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Sample records for seven-day point prevalence

  1. Prevalência e fatores associados a níveis insuficientes de atividade física em jovens estudantes de duas cidades Brasileiras: últimos sete dias e semana típica ou normal Prevalence and associated factors to insufficient level physical activity and in youth from two city of Brazil: last seven days or typical week

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cazuza de Farias Júnior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou as prevalências de níveis insuficientes de atividade física e fatores associados determinados a partir da medida das atividades físicas praticadas nos últimos sete dias e durante uma semana típica ou normal. Trata-se de uma análise transversal dos dados de base ("baseline data" de uma intervenção escolar randomizada (Projeto Saúde na Boa, que incluiu 2.096 jovens (15-24 anos; 55,6% do sexo feminino, de 20 escolas públicas (10 em Florianópolis e 10 em Recife, pareadas por tamanho e localização geográfica. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário previamente validado. Foram classificados como "insuficientemente ativos" os sujeitos que não atingiram dose recomendada de prática de atividades físicas (> 60 minutos diários de atividades físicas de intensidade moderada a vigorosa, > 5dias/semana. A medida de atividade física foi efetuada considerando dois períodos de referência: os últimos sete dias e uma semana típica ou normal. A medida das atividades físicas praticadas considerando a referência dos últimos sete dias resultou em prevalência mais elevada de níveis insuficientes de atividade física em comparação à medida considerando a referência da semana típica ou normal (60,8% vs. 54,6%; p This study compared the prevalence rates of insufficient physical activity levels and of certain related factors determined for using physical activity measure during in the past seven days, and in a typical week. This is a cross-sectional analysis (baseline data of a school-based randomized trial (the Saude na Boa project, including 2,096 students (15-24 years of age; 55.6% females from 10 schools in Florianopolis and 10 schools in Recife, pair-matched by size and location. Data were collected by a previously validated questionnaire. Individuals who reported performing moderate to vigorous intensity physical activities lasting > 60 minutes, > 5 days per week were classified as "active" and the

  2. The South African Surgical Outcomes Study: a seven-day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LR Mathivha, TR Mokoena, S Monokoane, Rui Moreno, David ... Method: A seven-day national, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study was conducted in 50 government-funded hospitals in South .... Dr George Mukhari Hospital.

  3. Validation of the OMNI RPE Seven Day Exertional Recall Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Mark A.; Robertson, Robert J.; Thekkada, Savitha J.; Gallagher, Michael, Jr.; Hunt, Sarah E.; Goss, Fredric L.; Aaron, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the validity of the Seven Day Recall Questionnaire among recreationally active men and women. Method: Initially, participants completed a level walk (2.5 mph [4.0 kph]), hill walk (3.5 mph [5.6 kph], 5% grade), and run (5.0 mph [8.0 kph], 2.5% grade). Seven days later, participants were given the Seven Day…

  4. SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOPERITONEUM IN A SEVEN DAY OLD INFANT

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    Franky Luhulima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The term pneumoperitoneum is used to describe the presence of free gas  or air within the peritoneal cavity. Spontaneous pneumoperitoneum or “non-surgical” pneumoperitoneum is a pneumoperitoneum. not associated with a perforated viscus. This pneumoperitoneum   is rare at any pediatric age. In the pediatric population, nonsurgical pneumoperitoneum occurs in 1% to 3% of mechanically ventilated infants, depend on the mode of the ventilation. Pneumoperitoneum without gastrointestinal perforation on the other hand is very rare, and this is usually seen in neonates with respiratory distress and on mechanically ventilator or CPAP. We reported a case of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum in a seven day old infant . The infant presented with a sudden abdominal distention and dyspnea. Plain abdominal x-ray showed a radiolucency image in the superior abdomen. In this patient is done the act of a needle aspirations for drainage air in the peritonium. This patient recovered well a[er done such action by pediatric surgical

  5. Peripheral phlebitis: a point-prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Georgita T; Barrett, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the factors influencing peripheral phlebitis in the adult medical-surgical population. The authors would then be able to use those data to determine whether a change in practice was warranted. Data collection and analysis of 188 intravenous sites revealed that females with higher doses of medications in intravenous sites of longer dwell times and suboptimal nutrition were at greater risk of developing peripheral phlebitis. The point prevalence was greater than the recommended 5%, which led the authors to review their facility's patient care and documentation practices.

  6. Do expanded seven-day NHS services improve clinical outcomes? Analysis of comparative institutional performance from the ?NHS Services, Seven Days a Week? project 2013?2016

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Hoong-Wei; Wong, Danny Jon Nian; Dean, Benjamin John Floyd; Hall, Alistair Scott

    2017-01-01

    Background The cause of adverse weekend clinical outcomes remains unknown. In 2013, the ?NHS Services, Seven Days a Week? project was initiated to improve access to services across the seven-day week. Three years on, we sought to analyse the impact of such changes across the English NHS. Methods Aggregated trust-level data on crude mortality rates, Summary Hospital-Level Mortality Indicator (SHMI), mean length of stay (LOS), A&E admission and four-hour breach rates were obtained from national...

  7. Do expanded seven-day NHS services improve clinical outcomes? Analysis of comparative institutional performance from the "NHS Services, Seven Days a Week" project 2013-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, H-W; Wong, D. J. N.; Dean, B. J. F.; Hall, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The cause of adverse weekend clinical outcomes remains unknown. In 2013, the “NHS Services, Seven Days a Week” project was initiated to improve access to services across the seven-day week. Three years on, we sought to analyse the impact of such changes across the English NHS. Methods: Aggregated trust-level data on crude mortality rates, Summary Hospital-Level Mortality Indicator (SHMI), mean length of stay (LOS), A&E admission and four-hour breach rates were obtained f...

  8. Three dimensional changes in maxillary complete dentures immersed in water for seven days after polymerization

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    Shinsuke Sadamori

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the three dimensional changes in the fitting surface and artificial teeth of maxillary complete dentures which were fabricated using two different polymerizing processes: heat polymerization (HP and microwave polymerization (MP, after immersion in water for seven days. The amount of distortion in the molar region of the alveolar ridge was significantly different between HP and MP. However, the overall distortion of the dentures polymerized using both methods was similar. The distortion due to immersion in water for seven days compensated for the polymerization distortion, but the amount of distortion was very slight.

  9. Seven days of doxycycline is an effective treatment for asymptomatic rectal Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgalib, A; Alexander, S; Tong, C Y W; White, J A

    2011-08-01

    There are no evidence-based guidelines for the specific management of rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection. All men who have sex with men (MSM) diagnosed with asymptomatic rectal CT by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) at a large London genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic between September 2006 and September 2009 were offered oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for seven days and invited for a test of cure (TOC) by CT NAAT four weeks after treatment. A total of 487 asymptomatic rectal CT infections were diagnosed and analysis was restricted to 165 TOCs from men whose only treatment had been doxycycline for seven days. The median time post-treatment for TOC was 45 days (interquartile range [IQR], 34-88). Only two patients tested CT-positive at follow-up. One had taken doxycycline only for three days; the other attended for TOC 240 days after the completion of doxycycline treatment and at this time presented with new symptoms in the context of ongoing high sexual risk. Our findings show that doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for seven days is highly effective treatment for asymptomatic rectal CT infection, achieving clearance of CT in 98.8% (163/165; 95% CI 95.4-99.9%) of cases. We advocate doxycycline for seven days as first-line therapy for asymptomatic rectal CT.

  10. Circuit class or seven-day therapy for increasing intensity of rehabilitation after stroke: protocol of the CIRCIT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Susan; English, Coralie; Crotty, Maria; Segal, Leonie; Bernhardt, Julie; Esterman, Adrian

    2011-12-01

    There is strong evidence for a dose-response relationship between physical therapy early after stroke and recovery of function. The optimal method of maximizing physical therapy within finite health care resources is unknown. To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two alternative models of physical therapy service delivery (seven-days per week therapy services or group circuit class therapy over five-days a week) to usual care for people receiving inpatient rehabilitation after stroke. Multicenter, three-armed randomized controlled trial with blinded assessment of outcomes. A total of 282 people admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities after stroke with an admission functional independence measure (FIM) score within the moderate range (total 40-80 points or motor 38-62 points) will be randomized to receive one of three interventions: • usual care therapy over five-days a week • standard care therapy over seven-days a week, or • group circuit class therapy over five-days a week. Participants will receive the allocated intervention for the length of their hospital stay. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat. The primary outcome measure is walking ability (six-minute walk test) at four-week postintervention with three- and six-month follow-up. Economic analysis will include a costing analysis based on length of hospital stay and staffing/resource costs and a cost-utility analysis (incremental quality of life per incremental cost, relative to usual care). Secondary outcomes include walking speed and independence, ability to perform activities of daily living, arm function, quality of life and participant satisfaction. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.

  11. The Ethical Imperative to Move to a Seven-Day Care Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Anthony; McDonald, Fiona; Hobson, Tania

    2016-06-01

    Whilst the nature of human illness is not determined by time of day or day of week, we currently structure health service delivery around a five-day delivery model. At least one country is endeavouring to develop a systems-based approach to planning a transition from five- to seven-day healthcare delivery models, and some services are independently instituting program reorganization to achieve these ends as research, amongst other things, highlights increased mortality and morbidity for weekend and after-hours admissions to hospitals. In this article, we argue that this issue does not merely raise instrumental concerns but also opens up a normative ethical dimension, recognizing that clinical ethical dilemmas are impacted on and created by systems of care. Using health policy ethics, we critically examine whether our health services, as currently structured, are at odds with ethical obligations for patient care and broader collective goals associated with the provision of publicly funded health services. We conclude by arguing that a critical health policy ethics perspective applying relevant ethical values and principles needs to be included when considering whether and how to transition from five-day to seven-day models for health delivery.

  12. Changes in the Balance Performance of Polish Recreational Skiers after Seven Days of Alpine Skiing

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    Wojtyczek Beata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alpine skiing is one of the most popular leisure time winter sporting activities. Skiing imposes high requirements concerning physical fitness, particularly regarding balance abilities. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in balance performance of recreational skiers after a seven-day ski camp. A total of 78 students - 24 women and 54 men - participated in the study. The ski course was held in accordance with the official program of the Polish Ski Federation. The study sample was comprised of 43 beginners and 35 intermediate skiers. All students were tested with the MFT S3-Check, the day before and the day after the ski camp. The test system consisted of an unstable uniaxial platform, with an integrated sensor and corresponding software. Changes in balance performance (sensory and stability index were evaluated using paired t-tests. Additionally, changes in sensory and stability categories, which were based on the norm data, were analyzed. Female and male participants showed significantly better sensory and stability indices after skiing. Considerable changes from weak or very weak to average or good balance categories could be seen after skiing for both sexes. Regarding skiing experience, both beginners and intermediate skiers improved their sensory and stability indices significantly after skiing. Hence, recreational alpine skiing resulted in better balance performance regardless of sex or skiing experience. Skiing as an outdoor activity offers the opportunity to improve balance performance with a positive impact on everyday life activities.

  13. Penicillin for acute sore throat : randomised double blind trial of seven days versus three days treatment or placebo in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S; Sachs, APE; Ruijs, GJHM; Gubbels, JW; Hoes, AW; de Melker, RA

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess whether treatment with penicillin for three days and the traditional treatment for seven days were equally as effective at accelerating resolution of symptoms in patients with sore throat compared with placebo. Design Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Setting 43

  14. A comparison of a single-dose and a seven-day treatment with Amoxicillin in asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy

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    Niro Manesh S

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 1600 pregnant women who had referred to two prenatal clinics (Imam Khomeini and Mirza Kochek-Khan were investigated. Ninety cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria were observed; 77 of those cooperated with us until the end of our study. The subjects, who were within the 14-36 weeks of gestational age, were randomly divided into two groups: Group A received the medicine (Amoxicillin in a single-dose (3gr.; and, group B received it within seven days (1gr. TDS. The rate of recovery (65% in group A and 56.8% in group B, based on chi-squared test, showed no significant difference (P=0.747%. According to the results of this study, we can conclude that single-dose treatment has the same value as a seven-day treatment and the advantages such as decreased total dose, lower cost, and a better patient compliance.

  15. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Muscle Glycogen Content in Rats Seven Days after Eccentric Contraction

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    Hiroyuki Kato

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, which impairs recovery of glycogen and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP content over several days. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs enhance the recovery in muscles that are damaged after eccentric contractions. However, the role of LEAAs in this process remains unclear. We evaluated the content in glycogen and high energy phosphates molecules (phosphocreatine (PCr, adenosine di-phosphate (ADP and ATP in rats that were following electrically stimulated eccentric contractions. Muscle glycogen content decreased immediately after the contraction and remained low for the first three days after the stimulation, but increased seven days after the eccentric contraction. LEAAs administration did not change muscle glycogen content during the first three days after the contraction. Interestingly, however, it induced a further increase in muscle glycogen seven days after the stimulation. Contrarily, ATP content decreased immediately after the eccentric contraction, and remained lower for up to seven days after. Additionally, LEAAs administration did not affect the ATP content over the experimental period. Finally, ADP and PCr levels did not significantly change after the contractions or LEAA administration. LEAAs modulate the recovery of glycogen content in muscle after damage-inducing exercise.

  16. A comparison of a single-dose and a seven-day treatment with Amoxicillin in asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Niro Manesh S; Amiri A; Ali yari Sh

    1994-01-01

    In this study, 1600 pregnant women who had referred to two prenatal clinics (Imam Khomeini and Mirza Kochek-Khan) were investigated. Ninety cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria were observed; 77 of those cooperated with us until the end of our study. The subjects, who were within the 14-36 weeks of gestational age, were randomly divided into two groups: Group A received the medicine (Amoxicillin) in a single-dose (3gr.); and, group B received it within seven days (1gr. TDS). The rate of recovery...

  17. Point prevalence of surgical checklist use in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jammer, I; Ahmad, T; Aldecoa, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of use of the World Health Organization surgical checklist is unknown. The clinical effectiveness of this intervention in improving postoperative outcomes is debated. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective analysis of data describing surgical checklist use from a 7 day c...

  18. Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial utilization in a Canadian tertiary-care teaching hospital

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    Colin Lee

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This prospective point prevalence survey provided important baseline information on antimicrobial use within a large tertiary care teaching hospital and identified potential targets for future antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. A multi-center point prevalence survey should be considered to identify patterns of antimicrobial use in Canada and to establish the first steps toward international antimicrobial surveillance.

  19. A comparison of antibiotic point prevalence survey data from four Irish regional/general hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naughton, C

    2011-06-01

    Point prevalence surveys (PPS) are increasingly used to examining and compare hospital antibiotic consumption. The aim of this study was to identify the (1) point prevalence of antibiotic use in one regional hospital and (2) compare PPS data from similar regional\\/general hospitals.

  20. Characteristics of sperm motility in boar semen diluted in different extenders and stored for seven days at 18 degrees C.

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    Estienne, Mark J; Harper, Allen F; Day, Jennifer L

    2007-11-01

    Although numerous extenders exist for diluting boar semen, little research has been conducted comparing commercial extenders with regard to maintaining sperm motility during storage. The objective was to use a computer- assisted sperm analysis system to assess motility of boar spermatozoa diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution, Merck-III, Androhep-lite, Sperm Aid, MR-A, Modena, X-Cell, VSP, and Vital. Ejaculates from boars (n=10) were collected and sub-samples were diluted (35x10(6) spermatozoa/ml) in the different extenders and stored for seven days at 18 degrees. Extender by day interactions were detected (pextenders. For example, on day 7, the percentages of motile and progressively motile spermatozoa were highest (pextender utilized, but with the exception of Sperm Aid, all extenders maintained a high degree of sperm motility through 7 days of storage.

  1. PRA-1 offshore platform start-up within seven days; Operacionalizacao da plataforma offshore PRA-1 em sete dias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Mitidieri, Jorge; Faria, Jose Luis Coutinho de; Ribeiro, Juan Carlos; Moura, Mario Arthur [Construtora Norberto Oderbrecht S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The technologic innovations are very hard features with regards to Offshore Engineering and Construction over the worldwide. The innovations only make sense since they are focus on the high productivity, safe job and cost reduction compared with the current technologies. Inside the scenario mentioned above is Construtora Norberto Odebrecht S.A. concept for the PRA-1 platform Engineering and Construction. Through a very advanced and innovation concept, it was defined as the Main Strategic Planning of the undertaking not use a temporary platform support (named in Brazil as 'Flotel') during the 'Hook-up', commissioning and star-up offshore phase. The success of the strategic made possible through the implementation of new engineering tools, and, besides this, through a very careful offshore planning focused on minimizing and make easier as much as possible the offshore activities. The planning can be basically spitted on the following parts: A- Onshore preparations (Assembly, Integration and Commissioning of the Utilities and Accommodation Modules) B- Offshore detailed planning of the critical activities concerning the start-up of the systems responsible for leaving the platform ready for 'live'. This operation was defined as 'seven days of platform live support' (main target of this paper). (author)

  2. Changes in the body weight of term infants, born in the tropics, during the first seven days of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Claudia; Carrara, Verena; Thien, Naw Aye Mya; Paw, Naw Moo Ku; Rijken, Marcus; McGready, Rose; Nosten, François

    2013-06-14

    Identifying unwell neonates, particularly in the first week of life, is often subjective. If normal values are known, calculating the weight lost or gained from birth weight can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation of the health of a neonate. Serial body weights of well, term, breast fed infants who were attending for routine follow up, were recorded at the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit clinic in Maela Camp for displaced persons on the Thailand Myanmar border. Newborn examination was routine. Weight loss, expressed as percent weight lost from birth weight, and weight gain, expressed as a velocity (g/kg/day), was calculated for the first seven days of life. The results from normal birth weight infants, low birth weight infants (gestational age infants (SGA) were examined. In the first week of life there were no significant differences in weight gained or lost across the three study groups. The maximum weight lost was 4.4% (95% CI 4.1 - 4.6%), which occurred on day three. Weight gain ranged from 13 g/kg/day [95% CI 10 - 16] on day four to 18 g/kg/day [95% CI 15 - 20] on days six and seven. Use of these normal values for weight gain and loss, allows infants falling outside of the expected range (95% CI) to be easily identified and subsequently highlighted as needing further medical review.

  3. Ecological association between HIV and concurrency point-prevalence in South Africa's ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris

    2013-11-01

    HIV prevalence between different ethnic groups within South Africa exhibits considerable variation. Numerous authors believe that elevated sexual partner concurrency rates are important in the spread of HIV. Few studies have, however, investigated if differential concurrency rates could explain differential HIV spread within ethnic groups in South Africa. This ecological analysis, explores how much of the variation in HIV prevalence by ethnic group is explained by differential concurrency rates. Using a nationally representative survey (the South African National HIV Prevalence, HIV Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey, 2005) the HIV prevalence in each of eight major ethnic groups was calculated. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between an ethnic group's HIV prevalence and the point-prevalence of concurrency. Results showed that HIV prevalence rates varied considerably between South Africa's ethnic groups. This applied to both different racial groups and to different ethnic groups within the black group. The point-prevalence of concurrency by ethnic group was strongly associated with HIV prevalence (R(2) = 0.83; p = 0.001). Tackling the key drivers of high HIV transmission in this population may benefit from more emphasis on partner reduction interventions.

  4. The effect of maternal breast variations on neonatal weight gain in the first seven days of life

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    Esmaeili Abbas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to examine whether specific maternal breast variations (such as flat nipple, inverted nipple, large breast or/and large nipple are barriers for weight gain in breastfed infants during the first seven days of life. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 100 healthy term neonates were followed from birth to day seven in two groups; Group A: fifty neonates born to mothers with specified breast variations and Group B: fifty neonates born to mothers without such breast variations ("normal breasts". All neonates were the first child of their families and there was no sex ratio difference between the two groups. Neonates' weight at birth and day seven were measured and the mean weight differences in the two groups were compared using paired t-test. Results Neonates born to mothers without the specified breast variations had a mean weight gain of (+ 53 ± 154.4 g at day seven., Not only there was no increase in the mean weight of neonates in the other group, but they had a mean decrease of weight of (- 162 ± 125.5 g by the seventh day of their life compared to birth weight. Thus, neonates born to mothers without breast variations had significantly greater weight gain than neonates born to the mothers with the specified variations (p Conclusion Breast variation among first-time mothers acts as an important barrier to weight gain among breastfed neonates in the early days of life. Health professionals need skills in the management of breastfeeding among mothers with the specified breast variations, so that mothers are given appropriate advice on how to breastfeed and overcome these problems.

  5. Antimicrobial usage in German acute care hospitals: results of the third national point prevalence survey and comparison with previous national point prevalence surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, Seven Johannes Sam; Gastmeier, Petra; Piening, Brar Christian; Behnke, Michael; Peña Diaz, Luis Alberto; Gropmann, Alexander; Rosenbusch, Marie-Luise; Kramer, Tobias Siegfried; Hansen, Sonja

    2018-04-01

    Previous point prevalence surveys (PPSs) revealed the potential for improving antimicrobial usage (AU) in German acute care hospitals. Data from the 2016 German national PPS on healthcare-associated infections and AU were used to evaluate efforts in antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). A national PPS in Germany was organized by the German National Reference Centre for Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections in 2016 as part of the European PPS initiated by the ECDC. The data were collected in May and June 2016. Results were compared with data from the PPS 2011. A total of 218 hospitals with 64 412 observed patients participated in the PPS 2016. The prevalence of patients with AU was 25.9% (95% CI 25.6%-26.3%). No significant increase or decrease in AU prevalence was revealed in the group of all participating hospitals. Prolonged surgical prophylaxis was found to be common (56.1% of all surgical prophylaxes on the prevalence day), but significantly less prevalent than in 2011 (P < 0.01). The most frequently administered antimicrobial groups were penicillins plus β-lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) (23.2%), second-generation cephalosporins (12.9%) and fluoroquinolones (11.3%). Significantly more penicillins plus BLIs and fewer second-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were used in 2016. Overall, an increase in the consumption of broad-spectrum antimicrobials was noted. For 68.7% of all administered antimicrobials, the indication was documented in the patient notes. The current data reaffirm the points of improvement that previous data identified and reveal that recent efforts in AMS in German hospitals require further intensification.

  6. Atrial fibrillation detected by external loop recording for seven days or two-day simultaneous Holter recording: A comparison in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejr, Michala Herskind; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Damgaard, Dorte; Sandal, Birgitte Forsom; May, Ole

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac cause of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (IS/TIA). To compare the diagnostic value of seven-day external loop recording (ELR) and two-day Holter recording for detecting AF after IS/TIA. 191 IS/TIA patients without AF history. Endpoint was AF >30s. We started two-day Holter recording and seven-day ELR simultaneously. Seven-day ELR and two-day Holter recording detected the same three AF patients. ELR detected another six patients with AF adjudicated by cardiologists, four detections after Holter (3 vs. 7, p=0.125) and two false-positive detections during Holter. Seven-day ELR automatically classified 50/191 patients (26%) with AF, but only 7/50 (14%) were confirmed as AF by cardiologists. Seven-day ELR did not detect significantly more patients with AF than two-day Holter recording. 86% of patients with ELR-classified AF were false positives, indicating a poor performance of the automatic AF detection algorithm used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Water Intake in a Sample of Greek Adults Evaluated with the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ and a Seven-Day Diary

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    Adelais Athanasatou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on the importance of hydration in health has created an unequivocal need to enrich knowledge on water intake of the general population and on the contribution of beverages to total water intake. We evaluated in the past water intake in a sample of Greek adults using two approaches. In study A, volunteers completed the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ, a food frequency questionnaire, designed to evaluate water intake (n = 1092; 48.1% males; 43 ± 18 years. In study B, a different population of volunteers recorded water, beverage, and food intake in seven-day diaries (n = 178; 51.1% males; 37 ± 12 years. Herein, data were reanalyzed with the objective to reveal the contribution of beverages in total water intake with these different methodologies. Beverage recording was grouped in the following categories: Hot beverages; milk; fruit and vegetable juices; caloric soft drinks; diet soft drinks; alcoholic drinks; other beverages; and water. Total water intake and water intake from beverages was 3254 (SE 43 mL/day and 2551 (SE 39 mL/day in study A; and 2349 (SE 59 mL/day and 1832 (SE 56 mL/day in study B. In both studies water had the highest contribution to total water intake, approximately 50% of total water intake, followed by hot beverages (10% of total water intake and milk (5% of total water intake. These two approaches contribute information on water intake in Greece and highlight the contribution of different beverages; moreover, they point out differences in results obtained from different methodologies attributed to limitations in their use.

  8. Food Insecurity among Community College Students: Prevalence and Association with Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Maya E.; Snelling, Anastasia; Linck, Henry

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of food insecurity among community college students (N = 301) and the relationship between food insecurity and student grade point average (GPA). It employed a cross-sectional intercept survey, utilizing the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Household Food Security Survey Module, student self-reported GPA, and…

  9. Determining the Correlation Between Three and Seven Day Records of Fluids Consumption to Determine an Appropriate Method for Estimating the Amount and Type of Fluids Intake in Adults

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    Karandish

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Different methods are used for adequate fluid intake assessment, while there is no standard method for adequate fluid intake assessment. Objectives The current pilot study aimed to evaluate the amount, type and frequency of fluids consumption to determine the correlation between three- and seven-day records. Methods This pilot cross-sectional study was done on 30 adult subjects in Ahvaz, Iran during year 2014. Demographic data were collected via a questionnaire and fluids consumption was assessed with a seven days records questionnaire. For data analyses the SPSS 16 software was used. Results Results of this cross-sectional study showed that the average total daily fluids consumption was 1.6 liter. Total fluids consumption for each subject on average in three and seven days was 4.5 and 11 liter, respectively. Water was the major fluid, which the participants consumed and tea was the second item. Total amount and frequency of fluids intake were not significantly different between three and seven-day records (P = 0.287, (P = 0.546. Conclusions This study showed that there was no significant difference between the record of seven and three days of fluids consumption in the participants and it is suggested that three-day records is useful in order to determine fluids intake.

  10. Global evidence on the effect of point-of-sale display bans on smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyun; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-01-13

    Since Iceland became the first country to impose a ban on point-of-sale (POS) tobacco product displays in 2001, 20 countries have implemented POS display bans as of 2016. This study examined the effect that POS display bans have on smoking prevalence. Data were sourced from Euromonitor International and the WHO MPOWER package for 2007-2014 from 77 countries worldwide. generalised linear models with country and year fixed effects were estimated to analyse the effect of POS display bans on smoking prevalence. Having a POS display ban reduced overall adult daily smoking, male smoking and female smoking by about 7%, 6% and 9%, respectively. Having a POS display ban is likely to reduce smoking prevalence and generate public health benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Point prevalence of neurosis in the Lundby Study 1947-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Erik; Bogren, Mats; Mattisson, Cecilia; Nettelbladt, Per

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to report and discuss the changing point prevalence rate of neurosis 1947-1997 in the Lundby cohort. The Lundby Study is a prospective longitudinal study of a geographically defined total population in the south of Sweden. Field investigations were performed in 1947, 1957, 1972 and in 1997, with psychiatrists interviewing the probands in a semi-structured way. Additional information was gathered from registers, case notes and key informants. Throughout the period of 50 years, the Lundby Study used its own diagnostic system with neurosis referring to non-psychotic mental illness in the absence of an organic brain disease. After 1957, no newcomers were included, and therefore only probands 40 years of age or older at the cross-sectional surveys are included in the present paper. For men aged 40-59 and 60 years or older, respectively, the age-specific point prevalence of neurosis increased from 2.5% and 0.5% in 1947, to 8.3% and 8.4% in 1972. The corresponding figures for women were 8.0% and 1.3% in 1947, and 24.2% and 20.1% in 1972. The increase could be seen in all degrees of impairment, but it was most pronounced in the mild and medium impairment groups. Except for a slight decrease in point prevalence in the female group 40-59 years of age, there were no significant changes from 1972 to 1997. A large increase in the point prevalence rate of neurosis could be seen 1947-1972, but not 1972-1997. Because of the many biases inherent in longitudinal psychiatric studies, our results must be interpreted with caution.

  12. Identification of 'Point A' as the prevalent source of error in cephalometric analysis of lateral radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogger, P; Sacher, C; Weber, S; Millesi, G; Seemann, R

    2018-04-10

    Deviations in measuring dentofacial components in a lateral X-ray represent a major hurdle in the subsequent treatment of dysgnathic patients. In a retrospective study, we investigated the most prevalent source of error in the following commonly used cephalometric measurements: the angles Sella-Nasion-Point A (SNA), Sella-Nasion-Point B (SNB) and Point A-Nasion-Point B (ANB); the Wits appraisal; the anteroposterior dysplasia indicator (APDI); and the overbite depth indicator (ODI). Preoperative lateral radiographic images of patients with dentofacial deformities were collected and the landmarks digitally traced by three independent raters. Cephalometric analysis was automatically performed based on 1116 tracings. Error analysis identified the x-coordinate of Point A as the prevalent source of error in all investigated measurements, except SNB, in which it is not incorporated. In SNB, the y-coordinate of Nasion predominated error variance. SNB showed lowest inter-rater variation. In addition, our observations confirmed previous studies showing that landmark identification variance follows characteristic error envelopes in the highest number of tracings analysed up to now. Variance orthogonal to defining planes was of relevance, while variance parallel to planes was not. Taking these findings into account, orthognathic surgeons as well as orthodontists would be able to perform cephalometry more accurately and accomplish better therapeutic results. Copyright © 2018 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tobacco Point-of-Purchase marketing in school neighbourhoods and school smoking prevalence: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Chris Y; Hsu, Helen C H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Hadd, Valerie; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2007-01-01

    Point of Purchase (PoP) promotional and advertising activities are a sophisticated tobacco marketing strategy. This study describes tobacco PoP activities in school neighbourhoods and compares PoP activities in retail stores between schools with high and low smoking prevalence. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 randomly selected schools across five provinces. Students in grades 10-11 completed a questionnaire on smoking. Observations were made in all retail stores located within a one-kilometre radius around the school. ANOVA tests were used to detect differences on PoP variables between high (> 20.6%) and low ( 2 days in the last 30 days. Approximately half of retail stores in each school neighbourhood exhibited tobacco PoP activities. Average school smoking prevalence was 20.99%. There were significant main effects on PoP variables between schools with high and low smoking prevalence, Wilk's lambda = 0.81, F (6,74) = 2.89, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.19. Stores near schools with high smoking prevalence had significantly lower prices per cigarette (F (1,79) = 15.34, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.16), more in-store promotions (F (1,79) = 6.73, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.08), and fewer government-sponsored health warnings (F (1,79) = 6.26, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.07) compared to schools with low smoking prevalence. Higher levels of PoP activities in stores located in the school neighbourhood are related to school smoking prevalence. Schools with low smoking prevalence had more stores that posted government health warning signs and higher cigarette prices. Legislation regulating PoP activities and health warnings in school neighbourhoods should be considered.

  14. Trinta e sete dias em Nova York com Adalzira Bittencourt Thirty - seven days in New York with Adalzira Bittencourt

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    Peggy Sharpe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A viagem de Adalzira Bittencourt para os Estados Unidos durante 1939 gerou a publicação de uma narrativa de viagem que conta os detalhes de sua visita a inúmeras escolas, hospitais, orfanatos de Nova York e à Feira Mundial de 1939 na mesma cidade. Suas impressões sobre as reformas eugênicas, que estavam sendo implementadas nos Estados Unidos nessa época, revelam sua aliança aos projetos de renovação cultural patrocinados pelo regime de Getúlio Vargas que visavam melhorar as condições sociais da população não privilegiada da sociedade brasileira. Os comentários de Bittencourt também expõem o preconceito racial prevalente nos Estados Unidos e sua própria atitude racista com o setor da população brasileira pelo qual advogava como educadora, ativista social, escritora e advogada.Adalzira Bittencourt's visit to the US during 1939 resulted in a travel narrative that recounts the details of her visits to numerous schools, hospitals and orphanages in the city of New York and to the 1939 World's Fair held in the same city. Her general impressions of the eugenic reforms underway in the US during this time period reveal her support for the project of cultural renewal sponsored by the Vargas regime that targeted the disadvantaged in Brazilian society. In addition, Bittencourt's commentary exposes the racial prejudice prevalent in American society at the time and outlines the hues and tones of her own brand of racism vis a vis the very sector of the Brazilian population she advocated for throughout her career as a lawyer, educator, social activist and writer.

