medium shade, 28 degrees) to 7.5% (Light shade). Stem death generally occurred gradually down the stem. Stem tissues retained ~1-2% NSC when dead. Recovery was still possible when only the upper half of the stem had died; at this point, seedlings had relatively high root NSC levels in their remaining roots (7-10%), with 1-3% starch. No trees recovered after the whole stem had died, at which point, some trees root systems were completely dead. However, most retained substantial amounts of live roots, averaging 5-6% NSC, with 0.25-1.5% starch. Despite the initially similar NSC concentrations, light shade seedlings took longer to reach half stem and whole stem death than seedlings from medium and dark shade. Longer survival times were associated with

  16. Early Transcriptome Response of Lactococcus lactis to Environmental Stresses Reveals Differentially Expressed Small Regulatory RNAs and tRNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Sjoerd B.; de Jong, Anne; Kok, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria can deploy various mechanisms to combat environmental stresses. Many genes have previously been identified in Lactococcus lactis that are involved in sensing the stressors and those that are involved in regulating and mounting a defense against the stressful conditions. However, the

  17. Nitric oxide and oxidative stress is associated with severity of diabetic retinopathy and retinal structural alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shashi; Saxena, Sandeep; Srivastav, Khushboo; Shukla, Rajendra K; Mishra, Nibha; Meyer, Carsten H; Kruzliak, Peter; Khanna, Vinay K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine plasma nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in diabetic retinopathy and its association with severity of disease. Prospective observational study. A total of 60 consecutive cases and 20 healthy controls were included. Severity of retinopathy was graded according to early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) classification. Photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoid band (ISel) disruption and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) alteration were graded using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Data were statistically analyzed. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, NO assay and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured using standard protocol. Increased severity of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with increase in plasma levels of LPO (P diabetic retinopathy. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that increased plasma LPO, NO and decreased GSH levels are associated with in vivo structural changes in inner segment ellipsoid and RPE. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. Impact of combat and sexual harassment on the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder among men and women peacekeepers in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, A; Litz, B; Rosenheck, R

    2000-03-01

    The impact of combat and sexual harassment on the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is compared for 1,307 men and 197 women peacekeepers who served in the same military units. A theoretical model was proposed to express the nature of the impact. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the model separately for men and women. Good-fitting, parsimonious models were developed that showed substantial similarity for men and women. For men, severity of PTSD symptoms was impacted by exposure to combat directly and indirectly through fear and sexual harassment. For women, severity of PTSD symptoms was impacted by combat indirectly through the same two influences, although the mechanisms involving fear and sexual harassment were somewhat different. For both genders, moreover, PTSD severity was impacted directly by exposure to the dying of the Somali people. These similarities suggest that in modern stressful overseas military missions, both genders may be susceptible to the same types of risk for the development of PTSD. The incidence and impact of sexual harassment is particularly noteworthy in the case of men and calls for more detailed investigation in future studies.

  19. Towards integrated environmental quality objectives for several compounds with a potential for secondary poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    van de Plassche EJ; ACT; VW/RWS-DGW; AIDE

    1994-01-01

    Values are derived which can be used to set integrated environmental quality objectives (limit and target values) for 25 compounds with a potential for secondary poisoning. First, Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) are derived for water, sediment and soil based on direct effects on aquatic and soil organisms using extrapolation methods and on possible adverse effects due to secondary poisoning. Two foodchains are taken into account: an aquatic route (...

  20. The parenting attitudes and the stress of mothers predict the asthmatic severity of their children: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudo Nobuyuki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To examine relationships between a mother's stress-related conditions and parenting attitudes and their children's asthmatic status. Methods 274 mothers of an asthmatic child 2 to 12 years old completed a questionnaire including questions about their chronic stress/coping behaviors (the "Stress Inventory", parenting attitudes (the "Ta-ken Diagnostic Test for Parent-Child Relationship, Parent Form", and their children's disease status. One year later, a follow-up questionnaire was mailed to the mothers that included questions on the child's disease status. Results 223 mothers (81% responded to the follow-up survey. After controlling for non-psychosocial factors including disease severity at baseline, multiple linear regression analysis followed by multiple logistic regression analysis found chronic irritation/anger and emotional suppression to be aggravating factors for children aged Conclusions Different types of parental stress/coping behaviors and parenting styles may differently predict their children's asthmatic status, and such associations may change as children grow.

  1. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in severe oxidative stress, leading to memory retention impairment in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Misaki, Taihei; Yabuta, Yukinori; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Fumio

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in various human diseases and conditions, such as a neurodegeneration, which is the major symptom of vitamin B 12 deficiency, although the underlying disease mechanisms associated with vitamin B 12 deficiency are poorly understood. Vitamin B 12 deficiency was found to significantly increase cellular H 2 O 2 and NO content in Caenorhabditis elegans and significantly decrease low molecular antioxidant [reduced glutathione (GSH) and L-ascorbic acid] levels and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities, indicating that vitamin B 12 deficiency induces severe oxidative stress leading to oxidative damage of various cellular components in worms. An NaCl chemotaxis associative learning assay indicated that vitamin B 12 deficiency did not affect learning ability but impaired memory retention ability, which decreased to approximately 58% of the control value. When worms were treated with 1mmol/L GSH, L-ascorbic acid, or vitamin E for three generations during vitamin B 12 deficiency, cellular malondialdehyde content as an index of oxidative stress decreased to the control level, but the impairment of memory retention ability was not completely reversed (up to approximately 50%). These results suggest that memory retention impairment formed during vitamin B 12 deficiency is partially attributable to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Posterior and prefrontal contributions to the development posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity: an fMRI study of symptom provocation in acute stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Jan C; Sartory, Gudrun; Nuyken, Malte; Schürholt, Benjamin; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2017-09-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is predictive of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In response to symptom provocation, the exposure to trauma-related pictures, ASD patients showed increased activation of the medial posterior areas of precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex as well as of superior prefrontal cortex in a previous study. The current study aimed at investigating which activated areas are predictive of the development of PTSD. Nineteen ASD patients took part in an fMRI study in which they were shown personalized trauma-related and neutral pictures within 4 weeks of the traumatic event. They were assessed for severity of PTSD 4 weeks later. Activation contrasts between trauma-related and neutral pictures were correlated with subsequent PTSD symptom severity. Greater activation in, among others, right medial precuneus, left retrosplenial cortex, precentral and right superior temporal gyrus as well as less activation in lateral, superior prefrontal and left fusiform gyrus was related to subsequently increased PTSD severity. The results are broadly in line with neural areas related to etiological models of PTSD, namely multisensory associative learning recruiting posterior regions on the one hand and failure to reappraise maladaptive cognitions, thought to involve prefrontal areas, on the other.

  3. APPLICATION OF MODULATED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE AND MODULATED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE IMAGING IN STUDYING ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll (Chl a fluorescence is a widely used tool to monitor the photosynthetic process in plants subjected to environmental stresses.this review reports the theoretical bases of Chl fluorescence, and the significance of the most important Chl fluorescence parameters. it also reportshow these parameters can be utilised to estimate changes in photosystem ii (PSII photochemistry, linear electron flux and energy dissipationmechanisms. the relation between actual PSII photochemistry and CO2 assimilation is discussed, as is the role of photochemical andnon-photochemical quenching in inducing changes in PSII activity. the application of Chl fluorescence imaging to study heterogeneity on leaflamina is also considered. this review summarises only some of the results obtained by this methodology to study the effects of differentenvironmental stresses, namely water and nutrients availability, pollutants, temperature and salinity.

  4. Severely Heat Injured Survivors of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888 Display Variable and Heterogeneous Stress Resistance Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayán, Elisa; Govers, Sander K.; Michiels, Chris W.; Aertsen, Abram

    2016-01-01

    Although minimal food processing strategies aim to eliminate foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms through a combination of mild preservation techniques, little is actually known on the resistance behavior of the small fraction of microorganisms surviving an inimical treatment. In this study, the conduct of severely heat stressed survivors of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888, as an indicator for the low infectious dose foodborne enterohemorrhagic strains, was examined throughout their resuscitation and outgrowth. Despite the fact that these survivors were initially sublethally injured, they were only marginally more sensitive to a subsequent heat treatment and actually much more resistant to a subsequent high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) shock in comparison with unstressed control cells. Throughout further resuscitation, however, their initial HHP resistance rapidly faded out, while their heat resistance increased and surpassed the initial heat resistance of unstressed control cells. Results also indicated that the population eventually emerging from the severely heat stressed survivors heterogeneously consisted of both growing and non-growing cells. Together, these observations provide deeper insights into the particular behavior and heterogeneity of stressed foodborne pathogens in the context of food preservation. PMID:27917163

  5. Severely heat injured survivors of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888 display variable and heterogeneous stress resistance behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Gayán

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although minimal food processing strategies aim to eliminate foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms through a combination of mild preservation techniques, little is actually known on the resistance behavior of the small fraction of microorganisms surviving an inimical treatment. In this study, the conduct of severely heat stressed survivors of E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888, as an indicator for the low infectious dose foodborne enterohaemorrhagic strains, was examined throughout their resuscitation and outgrowth. Despite the fact that these survivors were initially sublethally injured, they were only marginally more sensitive to a subsequent heat treatment and actually much more resistant to a subsequent high hydrostatic pressure (HHP shock in comparison with unstressed control cells. Throughout further resuscitation, however, their initial HHP resistance rapidly faded out, while their heat resistance increased and surpassed the initial heat resistance of unstressed control cells. Results also indicated that the population eventually emerging from the severely heat stressed survivors heterogeneously consisted of both growing and non-growing persister-like cells. Together, these observations provide deeper insights into the particular behavior and heterogeneity of stressed foodborne pathogens in the context of food preservation.

  6. Leaf movement, photosynthesis and resource use efficiency responses to multiple environmental stress in Glycine max (soybean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, may cause a significant increase in temperature, with implications for general wind patterns and precipitation. Reductions in stratospheric ozone will result in increased levels of UV-B reaching earth's surface. During their lifetime plants must deal with a variety of co-occurring environmental stresses. Accordingly, studies into plant responses to multiple environmental factors is important to our understanding of limits to their growth, productivity, and distribution. Heliotropic leaf movements are a generalized plant response to environmental stresses, and the pattern of these movements can be altered by resource availability (e.g., water, and nitrogen). Previous greenhouse and field studies have demonstrated damaging effects of UV-B radiation in crop species, including soybean. Documented in this paper are Leaf movement and gas exchange responses of four soybean cultivars with different sensitivity to UV-B radiation to enhanced levels of UV-B, and modifications of these responses caused by water stress and nitrogen fertilization. UV-B radiation had no effect on the patterns of leaf orientation in soybean; however, a ranking of the cultivars based on midday leaf angles was the same as the ranking of these cultivars based on their sensitivity to UV-B radiation. Water and nitrogen altered the leaf movement patterns of soybeans. Gas exchange parameters in all four cultivars responded in a similar fashion to changes in leaf water potential. Reductions in water availability resulted in lower discrimination. Nitrogen fertilization in cv Forrest, also resulted in lower discrimination, especially under low water regimes, indicating a higher water use efficiency for fertilized plants. UV-B radiation resulted in lower discrimination in the UV-B sensitive CNS cultivar, indicating a stronger stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under increased UV-B levels

  7. Acoustic Studies of the Effects of Environmental Stresses on Marine Mammals in Large Ocean Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorovskaia, N.; Ma, B.; Ackleh, A. S.; Tiemann, C.; Ioup, G. E.; Ioup, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of environmental stresses on deep-diving marine mammal populations have not been studied systematically. Long-term regional passive acoustic monitoring of phonating marine mammals opens opportunities for such studies. This paper presents a unique multi-year study conducted by the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) in the Northern Gulf of Mexico to understand short-term and long-term effects of anthropogenic stresses on resident populations of endangered sperm and elusive beaked whales. Both species spend many hours each day in deep dives which last about one hour each, so any visual observations for population estimates and behavioral responses are very limited. However, much more cost-efficient acoustic recordings of the phonations during dives on bottom-mounted hydrophones are not skewed by weather conditions or daylight requirements. Broadband passive acoustic data were collected by LADC in 2007 and 2010 at three ranges, 15, 40, and 80 km away from the 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill site. Pre-spill and post-spill data processing and comparison allow observing responses of both species to local short-term environmental condition changes and long-term responses to the spill. The short-term effects are studied by correlating daily activity cycles with anthropogenic noise curve daily and weekly cycles at different sites. The strong correlation between the decrease in overall daily activity and the increase in anthropogenic noise level associated with seismic exploration signals can be seen. After streaming raw acoustic data through detection algorithms and detailed assessment of false detection rates, the temporal densities of acoustic phonations are passed into statistical algorithms for resident population estimations. The statistically significant results have shown different regional abundance trends, associated with long-term responses to environmental stresses, for these two species.

  8. Inhibition of stress-activated MAP kinases induces clinical improvement in moderate to severe Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Daan; van den Blink, Bernt; Plasse, Terry; Bartelsman, Joep; Xu, Cuiping; Macpherson, Bret; Tytgat, Guido; Peppelenbosch, Mailkel; van Deventer, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Background & Aims: We investigated if inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was beneficial in Crohn's disease. Methods: Inhibition of JNK and p38 MAPK activation with CNI-1493, a guanylhydrazone, was tested in vitro. Twelve patients with severe Crohn's disease (mean baseline, CDAI

  9. Color-pattern evolution in response to environmental stress in butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki eHiyama

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that butterfly wing color patterns have ecological and behavioral functions that evolved through natural selection. However, particular wing color patterns may physiologically be produced in response to environmental stress without significant function. These patterns would represent an extreme expression of phenotypic plasticity and can eventually be fixed genetically in a population. Here, three such cases in butterflies are concisely reviewed and their possible mechanisms of genetic assimilation are discussed. First, certain modified color pattern of Vanessa indica induced by temperature treatments resembles the natural color patterns of its closely related species of the genus Vanessa (sensu stricto. Second, a different type of color-pattern modification can be induced in Vanessa cardui as a result of a general stress response, which is very similar to the natural color pattern of its sister species Vanessa kershawi. Third, a field observation was reported, together with experimental support, to show that the color-pattern diversity of a regional population of Zizeeria maha increased at the northern range margin of this species in response to temperature stress. In these three cases, modified color patterns are unlikely to have significant functions, and these cases suggest that phenotypic plasticity plays an important role in butterfly wing color-pattern evolution. A neutral or non-functional trait can be assimilated genetically if it is linked, like a parasitic trait, with another functional trait. In addition, it is possible that environmental stress causes epigenetic modifications of genes related to color patterns and that their transgenerational inheritance facilitates the process of genetic assimilation of a neutral or non-functional trait.

  10. Urethral Closure Pressure at Stress: A Predictive Measure for the Diagnosis and Severity of Urinary Incontinence in Women

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    Anne-Cécile Pizzoferrato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Maintaining urinary continence at stress requires a competent urethral sphincter and good suburethral support. Sphincter competence is estimated by measuring the maximal urethral closure pressure at rest. We aimed to study the value of a new urodynamic measure, the urethral closure pressure at stress (s-UCP, in the diagnosis and severity of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Methods A total of 400 women without neurological disorders were included in this observational study. SUI was diagnosed using the International Continence Society definition, and severity was assessed using a validated French questionnaire, the Mesure du Handicap Urinaire. The perineal examination consisted of rating the strength of the levator ani muscle (0–5 and an assessment of bladder neck mobility using point Aa (cm. The urodynamic parameters were maximal urethral closure pressure at rest, s-UCP, Valsalva leak point pressure (cm H2O, and pressure transmission ratio (%. Results Of the women, 358 (89.5% were diagnosed with SUI. The risk of SUI significantly increased as s-UCP decreased (odds ratio [OR], 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.88–0.98. The discriminative value of the measure was good for the diagnosis of SUI (area under curve>0.80. s-UCP values less than or equal to 20 cm H2O had a sensitivity of 73.1% and a specificity of 93.0% for predicting SUI. The association between s-UCP and SUI severity was also significant. Conclusions s-UCP is the most discriminative measure that has been identified for the diagnosis of SUI. It is strongly inversely correlated with the severity of SUI. It appears to be a specific SUI biomarker reflecting both urethral sphincter competence and urethral support.

  11. Post-traumatic stress symptoms in Swedish obstetricians and midwives after severe obstetric events: a cross-sectional retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Å; Andreen Sachs, M; Johannesson, K; Hallberg, G; Jonsson, M; Skoog Svanberg, A; Högberg, U

    2017-07-01

    To examine post-traumatic stress reactions among obstetricians and midwives, experiences of support and professional consequences after severe events in the labour ward. Cross-sectional online survey from January 7 to March 10, 2014. Members of the Swedish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and the Swedish Association of Midwives. Potentially traumatic events were defined as: the child died or was severely injured during delivery; maternal near-miss; maternal mortality; and other events such as violence or threat. The validated Screen Questionnaire Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD), based on DSM-IV (1994) 4th edition, was used to assess partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and probable PTSD. Partial or probable PTSD. The response rate was 47% for obstetricians (n = 706) and 40% (n = 1459) for midwives. Eighty-four percent of the obstetricians and 71% of the midwives reported experiencing at least one severe event on the delivery ward. Fifteen percent of both professions reported symptoms indicative of partial PTSD, whereas 7% of the obstetricians and 5% of the midwives indicated symptoms fulfilling PTSD criteria. Having experienced emotions of guilt or perceived insufficient support from friends predicted a higher risk of suffering from partial or probable PTSD. Obstetricians and midwives with partial PTSD symptoms chose to change their work to outpatient care significantly more often than colleagues without these symptoms. A substantial proportion of obstetricians and midwives reported symptoms of partial or probable PTSD after severe traumatic events experienced on the labour ward. Support and resilience training could avoid suffering and consequences for professional carers. In a survey 15% of Swedish obstetricians and midwives reported PTSD symptoms after their worst obstetric event. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Alcohol consumption and use of health care services in people with severe mental illness and stressful childhood experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Andres R; Huber, Christian G; Seixas, Azizi; Muenzenmaier, Kristina H; Lang, Undine E; Castille, Dorothy; Larkin, Stefan; Link, Bruce G

    2017-01-01

    People who suffer from severe mental illness often present with histories of abuse during childhood. Alcohol use disorders is a common co-morbidity of survivors of childhood abuse and neglect. This study analyzes the effects of stressful childhood experiences, a proxy for trauma, on the frequency of alcohol consumption and the utilization of health care services in a population of people with severe mental illness. There were 111 men (mean age: 35 years) and 72 women (mean age: 40.0 years) with severe mental illness that were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. The analysis focused on lifetime prevalence of stressful childhood experiences, alcohol consumption, and utilization of health care services over time. The longitudinal data were analyzed over 12 months with a level-2 model (multilevel modeling). Out of the participants, 41.5% reported a history of more than four types of abusive experiences. There were 33.3% that had a DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol abuse and 27.3% qualified for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of alcohol dependence throughout their lives. Stressful childhood experiences predicted an increased frequency of alcohol consumption over time. People with histories of childhood abuse had more often been to outpatient clinics and 12-step programs, but at the same time showed lower frequency rates of psychiatrist visits and visits to outpatient clinics. Childhood abuse is prevalent in people with severe mental illness and is related to an increased alcohol consumption. Despite an increased need of health care services, affected persons might encounter more barriers to access them.

  13. Accurate prediction of severe allergic reactions by a small set of environmental parameters (NDVI, temperature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notas, George; Bariotakis, Michail; Kalogrias, Vaios; Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Kastrinakis, Stelios; Kampa, Marilena; Agouridakis, Panagiotis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Castanas, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Severe allergic reactions of unknown etiology,necessitating a hospital visit, have an important impact in the life of affected individuals and impose a major economic burden to societies. The prediction of clinically severe allergic reactions would be of great importance, but current attempts have been limited by the lack of a well-founded applicable methodology and the wide spatiotemporal distribution of allergic reactions. The valid prediction of severe allergies (and especially those needing hospital treatment) in a region, could alert health authorities and implicated individuals to take appropriate preemptive measures. In the present report we have collecterd visits for serious allergic reactions of unknown etiology from two major hospitals in the island of Crete, for two distinct time periods (validation and test sets). We have used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a satellite-based, freely available measurement, which is an indicator of live green vegetation at a given geographic area, and a set of meteorological data to develop a model capable of describing and predicting severe allergic reaction frequency. Our analysis has retained NDVI and temperature as accurate identifiers and predictors of increased hospital severe allergic reactions visits. Our approach may contribute towards the development of satellite-based modules, for the prediction of severe allergic reactions in specific, well-defined geographical areas. It could also probably be used for the prediction of other environment related diseases and conditions.

  14. Oxidative stress enzyme and histopathological lesions in Colossoma macropomum (pisces, ariidae) for environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ticianne de Sousa de Oliveira Mota; Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Dantas, Janaina Gomes; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    This study used oxidative stress enzyme (Glutathione S-Transferase and Catalase), histopathological lesions (Branchial lesions) and biometric data in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in an Environmental Protection Area at São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations (A1 = contaminated area and A2 = reference site) within the protected area on four occasions. The activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in C. macropomum was compared with biometric data and histopathological lesions. Results have shown that biometric data decreased significantly in fish (p<0.05) at the contaminated site. The activity of CAT was higher in fish specifically caught in A1. A significant difference was observed in the GST activity in the liver of C. macropomum when comparing fish from the contaminated site and those from the reference site (p<0.05).

  15. EFFECTS OF VARIOUS SOIL ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES ON THE OCCURRENCE, DISTRIBUTION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF VA MYCORRHIZAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. KHAN

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The vesicular - arbuscular (VA mycorrhizal fungi are geographically ubiquitous soil inhabitants and form universal symbiotic relationship with plants from every phylum. These fungi link host plants with host soils and their biota in the mycorrhizosphere and play an important role in plant health, productivity and soil structure. Although VA mycorrhizal fungi do not show any host specificity, there is increasing evidence that various climatic and edaphic environmental factors such as land use and management practices, physical, chemical and biological properties of host soils and host plant characteristics influence their occurrence, taxonomic distribution and effectiveness. The interaction of these factors with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM is poorly understood except in a few cases. It is now very clear that VA mycorrhizal associations are ecologically significant factors that require more attention than previously accorded. This paper discusses the occurrence, distribution and significance of VAM in environmentally stressed soil conditions that limit plant growth such as drought, waterlogging and salinity.

  16. Direct and indirect effects of child abuse and environmental stress: A lifecourse perspective on adversity and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cindy; Mason, W Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Prince, Dana; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean

    2018-01-01

    There is a great deal of evidence about the mental health implications of physical child abuse and environmental stressors, or hardships that people experience at the household and neighborhood level (e.g., neighborhood violence; economic hardship, substance abuse, or conflict among family members). Yet, studies often focus on either abuse or environmental stress, not both, or examine abuse and environmental stressors as a combined set of experiences. Less is known, therefore, about how child abuse and environmental stress might work as either distinct or interrelated risks to diminish mental health over time. In this longitudinal study, we used path analyses to examine the cumulative effects of physical child abuse and environmental stressors on adult depressive symptoms among a sample of children followed into adulthood (N = 356). The goal was to assess whether chronic physical child abuse remains an independent predictor of adult outcomes once we accounted for the cumulative effects of household and neighborhood stressors across the lifecourse. Cumulative measures of physical child abuse and environmental stress each independently predicted a higher likelihood of adult depressive symptoms (ß = .122, p < .01 and ß = .283, p < .001, respectively). After accounting for adolescent depressive symptoms, only cumulative environmental stressors independently predicted depressive symptoms (ß = .202, p < .001). Tests of the indirect effect of cumulative environmental stress on the relationship between cumulative physical abuse and adult depressive symptoms were marginally statistically significant. Results add to literature that examines child abuse, adversity, and lifecourse perspectives on health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Blood Glukose Response of Giant Gouramy (Osphronemus gaouramy, Lac. to the Stress of Environmental Temperature Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hastuti

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate blood glucose performance of giant gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy, Lac. to environmental changes. Fish with body weight of about 52,15 g was used in the experiment. A hundred and twenty fish were subjected to stress by moving them to another aquarium containing cooler water for 5 minute before put them back to the origin aquarium. The stress treatments were Δ 0°C (A, Δ-3°C (B, Δ-6°C(C, and Δ-9°C(D. Blood glucose was measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours post stress, each for 5 fish. During stress treatment, the survival offish were recorded. To study the role of insulin activation on reducing the stress effects, thirty fish were injected with insulin 2 IU/100 g body weight before subjected them to stressar. Blood glucose level of fish subjected to temperature stress of Δ-9°C was the greatest. The blood glucose response to temperature changes was linear, Y = 4,4543 X + 35,553 with R2 = 0,09976. The survival rate of fish was 100% for all treatments. Injected of insulin 2 IU/100 g body weight was able to reduce hyperglycemia that caused by stress. Key words: Blood glucose, giant gouramy, Osphronemus gouramy, stress   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui performa glukosa darah ikan gurami (Osphronemus gouramy, Lac. dalam merespon perubahan suhu lingkungan. Ikan berbobot rata-rata 52,15 g sebanyak 120 ekor diberi stres dengan cara diangkat dan dipindahkan ke suatu wadah yang bersuhu lebih dingin selama 5 menit dan dikembalikan lagi ke wadah mula-mula. Perlakuan stres perubahan suhu dingin tersebut adalah A (Δ 0°C, B (Δ- 3°C, C (Δ-6°C dan D (Δ-9°C. Glukosa darah diukur dari 5 ekor ikan pada jam ke 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 dan 5 jam pascastres. Kelangsungan hidup dihitung pada saat perlakuan stres. Untuk melihat peran aktivasi insulin dalam menekan efek stres, ikan sebanyak 30 ekor diinjeksi insulin 2 iu/100 g bobot badan sebelum diberi stres. Kadar glukosa darah ikan gurame

  18. The effects of exercise on oxidative stress (TBARS) and BDNF in severely depressed inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Felipe Barreto; Vasconcelos-Moreno, Mirela Paiva; Borowsky, Carolina; Zimmermann, Ana Beatriz; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Ferrari, Pamela; de Almeida Fleck, Marcelo Pio

    2014-10-01

    Exercise can be an effective treatment for depression. Although the efficacy of exercise is well established, little is known concerning the biological changes associated with the antidepressant effects of exercise. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding exercise to the usual treatment on the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels of severely depressed inpatients. Twenty-six participants were randomized to an exercise group (n=15, exercise+treatment as usual) or a control group (n=11, treatment as usual). The participants in the exercise group completed a targeted dose of 16.5 kcal/kg/week of aerobic exercise, three times per week, throughout their hospitalizations. The control group did not exercise during their hospitalizations. The mean hospitalization length was of 21.63 (4.5)×23.82 (5.7) days for exercise and control groups, respectively. The exercise group performed a median of nine sessions. After adjusting for previous tobacco use, a significant group×time interaction was found for TBARS serum levels (p=0.02). A post hoc Bonferroni test revealed differences between the exercise and control groups at discharge. A significant time effect (pexercise to the usual treatment of severely depressed inpatients decreases the TBARS serum levels of severely depressed inpatients after 3 weeks. Adding exercise had no additional effects on BDNF serum levels.