  15. High prevalence of hospital-acquired infections caused by gram-negative carbapenem resistant strains in Vietnamese pediatric ICUs: A multi-centre point prevalence survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, N.K.; Wertheim, H.F.L.; Vu, P.D.; Khu, D.T.; Le, H.T.; Hoang, B.T.; Vo, V.T.; Lam, Y.M.; Vu, D.T.; Nguyen, Thanh Son; Thai, T.Q.; Nilsson, L.E.; Rydell, U.; Nguyen, K.V.; Nadjm, B.; Clarkson, L.; Hanberger, H.; Larsson, M.

    2016-01-01

    There is scarce information regarding hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) among children in resource-constrained settings. This study aims to measure prevalence of HAIs in Vietnamese pediatric hospitals.Monthly point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in 6 pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 referral

  16. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol delivered with an osmotic pump during a seven-day period in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Meredith M; KuKanich, Butch; Sykes, John M

    2015-12-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics of butorphanol delivered via osmotic pumps in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) as a method for analgesic administration to avian species. 14 healthy adult male common peafowl. A preliminary experiment was conducted with 2 birds to establish time point and concentration requirements. Then, the remaining 12 birds were anesthetized, and 2 osmotic pumps containing butorphanol (volume, 2 mL; mean dosage, 247 μg/kg/h) were implanted subcutaneously in each bird for 7 days prior to removal. Blood samples were collected before pump implantation (time 0); 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 hours after pump implantation; and 3 and 6 hours after pump removal. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma concentrations peaked (mean, 106.4 μg/L; range, 61.8 to 133.0 μg/L) at a mean of 39.0 hours, with no evidence of sedation in any bird. After pump removal, butorphanol was rapidly eliminated (half-life, 1.45 hours; range, 1.31 to 1.64 hours; n = 5). Mean clearance per fraction of dose absorbed was 2.89 L/kg/h (range, 2.00 to 5.55 L/kg/h). Mean amount of time the plasma butorphanol concentration was ≥ 60 μg/L was 85.6 hours (range, 3.5 to 155.3 hours). Plasma concentrations of butorphanol in common peafowl were maintained at or above reported efficacious analgesic concentrations. This study established a method for administering analgesics to avian patients without the need for frequent handling or injections. Use of these osmotic pumps may provide options for avian analgesia.

  17. Antibiotic use in a tertiary healthcare facility in Ghana: a point prevalence survey

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    Appiah-Korang Labi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global rise and spread of antibiotic resistance is limiting the usefulness of antibiotics in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. The use of antibiotic stewardship programs guided by local data on prescribing practices is a useful strategy to control and reduce antibiotic resistance. Our objective in this study was to determine the prevalence and indications for use of antibiotics at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Accra, Ghana. Methods An antibiotic point prevalence survey was conducted among inpatients of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital between February and March 2016. Folders and treatment charts of patients on admission at participating departments were reviewed for antibiotics administered or scheduled to be administered on the day of the survey. Data on indication for use were also collected. Prevalence of antibiotic use was determined by dividing the number of inpatients on antibiotics at the time of survey by the total number of patients on admission. Results Of the 677 inpatients surveyed, 348 (51.4%, 95% CI, 47.6–55.2 were on treatment with antibiotics. Prevalence was highest among Paediatric surgery where 20/22 patients (90.9%, 95% CI, 70.8–98.9 were administered antibiotics and lowest among Obstetrics patients with 77/214 (36%, 95% CI, 29.5–42.8. The indications for antibiotic use were 245/611 (40.1% for community-acquired infections, 205/611 (33.6% for surgical prophylaxis, 129/611 (21.1% for healthcare associated infections and 33/611 (5.4% for medical prophylaxis. The top five antibiotics prescribed in the hospital were metronidazole 107 (17.5%, amoxicillin-clavulinic acid 82 (13.4%, ceftriaxone 17(12.1%, cefuroxime 61 (10.0%, and cloxacillin 52 (8.5% respectively. Prevalence of meropenem and vancomycin use was 12(2% and 1 (.2% respectively. The majority of patients 181 (52% were being treated with two antibiotics. Conclusion This study indicated a high prevalence of antibiotic use among

  18. Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial use in Chinese hospitals in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Nan; Zhou, Pengcheng; Wen, Ximao; Li, Chunhui; Huang, Xun; Guo, Yanhong; Meng, Li; Gong, Ruie; Feng, Li; Fu, Chenchao; Wu, Anhua

    2016-03-01

    In China, several measures have been adopted to decrease unnecessary antimicrobial overuse since 2010. This study aimed to identify characteristics of antimicrobial use in Chinese hospitals after implementing these measures and to explore additional targets for future antimicrobial stewardship. In 2012, point prevalence surveys conducted in Chinese hospitals included inpatients who were admitted for at least 24 hours. Details regarding infection, antimicrobial use, and bacterial cultures were recorded. A survey of 786,028 inpatients in 1,313 hospitals included prevalence of health care-associated (3.22%) and community-acquired infections (22.52%); antimicrobial use prevalence (AUP, 38.39%); bacterial culture rate (BCR, 40.16%); and proportions of administration of a single antimicrobial (75.33%), therapeutic (23.16%), prophylactic (11.99%), and therapeutic plus prophylactic (3.24%) AUP rates. Prophylactic AUP rates of hospitals with AUP rates for surgical patients with classes I, II, and III wounds were 45.19%, 68.18%, and 68.47%, respectively. Prophylactic AUP rates for surgical patients decreased with increasing hospital bed numbers. These indices varied among different hospital departments. More efforts are needed toward small hospitals, prophylactic antimicrobial use for surgical patients, and departments with low BCRs to optimize the clinical antimicrobial use. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-centre point prevalence survey of hospital-acquired infections in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labi, Appiah-Korang; Obeng-Nkrumah, Noah; Owusu, Enid; Bjerrum, Stephanie; Bediako-Bowan, Antoinette; Sunkwa-Mills, Gifty; Akuffo, Christiana; Fenny, Ama Pokua; Opintan, Japheth Awuletey; Enweronu-Laryea, Christabel; Debrah, Samuel; Damale, Nelson; Bannerman, Cynthia; Newman, Mercy Jemima

    2018-05-03

    There is a paucity of data describing hospital acquired infections (HAIs) in Africa. To describe the prevalence and distribution of HAIs in acute care hospitals in Ghana. Between September and December 2016, point prevalence surveys were conducted in participating hospitals using protocols of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. We reviewed medical records of eligible inpatients at or before 8am on the day of survey to identify HAIs present at the time of survey. Ten hospitals were surveyed, representing 32.9% of all acute care beds in government hospitals. Of 2107 inpatients surveyed, 184 HAIs were identified among 172 patients, corresponding to an overall prevalence of 8.2%. The prevalence values in hospitals ranged from 3.5 to 14.4% with higher proportion of infections in secondary and tertiary care facilities. The most frequent HAIs were surgical site infections (32.6%), bloodstream infections (19.5%), urinary tract infections (18.5%), and respiratory tract infections (16.3%). Device-associated infections accounted for 7.1% of HAIs. For 12.5% of HAIs, a microorganism was reported; the most isolated microorganism was Escherichia coli. Approximately 61% of all patients surveyed were on antibiotics; 89.5% of patients with an HAI received at least one antimicrobial agent on the day of survey. The strongest independent predictors for HAI were the presence of invasive device before onset of infection and duration of hospital stay. We recorded a low HAI burden compared to findings from other low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Therapeutic efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate with clarithromycin for seven days in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Brazilian peptic ulcer patients

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    Jaime Natan Eisig

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The curative treatment of peptic ulcer is made available nowadays through the eradication of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is associated with it, but the best therapeutic regimen is yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a therapeutic regimen with 400 mg ranitidine bismuth citrate associated with 500 mg clarithromycin given twice a day for seven days in a cohort of Brazilian patients with peptic ulcer. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary-care hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred and twenty nine outpatients, with active or healed peptic ulcers infected by Helicobacter pylori, diagnosed via endoscopy with confirmation via the urease test and histological examination, who had never undergone a regimen for the eradication of the bacterium. PROCEDURE: Administration of 400 mg ranitidine-bismuth and 500 mg clarithromycin twice a day, for seven days. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Efficacy of the treatment, with a check on the cure done via another endoscopy eight weeks after drug administration. The eradication of the bacterium was determined via the urease test and histological examination. Patients who were negative for both were considered to be cured. RESULTS: Eight patients failed to complete the study. The eradication rate according to intention to treat was 81% (104/129 and per protocol was 86% (104/121. CONCLUSION: The bismuth ranitidine compound associated with clarithromycin used for one week was shown to be a simple, effective and well-tolerated therapeutic regimen for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

  1. Smokeless tobacco advertising at the point of sale: prevalence, placement, and demographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widome, Rachel; Brock, Betsy; Klein, Elizabeth G; Forster, Jean L

    2012-02-01

    We aimed to describe the prevalence, in-store location, and neighborhood predictors of point-of-sale smokeless tobacco advertising. In 2007, we conducted assessments of smokeless tobacco advertising at the point of sale in 484 establishments, which held tobacco licenses and sold tobacco products in a Midwest metropolitan area. Associations between store characteristics, neighborhood characteristics (based on U.S. 2000 census block groups), and smokeless tobacco advertising were calculated. Advertisements for smokeless tobacco were found in 21% (n = 103) of stores. Approximately, 12% (n = 58) of stores had ads within 6 feet of the counter, 3% (n = 14) had ads less than 3 feet from the ground, and 2% (n = 9) had advertisement less than 1 foot from candy or snacks. The racial/ethnic composition and number of households on public assistance within the block group in which a store was situated were related to the amount of smokeless advertising in stores. For instance, having a higher proportion of the population identifying as White was associated with more advertising. Gas stations/convenience stores had more advertising than any other store types. Chain stores had double the amount of advertising as independent stores (p advertising is not uncommon even in an urban metropolitan community. These products are being advertised in a way that youth, especially those living in neighborhoods with certain demographic characteristics, can encounter. With Food and Drug Administration regulation, there are new opportunities to regulate advertising at the point of sale.

  2. Point prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in two teaching hospitals of Amhara region in Ethiopia

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    Yallew WW

    2016-08-01

    statistically significant. Conclusion: It was observed that the prevalence of HAI was high in the teaching hospitals. Surgical site infections and pneumonia were the most common types of HAIs. Hospital management should give more attention to promoting infection prevention practice for better control of HAIs in teaching hospitals. Keywords: hospital-acquired infection, surgical site infections, Ethiopia, point prevalence

  3. Point prevalence of vertigo and dizziness in a sample of 2672 subjects and correlation with headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teggi, R; Manfrin, M; Balzanelli, C; Gatti, O; Mura, F; Quaglieri, S; Pilolli, F; Redaelli de Zinis, L O; Benazzo, M; Bussi, M

    2016-06-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are common symptoms in the general population, with an estimated prevalence between 20% and 56%. The aim of our work was to assess the point prevalence of these symptoms in a population of 2672 subjects. Patients were asked to answer a questionnaire; in the first part they were asked about demographic data and previous vertigo and or dizziness. Mean age of the sample was 48.3 ± 15 years, and 46.7% were males. A total of 1077 (40.3%) subjects referred vertigo/dizziness during their lifetime, and the mean age of the first vertigo attack was 39.2 ± 15.4 years; in the second part they were asked about the characteristics of vertigo (age of first episode, rotational vertigo, relapsing episodes, positional exacerbation, presence of cochlear symptoms) and lifetime presence of moderate to severe headache and its clinical features (hemicranial, pulsatile, associated with phono and photophobia, worse on effort). An age and sex effect was demonstrated, with symptoms 4.4 times more elevated in females and 1.8 times in people over 50 years. In the total sample of 2672 responders, 13.7% referred a sensation of spinning, 26.3% relapsing episodes, 12.9% positional exacerbation and 4.8% cochlear symptoms; 34.8% referred headache during their lifetime. Subjects suffering from headache presented an increased rate of relapsing episodes, positional exacerbation, cochlear symptoms and a lower age of occurrence of the first vertigo/dizziness episode. In the discussion, our data are compared with those of previous studies, and we underline the relationship between vertigo/dizziness from one side and headache with migrainous features on the other. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  4. Neonatal outcome following new assisted reproductive technology regulations in Turkey - a nationwide multicenter point prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultursay, Nilgun; Yalaz, Mehmet; Koroglu, Ozge Altun

    2015-01-01

    In March 2010, a new legislation about assisted reproductive technology (ART) activities, favoring single embryo transfer, was introduced in Turkey. Consequences of new regulations on neonatal outcome have not been evaluated in multicenter studies yet. In this study, our aim was to evaluate neonatal outcome of infants from medically assisted reproduction (MAR) pregnancies in the post-legislation era. A point prevalence study was conducted at 51 centers in Turkey on 1 April 2013. Data about fertility treatments and neonatal characteristics were evaluated for "live births" (Group 1) and "patients being cared in the NICU" (Group 2). Seventeen (4%) of 420 infants in group 1, and 89 (8.1%) of 1094 infants in group 2 were born after MAR pregnancies. The ratio of multiple births in MAR pregnancies was still very high as 47.1% for group 1, 69.1% for group 2 infants. MAR babies constituted 9.9% of infants in Level 3 NICUs and 7.6% infants in Level 2 NICUs. MAR was associated with increased risk of multiple births and prematurity. After the new legislation, multiple birth rates are still high in MAR pregnancies, resulting in unfavorable neonatal outcomes. Efforts to decrease multiple birth rates should be encouraged.

  5. A point prevalence survey on hand hygiene, with a special focus on Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühwasser, Christina; Hinterberger, Guido; Mutschlechner, Wolfgang; Kaltseis, Josef; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Mayr, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    A 1-day point prevalence study evaluated hand hygiene compliance, yeast colonization, and contamination, focusing on the hands of health care workers (HCWs) and patient-oriented surfaces. Hand hygiene compliance was evaluated by applying the direct observation technique and the World Health Organization's compliance program, "My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene." A total of 128 samples from HCWs working in intensive care (n = 11) and intermediate care (n = 2) units and 65 environmental samples from Innsbruck Medical University Hospital were investigated. Hand hygiene compliance was superior for nurses (83.5%) and moderate for medical doctors (45.2%). In general, fungal growth was unique; only 9 of 128 HCW samples and only 4 of 65 environmental samples yielded positive results. The genetic relatedness of yeasts from the same species was investigated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing. RAPD profiles exhibited the potential for cross-transmission of yeasts. In general, the fungal colonization and contamination rate was low, but a high level of hand hygiene compliance was lacking. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Point prevalence of suboptimal footwear features among ambulant older hospital patients: implications for fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Satyan R; McRae, Prue; Stewart, Matthew J; Webster, Joan; Fenn, Mary; Haines, Terry P

    2016-09-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to establish the point prevalence of 'suboptimal' features in footwear reported to have been used by older hospital patients when ambulating, and to explore underpinning factors for their choice of footwear. Method A cross-sectional investigation was undertaken on 95 of 149 eligible in-patients across 22 high fall-risk wards in a large metropolitan hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Results Over 70% of participants experienced an unplanned admission. Although most participants had access to some form of footwear in hospital (92%), nearly all reported ambulating in footwear with 'suboptimal' features (99%). Examples included slippers (27%), backless slippers (16%) or bare feet (27%). For patients who ambulated in bare feet, only one-third reported 'lack of access to footwear' as the primary cause, with others citing foot wounds, pain, oedema and personal choice as the main reason for bare foot ambulation. Conclusions Admitted patients frequently use footwear with 'suboptimal' features for ambulation in hospital. While some footwear options (for example well-fitting slippers) could be suited for limited in-hospital ambulation, others are clearly hazardous and might cause falls. Since footwear choices are influenced by multiple factors in this population, footwear education strategies alone may be insufficient to address the problem of hazardous footwear in at-risk patients. Footwear requirements may be more effectively addressed within a multidisciplinary team approach encompassing foot health, mobility and safety. What is known about the topic? Accidental falls while ambulating are an important health and safety concern for older people. Because certain footwear characteristics have been negatively linked to posture and balance, and specific footwear types linked to falls among seniors, the use of footwear with fewer suboptimal characteristics is generally recommended as a means of reducing the risk of falling. While footwear

  7. A point prevalence cross-sectional study of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections in six Australian hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Anne; Mitchell, Brett; Beckingham, Wendy; Fasugba, Oyebola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for over 30% of healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study was to determine healthcare-associated UTI (HAUTI) and catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI) point prevalence in six Australian hospitals to inform a national point prevalence process and compare two internationally accepted HAUTI definitions. We also described the level and comprehensiveness of clinical record documentation, microbiology laboratory and coding data at identifying HAUTIs and CAUTIs. Setting Data were collected from three public and three private Australian hospitals over the first 6 months of 2013. Participants A total of 1109 patients were surveyed. Records of patients of all ages, hospitalised on the day of the point prevalence at the study sites, were eligible for inclusion. Outpatients, patients in adult mental health units, patients categorised as maintenance care type (ie, patients waiting to be transferred to a long-term care facility) and those in the emergency department during the duration of the survey were excluded. Outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the HAUTI and CAUTI point prevalence. Results Overall HAUTI and CAUTI prevalence was 1.4% (15/1109) and 0.9% (10/1109), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus and Candida species were the most common pathogens. One-quarter (26.3%) of patients had a urinary catheter and fewer than half had appropriate documentation. Eight of the 15 patients ascertained to have a HAUTI based on clinical records (6 being CAUTI) were coded by the medical records department with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for UTI diagnosis. The Health Protection Agency Surveillance definition had a positive predictive value of 91.67% (CI 64.61 to 98.51) compared against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Conclusions These study results provide a foundation for a national Australian point prevalence study and inform the development and

  8. From intermittent antibiotic point prevalence surveys to quality improvement: experience in Scottish hospitals

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    Malcolm William

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2008, the Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG was established to coordinate a national antimicrobial stewardship programme. In 2009 SAPG led participation in a European point prevalence survey (PPS of hospital antibiotic use. We describe how SAPG used this baseline PPS as the foundation for implementation of measures for improvement in antibiotic prescribing. Methods In 2009 data for the baseline PPS were collected in accordance with the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption [ESAC] protocol. This informed the development of two quality prescribing indicators: compliance with antibiotic policy in acute admission units and duration of surgical prophylaxis. From December 2009 clinicians collected these data on a monthly basis. The prescribing indicators were reviewed and further modified in March 2011. Data for the follow up PPS in September 2011 were collected as part of a national PPS of healthcare associated infection and antimicrobial use developed using ECDC protocols. Results In the baseline PPS data were collected in 22 (56% acute hospitals. The frequency of recording the reason for treatment in medical notes was similar in Scotland (75.9% and Europe (75.7%. Compliance with policy (81.0% was also similar to Europe (82.5% but duration of surgical prophylaxis Conclusions The baseline PPS identified priorities for quality improvement. SAPG has demonstrated that implementation of regularly reviewed national prescribing indicators, acceptable to clinicians, implemented through regular systematic measurement can drive improvement in quality of antibiotic use in key clinical areas. However, our data also show that the ESAC PPS method may underestimate the proportion of surgical prophylaxis with duration

  9. Prevalence of interfering substances with point-of-care glucose testing in a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, John H; Mason, Debra; Barnes, Deborah L; Kollins, Jerry

    2009-01-15

    This study determined the prevalence of interfering substances with a glucometer using the glucose dehydrogenase pyrroloquinolinequinone method of point-of-care glucose testing (POCGT) and identified the percentage of patients with orders for an insulin product during the interference time interval. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all inpatients with biochemically-identified interfering substances over a 12-month period. The interfering substance report identified all patients with serum uric acid concentrations greater than 10 mg/dL, hematocrit less than 20% or greater than 55%, serum total bilirubin concentrations greater than 20 mg/dL, serum acetaminophen concentrations greater than 8 mg/dL, and serum triglyceride concentrations greater than 5000 mg/dL. Of 6885 hospital admissions during the 12-month study period, 84 patients (1.2%) were identified as having interfering substances. Interfering substances were identified an average mean +/- S.D. of 4.88 +/- 15.56 days following hospital admission. Two patients had interfering substances identified in the emergency department before hospital admission. Five patients (four with total bilirubin and one with uric acid) had initial concentrations below the interference threshold. These concentrations increased during hospitalization to high enough levels to cause interference with POCGT. Since the average length of stay for the identified patients was 10.49 days, an average of 17% of the hospital stay was impacted by an interfering substance. Substances remained at interfering concentrations until the time of discharge in 30% of the patients. Over a 12-month period, interfering substance were identified in1.2% of patients admitted to a hospital. Thirty-six percent of those patients had an active order for an insulin product during the interference time interval.

  10. The CDC and IOTF cut points show inconsistent prevalence of underweight and overweight in chinese, indonesian, and vietnamese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    No nationally representative data from middle and low-income countries have been analyzed to compare prevalence of underweight and overweight defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) BMI cut points. We evaluated the consistency i...

  11. A point prevalence cross-sectional study of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections in six Australian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Anne; Mitchell, Brett; Beckingham, Wendy; Fasugba, Oyebola

    2014-07-29

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for over 30% of healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study was to determine healthcare-associated UTI (HAUTI) and catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI) point prevalence in six Australian hospitals to inform a national point prevalence process and compare two internationally accepted HAUTI definitions. We also described the level and comprehensiveness of clinical record documentation, microbiology laboratory and coding data at identifying HAUTIs and CAUTIs. Data were collected from three public and three private Australian hospitals over the first 6 months of 2013. A total of 1109 patients were surveyed. Records of patients of all ages, hospitalised on the day of the point prevalence at the study sites, were eligible for inclusion. Outpatients, patients in adult mental health units, patients categorised as maintenance care type (ie, patients waiting to be transferred to a long-term care facility) and those in the emergency department during the duration of the survey were excluded. The primary outcome measures were the HAUTI and CAUTI point prevalence. Overall HAUTI and CAUTI prevalence was 1.4% (15/1109) and 0.9% (10/1109), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus and Candida species were the most common pathogens. One-quarter (26.3%) of patients had a urinary catheter and fewer than half had appropriate documentation. Eight of the 15 patients ascertained to have a HAUTI based on clinical records (6 being CAUTI) were coded by the medical records department with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for UTI diagnosis. The Health Protection Agency Surveillance definition had a positive predictive value of 91.67% (CI 64.61 to 98.51) compared against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. These study results provide a foundation for a national Australian point prevalence study and inform the development and implementation of targeted healthcare-associated infection surveillance more

  12. Post Stroke Fatigue; Point Prevalence, Characterization, Associations and Radiological Correlation in a Rehabilitation Hospital

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, A

    2017-11-01

    Post stroke fatigue (PSF) is a frequently reported symptom by stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation. This cross sectional observational study was undertaken in a rehabilitation facility to look at its prevalence and relationship with various variables like personal factors, type of stroke, social context, hemispheric involvement on CT scan and mobility status. The results showed that PSF was present in 83% (25 out of 30) of the patients included in the study. No clear association could be established between PSF, social, radiological and functional characteristics.

  13. Malnutrition is independently associated with skin tears in hospital inpatient setting-Findings of a 6-year point prevalence audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Emma L; Hickling, Donna F; Williams, Damian M; Bell, Jack J

    2018-05-24

    Skin tears cause pain, increased length of stay, increased costs, and reduced quality of life. Minimal research reports the association between skin tears, and malnutrition using robust measures of nutritional status. This study aimed to articulate the association between malnutrition and skin tears in hospital inpatients using a yearly point prevalence of inpatients included in the Queensland Patient Safety Bedside Audit, malnutrition audits and skin tear audits conducted at a metropolitan tertiary hospital between 2010 and 2015. Patients were excluded if admitted to mental health wards or were <18 years. A total of 2197 inpatients were included, with a median age of 71 years. The overall prevalence of skin tears was 8.1%. Malnutrition prevalence was 33.5%. Univariate analysis demonstrated associations between age (P ˂ .001), body mass index (BMI) (P < .001) and malnutrition (P ˂ .001) but not gender (P = .319). Binomial logistic regression analysis modelling demonstrated that malnutrition diagnosed using the Subjective Global Assessment was independently associated with skin tear incidence (odds ratio, OR: 1.63; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.13-2.36) and multiple skin tears (OR 2.48 [95% CI 1.37-4.50]). BMI was not independently associated with skin tears or multiple skin tears. This study demonstrated independent associations between malnutrition and skin tear prevalence and multiple skin tears. It also demonstrated the limitations of BMI as a nutritional assessment measure. © 2018 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Point prevalence of mental disorder in unconvicted male prisoners in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, D.; Taylor, C.; Gunn, J.; Maden, A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence of mental disorder among male unconvicted prisoners and to assess the treatment needs of this population. DESIGN: Semi-structured interview and case note review of randomly selected cross section of male remand population. Non-attenders were replaced by the next name on prison roll. SETTING: Three young offenders' institutions and 13 adult men's prisons. SUBJECTS: 750 prisoners, representing 9.4% cross sectional sample of male unconvicted population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of ICD-10 diagnoses of mental disorder, and associated treatment needs. RESULTS: Psychiatric disorder was diagnosed in 469 (63%) inmates. The main diagnoses were: substance misuse, 285 (38%); neurotic illness, 192 (26%); personality disorder, 84 (11%); psychosis, 36 (5%); other and uncertain, 36 (0.5%). Subjects could have more than one diagnosis. The average refusal rate was 18%. In total 414 inmates (55%) were judged to have an immediate treatment need: transfer to an NHS bed, 64 (9%); treatment by prison health care services, 131 (17%); motivational interviewing for substance misuse, 115 (15%); and therapeutic community placement, 104 (14%). CONCLUSIONS: Mental disorder was common among male unconvicted prisoners. Psychosis was present at four or five times the level found in the general population. Extrapolation of our results suggests that remand population as a whole probably contains about 680 men who need transfer to hospital for psychiatric treatment, including about 380 prisoners with serious mental illness. PMID:8978228

  15. Multistate Point-Prevalence Survey of Health Care–Associated Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Shelley S.; Edwards, Jonathan R.; Bamberg, Wendy; Beldavs, Zintars G.; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Kainer, Marion A.; Lynfield, Ruth; Maloney, Meghan; McAllister-Hollod, Laura; Nadle, Joelle; Ray, Susan M.; Thompson, Deborah L.; Wilson, Lucy E.; Fridkin, Scott K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Currently, no single U.S. surveillance system can provide estimates of the burden of all types of health care–associated infections across acute care patient populations. We conducted a prevalence survey in 10 geographically diverse states to determine the prevalence of health care–associated infections in acute care hospitals and generate updated estimates of the national burden of such infections. METHODS We defined health care–associated infections with the use of National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. One-day surveys of randomly selected inpatients were performed in participating hospitals. Hospital personnel collected demographic and limited clinical data. Trained data collectors reviewed medical records retrospectively to identify health care–associated infections active at the time of the survey. Survey data and 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample data, stratified according to patient age and length of hospital stay, were used to estimate the total numbers of health care–associated infections and of inpatients with such infections in U.S. acute care hospitals in 2011. RESULTS Surveys were conducted in 183 hospitals. Of 11,282 patients, 452 had 1 or more health care–associated infections (4.0%; 95% confidence interval, 3.7 to 4.4). Of 504 such infections, the most common types were pneumonia (21.8%), surgical-site infections (21.8%), and gastrointestinal infections (17.1%). Clostridium difficile was the most commonly reported pathogen (causing 12.1% of health care–associated infections). Device-associated infections (i.e., central-catheter–associated bloodstream infection, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and ventilator-associated pneumonia), which have traditionally been the focus of programs to prevent health care–associated infections, accounted for 25.6% of such infections. We estimated that there were 648,000 patients with 721,800 health care–associated infections in U.S. acute care hospitals in 2011

  16. Menstruation-related Headache in Adolescents: Point Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, K B; Arslantas, D; Unsal, A; Atay, E; Ocal, E E; Demirtas, Z; Saglan, R; Dinleyici, M; Yarar, C

    2018-04-02

    To study the prevalence of menstruation-related headache and the impact of associated factors in adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in seven randomly selected high schools, and 3,886 girls attending those schools were invited. After the consent of the school principals, a final total of 2,485 girls (63.9%) were involved in the study. A specific questionnaire was distributed to adolescent girls (14-19 years old). The first part of the survey investigated the features of menstruation (age of first menstruation, duration of period, pad fully soaked per day). The last part of the questionnaire surveyed the presence of headache during the menstruation period. The severity of headache was measured by a visual analogue scale. Lastly, participants were requested to complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The prevalence of menstruation-related headache and associated factors were studied. The mean age of the study group was 15.89 ± 1.07 (14-19) years old. The age of onset of menarche was younger than 12 years old in 32.4% of girls, and mean age of onset of menarche was 12.96 ± 1.09 years old. The prevalence of menstruation-related headache was calculated to be 25.9% (n = 646). The onset of menstruation before the age of 12 years old, longer duration of menstruation period, dysmenorrhea, daily consumption of coffee and cola and smoking significantly affected the frequency of menstruation-related headache. The mean scores of the BDI were calculated as 21.68 ± 13.65 and a significant relationship was found between headache and BDI scores. Our study indicates that menstruation-related headache is a common problem of adolescent girls. It might be associated with different comorbidities such as depression. Accordingly, a multidisciplinary treatment approach must be considered to improve their life quality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Missing the Mark? A Two Time Point Cohort Study Estimating Intestinal Parasite Prevalence in Informal Settlements in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael Townsend; Searing, Rapha A; Thompson, David M; Bard, David; Carabin, Hélène; Gonzales, Carlos; Zavala, Carmen; Woodson, Kyle; Naifeh, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations list Peru as potentially needing prevention of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). Prevalence of STH varies regionally and remains understudied in the newest informal settlements of the capital city, Lima. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the need for Mass Drug Administration (MDA) of antiparasitic drugs in the newest informal settlements of Lima. The aim of this study was to estimate the season-specific prevalence of STH to determine if these prevalence estimates met the WHO threshold for MDA in 3 informal settlements. Methods : A 2 time point cohort study was conducted among a sample of 140 children aged 1 to 10 years living in 3 purposively sampled informal settlements of Lima, Peru. Children were asked to provide 2 stool samples that were analyzed with the spontaneous sedimentation in tube technique. The season-specific prevalence proportions of MDA-targeted STH were estimated using a hidden (latent) Markov modeling approach to adjust for repeated measurements over the 2 seasons and the imperfect validity of the screening tests. Results : The prevalence of MDA targeted STH was low at 2.2% (95% confidence interval = 0.3% to 6%) and 3.8% (95% confidence interval = 0.7% to 9.3%) among children sampled in the summer and winter months, respectively, when using the most conservative estimate of test sensitivity. These estimates were below the WHO threshold for MDA (20%). Conclusions : Empiric treatment for STH by organizations active in the newest informal settlements is not supported by the data and could contribute to unnecessary medication exposures and poor allocation of resources.

  18. Depression: point-prevalence and risk factors in a North Cyprus household adult cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakıcı, Mehmet; Gökçe, Özlem; Babayiğit, Asra; Çakıcı, Ebru; Eş, Ayhan

    2017-12-04

    Depression is one of the most common diagnosed psychiatric disorders in the world. Besides individual risk factors, it is also found that environment and socio-cultural factors are the other main risk factors for depression. In this article, the results of the 2016 national household survey of depression in North Cyprus (NC) are presented. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of depression in NC households. The study was conducted between April and June 2016, the sample consisting of Turkish-speaking individuals between 18 and 88 years of age living permanently in NC. A multi-stage stratified (randomized) quota was used in the survey, and 978 people were selected according to the 2011 census. A 21 item questionnaire prepared by the researchers and a Turkish version of the Beck Depression Inventory scales were used for obtaining data. This cross-sectional study found a point prevalence of 23.4% for relatively high BDI scores (≥17) suggesting clinical depression. Being female, a widow, unemployed, having a limited education and low income level, having a physical illness, living alone, and using illicit substances were defined as possible risk factors for depression. When we consider the world prevalence, NC has one of the higher depression prevalence. NC has environmental and socio-cultural characteristics such as a history of war, migration and colonization, high unemployment rates, socioeconomic problems, similar to other extremely high prevalence depression countries and regions, which give a strong indication of the importance of socio-cultural factors on depression.

  19. Occult hepatitis B virus coinfection in HIV-positive African migrants to the UK: a point prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, D; Doyle, T; Ellis, S; Price, D; Abbas, I; Valappil, M; Geretti, A M

    2014-03-01

    Occult (surface antigen-negative/DNA-positive) hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in areas of the world where HBV is endemic. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of occult HBV infection in HIV-infected African migrants to the UK and to determine factors associated with occult coinfection. This anonymized point-prevalence study identified Africans attending three HIV clinics, focussing on patients naïve to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Stored blood samples were tested for HBV DNA. Prevalence was calculated in the entire cohort, as well as in subpopulations. Risk factors for occult HBV coinfection were identified using logistic regression analysis. Among 335 HIV-positive African migrants, the prevalence of occult HBV coinfection was 4.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-7.4%] overall, and 6.5% (95% CI 3.9-10.6%) and 0.8% (95% CI 0.2-4.6%) in ART-naïve and ART-experienced patients, respectively. Among ART-naïve anti-HBV core (anti-HBc)-positive patients, the prevalence was 16.4% (95% CI 8.3-25.6%). The strongest predictor of occult coinfection was anti-HBc positivity [odds ratio (OR) 7.4; 95% CI 2.0-27.6]. Median HBV DNA and ALT levels were 54 IU/mL [interquartile range (IQR) 33-513 IU/mL] and 22 U/L (IQR 13-27 U/L), respectively. Occult HBV coinfection remains under-diagnosed in African HIV-infected patients in the UK. Given the range of HBV DNA levels observed, further studies are warranted to determine its clinical significance and to guide screening strategies and ART selection in these patients. © 2013 British HIV Association.

  20. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  1. Hospital-acquired urinary tract infection point prevalence in Turkey: Differences in risk factors among patient groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the point prevalence of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs) and to investigate risk factors for pathogen type (E. coli vs. others) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) positivity among nosocomial UTI patients. Methods A questionnaire consisting of 44 questions on demographic data and risk factors of UTI cases was sent to 51 tertiary care hospitals. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results The overall prevalence of UTI was 1.82% (483/26534). The prevalence of UTI was higher in intensive care units (ICUs) with 6.77% versus 1.45% outside ICUs. Hospitals of the Ministry of Health (compared to university hospitals), hospitals in less developed provinces and hospitals with bed capacity urinary catheter were more likely to have received immunosuppressive therapy, current corticosteroid use, renal transplantation and uterine prolapsus and less likely to have another infection outside the urinary tract, as compared to catheterized patients. Among the 422 culture-positive patients, the most common pathogen was E. coli (45.5%). The risk factors increasing the likelihood of E. coli in urine culture were being female, history of urinary tract operation, no use of antibiotics in the preceding three months and infection outside the urinary tract. There were 247 patients with E. coli or Klebsiella spp. positive in culture. Among these, 61% (n=151) were ESBL- positive. Among patients having E. coli/Klebsiella positive in culture, antibiotic use in the preceding three months and history of urinary tract operation were the independent risk factors significantly increasing the risk of ESBL. Conclusions The reasons underlying the high prevalence of nosocomial UTIs, and a better understanding of the risk factors might lead to improved control of these infections. PMID:24188193

  2. Hemoglobin Levels Across the Pediatric Critical Care Spectrum: A Point Prevalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nabil E; Reischman, Diann E; Fitzgerald, Robert K; Faustino, Edward Vincent S

    2018-05-01

    To determine the prevailing hemoglobin levels in PICU patients, and any potential correlates. Post hoc analysis of prospective multicenter observational data. Fifty-nine PICUs in seven countries. PICU patients on four specific days in 2012. None. Patients' hemoglobin and other clinical and institutional data. Two thousand three hundred eighty-nine patients with median age of 1.9 years (interquartile range, 0.3-9.8 yr), weight 11.5 kg (interquartile range, 5.4-29.6 kg), and preceding PICU stay of 4.0 days (interquartile range, 1.0-13.0 d). Their median hemoglobin was 11.0 g/dL (interquartile range, 9.6-12.5 g/dL). The prevalence of transfusion in the 24 hours preceding data collection was 14.2%. Neonates had the highest hemoglobin at 13.1 g/dL (interquartile range, 11.2-15.0 g/dL) compared with other age groups (p < 0.001). The percentage of 31.3 of the patients had hemoglobin of greater than or equal to 12 g/dL, and 1.1% had hemoglobin of less than 7 g/dL. Blacks had lower median hemoglobin (10.5; interquartile range, 9.3-12.1 g/dL) compared with whites (median, 11.1; interquartile range, 9.0-12.6; p < 0.001). Patients in Spain and Portugal had the highest median hemoglobin (11.4; interquartile range, 10.0-12.6) compared with other regions outside of the United States (p < 0.001), and the highest proportion (31.3%) of transfused patients compared with all regions (p < 0.001). Patients in cardiac PICUs had higher median hemoglobin than those in mixed PICUs or noncardiac PICUs (12.3, 11.0, and 10.6 g/dL, respectively; p < 0.001). Cyanotic heart disease patients had the highest median hemoglobin (12.6 g/dL; interquartile range, 11.1-14.5). Multivariable regression analysis within diagnosis groups revealed that hemoglobin levels were significantly associated with the geographic location and history of complex cardiac disease in most of the models. In children with cancer, none of the variables tested correlated with patients' hemoglobin levels

  3. Trends in Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Enterobacteriaceae and ESBL Genes in a Dutch Teaching Hospital, Measured in 5 Yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (2010-2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Ina; Oome, Stijn; Verhulst, Carlo; Pettersson, Annika; Verduin, Kees; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the trends in prevalence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and ESBL genes, measured in five consecutive yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (PPS). All patients present in the hospital and in a day-care clinic (including patients on dialysis) on the day of the survey,

  4. "Delirium Day": a nationwide point prevalence study of delirium in older hospitalized patients using an easy standardized diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellelli, Giuseppe; Morandi, Alessandro; Di Santo, Simona G; Mazzone, Andrea; Cherubini, Antonio; Mossello, Enrico; Bo, Mario; Bianchetti, Angelo; Rozzini, Renzo; Zanetti, Ermellina; Musicco, Massimo; Ferrari, Alberto; Ferrara, Nicola; Trabucchi, Marco

    2016-07-18

    To date, delirium prevalence in adult acute hospital populations has been estimated generally from pooled findings of single-center studies and/or among specific patient populations. Furthermore, the number of participants in these studies has not exceeded a few hundred. To overcome these limitations, we have determined, in a multicenter study, the prevalence of delirium over a single day among a large population of patients admitted to acute and rehabilitation hospital wards in Italy. This is a point prevalence study (called "Delirium Day") including 1867 older patients (aged 65 years or more) across 108 acute and 12 rehabilitation wards in Italian hospitals. Delirium was assessed on the same day in all patients using the 4AT, a validated and briefly administered tool which does not require training. We also collected data regarding motoric subtypes of delirium, functional and nutritional status, dementia, comorbidity, medications, feeding tubes, peripheral venous and urinary catheters, and physical restraints. The mean sample age was 82.0 ± 7.5 years (58 % female). Overall, 429 patients (22.9 %) had delirium. Hypoactive was the commonest subtype (132/344 patients, 38.5 %), followed by mixed, hyperactive, and nonmotoric delirium. The prevalence was highest in Neurology (28.5 %) and Geriatrics (24.7 %), lowest in Rehabilitation (14.0 %), and intermediate in Orthopedic (20.6 %) and Internal Medicine wards (21.4 %). In a multivariable logistic regression, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.05), Activities of Daily Living dependence (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.12-1.27), dementia (OR 3.25, 95 % CI 2.41-4.38), malnutrition (OR 2.01, 95 % CI 1.29-3.14), and use of antipsychotics (OR 2.03, 95 % CI 1.45-2.82), feeding tubes (OR 2.51, 95 % CI 1.11-5.66), peripheral venous catheters (OR 1.41, 95 % CI 1.06-1.87), urinary catheters (OR 1.73, 95 % CI 1.30-2.29), and physical restraints (OR 1.84, 95 % CI 1.40-2.40) were associated with delirium. Admission

  5. Health point prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus and pulmonary tuberculosis among patients in various parts of Delta State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemikalajah, Johnson D.; Okogun, Godwin Ray A.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the study population in Delta State of Nigeria. Two hundred and five patients suspected of HIV and TB were prospectively studied in Kwale, Agbor and Eku in Delta State of Nigeria from February 2006 to February 2008. Human immunodeficiency virus status was determined using World Health Organization systems II, and Zeihl Nelson staining technique was used for TB screening. A health point prevalence rate of 53.2%, was obtained for HIV, 49.3% for TB, and 16.6% for HIV/TB. The population of HIV positive (p=0.890, p=0.011, p=0.006) and TB positive (p=0.135, p=0.0003, p=0.0001) subjects were statistically significant among the suspected subjects while the HIV/TB positive cases were not statistically significant (p=0.987, p=0.685, p=0.731). Our study showed that HIV and PTB infections remains high in parts of Delta State in Nigeria. (author)

  6. The European surveillance of antimicrobial consumption (ESAC) point-prevalence survey of antibacterial use in 20 European hospitals in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Faranak; Erntell, Mats; Goossens, Herman; Davey, Peter

    2009-11-15

    Point-prevalence surveys have been used to document antimicrobial use in hospitals for >20 years. However, published surveys are inconsistent with respect to population, indication, and the details of therapy that were included. We aimed to standardize a method for surveillance of antibacterial use in hospitals from different health care systems and to identify targets for quality improvement. We adapted a Web-based reporting system from STRAMA, the Swedish Strategic Programme against antibiotic resistance. One hospital from each of 20 countries took part in the survey, which was completed during 2 calendar weeks during 1 April 2006 through 31 May 2006. The survey included all inpatient beds for adults and children and identified all patients who were receiving systemic antibacterial treatments on the day of survey and all patients who had received antibacterial prophylaxis for surgery on the previous day. On the day of survey there were 11,571 inpatients in the 20 participating hospitals, of whom 30.1% were receiving antibacterial treatment (range, 19%-59%). The most common anatomic sites of infection for which antibacterials were prescribed were respiratory tract (24%); skin, bone, and joint (18%); intra-abdominal organs (16%); and urinary tract (11%). The following 3 quality indicators were identified: indication documented in case notes (64%), prophylaxis for surgery not continued for >24 h (60%), and therapy for community-acquired pneumonia not including third-generation cephalosporins or quinolones (78.5%). A Web-based method for a point-prevalence survey was successfully piloted in 20 hospitals across Europe and offers a standardized instrument that can identify targets for quality improvement.

  7. Carriage of multidrug-resistant organisms in a tertiary university hospital in Albania—a point prevalence survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falzon A. Parascandalo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance has been recognised as a serious global Public Health problem. Prevalence of Multiple-Drug-Resistant (MDR organism carriage in Albania is largely unknown since no national surveillance system is in place and few publications are accessible in the literature. Methods A 1-day point-prevalence-survey (PPS screening for nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and rectal MDR Gram-negative carriage was carried out at the high-dependency wards in the country’s only tertiary care hospital, in Tirana. Results A total of 106 nasal and 104 rectal swabs were collected. 14.2 % of patients (95 % Confidence Interval [95 CI]: 8.1–22.3 % were MRSA nasal carriers. Resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was common in these isolates (≥80 % but no resistance was identified against glycopeptides, nitrofurantoin and the relatively newer agents, tigecycline and linezolid. Fifty Enterobacteriaceae isolates were cultivated from 33 of 104 screened patients (31.7 % [95 CI: 22.9–41.6 % 95 CI]. The prevalence of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL production in Enterobacteriaceae was 41.3 % (95 CI: 31.8–51.4 %. The two more commonly isolated Enterobacteriaceae were E. coli ([n = 28], 24 ESBL positive; 1 AmpC positive and 3 without an identified mechanism of resistance and Klebsiella pneumoniae ([n = 13], all ESBL positive; 1 also AmpC and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL positive. Susceptibility to carbapenems (≥98 %, fosfomycin (90 % and amikacin (70 + 20 % intermediate was high but a high level of resistance to all other agents tested was noted. Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli were less commonly isolated {22 isolates: Acinetobacter baumannii (9; Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (5}. Conclusion Although a significant rate of MRSA carriage was identified, the main resistance challenge in Albania appears to be linked with Gram

  8. Seven-day mortality can be predicted in medical patients by blood pressure, age, respiratory rate, loss of independence, and peripheral oxygen saturation (the PARIS score: a prospective cohort study with external validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Brabrand

    Full Text Available Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival.This observational prospective cohort study used three independent cohorts at the medical admission units at a regional teaching hospital and a tertiary university hospital and included all adult (≥ 15 years patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical variables that best predicted the endpoint. From this, we developed a simplified model that can be calculated without specialized tools or loss of predictive ability. The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5% met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0% in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3% in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were associated with the endpoint (full model. Based on this, we developed a simple score (range 0-5, ie, the PARIS score, by dichotomizing the variables. The ability to identify patients at increased risk (discriminatory power and calibration was excellent for all three cohorts using both models. For patients with a PARIS score ≥ 3, sensitivity was 62.5-74.0%, specificity 85.9-91.1%, positive predictive value 11.2-17.5%, and negative predictive value 98.3-99.3%. Patients with a score ≤ 1 had a low mortality (≤ 1%; with 2, intermediate mortality (2-5%; and ≥ 3, high mortality (≥ 10%.Seven-day mortality can be predicted upon admission with high sensitivity and specificity and excellent negative predictive values.

  9. Seven gene deletions in seven days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann Jensen, Sheila; Lennen, Rebecca; Herrgard, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Generation of multiple genomic alterations is currently a time consuming process. Here, a method was established that enables highly efficient and simultaneous deletion of multiple genes in Escherichia coli. A temperature sensitive plasmid containing arabinose inducible lambda Red recombineering ...

  10. Spatial analysis and mapping of malaria risk in Malawi using point-referenced prevalence of infection data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazembe Lawrence N

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current malaria control initiatives aim at reducing malaria burden by half by the year 2010. Effective control requires evidence-based utilisation of resources. Characterizing spatial patterns of risk, through maps, is an important tool to guide control programmes. To this end an analysis was carried out to predict and map malaria risk in Malawi using empirical data with the aim of identifying areas where greatest effort should be focussed. Methods Point-referenced prevalence of infection data for children aged 1–10 years were collected from published and grey literature and geo-referenced. The model-based geostatistical methods were applied to analyze and predict malaria risk in areas where data were not observed. Topographical and climatic covariates were added in the model for risk assessment and improved prediction. A Bayesian approach was used for model fitting and prediction. Results Bivariate models showed a significant association of malaria risk with elevation, annual maximum temperature, rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (PET. However in the prediction model, the spatial distribution of malaria risk was associated with elevation, and marginally with maximum temperature and PET. The resulting map broadly agreed with expert opinion about the variation of risk in the country, and further showed marked variation even at local level. High risk areas were in the low-lying lake shore regions, while low risk was along the highlands in the country. Conclusion The map provided an initial description of the geographic variation of malaria risk in Malawi, and might help in the choice and design of interventions, which is crucial for reducing the burden of malaria in Malawi.

  11. Age, sex and ethnic differences in the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the CDC and IOTF cut points in Asian culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    No nationally representative data from middle- and low-income countries have been analyzed to compare the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the International Obesity TaskForce (IOTF) body mass index cut points. To exa...

  12. Randomised clinical trial evaluating the effect of different timing and number of fixed timed artificial inseminations, following a seven-day progesterone-based protocol, on pregnancy outcomes in UK dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John Paul; Coates, Amy; Lima, Fabio; Smith, Rob; Oikonomou, Georgios

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect on pregnancy outcome of either inseminating heifers twice (at 48 and 72 hours after withdrawal of a controlled internal drug release insert (CIDR) containing progesterone) or once (56 hours after CIDR withdrawal) following a seven-day CIDR synchronisation protocol. Dairy heifers (n=267) from five farms, with an age range of 388-736 days, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (group A heifers were inseminated twice; group B heifers were inseminated once). Both groups received a CIDR on day (D) 0 and an intramuscular injection of d-cloprostenol on D6; the CIDR was withdrawn on D7. Measurements of withers height, body condition score and hearth girth (used to estimate weight) were taken on D0. The diameter of the largest follicles and corpora lutea was recorded on both D0 and D6. Data were analysed with the use of multivariable logistic regression modelling. Treatment group and farm were not statistically significantly associated with pregnancy per treatment (P/T). Age and dominant follicle size on D6 were significantly associated with P/T. Heifers with the largest dominant follicle sizes (16-22 mm) were 5.54 times less likely to be pregnant than those heifers with the smallest dominant follicles (8-10 mm) on D6. It was shown that the cost associated with inseminating heifers twice after a seven-day CIDR synchronisation protocol is not justified. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. The value of intermittent point-prevalence surveys of healthcare-associated infections for evaluating infection control interventions at Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesser, N; Emary, K; Soklin, S; Peng An, K; Sophal, S; Chhomrath, S; Day, N P J; Limmathurotsakul, D; Nget, P; Pangnarith, Y; Sona, S; Kumar, V; Moore, C E; Chanpheaktra, N; Parry, C M

    2013-04-01

    There are limited data on the epidemiology of paediatric healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and infection control in low-income countries. We describe the value of intermittent point-prevalence surveys for monitoring HCAI and evaluating infection control interventions in a Cambodian paediatric hospital. Hospital-wide, point-prevalence surveys were performed monthly in 2011. Infection control interventions introduced during this period included a hand hygiene programme and a ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) care bundle. Overall HCAI prevalence was 13.8/100 patients at-risk, with a significant decline over time. The highest HCAI rates (50%) were observed in critical care; the majority of HCAIs were respiratory (61%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was most commonly isolated and antimicrobial resistance was widespread. Hand hygiene compliance doubled to 51.6%, and total VAP cases/1000 patient-ventilator days fell from 30 to 10. Rates of HCAI were substantial in our institution, and antimicrobial resistance a major concern. Point-prevalence surveys are effective for HCAI surveillance, and in monitoring trends in response to infection control interventions.

  14. Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis in France: a point prevalence study in people screened for sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyre, S; Laurier Nadalié, C; Bébéar, C

    2017-02-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis are common causes of sexually transmitted infections, but limited prevalence data are available in France. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis infections and to assess prevalence by gender, age, sample collection sites and clinical symptoms. A multicentre collection of specimens was intended to obtain a nationwide overview of the epidemiology. Between September 2014 and January 2015, a total of 2652 consecutive urogenital specimens submitted to the microbiology diagnostic departments of 16 French university hospitals for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection were collected. M. genitalium and T. vaginalis prevalence were evaluated using a commercial real-time PCR kit. Clinical data from patients were anonymously collected. T. vaginalis and M. genitalium prevalence were 1.7% (95% confidence interval 1.3-2.4) and 3.4% (95% confidence interval 2.8-4.2), respectively, and did not differ between gender or age groups, except M. genitalium prevalence between men and women in the 35- to 44-year age group (5.9 vs. 1.5%; p 0.03). M. genitalium prevalence was significantly higher in patients receiving care in sexually transmitted infection clinics, abortion centres, family planning clinics and prisons than in gynaecologic, obstetric and reproduction centres (4.0 vs. 1.7%, p 0.009). Among M. genitalium- and T. vaginalis-positive patients, 70.9 and 61.5% were asymptomatic, respectively. The low T. vaginalis prevalence does not justify systematic screening for this organism in France. Conversely, selective screening for M. genitalium may be warranted in care settings that receive presumably high-risk sexual behaviour patients, regardless of symptoms. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the magnitude and trends in hospital acquired infections in Canadian hospitals through sequential point prevalence surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Taylor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare acquired infections (HAI are an important public health problem in developed countries, but comprehensive data on trends over time are lacking. Prevalence surveys have been used as a surrogate for incidence studies and can be readily repeated. Methods The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program conducted prevalence surveys in 2002 and 2009 in a large network of major Canadian acute care hospitals. NHSN definitions of HAI were used. Use of isolation precautions on the survey day was documented. Results In 2009, 9,953 acute care inpatients were surveyed; 1,234 infections (124/1000 were found, compared to 111/1000 in 2002, (p < 0.0001. There was increased prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI and Clostridium difficile, offset by decreases in pneumonia and bloodstream infection. Use of isolation precautions increased from 77 to 148 per 1000 patients (p < 0.0001, attributable to increased use of contact precautions in patients infected or colonized with antimicrobial resistant organisms. Conclusion Between 2002 and 2009 HAI prevalence increased by 11.7 % in a network of major Canadian hospitals due to increases in Clostridium difficile and urinary tract infection. The use of isolation precautions increased by 92.2 % attributable to increased contact isolation. National prevalence surveys are useful tools to assess evolving trends in HAI.

  16. Subjective dysphagia in older care home residents: a cross-sectional, multi-centre point prevalence measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarel-Wierink, C.D. van der; Meijers, J.M.M.; Visschere, L.M. De; Baat, C. de; Halfens, R.J.; Schols, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dysphagia has been found to be strongly associated with aspiration pneumonia in frail older people. Aspiration pneumonia is causing high hospitalization rates, morbidity, and often death. Better insight in the prevalence of (subjective) dysphagia in frail older people may improve its

  17. Pressure ulcer and patient characteristics--A point prevalence study in a tertiary hospital of India based on the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel minimum data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Chitra; George, Joby V; Mehta, Yatin; Wangmo, Namgyal

    2015-08-01

    Pressure ulcers is a frequent problem in hospitalized patients. Several prevalence studies have been conducted across the globe. Little information is available regarding prevalence of pressure ulcers in India. The aim was to identify the prevalence of pressure ulcers in one of the tertiary hospital in northern India and the factors associated with its development. A cross sectional point prevalence study. European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) data collection form. Ethics approval was obtained prior to start of the study. Total of 358 patients were enrolled in the study. All patients above 18 years of age admitted in intensive care units and wards were included in the study. Patients admitted in emergency, day care, coronary care unit were excluded because of their short duration of hospital stay (varies from 24 to 72 h usually). All patients admitted before midnight on the predetermined day were included. The Braden scale was used to identify the risk of developing pressure ulcers. European Pressure ulcer advisory panel (EPUAP) minimum data set was used to collect prevalence data. The overall prevalence rate was 7.8%.The sacrum and heel were more commonly affected. Grade III pressure ulcers were the most common (42.8%). The pressure ulcer prevalence rate in our hospital was lower than that published in international studies. Severe forms of pressure ulcers were commonly encountered This data provides background information that may help us in developing protocols for applying effective practices for prevention of pressure ulcers. Copyright © 2015 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Point prevalence & risk factor assessment for hospital-acquired infections in a tertiary care hospital in Pune, India

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    Velu Nair

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: HAI prevalence showed a progressive reduction over successive rounds of survey. Conscious effort needs to be taken by all concerned to reduce the duration of hospital stay. Use of medical devices should be minimized and used judiciously. Healthcare infection control should be a priority of every healthcare provider. Such surveys should be done in different healthcare settings to plan a response to reducing HAI.

  19. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in The Netherlands in relation to sociodemographic variables, lifestyle and eating behavior: starting points for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deurenberg, P; Hautvast, J G

    1989-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity has been studied in a young adult population aged 19-35 years. Special attention was given to the relation with psychosociological variables and life-style. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was also studied in a representative population for The Netherlands, in which population also the relation with self-reported illness and subjective health was studied. In the patient population of four general practices the relation of overweight and obesity with disease was investigated in a retrospective design. Also the influence of the body fat distribution was studied. The prevalence of overweight (BMI greater than 25 kg/m2) in the Dutch adult population was 34% in men and 24% in women. The prevalence of obesity (BMI greater than 30 kg/m2) was 4 and 6% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was negatively related with social class and increased with age. Also, life-style variables such as coffee consumption, alcohol consumption, smoking and amount of hours sleep (CASS behavior), physical activity during leisure time, slimming behavior and health-conscious behavior were correlated with the prevalence of overweight. Life events caused an increase in body weight, but in women (not in men) this gain was suppressed by following slimming periods. Thus, emotional eating seems to be an important factor in the etiology of obesity. The results of our studies on the relation of overweight and obesity with morbidity aspects show a clear relation of some diseases and subjective health with overweight, especially in men and women with an abdominal fat distribution. From the results of this study starting points for the prevention and treatment of obesity are proposed.

  20. Health-care-associated infections in neonates, children, and adolescents: an analysis of paediatric data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control point-prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Walter; Hopkins, Susan; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Holmes, Alison; Sharland, Mike; Suetens, Carl

    2017-04-01

    In 2011-12, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) held the first Europe-wide point-prevalence survey of health-care-associated infections in acute care hospitals. We analysed paediatric data from this survey, aiming to calculate the prevalence and type of health-care-associated infections in children and adolescents in Europe and to determine risk factors for infection in this population. Point-prevalence surveys took place from May, 2011, to November, 2012, in 1149 hospitals in EU Member States, Iceland, Norway, and Croatia. Patients present on the ward at 0800 h on the day of the survey and who were not discharged at the time of the survey were included. Data were collected by locally trained health-care workers according to patient-based or unit-based protocols. We extracted data from the ECDC database for all paediatric patients (age 0-18 years). We report adjusted prevalence for health-care-associated infections by clustering at the hospital and country level. We also calculated risk factors for development of health-care-associated infections with use of a generalised linear mixed-effects model. We analysed data for 17 273 children and adolescents from 29 countries. 770 health-care-associated infections were reported in 726 children and adolescents, corresponding to a prevalence of 4·2% (95% CI 3·7-4·8). Bloodstream infections were the most common type of infection (343 [45%] infections), followed by lower respiratory tract infections (171 [22%]), gastrointestinal infections (64 [8%]), eye, ear, nose, and throat infections (55 [7%]), urinary tract infections (37 [5%]), and surgical-site infections (34 [4%]). The prevalence of infections was highest in paediatric intensive care units (15·5%, 95% CI 11·6-20·3) and neonatal intensive care units (10·7%, 9·0-12·7). Independent risk factors for infection were age younger than 12 months, fatal disease (via ultimately and rapidly fatal McCabe scores), prolonged length of stay, and

  1. Temporal trends of healthcare associated infections and antimicrobial use in 2011-2013, observed with annual point prevalence surveys in Ferrara University Hospital, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioli, P; Manzalini, M C; Stefanati, A; Bonato, B; Verzola, A; Formaglio, A; Gabutti, G

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) and misuse of antimicrobials (AMs) represent a growing public health problem. The Point Prevalence Surveys (PPSs) find available information to be used for specific targeted interventions and evaluate their effects. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HAIs and AM use, to describe types of infections, causative pathogens and to compare data collected through three PPSs in Ferrara University Hospital (FUH), repeated in 3 different years (2011-2013). The population-based sample consists of all patients admitted to every acute care and rehabilitation Department in a single day. ECDC Protocol and Form for PPS of HAI and AM use, Version 4.2, July 2011. Risk factor analysis was performed using logistic regression. 1,239 patients were observed. Overall, HAI prevalence was 9.6%; prevalence was higher in Intensive Care Units; urinary tract infections were the most common HAIs in all 3 surveys; E.coli was the most common pathogen; AM use prevalence was 51.1%; AMs most frequently administered were fluoroquinolones, combinations of penicillins and third-generation cephalosporins. According to the regression model, urinary catheter (OR: 2.5) and invasive respiratory device (OR: 2.3) are significantly associated risk factors for HAIs (p < 0.05). PPSs are a sensitive and effective method of analysis. Yearly repetition is a useful way to maintain focus on the topic of HAIs and AM use, highlighting how changes in practices impact on the outcome of care and providing useful information to implement intervention programs targeted on specific issues.

  2. The reliability of the McCabe score as a marker of co-morbidity in healthcare-associated infection point prevalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J S; Coignard, B; Price, L; Godwin, J; Cairns, S; Hopkins, S; Lyytikäinen, O; Hansen, S; Malcolm, W; Hughes, G J

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the reliability of the McCabe score in a healthcare-associated infection point prevalence survey.   A 10 European Union Member States survey in 20 hospitals (n = 1912) indicated that there was a moderate level of agreement (κ = 0.57) with the score. The reliability of the application of the score could be increased by training data collectors, particularly with reference to the ultimately fatal criteria. This is important if the score is to be used to risk adjust data to drive infection prevention and control interventions.

  3. Prevalence of Cigarette Advertising and Other Promotional Strategies at the Point of Sale in St Louis, Missouri: Analysis by Store Type and Distance From a School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Graham; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Cyr, Julianne; Snider, Doneisha; Schootman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Point-of-sale advertising provides an opportunity for the tobacco industry to communicate with current and potential smokers. The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act allows states to implement policies requiring that tobacco products be placed out of sight, and the Food and Drug Administration is considering banning point-of-sale advertising within 1,000 feet of schools. Our objective was to compare cigarette point-of-sale advertising near schools with grades prekindergarten through 12 and by store type. Methods All registered cigarette retailers (n = 1,229) and schools (n = 581) in the city of St Louis and St Louis County were geocoded and mapped by using ArcGIS. Retailers were divided into 2 groups, those within 1,000 feet and those within 1,001 to 2,000 feet of a school; 200 retailers from each group were randomly selected. We assessed tobacco interior and exterior advertising, brands advertised, discounts, gifts with purchase, “no sales to minors” signage, and cigarette functional items (eg, advertising on shopping baskets). Analyses were done by distance from a school and store type. Results We analyzed 340 retailers. Most retailers within 1,000 feet (91.2%) and from 1,001 to 2,000 feet (94.2%) of a school displayed cigarette advertising (P = .20). Convenience stores had the highest number of interior ads. In multivariable models, distance from school explained 0.2% of the variance in total advertising. Conclusion Cigarette point-of-sale advertising is highly prevalent in St Louis within 1,000 feet of schools. A ban based on distance from a school might decrease advertising exposure, but its effect on smoking prevalence is yet to be determined because advertising farther from schools would still prevail. PMID:24742394

  4. Prevalence of cigarette advertising and other promotional strategies at the point of sale in St Louis, Missouri: analysis by store type and distance from a school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Colditz, Graham; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Cyr, Julianne; Snider, Doneisha; Schootman, Mario

    2014-04-17

    Point-of-sale advertising provides an opportunity for the tobacco industry to communicate with current and potential smokers. The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act allows states to implement policies requiring that tobacco products be placed out of sight, and the Food and Drug Administration is considering banning point-of-sale advertising within 1,000 feet of schools. Our objective was to compare cigarette point-of-sale advertising near schools with grades prekindergarten through 12 and by store type. All registered cigarette retailers (n = 1,229) and schools (n = 581) in the city of St Louis and St Louis County were geocoded and mapped by using ArcGIS. Retailers were divided into 2 groups, those within 1,000 feet and those within 1,001 to 2,000 feet of a school; 200 retailers from each group were randomly selected. We assessed tobacco interior and exterior advertising, brands advertised, discounts, gifts with purchase, "no sales to minors" signage, and cigarette functional items (eg, advertising on shopping baskets). Analyses were done by distance from a school and store type. We analyzed 340 retailers. Most retailers within 1,000 feet (91.2%) and from 1,001 to 2,000 feet (94.2%) of a school displayed cigarette advertising (P = .20). Convenience stores had the highest number of interior ads. In multivariable models, distance from school explained 0.2% of the variance in total advertising. Cigarette point-of-sale advertising is highly prevalent in St Louis within 1,000 feet of schools. A ban based on distance from a school might decrease advertising exposure, but its effect on smoking prevalence is yet to be determined because advertising farther from schools would still prevail.

  5. Trends in Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL Producing Enterobacteriaceae and ESBL Genes in a Dutch Teaching Hospital, Measured in 5 Yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (2010-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Willemsen

    Full Text Available This paper describes the trends in prevalence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E and ESBL genes, measured in five consecutive yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (PPS. All patients present in the hospital and in a day-care clinic (including patients on dialysis on the day of the survey, were screened for perianal ESBL-E carriage. Perianal swabs were taken and cultured using an enrichment broth and a selective agar plate. Both phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to detect the production of ESBL, presence of ESBL-genes and clonal relatedness. Out of 2,695 patients, 135 (5.0% were tested ESBL-E positive. The overall ESBL-E prevalence was stable over the years. Overall 5.2% of all ESBL-E were acquired by nosocomial transmission. A relative decrease of CTX-M-1-1-like ESBL genes (from 44 to 25%, p = 0.026 was observed, possibly related to the strong (>60% decrease in antibiotic use in livestock in our country during the same period.