  19. From transcriptome to biological function: environmental stress in an ectothermic vertebrate, the coral reef fish Pomacentrus moluccensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Alister C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our understanding of the importance of transcriptional regulation for biological function is continuously improving. We still know, however, comparatively little about how environmentally induced stress affects gene expression in vertebrates, and the consistency of transcriptional stress responses to different types of environmental stress. In this study, we used a multi-stressor approach to identify components of a common stress response as well as components unique to different types of environmental stress. We exposed individuals of the coral reef fish Pomacentrus moluccensis to hypoxic, hyposmotic, cold and heat shock and measured the responses of approximately 16,000 genes in liver. We also compared winter and summer responses to heat shock to examine the capacity for such responses to vary with acclimation to different ambient temperatures. Results We identified a series of gene functions that were involved in all stress responses examined here, suggesting some common effects of stress on biological function. These common responses were achieved by the regulation of largely independent sets of genes; the responses of individual genes varied greatly across different stress types. In response to heat exposure over five days, a total of 324 gene loci were differentially expressed. Many heat-responsive genes had functions associated with protein turnover, metabolism, and the response to oxidative stress. We were also able to identify groups of co-regulated genes, the genes within which shared similar functions. Conclusion This is the first environmental genomic study to measure gene regulation in response to different environmental stressors in a natural population of a warm-adapted ectothermic vertebrate. We have shown that different types of environmental stress induce expression changes in genes with similar gene functions, but that the responses of individual genes vary between stress types. The functions of heat

  20. Virtual stress testing of fracture stability in soldiers with severely comminuted tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petfield, Joseph L; Hayeck, Garry T; Kopperdahl, David L; Nesti, Leon J; Keaveny, Tony M; Hsu, Joseph R

    2017-04-01

    Virtual stress testing (VST) provides a non-invasive estimate of the strength of a healing bone through a biomechanical analysis of a patient's computed tomography (CT) scan. We asked whether VST could improve management of patients who had a tibia fracture treated with external fixation. In a retrospective case-control study of 65 soldier-patients who had tibia fractures treated with an external fixator, we performed VST utilizing CT scans acquired prior to fixator removal. The strength of the healing bone and the amount of tissue damage after application of an overload were computed for various virtual loading cases. Logistic regression identified computed outcomes with the strongest association to clinical events related to nonunion within 2 months after fixator removal. Clinical events (n = 9) were associated with a low tibial strength for compression loading (p fracture patients who can safely resume weight bearing. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:805-811, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; D'haen, Sarah; Maiga, Abdou; Moussa, Ibrahim Bouzou; Barbier, Bruno; Diouf, Awa; Diallo, Drissa; Da, Evariste Dapola; Dabi, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Environmental change in the Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa (SSWA) has been much debated since the droughts of the 1970s. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic changes and their perceptions were compared across north-south and west-east rainfall gradients. More than 80% of all households found that rainfall had decreased, especially in the wettest areas. Increases in wind speeds and temperature were perceived by an overall 60-80% of households. Contrary to household perceptions, observed rainfall patterns showed an increasing trend over the past 20 years. However, August rainfall declined, and could therefore potentially explain the contrasting negative household perceptions of rainfall trends. Most households reported degradation of soils, water resources, vegetation, and fauna, but more so in the 500-900 mm zones. Adaptation measures to counter environmental degradation included use of manure, reforestation, soil and water conservation, and protection of fauna and vegetation. The results raise concerns for future environmental management in the region, especially in the 500-900 mm zones and the western part of SSWA.

  2. A-to-I RNA editing in the rat brain is age-dependent, region-specific and sensitive to environmental stress across generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidan, Hiba; Ramaswami, Gokul; Golumbic, Yaela N; Sher, Noa; Malik, Assaf; Barak, Michal; Galiani, Dalia; Dekel, Nava; Li, Jin B; Gaisler-Salomon, Inna

    2018-01-08

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is an epigenetic modification catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs), and is especially prevalent in the brain. We used the highly accurate microfluidics-based multiplex PCR sequencing (mmPCR-seq) technique to assess the effects of development and environmental stress on A-to-I editing at 146 pre-selected, conserved sites in the rat prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Furthermore, we asked whether changes in editing can be observed in offspring of stress-exposed rats. In parallel, we assessed changes in ADARs expression levels. In agreement with previous studies, we found editing to be generally higher in adult compared to neonatal rat brain. At birth, editing was generally lower in prefrontal cortex than in amygdala. Stress affected editing at the serotonin receptor 2c (Htr2c), and editing at this site was significantly altered in offspring of rats exposed to prereproductive stress across two generations. Stress-induced changes in Htr2c editing measured with mmPCR-seq were comparable to changes measured with Sanger and Illumina sequencing. Developmental and stress-induced changes in Adar and Adarb1 mRNA expression were observed but did not correlate with editing changes. Our findings indicate that mmPCR-seq can accurately detect A-to-I RNA editing in rat brain samples, and confirm previous accounts of a developmental increase in RNA editing rates. Our findings also point to stress in adolescence as an environmental factor that alters RNA editing patterns several generations forward, joining a growing body of literature describing the transgenerational effects of stress.

  3. Erdosteine reduces the exercise-induced oxidative stress in patients with severe COPD: Results of a placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Negro, Roberto W; Visconti, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Erdosteine (ER), a multimechanism, mucoactive agent with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, has been shown to improve lung function, decrease plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS), and 8-isoprostane levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To assess vs. placebo the effect of ER on the exercise-induced oxidative stress by measuring and comparing the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in severe COPD patients. The double blind, placebo controlled study was carried out in 24 severe (GOLD Class III) COPD patients, aged >40 yr, randomized to receive either oral ER (600 mg/day, 8 males, mean age 70.5 yr) or placebo (9 males, mean age 70.8 yr) for 10 days. All patients performed a 6-min walking test (6MWT) before and after both treatments. Mean ROS plasma levels increased significantly, but equally, in each group following the baseline 6MWT (p = ns). At the end of both treatments, a significant difference in mean plasma ROS increase from baseline became clear between the ER (+14.6% ± 2.7) and the placebo group (+24.4% ± 3.8) after the second 6MWT (p release of inflammatory mediators due to the exercise-induced oxidative stress in severe COPD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of oxidative stress and antioxidant status: Correlation with the severity of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Gupta, E; Kaushik, S; Kumar Srivastava, V; Mehta, S K; Jyoti, A

    2018-04-01

    Sepsis is a condition caused by infection followed by unregulated inflammatory response which may lead to the organ dysfunction. During such condition, over-production of oxidants is one of the factors which contribute cellular toxicity and ultimately organ failure and mortality. Antioxidants having free radicals scavenging activity exert protective role in various diseases. This study has been designed to evaluate the levels of oxidative and antioxidative activity in sepsis patients and their correlation with the severity of the sepsis. A total of 100 sepsis patients and 50 healthy controls subjects were enrolled in this study from the period October 2016 to June 2017. The investigation included measurements of oxidative enzyme, myeloperoxidase (MPO), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT) and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8 and IFN-γ). Furthermore, the level of these activities was correlated with severity of sepsis. Augmented levels of oxidants were found in sepsis as demonstrated by DMPO nitrone adduct formation and plasma MPO level activity (1.37 ± 0.51 in sepsis vs 0.405 ± 0.16 in control subjects). Cytokines were also found to be increased in sepsis patients. However, plasma SOD and CAT activities were significantly attenuated (P sepsis patients compared with controls subjects. Moreover, inverse relation between antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and organ failure assessment (SOFA), physiological score (APACHE II), organ toxicity specific markers have been observed as demonstrated by Pearson's correlation coefficient. This study suggests that imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant plays key role in the severity of sepsis. © 2018 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  5. Effects of Burn Severity and Environmental Conditions on Post-Fire Regeneration in Siberian Larch Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Chu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-fire forest regeneration is strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic heterogeneity in the pre- and post-fire environments, including fire regimes, species characteristics, landforms, hydrology, regional climate, and soil properties. Assessing these drivers is key to understanding the long-term effects of fire disturbances on forest succession. We evaluated multiple factors influencing patterns of variability in a post-fire boreal Larch (Larix sibirica forest in Siberia. A time-series of remote sensing images was analyzed to estimate post-fire recovery as a response variable across the burned area in 1996. Our results suggested that burn severity and water content were primary controllers of both Larch forest recruitment and green vegetation cover as defined by the forest recovery index (FRI and the fractional vegetation cover (FVC, respectively. We found a high rate of Larch forest recruitment in sites of moderate burn severity, while a more severe burn was the preferable condition for quick occupation by vegetation that included early seral communities of shrubs, grasses, conifers and broadleaf trees. Sites close to water and that received higher solar energy during the summer months showed a higher rate of both recovery types, defined by the FRI and FVC, dependent on burn severity. In addition to these factors, topographic variables and pre-fire condition were important predictors of post-fire forest patterns. These results have direct implications for the post-fire forest management in the Siberian boreal Larch region.

  6. Pressure vessel for nuclear reactor plant consisting of several pre-stressed cast pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmann, E.

    1984-01-01

    Several cylindrical pressure vessel components made of pressure castings are arranged on a sector of a circle around the cylindrical cast pressure vessel for accommodating the helium cooled HTR. Each component pressure vessel is connected to the reactor vessel by a horizontal gas duct. The contact surfaces between reactor and component pressure vessel are in one plane. In the spaces between the individual component pressure vessels, there are supporting blocks made of cast iron, which are hollow and also have flat surfaces. With the reactor vessel and the component pressure vessels they form a disc-shaped connecting part below and above the gas ducts. (orig./PW)

  7. Suppression of a methionine synthase by calmodulin under environmental stress in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Oh, Junsang; Yoon, Deok-Hyo; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2017-10-01

    Methionine synthase (MetE, EC 2.1.1.14) catalyses the final step in the methionine biosynthetic pathway. Methionine biosynthesis plays a major role in protein biogenesis and is the source of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM), the universal donor of methyl groups. In this study, we demonstrated that BbMetE acts as a typical MetE enzyme in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. In addition, we found that BbMetE binds to calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and in vivo. The functional role of CaM binding to BbMetE was to negatively regulate BbMetE activity in B. bassiana. Our proton-nuclear magnetic resonance data revealed that CaM inhibitor W-7 increases methionine content in B. bassiana, suggesting that CaM negatively regulates the BbMetE activity. Environmental stress stimuli such as salt, H 2 O 2 and heat suppressed BbMetE activity in B. bassiana. W-7 reversed this effect, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism is mediated through stimulation of CaM activity. Therefore, this work suggests that BbMetE plays an important role in methionine biosynthesis, which is mediated by environmental stress stimuli via the CaM signalling pathway. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Graham D.; Frey, Matthew D.; Reichert, James F.; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

  9. A definition of normovolaemia and consequences for cardiovascular control during orthostatic and environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truijen, Jasper; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2010-05-01

    The Frank-Starling mechanism describes the relationship between stroke volume and preload to the heart, or the volume of blood that is available to the heart--the central blood volume. Understanding the role of the central blood volume for cardiovascular control has been complicated by the fact that a given central blood volume may be associated with markedly different central vascular pressures. The central blood volume varies with posture and, consequently, stroke volume and cardiac output (Q) are affected, but with the increased central blood volume during head-down tilt, stroke volume and Q do not increase further indicating that in the supine resting position the heart operates on the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve which, therefore, may be taken as a functional definition of normovolaemia. Since the capacity of the vascular system surpasses the blood volume, orthostatic and environmental stress including bed rest/microgravity, exercise and training, thermal loading, illness, and trauma/haemorrhage is likely to restrict venous return and Q. Consequently the cardiovascular responses are determined primarily by their effect on the central blood volume. Thus during environmental stress, flow redistribution becomes dependent on sympathetic activation affecting not only skin and splanchnic blood flow, but also flow to skeletal muscles and the brain. This review addresses the hypothesis that deviations from normovolaemia significantly influence these cardiovascular responses.

  10. Using Markov Models of Fault Growth Physics and Environmental Stresses to Optimize Control Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bole, Brian; Goebel, Kai; Vachtsevanos, George

    2012-01-01

    A generalized Markov chain representation of fault dynamics is presented for the case that available modeling of fault growth physics and future environmental stresses can be represented by two independent stochastic process models. A contrived but representatively challenging example will be presented and analyzed, in which uncertainty in the modeling of fault growth physics is represented by a uniformly distributed dice throwing process, and a discrete random walk is used to represent uncertain modeling of future exogenous loading demands to be placed on the system. A finite horizon dynamic programming algorithm is used to solve for an optimal control policy over a finite time window for the case that stochastic models representing physics of failure and future environmental stresses are known, and the states of both stochastic processes are observable by implemented control routines. The fundamental limitations of optimization performed in the presence of uncertain modeling information are examined by comparing the outcomes obtained from simulations of an optimizing control policy with the outcomes that would be achievable if all modeling uncertainties were removed from the system.

  11. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  12. Human factors issues in severe accident management: Training for decision-making under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumaw, R.J.; Roth, E.M.; Schoenfeld, I.

    1994-01-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, there is a growing awareness that the decision-making tasks required for selecting appropriate control actions, in addition to guidance from formal procedures, also involve cognitive activities commonly referred to as judgment or reasoning. A project was completed to address the nature of the cognitive skills that may be important to decision-making in the nuclear power plant environment, especially during severe accident management. The project identified a model of decision-making that could account for both rule-based and knowledge-based decision-making and used it to identify cognitive skills for both individuals and operational crews. This analysis was then used to identify existing training techniques for cognitive skills and the general characteristics of successful training techniques

  13. Small heat shock proteins mediate cell-autonomous and -nonautonomous protection in a Drosophila model for environmental-stress-induced degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Fumiko; Koonce, Noelle L; Guo, Linda; Fatima, Shahroz; Qiu, Catherine; Moon, Mackenzie T; Zheng, Yunzhen; Ordway, Richard W

    2016-09-01

    Cell and tissue degeneration, and the development of degenerative diseases, are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that affect protein misfolding and proteotoxicity. To better understand the role of the environment in degeneration, we developed a genetic model for heat shock (HS)-stress-induced degeneration in Drosophila This model exhibits a unique combination of features that enhance genetic analysis of degeneration and protection mechanisms involving environmental stress. These include cell-type-specific failure of proteostasis and degeneration in response to global stress, cell-nonautonomous interactions within a simple and accessible network of susceptible cell types, and precise temporal control over the induction of degeneration. In wild-type flies, HS stress causes selective loss of the flight ability and degeneration of three susceptible cell types comprising the flight motor: muscle, motor neurons and associated glia. Other motor behaviors persist and, accordingly, the corresponding cell types controlling leg motor function are resistant to degeneration. Flight motor degeneration was preceded by a failure of muscle proteostasis characterized by diffuse ubiquitinated protein aggregates. Moreover, muscle-specific overexpression of a small heat shock protein (HSP), HSP23, promoted proteostasis and protected muscle from HS stress. Notably, neurons and glia were protected as well, indicating that a small HSP can mediate cell-nonautonomous protection. Cell-autonomous protection of muscle was characterized by a distinct distribution of ubiquitinated proteins, including perinuclear localization and clearance of protein aggregates associated with the perinuclear microtubule network. This network was severely disrupted in wild-type preparations prior to degeneration, suggesting that it serves an important role in muscle proteostasis and protection. Finally, studies of resistant leg muscles revealed that they sustain proteostasis and the microtubule

  14. Selenocysteine modulates resistance to environmental stress and confers anti-aging effects in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Sung; Kim, So-Hyeon; Park, Sang-Kyu

    2017-08-01

    The free radical theory of aging suggests that cellular oxidative damage caused by free radicals is a leading cause of aging. In the present study, we examined the effects of a well-known anti-oxidant amino acid derivative, selenocysteine, in response to environmental stress and aging using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. The response to oxidative stress induced by H2O2 or ultraviolet irradiation was compared between the untreated control and selenocysteine-treated groups. The effect of selenocysteine on lifespan and fertility was then determined. To examine the effect of selenocysteine on muscle aging, we monitored the change in motility with aging in both the untreated control and selenocysteine-treated groups. Dietary supplementation with selenocysteine significantly increased resistance to oxidative stress. Survival after ultraviolet irradiation was also increased by supplementation with selenocysteine. Treatment with selenocysteine confers a longevity phenotype without an accompanying reduction in fertility, which is frequently observed in lifespan-extending interventions as a trade-off in C. elegans. In addition, the age-related decline in motility was significantly delayed by supplementation of selenocysteine. These findings suggest that dietary supplementation of selenocysteine can modulate response to stressors and lead to lifespan extension, thus supporting the free radical theory of aging.

  15. Role of Free Radicals, Oxidative Stress and Xenobiotics in Carcinogenesis by Environmental Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyajyoti Saha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenesis by many small molecular weight chemicals involves either a direct action of the chemical on cellular DNA or metabolism of the parent chemical to an active or ultimate form, which can than react with cellular DNA to produce a permanent chemical change in a DNA structure. A free radical is an atom or molecule that has one or more unpaired electron(s. These are highly reactive species capable of wide spread, indiscriminate oxidation and per oxidation of proteins, lipids and DNA which can lead to significant cellular damage and even tissue and/or organ failure. . Oxidative stress is a leading cause to damage cells by oxidation. The rate at which oxidative damage is induced (input and the rate at which it is efficiently repaired and removed (output. Xenobiotics are a compound that is foreign to the body. Xenobiotics can produce a variety of biological effects, including pharmacologic responses, toxicity, genes, immunologic reactions and cancer. Oxidative stress is a leading cause to damage cells by oxidation. The rate at which oxidative damage is induced (input and the rate at which it is efficiently repaired and removed (output. This communication highlights the role of carcinogens as environmental pollutants with the possible mechanism of free radicals, oxidative stress and xenobiotics.

  16. Characteristic of the Oxidative Stress in Blood of Patients in Dependence of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravlyova, Larissa; Molotov-Luchankiy, Vilen; Bakirova, Ryszhan; Klyuyev, Dmitriy; Demidchik, Ludmila; Lee, Valentina

    2016-03-15

    At the present time the alternation of the oxidative metabolism is considered as one of the leading pathogenic mechanisms in the development and progression of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However the nature and direction of the oxidative protein changes in CAP patient's blood had been almost unexplored. To define oxidative and modified proteins in erythrocytes and blood plasma of CAP patients. Blood plasma and erythrocytes obtained from: 42 patients with moderate severity pneumonia, 12 patients with grave severity pneumonia and 32 healthy volunteers. Content of advanced oxidation protein products, malondialdehyde and reactive carbonyl derivatives were estimated as indicators of the oxidative stress and oxidative damage of proteins. In patients with grave severity the level of oxidative proteins and MDA in erythrocytes exceeded both: control values and similar meanings in CAP patients with moderate severity. The further growth of MDA in this group patients' blood plasma was observed, but the level of oxidative proteins decreased in comparison with those in CAP patients with moderate severity. To sum up, our derived data show, that injury of erythrocytes' redox-status and blood plasma components plays an essential role in development and progression CAP.

  17. Sleep disturbances and severe stress as glial activators: key targets for treating central sensitization in chronic pain patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Jo; Loggia, Marco L; Polli, Andrea; Moens, Maarten; Huysmans, Eva; Goudman, Lisa; Meeus, Mira; Vanderweeën, Luc; Ickmans, Kelly; Clauw, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    The mechanism of sensitization of the central nervous system partly explains the chronic pain experience in many patients, but the etiological mechanisms of this central nervous system dysfunction are poorly understood. Recently, an increasing number of studies suggest that aberrant glial activation takes part in the establishment and/or maintenance of central sensitization. Areas covered: This review focused on preclinical work and mostly on the neurobiochemistry studied in animals, with limited human studies available. Glial overactivation results in a low-grade neuroinflammatory state, characterized by high levels of BDNF, IL-1β, TNF-α, which in turn increases the excitability of the central nervous system neurons through mechanisms like long-term potentiation and increased synaptic efficiency. Aberrant glial activity in chronic pain might have been triggered by severe stress exposure, and/or sleeping disturbances, each of which are established initiating factors for chronic pain development. Expert opinion: Potential treatment avenues include several pharmacological options for diminishing glial activity, as well as conservative interventions like sleep management, stress management and exercise therapy. Pharmacological options include propentofylline, minocycline, β -adrenergic receptor antagonists, and cannabidiol. Before translating these findings from basic science to clinical settings, more human studies exploring the outlined mechanisms in chronic pain patients are needed.

  18. How bicycle level of traffic stress correlate with reported cyclist accidents injury severities: A geospatial and mixed logit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Anderson, Jason C; Wang, Haizhong; Wang, Yinhai; Vogt, Rachel; Hernandez, Salvador

    2017-11-01

    Transportation agencies need efficient methods to determine how to reduce bicycle accidents while promoting cycling activities and prioritizing safety improvement investments. Many studies have used standalone methods, such as level of traffic stress (LTS) and bicycle level of service (BLOS), to better understand bicycle mode share and network connectivity for a region. However, in most cases, other studies rely on crash severity models to explain what variables contribute to the severity of bicycle related crashes. This research uniquely correlates bicycle LTS with reported bicycle crash locations for four cities in New Hampshire through geospatial mapping. LTS measurements and crash locations are compared visually using a GIS framework. Next, a bicycle injury severity model, that incorporates LTS measurements, is created through a mixed logit modeling framework. Results of the visual analysis show some geospatial correlation between higher LTS roads and "Injury" type bicycle crashes. It was determined, statistically, that LTS has an effect on the severity level of bicycle crashes and high LTS can have varying effects on severity outcome. However, it is recommended that further analyses be conducted to better understand the statistical significance and effect of LTS on injury severity. As such, this research will validate the use of LTS as a proxy for safety risk regardless of the recorded bicycle crash history. This research will help identify the clustering patterns of bicycle crashes on high-risk corridors and, therefore, assist with bicycle route planning and policy making. This paper also suggests low-cost countermeasures or treatments that can be implemented to address high-risk areas. Specifically, with the goal of providing safer routes for cyclists, such countermeasures or treatments have the potential to substantially reduce the number of fatalities and severe injuries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Living to the range limit: consumer isotopic variation increases with environmental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Reddin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Theoretically, each species’ ecological niche is phylogenetically-determined and expressed spatially as the species’ range. However, environmental stress gradients may directly or indirectly decrease individual performance, such that the precise process delimiting a species range may not be revealed simply by studying abundance patterns. In the intertidal habitat the vertical ranges of marine species may be constrained by their abilities to tolerate thermal and desiccation stress, which may act directly or indirectly, the latter by limiting the availability of preferred trophic resources. Therefore, we expected individuals at greater shore heights to show greater variation in diet alongside lower indices of physiological condition. Methods: We sampled the grazing gastropod Echinolittorina peruviana from the desert coastline of northern Chile at three shore heights, across eighteen regionally-representative shores. Stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N were extracted from E. peruviana and its putative food resources to estimate Bayesian ellipse area, carbon and nitrogen ranges and diet. Individual physiological condition was tracked by muscle % C and % N. Results: There was an increase in isotopic variation at high shore levels, where E. peruviana’s preferred resource, tide-deposited particulate organic matter (POM, appeared to decrease in dietary contribution, and was expected to be less abundant. Both muscle % C and % N of individuals decreased with height on the shore. Discussion: Individuals at higher stress levels appear to be less discriminating in diet, likely because of abiotic forcing, which decreases both consumer mobility and the availability of a preferred resource. Abiotic stress might be expected to increase trophic variation in other selective dietary generalist species. Where this coincides with a lower physiological condition may be a direct factor in setting their range limit.