  6. Prevalence of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle in the Southwestern Iran and detection of cutoff point for NEFA and glucose concentrations for diagnosis of subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Ardavan Nowroozi; Nazifi, Saeed; Ghasrodashti, Abbas Rowshan; Olyaee, Ahad

    2011-06-01

    Subclinical ketosis (SCK) is simply a condition marked by increased levels of circulating ketone bodies without the presence of the clinical signs of ketosis. Subclinical ketosis can cause economic losses through decreased milk production and association with preparturient diseases. Limited information is available regarding the prevalence of SCK in dairy herds in Southwestern Iran. The objectives of this study were (i) determination of the cutoff point of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and glucose concentrations for diagnosis of SCK using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and (ii) determination of prevalence of subclinical ketosis in apparently healthy dairy cattle in Southwestern Iran. From October to December 2009, a total of 100 clinically healthy multiparous Holstein cows (3-8 years old) were randomly selected from 16 dairy herds around Kazerun, Fars Province, Iran. The cows had two-six lactations, with body weight ranging from 500 to 650 kg. Blood samples for each cow were taken at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post parturition and 3-4h after the morning feeding. The optimal cutoff point was set, by the ROC method, to >0.26 mmol/L for NEFA, and ketosis in all of the 2, 4 and 6 weeks postpartum. The results suggest that, a cut-off point of 0.26 mmol/L for NEFA concentrations can be used during early lactation for diagnosis of subclinical ketosis and making management decisions for prevention and treatment. Glucose cannot be a good criterion for diagnosis of SCK and it does not appear to be useful for monitoring subclinical ketosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus based on various screening strategies in western Kenya: a prospective comparison of point of care diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastakia, Sonak D; Njuguna, Benson; Onyango, Beryl Ajwang'; Washington, Sierra; Christoffersen-Deb, Astrid; Kosgei, Wycliffe K; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2017-07-14

    Early diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is crucial to prevent short term delivery risks and long term effects such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the mother and infant. Diagnosing GDM in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) however, remains sub-optimal due to associated logistical and cost barriers for resource-constrained populations. A cost-effective strategy to screen for GDM in such settings are therefore urgently required. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and assess utility of various GDM point of care (POC) screening strategies in a resource-constrained setting. Eligible women aged ≥18 years, and between 24 and 32 weeks of a singleton pregnancy, prospectively underwent testing over two days. On day 1, a POC 1-h 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) and a POC glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was assessed. On day 2, fasting blood glucose, 1-h and 2-h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were determined using both venous and POC tests, along with a venous HbA1c. The International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria was used to diagnose GDM. GDM prevalence was reported with 95% confidence interval (CI). Specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the various POC testing strategies were determined using IADPSG testing as the standard reference. Six hundred-sixteen eligible women completed testing procedures. GDM was diagnosed in 18 women, a prevalence of 2.9% (95% CI, 1.57% - 4.23%). Compared to IADPSG testing, POC IADPSG had a sensitivity and specificity of 55.6% and 90.6% respectively while that of POC 1-h 50 g GCT (using a diagnostic cut-off of ≥7.2 mmol/L [129.6 mg/dL]) was 55.6% and 63.9%. All other POC tests assessed showed poor sensitivity. POC screening strategies though feasible, showed poor sensitivity for GDM detection in our resource-constrained population of low GDM prevalence. Studies to identify

  8. Prevalence of and referred pain from myofascial trigger points in the forearm muscles in patients with lateral epicondylalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2007-05-01

    Referred pain and pain characteristics evoked from the extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum communis, and brachioradialis muscles was investigated in 20 patients with lateral epicondylalgia (LE) and 20-matched controls. Both groups were examined for the presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in a blinded fashion. The quality and location of the evoked referred pain, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the lateral epicondyle on the right upper extremity (symptomatic side in patients, and dominant-side on controls) were recorded. Several lateral elbow pain parameters were also evaluated. Within the patient group, the elicited referred pain by manual exploration of 13 out of 20 (65%) extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles, 12/20 (70%) extensor carpi radialis longus muscles, 10/20 (50%) brachioradialis muscles, and 5/20 (25%) extensor digitorum communis muscles, shares similar pain patterns as their habitual lateral elbow and forearm pain. The mean number of muscles with TrPs for each patient was 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1,4] of which 2 (95% CI 1,3) were active, and 0.9 (95% CI 0,2) were latent TrPs. Control participants only had latent TrPs (mean: 0.4; 95% CI 0,2). TrP occurrence between the 2 groups was significantly different for active TrPs (P0.05). The referred pain pattern was larger in patients than in controls, with pain referral to the lateral epicondyle (proximally) and to the dorso-lateral aspect of the forearm in the patients, and confined to the dorso-lateral aspect of the forearm in the controls. Patients with LE showed a significant (Plateral epicondyle was negatively correlated with both the total number of TrPs (rs=-0.63; P=0.003) and the number of active TrPs (rs=-0.5; P=0.02): the greater the number of active TrPs, the lower the PPT at the lateral epicondyle. Our results suggest that in patients with LE, the evoked referred pain and its sensory characteristics shared similar patterns

  9. Point-prevalence survey of healthcare facility-onset healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection in Greek hospitals outside the intensive care unit: The C. DEFINE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoutelis, Athanasios; Pefanis, Angelos; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Lelekis, Moyssis; Lazanas, Marios C; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Dalekos, George N; Roilides, Emmanuel; Samonis, George; Maltezos, Efstratios; Hatzigeorgiou, Dimitrios; Lada, Malvina; Metallidis, Symeon; Stoupis, Athena; Chrysos, Georgios; Karnesis, Lazaros; Symbardi, Styliani; Loupa, Chariclia V; Giamarellou, Helen; Kioumis, Ioannis; Sambatakou, Helen; Tsianos, Epameinondas; Kotsopoulou, Maria; Georgopali, Areti; Liakou, Klairi; Perlorentzou, Stavroula; Levidiotou, Stamatina; Giotsa-Toutouza, Marina; Tsorlini-Christoforidou, Helen; Karaiskos, Ilias; Kouppari, Georgia; Trikka-Graphakos, Eleftheria; Ntrivala, Maria-Anna; Themeli-Digalaki, Kate; Pangalis, Anastasia; Kachrimanidou, Melina; Martsoukou, Maria; Karapsias, Stergios; Panopoulou, Maria; Maraki, Sofia; Orfanou, Anagnostina; Petinaki, Efthymia; Orfanidou, Maria; Baka, Vasiliki; Stylianakis, Antonios; Spiliopoulou, Iris; Smilakou, Stavroula; Zerva, Loukia; Vogiatzakis, Evangelos; Belesiotou, Eleni; Gogos, Charalambos A

    2017-01-01

    The correlation of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with in-hospital morbidity is important in hospital settings where broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents are routinely used, such as in Greece. The C. DEFINE study aimed to assess point-prevalence of CDI in Greece during two study periods in 2013. There were two study periods consisting of a single day in March and another in October 2013. Stool samples from all patients hospitalized outside the ICU aged ≥18 years old with diarrhea on each day in 21 and 25 hospitals, respectively, were tested for CDI. Samples were tested for the presence of glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (GDH) and toxins A/B of C. difficile; samples positive for GDH and negative for toxins were further tested by culture and PCR for the presence of toxin genes. An analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors for CDI among patients with diarrhea. 5,536 and 6,523 patients were screened during the first and second study periods, respectively. The respective point-prevalence of CDI in all patients was 5.6 and 3.9 per 10,000 patient bed-days whereas the proportion of CDI among patients with diarrhea was 17% and 14.3%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that solid tumor malignancy [odds ratio (OR) 2.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-6.15, p = 0.019] and antimicrobial administration (OR 3.61, 95% CI: 1.03-12.76, p = 0.045) were independent risk factors for CDI development. Charlson's Comorbidity Index (CCI) >6 was also found as a risk factor of marginal statistical significance (OR 2.24, 95% CI: 0.98-5.10). Median time to CDI from hospital admission was shorter with the presence of solid tumor malignancy (3 vs 5 days; p = 0.002) and of CCI >6 (4 vs 6 days, p = 0.009). The point-prevalence of CDI in Greek hospitals was consistent among cases of diarrhea over a 6-month period. Major risk factors were antimicrobial use, solid tumor malignancy and a CCI score >6.

  10. Contamination of public transports by Staphylococcus aureus and its carriage by biomedical students: point-prevalence, related risk factors and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Â; Martins da Costa, P; Rego, D; Beça, N; Alves, C; Moreira, T; Conceição, T; Aires-de-Sousa, M

    2015-08-01

    To analyse the contamination of public transports by Staphylococcus aureus and assess its carriage by biomedical students, focussing on the point-prevalence, related risk factors and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant strains. Cross-sectional survey. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolated from handrails of buses (n = 112) and trains (n = 79) circulating in Porto and from nasal swabs of local university students (n = 475) were quantified, characterized by molecular typing methods and related to possible risk factors. The MRSA prevalence in buses (16.1%) was not significantly different from trains (8.9%). There was also no identifiable association between the counts of MSSA and MRSA in buses and trains and the number of travellers in each sampling day, specific routes (including those passing by main hospitals) or other risk factors. Of the students, 37.1% carried S. aureus, and having a part-time job or smoking were found to be risk factors for carriage. EMRSA-15 (ST22-SCCmecIVh) was the prevalent MRSA clonal lineage, found not only in the buses (n = 14) and trains (n = 2) but also in the single MRSA-carrier among the students. The characteristics of the community-associated Southwest Pacific MRSA clone were found in a single ST30-IVa isolate, which may suggest a recent SCCmec acquisition by an MSSA background in the community. The spread of EMRSA-15, a common hospital-associated lineage, among different public transports and as a nasal coloniser is of concern and warrants adequate public health control measures. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) pilot point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarb, P; Coignard, B; Griskeviciene, J; Muller, A; Vankerckhoven, V; Weist, K; Goossens, Mm; Vaerenberg, S; Hopkins, S; Catry, B; Monnet, Dl; Goossens, H; Suetens, C

    2012-11-15

    A standardised methodology for a combined point prevalence survey (PPS) on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals developed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control was piloted across Europe. Variables were collected at national, hospital and patient level in 66 hospitals from 23 countries. A patient-based and a unit-based protocol were available. Feasibility was assessed via national and hospital questionnaires. Of 19,888 surveyed patients, 7.1% had an HAI and 34.6% were receiving at least one antimicrobial agent. Prevalence results were highest in intensive care units, with 28.1% patients with HAI, and 61.4% patients with antimicrobial use. Pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections (2.0% of patients; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8–2.2%) represented the most common type (25.7%) of HAI. Surgical prophylaxis was the indication for 17.3% of used antimicrobials and exceeded one day in 60.7% of cases. Risk factors in the patient-based protocol were provided for 98% or more of the included patients and all were independently associated with both presence of HAI and receiving an antimicrobial agent. The patient-based protocol required more work than the unit-based protocol, but allowed collecting detailed data and analysis of risk factors for HAI and antimicrobial use.

  12. Point prevalence of bovine fascioliasis and the influence of chemotherapy on the milk yield in a lactating bovine population from the district of Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M K; Sajid, M S; Khan, M N; Iqbal, Z; Arshad, M; Hussain, A

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides an estimation of the point prevalence of fascioliasis and its economic impact in terms of increased milk yield after chemotherapy of a bovine population from the district of Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 2400 cattle and buffaloes were examined quantitatively using the McMaster egg-counting technique. Infected cattle and buffaloes (50 of each) were randomly selected and each divided into two groups of 25 animals. Groups A (buffaloes) and C (cattle) were treated with oxyclozanide (orally, 16.6 mg kg- 1 body weight). Groups B and D served as negative controls for buffaloes and cattle, respectively. Pre- and post-treatment milk yield was recorded to determine if there were any changes in milk yield after treatment. Of 2400 faecal samples analysed, 654 (27.25%) were positive for Fasciola spp. with a mean number of eggs per gram (EPG) of 503.2. The point prevalence and worm burden of fascioliasis was significantly higher (OR = 2.13; P < 0.05) in buffaloes (34.58%; 415/1200; mean EPG maximum likelihood = 521.4) as compared to that of cattle (19.92%; 239/1200; mean EPG maximum likelihood = 415.8). Among the parasite species, F. gigantica (19.88%; 477/2400) was predominant (OR = 3.12; P < 0.05) as compared to F. hepatica (7.38%; 177/2400). An average daily increase of 0.67 and 0.87 litres of milk, with 0.41% and 0.37% more fat per animal, was observed in oxyclozanide-treated buffaloes and cattle, respectively. The economic value of reduced production of infected animals was estimated as US$0.33 and 0.32 per animal per day for cattle and buffaloes, respectively.

  13. Working Together to Define Antibiotic Appropriateness: Point Prevalence Survey in 47 Intensive Care Units from 12 US Hospitals, Partnership for Quality Care, March 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Kavita K; Ostrowsky, Belinda; Abbo, Lilian M; Srinivasan, Arjun; Bartash, Rachel; Cassera, Fred; Fleisher, Jorge; Kubiak, David W; Letourneau, Alyssa R; Nori, Priya; Parodi, Stephen; Aragon, Laura; Dollard, Eliza; Gagliardo, Christina; Ghitan, Monica; Giles, Amber; Mayer, Suri; Quevedo, Jennifer; Rieg, Gunter; Shteyman, Galina; Vargas, Jaclyn; Kelley, Shannon; Silver, Phyllis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background A national assessment of antibiotic appropriateness in intensive care units (ICUs) with benchmarking was performed to assist antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) identify improvement opportunities. Methods A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tool was adapted by an expert panel from the Partnership for Quality Care (PQC), a coalition dedicated to high quality care in US hospitals, to validate appropriate antibiotic use measurement via a point prevalence survey on a single day. Data were collected by ASP personnel at each hospital, de-identified and submitted in aggregate to PQC for benchmarking. Hospitals identified reasons for inappropriate antibiotic use by category and antibiotics misused. Results Forty-seven ICUs from 12 PQC hospitals participated: California (2), Florida (2), Massachusetts (3), Minnesota (1), and New York (4). Most hospitals identified as teaching (83%) with 252-1550 bed size (median: 563) and 20–270 licensed ICU beds (median: 70). All hospitals reported a formal ASP. On March 1, 2017, 362 (54%) of 667 patients in participating ICUs were on antibiotics (range: 8-81 patients); 1 patient was not assessed. Of the remaining 361 antibiotic regimens, 112 (31%) were identified as inappropriate from among all 12 hospitals (range: 9-82%) (figure). The table displays inappropriate antibiotic use by ICU type. Reasons for inappropriate use included unnecessarily broad spectrum of activity (29%), duration longer than necessary (21%), and treatment of a non-infectious syndrome (19%). The antibiotic most commonly misused was vancomycin in 7 (58%) hospitals. Conclusion Up to 80% of antibiotic use in some ICUs is inappropriate, underscoring the need for ASP interventions, standardized assessment tools and benchmarking. Strategies should focus on de-escalation of broad-spectrum antibiotics and reducing duration of therapy. Disclosures D. W. Kubiak, Shionogi: Consultant, Consulting fee. Astellas Pharma: Consultant, Consulting

  14. Spicing up Your Curriculum: A Seven-Day Handball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Adolfo; Esslinger, Keri

    2016-01-01

    In today's physical education classroom, many teachers feel starved for fresh, innovative activities to teach. This article presents team handball (TH) as one such activity. Although TH is not a new activity (it was first played toward the end of the 19th century in countries such as Denmark, Germany and Sweden), for many students in the United…

  15. A Sense of Worth: Seven Days with Hamlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Bernard T.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of a week-long teacher inservice workshop on Shakespeare's "Hamlet" in the context of an analysis of participants' responses to a 10-question evaluation of the inservice. (AEA)

  16. Antimicrobial consumption and resistance in adult hospital inpatients in 53 countries: results of an internet-based global point prevalence survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Versporten, MPH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The Global Point Prevalence Survey (Global-PPS established an international network of hospitals to measure antimicrobial prescribing and resistance worldwide. We aimed to assess antimicrobial prescribing and resistance in hospital inpatients. Methods: We used a standardised surveillance method to collect detailed data about antimicrobial prescribing and resistance from hospitals worldwide, which were grouped by UN region. The internet-based survey included all inpatients (adults, children, and neonates receiving an antimicrobial who were on the ward at 0800 h on one specific day between January and September, 2015. Hospitals were classified as primary, secondary, tertiary (including infectious diseases hospitals, and paediatric hospitals. Five main ward types were defined: medical wards, surgical wards, intensive-care units, haematology oncology wards, and medical transplantation (bone marrow or solid transplants wards. Data recorded included patient characteristics, antimicrobials received, diagnosis, therapeutic indication according to predefined lists, and markers of prescribing quality (eg, whether a stop or review date were recorded, and whether local prescribing guidelines existed and were adhered to. We report findings for adult inpatients. Findings: The Global-PPS for 2015 included adult data from 303 hospitals in 53 countries, including eight lower-middle-income and 17 upper-middle-income countries. 86 776 inpatients were admitted to 3315 adult wards, of whom 29 891 (34·4% received at least one antimicrobial. 41 213 antimicrobial prescriptions were issued, of which 36 792 (89·3% were antibacterial agents for systemic use. The top three antibiotics prescribed worldwide were penicillins with β-lactamase inhibitors, third-generation cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones. Carbapenems were most frequently prescribed in Latin America and west and central Asia. Of patients who received at least one antimicrobial

  17. The Prevalence and Marketing of Electronic Cigarettes in Proximity to At-Risk Youths: An Investigation of Point-of-Sale Practices near Alternative High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Pike, James; Chapman, Jared; Xie, Bin; Hilton, Brian N.; Ames, Susan L.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the point-of-sale marketing practices used to promote electronic cigarettes at stores near schools that serve at-risk youths. One hundred stores selling tobacco products within a half-mile of alternative high schools in Southern California were assessed for this study. Seventy percent of stores in the sample sold electronic…

  18. Cross-sectional point prevalence survey to study the environmental contamination of nosocomial pathogens in intensive care units under real-life conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, I; Mayr, A; Kreidl, P; Brühwasser, C; Hinterberger, G; Fritz, A; Posch, W; Fuchs, S; Obwegeser, A; Orth-Höller, D; Lass-Flörl, C

    2018-01-01

    In intensive care units (ICUs), inanimate surfaces and equipment may be contaminated by nosocomial pathogens, including multi-drug-resistant micro-organisms. To assess the degree of environmental contamination close to and distant from patients, and contamination of healthcare workers' (HCWs) hands with nosocomial pathogens under real-life conditions and to investigate potential transmission events. Over the course of three weeks, agar contact samples were taken close to and distant from patient areas and from HCWs' hands in eight ICUs of a tertiary care hospital in Innsbruck, Austria. Each ICU was visited once without announcement. Species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed according to standard methods, and corresponding strains from patient, environment and hand samples were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Among 523 samples, HCWs' hands were most frequently contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria (15.2%), followed by areas close to patients (10.9%) and areas distant from patients (9.1%). Gram-positive bacteria were identified most often (67.8%), with Enterococcus spp. being the most prevalent species (70% vancomycin sensitive and 30% vancomycin resistant) followed by Staphylococcus aureus, of which 64% were classified as meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular typing documented identical strains among patient, environment and hand isolates. This study found widespread contamination of the ICU environment with clinically relevant pathogens, including multi-drug-resistant micro-organisms, despite cleaning and disinfection. The bioburden might not be restricted to areas close to patients. The role of extended environmental disinfection of areas distant from patients in order to improve infection prevention needs further discussion. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diversity of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes in Europe: results from the European, multicentre, prospective, biannual, point-prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalised patients with diarrhoea (EUCLID), 2012 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kerrie A; Ashwin, Helen; Longshaw, Christopher M; Burns, David A; Davis, Georgina L; Wilcox, Mark H

    2016-07-21

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the major cause of infective diarrhoea in healthcare environments. As part of the European, multicentre, prospective, biannual, point-prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalised patients with diarrhoea (EUCLID), the largest C. difficile epidemiological study of its type, PCR ribotype distribution of C. difficile isolates in Europe was investigated. PCR ribotyping was performed on 1,196 C. difficile isolates from diarrhoeal samples sent to the European coordinating laboratory in 2012-13 and 2013 (from two sampling days) by 482 participating hospitals from 19 European countries. A total of 125 ribotypes were identified, of which ribotypes 027 (19%, n =222), 001/072 (11%, n = 134) and 014/020 (10%, n = 119) were the most prevalent. Distinct regional patterns of ribotype distribution were noted. Of 596 isolates from patients with toxin-positive stools (CDI cases), ribotype 027 accounted for 22% (32/144) of infections in cases aged from 18 to less than 65 years, but the prevalence decreased in those aged ≥ 65 years (14% (59/412)) and further decreased in those aged ≥ 81 years (9% (18/195)). The prevalence of ribotype 027 and 176, but not other epidemic strains, was inversely proportional to overall ribotype diversity (R(2) = 0.717). This study highlights an increased diversity of C. difficile ribotypes across Europe compared with previous studies, with considerable intercountry variation in ribotype distribution. Continuous surveillance programmes are necessary to monitor the changing epidemiology of C. difficile. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  20. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella infantis isolates originating from different points of the broiler chicken-human food chain in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nógrády, N; Kardos, G; Bistyák, A; Turcsányi, I; Mészáros, J; Galántai, Zs; Juhász, A; Samu, P; Kaszanyitzky, J E; Pászti, J; Kiss, I

    2008-09-30

    During the 10-month study period Salmonella contamination of broiler houses and the flocks reared in three farms (A, B and C), the slaughter houses where the flocks were slaughtered, as well as the carcass and retail raw meat products originating from them was investigated. In the broiler farm A five consecutive flocks, in the B and C farms one flock was sampled. Environmental samples were taken prior to the introductions. Environmental, drinking water, feed and faecal samples were collected regularly using standard methods. Before and during processing of the flocks, environmental and carcass samples were taken at the abattoirs. Salmonella contamination of the carcass, retail meat, as well as stool samples of farm and abattoir workers and from human illnesses registered in the same period and region were also examined. Isolation, sero-, phage- and antibiotic resistance typing, class 1 integron and plasmid profiling of the strains were performed; their genetic relationship was assessed by PFGE. Although the broiler house and the faecal samples of the 5 flocks of the farm A were negative for Salmonella, S. infantis was isolated from 20-100% of the abattoir carcass samples. The retail raw meat samples were 0-100% S. infantis positive. The environmental samples of farm B were Salmonella negative, but the examined flock was contaminated: S. infantis was identified from 43% of the faecal samples. This serotype was identified in 100% of the carcass and retail raw meat samples. From environmental samples taken before the arrival of the 1-day-old chicks in the broiler house C, S. infantis was cultured. S. infantis prevalence in the faecal samples was 35% and all the carcass and retail raw meat samples were S. infantis contaminated. Altogether 164 S. infantis strains were isolated out of which 145 were further characterized. The vast majority (142/145) of the strains belonged to phage types 217 and 213. All but one were characterized by the nalidixic acid

  1. Subclinical ketosis in post-partum dairy cows fed a predominantly pasture-based diet: defining cut-points for diagnosis using concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood and determining prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    Firstly, to define, in dairy cows in the first 5 weeks post-calving fed a predominantly pasture-based diet, cut-points of concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood, above which there were associations with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), reduced pregnancy rates (PR) and decreased milk production, in order to better define subclinical ketosis (SCK) in such cattle; and secondly, to determine the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for SCK. An observational field study was conducted in 565 cows from 15 spring-calving and predominantly pasture-fed dairy herds in two regions of New Zealand during the 2010- 2011 dairy season. Within each herd, a cohort of randomly selected cows (approximately 40 per herd) was blood sampled to determine concentrations of BHBA on six occasions at weekly intervals starting within 5 days of calving. The key outcome variables were the presence/absence of PVD at 5 weeks post-calving, PR after 6 weeks (6-week PR) and after the completion of the breeding season (final PR), and mean daily milk solids production. Two cut-points for defining SCK were identified: firstly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L within 5 days post-calving, which was associated with an increased diagnosis of PVD (24 vs. 8%); and secondly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L at any stage within 5 weeks post-calving, which was associated with decreased 6-week PR (78 vs. 85%). The mean herd-level incidence of SCK within 5 weeks post-calving was 68 (min 12; max 100)% and large variations existed between herds in peak prevalence of SCK and the interval post-calving at which such peaks occurred. Cows>8 years of age and cows losing body condition were at increased risk of SCK within 5 weeks of calving. Cows with concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L in early lactation had a higher risk of PVD and lower 6-week PR. Cow and herd-level prevalence of SCK varied widely in early lactation. Subclinical ketosis is common and is significantly

  2. The prevalence rate of internet addiction among Japanese college students: two cross-sectional studies and reconsideration of cut-off points of Young's internet addiction test in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Masaru; Teo, Alan R; Shiraishi, Masaki; Tayama, Masaya; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-05-30

    Due to variation in estimates of the prevalence of internet addiction (IA) in prior research, we conducted two cross-sectional studies over two years and investigated the prevalence rate of IA in college students in Japan, and reconsidered appropriate cut-off points of self-rating scale to screen possible IA. This study is composed of two parts: survey I in 2014 and survey II in 2016, which were conducted in the same schools with an interval of two years. The study questionnaire included questions about demographics and internet use, and the Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Additionally, the subjects in survey II were asked about self-reported IA. There were 1,005 respondents in total with a mean age of 18.9±1.3. The mean IAT scores remained stable between 2014 and 2016: 45.2±12.6 in survey I and 45.5±13.1 in survey II (overall mean IAT score of 45.4±13.0). With respect to self-reported IA in survey II, a total of 21.6% agreed (score of 5 or 6 on a 6-point Likert scale). We categorized these subjects as IA, and the remainder as non-IA. The mean IAT score showed significant difference between these two groups (57.8±14.3 vs 42.1±10.7, p<0.001). The severity of symptoms of IA among Japanese college students appears stable in recent years, with a mean IAT scores of over 40. Our results suggest that a screening score cut-off of 40 on the IAT could be reconsidered and that of 50 might be proposed for the cut-off. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition effect of calcium hydroxide point and chlorhexidine point on root canal bacteria of necrosis teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Leonard Je

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium Hydroxide point and Chlorhexidine point are new drugs for eliminating bacteria in the root canal. The points slowly and controly realease Calcium Hydroxide and Chlorhexidine into root canal. The purpose of the study was to determined the effectivity of Calcium hydroxide point (Calcium hydroxide plus point and Chlorhexidine point in eleminating the root canal bacteria of nescrosis teeth. In this study 14 subjects were divided into 2 groups. The first group was treated with Calcium hydroxide point and the second was treated with Chlorhexidine poin. The bacteriological sampling were measured with spectrofotometry. The Paired T Test analysis (before and after showed significant difference between the first and second group. The Independent T Test which analysed the effectivity of both groups had not showed significant difference. Although there was no significant difference in statistical test, the result of second group eliminate more bacteria than the first group. The present finding indicated that the use of Chlorhexidine point was better than Calcium hydroxide point in seven days period. The conclusion is Chlorhexidine point and Calcium hydroxide point as root canal medicament effectively eliminate root canal bacteria of necrosis teeth.

  4. DALI: Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive care unit patients: a multi-centre point of prevalence study to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients is therapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason A; De Waele, Jan J; Dimopoulos, George; Koulenti, Despoina; Martin, Claude; Montravers, Philippe; Rello, Jordi; Rhodes, Andrew; Starr, Therese; Wallis, Steven C; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2012-07-06

    The clinical effects of varying pharmacokinetic exposures of antibiotics (antibacterials and antifungals) on outcome in infected critically ill patients are poorly described. A large-scale multi-centre study (DALI Study) is currently underway describing the clinical outcomes of patients achieving pre-defined antibiotic exposures. This report describes the protocol. DALI will recruit over 500 patients administered a wide range of either beta-lactam or glycopeptide antibiotics or triazole or echinocandin antifungals in a pharmacokinetic point-prevalence study. It is anticipated that over 60 European intensive care units (ICUs) will participate. The primary aim will be to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients achieves plasma concentrations associated with maximal activity. Secondary aims will compare antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures with patient outcome and will describe the population pharmacokinetics of the antibiotics included. Various subgroup analyses will be conducted to determine patient groups that may be at risk of very low or very high concentrations of antibiotics. The DALI study should inform clinicians of the potential clinical advantages of achieving certain antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures in infected critically ill patients.

  5. DALI: Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive care unit patients: a multi-centre point of prevalence study to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients is therapeutic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Jason A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical effects of varying pharmacokinetic exposures of antibiotics (antibacterials and antifungals on outcome in infected critically ill patients are poorly described. A large-scale multi-centre study (DALI Study is currently underway describing the clinical outcomes of patients achieving pre-defined antibiotic exposures. This report describes the protocol. Methods DALI will recruit over 500 patients administered a wide range of either beta-lactam or glycopeptide antibiotics or triazole or echinocandin antifungals in a pharmacokinetic point-prevalence study. It is anticipated that over 60 European intensive care units (ICUs will participate. The primary aim will be to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients achieves plasma concentrations associated with maximal activity. Secondary aims will compare antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures with patient outcome and will describe the population pharmacokinetics of the antibiotics included. Various subgroup analyses will be conducted to determine patient groups that may be at risk of very low or very high concentrations of antibiotics. Discussion The DALI study should inform clinicians of the potential clinical advantages of achieving certain antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures in infected critically ill patients.

  6. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  7. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  9. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  10. Dew Point

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Shelly

    1999-01-01

    Dew Point was a solo exhibition originating at PriceWaterhouseCoopers Headquarters Gallery, London, UK and toured to the Centre de Documentacio i Museu Textil, Terrassa, Spain and Gallery Aoyama, Tokyo, Japan.

  11. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  12. Tipping Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  13. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  14. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  15. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ... about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The force of a ...

  16. A prevalence survey of every-day activities in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadfield Ruth M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into the effects of common activities during pregnancy is sparse and often contradictory. To examine whether common activities are an acute trigger of pregnancy complications the prevalence of these activities are necessary to determine sample size estimates. The aim of this study is to ascertain the prevalence of selected activities in any seven day period during pregnancy. Methods The study was conducted in the antenatal clinic of a teaching hospital with tertiary obstetric and neonatal care in Sydney, Australia between August 2008 and April 2009. Women who were at least 20 weeks pregnant and able to read English completed a questionnaire to assess whether they had performed a list of activities in the seven days prior to survey completion. Results were analysed using frequency tabulations, contingency table analyses and chi square tests. Results A total of 766 surveys were completed, 29 surveys were excluded as the women completing them were less than 20 weeks pregnant, while 161 women completed the survey more than once. Ninety seven per cent of women completed the survey when approached for the first time, while 87% completed the survey when approached a subsequent time. In the week prior to completing the survey 82.6% of women had consumed a caffeinated beverage, 42.1% had had sexual intercourse, 32.7% had lifted something over 12 kilograms, 21.4% had consumed alcohol and 6.4% had performed vigorous exercise. The weekly prevalence of heavy lifting was higher for multiparous women compared to nulliparous women. Conclusions The results of this study can be used to inform future research into activities as acute triggers of pregnancy complications.

  17. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yazan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

  18. Ecological association between HIV and concurrency point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological association between HIV and concurrency point-prevalence in South Africa's ethnic groups. Chris Kenyon. Abstract. HIV prevalence between different ethnic groups within South Africa exhibits considerable variation. Numerous authors believe that elevated sexual partner concurrency rates are important in the ...

  19. Infant nutrition in the first seven days of life in rural northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aborigo Raymond

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good nutrition is essential for increasing survival rates of infants. This study explored infant feeding practices in a resource-poor setting and assessed implications for future interventions focused on improving newborn health. Methods The study took place in the Kassena-Nankana District of the Upper East Region of northern Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with 35 women with newborn infants, 8 traditional birth attendants and local healers, and 16 community leaders. An additional 18 focus group discussions were conducted with household heads, compound heads and grandmothers. All interviews and discussions were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results Community members are knowledgeable about the importance of breastfeeding, and most women with newborn infants do attempt to breastfeed. However, data suggest that traditional practices related to breastfeeding and infant nutrition continue, despite knowledge of clinical guidelines. Such traditional practices include feeding newborn infants water, gripe water, local herbs, or traditionally meaningful foods such as water mixed with the flour of guinea corn (yara’na. In this region in Ghana, there are significant cultural traditions associated with breastfeeding. For example, colostrum from first-time mothers is often tested for bitterness by putting ants in it – a process that leads to a delay in initiating breastfeeding. Our data also indicate that grandmothers – typically the mother-in-laws – wield enormous power in these communities, and their desires significantly influence breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and maintenance. Conclusion Prelacteal feeding is still common in rural Ghana despite demonstrating high knowledge of appropriate feeding practices. Future interventions that focus on grandmothers and religious leaders are likely to prove valuable in changing community attitudes, beliefs, and practices with regard to infant nutrition.

  20. Stability of Seven Days Sample Storage of Erythrocyte’s SOD and Blood’s GPx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miswar Fattah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was about SOD erythrocyte activities at day 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 which centrifuged at room temperature (22.5 0C and storage temperature (-80 0C, SOD activities at day-0 which centrifuged at 4 0C, SOD whole blood activities with one day incubated at 2-8 0C and GPx activities at day 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 with 2–8 0C storage temperature. Laboratory analysis were performed by using reagent from Randox Laboratories, and Hitachi 917 analyzer from Boehringer Mannheim. SOD activities were measured at 505 nm absorbance meanwhile 340 nm absorbance is used to measure GPx. Data was analyzed by using t-test method and showed that SOD activities at day 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 with room temperature centrifuged had no significant differences. Significant differences are found at day-0 with centrifuged at 4 0C and one day incubated whole blood at 2–8 0C. GPx activities at day- 3 had no significant differences. Significant differences are found at day-0,1, 5 and 7 after storage.

  1. Seven-day PPI-triple therapy with levofloxacin is very effective for Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, R.W.; Janssen, M.J.R.; Boer, W.A. de

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection causes lifelong gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease, MALT lymphoma and gastric cancer. Many patients benefit from H. pylori eradication therapy. PPI-triple therapy is recommended as initial therapy. Quadruple therapy,

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of the Preterm Rabbit Lung after Seven Days of Hyperoxic Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Salaets

    Full Text Available The neonatal management of preterm born infants often results in damage to the developing lung and subsequent morbidity, referred to as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. Animal models may help in understanding the molecular processes involved in this condition and define therapeutic targets. Our goal was to identify molecular pathways using the earlier described preterm rabbit model of hyperoxia induced lung-injury. Transcriptome analysis by mRNA-sequencing was performed on lungs from preterm rabbit pups born at day 28 of gestation (term: 31 days and kept in hyperoxia (95% O2 for 7 days. Controls were preterm pups kept in normoxia. Transcriptomic data were analyzed using Array Studio and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, in order to identify the central molecules responsible for the observed transcriptional changes. We detected 2217 significantly dysregulated transcripts following hyperoxia, of which 90% could be identified. Major pathophysiological dysregulations were found in inflammation, lung development, vascular development and reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism. To conclude, amongst the many dysregulated transcripts, major changes were found in the inflammatory, oxidative stress and lung developmental pathways. This information may be used for the generation of new treatment hypotheses for hyperoxia-induced lung injury and BPD.

  3. Loss of interface pressure in various compression bandage systems over seven days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Kerstin; Heyer, Kristina; Verheyen-Cronau, Ida; Augustin, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturers' instructions of multi-component compression bandage systems inform that these products can remain up to 7 days during the therapy of venous leg ulcer. This implies that the pressure needed will be sustained during this time. The present research investigated the persistence of pressure of compression systems over 7 days. All 6 compression systems available in Germany at the time of the trial were tested on 35 volunteering persons without signs of venous leg disease. Bandaging with short-stretch bandages was included for comparison. Pressure was measured by using PicoPress®. Initially, all products showed sufficient resting pressure of 40 mm Hg checked with a pressure monitor, except for one system in which the pressure fell by at least 23.8%, the maximum being 47.5% over a period of 7 days. The currently available compression systems are not fit to keep the required pressure. Optimized products need to be developed.

  4. Seven day Lanzarote adventure: seven innovations in university learning and teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavey, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    An annual residential field course in Lanzarote, Canary Islands, gives university students of Environmental Science, Adventure Education, and Primary Science Education diverse opportunities for deep learning that challenges and motivates. Comments from students range from 'the best chemistry lesson ever' to 'life-changing'. Here I reflect on seven strengths from the student experience: (1) Our goal is for students to learn to ask scientific questions. Anyone can answer questions, but only the best scientists can ask questions that matter. (2) Field work fits the diverse learning styles of our diverse students. For example, students model bathymetry using sand and pebbles on a beach; students start to explore social issues around waste disposal on Lanzarote by taking part in a commando raid on a municipal rubbish tip! (3) Students learn from local experts but then learn from each other. For example, half the group explores agricultural practices while the other half explores traditional uses of plants; a student from one group is then paired with a student from the other group for them to teach each other what they have learned. (4) An overview of current research on the island (volcanic origins, indigenous species, trace elements in the wines!) comes from students reflecting on abstracts of 25 recent papers from mainstream journals and sharing their understanding with each other. (5) We replicate a real world experience. One part of the student assessment requires them to write a grant application for a scientific research project using the real-world pro forma and meeting the criteria set out by the real-world funding agency. (6) Students work as teams to write these grant applications (as they would do in the real world). They receive a single mark for their work, but the students then divide the mark among themselves according to the quality of the contributions they have made. In this way the university teachers assess the product, and the students assess the processes within their group. (7) Students are encouraged to explore the environmental impacts of their own activities. Affective learning (in which emotions are as important as factual knowledge) is a significant outcome of the course. Students themselves decide to offset carbon emissions from their visit and after returning to UK have created a large apple orchard, a 100 metre hedgerow and a public woodland through their own initiatives. University teachers work subtly (and without the students' knowledge) to promote this learning and environmental action.

  5. A seven day running training period increases basal urinary hepcidin levels as compared to cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M.; Dawson, B.; Landers, G.J.; Swinkels, D.W.; Tjalsma, H.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Trinder, D.; Peeling, P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This investigation compared the effects of an extended period of weight-bearing (running) vs. non-weight-bearing (cycling) exercise on hepcidin production and its implications for iron status. METHODS: Ten active males performed two separate exercise training blocks with either running

  6. Clinical and histological effects of the temporary occlusion of the rabbit nasolacrimal duct and point using cyanoacrylate adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C.F. Cardoso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and histological effects of occluding the nasolacrimal ducts and points of rabbits. For this study, 20 adult New Zealand rabbits, both males and females, weighing 3.2±0.4kg were allocated into two groups for n-butyl-cyanoacrylate occlusion (GB, n=10 or 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate occlusion (GO, n=10. The contralateral eyes served as the controls. The persistence of tears was evaluated daily using the Schirmer I test. Discomfort, eye discharge, epiphora, and conjunctival hyperemia were assessed prior to the procedure (T0 and during the 14 subsequent days (T1-T14. On days seven and 14, five animals from each group were euthanized, and their nasolacrimal ducts were collected, processed and analyzed by histology. In the GB group, the Schirmer test values differed from that at T0 at all of the subsequent time points, whereas there was no difference in the values observed from the GO group. Compared with the corresponding controls, the GO and GB groups differed significantly at almost all of the time points. When comparing the treatment groups, differences were found at T6, T7, T9, T10, T11, T12 and T14, with higher Schirmer values in the GB group. Epiphora was observed in the GB group from T1 to T8 and in the GO group from T1 to T6. Within seven days post-occlusion, histology revealed a moderate foreign body reaction, with marked necrosis and sloughing of the canalicular epithelium, in the GO group, which was absent at day 14. In the GB group, a marked inflammatory reaction and a mild foreign body reaction were found at day seven, and the foreign body reaction was prevalent at day 14. This study demonstrated that both adhesives were effective in obstructing the nasolacrimal ducts and points of rabbits and that their application and handling are easy and free of complications. However, both adhesives promoted inflammatory and foreign body reactions that evolved to repair and regeneration at day 14 of

  7. Factors affecting Helicobacter pylori eradication using a seven-day triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, tinidazole and clarithromycin, in brazilian patients with peptic ulcer Fatores que afetam a erradicação do Helicobacter pylori usando um tratamento triplo de sete dias com um inibidor de bomba de prótons associado ao tinidazol e a claritromicina, em pacientes brasileiros com úlcera péptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marcuz Silva

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple therapy is accepted as the treatment of choice for H. pylori eradication. In industrialized countries, a proton pump inhibitor plus clarithromycin and amoxicillin or nitroimidazole have shown the best results. Our aims were: 1. To study the eradication rate of the association of a proton pump inhibitor plus tinidazole and clarithromycin on H. pylori infection in our population. 2. To determine if previous treatments, gender, age, tobacco, alcohol use, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs change the response to therapy. METHODS: Two hundred patients with peptic ulcer (upper endoscopy and H. pylori infection (histology and rapid urease test - RUT were included. A proton pump inhibitor (lansoprazole 30 mg or omeprazole 20 mg, tinidazole 500 mg, and clarithromycin 250 mg were dispensed twice a day for a seven-day period. Eradication was assessed after 10 to 12 weeks of treatment through histology and RUT. RESULTS: The eradication rate of H. pylori per protocol was 65% (128/196 patients. This rate was 53% for previously treated patients, rising to 76% for not previously treated patients, with a statistical difference pO esquema tríplice tem sido demonstrado como sendo o melhor tratamento para a erradicação do Helicobacter pylori. Nos países industrializados o uso de um inibidor de bomba de prótons associado a claritromicina e a amoxicilina ou a um nitroimidazólico, tem proporcionado os melhores resultados. Objetivamos estudar na nossa população a taxa de erradicação do H. pylori para a associação de um inibidor de bomba de prótons com o tinidazol e a claritromicina e determinar se a resposta ao tratamento é influenciada pelo tratamento prévio, sexo, tabagismo, alcoolismo, idade e uso de anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais (AINEs. PACIENTES E PROCEDIMENTOS: Duzentos pacientes com diagnóstico endoscópico de úlcera péptica e com infecção pelo H. pylori, confirmada pelo exame histológico e pelo teste rápido da

  8. Efeitos neuromusculares in vitro e in vivo do atracúrio e do rocurônio em ratos submetidos a tratamento de sete dias com carbamazepina Efectos neuromusculares in vitro e in vivo del atracurio y del rocuronio en ratones sometidos a tratamiento de siete días con carbamazepina In vitro and in vivo neuromuscular effects of atracurium and rocuronium in rats treated with carbamazepine for seven days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Coutinho de Barcelos

    2008-04-01

    the concentration of cytochrome P450 and b5 reductase in hepatic microsomes. METHODS: Rats were treated with carbamazepine (CBZ - 40 mg.kg-1 by gavage and sacrificed on the eighth day under anesthesia with urethane. In vitro and in vivo preparations followed the techniques of Bulbring and Leeuwin and Wolters, respectively. Concentrations and doses of the neuromuscular blockers used in in vitro and in vivo preparations were, respectively, 20 µg.mL-1 and 0.5 mg.kg-1 for atracurium (ATC; and 4 µg.kg-1 and 0.6 mg.kg-1 for rocuronium (ROC. Each protocol had an n = 5 and the response was observed for 60 minutes. The effects of ATC and ROC were evaluated in the preparations of rats treated with carbamazepine (CBZt and compared to those of non-treated rats (CBZst. The concentration of cytochrome P450 and b5 reductase were determined in hepatic chromosomes of rats treated with carbamazepine (CBZt and non-treated rats (CBZst. RESULTS: Carbamazepine did not change the amplitude of neuromuscular response; differences in the neuromuscular blockade produced by atracurium in CBZ1 preparations were not observed, in vitro or in vivo, when compared with CBZst; the neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium in CBZt preparations was potentiated in vitro. Carbamazepine did not change the concentrations of cytochrome P450 and b5. CONCLUSIONS: Seven-day treatment with carbamazepine did not change the neuromuscular blockade produce by atracurium, but altered the in vitro effects of rocuronium. The duration of the treatment was not enough to cause enzymatic induction and decrease the sensitivity to rocuronium.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for tobacco smoking among pre-adolescent Pacific children in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosa, Vili; Gentles, Dudley; Glover, Marewa; Scragg, Robert; McCool, Judith; Bullen, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Pacific New Zealanders have a high prevalence of smoking, with many first smoking in their pre-adolescent years. To identify risk factors for tobacco smoking among Pacific pre-adolescent intermediate school children. A cross-sectional survey of 2208 Pacific students aged between 10 and 13 years from four South Auckland intermediate schools who were asked about their smoking behaviour between the years 2007 and 2009. The prevalence of Pacific ever-smokers (for 2007) in Year 7 was 15.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 12.0%-18.3%) and Year 8, 23.0% (95% CI 19.5%-26.7%). Multivariate modelling showed the risk factors for ever-smoking were Cook Island ethnic group (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.26-2.36, ref=Samoan), boys (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14-1.89), age (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.36-2.00), exposure to smoking in a car within the previous seven days (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.67-3.01), anyone smoking at home within the previous seven days (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.12-2.04) and receiving more than $NZ20 per week as pocket money/allowance (OR=1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96). Parents control and therefore can modify identified risk factors for Pacific children's smoking initiation: exposure to smoking at home or in the car and the amount of weekly pocket money the child receives. Primary health care professionals should advise Pacific parents to make their homes and cars smokefree and to monitor their children's spending. This study also suggests a particular need for specific Cook Island smokefree promotion and cessation resources.

  10. The End of Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jo

    2018-01-01

    Have teachers become too dependent on points? This article explores educators' dependency on their points systems, and the ways that points can distract teachers from really analyzing students' capabilities and achievements. Feldman argues that using a more subjective grading system can help illuminate crucial information about students and what…

  11. Demerit points systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In 2012, 21 of the 27 EU Member States had some form of demerit points system. In theory, demerit points systems contribute to road safety through three mechanisms: 1) prevention of unsafe behaviour through the risk of receiving penalty points, 2) selection and suspension of the most frequent

  12. Prevalence and course of pseudothrombocytopenia in outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froom, Paul; Barak, Mira

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and course of pseudothrombocytopenia in outpatients is uncertain. In a cohort study of 687,955 members of a health maintenance organization, we extracted 36,780 consecutive automated complete blood count test results and determined the point prevalence of pseudothrombocytopenia during a one-month period. We also calculated a retrospective cumulative prevalence over the past 5 years. There were 1105 (2.7%) patients with platelet counts of 100-149×10(9)/L and 304 (0.8%) with counts values, or the reference limit value should be lowered to 100×10(9)/L.

  13. Point specificity in acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Emma M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The existence of point specificity in acupuncture is controversial, because many acupuncture studies using this principle to select control points have found that sham acupoints have similar effects to those of verum acupoints. Furthermore, the results of pain-related studies based on visual analogue scales have not supported the concept of point specificity. In contrast, hemodynamic, functional magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies evaluating the responses to stimulation of multiple points on the body surface have shown that point-specific actions are present. This review article focuses on clinical and laboratory studies supporting the existence of point specificity in acupuncture and also addresses studies that do not support this concept. Further research is needed to elucidate the point-specific actions of acupuncture.

  14. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    on spatial invariance of interest points under changing acquisition parameters by measuring the spatial recall rate. The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of a number of existing well-established interest point detection methods. Automatic performance evaluation of interest points is hard......Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  15. Increasing autism prevalence in metropolitan New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-02-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder, between 2002 and 2006. The cohorts included 30,570 children, born in 1998 and 28,936 children, born in 1994, residing in Hudson, Union, and Ocean counties, New Jersey. Point prevalence estimates by sex, ethnicity, autism spectrum disorder subtype, and previous autism spectrum disorder diagnosis were determined. For 2006, a total of 533 children with autism spectrum disorder were identified, consistent with prevalence of 17.4 per 1000 (95% confidence interval = 15.9-18.9), indicating a significant increase in the autism spectrum disorder prevalence (p autism spectrum disorder was broad, affecting major demographic groups and subtypes. Boys with autism spectrum disorder outnumbered girls by nearly 5:1. Autism spectrum disorder prevalence was higher among White children than children of other ethnicities. Additional studies are needed to specify the influence of better awareness of autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates and to identify possible autism spectrum disorder risk factors. More resources are necessary to address the needs of individuals affected by autism spectrum disorder.

  16. Point defects in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The principal properties of point defects are studied: thermodynamics, electronic structure, interactions with etended defects, production by irradiation. Some measuring methods are presented: atomic diffusion, spectroscopic methods, diffuse scattering of neutron and X rays, positron annihilation, molecular dynamics. Then points defects in various materials are investigated: ionic crystals, oxides, semiconductor materials, metals, intermetallic compounds, carbides, nitrides [fr

  17. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  18. Generalized zero point anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose Alexandre; Maia Junior, Adolfo

    1994-01-01

    It is defined Zero point Anomaly (ZPA) as the difference between the Effective Potential (EP) and the Zero point Energy (ZPE). It is shown, for a massive and interacting scalar field that, in very general conditions, the renormalized ZPA vanishes and then the renormalized EP and ZPE coincide. (author). 3 refs

  19. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  20. The Lagrangian Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, J. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    There are five unique points in a star/planet system where a satellite can be placed whose orbital period is equal to that of the planet. Simple methods for calculating the positions of these points, or at least justifying their existence, are developed.

  1. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    ; the Cumulated Publication Point Indicator (CPPI), which graphically illustrates the cumulated gain of obtained vs. ideal points, both seen as vectors; and the normalized Cumulated Publication Point Index (nCPPI) that represents the cumulated gain of publication success as index values, either graphically......The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdisciplinary Danish Institute of International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  2. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  3. Do acupuncture points exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi; Liu Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Huang Yuying; He Wei; Ding Guanghong

    2009-01-01

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  4. Do acupuncture points exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory), and Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, Ruishan [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yuying; He Wei [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding Guanghong [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-07

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  5. The prevalence of stroke and associated disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, P G; Thomson, R G; Dobson, R; Rodgers, H; James, O F

    1999-06-01

    There are limited data available on the prevalence of stroke in the United Kingdom. Such data are important for the assessment of the health needs of the population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of stroke and the prevalence of associated dependence in a district of northern England. This was a two-stage point prevalence study. A valid screening questionnaire was used to identify stroke survivors from an age- and sex-stratified sample of the population aged 45 years and over in a family health services authority district. This was followed by assessment of stroke patients with scales of disability and handicap. The overall prevalence of stroke was found to be 17.5/1000 (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 17.0, 18.0). The prevalence of stroke-associated dependence was 11.7/1000 (95 per cent CI 11.3, 12.1). Self-reported comorbidity was most commonly due to circulatory and musculoskeletal disorders. The prevalence of stroke in this district is considerably higher than current guidelines and previous results suggest. Nevertheless, the result from this study combined with that from a previous study in another district in the United Kingdom should allow those interested in epidemiologically based health needs assessment to make reasonable estimates of the burden of stroke in their area.

  6. Marine Point Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    will link to the zone forecast and then allow further zooming to the point of interest whereas on the Honolulu, HI Chicago, IL Northern Indiana, IN Lake Charles, LA New Orleans, LA Boston, MA Caribou, ME

  7. Critical-point nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that a change of nuclear shape may be described in terms of a phase transition and that specific nuclei may lie close to the critical point of the transition. Analytical descriptions of such critical-point nuclei have been introduced recently and they are described briefly. The results of extensive searches for possible examples of critical-point behavior are presented. Alternative pictures, such as describing bands in the candidate nuclei using simple ΔK = 0 and ΔK = 2 rotational-coupling models, are discussed, and the limitations of the different approaches highlighted. A possible critical-point description of the transition from a vibrational to rotational pairing phase is suggested

  8. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  9. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  10. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  11. Characterizing fixed points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo Zlobec

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A set of sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of a point x⋆ such that f(x⋆ = x⋆ is called a "fixed point theorem". Many such theorems are named after well-known mathematicians and economists. Fixed point theorems are among most useful ones in applied mathematics, especially in economics and game theory. Particularly important theorem in these areas is Kakutani's fixed point theorem which ensures existence of fixed point for point-to-set mappings, e.g., [2, 3, 4]. John Nash developed and applied Kakutani's ideas to prove the existence of (what became known as "Nash equilibrium" for finite games with mixed strategies for any number of players. This work earned him a Nobel Prize in Economics that he shared with two mathematicians. Nash's life was dramatized in the movie "Beautiful Mind" in 2001. In this paper, we approach the system f(x = x differently. Instead of studying existence of its solutions our objective is to determine conditions which are both necessary and sufficient that an arbitrary point x⋆ is a fixed point, i.e., that it satisfies f(x⋆ = x⋆. The existence of solutions for continuous function f of the single variable is easy to establish using the Intermediate Value Theorem of Calculus. However, characterizing fixed points x⋆, i.e., providing answers to the question of finding both necessary and sufficient conditions for an arbitrary given x⋆ to satisfy f(x⋆ = x⋆, is not simple even for functions of the single variable. It is possible that constructive answers do not exist. Our objective is to find them. Our work may require some less familiar tools. One of these might be the "quadratic envelope characterization of zero-derivative point" recalled in the next section. The results are taken from the author's current research project "Studying the Essence of Fixed Points". They are believed to be original. The author has received several feedbacks on the preliminary report and on parts of the project

  12. Photoacoustic Point Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calasso, Irio G.; Craig, Walter; Diebold, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the photoacoustic effect generated by heat deposition at a point in space in an inviscid fluid. Delta-function and long Gaussian optical pulses are used as sources in the wave equation for the displacement potential to determine the fluid motion. The linear sound-generation mechanism gives bipolar photoacoustic waves, whereas the nonlinear mechanism produces asymmetric tripolar waves. The salient features of the photoacoustic point source are that rapid heat deposition and nonlinear thermal expansion dominate the production of ultrasound

  13. Unconventional Quantum Critical Points

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Cenke

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the theory of unconventional quantum critical points that are beyond the Landau's paradigm. Three types of unconventional quantum critical points will be discussed: (1). The transition between topological order and semiclassical spin ordered phase; (2). The transition between topological order and valence bond solid phase; (3). The direct second order transition between different competing orders. We focus on the field theory and universality class of these unconventio...

  14. SharePoint governance

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mudassar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi IKT590 2013 – Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad SharePoint is a web-based business collaboration platform from Microsoft which is very robust and dynamic in nature. The platform has been in the market for more than a decade and has been adapted by large number of organisations in the world. The platform has become larger in scale, richer in features and is improving consistently with every new version. However, SharePoint ...

  15. Opportunities Gained and Lost: J.E.B. Stuart’s Cavalry Operations in the Seven Days Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-07

    interest in and aptitude for cavalry operations were recognized early in his military academy years. Besides being an able horseman , Stuart demonstrated...serious blow at a boastful and insolent foe." His description of Latane’s death indicated the captain had "sealed his devotion to his native soil with...Sons, 1945. Campbell, William. "Stuart’s Ride and the Death of Latane." Southern Historical Society Papers XXXIX; reprint ed., Millwood, NY: Kraus

  16. Prevalence of gastroduodenal lesions in chronic nonsteroidal anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At endoscopy, only 10 (13.9%) patients had normal gastroduodenal mucosa. Gastritis was the most prevalent lesion occurring in 50% of the patients. Peptic ulcer disease had a point prevalence of 30.5% (duodenal ulcers 22.2%, and gastric ulcers 8.3%). Other lesions at endoscopy were duodenitis 16.7%, gastric erosions ...

  17. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdiscplinary Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...... for all document types. Statistical significant correlations were only found between WoS and GS and the two publication point systems in between, respectively. The study demonstrates how the nCPPI can be applied to institutions as evaluation tools supplementary to JCI in various combinations...

  18. Four country healthcare-associated infection prevalence survey: pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2010-03-01

    In 2006, the Hospital Infection Society was funded by the respective health services in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland to conduct a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Here, we report the prevalence of pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infection other than pneumonia (LRTIOP) in these four countries. The prevalence of all HCAIs was 7.59% (5743 out of 75 694). Nine hundred (15.7%) of these infections were pneumonia, and 402 (7.0%) were LRTIOP. The prevalence of both infections was higher for males than for females, and increased threefold from those aged <35 to those aged >85 years (P<0.001). At the time of the survey or in the preceding seven days, 23.7% and 18.2% of patients with pneumonia and LRTIOP, respectively, were mechanically ventilated compared to 5.2% of patients in the whole study population. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was the cause of pneumonia and LRTIOP in 7.6% and 18.1% of patients, respectively (P<0.001). More patients with LRTIOP (4.2%) had concurrent diarrhoea due to Clostridium difficile compared to patients with pneumonia (2.4%), but this did not reach statistical significance. Other HCAIs were present in 137 (15.2%) of patients with pneumonia and 66 (16.4%) of those with LRTIOP. The results suggest that reducing instrumentation, such as mechanical ventilation where possible, should help reduce infection. The higher prevalence of MRSA as a cause of LRTIOP suggests a lack of specificity in identifying the microbial cause and the association with C. difficile emphasises the need for better use of antibiotics.

  19. Prevalence of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfert, A R; Rosenfield, D B

    1978-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering in a university population was 2.1%; 3.4% were former stutterers. More men than women stuttered. Right handed female stutterers were less likely to have "lost" their stutter than were right handed males. Stutterers, past stutterers, and questionable stutterers all had a family history of stuttering. The significant prevalence of stuttering, the increased prevalence among males, the lack of a decline of this disorder over the past few decades despite the increased number of speech clinicians and data concerning handedness, emphasise the need to investigate organic causes of stuttering. PMID:731247

  20. New Novae snack point

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Located next to the car park by the flag poles, a few metres from the Main CERN Reception (building 33), a new snack point catered by Novae will open to the public on Wednesday 8 August. More information will be available in the next issue of the Bulletin!

  1. [Clinical key points. Gonioscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamard, P

    2007-05-01

    Gonioscopy should be performed in all patients with glaucoma or suspected of having glaucoma. Four points are systematically evaluated: the width of the angle, the degree of trabecular pigmentation, the iridotrabecular appositions or synechia, and the level of iris insertion and the shape of the peripheral iris profile.

  2. ACS Zero Point Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes. The reason for this is that the ACS calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS images of the omega Cen standard field with all nine broadband ACS/WFC filters. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS zero points by comparison with excellent ground-based photometry, and should reduce their uncertainties to less than 0.01 magnitudes. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager. Finally, three of the filters will be repeated from my Cycle 12 observations, allowing for a measurement of any change in sensitivity.

  3. Point Lepreau generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, G.H.D.; Strang, A.E.; Gunter, G.E.; Thompson, T.S.

    Point Lepreau-1 reactor is a 600 MWe generating station expected to be in service by October 1979. New Brunswick is suffering a 'catch up' phenomenon in load growth and needs to decrease dependence on foreign oil. The site is on salt water and extensive study has gone into corrosion control. Project management, financing and scheduling have unique aspects. (E.C.B.)

  4. Least fixed points revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Bakker (Jaco)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractParameter mechanisms for recursive procedures are investigated. Contrary to the view of Manna et al., it is argued that both call-by-value and call-by-name mechanisms yield the least fixed points of the functionals determined by the bodies of the procedures concerned. These functionals

  5. Point kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimpland, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    A normalized form of the point kinetics equations, a prompt jump approximation, and the Nordheim-Fuchs model are used to model nuclear systems. Reactivity feedback mechanisms considered include volumetric expansion, thermal neutron temperature effect, Doppler effect and void formation. A sample problem of an excursion occurring in a plutonium solution accidentally formed in a glovebox is presented

  6. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    408 heads of cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and assess its public health implications. A comparative ..... (78.6%) of the respondents consume raw and poorly heat ... compromises related to certain stress factors.

  7. Melting point of yttria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, S.R.

    1977-06-01

    Fourteen samples of 99.999 percent Y 2 O 3 were melted near the focus of a 250-W CO 2 laser. The average value of the observed melting point along the solid-liquid interface was 2462 +- 19 0 C. Several of these same samples were then melted in ultrahigh-purity oxygen, nitrogen, helium, or argon and in water vapor. No change in the observed temperature was detected, with the exception of a 20 0 C increase in temperature from air to helium gas. Post test examination of the sample characteristics, clarity, sphericity, and density is presented, along with composition. It is suggested that yttria is superior to alumina as a secondary melting-point standard

  8. 'Saddle-point' ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, T.J.; Hale, E.B.; Irby, V.D.; Olson, R.E.; Missouri Univ., Rolla; Berry, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the ionization of rare gases by protons at intermediate energies, i.e., energies at which the velocities of the proton and the target-gas valence electrons are comparable. A significant channel for electron production in the forward direction is shown to be 'saddle-point' ionization, in which electrons are stranded on or near the saddle-point of electric potential between the receding projectile and the ionized target. Such electrons yield characteristic energy spectra, and contribute significantly to forward-electron-production cross sections. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations are found to provide qualitative agreement with our measurements and the earlier measurements of Rudd and coworkers, and reproduce, in detail, the features of the general ionization spectra. (orig.)

  9. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  10. Variation of a test's sensitivity and specificity with disease prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeflang, Mariska M G; Rutjes, Anne W S; Reitsma, Johannes B; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M M

    2013-08-06

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test may vary with disease prevalence. Our objective was to investigate the associations between disease prevalence and test sensitivity and specificity using studies of diagnostic accuracy. We used data from 23 meta-analyses, each of which included 10-39 studies (416 total). The median prevalence per review ranged from 1% to 77%. We evaluated the effects of prevalence on sensitivity and specificity using a bivariate random-effects model for each meta-analysis, with prevalence as a covariate. We estimated the overall effect of prevalence by pooling the effects using the inverse variance method. Within a given review, a change in prevalence from the lowest to highest value resulted in a corresponding change in sensitivity or specificity from 0 to 40 percentage points. This effect was statistically significant (p disease prevalence; there was no such systematic effect for sensitivity. The sensitivity and specificity of a test often vary with disease prevalence; this effect is likely to be the result of mechanisms, such as patient spectrum, that affect prevalence, sensitivity and specificity. Because it may be difficult to identify such mechanisms, clinicians should use prevalence as a guide when selecting studies that most closely match their situation.

  11. Critical point predication device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kazuhiko; Kariyama, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    An operation for predicting a critical point by using a existent reverse multiplication method has been complicated, and an effective multiplication factor could not be plotted directly to degrade the accuracy for the prediction. The present invention comprises a detector counting memory section for memorizing the counting sent from a power detector which monitors the reactor power, a reverse multiplication factor calculation section for calculating the reverse multiplication factor based on initial countings and current countings of the power detector, and a critical point prediction section for predicting the criticality by the reverse multiplication method relative to effective multiplication factors corresponding to the state of the reactor core previously determined depending on the cases. In addition, a reactor core characteristic calculation section is added for analyzing an effective multiplication factor depending on the state of the reactor core. Then, if the margin up to the criticality is reduced to lower than a predetermined value during critical operation, an alarm is generated to stop the critical operation when generation of a period of more than a predetermined value predicted by succeeding critical operation. With such procedures, forecasting for the critical point can be easily predicted upon critical operation to greatly mitigate an operator's burden and improve handling for the operation. (N.H.)

  12. At the Tipping Point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2011-02-28

    There comes a time in every field of science when things suddenly change. While it might not be immediately apparent that things are different, a tipping point has occurred. Biology is now at such a point. The reason is the introduction of high-throughput genomics-based technologies. I am not talking about the consequences of the sequencing of the human genome (and every other genome within reach). The change is due to new technologies that generate an enormous amount of data about the molecular composition of cells. These include proteomics, transcriptional profiling by sequencing, and the ability to globally measure microRNAs and post-translational modifications of proteins. These mountains of digital data can be mapped to a common frame of reference: the organism’s genome. With the new high-throughput technologies, we can generate tens of thousands of data points from each sample. Data are now measured in terabytes and the time necessary to analyze data can now require years. Obviously, we can’t wait to interpret the data fully before the next experiment. In fact, we might never be able to even look at all of it, much less understand it. This volume of data requires sophisticated computational and statistical methods for its analysis and is forcing biologists to approach data interpretation as a collaborative venture.