  20. Functional evolution of leptin of Ochotona curzoniae in adaptive thermogenesis driven by cold environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can accelerate the directional selection and evolutionary rate of specific stress-response proteins to bring about new or altered functions, enhancing an organism's fitness to challenging environments. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae, an endemic and keystone species on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, is a high hypoxia and low temperature tolerant mammal with high resting metabolic rate and non-shivering thermogenesis to cope in this harsh plateau environment. Leptin is a key hormone related to how these animals regulate energy homeostasis. Previous molecular evolutionary analysis helped to generate the hypothesis that adaptive evolution of plateau pika leptin may be driven by cold stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis, recombinant pika leptin was first purified. The thermogenic characteristics of C57BL/6J mice injected with pika leptin under warm (23±1°C and cold (5±1°C acclimation is investigated. Expression levels of genes regulating adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and the hypothalamus are compared between pika leptin and human leptin treatment, suggesting that pika leptin has adaptively and functionally evolved. Our results show that pika leptin regulates energy homeostasis via reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure under both warm and cold conditions. Compared with human leptin, pika leptin demonstrates a superior induced capacity for adaptive thermogenesis, which is reflected in a more enhanced β-oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis and heat production. Moreover, leptin treatment combined with cold stimulation has a significant synergistic effect on adaptive thermogenesis, more so than is observed with a single cold exposure or single leptin treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the hypothesis that cold stress has driven the functional evolution of plateau pika leptin as an ecological adaptation to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  1. Impact of stress-induced diabetes on outcomes in severely burned children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C; Ali, Arham; McLean, Josef; Benjamin, Nicole; Clayton, Robert P; Andersen, Clark R; Mlcak, Ronald P; Suman, Oscar E; Meyer, Walter; Herndon, David N

    2014-04-01

    Post-burn hyperglycemia leads to graft failure, multiple organ failure, and death. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is used to keep serum glucose between 60 and 110 mg/dL. Because of frequent hypoglycemic episodes, a less-stringent sliding scale insulin protocol is used to maintain serum glucose levels between 80 and 160 mg/dL after elevations >180 mg/dL. We randomized pediatric patients with massive burns into 2 groups, patients receiving sliding scale insulin to lower blood glucose levels (n = 145) and those receiving no insulin (n = 98), to determine the differences in morbidity and mortality. Patients 0 to 18 years old with burns covering ≥ 30% of the total body surface area and not randomized to receive anabolic agents were included in this study. End points included glucose levels, infections, resting energy expenditure, lean body mass, bone mineral content, fat mass, muscle strength, and serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes. Maximal glucose levels occurred within 6 days of burn injury. Blood glucose levels were age dependent, with older children requiring more insulin (p patients not receiving insulin, only in patients who received insulin (p patients receiving insulin (p Burn-induced hyperglycemia develops in a subset of severely burned children. Length of stay was reduced in the no insulin group, and there were no deaths in this group. Administration of insulin positively impacted bone mineral content and muscle strength, but increased resting energy expenditure, hypoglycemic episodes, and mortality. New glucose-lowering strategies might be needed. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of inter-varietal diversity, biotic stresses and environmental productivity on grain yield of spring barley variety mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib M.; Østergård, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    than their component varieties when accounting also for the general response to environmental productivity. Hence, most mixtures adapted slightly better to environmental productivity and were less sensitive to environmental stress than their component varieties. We conclude that the efficacy of variety...... mixtures may be enhanced by mixing relatively high-yielding varieties differing in responsiveness to environmental productivity.......Varietal seed mixtures tend to increase and stabilize crop yields, yet their application is sparse. Large-scale cultivation of variety mixtures may require a better understanding of how inter-varietal interactions and their interaction with the environment may influence the grain yield of variety...

  3. Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) Symptom Severity: Stress Management Skills are Related to Lower Illness Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattie, Emily G; Antoni, Michael H; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Czaja, Sara; Perdomo, Dolores; Sala, Andreina; Nair, Sankaran; Fu, Shih Hua; Penedo, Frank J; Klimas, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The onset of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) typically involves reductions in activities of daily living and social interactions (jointly referred to as "illness burden"). Emotional distress has been linked to increased reported symptoms, and stress management skills have been related to lower fatigue severity in CFS patients. Symptom severity and illness burden are highly correlated. The ability to manage stress may attenuate this relationship, allowing individuals to feel less burdened by the illness independent of the severity of their symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate if perceived stress management skills affect illness burden via emotional distress, independent of ME/CFS symptom severity. A total of 117 adults with ME/CFS completed measures of perceived stress management skills, emotional distress, ME/CFS symptom severity and illness burden. Regression analyses revealed that greater perceived stress management skills related to less social and fatigue-related illness burden, via lower emotional distress. This relationship existed independent of the association of symptom severity on illness burden, and was stronger among those not currently employed. Ability to manage stress is associated with a lower illness burden for individuals with ME/CFS. Future studies should evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in lowering illness burden by targeting stress management skills.

  4. Cross-species multiple environmental stress responses: An integrated approach to identify candidate genes for multiple stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and related model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adugna Abdi Woldesemayat

    Full Text Available Crop response to the changing climate and unpredictable effects of global warming with adverse conditions such as drought stress has brought concerns about food security to the fore; crop yield loss is a major cause of concern in this regard. Identification of genes with multiple responses across environmental stresses is the genetic foundation that leads to crop adaptation to environmental perturbations.In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach to assess candidate genes for multiple stress responses across-species. The approach combines ontology based semantic data integration with expression profiling, comparative genomics, phylogenomics, functional gene enrichment and gene enrichment network analysis to identify genes associated with plant stress phenotypes. Five different ontologies, viz., Gene Ontology (GO, Trait Ontology (TO, Plant Ontology (PO, Growth Ontology (GRO and Environment Ontology (EO were used to semantically integrate drought related information.Target genes linked to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs controlling yield and stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and closely related species were identified. Based on the enriched GO terms of the biological processes, 1116 sorghum genes with potential responses to 5 different stresses, such as drought (18%, salt (32%, cold (20%, heat (8% and oxidative stress (25% were identified to be over-expressed. Out of 169 sorghum drought responsive QTLs associated genes that were identified based on expression datasets, 56% were shown to have multiple stress responses. On the other hand, out of 168 additional genes that have been evaluated for orthologous pairs, 90% were conserved across species for drought tolerance. Over 50% of identified maize and rice genes were responsive to drought and salt stresses and were co-located within multifunctional QTLs. Among the total identified multi-stress responsive genes, 272 targets were shown to be co-localized within QTLs

  5. Environmental Factors’ Effect on Stress Reduction of Employees: A Case Study on Farhangian University Staff in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Payedar Ardakani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues the contemporary societies encounter is the job stress. There are various factors affecting it, but not enough researches have been done on the role that environmental factors play. This paper presents an experimental study with 100 participants on the influence of environmental factors on employees’ stress level. This method uses information derived from field observations and answers to questionnaires distributed to employees and officials who are in the top management of the central organization of Farhangian University, Tehran branch. The results demonstrate that color, window, lighting and brightness, landscape, communications and interactions, flexibility, thermal convenience, noise convenience, cleanness, physical activity, privacy and accessibility play an important role in the stress of employees, suggesting that the architectures and designers should consider the aforementioned factors so they can create dynamic and pleasant office environments devoid of any stress.

  6. Micro-environmental mechanical stress controls tumor spheroid size and morphology by suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Cheng

    Full Text Available Compressive mechanical stress produced during growth in a confining matrix limits the size of tumor spheroids, but little is known about the dynamics of stress accumulation, how the stress affects cancer cell phenotype, or the molecular pathways involved.We co-embedded single cancer cells with fluorescent micro-beads in agarose gels and, using confocal microscopy, recorded the 3D distribution of micro-beads surrounding growing spheroids. The change in micro-bead density was then converted to strain in the gel, from which we estimated the spatial distribution of compressive stress around the spheroids. We found a strong correlation between the peri-spheroid solid stress distribution and spheroid shape, a result of the suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic cell death in regions of high mechanical stress. By compressing spheroids consisting of cancer cells overexpressing anti-apoptotic genes, we demonstrate that mechanical stress-induced apoptosis occurs via the mitochondrial pathway.Our results provide detailed, quantitative insight into the role of micro-environmental mechanical stress in tumor spheroid growth dynamics, and suggest how tumors grow in confined locations where the level of solid stress becomes high. An important implication is that apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, induced by compressive stress, may be involved in tumor dormancy, in which tumor growth is held in check by a balance of apoptosis and proliferation.

  7. The impact of environmental stressors and types of work contract on occupational stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Ana Paula; Ferreira, Maria Cristina

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of seven environmental stressors (role conflict, work overload, interpersonal difficulties, work-family conflict, work instability, lack of autonomy and pressure of responsibility) and the nature of the employment contract (permanent or atypical) on three psychological reactions to occupational stress (job satisfaction, positive emotions, and negative emotions at work). 305 Brazilian workers from both sexes participated in this research, distributed between permanent and atypical workers. The results showed that the role conflict and the work overload had a negative impact on job satisfaction. The role conflict had a negative impact on the positive emotions at work, while the pressure of responsibility interfered positively in it. The work overload interfered positively in the negative emotions at work, while the pressure of responsibility interfered negatively in it. The type of contract did not affect significantly any one of the dependent variables. The implications of the results for future research are discussed.

  8. Early remote laser detection of vegetation damage caused by certain environmental stress factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Emmett W.; Mcmurtrey, James E., III

    1989-01-01

    The fluorescence spectra of plants excited with a pulsed nitrogen laser beam emitting at 337 nm were found to be related to plant type, as well as with changes in the physiology of the plant as the result of various kinds of environmental stress. The plant types which were studied included herbaceous dicots, monocots, hardwoods, and conifers. These plant types could be identified on the basis of differences in either the number of fluorescent bands, or the relative intensity of the bands. The dicots and monocots had fluorescent maxima at 440, 685, and 740 nm. The monocots could be distinguished from the dicots by virtue of having a much higher 440 nm/685 nm ratio. Hardwoods and conifers had an additional fluorescence band at 525 nm, but healthy conifers did not have a band at 685 nm.

  9. The Relationship between the Broader Autism Phenotype, Child Severity, and Stress and Depression in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Hambrick, David Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between child symptom severity, parent broader autism phenotype (BAP), and stress and depression in parents of children with ASD. One hundred and forty-nine parents of children with ASD completed a survey of parenting stress, depression, broader autism phenotype, coping styles, perceived social support, and…

  10. Untangling the Influences of Voluntary Running, Environmental Complexity, Social Housing and Stress on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Catherine-Alexandra; Bonenfant, David; Le Nguyen, Adalie; Aumont, Anne; Fernandes, Karl J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) exerts powerful effects on brain physiology, and is widely used as an experimental and therapeutic tool. Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables have not been separable using conventional housing paradigms. Here, we evaluated the impacts of these individual variables on adult hippocampal neurogenesis by using a novel “Alternating EE” paradigm. For 4 weeks, adult male CD1 mice were alternated daily between two enriched environments; by comparing groups that differed in one of their two environments, the individual and combinatorial effects of EE variables could be resolved. The Alternating EE paradigm revealed that (1) voluntary running for 3 days/week was sufficient to increase both mitotic and post-mitotic stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, confirming the central importance of exercise; (2) a complex environment (comprised of both social interactions and rotated inanimate objects) had no effect on neurogenesis itself, but enhanced depolarization-induced c-Fos expression (attributable to social interactions) and buffered stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels (attributable to inanimate objects); and (3) neither social isolation, group housing, nor chronically increased levels of plasma corticosterone had a prolonged impact on neurogenesis. Mouse strain, handling and type of running apparatus were tested and excluded as potential confounding factors. These findings provide valuable insights into the relative effects of key EE variables on adult neurogenesis, and this “Alternating EE” paradigm represents a useful tool for exploring the contributions of individual EE variables to mechanisms of neural plasticity. PMID:24465980

  11. Organismal climatology: analyzing environmental variability at scales relevant to physiological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmuth, Brian; Broitman, Bernardo R; Yamane, Lauren; Gilman, Sarah E; Mach, Katharine; Mislan, K A S; Denny, Mark W

    2010-03-15

    Predicting when, where and with what magnitude climate change is likely to affect the fitness, abundance and distribution of organisms and the functioning of ecosystems has emerged as a high priority for scientists and resource managers. However, even in cases where we have detailed knowledge of current species' range boundaries, we often do not understand what, if any, aspects of weather and climate act to set these limits. This shortcoming significantly curtails our capacity to predict potential future range shifts in response to climate change, especially since the factors that set range boundaries under those novel conditions may be different from those that set limits today. We quantitatively examine a nine-year time series of temperature records relevant to the body temperatures of intertidal mussels as measured using biomimetic sensors. Specifically, we explore how a 'climatology' of body temperatures, as opposed to long-term records of habitat-level parameters such as air and water temperatures, can be used to extrapolate meaningful spatial and temporal patterns of physiological stress. Using different metrics that correspond to various aspects of physiological stress (seasonal means, cumulative temperature and the return time of extremes) we show that these potential environmental stressors do not always occur in synchrony with one another. Our analysis also shows that patterns of animal temperature are not well correlated with simple, commonly used metrics such as air temperature. Detailed physiological studies can provide guidance to predicting the effects of global climate change on natural ecosystems but only if we concomitantly record, archive and model environmental signals at appropriate scales.

  12. Environmentally persistent free radicals amplify ultrafine particle mediated cellular oxidative stress and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishna Shrilatha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combustion generated particulate matter is deposited in the respiratory tract and pose a hazard to the lungs through their potential to cause oxidative stress and inflammation. We have previously shown that combustion of fuels and chlorinated hydrocarbons produce semiquinone-type radicals that are stabilized on particle surfaces (i.e. environmentally persistent free radicals; EPFRs. Because the composition and properties of actual combustion-generated particles are complex, heterogeneous in origin, and vary from day-to-day, we have chosen to use surrogate particle systems. In particular, we have chosen to use the radical of 2-monochlorophenol (MCP230 as the EPFR because we have previously shown that it forms a EPFR on Cu(IIO surfaces and catalyzes formation of PCDD/F. To understand the physicochemical properties responsible for the adverse pulmonary effects of combustion by-products, we have exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B to MCP230 or the CuO/silica substrate. Our general hypothesis was that the EPFR-containing particle would have greater toxicity than the substrate species. Results Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to our combustion generated particle systems significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and decreased cellular antioxidants resulting in cell death. Resveratrol treatment reversed the decline in cellular glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels for both types of combustion-generated particle systems. Conclusion The enhanced cytotoxicity upon exposure to MCP230 correlated with its ability to generate more cellular oxidative stress and concurrently reduce the antioxidant defenses of the epithelial cells (i.e. reduced GSH, SOD activity, and GPx. The EPFRs in MCP230 also seem to be of greater biological concern due to their ability to induce lipid peroxidation. These results are consistent with the oxidizing nature of the CuO/silica ultrafine

  13. Untangling the influences of voluntary running, environmental complexity, social housing and stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine-Alexandra Grégoire

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE exerts powerful effects on brain physiology, and is widely used as an experimental and therapeutic tool. Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables have not been separable using conventional housing paradigms. Here, we evaluated the impacts of these individual variables on adult hippocampal neurogenesis by using a novel "Alternating EE" paradigm. For 4 weeks, adult male CD1 mice were alternated daily between two enriched environments; by comparing groups that differed in one of their two environments, the individual and combinatorial effects of EE variables could be resolved. The Alternating EE paradigm revealed that (1 voluntary running for 3 days/week was sufficient to increase both mitotic and post-mitotic stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, confirming the central importance of exercise; (2 a complex environment (comprised of both social interactions and rotated inanimate objects had no effect on neurogenesis itself, but enhanced depolarization-induced c-Fos expression (attributable to social interactions and buffered stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels (attributable to inanimate objects; and (3 neither social isolation, group housing, nor chronically increased levels of plasma corticosterone had a prolonged impact on neurogenesis. Mouse strain, handling and type of running apparatus were tested and excluded as potential confounding factors. These findings provide valuable insights into the relative effects of key EE variables on adult neurogenesis, and this "Alternating EE" paradigm represents a useful tool for exploring the contributions of individual EE variables to mechanisms of neural plasticity.

  14. Is plasma GABA level a biomarker of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) severity? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousselard, Marion; Lefebvre, Bertrand; Caillet, Lionel; Andruetan, Yann; de Montleau, Franck; Denis, Josiane; Canini, Frédéric

    2016-07-30

    An increased reactivity to the environment is observed in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). It would be related to impairment of the Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) neurotransmission. The study aimed to evaluate plasma GABA concentration as a candidate for PTSD severity biomarker. This hypothesis was studied in 17 PTSD patients and 17 healthy Controls using classic and emotional Stroop paradigms. Plasma GABA concentrations were assessed before and after both Stroop tests to evaluate GABA basal tone and GABA reactivity (change in GABAp), respectively. During baseline, PTSD had lower plasma GABA concentrations than the Controls. After the Stroop conflicts GABA reactivity was also lower in PTSD than in the Controls. The GABA baseline tone was negatively correlated with the severity of the PTSD symptoms. This relation was only marginally observed for GABA reactivity. The results produced a trend due to the small size of the sample compared to the number of statistical results given. Altogether, the reduced GABA concentration observed in PTSD could be considered as a possible biomarker for PTSD severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dimensional depression severity in women with major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with fronto-amygdalar hypoconnectivty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, T D; Cook, P A; Bruce, S E; Conway, C; Mikkelsen, E; Satchell, E; Vandekar, S N; Durbin, T; Shinohara, R T; Sheline, Y I

    2016-07-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in multiple psychiatric disorders and are frequent sequelae of trauma. A dimensional conceptualization of depression suggests that symptoms should be associated with a continuum of deficits in specific neural circuits. However, most prior investigations of abnormalities in functional connectivity have typically focused on a single diagnostic category using hypothesis-driven seed-based analyses. Here, using a sample of 105 adult female participants from three diagnostic groups (healthy controls, n=17; major depression, n=38; and post-traumatic stress disorder, n=50), we examine the dimensional relationship between resting-state functional dysconnectivity and severity of depressive symptoms across diagnostic categories using a data-driven analysis (multivariate distance-based matrix regression). This connectome-wide analysis identified foci of dysconnectivity associated with depression severity in the bilateral amygdala. Follow-up seed analyses using subject-specific amygdala segmentations revealed that depression severity was associated with amygdalo-frontal hypo-connectivity in a network of regions including bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and anterior insula. In contrast, anxiety was associated with elevated connectivity between the amygdala and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, these results emphasize the centrality of the amygdala in the pathophysiology of depressive symptoms, and suggest that dissociable patterns of amygdalo-frontal dysconnectivity are a critical neurobiological feature across clinical diagnostic categories.

  16. Effect of NaCl-Stress on Metabolism of NO3-, NH4+ and NO2- at Several Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zulman Harja Utama

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NaCl-stress on metabolism of NO3-, NH4+ and NO2- at several rice varieties. The results showed that an addition of NaCl had lesser effect on NaCl-tolerant varieties as compared to NaCl-sensitive in term of reduction in NO3-, NH4+, and NO2- uptake. Rice adaptation ability to NaCl stress occurred through the mechanism of NO3-, NH4+, and N02- metabolism physiology. It was indicated by the difference concentration of NO3-, NH4+ and N02- between the tolerant (Cisadane, moderate (Batang Lembang, Rendah Kuning, and Batang Piaman and sensitive (IR 66 varieties. Concentration of NH4+ and N02- of tolerant rice (Cisadane at NaCl treatment were about 1.16 and 2.6 times higher than that at control, respectively, while concentration of NO3- was only 0.03 times lower than control. In contrast, concentration of NO3-, NH4+, and N02- of sensitive rice (IR 66, were about 0.09, 0.27, and 0.41 times lower than that in control respecting at NaCl treatment, respectively.

  17. Environmental stress-corrosion cracking of fiberglass: Lessons learned from failures in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.J.; Kytoemaa, H.K.; Smith, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) composite materials are often used to construct tanks, piping, scrubbers, beams, grating, and other components for use in corrosive environments. While FRP typically offers superior and cost effective corrosion resistance relative to other construction materials, the glass fibers traditionally used to provide the structural strength of the FRP can be susceptible to attack by the corrosive environment. The structural integrity of traditional FRP components in corrosive environments is usually dependent on the integrity of a corrosion-resistant barrier, such as a resin-rich layer containing corrosion resistant glass fibers. Without adequate protection, FRP components can fail under loads well below their design by an environmental stress-corrosion cracking (ESCC) mechanism when simultaneously exposed to mechanical stress and a corrosive chemical environment. Failure of these components can result in significant releases of hazardous substances into plants and the environment. In this paper, we present two case studies where fiberglass components failed due to ESCC at small chemical manufacturing facilities. As is often typical, the small chemical manufacturing facilities relied largely on FRP component suppliers to determine materials appropriate for the specific process environment and to repair damaged in-service components. We discuss the lessons learned from these incidents and precautions companies should take when interfacing with suppliers and other parties during the specification, design, construction, and repair of FRP components in order to prevent similar failures and chemical releases from occurring in the future

  18. A method for diagnosis of plant environmental stresses by gene expression profiling using a cDNA macroarray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaoki, Masanori; Matsuyama, Takashi; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2004-01-01

    Plants in the field are subjected to numerous environmental stresses. Lengthy continuation of such environmental stresses or a rapid increase in their intensity is harmful to vegetation. Assessments of the phytotoxicity of various stresses have been performed in many countries, although they have largely been based on estimates of leaf injury. We developed a novel method of detecting plant stresses that is more sensitive and specific than those previously available. This method is based on the detection of mRNA expression changes in 205 ozone-responsive Arabidopsis expressed sequence tags (ESTs) by cDNA macroarray analysis. By using this method, we illustrated shifts in gene expression in response to stressors such as drought, salinity, UV-B, low temperature, high temperature, and acid rain, as distinct from those in response to ozone. We also made a mini-scale macroarray with 12 ESTs for diagnosis of the above environmental stresses in plants. These results illustrate the potential of our cDNA macroarray for diagnosis of various stresses in plants

  19. Environmental factors and unhealthy lifestyle influence oxidative stress in humans--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sivasudha, T; Jeyadevi, R; Arul Ananth, D

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen is the most essential molecule for life; since it is a strong oxidizing agent, it can aggravate the damage within the cell by a series of oxidative events including the generation of free radicals. Antioxidative agents are the only defense mechanism to neutralize these free radicals. Free radicals are not only generated internally in our body system but also trough external sources like environmental pollution, toxic metals, cigarette smoke, pesticides, etc., which add damage to our body system. Inhaling these toxic chemicals in the environment has become unavoidable in modern civilization. Antioxidants of plant origin with free radical scavenging properties could have great importance as therapeutic agents in several diseases caused by environmental pollution. This review summarizes the generation of reactive oxygen species and damage to cells by exposure to external factors, unhealthy lifestyle, and role of herbal plants in scavenging these reactive oxygen species.

  20. Effects of timing and severity of salinity stress on rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield, grain composition, and starch functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitisaksakul, Maysaya; Tananuwong, Kanitha; Shoemaker, Charles F; Chun, Areum; Tanadul, Orn-u-ma; Labavitch, John M; Beckles, Diane M

    2015-03-04

    documents the specific response of rice under defined conditions, and illustrates that the plasticity of plant response to mild stress is complex and highly context-dependent, even under greenhouse conditions in which other potential environmental stress impacts are minimized.

  1. Quantification of nanoparticle release from polymer nanocomposite coatings due to environmental stressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Seok; Davis, Rick; Uddin, Nasir; Nyden, Marc; Rabb, Savelas A

    2016-01-01

    Certain engineered nanoparticles (ENP) reduce the flammability of components used in soft furnishings (mattresses and upholstered furniture). However, because of the ENP's small size and ability to interact with biological molecules, these fire retardant ENPs may pose a health and environmental risks, if they are released sometime during the life cycle of the soft furnishing. Quantifying the released amount of these ENPs under normal end-use circumstances provides a basis for assessing their potential health and environmental impact. In this article, we report on efforts to identify suitable methodologies for quantifying the release of carbon nanofibers, carbon nanotubes, and sodium montmorillonites from coatings applied to the surfaces of barrier fabric and polyurethane foam. The ENPs released in simulated chewing and mechanical stressing experiments were collected in aqueous solution and quantified using Ultraviolet-Visible and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The microstructures of the released ENPs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The reported methodology and results provide important milestones to estimate the impact and toxicity of the ENP release during the life cycle of the nanocomposites. To our knowledge, this is the first study of ENP release from the soft furnishing coating, something that can be important application area for fire safety.

  2. Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Prasanna; Schuler, Maureen E; Black, Maureen M; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna

    2003-09-01

    To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children's mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children's mental, motor and language development over time. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children's mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater inclination towards abusive and neglectful behavior

  3. Effects of environmental stress during pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.E.; Rhees, R.W.; Williams, S.R.; Kurth, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Prenatal stress applied during a presumed critical period (third trimester) for sexual differentiation of the brain has been shown to alter development and influence sexual behavior. This experiment was designed to study the effects of environmental stress (restraint/illumination/heat) on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers. These hormones were studied since corticosterone has been shown to alter brain differentiation and progesterone has anti-androgen properties and since the secretion of both from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers of both stressed and control gravid rats and their fetuses were measured on gestational days 18 and 20 by radioimmunoassay. Prenatal stress significantly reduced fetal body weight and fetal adrenal weight. Maternal pituitary weight was significantly increased. Prenatal stress caused a significant elevation in maternal corticosterone and progesterone titers and in fetal corticosterone titers. There was no difference between prenatal stressed and control fetal plasma progesterone levels. These data demonstrate that environmental stress significantly increases adrenal activity beyond that brought about naturally by pregnancy, and therefore may modify sequential hormonal events during fetal development

  4. Woodland recovery following drought-induced tree mortality across an environmental stress gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Miranda D; Cobb, Neil S; Clifford, Michael J; Barger, Nichole N

    2015-10-01

    Recent droughts and increasing temperatures have resulted in extensive tree mortality across the globe. Understanding the environmental controls on tree regeneration following these drought events will allow for better predictions of how these ecosystems may shift under a warmer, drier climate. Within the widely distributed piñon-juniper woodlands of the southwestern USA, a multiyear drought in 2002-2004 resulted in extensive adult piñon mortality and shifted adult woodland composition to a juniper-dominated, more savannah-type ecosystem. Here, we used pre- (1998-2001) and 10-year post- (2014) drought stand structure data of individually mapped trees at 42 sites to assess the effects of this drought on tree regeneration across a gradient of environmental stress. We found declines in piñon juvenile densities since the multiyear drought due to limited new recruitment and high (>50%) juvenile mortality. This is in contrast to juniper juvenile densities, which increased over this time period. Across the landscape, piñon recruitment was positively associated with live adult piñon densities and soil available water capacity, likely due to their respective effects on seed and water availability. Juvenile piñon survival was strongly facilitated by certain types of nurse trees and shrubs. These nurse plants also moderated the effects of environmental stress on piñon survival: Survival of interspace piñon juveniles was positively associated with soil available water capacity, whereas survival of nursed piñon juveniles was negatively associated with perennial grass cover. Thus, nurse plants had a greater facilitative effect on survival at sites with higher soil available water capacity and perennial grass cover. Notably, mean annual climatic water deficit and elevation were not associated with piñon recruitment or survival across the landscape. Our findings reveal a clear shift in successional trajectories toward a more juniper-dominated woodland and highlight the

  5. Psychopathological, biological, and neuroimaging characterization of posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors of a severe coalmining disaster in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.H.; Zhang, Z.J.; Tan, Q.R.; Yin, H.; Chen, Y.C.; Wang, H.N.; Zhang, R.G.; Wang, Z.Z.; Guo, L.; Tang, L.H.; Li, L.J. [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). School of Chinese Medicine

    2010-04-15

    On July 29, 2007, a severe coalmine-flooded disaster occurred in central China and 69 miners were trapped in an about 1400 m underground coal pit. Fortunately, all of them were rescued after 75 h of the ordeal. At 3 and 6 months after the disaster, psychopathological profiles, plasma levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated in 48 survivors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was performed at 6 months. The prevalence of PTSD was 35.4% (17/48) at 3 months and 31.3% (15/48) at 6 months post-disaster, with high rates of comorbid symptoms. Risk factors for PTSD included previous traumatic experience, less than 5 years of being a miner, in an extremely exhausted or sick during the disaster, poor interpersonal relationship and poor sleep quality experienced before the disaster. Mean plasma cortisol levels at 6 months, but not at 3 months, were significantly higher in PTSD-positive subjects than the negative, and positively correlated with the severity of several comorbid symptoms. Either whole or regional brain volumes of PTSD-positive subjects were not significantly different from PTSD-negative subjects, but PTSD subjects had significantly reduced fractional anisotropy values in the right posterior cingulum and bilateral hippocampal body compared to subjects without PTSD. These results suggest that traumatic exposure in severe coalmining disasters results in considerable psychological consequences, with highly prevalent PTSD and comorbid symptoms, which are associated with previous traumatic experience, shorter-length underground services, and poor interpersonal relationships and sleep quality experienced before the disaster. Baseline cortisol level may be a useful biological predictor for different phases of the development of PTSD. The aberrant connectivity of the hippocampus and the cingulum may represent an early pathological response to trauma exposure.

  6. Usefulness of an accelerated transoesophageal stress echocardiography in the preoperative evaluation of high risk severely obese subjects awaiting bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessier Michel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe obesity is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD. Bariatric surgery is an effective procedure for long term weight management as well as reduction of comorbidities. Preoperative evaluation of cardiac operative risk may often be necessary but unfortunately standard imaging techniques are often suboptimal in these subjects. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility, safety and utility of transesophageal dobutamine stress echocardiography (TE-DSE using an adapted accelerated dobutamine infusion protocol in severely obese subjects with comorbidities being evaluated for bariatric surgery for assessing the presence of myocardial ischemia. Methods Subjects with severe obesity [body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m2] with known or suspected CAD and being evaluated for bariatric surgery were recruited. Results Twenty subjects (9M/11F, aged 50 ± 8 years (mean ± SD, weighing 141 ± 21 kg and with a BMI of 50 ± 5 kg/m2 were enrolled in the study and underwent a TE-DSE. The accelerated dobutamine infusion protocol used was well tolerated. Eighteen (90% subjects reached their target heart rate with a mean intubation time of 13 ± 4 minutes. Mean dobutamine dose was 31.5 ± 9.9 ug/kg/min while mean atropine dose was 0.5 ± 0.3 mg. TE-DSE was well tolerated by all subjects without complications including no significant arrhythmia, hypotension or reduction in blood arterial saturation. Two subjects had abnormal TE-DSE suggestive of myocardial ischemia. All patients underwent bariatric surgery with no documented cardiovascular complications. Conclusions TE-DSE using an accelerated infusion protocol is a safe and well tolerated imaging technique for the evaluation of suspected myocardial ischemia and cardiac operative risk in severely obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery. Moreover, the absence of myocardial ischemia on TE-DSE correlates well with a low operative risk of cardiac event.

  7. Incremental value of contrast myocardial perfusion to detect intermediate versus severe coronary artery stenosis during stress-echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to compare the incremental value of contrast myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI for the detection of intermediate versus severe coronary artery stenosis during dipyridamole-atropine echocardiography (DASE. Wall motion (WM assessment during stress-echocardiography demonstrates suboptimal sensitivity to detect coronary artery disease (CAD, particularly in patients with isolated intermediate (50%-70% coronary stenosis. Methods We performed DASE with MPI in 150 patients with a suspected chest pain syndrome who were given clinical indication to coronary angiography. Results and discussion When CAD was defined as the presence of a ≥50% stenosis, the addition of MPI increased sensitivity (+30% and decreased specificity (-14%, with a final increase in total diagnostic accuracy (+16%, p Conclusions The addition of MPI on top of WM analysis during DASE increases the diagnostic sensitivity to detect obstructive CAD, whatever its definition (≥50% or > 70% stenosis, but it is mainly driven by the sensitivity increase in the intermediate group (50%-70% stenosis. The total diagnostic accuracy increased only when defining CAD as ≥50% stenosis, since in patients with severe stenosis (> 70% the decrease in specificity is not counterbalanced by the minor sensitivity increase.

  8. Explicit formula of finite difference method to estimate human peripheral tissue temperatures during exposure to severe cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, M A; Hussain, Fida

    2015-02-01

    During cold exposure, peripheral tissues undergo vasoconstriction to minimize heat loss to preserve the maintenance of a normal core temperature. However, vasoconstricted tissues exposed to cold temperatures are susceptible to freezing and frostbite-related tissue damage. Therefore, it is imperative to establish a mathematical model for the estimation of tissue necrosis due to cold stress. To this end, an explicit formula of finite difference method has been used to obtain the solution of Pennes' bio-heat equation with appropriate boundary conditions to estimate the temperature profiles of dermal and subdermal layers when exposed to severe cold temperatures. The discrete values of nodal temperature were calculated at the interfaces of skin and subcutaneous tissues with respect to the atmospheric temperatures of 25 °C, 20 °C, 15 °C, 5 °C, -5 °C and -10 °C. The results obtained were used to identify the scenarios under which various degrees of frostbite occur on the surface of skin as well as the dermal and subdermal areas. The explicit formula of finite difference method proposed in this model provides more accurate predictions as compared to other numerical methods. This model of predicting tissue temperatures provides researchers with a more accurate prediction of peripheral tissue temperature and, hence, the susceptibility to frostbite during severe cold exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A study of effects of hyperthermia on large, short-haired male dogs : a simulated air transport environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    When dogs are shipped by air transport, they can encounter environmental temperatures as high as 130.0 F during the summer months. Heat- induced hyperthermia can be a major problem in dogs. : To assess some aspects of the heat stress problem, 20 dogs...

  10. Selective environmental stress from sulphur emitted by continental flood basalt eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; Skeffington, Richard; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Self, Stephen; Forster, Piers; Rap, Alexandru; Ridgwell, Andy; Fowler, David; Wilson, Marjorie; Mann, Graham; Wignall, Paul; Carslaw, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Several biotic crises during the past 300 million years have been linked to episodes of continental flood basalt volcanism, and in particular to the release of massive quantities of magmatic sulphur gas species. Flood basalt provinces were typically formed by numerous individual eruptions, each lasting years to decades. However, the environmental impact of these eruptions may have been limited by the occurrence of quiescent periods that lasted hundreds to thousands of years. Here we use a global aerosol model to quantify the sulphur-induced environmental effects of individual, decade-long flood basalt eruptions representative of the Columbia River Basalt Group, 16.5-14.5 million years ago, and the Deccan Traps, 65 million years ago. For a decade-long eruption of Deccan scale, we calculate a decadal-mean reduction in global surface temperature of 4.5 K, which would recover within 50 years after an eruption ceased unless climate feedbacks were very different in deep-time climates. Acid mists and fogs could have caused immediate damage to vegetation in some regions, but acid-sensitive land and marine ecosystems were well-buffered against volcanic sulphur deposition effects even during century-long eruptions. We conclude that magmatic sulphur from flood basalt eruptions would have caused a biotic crisis only if eruption frequencies and lava discharge rates had been high and sustained for several centuries at a time.

  11. Environmental Sustainability of Agriculture Stressed by Changing Extremes of Drought and Excess Moisture: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Wheaton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the climate changes, the effects of agriculture on the environment may change. In the future, an increasing frequency of climate extremes, such as droughts, heat waves, and excess moisture, is expected. Past research on the interaction between environment and resources has focused on climate change effects on various sectors, including agricultural production (especially crop production, but research on the effects of climate change using agri-environmental indicators (AEI of environmental sustainability of agriculture is limited. The aim of this paper was to begin to address this knowledge gap by exploring the effects of future drought and excess moisture on environmental sustainability of agriculture. Methods included the use of a conceptual framework, literature reviews, and an examination of the climate sensitivities of the AEI models. The AEIs assessed were those for the themes of soil and water quality, and farmland management as developed by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Additional indicators included one for desertification and another for water supply and demand. The study area was the agricultural region of the Canadian Prairie Provinces. We found that the performance of several indicators would likely decrease in a warming climate with more extremes. These indicators with declining performances included risks for soil erosion, soil salinization, desertification, water quality and quantity, and soil contamination. Preliminary trends of other indicators such as farmland management were not clear. AEIs are important tools for measuring climate impacts on the environmental sustainability of agriculture. They also indicate the success of adaptation measures and suggest areas of operational and policy development. Therefore, continued reporting and enhancement of these indicators is recommended.

  12. Increased oxidative stress and severe arterial remodeling induced by permanent high-flow challenge in experimental pulmonary hypertension

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    Fadel Elie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involvement of inflammation in pulmonary hypertension (PH has previously been demonstrated and recently, immune-modulating dendritic cells (DCs infiltrating arterial lesions in patients suffering from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH and in experimental monocrotaline-induced PH have been reported. Occurrence of perivascular inflammatory cells could be linked to local increase of oxidative stress (OS, as it has been shown for systemic atherosclerosis. The impact of OS on vascular remodeling in PH is still to be determined. We hypothesized, that augmented blood-flow could increase OS and might thereby contribute to DC/inflammatory cell-recruitment and smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation. Methods We applied a monocrotaline-induced PH-model and combined it with permanent flow-challenge. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to following groups: control, monocrotaline-exposure (MCT, monocrotaline-exposure/pneumonectomy (MCT/PE. Results Hemodynamic exploration demonstrated most severe effects in MCT/PE, corresponding in histology to exuberant medial and adventitial remodeling of pulmonary muscular arteries, and intimal remodeling of smaller arterioles; lung-tissue PCR evidenced increased expression of DCs-specific fascin, CD68, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, RANTES, fractalkine in MCT/PE and to a lesser extent in MCT. Major OS enzyme NOX-4 was maximal in MCT/PE. Antioxidative stress enzymes Mn-SOD and glutathion-peroxidase-1 were significantly elevated, while HO-1 showed maximal expression in MCT with significant decrease in MCT/PE. Catalase was decreased in MCT and MCT/PE. Expression of NOX-4, but also of MN-SOD in MCT/PE was mainly attributed to a highly increased number of interstitial and perivascular CXCR4/SDF1 pathway-recruited mast-cells. Stress markers malonedialdehyde and nitrotyrosine were produced in endothelial cells, medial smooth muscle and perivascular leucocytes of hypertensive vasculature

  13. Validation of Environmental Stress Index by Measuring Infrared Radiation as a Substitute for Solar Radiation in Indoor Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Habibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The exposure of individuals to heat at different jobs warrants the use of heat stress evaluation indices. Objectives The aim of this study was to validate environmental stress index using an infrared radiation (IR measurement instrument as a substitute for pyranometer in indoor workplaces. Methods This study was conducted on 2303 indoor workstations in different industries in Isfahan, Iran, during July, August, and September in 2012. The intensity of the Infrared Radiation (IR (w/m2 was measured at five-centimeter distances in six different directions, above, opposite, right, left, behind and below the globe thermometer. Then, the dry globe temperature (Ta, wet globe temperature (Tnw, globe temperature (Tg and relative humidity (RH were also simultaneously measured. The data were analyzed using correlation and regression by the SPSS18 software. Results The study results indicate that a high correlation (r = 0.96 exists between the environmental stress index (ESI and the values of wet bulb globe temperature (P < 0.01. According to the following equation, WBGT = 1.086 × ESI - 1.846, the environmental stress index is able to explain 91% (R2 = 0.91 of the WBGT index variations (P < 0.01. Conclusions Based on the results, to study heat stress in indoor workplaces when the WBGT measurement instrument is not available and also in short-term exposures (shorter than 30 minutes when measuring the wet bulb globe temperature shows a considerable error, it is possible to calculate the environmental stress index and accordingly to the WBGT index, by measuring the parameters of dry bulb temperature (Ta, relative humidity (RH, and infrared radiation intensity that can be easily measured in a short time.

  14. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, Victoria A.; Mench, Joy A.

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  15. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica, as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Cussen

    Full Text Available Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica. We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can

  16. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  17. Behavioural stress responses predict environmental perception in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, Sandie; Cerqueira, Marco; Castanheira, Maria-Filipa; Overli, Oyvind; Oliveira, Rui F; Martins, Catarina I M

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation in the response to environmental challenges depends partly on innate reaction norms, partly on experience-based cognitive/emotional evaluations that individuals make of the situation. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing differences in behaviour predict the outcome of such assessment of environmental cues, using a conditioned place preference/avoidance (CPP/CPA) paradigm. A comparative vertebrate model (European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax) was used, and ninety juvenile individuals were initially screened for behavioural reactivity using a net restraining test. Thereafter each individual was tested in a choice tank using net chasing as aversive stimulus or exposure to familiar conspecifics as appetitive stimulus in the preferred or non preferred side respectively (called hereafter stimulation side). Locomotor behaviour (i.e. time spent, distance travelled and swimming speed in each tank side) of each individual was recorded and analysed with video software. The results showed that fish which were previously exposed to appetitive stimulus increased significantly the time spent on the stimulation side, while aversive stimulus led to a strong decrease in time spent on the stimulation side. Moreover, this study showed clearly that proactive fish were characterised by a stronger preference for the social stimulus and when placed in a putative aversive environment showed a lower physiological stress responses than reactive fish. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time in sea bass, that the CPP/CPA paradigm can be used to assess the valence (positive vs. negative) that fish attribute to different stimuli and that individual behavioural traits is predictive of how stimuli are perceived and thus of the magnitude of preference or avoidance behaviour.

  18. Methylphenidate and environmental enrichment ameliorate the deleterious effects of prenatal stress on attention functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubedat, Salman; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Ritter, Ami; Nachmani, Maayan; Avital, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Either pre- or post-natal environmental factors seem to play a key role in brain and behavioral development and to exert long-term effects. Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal stress (PS) leads to motor and learning deficits and elevated anxiety, while enriched environment (EE) shows protective effects. The dopaminergic system is also sensitive to environmental life circumstances and affects attention functioning, which serves as the preliminary gate to cognitive processes. However, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the dopaminergic system and attentional functioning, in the context of these life experiences, remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of EE or PS on distinct types of attention, along with possible effects of MPH exposure. We found that PS impaired selective attention as well as partial sustained attention, while EE had beneficial effects. Both EE and MPH ameliorated the deleterious effects of PS on attention functioning. Considering the possible psychostimulant effect of MPH, we examined both anxiety-like behavior as well as motor learning. We found that PS had a clear anxiogenic effect, whereas EE had an anxiolytic effect. Nevertheless, the treatment with both MPH and/or EE recovered the deleterious effects of PS. In the motor-learning task, the PS group showed superior performance while MPH led to impaired motor learning. Performance decrements were prevented in both the PS + MPH and EE + MPH groups. This study provides evidence that peripubertal exposure to EE (by providing enhanced sensory, motor, and social opportunities) or MPH treatments might be an optional therapeutic intervention in preventing the PS long-term adverse consequences.

  19. Interacting Environmental Stress Factors Affects Targeted Metabolomic Profiles in Stored Natural Wheat and That Inoculated with F. graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Garcia-Cela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in environmental stress impact on secondary metabolite (SM production profiles. Few studies have examined targeted SM production patterns in relation to interacting environmental conditions in stored cereals. The objectives were to examine the effect of water activity (aw; 0.95–0.90 x temperature (10–25 °C on SM production on naturally contaminated stored wheat and that inoculated with Fusarium graminearum. Samples were analysed using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS on (a total number of known SMs, (b their concentrations and (c changes under environmental stress. 24 Fusarium metabolites were quantified. Interestingly, statistical differences (ChisSq., p < 0.001 were observed in the number of SMs produced under different sets of interacting environmental conditions. The dominant metabolites in natural stored grain were deoxynivalenol (DON and nivalenol (NIV followed by a range of enniatins (A, A1, B, B1, apicidin and DON-3-glucoside at 10 °C. Increasing temperature promoted the biosynthesis of other SMs such as aurofusarin, moniliformin, zearalenone (ZEN and their derivatives. Natural wheat + F. graminearum inoculation resulted in a significant increase in the number of metabolites produced (ChisSq., p < 0.001. For ZEN and its derivatives, more was produced under cooler storage conditions. Fusarin C was enhanced in contrast to that for the enniatin group. The relative ratios of certain groups of targeted SM changed with environmental stress. Both temperature and aw affected the amounts of metabolites present, especially of DON and ZEN. This study suggests that the dominant SMs produced in stored temperate cereals are the mycotoxins for which legislation exists. However, there are changes in the ratios of key metabolites which could influence the relative contamination with individual compounds. Thus, in the future, under more extreme environmental stresses, different dominant SMs may be formed which could

  20. Illness perceptions and stress: mediators between disease severity and psychological well-being and quality of life among patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maochen; Hong, Liwen; Zhang, Tianyu; Lin, Yun; Zheng, Sichang; Zhou, Xiaolin; Fan, Rong; Wang, Zhengting; Zhang, Chenli; Zhong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Disease severity, illness perceptions, coping strategies, stress, psychological well-being, and quality of life were reported to have close relationships. According to the Common Sense Model, illness perceptions and coping strategies could mediate the relationship between illness stimuli and illness outcomes such as psychological health and quality of life. Stress was also associated with the individual's disease severity, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. The study aimed to explore the influencing factors of illness outcomes, and to what extent illness perceptions, coping strategies, and stress mediate the relationship between disease severity and anxiety, and depression and quality of life. Our study included 159 patients with Crohn's disease who were attending a tertiary hospital outpatient clinic or who were hospitalized. Disease severity was measured with the Crohn's Disease Activity Index. Illness perceptions were measured with the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire. Coping strategies were measured with the Carver Brief Coping Questionnaire. Stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. Anxiety and depression were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Quality of life was measured with the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire. Disease severity, illness perceptions, maladaptive coping, stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life were significantly correlated with each other among patients with Crohn's disease. Using structural equation modeling to describe the inner relationship of the aforementioned variables, an excellent-fitted model was drawn. ( χ 2 [10]=13.83, P =0.18, χ 2 /N=1.38, standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] 0.97, comparative fit index [CFI] >0.99). Disease severity had a direct influence on illness perceptions. Illness perceptions had a direct influence on stress. Both illness perceptions and stress had direct influences on anxiety, depression, and quality of life, while

  1. Studies of marine macroalgae: saline desert water cultivation and effects of environmental stress on proximate composition. Final subcontract report. [Gracilaria tikvahiae; Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Peterson, J.E.

    1985-11-01

    The results presented in this report address the growth potential of marine macroalgae cultivated in desert saline waters, and the effects of certain environmental stresses (e.g., nitrogen, salinity, and temperature) on the proximate composition of several marine macroalgae. Two major desert saline water types were assayed for their ability to support the growth of Gracilaria, Ulva, and Caulerpa. Both water types supported short term growth, but long term growth was not supported. Carbohydrate levels in Gracilaria were increased by cultivation under conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and low nitrogen and phosphorous availability. Data suggests that it may be possible to maximize production of useful proximate constituents by cultivating the algae under optimum conditions for growth, and then holding the resulting biomass under the environmental conditions which favor tissue accumulation of the desired storage products. 16 refs., 21 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  3. Acetonic and Methanolic Extracts of Heterotheca inuloides, and Quercetin, Decrease CCl4-Oxidative Stress in Several Rat Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Huerta-Gertrudis, Bernardino; García-Cruz, Mercedes Edna; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Sánchez-González, Dolores Javier; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the acetonic and methanolic extracts of H. inuloides prevent carbon tetrachloride-(CCl4) induced oxidative stress in vital tissues. Pretreatment with both H. inuloides extracts or quercetin attenuated the increase in serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (BB), creatinine (CRE), and creatine kinase (CK), and impeded the decrease of γ-globulin (γ-GLOB) and albumin (ALB) observed in CCl4-induced tissue injury. The protective effect was confirmed by histological analysis with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid/Schiff's reagent. Level of lipid peroxidation was higher in the organs of rats exposed to CCl4 than in those of the animals treated with Heterohteca extracts or quercetin, and these showed levels similar to the untreated group. Pretreatment of animals with either of the extracts or quercetin also prevented the increase of 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine. Pretreatment with the plant extracts or quercetin attenuated CCl4 toxic effects on the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. The present results strongly suggest that the chemopreventive effect of the extracts used and quercetin, against CCl4 toxicity, is associated with their antioxidant properties and corroborated previous results obtained in liver tissue. PMID:23365610

  4. Detecting drawdowns masked by environmental stresses with water-level models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C.A.; Halford, K.J.; Fenelon, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and quantifying small drawdown at observation wells distant from the pumping well greatly expands the characterized aquifer volume. However, this detection is often obscured by water level fluctuations such as barometric and tidal effects. A reliable analytical approach for distinguishing drawdown from nonpumping water-level fluctuations is presented and tested here. Drawdown is distinguished by analytically simulating all pumping and nonpumping water-level stresses simultaneously during the period of record. Pumping signals are generated with Theis models, where the pumping schedule is translated into water-level change with the Theis solution. This approach closely matched drawdowns simulated with a complex three-dimensional, hypothetical model and reasonably estimated drawdowns from an aquifer test conducted in a complex hydrogeologic system. Pumping-induced changes generated with a numerical model and analytical Theis model agreed (RMS as low as 0.007 m) in cases where pumping signals traveled more than 1 km across confining units and fault structures. Maximum drawdowns of about 0.05 m were analytically estimated from field investigations where environmental fluctuations approached 0.2 m during the analysis period.

  5. Fitness and virulence of a bacterial endoparasite in an environmentally stressed crustacean host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; De Meester, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Host-parasite interactions are shaped by the co-evolutionary arms race of parasite virulence, transmission success as well as host resistance and recovery. The virulence and fitness of parasites may depend on host condition, which is mediated, for instance, by host energy constraints. Here, we investigated to what extent stress imposed by predation threat and environmental pollutants influences host-parasite interactions. We challenged the crustacean host Daphnia magna with the sterilizing bacterial endoparasite Pasteuria ramosa and simultaneously exposed the host to fish kairomones, the pesticide carbaryl or both stressors. While parasite virulence, measured as impact on host mortality and sterilization, increased markedly after short-term pesticide exposure, it was not influenced by predation threat. Parasite fitness, measured in terms of produced transmission stages, decreased both in fish and pesticide treatments. This effect was much stronger under predation threat than carbaryl exposure, and was attributable to reduced somatic growth of the host, presumably resulting in fewer resources for parasite development. While the indirect impact of both stressors on spore loads provides evidence for host condition-dependent parasite fitness, the finding of increased virulence only under carbaryl exposure indicates a stronger physiological impact of the neurotoxic chemical compared with the effect of a non-toxic fish kairomone.