  13. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  14. Vernal Point and Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Campos, Teodosio; Chavez S, Nadia; Chavez-Sumarriva, Israel

    2014-05-01

    The time scale was based on the internationally recognized formal chronostratigraphical /geochronological subdivisions of time: The Phanerozoic Eonathem/Eon; the Cenozoic Erathem/Era; the Quaternary System/Period; the Pleistocene and Holocene Series/Epoch. The Quaternary was divided into: (1) The Pleistocene that was characterized by cycles of glaciations (intervals between 40,000 and 100,000 years). (2) The Holocene that was an interglacial period that began about 12,000 years ago. It was believed that the Milankovitch cycles (eccentricity, axial tilt and the precession of the equinoxes) were responsible for the glacial and interglacial Holocene periods. The magnetostratigraphic units have been widely used for global correlations valid for Quaternary. The gravitational influence of the sun and moon on the equatorial bulges of the mantle of the rotating earth causes the precession of the earth. The retrograde motion of the vernal point through the zodiacal band is 26,000 years. The Vernal point passes through each constellation in an average of 2000 years and this period of time was correlated to Bond events that were North Atlantic climate fluctuations occurring every ≡1,470 ± 500 years throughout the Holocene. The vernal point retrogrades one precessional degree approximately in 72 years (Gleissberg-cycle) and approximately enters into the Aquarius constellation on March 20, 1940. On earth this entry was verify through: a) stability of the magnetic equator in the south central zone of Peru and in the north zone of Bolivia, b) the greater intensity of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in Peru and Bolivia since 1940. With the completion of the Holocene and the beginning of the Anthropocene (widely popularized by Paul Crutzen) it was proposed the date of March 20, 1940 as the beginning of the Anthropocene. The date proposed was correlated to the work presented in IUGG (Italy 2007) with the title "Cusco base meridian for the study of geophysical data"; Cusco was

  15. A prevalência de fibromialgia: uma revisão de literatura The prevalence of fibromyalgia: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alane B. Cavalcante

    2006-02-01

    the correspondents in English "fibromyalgia" and "prevalence" had been used. It was selected 97 articles and after reading the summaries, the ones related to the fibromyalgia prevalence with oher diseases were excluded. Only 30 articles evoked the subject prevalence of the fibromyalgia in the population. The selected articles were grouped in five items: a the prevalence of fibromyalgia in adult populations; b prevalence of fibromyalgia in women; c prevalence of fibromyalgia in children and adolescents; d prevalence of fibromyalgia in specific populations; e prevalence of chronic and diffuse pain in the population according to the ACR criteria. RESULTS: Literature points that the prevalence of fibromyalgia in the general population has values between 0,66 and 4,4%, being more prevalent in women than in men, especially in individuals aged between 35 to 60 years. Studies involving children, adolescents or other special groups are few or inconclusive. The prevalence of chronic and diffuse pain in general population althoug rarily been studied points to values between 11 and 13%. CONCLUSION: More studies on prevalence of chronic and diffuse pain must be stimulated, as well as the ones concerning prevalence in the adult population, children and young.

  16. Point/Counterpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungar, David; Ernst, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Point Argument: "Dynamic Languages (in Reactive Environments) Unleash Creativity," by David Ungar. For the sake of creativity, the profession needs to concentrate more on inventing new and better dynamic languages and environments and less on improving static languages. Counterpoint Argument......: "Explicitly Declared Static Types: The Missing Links," by Erik Ernst. How do we understand software? Using it is a powerful approach, but it provides examples of properties, not general truths. Some static knowledge is needed. This department is part of a special issue on dynamically typed languages....

  17. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tomie est replacé et fixé par des fils d'acier, krönlein lais- sait ce fragment pédiculé au fascia temporalis afin d'évi- ter la dépression de la fosse temporale due à la désinser- tion du muscle temporal [20] ; dans notre série, après reconstitution du cadre, le muscle temporal est suturé à son point d'insertion. pour les tumeurs ...

  18. Torsades de Pointes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Chen, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 70-year-old male with a history ventricular arrhythmia, AICD (automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator, coronary artery disease and cardiac stents presented to the Emergency Department after three AICD discharges with dyspnea but no chest pain. During triage, he was found to have an irregular radial pulse and was placed on a cardiac monitor. Significant findings: The patient was found to be in a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; he was alert, awake and asymptomatic. A rhythm strip showed a wide complex tachycardia with the QRS complex varying in amplitude around the isoelectric line consistent with Torsades de Pointes. Discussion: Torsades de Pointes (TdP is a specific type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The arrhythmia’s characteristic morphology consists of the QRS complex “twisting” around the isoelectric line with gradual variation of the amplitude, reflecting its literal translation of “twisting of the points.”1 This arrhythmia occurs in the context of prolonged QT. The most common form of acquired QT prolongation is medication induced. Common causes include antiarrhythmics, antipsychotics, antiemetics, and antibiotics.2 Patient specific risk factors include female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hypothermia and heart disease.3 In the setting of prolonged QT, the repolarization phase is extended. TdP is initiated when a PVC (premature ventricular contraction occurs during this repolarization, known as an ‘R on T’ phenomenon. TdP is often asymptomatic and self-limited. The danger in TdP is its potential to deteriorate into ventricular fibrillation. A mainstay of management of TdP is prevention of risk factors when possible.4 Unstable patients should be treated with synchronized cardioversion. Magnesium sulfate should be administered in all cases of TdP.1 If a patient is not responsive to magnesium, consider isoproterenol, amiodarone, and overdrive

  19. Pointing control for LDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Y.; Briggs, C.

    1988-01-01

    One important aspect of the LDR control problem is the possible excitations of structural modes due to random disturbances, mirror chopping, and slewing maneuvers. An analysis was performed to yield a first order estimate of the effects of such dynamic excitations. The analysis involved a study of slewing jitters, chopping jitters, disturbance responses, and pointing errors, making use of a simplified planar LDR model which describes the LDR dynamics on a plane perpendicular to the primary reflector. Briefly, the results indicate that the command slewing profile plays an important role in minimizing the resultant jitter, even to a level acceptable without any control action. An optimal profile should therefore be studied.

  20. Point of Care Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Goudie, Adrian; Chiorean, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of portable ultrasound scanners has enhanced the concept of point of care ultrasound (PoC-US), namely, "ultrasound performed at the bedside and interpreted directly by the treating clinician." PoC-US is not a replacement for comprehensive ultrasound, but rather allows...... and critical care medicine, cardiology, anesthesiology, rheumatology, obstetrics, neonatology, gynecology, gastroenterology and many other applications. In the future, PoC-US will be more diverse than ever and be included in medical student training....

  1. The point on.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In this last article, we find the point of view about the world petroleum activity, the reserves and the recent discoveries, the deep offshore, the technological developments in petroleum upstream. The petroleum situation in China is treated. The trends of world refining are described. The recent technological developments in the petroleum downstream are detailed. The prices of crude oil and the refining margins are the subject of a chapter. The investments of hydrocarbons area are given, the world trade and the lng projects, the gas availability in Western Europe have their place. The trends of European automobile industry and the fuels distribution are also discussed. (N.C.)

  2. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders: data review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco ALCANTUD MARÍN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Published data on the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders point to a significant increase in this indicator. This increase is being studied in numerous publications of analysis, meta-analysis and systematic reviews. The prevalence indicates the proportion of people who suffer at a given time or are diagnosed with a disease. The consequences of the increasing prevalence are relevant from the point of health, social and educational, but especially relevant when as is the case, the cause of the disorder is unknown. It is in this sense that the prevalence study gains importance in order to delimit various circumstances that may give clues to the possible cause or causes that generate disorder. This article reviews studies, summarizes the last data, and reflects on them and possible causes that justify the increased reporting. It looks like these epidemiological indicators can or are influenced by possible methodological flaws behind, which can explain the variations between studies and others. It concludes by stating the need population studies and monitoring that allows us to know the reality of the evolution of these disorders in order to provide reliable information to those responsible for the institutions involved in the detection and treatment of ASD.

  3. Relative Critical Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures – symplectic, Poisson, or variational – generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (coadjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems – the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids – and generalizations of these systems.

  4. Reassessing Function Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Finnie

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the size and development effort for software projects requires estimation models which can be used early enough in the development life cycle to be of practical value. Function Point Analysis (FPA has become possibly the most widely used estimation technique in practice. However the technique was developed in the data processing environment of the 1970's and, despite undergoing considerable reassessment and formalisation, still attracts criticism for the weighting scoring it employs and for the way in which the function point score is adapted for specific system characteristics. This paper reviews the validity of the weighting scheme and the value of adjusting for system characteristics by studying their effect in a sample of 299 software developments. In general the value adjustment scheme does not appear to cater for differences in productivity. The weighting scheme used to adjust system components in terms of being simple, average or complex also appears suspect and should be redesigned to provide a more realistic estimate of system functionality.

  5. Bright point study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona

  6. Referential Zero Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Potrč

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most important controversy in which ordinary language philosophy was involved is that of definite descriptions, presenting referential act as a community-involving communication-intention endeavor, thereby opposing the direct acquaintance-based and logical proper names inspired reference aimed at securing truth conditions of referential expression. The problem of reference is that of obtaining access to the matters in the world. This access may be forthcoming through the senses, or through descriptions. A review of how the problem of reference is handled shows though that one main practice is to indulge in relations of acquaintance supporting logical proper names, demonstratives, indexicals and causal or historical chains. This testifies that the problem of reference involves the zero point, and with it phenomenology of intentionality. Communication-intention is but one dimension of rich phenomenology that constitutes an agent’s experiential space, his experiential world. Zero point is another constitutive aspect of phenomenology involved in the referential relation. Realizing that the problem of reference is phenomenology based opens a new perspective upon the contribution of analytical philosophy in this area, reconciling it with continental approach, and demonstrating variations of the impossibility related to the real. Chromatic illumination from the cognitive background empowers the referential act, in the best tradition of ordinary language philosophy.

  7. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  8. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2012-01-01

    In this brief article, we shall illustrate the application of the analytical and interventionist concept of ‘Critical Points of Contact’ (CPC) through a number of urban design studios. The notion of CPC has been developed over a span of the last three to four years and is reported in more detail...... elsewhere (Jensen & Morelli 2011). In this article, we will only discuss the conceptual and theoretical framing superficially, since our real interest is to show and discuss the concept's application value to spatial design in a number of urban design studios. The 'data' or the projects presented are seven...... in urban design at Aalborg University, where urban design consists of both an analytical and an interventionist field of operation. Furthermore, the content of the CPC concept links to research in mobilities, the network city, and urban design. These are among the core pillars of both the masters programme...

  9. Point defects in platinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piercy, G.R.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was made of the mobility and types of point defect introduced in platinum by deformation in liquid nitrogen, quenching into water from 1600 o C, or reactor irradiation at 50 o C. In all cases the activation energy for motion of the defect was determined from measurements of electrical resistivity. Measurements of density, hardness, and x-ray line broadening were also made there applicable. These experiments indicated that the principal defects remaining in platinum after irradiation were single vacant lattice sites and after quenching were pairs of vacant lattice sites. Those present after deformation In liquid nitrogen were single vacant lattice sites and another type of defect, perhaps interstitial atoms. (author)

  10. Virtual turning points

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Naofumi; Takei, Yoshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a virtual turning point truly is a breakthrough in WKB analysis of higher order differential equations. This monograph expounds the core part of its theory together with its application to the analysis of higher order Painlevé equations of the Noumi–Yamada type and to the analysis of non-adiabatic transition probability problems in three levels. As M.V. Fedoryuk once lamented, global asymptotic analysis of higher order differential equations had been thought to be impossible to construct. In 1982, however, H.L. Berk, W.M. Nevins, and K.V. Roberts published a remarkable paper in the Journal of Mathematical Physics indicating that the traditional Stokes geometry cannot globally describe the Stokes phenomena of solutions of higher order equations; a new Stokes curve is necessary.

  11. The Temporal Tipping Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    “Slow journalism” is a term anthropologist and sociologists sometimes use to describe their empirical work, ethnography. To journalists and media observers, meanwhile, “slow journalism” signifies a newfound dedication to serious long-form journalism. Not surprisingly, thus, “ethnographic journalism......”—a genre where reporters adopt research strategies from social science—takes “slow” to the extreme. Immersing themselves in communities for weeks, months and years, ethnographic journalists seek to gain what anthropologists call “the native's point of view”. Based on in-depth interviews with practitioners...... and analyses of their journalistic works, this paper offers a study of ethnographic journalism suggesting that slow time operates in at least three separate registers. First, in terms of regimentation, ethnographic journalism is mostly long-form pieces that demand time-consuming research and careful writing...

  12. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  13. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  14. prevalence and risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-26

    Dec 26, 2012 ... increase the frequency of occurrence of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia is a ... not only in increased frequency of falciparum malaria, but also .... of illness before presentation. Table 3: Prevalence of hypoglycaemia according to time of last meal. Table 4, shows the higher the parasite density the greater.

  15. May 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  16. September 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  17. Learning power point 2000 easily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mon, In Su; Je, Jung Suk

    2000-05-15

    This book introduces power point 2000, which gives descriptions what power point is, what we can do with power point 2000, is it possible to install power point 2000 in my computer? Let's run power point, basic of power point such as new presentation, writing letter, using text box, changing font size, color and shape, catching power user, insertion of word art and creating of new file. It also deals with figure, chart, graph, making multimedia file, presentation, know-how of power point for teachers and company workers.

  18. ATLAS Point 1 Construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J

    After 3 years of work in point 1, a number of surface buildings have already been completed and handed over to CERN (the control, the gas and the cooling and ventilation buildings) and, probably more appealing to the public, 60,000 m3 of earth have already been excavated from underground. At present, the technical cavern USA15 and its access shaft are almost finished, leaving only the main cavern and the liaison galleries to be completed in the coming year and a half. The main cavern has been excavated down to the radiation limit and its walls and vault will presently be concreted (see below the picture of the section of the vault with the impressive shell of 1.2 m thickness). The excavation of the bench (27 vertical metres to go yet!) will proceed from August, when some additional civil engineering work in the LHC tunnel will be undertaken. Needless to say many different services are necessary around the detector, both for its installation and future operation for physics. To that end much of the heavy...

  19. Point 1 Updates

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J.

    The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Not only has Civil Engineering finished the construction of the USA15 technical cavern, but the excavation of the main UX15 cavern has resumed below the machine tunnel, after a brief halt to allow the construction of the UJ-caverns for the power converters of the LHC machine. The excavation work should end in August 2002. The UX15 hand-over to ATLAS is expected in April 2003. On the surface civil engineering is starting to complete the last two surface buildings (SDX1 and SH1), once the services (cooling pipes, ventilation ducts and the largest item, the lift modules and its lift of course) in the shaft PX15 have been completed. But the civil engineering is not all. A lot more is under way. The site installation of the steel structures in the caverns is to begin in Autumn, along with all the cooling pipes, airconditi...

  20. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  1. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  2. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  3. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  4. Point-of-admission neonatal hypoglycaemia in a Nigerian tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neonatal hypoglycaemia is a major metabolic problem. It may result in mortality or severe handicap among survivors. Many babies admitted for neonatal care are at high risk for hypoglycaemia. The present study set out to determine its point-of-admission prevalence, clinical presentation and outcome.

  5. A systematic review of the prevalence of schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Saha

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the prevalence of schizophrenia has important implications for both health service planning and risk factor epidemiology. The aims of this review are to systematically identify and collate studies describing the prevalence of schizophrenia, to summarize the findings of these studies, and to explore selected factors that may influence prevalence estimates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies with original data related to the prevalence of schizophrenia (published 1965-2002 were identified via searching electronic databases, reviewing citations, and writing to authors. These studies were divided into "core" studies, "migrant" studies, and studies based on "other special groups." Between- and within-study filters were applied in order to identify discrete prevalence estimates. Cumulative plots of prevalence estimates were made and the distributions described when the underlying estimates were sorted according to prevalence type (point, period, lifetime, and lifetime morbid risk. Based on combined prevalence estimates, the influence of selected key variables was examined (sex, urbanicity, migrant status, country economic index, and study quality. A total of 1,721 prevalence estimates from 188 studies were identified. These estimates were drawn from 46 countries, and were based on an estimated 154,140 potentially overlapping prevalent cases. We identified 132 core studies, 15 migrant studies, and 41 studies based on other special groups. The median values per 1,000 persons (10%-90% quantiles for the distributions for point, period, lifetime, and lifetime morbid risk were 4.6 (1.9-10.0, 3.3 (1.3-8.2, 4.0 (1.6-12.1, and 7.2 (3.1-27.1, respectively. Based on combined prevalence estimates, we found no significant difference (a between males and females, or (b between urban, rural, and mixed sites. The prevalence of schizophrenia in migrants was higher compared to native-born individuals: the migrant-to-native-born ratio median (10

  6. Human papilloma virus prevalence in a multiethnic screening population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang Mei; Stephen, Josena K; Ghanem, Tamer; Stachler, Robert; Gardner, Glendon; Jones, Lamont; Schweitzer, Vanessa P; Hall, Francis; Divine, George; Worsham, Maria J

    2013-03-01

    The goal was to determine the prevalence of high-risk HPV16 using saliva in a screening population in Detroit, Michigan. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to detect HPV16 in saliva DNA from 349 screening subjects without head and neck cancer (HNC), 156 with HNC, and 19 controls. Cut points for human papilloma virus (HPV) positivity were >0 and >0.001 copy/cell. Proportions were compared between groups using exact χ(2) or Fisher exact tests (P 0, each group had an overall HPV prevalence of more than 5%, with a higher prevalence of 30.8% in the HNC patient group. At a cut point >0.001, the prevalence was lower: 0% in the control, 1.2% in the screening, and 16.7% in the HNC group. In the latter, for both cut points, HPV prevalence was different across sites (0, women in the screening group had a higher prevalence of HPV than did men (P = .010), and at >0.001, the prevalence was higher for men in the HNC group than for women (P = .035). In the screening group, at >0, only African Americans had a higher prevalence than Caucasian Americans (P = .025). In the screening group, a 6.9% and 1.2% screening rate was noted at cut points >0 and >0.001, respectively. The results provide data to inform public health considerations of the feasibility of saliva as a screening tool in at-risk populations with the long-term goal of prophylactic vaccination against oral HPV.

  7. Solving discrete zero point problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm is proposed to .nd a discrete zero point of a function on the collection of integral points in the n-dimensional Euclidean space IRn.Starting with a given integral point, the algorithm generates a .nite sequence of adjacent integral simplices of varying dimension and

  8. Prevalence of Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhavan Karbasi Sedighah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformation (CM will begin to emerge as one of the major childhood health problems .Treatment and rehabilitation of children with congenital malformations are costly and complete recovery is usually impossible. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of CM in Yazd central city of the Islamic Republic of Iran to find out if there has been any difference in the rate and types of CM in this area. This descriptive-observational study carried on 4800 births delivered at all maternity hospitals in Yazd from October 2003 to June 2004. Prevalence of CM was 2.83% (2.86 % in male and 2.68 % in female out of the 136 cases 69(51.88% were males and 64 (48.12% were females and 3 with ambiguous genitalia. Positive family history of CM in sibling was in only 6 cases (4.41%.Overall, musculoskeletal (0.83%, central nerv-ous system (0.47% and genital system (0.37% were accounted as the most common. Frequency of CM was more seen in still birth (12.5% as in comparison to live birth (2.71%. There was not statistical difference be-tween prevalence of CM and neonatal's gender, gestational age, birth order and mother's age, drug ingestion, illness and parental consanguinity. In this study the overall prevalence of congenital malformation among the newborn was higher than those previous reported in Iran and determining the causes of this difference needs more extensive studies.

  9. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  10. PowerPoint 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2010-01-01

    Master PowerPoint and improve your presentation skills-with one book!. It's no longer enough to have slide after slide of text, bullets, and charts. It's not even enough to have good speaking skills if your PowerPoint slides bore your audience. Get the very most out of all that PowerPoint 2010 has to offer while also learning priceless tips and techniques for making good presentations in this new PowerPoint 2010 Bible. Well-known PowerPoint expert and author Faithe Wempen provides formatting tips; shows you how to work with drawings, tables, and SmartArt; introduces new collaboration tools; wa

  11. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, C. L.; Dang, R. S.; Ando, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, G. H.

    2009-09-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  12. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, X H; Zhang, X Y; Liu, C L; Dang, R S; Ando, M; Sugiyama, H; Chen, H S; Ding, G H

    2009-01-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  13. Magic Pointing for Eyewear Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbegi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a combination of head and eye movements for touchlessly controlling the "mouse pointer" on eyewear devices, exploiting the speed of eye pointing and accuracy of head pointing. The method is a wearable computer-targeted variation of the original MAGIC pointing approach...... which combined gaze tracking with a classical mouse device. The result of our experiment shows that the combination of eye and head movements is faster than head pointing for far targets and more accurate than eye pointing....

  14. Prevalence of congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique T

    2017-05-01

    Congenital amusia (commonly known as tone deafness) is a lifelong musical disorder that affects 4% of the population according to a single estimate based on a single test from 1980. Here we present the first large-based measure of prevalence with a sample of 20 000 participants, which does not rely on self-referral. On the basis of three objective tests and a questionnaire, we show that (a) the prevalence of congenital amusia is only 1.5%, with slightly more females than males, unlike other developmental disorders where males often predominate; (b) self-disclosure is a reliable index of congenital amusia, which suggests that congenital amusia is hereditary, with 46% first-degree relatives similarly affected; (c) the deficit is not attenuated by musical training and (d) it emerges in relative isolation from other cognitive disorder, except for spatial orientation problems. Hence, we suggest that congenital amusia is likely to result from genetic variations that affect musical abilities specifically.

  15. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among elderly Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, María Araceli; Yáñez-Velasco, Lucía; Carnevale, Alessandra; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Bernal, Demetrio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; Villa, Antonio; Tur, Josep A

    2017-11-01

    One of the most prevalent chronic diseases among elderly population is the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS and associated factors among Mexican elderly people. Cross-sectional survey carried out in Mexico (2007). A random sample (n=516) of the elderly population (≥65years; 277 female, 239 male) was interviewed. Anthropometric and analytical measurements, and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-demographic and life-style factors were used. MetS definition AHA/NHLBI/IDF was applied. The prevalence of MetS in the elderly (≥65years) was of 72.9% (75.7% men; 70.4% women). Participants with values above MetS cut-off points were 92.4% (hypertension), 77.8% (hypertriglyceridemia), 77.1% (low HDL-cholesterol), 71.1% (hyperglycaemia), and 65.4% (central obesity). People with MetS showed higher values of anthropometric and biochemical variables than those without MetS, except for the height, cholesterol and creatinine. Mid-high education level (9-12 years), no smokers and former smokers, and Central-Western inhabitants of Mexico were associated with MetS components. BMI status was the main determinant of MetS prevalence and MetS components. The reported prevalence of MetS among the elderly Mexican population was higher than those previously obtained in the geographical area, showing a major public health problem in Mexican elders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301

  17. Laser Dew-Point Hygrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki; Toyooka, Satoru

    1995-01-01

    A rough-surface-type automatic dew-point hygrometer was developed using a laser diode and an optical fiber cable. A gold plate with 0.8 µ m average surface roughness was used as a surface for deposition of dew to facilitate dew deposition and prevent supersaturation of water vapor at the dew point. It was shown experimentally that the quantity of dew deposited can be controlled to be constant at any predetermined level, and is independent of the dew point to be measured. The dew points were measured in the range from -15° C to 54° C in which the temperature ranged from 0° C to 60° C. The measurement error of the dew point was ±0.5° C which was equal to below ±2% in relative humidity in the above dew-point range.

  18. Fermat's point from five perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungeun; Flores, Alfinio

    2015-04-01

    The Fermat point of a triangle is the point such that minimizes the sum of the distances from that point to the three vertices. Five approaches to study the Fermat point of a triangle are presented in this article. First, students use a mechanical device using masses, strings and pulleys to study the Fermat point as the one that minimizes the potential energy of the system. Second, students use soap films between parallel planes connecting three pegs. The tension on the film will be minimal when the sum of distances is minimal. Third, students use an empirical approach, measuring distances in an interactive GeoGebra page. Fourth, students use Euclidean geometry arguments for two proofs based on the Torricelli configuration, and one using Viviani's Theorem. And fifth, the kinematic method is used to gain additional insight on the size of the angles between the segments joining the Fermat point with the vertices.

  19. The goal of ape pointing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halina, Marta; Liebal, Katja; Tomasello, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Captive great apes regularly use pointing gestures in their interactions with humans. However, the precise function of this gesture is unknown. One possibility is that apes use pointing primarily to direct attention (as in "please look at that"); another is that they point mainly as an action request (such as "can you give that to me?"). We investigated these two possibilities here by examining how the looking behavior of recipients affects pointing in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). Upon pointing to food, subjects were faced with a recipient who either looked at the indicated object (successful-look) or failed to look at the indicated object (failed-look). We predicted that, if apes point primarily to direct attention, subjects would spend more time pointing in the failed-look condition because the goal of their gesture had not been met. Alternatively, we expected that, if apes point primarily to request an object, subjects would not differ in their pointing behavior between the successful-look and failed-look conditions because these conditions differed only in the looking behavior of the recipient. We found that subjects did differ in their pointing behavior across the successful-look and failed-look conditions, but contrary to our prediction subjects spent more time pointing in the successful-look condition. These results suggest that apes are sensitive to the attentional states of gestural recipients, but their adjustments are aimed at multiple goals. We also found a greater number of individuals with a strong right-hand than left-hand preference for pointing.

  20. GENITAL CONDYLOMAS. PREVALENCE, ETIOLOGY, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Aslamazyan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the papilloma virus infection. As it became known in October 2008, the nobel prize in the field of medicine and physiology this year is awarded to the German doctor of Harald Zur Hausen who has proved the role of the human papilloma virus as causative factor of the cervical carcinoma. This is epoch making discovery because of human papilloma virus is most frequent of sexually transmitted infections. The authors demonstrated the high HPV prevalence. One of the most frequent manifestations of this infection is in more details presented pointed condy loma, clinical course of the disease and differential diagnostics of its various forms. Considering treatment inefficiency, the authors convincingly demonstrate that the only opportunity available to keep a human from the illness development is a specific immune prevention.Key words: papillomavirus infection, pointed condylomas, precancers, prevention.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of insufficient physical activity in school adolescents in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bimala; Chavez, Rosemary Cosme; Nam, Eun Woo

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and correlates of insufficient physical activity in adolescents in Peru. METHODS We used a self-administered questionnaire developed from Global school-based Student Health Survey to collect information from secondary school students in North Lima and Callao in 2015. We carried out Poisson regression with robust variance using generalized linear models to estimate the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of insufficient physical activity for its correlates. RESULTS We have found that 78% of the adolescents did not meet the global recommendation of the World Health Organization on physical activity in the last week before the survey. Female respondents (APR = 1.13, 95%CI 1.04-1.21), respondents who perceived themselves as overweight (APR = 1.10, 95%CI 1.03-1.18), and respondents who consumed insufficient vegetables and fruits [no vegetables (APR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.06-1.59), no fruits (APR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.00-1.31) as compared to those who consumed ≥ 2 servings every day in the last seven days] were more likely to report insufficient physical activity. Adolescents who worked after school (APR = 0.92, 95%CI 0.84-0.99), had physical education classes five times per week (APR = 0.94, 95%CI 0.88-0.99), and had parental supervision (APR = 0.92, 95%CI 0.87-0.98) were less likely to report insufficient physical activity. CONCLUSIONS Sex, work after school, perceived body weight, physical education class, parental support, and healthy dietary behaviors were associated with insufficient physical activity. Attempts to improve physical activity should look for ways to enhance leisure-time physical activity, parental support, physical education classes, healthy dietary behaviors, and normal body weight maintenance in adolescents with integrated efforts from the family and school.

  2. Refining Game Addiction Questionnairs: Evidence for a natural cut-off point?

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents data from a pilot study, which was designed to illuminate critical flaws in the currently used instruments used to measure the prevalence of ‘computer game addiction’. The study found that the prevalence rate could be set anywhere between 23% and 0,6% depending on how the data set is scored. Thus demonstrating how an arbitrarily set of cut-off point in prevalence studies can yield wildly varying prevalence rates. The data further show that making implicit assumptions about...

  3. Mathematical points as didactical ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne

    Mathematics teaching in Denmark was recently recommended better organized in sequences with clear mathematical pedagogical goals and a focus on mathematical points. In this paper I define a mathematical point and inform on coding of transcripts in a video based Danish research study on grade 8 te...

  4. Review of NJ point system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the comparative effectiveness of point-based versus incident-based : negligent driver monitoring systems and to explore how certain changes to the existing point-based system used in : New Jersey might impr...

  5. Heilbronn problem for five points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lu; Zhang Jingzhong; Zeng Zhenbing

    1991-08-01

    Put 5 points in a unit square, then there must be at least one triangle, formed by three of these points, with an area not greater than √3/9. And the upper bound √3/9 is the best. Unexpectedly, this disproves an old conjecture posed twenty years ago. (author). 15 refs, 19 figs

  6. Model plant Key Measurement Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For IAEA safeguards a Key Measurement Point is defined as the location where nuclear material appears in such a form that it may be measured to determine material flow or inventory. This presentation describes in an introductory manner the key measurement points and associated measurements for the model plant used in this training course

  7. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  8. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...

  9. Endogenizing Prospect Theory's Reference Point

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schmidt; Horst Zank

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This note provides a foundation of prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  10. The Philosophy of Turning Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    business and management field, the turning point is seen as a valuable unit of analysis within the research field. It is expected that this paper will encourage a dynamic scholarly conversation about the concept of turning point and how it can aid international business researchers in the development...

  11. Modest blood pressure reduction with valsartan in acute ischemic stroke: a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-end-point trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi Sun; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Hong, Keun-Sik; Kang, Dong-Wha; Park, Jong-Moo; Bae, Hee-Joon; Koo, Jaseong; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Byung-Chul

    2015-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of modest blood pressure (BP) reduction with valsartan within 48 h after symptom onset in patients with acute ischemic stroke and high BP. This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-end-point trial. A total of 393 subjects were recruited at 28 centers and then randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive valsartan (n = 195) or no treatment (n = 198) for seven-days after presentation. The primary outcome was death or dependency, defined as a score of 3-6 on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days after symptom onset. Early neurological deterioration (END) within seven-days and 90-day major vascular events were also assessed. There were 372 patients who completed the 90-day follow-up. The valsartan group had 46 of 187 patients (24·6%) with a 90-day mRS 3-6, compared with 42 of 185 patients (22·6%) in the control group (odds ratio [OR], 1·11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0·69-1·79; P = 0·667). The rate of major vascular events did not differ between groups (OR, 1·41; 95% CI, 0·44-4·49; P = 0·771). There was a significant increase of END in the valsartan group (OR, 2·43; 95% CI, 1·25-4·73; P = 0·008). Early reduction of BP with valsartan did not reduce death or dependency and major vascular events at 90 days, but increased the risk of END. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  12. Geodetic Control Points - Multi-State Control Point Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — The Multi-State Control Point Database (MCPD) is a database of geodetic and mapping control covering Idaho and Montana. The control were submitted by registered land...

  13. Making Sense of Boiling Points and Melting Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL | ARTICLE. The boiling and melting points of a pure substance are char- ... bonds, which involves high energy and hence high temperatures. Among the .... with zero intermolecular force at all temperatures and pressures, which ...

  14. 99 cent: Price Points in E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Hackl; Michael E. Kummer; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer

    2010-01-01

    Basu (2006) argues that the prevalence of 99 cent prices in shops can be explained with rational consumers who disregard the rightmost digits of the price. This bounded rational behaviour leads to a Bertrand equi- librium with positive markups. We use data from an Austrian price com- parison site and find results highly compatible with Basu's theory. We can show that price points - in particular prices ending in 9 - are preva- lent and have significant impact on consumer demand. Moreover, the...