  6. A Non-canonical Melanin Biosynthesis Pathway Protects Aspergillus terreus Conidia from Environmental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Elena; Gressler, Markus; Viediernikova, Iuliia; Hillmann, Falk; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Nietzsche, Sandor; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias

    2016-05-19

    Melanins are ubiquitous pigments found in all kingdoms of life. Most organisms use them for protection from environmental stress, although some fungi employ melanins as virulence determinants. The human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and related Ascomycetes produce dihydroxynaphthalene- (DHN) melanin in their spores, the conidia, and use it to inhibit phagolysosome acidification. However, biosynthetic origin of melanin in a related fungus, Aspergillus terreus, has remained a mystery because A. terreus lacks genes for synthesis of DHN-melanin. Here we identify genes coding for an unusual NRPS-like enzyme (MelA) and a tyrosinase (TyrP) that A. terreus expressed under conidiation conditions. We demonstrate that MelA produces aspulvinone E, which is activated for polymerization by TyrP. Functional studies reveal that this new pigment, Asp-melanin, confers resistance against UV light and hampers phagocytosis by soil amoeba. Unexpectedly, Asp-melanin does not inhibit acidification of phagolysosomes, thus likely contributing specifically to survival of A. terreus conidia in acidic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radish (Raphanus sativus L) - a model for studying plant responses to air pollutants and other environmental stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostkarick, R.; Manning, W.J. (Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Sudwest, Filderstadt (Germany). Fachgruppe fuer Oekologie)

    1993-01-01

    The use of [ital Raphanus sativus L.] as a model crop for studies on plant response to environmental stresses is reviewed with emphasis on the effects of different atmospheric pollutants (O[sub 3], SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2], acidic precipitation) and their combinations. Responses to temperature, light supply, water stress, and atmospheric CO[sub 2] are also studied and discussed. In addition, the references reviewed are evaluated in terms of their experimental protocols on growth conditions and recommendations for optimal ranges of environmental and cultural variables, i.e. light, temperature, nutrient supply are given. Its distinct pattern of biomass partitioning, the small dimensions along with short and easy culture make radish an excellent experimental plant. The fleshy below-ground storage organ, formed by the hypocotyl and upper radicle, acts as the major sink during vegetative development. Abundant assimilate supply due to elevated levels of CO[sub 2] along with high irradiation frequently promote hypocotyl growth more than shoot growth, whereas under conditions of stress shoot growth is maintained at the expense of the hypocotyl. This makes the hypocotyl:shoot ratio of radish a very sensitive and suitable indicator for various environmental stresses. Potential weaknesses and short-comings of radish in its role as a model crop, particularly the high variability of injury and growth responses, are discussed along with possible solutions. Future research needs are derived from the summarized results presented and from some disparities among findings within the literature reviewed.

  8. In vitro shear stress measurements using particle image velocimetry in a family of carotid artery models: effect of stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity, and ulceration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kefayati

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic disease, and the subsequent complications of thrombosis and plaque rupture, has been associated with local shear stress. In the diseased carotid artery, local variations in shear stress are induced by various geometrical features of the stenotic plaque. Greater stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity (symmetry and plaque ulceration have been associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular events based on clinical trial studies. Using particle image velocimetry, the levels and patterns of shear stress (derived from both laminar and turbulent phases were studied for a family of eight matched-geometry models incorporating independently varied plaque features - i.e. stenosis severity up to 70%, one of two forms of plaque eccentricity, and the presence of plaque ulceration. The level of laminar (ensemble-averaged shear stress increased with increasing stenosis severity resulting in 2-16 Pa for free shear stress (FSS and approximately double (4-36 Pa for wall shear stress (WSS. Independent of stenosis severity, marked differences were found in the distribution and extent of shear stress between the concentric and eccentric plaque formations. The maximum WSS, found at the apex of the stenosis, decayed significantly steeper along the outer wall of an eccentric model compared to the concentric counterpart, with a 70% eccentric stenosis having 249% steeper decay coinciding with the large outer-wall recirculation zone. The presence of ulceration (in a 50% eccentric plaque resulted in both elevated FSS and WSS levels that were sustained longer (∼20 ms through the systolic phase compared to the non-ulcerated counterpart model, among other notable differences. Reynolds (turbulent shear stress, elevated around the point of distal jet detachment, became prominent during the systolic deceleration phase and was widely distributed over the large recirculation zone in the eccentric stenoses.

  9. One stimulus-Two responses: Host and parasite life-history variation in response to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichsner, Alyssa M; Cleveland, Jessica A; Minchella, Dennis J

    2016-11-01

    Climate change stressors will place different selective pressures on both parasites and their hosts, forcing individuals to modify their life-history strategies and altering the distribution and prevalence of disease. Few studies have investigated whether parasites are able to respond to host stress and respond by varying their reproductive schedules. Additionally, multiple environmental stressors can limit the ability of a host to respond adaptively to parasite infection. This study compared both host and parasite life-history parameters in unstressed and drought-stressed environments using the human parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, in its freshwater snail intermediate host. Snail hosts infected with the parasite demonstrated a significant reproductive burst during the prepatent period (fecundity compensation), but that response was absent in a drought-stressed environment. This is the first report of the elimination of host fecundity compensation to parasitism when exposed to additional environmental stress. More surprisingly, we found that infections in drought-stressed snails had significantly higher parasite reproductive outputs than infections in unstressed snails. The finding suggests that climate change may alter the infection dynamics of this human parasite. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Effects of biomarkers of oxidative stress damage on prevalence and severity of visual disability among black Central Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Muaka, M Mvitu; Yokobo, E Cibanda; Phemba, I Longo; Mokondjimobe, E; Gombet, T; Ndembe, D Kibokela; Mona, D Tulomba; Masamba, S Wayiza

    2012-01-01

    Because of the demographic transition, lifestyle changes, urbanization, and nutrition transition, Central Africans are at higher risk of ocular diseases associated with oxidative stress and visual disability. This study aimed to estimate the normal values of oxidant status defined by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), 8-Isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and to determine their pathogenic role in the prevalence and the severity of visual disability among these black Africans. This was a cross-sectional study, run in a case-control study randomly selected from Kinshasa province, DR Congo. The study included 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (cases) matched for sex and age to 50 healthy non diabetic controls. Logistic regression models were used to identify independent determinants of visual disability. The presence rates were 8.5% for blindness, 20.5% for visual impairment and 29% for visual disability including blindness and visual impairment. After adjusted for taro leaves intake, red beans intake, T2DM, aging, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, we identified low education level (OR=3.3 95%CI 1.5-7.2; p=0.003), rural-urban migration (OR=2.6 95% CI 1.2-5.6; p=0.017), and high Ox-LDL (OR=2.3 95% CI 1.1-4.7; p=0.029) as the important independent determinants of visual disability. After adjusted for education, intake of red beans, intake of taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of safou fruit (OR=50.7 95% CI 15.2-168.5; pvisual disability. After adjusted for education level, no intake of red beans, no intake of Taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of Safou fruit (OR=43.1 95% CI 13.7-135.4; pvisual disability. Visual disability remains a public health problem in Central Africa. Antioxidant supplement, fruit intake, nutrition education, control of migration, and blocking of oxidative stress are crucial steps for delayed development of vision loss.

  11. Short-term environmental enrichment is sufficient to counter stress-induced anxiety and associated structural and molecular plasticity in basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokan, Archana; Hegde, Akshaya; Mitra, Rupshi

    2016-07-01

    Moderate levels of anxiety enable individual animals to cope with stressors through avoidance, and could be an adaptive trait. However, repeated stress exacerbates anxiety to pathologically high levels. Dendritic remodeling in the basolateral amygdala is proposed to mediate potentiation of anxiety after stress. Similarly, modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor is thought to be important for the behavioral effects of stress. In the present study, we investigate if relatively short periods of environmental enrichment in adulthood can confer resilience against stress-induced anxiety and concomitant changes in neuronal arborisation and brain derived neurotrophic factor within basolateral amygdala. Two weeks of environmental enrichment countermanded the propensity of increased anxiety following chronic immobilization stress. Environmental enrichment concurrently reduced dendritic branching and spine density of projection neurons of the basolateral amygdala. Moreover, stress increased abundance of BDNF mRNA in the basolateral amygdala in agreement with the dendritic hypertrophy post-stress and role of BDNF in promoting dendritic arborisation. In contrast, environmental enrichment prevented stress-induced rise in the BDNF mRNA abundance. Gain in body weights and adrenal weights remained unaffected by exposure to environmental enrichment. These observations suggest that a short period of environmental enrichment can provide resilience against maladaptive effects of stress on hormonal, neuronal and molecular mediators of anxiogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Influence of Test-Based Accountability Policies on Early Elementary Teachers: School Climate, Environmental Stress, and Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Elina; Segool, Natasha; Pendergast, Laura; von der Embse, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the potential influence of test-based accountability policies on school environment and teacher stress among early elementary teachers. Structural equation modeling of data from 541 kindergarten through second grade teachers across three states found that use of student performance on high-stakes tests to evaluate teachers…

  13. The sequential pathway between trauma-related symptom severity and cognitive-based smoking processes through perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies among trauma exposed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garey, Lorra; Cheema, Mina K; Otal, Tanveer K; Schmidt, Norman B; Neighbors, Clayton; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Smoking rates are markedly higher among trauma-exposed individuals relative to non-trauma-exposed individuals. Extant work suggests that both perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies are independent mechanisms that link trauma-related symptoms and smoking. Yet, no work has examined perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies as potential explanatory variables for the relation between trauma-related symptom severity and smoking in a sequential pathway model. Methods The present study utilized a sample of treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed smokers (n = 363; 49.0% female) to examine perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies for smoking as potential sequential explanatory variables linking trauma-related symptom severity and nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of withdrawal-related problems and symptoms during past quit attempts. As hypothesized, perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies had a significant sequential indirect effect on trauma-related symptom severity and criterion variables. Findings further elucidate the complex pathways through which trauma-related symptoms contribute to smoking behavior and cognitions, and highlight the importance of addressing perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies in smoking cessation programs among trauma-exposed individuals. (Am J Addict 2016;25:565-572). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  14. Immigration Stress and Alcohol Use Severity Among Recently Immigrated Hispanic Adults: Examining Moderating Effects of Gender, Immigration Status, and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez, Mariana; Trepka, Mary Jo; Dillon, Frank R; Sheehan, Diana M; Rojas, Patria; Kanamori, Mariano J; Huang, Hui; Auf, Rehab; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-03-01

    Identifying and understanding determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic immigrants is an increasingly significant public health concern. Although prior research has examined associations of cultural stressors with alcohol use among Hispanics, few studies have tested these associations among recent adult immigrants. As such, this study aimed to examine (a) the association of immigration stress on alcohol use severity among recently immigrated Hispanic adults (≤ 1 year in the United States) and (b) the moderating effects of gender, immigration status, and social support. A hierarchical multiple regression and moderation analyses were conducted on a sample of 527 participants in South Florida. Results indicated that, after controlling for demographic variables, preimmigration drinking behavior, and dimensions of social support, the association of higher immigration stress with higher alcohol use severity was statistically significant. Moderation analyses indicated that immigration stress had a statistically significant association with alcohol use severity among men, but not women. Also, dimensions of social support consistently reduced the deleterious effect of immigration stress on alcohol use severity. This study adds to the scarce literature on cultural stressors and alcohol use among recent Hispanic immigrants. Findings suggest that it may be important to design gender-specific interventions and that increasing levels of social support may offset the effects of immigration stress on alcohol use. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Haemophilus parasuis CpxRA two-component system confers bacterial tolerance to environmental stresses and macrolide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qi; Feng, Fenfen; Wang, Huan; Xu, Xiaojuan; Chen, Huanchun; Cai, Xuwang; Wang, Xiangru

    2018-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is an opportunistic pathogen localized in the upper respiratory tracts of pigs, its infection begins from bacterial survival under complex conditions, like hyperosmosis, oxidative stress, phagocytosis, and sometimes antibiotics as well. The two-component signal transduction (TCST) system serves as a common stimulus-response mechanism that allows microbes to sense and respond to diverse environmental conditions via a series of phosphorylation reactions. In this study, we investigated the role of TCST system CpxRA in H. parasuis in response to different environmental stimuli by constructing the ΔcpxA and ΔcpxR single deletion mutants as well as the ΔcpxRA double deletion mutant from H. parasuis serotype 4 isolate JS0135. We demonstrated that H. parasuis TCST system CpxRA confers bacterial tolerance to stresses and bactericidal antibiotics. The CpxR was found to play essential roles in mediating oxidative stress, osmotic stresses and alkaline pH stress tolerance, as well as macrolide resistance (i.e. erythromycin), but the CpxA deletion did not decrease bacterial resistance to abovementioned stresses. Moreover, we found via RT-qPCR approach that HAPS_RS00160 and HAPS_RS09425, both encoding multidrug efflux pumps, were significantly decreased in erythromycin challenged ΔcpxR and ΔcpxRA mutants compared with wild-type strain JS0135. These findings characterize the role of the TCST system CpxRA in H. parasuis conferring stress response tolerance and bactericidal resistance, which will deepen our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism in H. parasuis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Adolescent environmental enrichment prevents behavioral and physiological sequelae of adolescent chronic stress in female (but not male) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brittany L; Morano, Rachel L; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Myers, Brent; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P

    2017-11-22

    The late adolescent period is characterized by marked neurodevelopmental and endocrine fluctuations in the transition to early adulthood. Adolescents are highly responsive to the external environment, which enhances their ability to adapt and recover from challenges when given nurturing influences, but also makes them vulnerable to aberrant development when exposed to prolonged adverse situations. Female rats are particularly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress in adolescence, which manifests as passive coping strategies and blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) stress responses in adulthood. We sought to intervene by exposing adolescent rats to environmental enrichment (EE) immediately prior to and during chronic stress, hypothesizing that EE would minimize or prevent the long-term effects of stress that emerge in adult females. To test this, we exposed male and female rats to EE on postnatal days (PND) 33-60 and implemented chronic variable stress (CVS) on PND 40-60. CVS consisted of twice-daily unpredictable stressors. Experimental groups included: CVS/unenriched, unstressed/EE, CVS/EE and unstressed/unenriched (n = 10 of each sex/group). In adulthood, we measured behavior in the open field test and forced swim test (FST) and collected blood samples following the FST. We found that environmental enrichment given during the adolescent period prevented the chronic stress-induced transition to passive coping in the FST and reversed decreases in peak adrenocortical responsiveness observed in adult females. Adolescent enrichment had little to no effect on males or unstressed females tested in adulthood, indicating that beneficial effects are specific to females that were exposed to chronic stress.

  17. Effect of Drought Stress on Water Use Efficiency and Its Components in Several Genotypes and Cultivars of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khazaei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction According to NASA reports about atmospheric earth conditions, in the 30 years later, 45 countries will face with severe droughts and Iran is in the fourth place in this list. Water shortage is one of the most important limiting factors of production that affects plants growth by changing physiological conditions. Using adapted plants is a proper strategy to deal with the effects of water shortage on the status of water restrictions. Foxtail millet is a C4 plant with good compatibility to dry areas and it has high water use efficiency. In medium stress partial stomata closure reduces transpiration more than photosynthesis in this plant and as a result, increase water use efficiency. Materials and Methods This experiment was carried out as split-plot layout based on randomized complete blocks design with four replications at the Agricultural Research Station, University of Birjand in 2014-2015. The main factor was drought stress in three levels including 100, 75 and 50 percent of plant water requirement (no stress as control, moderate stress and severe stress, respectively and the sub-factor was millet genotype in three levels (including Bastan, KFM5 and KFM20. At four leaf stage, 75 plants per square meter were maintained and applied stress. Water use efficiency, evapotranspiration efficiency, harvest index for seed and ear, economic and biological yield were measured at maturity. . Data were analyzed with the SAS software ver 9.1 and the means were compared with Tukey’s test. Results and Discussion The results showed that water use efficiency (WUE was significantly decreased with increasing the intensity of drought stress in all three genotypes but not evapotranspiration efficiency (ETE, ratio of total dry matter to water used. Bastan cultivar had higher water use efficiency in all stress levels and was more affected under moderate stress while it was less affected under severe stress (33 and 31 percent compared to the control

  18. Selection of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Stipa grandis during Environmental Stresses.

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    Dongli Wan

    Full Text Available Stipa grandis P. Smirn. is a dominant plant species in the typical steppe of the Xilingole Plateau of Inner Mongolia. Selection of suitable reference genes for the quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is important for gene expression analysis and research into the molecular mechanisms underlying the stress responses of S. grandis. In the present study, 15 candidate reference genes (EF1 beta, ACT, GAPDH, SamDC, CUL4, CAP, SNF2, SKIP1, SKIP5, SKIP11, UBC2, UBC15, UBC17, UCH, and HERC2 were evaluated for their stability as potential reference genes for qRT-PCR under different stresses. Four algorithms were used: GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The results showed that the most stable reference genes were different under different stress conditions: EF1beta and UBC15 during drought and salt stresses; ACT and GAPDH under heat stress; SKIP5 and UBC17 under cold stress; UBC15 and HERC2 under high pH stress; UBC2 and UBC15 under wounding stress; EF1beta and UBC17 under jasmonic acid treatment; UBC15 and CUL4 under abscisic acid treatment; and HERC2 and UBC17 under salicylic acid treatment. EF1beta and HERC2 were the most suitable genes for the global analysis of all samples. Furthermore, six target genes, SgPOD, SgPAL, SgLEA, SgLOX, SgHSP90 and SgPR1, were selected to validate the most and least stable reference genes under different treatments. Our results provide guidelines for reference gene selection for more accurate qRT-PCR quantification and will promote studies of gene expression in S. grandis subjected to environmental stress.

  19. Impact of heat stress on the emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phenolic BVOC and green leaf volatiles from several tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleist, E.; Mentel, T. F.; Andres, S.; Bohne, A.; Folkers, A.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Rudich, Y.; Springer, M.; Tillmann, R.; Wildt, J.

    2012-07-01

    Changes in the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from European beech, Palestine oak, Scots pine, and Norway spruce exposed to heat stress were measured in a laboratory setup. In general, heat stress decreased the de novo emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOC. Decreasing emission strength with heat stress was independent of the tree species and whether the de novo emissions being constitutive or induced by biotic stress. In contrast, heat stress induced emissions of green leaf volatiles. It also amplified the release of monoterpenes stored in resin ducts of conifers probably due to heat-induced damage of these resin ducts. The increased release of monoterpenes could be strong and long lasting. But, despite of such strong monoterpene emission pulses, the net effect of heat stress on BVOC emissions from conifers can be an overall decrease. In particular during insect attack on conifers the plants showed de novo emissions of sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOC which exceeded constitutive monoterpene emissions from pools. The heat stress induced decrease of these de novo emissions was larger than the increased release caused by damage of resin ducts. We project that global change induced heat waves may cause increased BVOC emissions only in cases where the respective areas are predominantly covered with conifers that do not emit high amounts of sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOC. Otherwise the overall effect of heat stress will be a decrease in BVOC emissions.

  20. A Comparative Study Between Strain And Stress Based Forming Limit Analysis By Applying Several Phenomenological Yield Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butuc, Marilena C.; Vincze, Gabriela T.; Gracio, Jose J.; Barata da Rocha, A.

    2005-01-01

    The present work aims at analyzing a comparative study between the strain-based forming limit criterion (FLD) and the stress-based forming limit criterion (FLSD), under linear and complex strain paths. The selected material is an AA5182-0 aluminium alloy. Some relevant remarks about stress-based forming limit criterion concept are presented

  1. Psychosocial Stress Predicts Future Symptom Severities in Children and Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome and/or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiqun; Katsovich, Liliya; Ghebremichael, Musie; Findley, Diane B.; Grantz, Heidi; Lombroso, Paul J.; King, Robert A.; Zhang, Heping; Leckman, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The goals of this prospective longitudinal study were to monitor levels of psychosocial stress in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy control subjects and to examine the relationship between measures of psychosocial stress and fluctuations in tic,…

  2. Oxidative Stress Markers and C-Reactive Protein Are Related to Severity of Heart Failure in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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    Celina Wojciechowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of study was to determine relationships between functional capacity (NYHA class, left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF, hemodynamic parameters, and biomarkers of redox state and inflammation in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Methods. DCM patients (n=109, aged 45.97±10.82 years, NYHA class IIV, and LVEF 2.94±7.1% were studied. Controls comprised age-matched healthy volunteers (n=28. Echocardiography and right heart catheterization were performed. Serum activities of superoxide dismutase isoenzymes (MnSOD and CuZnSOD, concentrations of uric acid (UA, malondialdehyde (MDA, and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP were measured. Results. MnSOD, UA, hs-CRP, and MDA were significantly higher in DCM patients compared to controls. Except MDA concentration, above parameters were higher in patients in III-IV NYHA class or with lower LVEF. hsCRP correlated with of MnSOD (P<0.05 and CuZnSOD activity (P<0.01. Both isoenzymes positively correlated with mPAP and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (MnSOD, resp., P<0.01 and P<0.05 and CuZnSOD P<0.05; P<0.05. UA positively correlated with MnSOD (P<0.05, mPAP (P<0.05, and PVRI (P<0.05. The negative correlation between LVEF and UA (P<0.01 was detected. Conclusion. There are relationships among the severity of symptoms of heart failure, echocardiographic hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress, and inflammatory activation. Increased MnSOD activity indicates the mitochondrial source of ROS in patients with advanced heart failure.

  3. Incidence and risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder in a population affected by a severe flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontalba-Navas, A; Lucas-Borja, M E; Gil-Aguilar, V; Arrebola, J P; Pena-Andreu, J M; Perez, J

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to study the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in people who resided in an affected area by an extremely severe flood, and sociodemographic risk factors associated with this condition. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to distribute the rainfall data. A case-control study was developed to study the relationship between PTSD and sociodemographic risk factors. To delineate the areas affected by the flood and the intensity of this rainfall in comparison with historical hydrological data, we employed geographical information systems (GIS). Then, we recruited a representative sample of the affected population and another population sample that lived at the time of this disaster in adjacent geographical areas that were not affected. Both groups were randomly selected in primary care practices, from December 1st 2012 to January 31st 2013. All participants, 70 from the affected areas and 91 from the non-affected, filled a sociodemographic questionnaire and the trauma questionnaire (TQ) to identify and rate PTSD symptoms. Our GIS analysis confirmed that the amount of precipitation in 2012 in the areas affected by the flood was exceptionally high compared with historical average rainfall data (461l per square metre vs 265). Individuals who resided in the affected areas at the time of the flood were at much higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms (OR: 8.18; 95% CI: 3.99-17.59) than those living in adjacent, non-affected localities. Among the sociodemographic variables included in this study, only material and financial losses were strongly associated with the onset of PTSD (P disorder, may help develop effective plans to minimize the negative impact of these natural disasters on public health. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Computational biology approaches to plant metabolism and photosynthesis: applications for corals in times of climate change and environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, M James C

    2010-08-01

    Knowledge of factors that are important in reef resilience helps us to understand how reef ecosystems react following major anthropogenic and environmental disturbances. The symbiotic relationship between the photosynthetic zooxanthellae algal cells and corals is that the zooxanthellae provide the coral with carbon, while the coral provides protection and access to enough light for the zooxanthellae to photosynthesise. This article reviews some recent advances in computational biology relevant to photosynthetic organisms, including Beyesian approaches to kinetics, computational methods for flux balances in metabolic processes, and determination of clades of zooxanthallae. Application of these systems will be important in the conservation of coral reefs in times of climate change and environmental stress.

  5. Increased risk of attempted suicide in Australian veterans is associated with total and permanent incapacitation, unemployment and posttraumatic stress disorder severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Katelyn; Romaniuk, Madeline; McLeay, Sarah; Khoo, Andrew; Dent, Michael T; Boshen, Mark

    2018-06-01

    Military veterans have higher rates of suicidality and completed suicides compared to the general population. Previous research has demonstrated suicidal behaviour is higher in US combat veterans who are younger, suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety and score lower on measures of health. However, research on predictors of suicide for Australian veterans is limited. The aim of this study was to identify significant demographic and psychological differences between veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder who had attempted suicide and those with posttraumatic stress disorder who had not, as well as determine predictors of suicide attempts within an Australian cohort. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 229 ex-service personnel diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder who had attended a Military Service Trauma Recovery Day Program as outpatients at Toowong Private Hospital from 2007 to 2014. Patients completed a battery of mental health self-report questionnaires assessing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol use, anger, depression, anxiety and quality of life. Demographic information and self-reported history of suicide attempts were also recorded. Results indicated the average age was significantly lower, and the rates of posttraumatic stress disorder, anger, anxiety and depression symptoms were significantly higher in those veterans with history of a suicide attempt. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity, unemployment or total and permanent incapacity pension status significantly predicted suicide attempt history. Among a cohort of Australian veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder, psychopathology severity, unemployment and total and permanent incapacity status are significantly associated with suicidality. This study highlights the importance of early identification of posttraumatic stress disorder and psychopathology, therapeutic and social

  6. 'Four Seasons' in an animal rescue centre; classical music reduces environmental stress in kennelled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A; Scottish Spca; Dowell, F J; Evans, N P

    2015-05-01

    On admission to rescue and rehoming centres dogs are faced with a variety of short- and long-term stressors including novelty, spatial/social restriction and increased noise levels. Animate and inanimate environmental enrichment techniques have been employed within the kennel environment in an attempt to minimise stress experienced by dogs. Previous studies have shown the potential physiological and psychological benefits of auditory stimulation, particularly classical music, within the kennel environment. This study determined the physiological/psychological changes that occur when kennelled dogs are exposed to long-term (7 days) auditory stimulation in the form of classical music through assessment of effects on heart rate variability (HRV), salivary cortisol and behaviour. The study utilised a cross over design in which two groups were exposed to two consecutive 7 day treatments; silence (control) and classical music (test). Group A was studied under silent conditions followed by 7 days of test conditions during which a fixed classical music playlist was played from 10:00-16:30 h. Group B received treatment in the reverse order. Results showed that auditory stimulation induced changes in HRV and behavioural data indicative of reduced stress levels in dogs in both groups (salivary cortisol data did not show any consistent patterns of change throughout the study). Specifically, there was a significant increase in HRV parameters such as μRR, STDRR, RMSSD, pNN50, RRTI, SD1 and SD2 and a significant decrease in μHR and LF/HF from the first day of silence (S1) to the first day of music (M1). Similarly, examination of behavioural data showed that dogs in both groups spent significantly more time sitting/lying and silent and less time standing and barking during auditory stimulation. General Regression Analysis (GRA) of the change in HRV parameters from S1 to M1 revealed that male dogs responded better to auditory stimulation relative to female. Interestingly, HRV and

  7. The influence of environmental variables and irradiation on iodine stress corrosion crack initiation and growth in Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunde, L.; Videm, K.

    1980-01-01

    Variables in the SCC testing technique and the effect of the fast neutron dose appear to explain most of the controversy about the effect of irradiation damage on the SCC behaviour of Zircaloy. On the basis of extensive laboratory testing functions expressing the time for stress corrosion crack (SCC) initiation and the rate of crack propagation at different stresses and temperatures have been worked out. The environmental variables in the SCC test can have a much larger influence on the life-time for autoclaved material than for pickled and sandblasted metal. For irradiated (oxidized) material a ten times increase in the iodine concentration reduced the failure stress from 500 to 250 MPa. By comparing our results with published data it is concluded that the failure stress (after 1-3 hours) is very dependent upon the neutron dose. Neutron damage will raise the stress threshold for doses up to 10 20 n/cm 2 and thereafter the failure stress is gradually decreased to low values with increasing neutron doses up to 5.10 21 n/cm 2 . (author)

  8. A Rice Immunophilin Gene, OsFKBP16-3, Confers Tolerance to Environmental Stress in Arabidopsis and Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The putative thylakoid lumen immunophilin, FKBP16-3, has not yet been characterized, although this protein is known to be regulated by thioredoxin and possesses a well-conserved CxxxC motif in photosynthetic organisms. Here, we characterized rice OsFKBP16-3 and examined the role of this gene in the regulation of abiotic stress in plants. FKBP16-3s are well conserved in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms, including the presence of a unique disulfide-forming CxxxC motif in their N-terminal regions. OsFKBP16-3 was mainly expressed in rice leaf tissues and was upregulated by various abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, high light, hydrogen peroxide, heat and methyl viologen. The chloroplast localization of OsFKBP16-3-GFP was confirmed through the transient expression of OsFKBP16-3 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis and transgenic rice plants that constitutively expressed OsFKBP16-3 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity, drought and oxidative stresses, but showed no change in growth or phenotype, compared with vector control plants, when grown under non-stressed conditions. This is the first report to demonstrate the potential role of FKBP16-3 in the environmental stress response, which may be regulated by a redox relay process in the thylakoid lumen, suggesting that artificial regulation of FKBP16-3 expression is a candidate for stress-tolerant crop breeding.

  9. Effects Of Environmental And Operational Stresses On RF MEMS Switch Technologies For Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jah, Muzar; Simon, Eric; Sharma, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) have been heralded for their ability to provide tremendous advantages in electronic systems through increased electrical performance, reduced power consumption, and higher levels of device integration with a reduction of board real estate. RF MEMS switch technology offers advantages such as low insertion loss (0.1- 0.5 dB), wide bandwidth (1 GHz-100 GHz), and compatibility with many different process technologies (quartz, high resistivity Si, GaAs) which can replace the use of traditional electronic switches, such as GaAs FETS and PIN Diodes, in microwave systems for low signal power (x technologies, the unknown reliability, due to the lack of information concerning failure modes and mechanisms inherent to MEMS devices, create an obstacle to insertion of MEMS technology into high reliability applications. All MEMS devices are sensitive to moisture and contaminants, issues easily resolved by hermetic or near-hermetic packaging. Two well-known failure modes of RF MEMS switches are charging in the dielectric layer of capacitive membrane switches and contact interface stiction of metal-metal switches. Determining the integrity of MEMS devices when subjected to the shock, vibration, temperature extremes, and radiation of the space environment is necessary to facilitate integration into space systems. This paper will explore the effects of different environmental stresses, operational life cycling, temperature, mechanical shock, and vibration on the first commercially available RF MEMS switches to identify relevant failure modes and mechanisms inherent to these device and packaging schemes for space applications. This paper will also describe RF MEMS Switch technology under development at NASA GSFC.

  10. A survey of cellular reactions to environmental stress and disease in Caribbean scleractinian corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Esther C.

    1984-03-01

    Despite growing concern about the demise of coral reefs in many areas of the world, few studies have investigated the possibility that bacteria- or virus-caused diseases may be important agents in the disappearance of living coral tissue from reefs, and that their occurrence and transmission may be influenced by natural or man-made changes in water quality, particularly increased sedimentation and turbidity. One forereef site off St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, and three shallow-water reef sites off Puerto Rico were examined for variations in coral composition, local environmental conditions, and the presence of possible diseases in the stony corals. Visual observations were supplemented with standard histopathological examination under the light microscope of tissues from 257 specimens (representing 9 genera and 13 species), along with additional samples obtained from the Netherlands Antilles, the Grenadines, the Florida Keys and the Smithsonian Coral Reef Microcosm. This procedure proved to be necessary to accurately determine the condition of the colony, to detect the presence of microorganisms, and to correlate tissue health and microparasite infestations with apparent symptoms. These lesions varied with the species and the site. For example, off Guayanilla Bay, three species showed increased or decreased mucosecretory cell development, and another exhibited an unusual microparasite, which may be related to the chronic sedimentation at this site. Although colonies of several species showed signs of “white band disease” at five locations, bacterial colonies composed of Gram-negative rods were present only in acroporid tissues from the relatively pristine St. Croix site and the Netherlands Antilles. The distribution and possible mode of occurrence of these and other diseases and microparasite infestations suggest that acute changes in microhabitat conditions or injuries to individual colonies may be as important to the development of some of these lesions as

  11. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma/Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Convertino, Victor A.; Eichner, E. Randy; Schnieder, Suzanne M.; Young, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of several perturbations (physical exercise, heat stress, terrestrial altitude, microgravity, and trauma/sickness) on adaptations of blood volume (BV), erythrocyte volume (EV), and plasma volume (PV). Exercise training can induced BV expansion; PV expansion usually occurs immediately, but EV expansion takes weeks. EV and PV expansion contribute to aerobic power improvements associated with exercise training. Repeated heat exposure induces PV expansion but does not alter EV. PV expansion does not improve thermoregulation, but EV expansion improves thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Dehydration decreases PV (and increases plasma tonicity) which elevates heat strain and reduces exercise performance. High altitude exposure causes rapid (hours) plasma loss. During initial weeks at altitude, EV is unaffected, but a gradual expansion occurs with extended acclimatization. BV adjustments contribute, but are not key, to altitude acclimatization. Microgravity decreases PV and EV which contribute to orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity in astronauts. PV decreases may result from lower set points for total body water and central venous pressure, which EV decrease bay result form increased erythrocyte destruction. Trauma, renal disease, and chronic diseases cause anemia from hemorrhage and immune activation, which suppressions erythropoiesis. The re-establishment of EV is associated with healing, improved life quality, and exercise capabilities for these injured/sick persons.

  12. Chronic environmental stress enhances tolerance to seasonal gradual warming in marine mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionan Marigómez

    Full Text Available In global climate change scenarios, seawater warming acts in concert with multiple stress sources, which may enhance the susceptibility of marine biota to thermal stress. Here, the responsiveness to seasonal gradual warming was investigated in temperate mussels from a chronically stressed population in comparison with a healthy one. Stressed and healthy mussels were subjected to gradual temperature elevation for 8 days (1°C per day; fall: 16-24°C, winter: 12-20°C, summer: 20-28°C and kept at elevated temperature for 3 weeks. Healthy mussels experienced thermal stress and entered the time-limited survival period in the fall, became acclimated in winter and exhibited sublethal damage in summer. In stressed mussels, thermal stress and subsequent health deterioration were elicited in the fall but no transition into the critical period of time-limited survival was observed. Stressed mussels did not become acclimated to 20°C in winter, when they experienced low-to-moderate thermal stress, and did not experience sublethal damage at 28°C in summer, showing instead signs of metabolic rate depression. Overall, although the thermal threshold was lowered in chronically stressed mussels, they exhibited enhanced tolerance to seasonal gradual warming, especially in summer. These results challenge current assumptions on the susceptibility of marine biota to the interactive effects of seawater warming and pollution.

  13. The ADH7 Promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Vanillin-Inducible and Enables mRNA Translation Under Severe Vanillin Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh T M; Iwaki, Aya; Izawa, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the major phenolic aldehyde compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass and acts as a potent fermentation inhibitor to repress the growth and fermentative ability of yeast. Vanillin can be reduced to its less toxic form, vanillyl alcohol, by the yeast NADPH-dependent medium chain alcohol dehydrogenases, Adh6 and Adh7. However, there is little information available regarding the regulation of their gene expression upon severe vanillin stress, which has been shown to repress the bulk translation activity in yeast cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated expression patterns of the ADH6 and ADH7 genes in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin. We found that although both genes were transcriptionally upregulated by vanillin stress, they showed different protein expression patterns in response to vanillin. Expression of Adh6 was constitutive and gradually decreased under vanillin stress, whereas expression of Adh7 was inducible, and, importantly, occurred under severe vanillin stress. The null mutants of ADH6 or ADH7 genes were hypersensitive to vanillin and reduced vanillin less efficiently than the wild type, confirming the importance of Adh6 and Adh7 in vanillin detoxification. Additionally, we demonstrate that the ADH7 promoter is vanillin-inducible and enables effective protein synthesis even under severe vanillin stress, and it may be useful for the improvement of vanillin-tolerance and biofuel production efficiency via modification of yeast gene expression in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin.

  14. The ADH7 promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is vanillin-inducible and enables mRNA translation under severe vanillin stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinh Thi My Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin is one of the major phenolic aldehyde compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass and acts as a potent fermentation inhibitor to repress the growth and fermentative ability of yeast. Vanillin can be reduced to its less toxic form, vanillyl alcohol, by the yeast NADPH-dependent medium chain alcohol dehydrogenases, Adh6 and Adh7. However, there is little information available regarding the regulation of their gene expression upon severe vanillin stress, which has been shown to repress the bulk translation activity in yeast cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated expression patterns of the ADH6 and ADH7 genes in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin. We found that although both genes were transcriptionally upregulated by vanillin stress, they showed different protein expression patterns in response to vanillin. Expression of Adh6 was constitutive and gradually decreased under vanillin stress, whereas expression of Adh7 was inducible, and, importantly, occurred under severe vanillin stress. The null mutants of ADH6 or ADH7 genes were hypersensitive to vanillin and reduced vanillin less efficiently than the wild type, confirming the importance of Adh6 and Adh7 in vanillin detoxification. Additionally, we demonstrate that the ADH7 promoter is vanillin-inducible and enables effective protein synthesis even under severe vanillin stress, and it may be useful for the improvement of vanillin-tolerance and biofuel production efficiency via modification of yeast gene expression in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin.

  15. Effects of glucocorticoid combined with antibiotics on serum infection indexes, acute phase proteins and stress hormones in patients with severe pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of glucocorticoid combined with antibiotics on serum infection indexes, acute phase proteins and stress hormones in patients with severe pneumonia. Methods: a total of 80 patients with severe pneumonia who were hospitalized between August 2014 and January 2017 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into the routine treatment group (n=46 who received conventional antibiotic therapy and the combined treatment group (n=34 who received glucocorticoid combined with antibiotic therapy, and the differences in infection indexes, acute proteins and stress hormones were compared between the two groups of patients before and after treatment. Results: The differences in serum levels of infection indexes, acute phase proteins and stress hormones were not statistically significant between the two groups before treatment. After 1 week of treatment, serum infection indexes CRP and PCT levels of observation group were lower than those of control group; serum acute phase proteins α1-AT, α1-AG and CER levels were lower than those of control group; serum stress hormones Cor, AngⅠ and AngⅡ levels were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Glucocorticoid combined with antibiotics can effectively inhibit systemic infection and stress and optimize the illness in patients with severe pneumonia.

  16. Environmental Stress Responses and Experimental Handling Artifacts of a Model Organism, the Copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Nilsson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Handling animals during experiments potentially affects the differential expression of genes chosen as biomarkers of sub-lethal stress. RNA sequencing was used to examine whole-transcriptome responses caused by laboratory handling of the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa. Salinity shock (S = 35 to S = 5 was used as positive stress control; individuals not exposed to handling or other stressors served as negative stress control. All copepods were grown from eggs to adults without being handled or exposed to any stressors prior the experiment. Survival of nauplii and adults was estimated for up to 10 min of exposure to handling stress and salinity shock. Only adults exhibited decreased survival (44 ± 7% with 10 min of exposure in response to handling stress and were selected for definitive experiments for RNA sequencing. After 10 min of experimental exposures to handling stress or salinity shock, adults were incubated for 15 min or 24 h at normal culture conditions. A small number of significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs were observed 15 min after exposure to handling stress (2 DEGs or salinity shock (7 DEGs. However, 24 h after exposure, handling stress resulted in 276 DEGs and salinity shock resulted in 573 DEGs, of which 174 DEGs were overlapping between the treatments. Among the DEGs observed 24 h after exposure to handling stress or salinity shock, some commonly-used stress biomarkers appeared at low levels. This suggests that a stress-response was induced at the transcriptional level for these genes between 15 min and 24 h following exposure. Since handling stress clearly affects transcriptional patterns, it is important to consider handling when designing experiments, by either including additional controls or avoiding focus on impacted genes. Not considering handling in gene expression studies can lead to inaccurate conclusions. The present study provides a baseline for studying handling stress in future studies using this

  17. Relationship between perceived limit-setting abilities, autism spectrum disorder severity, behaviour problems and parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Howse, Jessie; Ho, Ben; Osborne, Lisa A

    2017-11-01

    Parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high and impacts perceptions about parenting. This study examined the relationship between parenting stress and observer-perceived limit-setting ability. Participants' perceptions of other parents' limit-setting ability were assessed by showing participants video clips of parenting behaviours. Mothers of 93 children with autism spectrum disorder completed an online survey regarding the severity of their own child's autism spectrum disorder (Social Communication Questionnaire), their child's behaviour problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and their own levels of parenting stress (Questionnaire on Resources and Stress). They were shown five videos of other parents interacting with children with autism spectrum disorder and were asked to rate the limit-setting abilities observed in each video using the Parent-Child Relationship Inventory. Higher parenting stress negatively related to judgements about others' limit-setting skills. This mirrors the literature regarding the relationship between self-reported parenting stress and rating child behaviour more negatively. It suggests that stress negatively impacts a wide range of judgements and implies that caution may be required when interpreting the results of studies in which parenting skills are assessed by self-report.

  18. Is a single item stress measure independently associated with subsequent severe injury: a prospective cohort study of 16,385 forest industry employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Simo; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Joensuu, Matti; Väänänen, Ari

    2014-06-02

    A previous review showed that high stress increases the risk of occupational injury by three- to five-fold. However, most of the prior studies have relied on short follow-ups. In this prospective cohort study we examined the effect of stress on recorded hospitalised injuries in an 8-year follow-up. A total of 16,385 employees of a Finnish forest company responded to the questionnaire. Perceived stress was measured with a validated single-item measure, and analysed in relation recorded hospitalised injuries from 1986 to 2008. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine the prospective associations between work stress, injuries and confounding factors. Highly stressed participants were approximately 40% more likely to be hospitalised due to injury over the follow-up period than participants with low stress. This association remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, occupational status, educational level, and physical work environment. High stress is associated with an increased risk of severe injury.

  19. Environmental Growing Conditions in Five Production Systems Induce Stress Response and Affect Chemical Composition of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niether, Wiebke; Smit, Inga; Armengot, Laura; Schneider, Monika; Gerold, Gerhard; Pawelzik, Elke

    2017-11-29

    Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide a less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured the element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans derived from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons. Concentrations of N, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn were higher in beans produced in agroforestry systems with high stem density and leaf area index. In the dry season, the N, Fe, and Cu concentration of the beans increased. The total phenolic content increased with proceeding of the dry season while other abiotic stress indicators like spermine decreased, implying an effect of the water availability on the chemical composition of the beans. Agroforestry systems did not buffer the variability of stress indicators over the seasons compared to monocultures. The effect of environmental growing conditions on bean chemical composition was not strong but can contribute to variations in cocoa bean quality.

  20. Fluctuating asymmetry and developmental instability in Protoreaster nodosus (Chocolate Chip Sea Star as a biomarker for environmental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. V. Trono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, pertains to small and random departures from perfect symmetry of an organism's bilateral traits and has been used as a measurement of developmental instability and as a potential indicator of stress in populations. It measures the variations from symmetry of a symmetrical structure whose sides are said to be genetically identical, with similar history of gene activity and experiencing the same environment. Symmetries are potentially the basis for studies on FA. Hence, this study assessed the potential of FA as a reliable developmental instability and environmental stress indicator in five-fold dihedral symmetrical Protoreaster nodosus (Chocolate chip sea fish from three (3 different sites (Linamon, Lanao del Norte; Initao, Misamis Oriental and Jasaan, Misamis Oriental. FA for each population from every site was measured for comparison. In this study, anatomical landmarks were subjected to Procrustes superimposition and Principal Component Analysis (PCA using "Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data" (SAGE program. Results showed highly significant FA and significant DA for population from Jasaan and Linamon where habitat disturbance due to anthropogenic activities were prevalent. Thus, experienced more stress compared to the other populations, suggesting that significant variation in size or left-right side of each individual could be a product of genotype-environment interaction. Moreover, insignificant FA and high DA was obtained from Initao (protected seascape area which indicated that variation among individual genotypes and asymmetry in phenotypes is mostly induced by genetics under less stressful environment. Significant FA and increase FA present inability of species to buffer stress in its developmental pathways and have implications on species fitness. Hypothesis assumes that fluctuating asymmetry has costs, reflects the quality of individuals and the level of genetic and environmental stress experienced by

  1. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H.M.; Albers, C.J.; Minderaa, R.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Nauta, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress

  2. Severity of Borderline Personality Symptoms in Adolescence : Relationship With Maternal Parenting Stress, Maternal Psychopathology, and Rearing Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Albers, Casper J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paulus; Nauta, Maaike H.

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress

  3. Effect of applied environmental stress on growth, photosynthesis, carbon allocation, and hydrocarbon production in Euphorbia lathyris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.E.; Calvin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity was reduced by salinity stress, but is was found to be less sensitive than growth. Salinity stress also caused changes in the concentrations of specific cations. Moderate water stress had little effect on growth, but large changes in hydrocarbon production were still observed. Carbon allocation experiments with radiolabeled carbon indicated that carbon for latex production was supplied by nearby leaves, with some translocation down the stem also occurring

  4. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osredkar Joško

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human organism is exposed to the influence of various forms of stress, either physical, psychological or chemical, which all have in common that they may adversely affect our body. A certain amount of stress is always present and somehow directs, promotes or inhibits the functioning of the human body. Unfortunately, we are now too many and too often exposed to excessive stress, which certainly has adverse consequences. This is especially true for a particular type of stress, called oxidative stress. All aerobic organisms are exposed to this type of stress because they produce energy by using oxygen. For this type of stress you could say that it is rather imperceptibly involved in our lives, as it becomes apparent only at the outbreak of certain diseases. Today we are well aware of the adverse impact of radicals, whose surplus is the main cause of oxidative stress. However, the key problem remains the detection of oxidative stress, which would allow us to undertake timely action and prevent outbreak of many diseases of our time. There are many factors that promote oxidative stress, among them are certainly a fast lifestyle and environmental pollution. The increase in oxidative stress can also trigger intense physical activity that is directly associated with an increased oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of free radicals. Considering generally positive attitude to physical activity, this fact may seem at first glance contradictory, but the finding has been confimed by several studies in active athletes. Training of a top athlete daily demands great physical effort, which is also reflected in the oxidative state of the organism. However, it should be noted that the top athletes in comparison with normal individuals have a different defense system, which can counteract the negative effects of oxidative stress. Quite the opposite is true for irregular or excessive physical activity to which the body is not adapted.

  5. Stress in police officers: a study of the origins, prevalence and severity of stress-related symptoms within a county police force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P A; Gibbs, A C C

    2003-06-01

    High levels of stress-related illness are causing concern across industry. Against a background of impending legislative moves to try to improve this situation, there is a need to identify key work-related stressors. Police work tends to be regarded as inherently stressful because of the personal risk of exposure to confrontation and violence and the day-to-day involvement in a variety of traumatic incidents. As a result, high levels of stress-related symptoms might be expected in this population. To examine the sources of stress-related symptoms within police officers and measure the prevalence of significant associated mental ill-health. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a population of 1206 police officers was performed to assess levels of strain associated with a series of potential home and work related stressors. Participants were then split into low and high scoring groups on the basis of a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) threshold score in order to identify those stressors most associated with mental ill-health effects. Occupational stressors ranking most highly within the population were not specific to policing, but to organizational issues such as the demands of work impinging upon home life, lack of consultation and communication, lack of control over workload, inadequate support and excess workload in general. The high scoring group constituted 41% of the population and differed significantly from those with low scores in perception of all stressors, ranking both personal and occupational stressors more highly, and from personality constraints appeared significantly more 'stress-prone'. A significant association between gender and mental ill-health was found, with females more likely to score more highly on the GHQ than males. This study confirms previous findings of organizational culture and workload as the key issues in officer stress. Given that the degree of symptomatology appears to be worsening, management action is required. Further

  6. Early stress responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song You; Salbu, Brit; Heier, Lene Sørlie; Teien, Hans-Christian; Lind, Ole-Christian; Oughton, Deborah; Petersen, Karina; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Skipperud, Lindis; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2012-01-01

    Uranium (U) is a naturally occurring heavy metal widely used in many military and civil applications. Uranium contamination and the associated potential adverse effects of U on the aquatic environment have been debated during recent years. In order to understand the effect and mode of action (MoA) of U in vivo, juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed to 0.25 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L waterborne depleted uranyl acetate, respectively, in a static system for 48 h. The U concentrations in the gill and liver were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the resulting biological effects were determined by a combination of analysis of gene expression and micronuclei formation. The hepatic transcriptional level of 12 biomarker genes from four stress–response categories, including oxidative stress (γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GCS), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)), DNA damage and repair (P53, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (P21), growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene gamma (Gadd45G), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Rad51), apoptosis (Bcl2-associated X protein (BAX), Bcl-x, Caspase 6A,) and protein degradation (Ubiquitin) were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-rtPCR). The results clearly showed accumulation of U in the gill and liver with increasing concentrations of U in the exposure water. The effects of U on differential hepatic gene expression also occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, although deviations from ideal concentration–response relationships were observed at the highest U concentration (1.0 mg/L). All the genes tested were found to be up-regulated by U while no significant micronuclei formation was identified. The results suggest that U may cause oxidative stress in fish liver at concentrations greater than 0.25 mg/L, giving rise to clear induction of several toxicologically relevant biomarker genes, although no significant

  7. The severity of childhood abuse and neglect in relationship to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among female sex workers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalder, A.L.; Bogaerts, S.; Bijleveld, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood is examined in a sample of 123 female indoor sex workers in the Netherlands. It was hypothesized that the severity of childhood abuse and neglect is associated with the

  8. Physiological Signals and Their Fractal Response to Stress Conditions, Environmental Changes and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scafetta, N; Moon, R. E; West, B. J

    2006-01-01

    .... Some of these studies have been intended to develop more reliable methodologies for understanding how biological systems respond to peculiar altered conditions induced by internal stress, environment...