  15. Prevalence of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Cynthia J; Blais, Jaime D; Hall, Anthony K; Krasa, Holly B; Makin, Andrew J; Czerwiec, Frank S

    2017-08-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease, but estimates of its prevalence vary by >10-fold. The objective of this study was to examine the public health impact of ADPKD in the European Union (EU) by estimating minimum prevalence (point prevalence of known cases) and screening prevalence (minimum prevalence plus cases expected after population-based screening). A review of the epidemiology literature from January 1980 to February 2015 identified population-based studies that met criteria for methodological quality. These examined large German and British populations, providing direct estimates of minimum prevalence and screening prevalence. In a second approach, patients from the 2012 European Renal Association‒European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry and literature-based inflation factors that adjust for disease severity and screening yield were used to estimate prevalence across 19 EU countries (N = 407 million). Population-based studies yielded minimum prevalences of 2.41 and 3.89/10 000, respectively, and corresponding estimates of screening prevalences of 3.3 and 4.6/10 000. A close correspondence existed between estimates in countries where both direct and registry-derived methods were compared, which supports the validity of the registry-based approach. Using the registry-derived method, the minimum prevalence was 3.29/10 000 (95% confidence interval 3.27-3.30), and if ADPKD screening was implemented in all countries, the expected prevalence was 3.96/10 000 (3.94-3.98). ERA-EDTA-based prevalence estimates and application of a uniform definition of prevalence to population-based studies consistently indicate that the ADPKD point prevalence is <5/10 000, the threshold for rare disease in the EU. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  16. Prevalence of schizophrenia: recent developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long held view that schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population has been shown to be an overestimate and in fact derived from incorrect data.1 Also, for many years, it was believed that the prevalence of schizophrenia varied little between sites.2,3 It is in fact the case that the estimates of the prevalence of ...

  17. NOTE: Do acupuncture points exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi; Liu, Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Huang, Yuying; He, Wei; Ding, Guanghong

    2009-05-01

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian.

  18. PowerPoint 2013 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2013-01-01

    Master PowerPoint and improve your presentation skills with one book! In today's business climate, you need to know PowerPoint inside and out, and that's not all. You also need to be able to make a presentation that makes an impact. From using sophisticated transitions and animation in your PowerPoint presentations to interfacing in person with your audience, this information-packed book helps you succeed. Start creating professional-quality slides that captivate audiences and discover essential tips and techniques for making first-rate presentations, whether you're at a podium or

  19. Calorimetry end-point predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a portion of the work presently in progress at Rocky Flats in the field of calorimetry. In particular, calorimetry end-point predictions are outlined. The problems associated with end-point predictions and the progress made in overcoming these obstacles are discussed. The two major problems, noise and an accurate description of the heat function, are dealt with to obtain the most accurate results. Data are taken from an actual calorimeter and are processed by means of three different noise reduction techniques. The processed data are then utilized by one to four algorithms, depending on the accuracy desired to determined the end-point

  20. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence estimates vary with a factor 100. As the results vary so do the study populations. 6 If the different study populations are accounted for, a common conclusion can be drawn: Food additive intolerance is found in adults with atopic symptoms from the respiratory tract and skin. The prevalence......1 The existing prevalence estimates of food additive intolerance(1-4) are being reviewed. 2 In the EEC report the estimated frequency of food additive intolerance is 0.03% to 0.15% based on data from patient groups. 3 The British population study results in a prevalence estimate of 0.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...

  1. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  2. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study......, to investigate the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities. METHODS: 6236 people participated. All non-asthmatic participants aged 35 years or older with adequate lung...... function data were included for the final prevalence analyses (n = 5,299). COPD staging was done according to the GOLD criteria. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of COPD was 17.4%. The prevalence increased with age and was higher among males. 6.2% had mild COPD, 9.2% had moderate COPD, and 2.0% had severe...

  3. Prevalence of Bulimic Behaviors and Trends in Eating Attitudes among Turkish Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun; Unver, Sibel; Sezgin, Emine; Unal, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    The eating attitudes and the prevalence of bulimic behaviors in a group of 300 late adolescents were investigated using the key questions from the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), and additional questions. Only four subjects (1.3%) scored above the cut-off point on the BITE, and prevalence rates of males and females were the same.…

  4. Hawaii ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird nesting colonies in coastal Hawaii. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  5. Parametric statistical change point analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jie

    2000-01-01

    This work is an in-depth study of the change point problem from a general point of view and a further examination of change point analysis of the most commonly used statistical models Change point problems are encountered in such disciplines as economics, finance, medicine, psychology, signal processing, and geology, to mention only several The exposition is clear and systematic, with a great deal of introductory material included Different models are presented in each chapter, including gamma and exponential models, rarely examined thus far in the literature Other models covered in detail are the multivariate normal, univariate normal, regression, and discrete models Extensive examples throughout the text emphasize key concepts and different methodologies are used, namely the likelihood ratio criterion, and the Bayesian and information criterion approaches A comprehensive bibliography and two indices complete the study

  6. Control Point Generated PLS - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Control Point Generated PLS layer contains line and polygon features to the 1/4 of 1/4 PLS section (approximately 40 acres) and government lot level. The layer...

  7. Detecting determinism from point processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejak, Ralph G; Mormann, Florian; Kreuz, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The detection of a nonrandom structure from experimental data can be crucial for the classification, understanding, and interpretation of the generating process. We here introduce a rank-based nonlinear predictability score to detect determinism from point process data. Thanks to its modular nature, this approach can be adapted to whatever signature in the data one considers indicative of deterministic structure. After validating our approach using point process signals from deterministic and stochastic model dynamics, we show an application to neuronal spike trains recorded in the brain of an epilepsy patient. While we illustrate our approach in the context of temporal point processes, it can be readily applied to spatial point processes as well.

  8. Allegheny County Cell Tower Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays cell tower locations as points in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on outbuilding codes in the Property Assessment Parcel Database used...

  9. Virginia ESI: REPTPT (Reptile Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles in Virginia. Vector points in this data set represent nesting sites. Species-specific...

  10. Maryland ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for raptors in Maryland. Vector points in this data set represent bird nesting sites. Species-specific...

  11. Processing Terrain Point Cloud Data

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald; Petrova, Guergana; Hielsberg, Matthew; Owens, Luke; Clack, Billy; Sood, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Terrain point cloud data are typically acquired through some form of Light Detection And Ranging sensing. They form a rich resource that is important in a variety of applications including navigation, line of sight, and terrain visualization

  12. Control Point Generated PLS - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Control Point Generated PLS layer contains line and polygon features to the 1/4 of 1/4 PLS section (approximately 40 acres) and government lot level. The layer...

  13. Calcareous Fens - Source Feature Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Pursuant to the provisions of Minnesota Statutes, section 103G.223, this database contains points that represent calcareous fens as defined in Minnesota Rules, part...

  14. Louisiana ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird and wading bird nesting colonies in coastal Louisiana. Vector points in this data set represent...

  15. Prevalence of occupational disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, M.L.

    1976-12-01

    When discussing the prevalence of occupational disease, both the prescribed diseases and the diseases where occupation has an important etiological component should be considered. Available statistics indicate that there has been a substantial improvement in the control of important prescribed diseases such as lead poisoning and pneumoconiosis. In the United Kingdom in 1900 there were 1000 cases of lead poisoning with 38 fatalities. This number decreased to 49 cases in 1956 when the number again increased due to a change from clinical diagnosis to diagnosis on biochemical evidence. The number of cases of coal workers' pneumoconiosis has declined since the 1950s but the number of coal miners has also been reduced by more than /sup 1///sub 3/. Industrial dermatitis is still a considerable problem. Vibration induced white fingers was mentioned as a disease with a very large occupational component but which for a variety of reasons is not prescribed for industrial injury benefit. Illnesses due to injuries to the back, to sciatica, disc disease or lumbago cause a very large amount of sickness and are often associated with heavy manual labor particularly if an awkward posture has to be adopted for the job. The average absence after a back injury in the London Docks was 61 days. Chronic bronchitis is the biggest single cause of sickness absence. Many studies have shown that the etiology is multifactorial but that hard physical work and a dusty environment in the work place are important adverse factors. Improved control of the working environment and methods of work may influence the development of chronic disease in the older worker.

  16. Some remarks on farthest points

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Montesinos, V.; Zizler, P.; Zizler, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 1 (2011), s. 119-131 ISSN 1578-7303 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : farthest points * strongly exposed points * generic differentiability * convex functions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2011 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13398-011-0012-z

  17. SharePoint User's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Corporation, Infusion Development

    2009-01-01

    This straightforward guide shows SharePoint users how to create and use web sites for sharing and collaboration. Learn to use the document and picture libraries for adding and editing content, add discussion boards and surveys, receive alerts when documents and information have been added or changed, and enhance security. Designed to help you find answers quickly, the book shows how to make the most of SharePoint for productivity and collaboration.

  18. WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations in the Western Pacific Region (WHO Standard was released in 2008. Initially, there were 92/361 controversial acupuncture points (acupoints. Through seven informal consultations and four task force team meetings, 86 points were agreed upon among the 92 controversial acupoints, leaving 6 remaining controversial acupoints, demanding active research in the future. This will enhance the reproducibility and validity of acupuncture studies. It will also lead to a better understanding of acupuncture mechanisms in order to optimize its clinical efficacy for a range of diseases and syndromes. This book has two parts: General Guidelines for Acupuncture Point Locations and WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations. First of all, familiarity with the General Guidelines for Acupuncture Point Locations in this book can help the reader to understand and use the contents of this book in depth. I would like to thank all of the participating experts and scholars for this great work, who have overcome the limits of previous acupuncture references. I also appreciate the dedicated effort and harmonious leadership of Dr Choi Seung-hoon, former Regional Adviser in Traditional Medicine of Western Pacific Office, WHO.

  19. Critical points in magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongaarts, A.L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetical phase transitions of CsCoCl 3 .2H 2 O and CsCoCl 3 .2D 2 O are investigated by neutron diffraction techniques with special attention to the critical points in the phase diagrams. CsCoCl 3 .2H 2 O turned out to be a one-dimentional magnetic antiferromagnet with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions. In the vicinity of the Neel point, the critical behavior in zero magnetic field could be described as a three-dimentional long range ordering, while the fluctuations in the system are one-dimensional. In the presence of a magnetic field, the behavior of the system in the critical region of the magnetic phase diagram between the Neel temperature at zero field (3.3degK) and 1.85degK, was in good agreement with the theory. Below 1.85degK, the phase transition in a magnetic field changes into a line of triple points whose end point could be identified as a tricritical point, i.e., an intersection of three critical lines. The parameters derived from observations in the neighborhood of this tricritical point obey the scaling laws but are not in numerical agreement with theoretical predictions

  20. A study of variations in the reported haemophilia B prevalence around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonebraker, J S; Bolton-Maggs, P H B; Michael Soucie, J; Walker, I; Brooker, M

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of this article were to study the reported prevalence of haemophilia B (HB) on a country-by-country basis and to analyse whether the prevalence of HB varied by national economy. The prevalence of HB is the proportion of diagnosed, reported cases of HB in a population at a specific point of time. We collected data on the HB prevalence for 105 countries from the World Federation of Hemophilia annual global surveys. Our results showed that the HB prevalence varied considerably among countries, even among the wealthiest of countries. The HB prevalence (per 100 000 males) for the highest income countries was 2.69 ± 1.61 (mean ± SD), whereas the prevalence for the rest of the world was 1.20 ± 1.33 (mean ± SD). Ireland had the highest reported HB prevalence of 8.07 per 100 000 males. There was a strong trend of increasing HB prevalence (per 100 000 males) over time. Prevalence data reported from the WFH compared well with prevalence data from the literature. The WFH annual global surveys have some limitations, but they are the best available source of worldwide haemophilia data. Prevalence data are extremely valuable information for the planning efforts of national healthcare agencies in setting priorities and allocating resources for the treatment of HB. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Recent progress in fission at saddle point and scission point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blons, J.; Paya, D.; Signarbieux, C.

    High resolution measurements of 230 Th and 232 Th fission cross sections for neutrons exhibit a fine structure. Such a structure is interpreted as a superposition of two rotational bands in the third, asymmetric, well of the fission barrier. The fragment mass distribution in the thermal fission of 235 U and 233 U does not show any even-odd effect, even at the highest kinetic energies. This is the mark of a strong viscosity in the descent from saddle point to scission point [fr

  2. Digital microwave communication engineering point-to-point microwave systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kizer, George

    2013-01-01

    The first book to cover all engineering aspects of microwave communication path design for the digital age Fixed point-to-point microwave systems provide moderate-capacity digital transmission between well-defined locations. Most popular in situations where fiber optics or satellite communication is impractical, it is commonly used for cellular or PCS site interconnectivity where digital connectivity is needed but not economically available from other sources, and in private networks where reliability is most important. Until now, no book has adequately treated all en

  3. March 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  4. April 2004 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  5. December 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (latitude and longitude) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  6. Dynamic magnetic x-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboeuf, J.N.; Tajima, T.; Dawson, J.M.

    1981-03-01

    Two-and-one-half dimensional magnetostatic and electromagnetic particle simulations of time-varying magnetic x-points and the associated plasma response are reported. The stability and topology depend on the crossing angle of the field lines at the x-point, irrespective of the plasma β. The electrostatic field and finite Larmor radius effects play an important role in current penetration and shaping of the plasma flow. The snapping of the field lines, and dragging of the plasma into, and confinement of the plasma at, an o-point (magnetic island) is observed. Magnetic island coalescence with explosive growth of the coalescence mode occurs and is accompanied by a large increase of kinetic energy and temperature as well as the formation of hot tails on the distribution functions

  7. Fixed points of quantum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, A.; Gheondea, A.; Gudder, S.

    2002-01-01

    Quantum operations frequently occur in quantum measurement theory, quantum probability, quantum computation, and quantum information theory. If an operator A is invariant under a quantum operation φ, we call A a φ-fixed point. Physically, the φ-fixed points are the operators that are not disturbed by the action of φ. Our main purpose is to answer the following question. If A is a φ-fixed point, is A compatible with the operation elements of φ? We shall show in general that the answer is no and we shall give some sufficient conditions under which the answer is yes. Our results will follow from some general theorems concerning completely positive maps and injectivity of operator systems and von Neumann algebras

  8. Fixed-point signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Padgett, Wayne T

    2009-01-01

    This book is intended to fill the gap between the ""ideal precision"" digital signal processing (DSP) that is widely taught, and the limited precision implementation skills that are commonly required in fixed-point processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These skills are often neglected at the university level, particularly for undergraduates. We have attempted to create a resource both for a DSP elective course and for the practicing engineer with a need to understand fixed-point implementation. Although we assume a background in DSP, Chapter 2 contains a review of basic theory

  9. Implementing floating-point DSP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jiří; Chappel, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2006), s. 12-14 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750406; GA MŠk 1M0567 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 027611 - AETHER Program:FP6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : PicoBlaze * floating point * FPGA Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software http://www.xilinx.com/publications/ magazines /emb_03/xc_pdf/p12-14_3emb-point.pdf

  10. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate...... the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities....

  11. Appropriateness of Antibiotic Prescribing in U. S. Children’s Hospitals: A National Point Prevalence Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, Alison; Lee, Brian; Handy, Lori; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Hersh, Adam L; Kronman, Matthew; Terrill, Cindy; Newland, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple studies estimate that inappropriate antibiotic prescribing ranges from 30–50% in hospitalized patients, but few have included pediatric patients. Pediatric studies characterizing inappropriate prescribing are needed to target and improve antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) efforts. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of antimicrobial prescribing at 30 U.S. children’s hospitals. Participating hospitals were academic, tertiary care hospitals in the Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship (SHARPS) collaborative. Subjects were children 0–17 years with an active antibiotic order at 0800 on a single day during three consecutive calendar quarters (Q3 2016 – Q1 2017). Each hospital’s ASP used a standardized survey to collect data on antibiotic orders and evaluate appropriateness. Data were pooled from the three surveys. The primary outcome was the pooled estimate for the percentage of prescriptions classified as inappropriate. Secondary outcomes were pooled estimates for indication, reason for inappropriate use, and ASP review status for each antibiotic. Results Of 19,598 children hospitalized on survey days, 6,922 (35%) had ≥1 active antibiotic order. Median age of children receiving antibiotics was 3.7 years (0.5, 10.9). Figures 1 and 2 show the most common antibiotics and indications. Of all antibiotic orders, 1,514 (15%) were classified as inappropriate, and 19% of patients with antibiotic orders had at least one inappropriate order. The most common reasons for inappropriate use were bug-drug mismatch (26%), surgical prophylaxis > 24 hours (18%) and unnecessary duplicate therapy (12%). ASPs would not have routinely reviewed 50% of all inappropriate orders. An additional 22% of inappropriate orders were for antibiotics typically reviewed by ASPs, but were yet to be reviewed at the time of the survey. Conclusion Across 30 children’s hospitals, approximately 1 in 3 hospitalized children is receiving an antibiotic at any given time. Almost 20% of these children are receiving inappropriate therapy, and a substantial portion of inappropriate use is not captured by current ASP practices. Figures 1 and 2: Disclosures C. Terrill, Merck: Grant Investigator, Research grant; Allergan: Grant Investigator, Research grant; J. Newland, Merck: Grant Investigator, Research grant; Allergan: Grant Investigator, Research grant.

  12. The Yazd People’s Point of View about Effect of Visual Media on Smoking Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam

    2013-10-01

    Results: Based on participants' view role of family, friends and media respectively were more important in tendency of teenagers and adolescents smoking users. Almost 80 percent of subjects showed that influence of smoking in the media on a positive attitude towards tobacco smoking among adolescents and young people was very high. More than 55% of participants confirmed that the lack of smoking in movies is not effective in quality of the films. It was also confirmed, that in last month advertisements and anti-smoking programs were not seen by participants. Conclusion: The present study suggest control and monitoring on media, limitation or lack of smoking on media and films is an important factor to decreasing and control of smoking in adolescents and young adults.

  13. Social media networking in pediatric hydrocephalus: a point-prevalence analysis of utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkarim, Ghassan Awad; Alotaibi, Naif M; Samuel, Nardin; Wang, Shelly; Ibrahim, George M; Fallah, Aria; Weil, Alexander G; Kulkarni, Abhaya V

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE A recent survey has shown that caregivers of children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus frequently use social media networks for support and information gathering. The objective of this study is to describe and assess social media utilization among users interested in hydrocephalus. METHODS Publicly accessible accounts and videos dedicated to the topic of hydrocephalus were comprehensively searched across 3 social media platforms (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) throughout March 2016. Summary statistics were calculated on standard metrics of social media popularity. A categorization framework to describe the purpose of pages, groups, accounts, channels, and videos was developed following the screening of 100 titles. Categorized data were analyzed using nonparametric tests for statistical significance. RESULTS The authors' search identified 30 Facebook pages, 213 Facebook groups, 17 Twitter accounts, and 253 YouTube videos. These platforms were run by patients, caregivers, nonprofit foundations, and patient support groups. Most accounts were from the United States (n = 196), followed by the United Kingdom (n = 31), Canada (n = 17), India (n = 15), and Germany (n = 12). The earliest accounts were created in 2007, and a peak of 65 new accounts were created in 2011. The total number of users in Facebook pages exceeded those in Facebook groups (p social media use in the topic of hydrocephalus. Users interested in hydrocephalus seek privacy for support communications and are attracted to treatment procedure and surgical products videos. These findings provide insight into potential avenues of hydrocephalus outreach, support, or advocacy in social media.

  14. Beyond the Point Ps Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, Sergey V.; Zvezhinskiy, Dmitry S.; Byakov, Vsevolod M.

    2012-01-01

    In application to positron annihilation spectroscopy, Ps atom is considered not as a point particle, but as a finite size e+ e- pair localized in a bubble-state in a medium. Variation of the internal Coulombic e+ -e- attraction vs. the bubble radius is estimated.

  15. Smooth random change point models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Ardo; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Matthews, Fiona E

    2011-03-15

    Change point models are used to describe processes over time that show a change in direction. An example of such a process is cognitive ability, where a decline a few years before death is sometimes observed. A broken-stick model consists of two linear parts and a breakpoint where the two lines intersect. Alternatively, models can be formulated that imply a smooth change between the two linear parts. Change point models can be extended by adding random effects to account for variability between subjects. A new smooth change point model is introduced and examples are presented that show how change point models can be estimated using functions in R for mixed-effects models. The Bayesian inference using WinBUGS is also discussed. The methods are illustrated using data from a population-based longitudinal study of ageing, the Cambridge City over 75 Cohort Study. The aim is to identify how many years before death individuals experience a change in the rate of decline of their cognitive ability. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Mean as Balance Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    There are two primary interpretations of the mean: as a leveler of data (Uccellini 1996, pp. 113-114) and as a balance point of a data set. Typically, both interpretations of the mean are ignored in elementary school and middle school curricula. They are replaced with a rote emphasis on calculation using the standard algorithm. When students are…

  17. Equations for arithmetic pointed tori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijsling, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    In 1983, Kisao Takeuchi enumerated all 71 arithmetic (1;e)-groups. This is a special set of discrete subgroups of SL(2,R) of finite covolume and signature (1;e). The corresponding quotients of the upper half plane (called (1;e)-curves) have genus equal to 1 and a single elliptic point of order e.

  18. Flat Coalgebraic Fixed Point Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Lutz; Venema, Yde

    Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the μ-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard μ-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded μ-calculus and the alternating-time μ-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches ExpTime upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic μ-calculus but avoids using automata.

  19. Fixed points of quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Litim, D F

    2003-01-01

    Euclidean quantum gravity is studied with renormalisation group methods. Analytical results for a non-trivial ultraviolet fixed point are found for arbitrary dimensions and gauge fixing parameter in the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. Implications for quantum gravity in four dimensions are discussed.

  20. ACS Photometric Zero Point Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2003-07-01

    The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes in the Johnson filters. The reason for this is that ACS observations of excellent ground-based standard fields, such as the omega Cen field used for WFPC2 calibrations, have not been obtained. Instead, the ACS photometric calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS broadband images of the omega Cen standard field with both the WFC and HRC. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS transformations, and is expected to double the accuracy to which the ACS zero points are known. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager.

  1. Determine point-to-point networking interactions using regular expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S. Deev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As Internet growth and becoming more popular, the number of concurrent data flows start to increasing, which makes sense in bandwidth requested. Providers and corporate customers need ability to identify point-to-point interactions. The best is to use special software and hardware implementations that distribute the load in the internals of the complex, using the principles and approaches, in particular, described in this paper. This paper represent the principles of building system, which searches for a regular expression match using computing on graphics adapter in server station. A significant computing power and capability to parallel execution on modern graphic processor allows inspection of large amounts of data through sets of rules. Using the specified characteristics can lead to increased computing power in 30…40 times compared to the same setups on the central processing unit. The potential increase in bandwidth capacity could be used in systems that provide packet analysis, firewalls and network anomaly detectors.

  2. Modelling point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2009-01-01

    processes whose realizations contain such linear structures. Such a point process is constructed sequentially by placing one point at a time. The points are placed in such a way that new points are often placed close to previously placed points, and the points form roughly line shaped structures. We...... consider simulations of this model and compare with real data....

  3. Modelling point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    processes whose realizations contain such linear structures. Such a point process is constructed sequentially by placing one point at a time. The points are placed in such a way that new points are often placed close to previously placed points, and the points form roughly line shaped structures. We...... consider simulations of this model and compare with real data....

  4. Variation of a test’s sensitivity and specificity with disease prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeflang, Mariska M.G.; Rutjes, Anne W.S.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anecdotal evidence suggests that the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test may vary with disease prevalence. Our objective was to investigate the associations between disease prevalence and test sensitivity and specificity using studies of diagnostic accuracy. Methods: We used data from 23 meta-analyses, each of which included 10–39 studies (416 total). The median prevalence per review ranged from 1% to 77%. We evaluated the effects of prevalence on sensitivity and specificity using a bivariate random-effects model for each meta-analysis, with prevalence as a covariate. We estimated the overall effect of prevalence by pooling the effects using the inverse variance method. Results: Within a given review, a change in prevalence from the lowest to highest value resulted in a corresponding change in sensitivity or specificity from 0 to 40 percentage points. This effect was statistically significant (p disease prevalence; there was no such systematic effect for sensitivity. Interpretation: The sensitivity and specificity of a test often vary with disease prevalence; this effect is likely to be the result of mechanisms, such as patient spectrum, that affect prevalence, sensitivity and specificity. Because it may be difficult to identify such mechanisms, clinicians should use prevalence as a guide when selecting studies that most closely match their situation. PMID:23798453

  5. Zero Point of Historical Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Khakimov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies are based on the assumption that there is a reference-starting point of the space-time – the Zero point of coordinate system. Due to the bifurcation in the Zero Point, the course of social processes changes sharply and the probabilistic causality replaces the deterministic one. For this reason, changes occur in the structure of social relations and statehood form as well as in the course of the ethnic processes. In such a way emerges a new discourse of the national behavior. With regard to the history of the Tatars and Tatarstan, such bifurcation points occurred in the periods of the formation: 1 of the Turkic Khaganate, which began to exist from the 6th century onward and became a qualitatively new State system that reformatted old elements in the new matrix introducing a new discourse of behavior; 2 of the Volga-Kama Bulgaria, where the rivers (Kama, Volga, Vyatka became the most important trade routes determining the singularity of this State. Here the nomadic culture was connected with the settled one and Islam became the official religion in 922; 3 and of the Golden Hordе, a powerful State with a remarkable system of communication, migration of huge human resources for thousands of kilometers, and extensive trade, that caused severe “mutations” in the ethnic terms and a huge mixing of ethnic groups. Given the dwelling space of Tatar population and its evolution within Russia, it can be argued that the Zero point of Tatar history, which conveyed the cultural invariants until today, begins in the Golden Horde. Neither in the Turkic khaganate nor in the Bulgar State, but namely in the Golden Horde. Despite the radical changes, the Russian Empire failed to transform the Tatars in the Russians. Therefore, contemporary Tatars preserved the Golden Horde tradition as a cultural invariant.

  6. Social phobia and depression: prevalence and comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Schatzberg, Alan F

    2010-03-01

    Social phobia may seriously impair the functioning of affected individuals. It is frequently associated with other mental disorders. To estimate the co-occurrence of social phobia with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to analyze their interaction. Subjects were 18,980 individuals, aged 15 years or older, representative of the general population of the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal, who were interviewed by telephone. DSM-IV diagnoses were made with the Sleep-EVAL system. The point prevalence for social phobia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval: 4.1-4.7%) of the sample. It was higher in women (odds ratio: 1.6) and decreased with age. MDDs were found in 19.5% of participants with social phobia. Co-occurrence of another anxiety disorder was high and increased when a MDD was present (65.2%). The odds of developing a major depressive episode 2 years after the appearance of the social phobia was of 5.74. Social phobia is highly prevalent in the general population. It increases the risk of developing a MDD and has a high comorbidity with other mental disorders. Social phobia is often present in the course of depression, more obviously during remission period of MDD. Physicians must explore and treat more systematically this frequent pathology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of the pathogen microorganisms in raw cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli in the raw cow milk. In this study 133 milk-tank samples from several milk collecting points were analysed. After the tests the following prevalence was detected: for Listeria spp. 13 positive samples (9.77%, with 9 Listeria monocytogenes samples confirmed (6.76%. Salmonella spp. was not detected in any of the the samples. The biggest presence was detected for Staphylococcus spp. with 113 positive samples (85.0%. Further testes has shown prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci of 73% (97 positive samples. Escherichia coli was confirmed in 57 samples (46.0%. The results from this study clearly indicate that pathogen microorganisms which are important for the human health can be found in the raw cow milk and their presence can be potential hazard for contamination of the milk-processing establishments.

  8. Prevalence Of Burnout Syndrome And Factors Associated With University Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericka Silva Holmes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a systematic review that sought to identify the prevalence and factors associated with Burnout Syndrome in university teachers. The collection of the studies was done through descriptors in databases, which resulted in the selection of 8 articles. The prevalence for burnout had a small variation, but presented worrying values. The most frequent associated factors were: work overload, accumulation of activities beyond teaching, high employment ties, devaluation of the work performed and low remuneration. Burnout is still little recognized and studied in the category of university teachers, and it is difficult to identify an exact prevalence for this category. However, the associated factors are well defined and should be considered as a starting point for the prevention of the syndrome.

  9. Prevalence of Chagas' Disease in Mulungu do Morro Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Aras

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - The aim of this paper is to describe the prevalence of T. Cruzi infection in patients of from Mulungu do Morro, a rural tropical region of Northeastern Brazil. METHODS - A cross-sectional study was performed. After randomly selecting samples of the population, and obtaining their consents , patients completed pretested epidemiological and clinical questionnaires. Serum samples from all patients were collected and screened for the presence of T. cruzi antibodies. RESULTS - Of 694 patients examined, 174 patients (25.1% tested had a positive serology for Chagas' disease. Of the study population, 341 patients were male with 27% Chagas' disease prevalence, without a statistical difference. Illiteracy was the only variable related to T. cruzi infection in our population. CONCLUSION - In conclusion, our study points to the high prevalence of Chagas' disease among patients in Mulungu do Morro, suggesting that this region has a high frequency of infection and probably active vectorial transmission.

  10. Characterization of MIPAS elevation pointing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kiefer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient knowledge of the pointing is essential for analyses of limb emission measurements. The scientific retrieval processor for MIPAS on ENVISAT operated at IMK allows the retrieval of pointing information in terms of tangent altitudes along with temperature. The retrieved tangent altitudes are independent of systematic offsets in the engineering Line-Of-Sight (LOS information delivered with the ESA Level 1b product. The difference of pointing retrieved from the reprocessed high resolution MIPAS spectra and the engineering pointing information was examined with respect to spatial/temporal behaviour. Among others the following characteristics of MIPAS pointing could be identified: Generally the engineering tangent altitudes are too high by 0–1.8 km with conspicuous variations in this range over time. Prior to December of 2003 there was a drift of about 50–100 m/h, which was due to a slow change in the satellite attitude. A correction of this attitude is done twice a day, which leads to discontinuities in the order of 1–1.5 km in the tangent altitudes. Occasionally discontinuities up to 2.5 km are found, as already reported from MIPAS and SCIAMACHY observations. After an update of the orbit position software in December 2003 values of drift and jumps are much reduced. There is a systematic difference in the mispointing between the poles which amounts to 1.5–2 km, i.e. there is a conspicuous orbit-periodic feature. The analysis of the correlation between the instrument's viewing angle azimuth and differential mispointing supports the hypotheses that a major part of this latter phenomenon can be attributed to an error in the roll angle of the satellite/instrument system of approximately 42 mdeg. One conclusion is that ESA level 2 data should be compared to other data exclusively on tangent pressure levels. Complementary to IMK data, ESA operational LOS calibration results were used to characterize MIPAS pointing. For this purpose

  11. Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett

    2013-01-01

    By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect

  12. Sensing with Superconducting Point Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argo Nurbawono

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors.

  13. Leverage points for sustainability transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abson, David J; Fischer, Joern; Leventon, Julia; Newig, Jens; Schomerus, Thomas; Vilsmaier, Ulli; von Wehrden, Henrik; Abernethy, Paivi; Ives, Christopher D; Jager, Nicolas W; Lang, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Despite substantial focus on sustainability issues in both science and politics, humanity remains on largely unsustainable development trajectories. Partly, this is due to the failure of sustainability science to engage with the root causes of unsustainability. Drawing on ideas by Donella Meadows, we argue that many sustainability interventions target highly tangible, but essentially weak, leverage points (i.e. using interventions that are easy, but have limited potential for transformational change). Thus, there is an urgent need to focus on less obvious but potentially far more powerful areas of intervention. We propose a research agenda inspired by systems thinking that focuses on transformational 'sustainability interventions', centred on three realms of leverage: reconnecting people to nature, restructuring institutions and rethinking how knowledge is created and used in pursuit of sustainability. The notion of leverage points has the potential to act as a boundary object for genuinely transformational sustainability science.