  9. Illness perceptions and stress: mediators between disease severity and psychological well-being and quality of life among patients with Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maochen Zhang,1,* Liwen Hong,1,* Tianyu Zhang,1 Yun Lin,1 Sichang Zheng,1 Xiaolin Zhou,1 Rong Fan,1 Zhengting Wang,1 Chenli Zhang,2 Jie Zhong1 1Department of Gastroenterology, 2Exclusive Medical Center, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Disease severity, illness perceptions, coping strategies, stress, psychological well-being, and quality of life were reported to have close relationships. According to the Common Sense Model, illness perceptions and coping strategies could mediate the relationship between illness stimuli and illness outcomes such as psychological health and quality of life. Stress was also associated with the individual’s disease severity, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Objectives: The study aimed to explore the influencing factors of illness outcomes, and to what extent illness perceptions, coping strategies, and stress mediate the relationship between disease severity and anxiety, and depression and quality of life. Methods: Our study included 159 patients with Crohn’s disease who were attending a tertiary hospital outpatient clinic or who were hospitalized. Disease severity was measured with the Crohn’s Disease Activity Index. Illness perceptions were measured with the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire. Coping strategies were measured with the Carver Brief Coping Questionnaire. Stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. Anxiety and depression were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Quality of life was measured with the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire. Results: Disease severity, illness perceptions, maladaptive coping, stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life were significantly correlated with each other among patients with Crohn’s disease. Using structural equation modeling to describe the inner relationship of the

  10. Rethinking environmental stress from the perspective of an integrated environmental footprint: Application in the Beijing industry sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingru; Huang, Kai; Ridoutt, Bradley G; Yu, Yajuan; Wei, Jing

    2018-05-13

    Individual footprint indicators are limited in that they usually only address one specific environmental aspect. For this reason, assessments involving multiple footprint indicators are preferred. However, the interpretation of a profile of footprint indicators can be difficult as the relative importance of the different footprint results is not readily discerned by decision-makers. In this study, a time series (1997-2012) of carbon, water and land footprints was calculated for industry sectors in the Beijing region using input-output analysis. An integrated environmental footprint (IEF) was subsequently developed using normalization and entropy weighting. The results show that steep increases in environmental footprint have accompanied Beijing's rapid economic development. In 2012, the Primary Industry had the largest IEF (8.32); however, the Secondary Industry had the greatest increase over the study period, from 0.19 to 6.37. For the Primary Industry, the greatest contribution to the IEF came from the land footprint. For the Secondary and Tertiary Industries, the water footprint was most important. Using the IEF, industry sectors with low resource utilization efficiency and high greenhouse gas emissions intensity can be identified. As such, the IEF can help to inform about industry sectors which should be given priority for modernization as well as the particular footprints that require priority attention in each sector. The IEF can also be helpful in identifying industry sectors that could be encouraged to expand within the Beijing region as they are especially efficient in terms of value adding relative to IEF. Other industries, over time, may be better located in other regions that do not face the same environmental pressures as Beijing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of MicroRNAs in Environmental Risk Factors, Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, and Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Verónica; Cui, Julia Yue; Daimiel, Lidia; Espinosa-Díez, Cristina; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Lamas, Santiago

    2018-03-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression and define part of the epigenetic signature. Their influence on every realm of biomedicine is established and progressively increasing. The impact of environment on human health is enormous. Among environmental risk factors impinging on quality of life are those of chemical nature (toxic chemicals, heavy metals, pollutants, and pesticides) as well as those related to everyday life such as exposure to noise or mental and psychosocial stress. Recent Advances: This review elaborates on the relationship between miRNAs and these environmental risk factors. The most relevant facts underlying the role of miRNAs in the response to these environmental stressors, including redox regulatory changes and oxidative stress, are highlighted and discussed. In the cases wherein miRNA mutations are relevant for this response, the pertinent literature is also reviewed. We conclude that, even though in some cases important advances have been made regarding close correlations between specific miRNAs and biological responses to environmental risk factors, a need for prospective large-cohort studies is likely necessary to establish causative roles. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 773-796.

  12. Hydrology, plankton, and corals of the Maracajaú reefs (Northeastern Brazil: an ecosystem under severe thermal stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elga Miranda Mayal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides baseline information on the hydrological conditions and on the coral and plankton communities at the Maracajaú reef ecosystem (Northeastern Brazil. Studies were performed from February to June 2000, covering the transition from dry to rainy season. In this area, there is an offshore coral reef formation, where corals were observed in loco; the water samples were collected to obtain the hydrological and plankton data. Six scleractinian species were identified. Stable isotope analysis on the carbonate fraction of Favia gravida fragments showed that these corals were under severe thermal stress. Chlorophyll-a varied from 1.1 to 9.3 mg m-3, with higher values during the rainy season. Average zooplankton wet weight biomass were 117.0 (microzooplankton and 15.7 mg m -3(mesozooplankton. A total of 136 Phytoplankton and 61 zooplankton taxa were identified. Seasonal forcing determined the phyto-micro-and mesozooplankton community structure, rather than the coastal-offshore gradient.Esta pesquisa apresenta informações básicas sobre as condições hidrológicas e sobre as comunidades de corais e do plâncton no ecossistema recifal de Maracajaú (Nordeste do Brasil. Estudos foram realizados de fevereiro a junho de 2000, cobrindo o período de transição das estações seca a chuvosa. Nesta area existe uma formação de recife de coral afastada da costa, onde os corais foram observados in loco e amostras de água foram coletadas para a obtenção de dados hidrológicos e planctônicos. Foram identificadas seis espécies de escleractíneos. Análises com isótopos estáveis em fragmentos de carbonato de Favia gravida mostraram que este coral está sob estresse termal severo. As concentrações de clorofila-a variaram de 1,1 mg m-3 a 9,3 mg m-3, com maiores valores durante o período chuvoso. A biomassa média em peso úmido do zooplâncton foi de 117,0 mg m-3 para o microzooplâncton e de 15,7 mg m-3 para o mesozooplâncton. Foram

  13. The spectral response of Buxus sempervirens to different types of environmental stress - A laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Steven M.; Addink, Elisabeth A.; Hoogenboom, Priscilla; Nijland, Wiebe

    2012-11-01

    The European Mediterranean regions are expected to encounter drier summer conditions and warmer temperatures for the winter of +2 °C and of +5 °C for the summer in the next six decennia. As a result the natural vegetation will face harsher conditions due to lower water availability, longer summer droughts and higher temperatures resulting in plant stress conditions. To monitor vegetation conditions like stress and leaf area index dynamics in our study area in Mediterranean France we use earth observation techniques like imaging spectroscopy. To assist image analysis interpretation we carried out a laboratory experiment to investigate the spectral and visible response of Buxus sempervirens, a common Mediterranean species, to five different types of stress: drought, drought-and-heat, light deprivation, total saturation and chlorine poisoning. For 52 days plants were subjected to stress. We collected data on the visible and spectral signs, and calculated thirteen vegetation indices. The plant's response time to different stress types varied from 10 to 32 days. Spectroscopic techniques revealed plant stress up to 15 days earlier than visual inspection. Visible signs of stress of the plants included curling and shrinking of the leaves, de-colouring of the leaves, leaves becoming breakable, opening up of the plant's canopy and sagging of the branches. Spectral signs of stress occurred first in the water absorption bands at 1450 and 1940 nm, followed by reduced absorption in the visible wavelengths, and next by reduced reflectance in near infrared. Light deprivation did not result in any stress signs, while drought, drought and heat and chlorine poisoning resulted in significant stress. The spectral response did not show differences for different stress types. Analysis of the vegetation indices identified the Carter-2 (R695/R760), the Red-Green Index (R690/R550) and the Vogelman-2 (R734 - R747)/(R715 + R726) as the best performing ones to identify stress. The lab

  14. New approach to the problem of increasing the environmental protection during a severe accident at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulyukhin, S.A.; Mikheev, N.B.; Kamenskaya, A.N.; Rumer, I.A.; Kazakevich, M.Z.; Novichenko, V.L.

    1996-01-01

    Although the probability of severe accidents is very low (less than 10 -5 ), these accidents have very hazardous consequences and can lead to an extensive contamination of the territory with radioactive compounds (e.g., Chernobyl accident in 1986). To minimize the consequences of such accidents at nuclear power plants (NPP), much attention is being given to operational safety issues. Particular emphasis has been placed on the in-depth protection, i.e., a multilevel protection. In order to increase the efficiency of available systems of environmental protection in both operating and projected NPPs, we have developed a new concept based on the use of man-made hydrophilic aerosols that can form mixed aerosol particles with radio-aerosols. The fundamental investigations performed have shown that the resulting mixed aerosols incorporate radio-aerosols with particle size less that 0.1 μm. These radio-aerosols acquire the properties of the macro-aerosols; i.e., hydrophobic aerosols become hydrophilic. The use of hydrophilic macro-aerosols allows the scrubber efficiency to be increased with respect to hydrophobic cesium aerosols (with particle size less than 0.1μ) by a factor of more than 50. Simultaneously, for operating NPPs supplied with under-containment pressure-relief system, we suggest a decontamination setup of a new type. This setup can work both of the decontamination of the vapor-air flow cesium and iodine radio-aerosols is 10 5 - 10 7 . As to the NPP projects now under development, the use of man-made aerosols under the containment at the time of an accident will allow the sedimentation rate of radio-aerosols to be significantly increased, and this will ensure a rapid removal of radioactivity from under the containment. Our investigations have shown that ammonium chloride increases the sedimentation rate of nano-metric cesium radio-aerosol particles by a factor of more than 100. Thus, an almost complete trapping of radio-aerosols through the use of man

  15. The combined effect of clothianidin and environmental stress on the behavioral and reproductive function in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tetsushi; Yanai, Shogo; Omotehara, Takuya; Hashimoto, Rie; Umemura, Yuria; Kubota, Naoto; Minami, Kiichi; Nagahara, Daichi; Matsuo, Eiko; Aihara, Yoshiko; Shinohara, Ryota; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki; Mantani, Youhei; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2015-10-01

    Neonicotinoids, some of the most widely used pesticides in the world, act as agonists to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects, resulting in death from abnormal excitability. Neonicotinoids unexpectedly became a major topic as a compelling cause of honeybee colony collapse disorder, which is damaging crop production that requires pollination worldwide. Mammal nAChRs appear to have a certain affinity for neonicotinoids with lower levels than those of insects; there is thus rising concern about unpredictable adverse effects of neonicotinoids on vertebrates. We hypothesized that the effects of neonicotinoids would be enhanced under a chronic stressed condition, which is known to alter the expression of targets of neonicotinoids, i.e., neuronal nAChRs. We performed immunohistochemical and behavioral analyses in male mice actively administered a neonicotinoid, clothianidin (CTD; 0, 10, 50 and 250 mg/kg/day), for 4 weeks under an unpredictable chronic stress procedure. Vacuolated seminiferous epithelia and a decrease in the immunoreactivity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 were observed in the testes of the CTD+stress mice. In an open field test, although the locomotor activities were not affected, the anxiety-like behaviors of the mice were elevated by both CTD and stress. The present study demonstrates that the behavioral and reproductive effects of CTD become more serious in combination with environmental stress, which may reflect our actual situation of multiple exposure.

  16. Micro-Environmental Stress Induces Src-Dependent Activation of Invadopodia and Cell Migration in Ewing Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Bailey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic Ewing sarcoma has a very poor prognosis and therefore new investigations into the biologic drivers of metastatic progression are key to finding new therapeutic approaches. The tumor microenvironment is highly dynamic, leading to exposure of different regions of a growing solid tumor to changes in oxygen and nutrient availability. Tumor cells must adapt to such stress in order to survive and propagate. In the current study, we investigate how Ewing sarcoma cells respond to the stress of growth factor deprivation and hypoxia. Our findings reveal that serum deprivation leads to a reversible change in Ewing cell cytoskeletal phenotypes. Using an array of migration and invasion techniques, including gelatin matrix degradation invadopodia assays, we show that exposure of Ewing sarcoma cells to serum deprivation and hypoxia triggers enhanced migration, invadopodia formation, matrix degradation and invasion. Further, these functional changes are accompanied by and dependent on activation of Src kinase. Activation of Src, and the associated invasive cell phenotype, were blocked by exposing hypoxia and serum-deprived cells to the Src inhibitor dasatinib. These results indicate that Ewing sarcoma cells demonstrate significant plasticity in response to rapidly changing micro-environmental stresses that can result from rapid tumor growth and from necrosis-causing therapies. In response to these stresses, Ewing cells transition to a more migratory and invasive state and our data show that Src is an important mediator of this stress response. Our data support exploration of clinically available Src inhibitors as adjuvant agents for metastasis prevention in Ewing sarcoma.

  17. Virtual Special Issue Preface: Forest Response to Environmental Stress: Impacts and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven McNulty; Enzai Du; Elena Paoletti

    2017-01-01

    The current distribution of forest typeswas largely established at the beginning of the Holocene epoch (approximately 12,000 BCE), but forests are constantly in flux. Many regional scale stresses (e.g., drought, heat, fire, and insect) and even a few multi-regional or global stresses (e.g., 8200 BCE cooling, or the medievalwarming period) have occurred over the past 12...

  18. Monitoring environmental stress in forest trees using biochemical and physiological markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Minocha; S.C. Minocha; S. Long

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the usefulness of polyamines, particularly putrescine, and amino acids such as arginine, as foliar indicators of abiotic stress in visually asymptomatic trees. An evaluation of apparently healthy trees is essential in developing risk assessment and stress remediation strategies for forest trees prior to the onset of obvious decline....

  19. Perfectionism related to self-reported insomnia severity, but not when controlled for stress and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Kirov, Roumen; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Lemola, Sakari; Correll, Christoph U; Cortese, Samuele; Meyer, Till; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Perfectionism is understood as a set of personality traits such as unrealistically high and rigid standards for performance, fear of failure, and excessive self-criticism. Previous studies showed a direct association between increased perfectionism and poor sleep, though without taking into account possible mediating factors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that perfectionism was directly associated with poor sleep, and that this association collapsed, if mediating factors such as stress and poor emotion regulation were taken into account. Three hundred and forty six young adult students (M=23.87 years) completed questionnaires relating to perfectionism traits, sleep, and psychological functioning such as stress perception, coping with stress, emotion regulation, and mental toughness. Perfectionism was directly associated with poor sleep and poor psychological functioning. When stress, poor coping, and poor emotion regulation were entered in the equation, perfectionism traits no longer contributed substantively to the explanation of poor sleep. Though perfectionism traits seem associated with poor sleep, the direct role of such traits seemed small, when mediating factors such as stress perception and emotion regulation were taken into account.

  20. Effects of IL1B single nucleotide polymorphisms on depressive and anxiety symptoms are determined by severity and type of life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, David; Eszlari, Nora; Petschner, Peter; Pap, Dorottya; Vas, Szilvia; Kovacs, Peter; Gonda, Xenia; Juhasz, Gabriella; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2016-08-01

    Interleukin-1β is one of the main mediators in the cross-talk between the immune system and the central nervous system. Higher interleukin-1β levels are found in mood spectrum disorders, and the stress-induced expression rate of the interleukin-1β gene (IL1B) is altered by polymorphisms in the region. Therefore we examined the effects of rs16944 and rs1143643 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the IL1B gene on depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory, in a Hungarian population sample of 1053 persons. Distal and proximal environmental stress factors were also included in our analysis, namely childhood adversity and recent negative life-events. We found that rs16944 minor (A) allele specifically interacted with childhood adversity increasing depressive and anxiety symptoms, while rs1143643's minor (A) allele showed protective effect against depressive symptoms after recent life stress. The genetic main effects of the two SNPs were not significant in the main analysis, but the interaction effects remained significant after correction for multiple testing. In addition, the effect of rs16944 A allele was reversed in a subsample with low-exposure to life stress, suggesting a protective effect against depressive symptoms, in the post hoc analysis. In summary, both of the two IL1B SNPs showed specific environmental stressor-dependent effects on mood disorder symptoms. We also demonstrated that the presence of exposure to childhood adversity changed the direction of the rs16944 effect on depression phenotype. Therefore our results suggest that it is advisable to include environmental factors in genetic association studies when examining the effect of the IL1B gene. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental enrichment and gut inflammation modify stress-induced c-Fos expression in the mouse corticolimbic system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Reichmann

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE has a beneficial effect on rodent behaviour, neuronal plasticity and brain function. Although it may also improve stress coping, it is not known whether EE influences the brain response to an external (psychological stressor such as water avoidance stress (WAS or an internal (systemic stressor such as gastrointestinal inflammation. This study hence explored whether EE modifies WAS-induced activation of the mouse corticolimbic system and whether this stress response is altered by gastritis or colitis. Male C67BL/6N mice were housed under standard or enriched environment for 9 weeks, after which they were subjected to a 1-week treatment with oral iodoacetamide to induce gastritis or oral dextran sulfate sodium to induce colitis. Following exposure to WAS the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was measured by immunocytochemistry. EE aggravated experimentally induced colitis, but not gastritis, as shown by an increase in the disease activity score and the colonic myeloperoxidase content. In the brain, EE enhanced the WAS-induced activation of the dentate gyrus and unmasked an inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression within this part of the hippocampus. Conversely, EE inhibited the WAS-evoked activation of the central amygdala and prevented the inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression in this region. EE, in addition, blunted the WAS-induced activation of the infralimbic cortex and attenuated the inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression in this area. These data reveal that EE has a region-specific effect on stress-induced c-Fos expression in the corticolimbic system, which is likely to improve stress resilience. The response of the prefrontal cortex - amygdala - hippocampus circuitry to psychological stress is also modified by the systemic stress of gut inflammation, and this interaction between external

  2. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  3. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  4. Regulation of AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308 by endoplasmic reticulum stress modulates substrate specificity in a severity dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wa Yung

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a common factor in the pathophysiology of diverse human diseases that are characterised by contrasting cellular behaviours, from proliferation in cancer to apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders. Coincidently, dysregulation of AKT/PKB activity, which is the central regulator of cell growth, proliferation and survival, is often associated with the same diseases. Here, we demonstrate that ER stress modulates AKT substrate specificity in a severity-dependent manner, as shown by phospho-specific antibodies against known AKT targets. ER stress also reduces both total and phosphorylated AKT in a severity-dependent manner, without affecting activity of the upstream kinase PDK1. Normalisation to total AKT revealed that under ER stress phosphorylation of Thr308 is suppressed while that of Ser473 is increased. ER stress induces GRP78, and siRNA-mediated knock-down of GRP78 enhances phosphorylation at Ser473 by 3.6 fold, but not at Thr308. Substrate specificity is again altered. An in-situ proximity ligation assay revealed a physical interaction between GRP78 and AKT at the plasma membrane of cells following induction of ER stress. Staining was weak in cells with normal nuclear morphology but stronger in those displaying rounded, condensed nuclei. Co-immunoprecipitation of GRP78 and P-AKT(Ser473 confirmed the immuno-complex consists of non-phosphorylated AKT (Ser473 and Thr308. The interaction is likely specific as AKT did not bind to all molecular chaperones, and GRP78 did not bind to p70 S6 kinase. These findings provide one mechanistic explanation for how ER stress contributes to human pathologies demonstrating contrasting cell fates via modulation of AKT signalling.

  5. Regulation of AKT Phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308 by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Modulates Substrate Specificity in a Severity Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Hong Wa

    2011-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a common factor in the pathophysiology of diverse human diseases that are characterised by contrasting cellular behaviours, from proliferation in cancer to apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders. Coincidently, dysregulation of AKT/PKB activity, which is the central regulator of cell growth, proliferation and survival, is often associated with the same diseases. Here, we demonstrate that ER stress modulates AKT substrate specificity in a severity-dependent manner, as shown by phospho-specific antibodies against known AKT targets. ER stress also reduces both total and phosphorylated AKT in a severity-dependent manner, without affecting activity of the upstream kinase PDK1. Normalisation to total AKT revealed that under ER stress phosphorylation of Thr308 is suppressed while that of Ser473 is increased. ER stress induces GRP78, and siRNA-mediated knock-down of GRP78 enhances phosphorylation at Ser473 by 3.6 fold, but not at Thr308. Substrate specificity is again altered. An in-situ proximity ligation assay revealed a physical interaction between GRP78 and AKT at the plasma membrane of cells following induction of ER stress. Staining was weak in cells with normal nuclear morphology but stronger in those displaying rounded, condensed nuclei. Co-immunoprecipitation of GRP78 and P-AKT(Ser473) confirmed the immuno-complex consists of non-phosphorylated AKT (Ser473 and Thr308). The interaction is likely specific as AKT did not bind to all molecular chaperones, and GRP78 did not bind to p70 S6 kinase. These findings provide one mechanistic explanation for how ER stress contributes to human pathologies demonstrating contrasting cell fates via modulation of AKT signalling. PMID:21445305

  6. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyong Ju; Yun, Won Gun; Cho, Namho; Ha, Jikwang

    2017-01-01

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the most basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR

  7. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyong Ju, E-mail: kjkim@cau.ac.kr; Yun, Won Gun, E-mail: ogun78@naver.com; Cho, Namho, E-mail: nhc51@cau.ac.kr; Ha, Jikwang, E-mail: wlrhkd29@gmail.com

    2017-05-15

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the most basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR

  8. Effects of copper and arsenic stress on the development of Norway spruce somatic embryos and their visualization with the environmental scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Biljana; Neděla, Vilém; Tihlaříková, Eva; Trojan, Václav; Havel, Ladislav

    2018-05-18

    Somatic embryogenesis is an important biotechnological technique which can be used in studies associated with environmental stress. Four embryogenic cell lines of Norway spruce were grown on media enriched with copper and arsenic in concentration ranges 50-500 μM and 10-50 μM, respectively. The effects were observed during subsequent stages of somatic embryogenesis, the characteristics evaluated being proliferation potential, average number of somatic embryos obtained per g/fresh weight, morphology of developed somatic embryos, metal uptake, and microanalysis of macro- and micronutrients uptake. Copper and arsenic at higher concentrations significantly reduced the growth of early somatic embryos. In almost all treatments, the cell line V-1-3 showed the best performance compared with the other lines tested. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize and identify morphological abnormalities in the development of somatic embryos. Abnormalities observed were classified into several categories: meristemless somatic embryos, somatic embryos with disrupted meristem, reduced number of cotyledons, single cotyledon and fused cotyledons. With the application of a low temperature method for the environmental scanning electron microscope, samples were stabilized and whole meristems could be investigated in their native state. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of the effect of copper and arsenic during the process of somatic embryogenesis and the first to evaluate the content of macro and micronutrients uptake in Norway spruce. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of seasonal variation on oxidative stress physiology in natural population of toad Bufo melanostictus; clues for analysis of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Luna; Paital, Biswaranjan

    2016-11-01

    Natural population of Bufo melanostictus in response to environmental cues shows several physiologic changes such as reproductive activity, hibernation, aestivation and metabolic depression in different seasons. We investigated the effects of seasonal fluctuations on oxidative stress (OS) physiology biomarkers, such as endogenous (ELPx) and induced (ILPx) lipid peroxidation, front-line redox regulatory enzymes (superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase) and two non-enzyme antioxidant metabolites (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) in liver, gonad and cerebral hemisphere of toads collected from the Bhubaneswar area of India, where temperature fluctuates considerably rising to the highest in summer (∼46 °C) and being lowest in winter (pollutants alone and/or as results of metabolic changes under hibernation, aestivation and due to reproductive activities. Therefore, seasonal changes in OS physiological responses in poikilothermic models especially in toads must be cautiously used as indicators to assess environmental impact, mainly soil pollution. Results of the present study may be used as baseline data for any future analyses of the physiological impacts of environmental changes using toads as model organism.

  10. Perfectionism related to self-reported insomnia severity, but not when controlled for stress and emotion regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Br

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand,1,2 Roumen Kirov,3 Nadeem Kalak,1 Markus Gerber,2 Uwe Pühse,2 Sakari Lemola,4 Christoph U Correll,5 Samuele Cortese,6–8 Till Meyer,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler1 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS, Basel, Switzerland; 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Division of Sport Science, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Institute of Neurobiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria; 4Faculty of Psychology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 5Division of Psychiatric Research, North Shore – Long Island Jewish Health System, Zucker Hillside Hospital, NY, USA; 6School of Medicine, University of Nottingham UK; 7Centre for ADHD and Neuro-developmental Disorders Across Lifespan, Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham UK; 8New York University Child Study Centre, New York, NY, USA Background: Perfectionism is understood as a set of personality traits such as unrealistically high and rigid standards for performance, fear of failure, and excessive self-criticism. Previous studies showed a direct association between increased perfectionism and poor sleep, though without taking into account possible mediating factors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that perfectionism was directly associated with poor sleep, and that this association collapsed, if mediating factors such as stress and poor emotion regulation were taken into account. Methods: Three hundred and forty six young adult students (M=23.87 years completed questionnaires relating to perfectionism traits, sleep, and psychological functioning such as stress perception, coping with stress, emotion regulation, and mental toughness. Results: Perfectionism was directly associated with poor sleep and poor psychological functioning. When stress, poor coping, and poor emotion regulation were entered in the equation, perfectionism traits no longer contributed substantively to the explanation

  11. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues.

  12. Environmental health risk assessment of dioxin in foods at the two most severe dioxin hot spots in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Vu-Anh, Le; Dunne, Michael; Toms, Leisa-Maree; Tenkate, Thomas; Thi, Minh-Hue Nguyen; Harden, Fiona

    2015-07-01

    Bien Hoa and Da Nang airbases were bulk storages for Agent Orange during the Vietnam War and currently are the two most severe dioxin hot spots. This study assesses the health risk of exposure to dioxin through foods for local residents living in seven wards surrounding these airbases. This study follows the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the health risk of exposure to dioxin in foods. Forty-six pooled samples of commonly consumed local foods were collected and analyzed for dioxin/furans. A food frequency and Knowledge-Attitude-Practice survey was also undertaken at 1000 local households, various stakeholders were involved and related publications were reviewed. Total dioxin/furan concentrations in samples of local "high-risk" foods (e.g. free range chicken meat and eggs, ducks, freshwater fish, snail and beef) ranged from 3.8 pg TEQ/g to 95 pg TEQ/g, while in "low-risk" foods (e.g. caged chicken meat and eggs, seafoods, pork, leafy vegetables, fruits, and rice) concentrations ranged from 0.03 pg TEQ/g to 6.1 pg TEQ/g. Estimated daily intake of dioxin if people who did not consume local high risk foods ranged from 3.2 pg TEQ/kg bw/day to 6.2 pg TEQ/kg bw/day (Bien Hoa) and from 1.2 pg TEQ/kg bw/day to 4.3 pg TEQ/kg bw/day (Da Nang). Consumption of local high risk foods resulted in extremely high dioxin daily intakes (60.4-102.8 pg TEQ/kg bw/day in Bien Hoa; 27.0-148.0 pg TEQ/kg bw/day in Da Nang). Consumption of local "high-risk" foods increases dioxin daily intakes far above the WHO recommended TDI (1-4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day). Practicing appropriate preventive measures is necessary to significantly reduce exposure and health risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Amelioration of oxidative stress-induced phenotype loss of parvalbumin interneurons might contribute to the beneficial effects of environmental enrichment in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao R; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Hong T; Ji, Mu H; Li, Hui H; Wu, Jing; Li, Kuan Y; Yang, Jian J

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disease following exposure to a severe traumatic event or physiological stress, which is characterized by anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and cognitive impairment. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Parvalbumin (PV) interneurons that are susceptible to oxidative stress are a subset of inhibitory GABAergic neurons regulating the excitability of pyramidal neurons, while dysfunction of PV interneurons is casually linked to many mental disorders including PTSD. We therefore hypothesized that environmental enrichment (EE), a method of enhanced cognitive, sensory and motor stimulation, can reverse the behavioral impairments by normalizing PV interneurons in a rat model of PTSD induced by inescapable foot shocks (IFS). Behavioral changes were determined by the open field, elevated plus maze, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze tests. The levels of nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (NOX2), NOX4, PV, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD-67), and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were determined. Our results showed that in this PTSD model, rats displayed the anxiety-like behavior, enhanced fear learning behavior, and hippocampus- dependent spatial memory deficit, which were accompanied by the up-regulation of NOX2, 8-OH-dG, and down-regulation of PV and GAD-67. Notably, EE reversed all these abnormalities. These results suggest that restoration of PV interneurons by inhibiting oxidative stress in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex might represent a mechanism through which EE reverses the behavioral impairments in a rat model of PTSD induced by IFS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. On the role of salicylic acid in plant responses to environmental stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, José A.; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Barba Espin, Gregorio

    2017-01-01

    (NPR1), which is one of the few known redox-regulated proteins in plants. Different synthetic chemicals are able to mimic the ability of SA to activate resistance to various stresses, both biotic and abiotic, in plants with agronomic interest. Among these chemicals, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA......Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone more commonly known by its role in human medicine than in the field of plant physiology. However, in the last two decades, SA has been described as an important signalling molecule in plants regulating growth, development and response to a wide number...... of biotic and abiotic stresses. Indeed, actually, it is well known that SA is a key signalling molecule involved in systemic acquired resistance (SAR), and recent works reported a role for SA in the response to salt or drought stresses. The precise mode of the stress hormone SA action is unclear, although...

  15. Environmental stress responses and experimental handling artifacts of a model organism, the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Birgitte; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Bucklin, Ann

    2018-01-01

    for these genes between 15 min and 24 h following exposure. Since handling stress clearly affects transcriptional patterns, it is important to consider handling when designing experiments, by either including additional controls or avoiding focus on impacted genes. Not considering handling in gene expression...... studies can lead to inaccurate conclusions. The present study provides a baseline for studying handling stress in future studies using this model organism and others....

  16. Ammonia stress under high environmental ammonia induces Hsp70 and Hsp90 in the mud eel, Monopterus cuchia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangzo, Hnunlalliani; Banerjee, Bodhisattwa; Saha, Shrabani; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2017-02-01

    The obligatory air-breathing mud eel (Monopterus cuchia) is frequently being challenged with high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure in its natural habitats. The present study investigated the possible induction of heat shock protein 70 and 90 (hsp70, hsc70, hsp90α and hsp90β) genes and more expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 proteins under ammonia stress in different tissues of the mud eel after exposure to HEA (50 mM NH 4 Cl) for 14 days. HEA resulted in significant accumulation of toxic ammonia in different body tissues and plasma, which was accompanied with the stimulation of oxidative stress in the mud eel as evidenced by more accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) during exposure to HEA. Further, hyper-ammonia stress led to significant increase in the levels of mRNA transcripts for inducible hsp70 and hsp90α genes and also their translated proteins in different tissues probably as a consequence of induction of hsp70 and hsp90α genes in the mud eel. However, hyper-ammonia stress was neither associated with any significant alterations in the levels of mRNA transcripts for constitutive hsc70 and hsp90β genes nor their translated proteins in any of the tissues studied. More abundance of Hsp70 and Hsp90α proteins might be one of the strategies adopted by the mud eel to defend itself from the ammonia-induced cellular damages under ammonia stress. Further, this is the first report of ammonia-induced induction of hsp70 and hsp90α genes under hyper-ammonia stress in any freshwater air-breathing teleost.

  17. The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling gene AtCHR12 mediates temporary growth arrest in Arabidopsis thaliana upon perceiving environmental stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlynarova, L.; Nap, J.P.H.; Bisseling, T.

    2007-01-01

    One of the earliest responses of plants to environmental stress is establishing a temporary growth arrest that allows adaptation to adverse conditions. The response to abiotic stress requires the modulation of gene expression, which may be mediated by the alteration of chromatin structures. This

  18. The Need for an Ecological Approach to Parental Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Combined Role of Individual and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derguy, C.; M'Bailara, K.; Michel, G.; Roux, S.; Bouvard, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify parental stress predictors in ASD by considering individual and environmental factors in an ecological approach. Participants were 115 parents of children with ASD aged from 3 to 10 years. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the best predictors of parental stress among child-related, parent-related…

  19. A novel vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase c subunit gene (ThVHAc1) from Tamarix hispida confers tolerance to several abiotic stresses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Caiqiu; Wang, Yucheng; Jiang, Bo; Liu, Guifeng; Yu, Lili; Wei, Zhigang; Yang, Chuanping

    2011-02-01

    Plant vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in response to different adverse environmental conditions. In the present study, we cloned and characterized a V-ATPase c subunit gene (ThVHAc1) from Tamarix hispida. The deduced ThVHAc1 amino acid sequence lacks a signal peptide and ThVHAc1 is a highly hydrophobic protein with four transmembrane regions. A transient expression assay showed that the ThVHAc1-GFP fusion protein is expressed on onion epidermal endomembrane cells. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that ThVHAc1 gene expression was induced by NaCl, NaHCO(3), PEG and CdCl(2) stress in T. hispida roots, stems and leaves. Exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) also stimulated ThVHAc1 transcript levels in the absence of stress, suggesting that ThVHAc1 is involved in ABA-dependent stress signaling pathway. Furthermore, the transgenic yeast expressing ThVHAc1 increased salt, drought, ultraviolet (UV), oxidative, heavy metal, cold and high temperature tolerance. Our results suggested that the ThVHAc1 gene from T. hispida serves a stress tolerance role in the species.

  20. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F., and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar. The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop increasingly vulnerable to E. loftini. Weed growth can be competitive with sugarcane but it also supports enhanced abundances and diversity of natural enemies that can suppress infestations of D. saccharalis. In an instance where the stalk borer is considered a stress factor, proximity of vulnerable crops to sugarcane can influence levels of E. loftini infestation of sugarcane. The adverse effects of each stress factor, in terms of stalk borer attack, can be reduced by adopting appropriate cultural practices, such as adequate irrigation, judicious use of nitrogen fertilizer, using noncompetitive weed growth, and not planting vulnerable crops near sugarcane fields. Understanding the relationships between stress factors and crop pests can provide valuable insights for plant breeders and tools for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies.

  1. Role of OsWAK124, a rice wall-associated kinase, in response to environmental heavy metal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, X.; Hou, X.

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Arabidopsis cell wall-associated kinase (WAK) family play important roles in both development and stress responses. There are about one hundred and twenty five OsWAKs annotated in the rice genome but their functions in rice growth and development are largely unknown. In this paper, we reported a functional role of the OsWAK124 (Os12g0266200) in rice heavy metal responses. Confocal GFP experiments located OsWAK124 in the cell wall and analyses of OsWAK124 promoter GUS transgenic lines suggested that OsWAK124 promoter is primarily active at the meristematic tissues under normal growth condition. Under stress conditions, however, OsWAK124 promoter activity is induced in non-meristematic tissues, such as leaf, stem and root, and the activity in the meristematic tissues is further enhanced. Various transgenic rice lines carrying either RNA interference (RNAi) or overexpression constructs were generated. Transgenic lines were tested for their responses to various stress conditions including salicylic acid, NaCl, AlCl/sub 3/, CuSO/sub 4/ and CdSO/sub 4/. Our analyses showed that rice seedlings overexpressing OsWAK124 are more resistant to the three tested heavy metals (Al, Cu, and Cd), which suggested that OsWAK124, like some Arabidopsis WAK members, plays a role in environmental heavy metal stress responses. (author)

  2. Demographic Mechanisms of Reef Coral Species Winnowing from Communities under Increased Environmental Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Riegl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Winnowing of poorly-adapted species from local communities causes shifts/declines in species richness, making ecosystems increasingly ecologically depauperate. Low diversity can be associated with marginality of environments, which is increasing as climate change impacts ecosystems globally. This paper demonstrates the demographic mechanisms (size-specific mortality, growth, fertility; and metapopulation connectivity associated with population-level changes due to thermal stress extremes for five zooxanthellate reef-coral species. Effects vary among species, leading to predictable changes in population size and, consequently, community structure. The Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG is an ecologically marginal reef environment with a subset of Indo-Pacific species, plus endemics. Local heating correlates with changes in coral population dynamics and community structure. Recent population dynamics of PAG corals were quantified in two phases (medium disturbed MD 1998–2010 and 2013–2017, severely disturbed SD 1996/8, 2010/11/12 with two stable states of declining coral frequency and cover. The strongest changes in life-dynamics, as expressed by transition matrices solved for MD and SD periods were in Acropora downingi and Porites harrisoni, which showed significant partial and whole-colony mortality (termed “shrinkers”. But in Dipsastrea pallida, Platygyra daedalea, Cyphastraea microphthalma the changes to life dynamics were more subtle, with only partial tissue mortality (termed “persisters”. Metapopulation models suggested recovery predominantly in species experiencing partial rather than whole-colony mortality. Increased frequency of disturbance caused progressive reduction in coral size, cover, and population fecundity. Also, the greater the frequency of disturbance, the more larval connectivity is required to maintain the metapopulation. An oceanographic model revealed important local larval retention and connectivity primarily between

  3. Metabolomics Reveals Cryptic Interactive Effects of Species Interactions and Environmental Stress on Nitrogen and Sulfur Metabolism in Seagrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Castorani, Max C. N.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication of estuaries and coastal seas is accelerating, increasing light stress on subtidal marine plants and changing their interactions with other species. To date, we have limited understanding of how such variations in environmental and biological stress modify the impact of interactions...... among foundational species and eventually affect ecosystem health. Here, we used metabolomics to assess the impact of light reductions on interactions between the seagrass Zostera marina, an important habitat-forming marine plant, and the abundant and commercially important blue mussel Mytilus edulis....... Plant performance varied with light availability but was unaffected by the presence of mussels. Metabolomic analysis, on the other hand, revealed an interaction between light availability and presence of M. edulis on seagrass metabolism. Under high light, mussels stimulated seagrass nitrogen and energy...

  4. Comparative Analysis of Stress Induced Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans following Exposure to Environmental and Lab Reconstituted Complex Metal Mixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Kumar

    Full Text Available Metals are essential for many physiological processes and are ubiquitously present in the environment. However, high metal concentrations can be harmful to organisms and lead to physiological stress and diseases. The accumulation of transition metals in the environment due to either natural processes or anthropogenic activities such as mining results in the contamination of water and soil environments. The present study used Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate gene expression as an indicator of physiological response, following exposure to water collected from three different locations downstream of a Swedish mining site and a lab reconstituted metal mixture. Our results indicated that the reconstituted metal mixture exerted a direct stress response in C. elegans whereas the environmental waters elicited either a diminished or abrogated response. This suggests that it is not sufficient to use the biological effects observed from laboratory mixtures to extrapolate the effects observed in complex aquatic environments and apply this to risk assessment and intervention.

  5. Effect of Caregiver Family Status on Care Recipient Symptom Severity and Caregiver Stress at Nursing Home Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Paulson, Daniel; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigates differences between primary informal caregivers who were in the care recipient’s immediate family (adult children or spouses) versus those primary caregivers who were outside the immediate family. Measurement occurred at the time of admission of the care recipient to an urban nursing home. We hypothesized that immediate family caregivers would report greater behavioral disturbance among care recipients and increased caregiver depression and stress. Data were ...

  6. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic and environmental tobacco smoke, nutrient intake, and oxidative stress in Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takuya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Suzuki, Kei; Mizoi, Miho; Adachi, Shu-Ichi; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya; Li, Yun-Shan; Kawai, Kazuaki; Kasai, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    The association between oxidative stress and exposure to environmental chemicals was assessed in a group of Japanese preschool children. The concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), inorganic arsenic (iAs) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and cotinine in spot urine samples, collected from 134 children (3-6 yrs) from a kindergarten in Kanagawa, Japan, were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress or exposure to environmental chemicals. For 76 subjects of the 134, intakes of anti-oxidant nutrients (vitamins A, C, and E, manganese, copper, zinc and selenium (Se)) were estimated from a food consumption survey carried out 2-4 weeks after urine sampling and by urine analysis (Se). The median (min-max) creatinine-corrected concentrations of urinary biomarkers were 4.45 (1.98-12.3), 0.127 (0.04-2.41), 4.78 (1.18-12.7), and 0.62 (iAs+MMA, and cotinine, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out using 8-OHdG concentration as a dependent variable and urinary biomarkers of exposure and Se intake, intakes of vitamins and biological attributes of the subjects as independent variables. To explain 8-OHdG concentrations, intake of vitamin A and age were significant variables with negative coefficients, while 1-OHP concentration had a positive coefficient. These results indicated that oxidative stress of children is affected by chemical exposure at environmental levels, by nutrient intake and by physiological factors in a complex manner. On the other hand, unstable statistical results due to sub-grouping of subject, based on the availability of food consumption data, were found: the present results should further be validated by future studies with suitable research design. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanical and environmental effects on stress corrosion cracking of low carbon pipeline steel in a soil solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, A.; Hernández, S.L.; Orozco-Cruz, R.; Galvan-Martínez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mechanical and environmental effects on SCC of X52 steel were investigated. ► Slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were performed in a soil solution (NS4). ► Different levels of polarization potentials were applied to mitigating SCC. ► SSRT results indicate that X52 pipeline steel was susceptible to SCC. ► SCC susceptibility increase as the yielding and ultimate tensile stress increase. -- Abstract: Mechanical and environmental effects on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of X52 pipeline steel were investigated using slow strain rate tests (SSRT) performed in a glass autoclave containing a soil solution at strain rate of 1 × 10 −6 in./s at room temperature. Polarization potentials of −100, −200 and −400 mV referred to open circuit potential (OCP) was applied in order to establish the effectiveness of cathodic protection in mitigating SCC of X52 pipeline steel. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations were done in order to analyze the SCC process. SSRT results indicate that X52 pipeline steel was susceptible to SCC. Susceptibility to SCC increase as the yielding stress (YS) and ultimate tensile stress (UTS) increase. The EIS results showed that the highest corrosion of the steel sample was obtained when the highest cathodic over potential was applied. SEM observations of these specimens showed a brittle type of fracture with transgranular appearance. The failure and SCC of X52 steel in soil solution was explained by hydrogen mechanism.

  8. Expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response in colonies of the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri exposed to various environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasselli, Stefano; Ballin, Francesca; Franchi, Nicola; Fabbri, Elena; Ballarin, Loriano

    2017-03-01

    Environmental stress conditions are ultimately related to the induction of oxidative stress in organisms, as a consequence of an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This could be exploited to study sub-lethal effects induced by the environment in the organisms. In the present work, we evaluate the possibility to use the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri as a bioindicator, to assess the environmental quality in the Lagoon of Venice. Three colony batches were immersed, for 22 days, at two sites (1 and 2) with different grades of hydrodynamics and anthropogenic impact and physico-chemical features of seawater; a control batch was kept in a large tank with continuous seawater flow at the Marine Station of the Department of Biology, University of Padova, in Chioggia (site 3). Seawater at site 2 had higher pH and temperature than site 1. Colonies were then retrieved, their mRNA was extracted and the level of transcription of genes involved in oxidative stress response (glutathione synthase, γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligase, modulatory subunit, two isoforms of glutathione peroxidases and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase) was evaluated. In colonies from sites 1 and 2, most genes showed significantly increased transcriptional levels with respect to control values. Spectrophotometric analyses of colony homogenates revealed that the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase was higher in colonies from site 2 as compared to site 1, allowing us to speculate that colonies in site 2 were under higher stress level than those in site 1. Overall, we can conclude that B. schlosseri seems a good indicator of the ecological status of the Lagoon environment, within a range of pH and temperature in which colonies are used to live.

  9. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  10. The ADH7 Promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Vanillin-Inducible and Enables mRNA Translation Under Severe Vanillin Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Trinh T. M.; Iwaki, Aya; Izawa, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the major phenolic aldehyde compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass and acts as a potent fermentation inhibitor to repress the growth and fermentative ability of yeast. Vanillin can be reduced to its less toxic form, vanillyl alcohol, by the yeast NADPH-dependent medium chain alcohol dehydrogenases, Adh6 and Adh7. However, there is little information available regarding the regulation of their gene expression upon severe vanillin stress, which has been shown to repre...

  11. Relationship of red and photographic infrared spectral radiances to alfalfa biomass, forage water content, percentage canopy cover, and severity of drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1979-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral data were collected using a handheld radiometer for two cuttings of alfalfa. Significant linear and non-linear correlation coefficients were found between the spectral variables and plant height, biomass, forage water content, and estimated canopy cover for the earlier alfalfa cutting. The alfalfa of later cutting experienced a period of severe drought stress which limited growth. The spectral variables were found to be highly correlated with the estimated drought scores for this alfalfa cutting.

  12. The Chernobyl accident as an example of how environmental burden may lead to persistent mental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legewie, H.; Boehm, A.; Boehnke, K.; Faas, A.; Gross, B.; Jaeggi, E.

    1990-01-01

    It was the aim of this qualitative analysis to give an account, as detailed and complete as possible, of time-dependent mental reactions to ecological afflictions through the Chernobyl accident as well as to describe reaction and compensation patterns typical for such challenges and to develop preliminary theories to explain the phenomena observed. These efforts make a contribution to basic research in that they pave the way to innovative methods and fields of knowledge that may be of equal relevance to environmental psychology, clinical psychology, social psychology and socioscientific technology. They make a contribution to field research in that the findings revealed elucidate generally held views about the toll of technocracy and environmental destruction. The results appear to be just as relevant to health and environmental counselling, environmental education and environment-oriented editorial work as they are to political decisions concerning future technologies. (orig.) [de

  13. Environmental stress responses and experimental handling artifacts of a model organism, the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Birgitte; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Bucklin, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Handling animals during experiments potentially affects the differential expression of genes chosen as biomarkers of sub-lethal stress. RNA sequencing was used to examine whole-transcriptome responses caused by laboratory handling of the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa. Salinity shock (S=35 to S=...... studies can lead to inaccurate conclusions. The present study provides a baseline for studying handling stress in future studies using this model organism and others....... for these genes between 15 min and 24 h following exposure. Since handling stress clearly affects transcriptional patterns, it is important to consider handling when designing experiments, by either including additional controls or avoiding focus on impacted genes. Not considering handling in gene expression...

  14. Impact of different analgesic depths and abdominal trauma of different severities on stress and recovery of rats undergoing total intravenous anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang HM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hai-ming Huang,1,2 Jun Cao,3 Lin-mei Zhu,4 Yu-qing Chen,2 Fu-ding Lu,2 Hong-wei Cai1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 2Department of Anesthesiology, 3Department of Hepatic and Biliary Pancreatic Surgery, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Clifford Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: A number of animal models have been developed to examine the pathophysiological consequences of surgical procedures, but anesthetic methods, monitoring, and management measures in these models are very different from those used in humans. This study was designed to create a rat model of abdominal surgery using anesthetic methods and perioperative treatment similar to those used in the clinic and to investigate the effects of different injury severities and depths of anesthesia and analgesia on surgical stress and postoperative recovery. Abdominal skin/muscle incision was compared with exploratory laparotomy in rats under propofol intravenous anesthesia, accompanied by perioperative measures such as oxygen inhalation, fluid infusion, warmth, blood gas analysis, and infection prevention. Stress indices (mean arterial pressure, heart rate, blood glucose, and plasma corticosterone were monitored during anesthesia and surgery, and recovery indicators (body weight, food consumption, and pain were measured after surgery. In addition, animals undergoing laparotomy were subjected to low and high dosages of propofol and sufentanil, in order to examine the relationship between anesthetic and analgesic depth and stress on recovery. Exploratory laparotomy induced a greater stress response and caused slower postoperative recovery as measured than somatic injury. High-dose sufentanil downregulated plasma corticosterone and improved postoperative recovery more effectively than high-dose propofol (P<0

  15. Herbal supplement extends life span under some environmental conditions and boosts stress resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Villeponteau

    Full Text Available Genetic studies indicate that aging is modulated by a great number of genetic pathways. We have used Drosophila longevity and stress assays to test a multipath intervention strategy. To carry out this strategy, we supplemented the flies with herbal extracts (SC100 that are predicted to modulate the expression of many genes involved in aging and stress resistance, such as mTOR, NOS, NF-KappaB, and VEGF. When flies were housed in large cages with SC100 added, daily mortality rates of both male and female flies were greatly diminished in mid to late life. Surprisingly, SC100 also stabilized midlife mortality rate increases so as to extend the maximum life span substantially beyond the limits previously reported for D. melanogaster. Under these conditions, SC100 also promoted robust resistance to partial starvation stress and to heat stress. Fertility was the same initially in both treated and control flies, but it became significantly higher in treated flies at older ages as the fertility of control flies declined. Mean and maximum life spans of flies in vials at the same test site were also extended by SC100, but the life spans were short in absolute terms. In contrast, at an independent test site where stress was minimized, the flies exhibited much longer mean life spans, but the survival curves became highly rectangular and the effects of SC100 on both mean and maximum life spans declined greatly or were abolished. The data indicate that SC100 is a novel herbal mix with striking effects on enhancing Drosophila stress resistance and life span in some environments, while minimizing mid to late life mortality rates. They also show that the environment and other factors can have transformative effects on both the length and distribution of survivorship, and on the ability of SC100 to extend the life span.

  16. Hydraulics and gas exchange recover more rapidly from severe drought stress in small pot-grown grapevines than in field-grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Pascual; Botía, Pablo; Keller, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Modifications of plant hydraulics and shoot resistances (R shoot ) induced by water withholding followed by rewatering, and their relationships with plant water status, leaf gas exchange and water use efficiency at the leaf level, were investigated in pot-grown and field-grown, own-rooted Syrah grapevines in an arid climate. Water stress induced anisohydric behavior, gradually reducing stomatal conductance (g s ) and leaf photosynthesis (A) in response to decreasing midday stem water potential (Ψ s ). Water stress also rapidly increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/g s ); this effect persisted for many days after rewatering. Whole-plant (K plant ), canopy (K canopy ), shoot (K shoot ) and leaf (K leaf ) hydraulic conductances decreased during water stress, in tune with the gradual decrease in Ψ s , leaf gas exchange and whole plant water use. Water-stressed vines also had a lower Ψ gradient between stem and leaf (ΔΨ l ), which was correlated with lower leaf transpiration rate (E). E and ΔΨ l increased with increasing vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in non-stressed control vines but not in stressed vines. Perfusion of xylem-mobile dye showed that water flow to petioles and leaves was substantially reduced or even stopped under moderate and severe drought stress. Leaf blade hydraulic resistance accounted for most of the total shoot resistance. However, hydraulic conductance of the whole root system (K root ) was not significantly reduced until water stress became very severe in