  14. EBTR design-point selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    The procedure used to select the design point for the ELMO Bumpy Torus Reactor (EBTR) study is described. The models used in each phase of the selection process are described, with an emphasis placed on the parametric design curves produced by each model. The tradeoffs related to burn physics, stability/equilibrium, electron-ring physics, and magnetics design are discussed. The resulting design point indicates a plasma with a 35-m major radius and a 1-m minor radium operating at an average core-plasma beta of 0.17, which at approx. 30 keV produces an average neutron wall loading of 1.4 MW/m 2 while maintaining key magnet (< 10 T) and total power (less than or equal to 4000 MWt) constraints

  15. The point of 6 sigma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Yeong Jin

    2000-07-01

    This book gives descriptions of the point of 6 sigma. These are the titles of this : what 6 sigma is, sigma conception, motor roller 3.4 ppm, centering error, 6 sigma purpose, 6 sigma principle, eight steps of innovation strategy, 6 sigma innovation strategy of easy system step, measurement standard of 6 sigma outcome, the main role of 6 sigma, acknowledgment and reword, 6 sigma characteristic, 6 sigma effect, 6 sigma application and problems which happen when 6 sigma introduces.

  16. Change point analysis and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop an analytical framework for studying processes such as continuous innovation and business development in high-tech SME clusters that transcends the traditional qualitative-quantitative divide. It integrates four existing and well-recognized approaches...... to studying events, processes and change, mamely change-point analysis, event-history analysis, critical-incident technique and sequence analysis....

  17. Turning points in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems

  18. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  19. Viviani Polytopes and Fermat Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li

    2012-01-01

    Given a set of oriented hyperplanes P = {p1, . . . , pk} in R[superscript n], define v : R[superscript n] [right arrow] R by v(X) = the sum of the signed distances from X to p[subscript 1], . . . , p[subscript k], for any point X [is a member of] R[superscript n]. We give a simple geometric characterization of P for which v is constant, leading to…

  20. A fixed-point farrago

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to some of the best-known fixed-point theorems, with an emphasis on their interactions with topics in analysis. The level of exposition increases gradually throughout the book, building from a basic requirement of undergraduate proficiency to graduate-level sophistication. Appendices provide an introduction to (or refresher on) some of the prerequisite material and exercises are integrated into the text, contributing to the volume’s ability to be used as a self-contained text. Readers will find the presentation especially useful for independent study or as a supplement to a graduate course in fixed-point theory. The material is split into four parts: the first introduces the Banach Contraction-Mapping Principle and the Brouwer Fixed-Point Theorem, along with a selection of interesting applications; the second focuses on Brouwer’s theorem and its application to John Nash’s work; the third applies Brouwer’s theorem to spaces of infinite dimension; and the fourth rests ...

  1. Prevalence of Physical and Psychological Violence among Heterosexual Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Angulo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are few studies at the population level on the prevalence of violence in heterosexual relationships. This study demonstrated the reality of this phenomenon in our context. Objective: to determine the prevalence of psychological and physical violence among heterosexual couples in the city of Cienfuegos in 2010. Methods: a cross-sectional study of adults aged 15 to 74 years was conducted in six health areas. An equal probability sample of 1873 subjects was selected. The variables included psychological and physical violence, sex, age, skin color, marital status, educational level and history of living in troubled homes. The results were processed using SPSS 15.0. Results: prevalence of psychological and physical violence among couples was approximately six out of ten with different frequency levels. Psychological violence rose to 82.3 % and physical violence to 96.3 % when the couple lived together. Women reported being victims of violence from age 35 to 44 and men from age 25 to 34. Seventy point eight percent of couples who had middle school education reported suffering physical violence while 63 % of those with university education reported psychological violence. Fifty-one point eight percent of the study population was victim of physical violence during childhood. Conclusions: prevalence of psychological and physical violence among heterosexual couples in the sample studied in Cienfuegos is higher than the mean in the general population.

  2. Seven-Day Mortality Can Be Predicted in Medical Patients by Blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory Rate, Loss of Independence, and Peripheral Oxygen Saturation (the PARIS Score)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Mikkel; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Knudsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    university hospital and included all adult (≥15 years) patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical variables that best predicted the endpoint. From this, we developed a simplified model that can be calculated without specialized tools or loss of predictive ability......-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This observational prospective cohort study used three independent cohorts at the medical admission units at a regional teaching hospital and a tertiary...... associated with the endpoint (full model). Based on this, we developed a simple score (range 0-5), ie, the PARIS score, by dichotomizing the variables. The ability to identify patients at increased risk (discriminatory power and calibration) was excellent for all three cohorts using both models. For patients...

  3. Seven-day human biological rhythms: An expedition in search of their origin, synchronization, functional advantage, adaptive value and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinberg, Alain E; Dejardin, Laurence; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

    2017-01-01

    This fact-finding expedition explores the perspectives and knowledge of the origin and functional relevance of the 7 d domain of the biological time structure, with special reference to human beings. These biological rhythms are displayed at various levels of organization in diverse species - from the unicellular sea algae of Acetabularia and Goniaulax to plants, insects, fish, birds and mammals, including man - under natural as well as artificial, i.e. constant, environmental conditions. Nonetheless, very little is known about their derivation, functional advantage, adaptive value, synchronization and potential clinical relevance. About 7 d cosmic cycles are seemingly too weak, and the 6 d work/1 d rest week commanded from G-d through the Laws of Mosses to the Hebrews is too recent an event to be the origin in humans. Moreover, human and insect studies conducted under controlled constant conditions devoid of environmental, social and other time cues report the persistence of 7 d rhythms, but with a slightly different (free-running) period (τ), indicating their source is endogenous. Yet, a series of human and laboratory rodent studies reveal certain mainly non-cyclic exogenous events can trigger 7 d rhythm-like phenomena. However, it is unknown whether such triggers unmask, amplify and/or synchronize previous non-overtly expressed oscillations. Circadian (~24 h), circa-monthly (~30 d) and circannual (~1 y) rhythms are viewed as genetically based features of life forms that during evolution conferred significant functional advantage to individual organisms and survival value to species. No such advantages are apparent for endogenous 7 d rhythms, raising several questions: What is the significance of the 7 d activity/rest cycle, i.e. week, storied in the Book of Genesis and adopted by the Hebrews and thereafter the residents of nearby Mediterranean countries and ultimately the world? Why do humans require 1 d off per 7 d span? Do 7 d rhythms bestow functional advantage to organisms? Is the magic ascribed to the number 7 of relevance? We hypothesize the 7 d time structure of human beings is endogenous in origin - a hypothesis that is affirmed by a wide array of evidence - and synchronized by sociocultural factors linked to the Saturday (Hebrews) or Sunday (Christian) holy day of rest. We also hypothesize they are representative, at least in part, of the biological requirement for rest and repair 1 d each 7 d, just as the circadian time structure is representative, in part, of the biological need for rest and repair each 24 h.

  4. Synapse density and dendritic complexity are reduced in the prefrontal cortex following seven days of forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khampaseuth Rasakham

    Full Text Available Chronic cocaine exposure in both human addicts and in rodent models of addiction reduces prefrontal cortical activity, which subsequently dysregulates reward processing and higher order executive function. The net effect of this impaired gating of behavior is enhanced vulnerability to relapse. Previously we have shown that cocaine-induced increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC is a neuroadaptive mechanism that blunts the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine. As BDNF is known to affect neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity, we tested the hypothesis that abstinence from cocaine self-administration would lead to alterations in neuronal morphology and synaptic density in the PFC. Using a novel technique, array tomography and Golgi staining, morphological changes in the rat PFC were analyzed following 14 days of cocaine self-administration and 7 days of forced abstinence. Our results indicate that overall dendritic branching and total synaptic density are significantly reduced in the rat PFC. In contrast, the density of thin dendritic spines are significantly increased on layer V pyramidal neurons of the PFC. These findings indicate that dynamic structural changes occur during cocaine abstinence that may contribute to the observed hypo-activity of the PFC in cocaine-addicted individuals.

  5. Comparison of estimated energy intake from 224-hour recalls and a seven-day food record with objective measurements of energy expenditure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothausen, Berit Worm; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Groth, Margit Velsing

    2012-01-01

    % limits of agreement were 438 and 3.52 MJ/d for the 224-HDRs, and 5.90 and 2.94 MJ/d for the 7-dFR. Pearson correlation coefficients between EI and EE were 0.51 for EI224-HDR and 0.29 for EI7-dFR, respectively. The proportion classified in the same or adjacent quartiles was 76% for EI224-HDR and 73...

  6. Assessment of habitual energy and macronutrient intake in adults: comparison of a seven day food record with a dietary history interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S.; Andreasen, A. H.; Osler, M.

    2002-01-01

    record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. Main outcome measure: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages....... Difference between reported energy intake from both methods and estimated energy expenditure in different subgroups. Results: Energy and macronutrient intake was assessed slightly higher by the 7 day food record than by the diet history interview, but in absolute terms the differences were negligible......-reporting increased by BMI in both sexes and by age in men. Conclusions: Energy and macronutrient intake data collected under even conditions by either a 7 day food record or a diet history interview may be collapsed and analysed independent of the underlying diet method. Both diet methods, however, appear...

  7. Research note: the performance of spring- and summer-reared broilers as affected by precision beak trimming at seven days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, R B

    1993-12-01

    In each of two duplicate trials approximately 2,500 day-old Peterson x Arbor Acres straight-run broiler chicks were equally divided between two treatments of three pens each. Treatment 1 was maintained as controls (C), and Treatment 2 birds were precision beak-trimmed (PBT) at 7 days of age. Feed and water were supplied for ad libitum consumption to both groups. Trials 1 and 2 were initiated in March and June, respectively. Performance of spring-reared broilers were comparable regardless of beak trimming procedure, except that PBT broilers experienced slightly higher mortality after PBT. Final body weights of the summer-reared broilers were 15% lower than those reared in the spring. Additionally, PBT resulted in significantly reduced final body weights and feed intake. There were no significant differences in mortality or feed conversion due to PBT.

  8. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  9. Prevalence of invehicle smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llambi, Laura; Barros, Mary; Parodi, Carolina; Pippo, Antonella; Nunez, Virginia; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Goyeneche, Juan J; Aleman, Alicia

    2018-01-19

    Protection from secondhand smoke (SHS) is one of the fundamental principles of the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control. Objective data on SHS exposure in vehicles in South America is scarce. This study aimed to estimate prevalence of smoking inside vehicles. The point prevalence of smoking in vehicles was observed, and a method for estimating smoking prevalence was piloted. We observed 10 011 vehicles. In 219 (2.2%; 95% CI 1.91 to 2.49) of them, smoking was observed, and in 29.2% of these, another person was exposed to SHS. According to the 'expansion factor' we constructed, direct observation detected one of six to one to nine vehicles in which smoking occurred. The observed prevalence of smoking in vehicles (2.2%) could reflect a real prevalence between 12% and 19%. In 29.2% (95% CI 23.6 to 35.5) and 4.6% (95% CI 2.2 to 8.3) of vehicles in which smoking was observed, another adult or a child, respectively, was exposed to SHS. Smoking was estimated to occur in 12%-19% of vehicles, with involuntary exposure in one of three of vehicles observed. These data underscore a need for new public policies to eliminate SHS in vehicles to protect public health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Variation in the Prevalence of Domestic Violence between Neighboring Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhjah, Sedigheh; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is an important health issue, but few studies have focused on city of residence and ethnic differences. To estimate the prevalence of various forms of domestic violence and certain related factors, with a specific focus on city of residence and ethnicity, we studied 1820 married women attending public health centers in 4 large cities in Khuzestan Province, southwestern Islamic Republic of Iran. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. The prevalence of some forms of lifetime domestic violence against women was 47.3%. The prevalence of physical, psychological, and any form of lifetime violence was the highest in Dezful (25.7%, 54.8%, and 57.7%, resp.). For sexual violence, the highest prevalence was reported in Ahvaz (17.7%). The highest prevalence of physical and sexual violence during any point of life was reported by Arab women (25.1% and 16.7%). The experience of all forms of violence was significantly associated with city of residence. Results of regression logistic analysis revealed that all of the forms of violence except psychological violence were statistically significantly associated with ethnicity (P < 0.05). PMID:27433514

  11. The prevalence of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Jill; Hale, Claire; Helliwell, Philip; Hill, Jackie; Nelson, E Andrea

    2008-02-15

    To establish the prevalence of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in secondary care. A postal survey of all patients with RA (n = 1,130) under the care of rheumatologists in Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK was performed. The prevalence data were validated through clinical examination, case-note review, and contact with health professionals. The false-negative rate was investigated in a subsample of patients (n = 70) who denied any history of ulceration. The postal survey achieved a 78% response rate. Following validation, the point prevalence of foot ulceration was 3.39% and the overall prevalence was 9.73%. The false-positive rate was initially high at 21.21%, but use of diagrammatic questionnaire data to exclude leg ulceration reduced the rate to 10.76%. The false-negative rate was 11.76%. The most common sites for ulceration were the dorsal aspect of hammer toes, the metatarsal heads, and the metatarsophalangeal joint in patients with hallux abducto valgus, with 33% of patients reporting multiple sites of ulceration. Patients with open-foot and healed-foot ulceration had significantly longer RA disease duration, reported significantly greater use of special footwear, and had a higher prevalence of foot surgery than ulcer-free patients. Foot ulceration affects a significant proportion of patients with RA. Further work is needed to establish risk factors for foot ulceration in RA and to target foot health provision more effectively.

  12. Scleroderma prevalence: demographic variations in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatsky, S; Joseph, L; Pineau, C A; Belisle, P; Hudson, M; Clarke, A E

    2009-03-15

    To estimate the prevalence of systemic sclerosis (SSc) using population-based administrative data, and to assess the sensitivity of case ascertainment approaches. We ascertained SSc cases from Quebec physician billing and hospitalization databases (covering approximately 7.5 million individuals). Three case definition algorithms were compared, and statistical methods accounting for imperfect case ascertainment were used to estimate SSc prevalence and case ascertainment sensitivity. A hierarchical Bayesian latent class regression model that accounted for possible between-test dependence conditional on disease status estimated the effect of patient characteristics on SSc prevalence and the sensitivity of the 3 ascertainment algorithms. Accounting for error inherent in both the billing and the hospitalization data, we estimated SSc prevalence in 2003 at 74.4 cases per 100,000 women (95% credible interval [95% CrI] 69.3-79.7) and 13.3 cases per 100,000 men (95% CrI 11.1-16.1). Prevalence was higher for older individuals, particularly in urban women (161.2 cases per 100,000, 95% CrI 148.6-175.0). Prevalence was lowest in young men (in rural areas, as low as 2.8 cases per 100,000, 95% CrI 1.4-4.8). In general, no single algorithm was very sensitive, with point estimates for sensitivity ranging from 20-73%. We found marked differences in SSc prevalence according to age, sex, and region. In general, no single case ascertainment approach was very sensitive for SSc. Therefore, using data from multiple sources, with adjustment for the imperfect nature of each, is an important strategy in population-based studies of SSc and similar conditions.

  13. Zero-point oscillations, zero-point fluctuations, and fluctuations of zero-point oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili, Farit Ya

    2003-01-01

    Several physical effects and methodological issues relating to the ground state of an oscillator are considered. Even in the simplest case of an ideal lossless harmonic oscillator, its ground state exhibits properties that are unusual from the classical point of view. In particular, the mean value of the product of two non-negative observables, kinetic and potential energies, is negative in the ground state. It is shown that semiclassical and rigorous quantum approaches yield substantially different results for the ground state energy fluctuations of an oscillator with finite losses. The dependence of zero-point fluctuations on the boundary conditions is considered. Using this dependence, it is possible to transmit information without emitting electromagnetic quanta. Fluctuations of electromagnetic pressure of zero-point oscillations are analyzed, and the corresponding mechanical friction is considered. This friction can be viewed as the most fundamental mechanism limiting the quality factor of mechanical oscillators. Observation of these effects exceeds the possibilities of contemporary experimental physics but almost undoubtedly will be possible in the near future. (methodological notes)

  14. Point-point and point-line moving-window correlation spectroscopy and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin; Zhan, Daqi; Yu, Zhiwu

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we present a new extension of generalized two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy. Two new algorithms, namely point-point (P-P) correlation and point-line (P-L) correlation, have been introduced to do the moving-window 2D correlation (MW2D) analysis. The new method has been applied to a spectral model consisting of two different processes. The results indicate that P-P correlation spectroscopy can unveil the details and re-constitute the entire process, whilst the P-L can provide general feature of the concerned processes. Phase transition behavior of dimyristoylphosphotidylethanolamine (DMPE) has been studied using MW2D correlation spectroscopy. The newly proposed method verifies that the phase transition temperature is 56 °C, same as the result got from a differential scanning calorimeter. To illustrate the new method further, a lysine and lactose mixture has been studied under thermo perturbation. Using the P-P MW2D, the Maillard reaction of the mixture was clearly monitored, which has been very difficult using conventional display of FTIR spectra.

  15. The Point Lepreau Desktop Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, M.; Hogg, J.; Newman, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Point Lepreau Desktop Simulator runs plant process modeling software on a 266 MHz single CPU DEC Alpha computer. This same Alpha also runs the plant control computer software on an SSCI 125 emulator. An adjacent Pentium PC runs the simulator's Instructor Facility software, and communicates with the Alpha through an Ethernet. The Point Lepreau Desktop simulator is constructed to be as similar as possible to the Point Lepreau full scope training simulator. This minimizes total maintenance costs and enhances the benefits of the desktop simulator. Both simulators have the same modeling running on a single CPU in the same schedule of calculations. Both simulators have the same Instructor Facility capable of developing and executing the same lesson plans, doing the same monitoring and control of simulations, inserting all the same malfunctions, performing all the same overrides, capable of making and restoring all the same storepoints. Both simulators run the same plant control computer software - the same assembly language control programs as the power plant uses for reactor control, heat transport control, annunciation, etc. This is a higher degree of similarity between a desktop simulator and a full scope training simulator than previously reported for a computer controlled nuclear plant. The large quantity of control room hardware missing from the desktop simulator is replaced by software. The Instructor Facility panel override software of the training simulator provides the means by which devices (switches, controllers, windows, etc.) on the control room panels can be controlled and monitored in the desktop simulator. The CRT of the Alpha provides a mouse operated DCC keyboard mimic for controlling the plant control computer emulation. Two emulated RAMTEK display channels appear as windows for monitoring anything of interest on plant DCC displays, including one channel for annunciation. (author)

  16. Growth points in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgson, Peter Edward

    1980-01-01

    Growth Points in Nuclear Physics, Volume 2 covers the progress in the fields of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions. This book is composed of three chapters. The first chapter is devoted to nuclear forces and potentials, in particular the optical model potential that enables the elastic scattering of many particles by nuclei to be calculated in a very simple manner. This chapter also deals with the three-body forces and the spin dependence of the nuclear potential. The second chapter describes higher order processes involving two or more stages, specifically their intrinsic interest and th

  17. When should we recommend use of dual time-point and delayed time-point imaging techniques in FDG PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Gang [Philadelphia VA Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Torigian, Drew A.; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zhuang, Hongming [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    FDG PET and PET/CT are now widely used in oncological imaging for tumor characterization, staging, restaging, and response evaluation. However, numerous benign etiologies may cause increased FDG uptake indistinguishable from that of malignancy. Multiple studies have shown that dual time-point imaging (DTPI) of FDG PET may be helpful in differentiating malignancy from benign processes. However, exceptions exist, and some studies have demonstrated significant overlap of FDG uptake patterns between benign and malignant lesions on delayed time-point images. In this review, we summarize our experience and opinions on the value of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging in oncology, with a review of the relevant literature. We believe that the major value of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging is the increased sensitivity due to continued clearance of background activity and continued FDG accumulation in malignant lesions, if the same diagnostic criteria (as in the initial standard single time-point imaging) are used. The specificity of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging depends on multiple factors, including the prevalence of malignancies, the patient population, and the cut-off values (either SUV or retention index) used to define a malignancy. Thus, DTPI and delayed time-point imaging would be more useful if performed for evaluation of lesions in regions with significant background activity clearance over time (such as the liver, the spleen, the mediastinum), and if used in the evaluation of the extent of tumor involvement rather than in the characterization of the nature of any specific lesion. Acute infectious and non-infectious inflammatory lesions remain as the major culprit for diminished diagnostic performance of these approaches (especially in tuberculosis-endemic regions). Tumor heterogeneity may also contribute to inconsistent performance of DTPI. The authors believe that selective use of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging will improve diagnostic accuracy and

  18. Processing Terrain Point Cloud Data

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald

    2013-01-10

    Terrain point cloud data are typically acquired through some form of Light Detection And Ranging sensing. They form a rich resource that is important in a variety of applications including navigation, line of sight, and terrain visualization. Processing terrain data has not received the attention of other forms of surface reconstruction or of image processing. The goal of terrain data processing is to convert the point cloud into a succinct representation system that is amenable to the various application demands. The present paper presents a platform for terrain processing built on the following principles: (i) measuring distortion in the Hausdorff metric, which we argue is a good match for the application demands, (ii) a multiscale representation based on tree approximation using local polynomial fitting. The basic elements held in the nodes of the tree can be efficiently encoded, transmitted, visualized, and utilized for the various target applications. Several challenges emerge because of the variable resolution of the data, missing data, occlusions, and noise. Techniques for identifying and handling these challenges are developed. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  19. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K; Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    .01). CONCLUSIONS: EUROCAT could detect increases in the prevalence of microcephaly from the Zika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity of microcephaly and discrepant diagnostic criteria, however, the smaller increases expected in Europe would probably not be detected...

  20. [Rotator cuff tear athropathy prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Soriano, F; Encalada-Díaz, M I; Ruiz-Suárez, M; Valero-González, F S

    2017-01-01

    Glenohumeral arthritis secondary to massive rotator cuff tear presents with a superior displacement and femoralization of the humeral head with coracoacromial arch acetabularization. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of rotator cuff tear artropathy (CTA) at our institution. Four hundred electronic records were reviewed from which we identified 136 patients with rotator cuff tears. A second group was composed with patients with massive cuff tears that were analized and staged by the Seebauer cuff tear arthropathy classification. Thirty four patients with massive rotator cuff tears were identified, 8 male and 26 female (age 60.1 ± 10.26 years). Massive rotator cuff tear prevalence was 25%. CTA prevalence found in the rotator cuff group was 19 and 76% in the massive cuff tears group. Patients were staged according to the classification with 32% in stage 1a, 11% 1b, 32% 2a and 0% 2b. CTA prevalence in patients with rotator cuff tears and massive cuff tears is higher than the one reported in American population. We consider that a revision of the Seebauer classification to be appropriate to determine its reliability.

  1. Address Points - COUNTY_ADDRESS_POINTS_IDHS_IN: Address Points Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Point feature class)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_ADDRESS_POINTS_IDHS_IN is an ESRI Geodatabase point feature class that contains address points maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel...

  2. Glacial Features (Point) - Quad 168 (EPPING, NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — The Glacial Features (Point) layer describes point features associated with surficial geology. These glacial features include, but are not limited to, delta forsets,...

  3. Possible refurbishment of Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Groom, S.H.; Thompson, P.D.; Barclay, J.M.; Allen, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In February 2000, the NB Power Board of Directors approved Phase one of a project to produce a business case including a detailed scope and estimate associated with the possible refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The Preliminary plan for refurbishment projects an 18-month outage starting as early as the spring of 2006. If the station were to be refurbished, then it would be run for another 25 to 30 years. The decision on whether or not to refurbish PLGS has not been made and is not expected until the summer of 2002. The results of the first phase of the project will be used to prepare a detailed business case that will be presented to the NB Power board of directors in January of 2002. At that time a decision will be made as to whether to refurbish the unit, or obtain other means of replacing the energy produced by PLGS. The station currently produces about a third of the power generated within the province. If the business case is approved, all-380 Pressure Tubes and Calandria Tubes, along with their related End Fittings and Feeders would be replaced. This material would be stored in new storage vaults to be constructed at the existing on-site Waste Management Facility. Replacement of other station components will be performed as required, as determined from the results of a comprehensive Plant Condition Assessment. The condition assessments build on work done under the Plant Life Management Program. Point Lepreau Generating Station has operated well since start of commercial operation in early 1983. With a lifetime capacity factor of about 84% (up to the end of 2000), it has proven to be an economic and environmentally sound electricity provider. The station has also had a significant positive economic impact in Southern New Brunswick, employing over 600 people. However the Pressure Tubes and Feeders are nearing the point in time in which they will exceed their fitness for service criteria. Although tubes can be replaced on an

  4. Possible refurbishment of Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Groom, S.H.; Thompson, P.D.; Barclay, J.M.; Allen, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In February 2000, the NB Power Board of Directors approved Phase one of a project to produce a business case including a detailed scope and estimate associated with the possible refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The Preliminary plan for refurbishment projects an 18-month outage starting as early as the spring of 2006. If the station were to be refurbished, then it would be run for another 25 to 30 years. The decision on whether or not to refurbish PLGS has not been made and is not expected until the summer of 2002. The results of the first phase of the project will be used to prepare a detailed business case that will be presented to the NB Power board of directors in January of 2002. At that time a decision will be made as to whether to refurbish the unit, or obtain other means of replacing the energy produced by PLGS. The station currently produces about a third of the power generated within the province. If the business case is approved, all-380 Pressure Tubes and Calandria Tubes, along with their related End Fittings and Feeders would be replaced. This material would be stored in new storage vaults to be constructed at the existing on-site Waste Management Facility. Replacement of other station components will be performed as required, as determined from the results of a comprehensive Plant Condition Assessment. The condition assessments build on work done under the Plant Life Management Program. Point Lepreau Generating Station has operated well since start of commercial operation in early 1983. With a lifetime capacity factor of about 84% (up to the end of 2000), it has proven to be an economic and environmentally sound electricity provider. The station has also had a significant positive economic impact in Southern New Brunswick, employing over 600 people. However the Pressure Tubes and Feeders are nearing the point in time in which they will exceed their fitness for service criteria. Although tubes can be replaced on an

  5. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  6. The physics of exceptional points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, W D

    2012-01-01

    A short résumé is given about the nature of exceptional points (EPs) followed by discussions about their ubiquitous occurrence in a great variety of physical problems. EPs feature in classical as well as in quantum mechanical problems. They are associated with symmetry breaking for PT-symmetric Hamiltonians, where a great number of experiments has been performed, in particular in optics, and to an increasing extent in atomic and molecular physics. EPs are involved in quantum phase transition and quantum chaos; they produce dramatic effects in multichannel scattering, specific time dependence and more. In nuclear physics, they are associated with instabilities and continuum problems. Being spectral singularities they also affect approximation schemes. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)

  7. Photovoltaics at Point Pelee Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Case study of an Ontario Hydro-installed photovoltaic system at Point Pelee Park, a bird sanctuary located on Lake Erie, is described. The system consists of a 1080 W photovoltaic array used to supply electricity to one of the washrooms. The cost for installing the system was $30,000 which was considerably cheaper than the $100,000 estimate for an underground power line. The independent system is the only source of energy for the washroom, therefore it was necessary to reduce the total electrical demand required by the facility. Electricity was used for the water pump, chlorinator and lighting. Motion sensors were installed to further reduce electrical demand. Washroom heaters were converted to propane. 2 figs.

  8. Preferred design of transfer points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firstbrook, J

    1983-06-01

    The paper reports the results of a study carried out at MRDE on the performance of transfer points. These sites still require a considerable deployment of manpower. The investigations were divided into 3 main sections: mineral handling; chute design; belt cleaning and spillage conveying. In order to achieve a sufficient level of reliability of a transfer system, it is considered that the coal size should not be greater than 250 mm. Different designs of gravity transfer chute were studied and 3 basic designs emerged as being effective : dump chute, curved site entry, and asymmetric side entry. Selection is dependent on conveyor sizes, speeds, and mineral throughput. Individual belt cleaners are not sufficient to clean belts carrying typical run-of-mine material: two cleaners followed by a set of squeeze rollers are recommended. Several designs of spillage conveyor were investigated; at the present time the electro/hydraulic type appears to be the most satisfactory.

  9. Point-source inversion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Charles A.; Barker, Jeffrey S.; Pavlin, Gregory B.

    1982-11-01

    A variety of approaches for obtaining source parameters from waveform data using moment-tensor or dislocation point source models have been investigated and applied to long-period body and surface waves from several earthquakes. Generalized inversion techniques have been applied to data for long-period teleseismic body waves to obtain the orientation, time function and depth of the 1978 Thessaloniki, Greece, event, of the 1971 San Fernando event, and of several events associated with the 1963 induced seismicity sequence at Kariba, Africa. The generalized inversion technique and a systematic grid testing technique have also been used to place meaningful constraints on mechanisms determined from very sparse data sets; a single station with high-quality three-component waveform data is often sufficient to discriminate faulting type (e.g., strike-slip, etc.). Sparse data sets for several recent California earthquakes, for a small regional event associated with the Koyna, India, reservoir, and for several events at the Kariba reservoir have been investigated in this way. Although linearized inversion techniques using the moment-tensor model are often robust, even for sparse data sets, there are instances where the simplifying assumption of a single point source is inadequate to model the data successfully. Numerical experiments utilizing synthetic data and actual data for the 1971 San Fernando earthquake graphically demonstrate that severe problems may be encountered if source finiteness effects are ignored. These techniques are generally applicable to on-line processing of high-quality digital data, but source complexity and inadequacy of the assumed Green's functions are major problems which are yet to be fully addressed.

  10. Point to point multispectral light projection applied to cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, D.; Alvarez, A.; Canabal, H.; Garcia, A.; Mayorga, S.; Muro, C.; Galan, T.

    2017-09-01

    Use of new of light sources based on LED technology should allow the develop of systems that combine conservation and exhibition requirements and allow to make these art goods available to the next generations according to sustainability principles. The goal of this work is to develop light systems and sources with an optimized spectral distribution for each specific point of the art piece. This optimization process implies to maximize the color fidelity reproduction and the same time to minimize the photochemical damage. Perceived color under these sources will be similar (metameric) to technical requirements given by the restoration team uncharged of the conservation and exhibition of the goods of art. Depending of the fragility of the exposed art objects (i.e. spectral responsivity of the material) the irradiance must be kept under a critical level. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a mathematical model that simulates with enough accuracy both the visual effect of the illumination and the photochemical impact of the radiation. Spectral reflectance of a reference painting The mathematical model is based on a merit function that optimized the individual intensity of the LED-light sources taking into account the damage function of the material and color space coordinates. Moreover the algorithm used weights for damage and color fidelity in order to adapt the model to a specific museal application. In this work we show a sample of this technology applied to a picture of Sorolla (1863-1923) an important Spanish painter title "woman walking at the beach".

  11. Prevalence and determinants of fecal colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in hospitalized patients in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Braak, N.; Ott, A.; van Belkum, A.; Kluytmans, J. A.; Koeleman, J. G.; Spanjaard, L.; Voss, A.; Weersink, A. J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M.; Buiting, A. G.; Verbrugh, H. A.; Endtz, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and determinants of fecal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in intensive care unit (ICU), hematology-oncology, and hemodialysis patients in The Netherlands. Descriptive, multicenter study, with yearly 1-week point-prevalence assessments between 1995 and

  12. Prevalence of asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity in Danish schoolchildren: no change over 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zilmer, Monica; Steen, Nick Phaff; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    Aim:  To describe the point prevalence of current physician-diagnosed asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in 2001 among unselected Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years, compared with the prevalence from a similar study from 1990 to 1991. Methods:  Cross-sectional study using parental ques......-diagnosed asthma and BHR among unselected Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years was unchanged over 10 years between 1990-1991 and 2001.......Aim:  To describe the point prevalence of current physician-diagnosed asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in 2001 among unselected Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years, compared with the prevalence from a similar study from 1990 to 1991. Methods:  Cross-sectional study using parental...

  13. Using appropriate body mass index cut points for overweight and obesity among Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jih, Jane; Mukherjea, Arnab; Vittinghoff, Eric; Nguyen, Tung T.; Tsoh, Janice Y.; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Bender, Melinda S.; Tseng, Winston; Kanaya, Alka M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Asian Americans have low prevalence of overweight/obesity based on standard BMI cut points yet have higher rates of diabetes. We examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity, using lower BMI cut points recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for Asians, and diabetes in Asian American subgroups in California. Method Secondary analysis of the 2009 adult California Health Interview Survey (n = 45,946) of non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), African Americans, Hispanics and Asians (Vietnamese, Chinese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian and Japanese). WHO Asian BMI cut points (overweight = 23–27.5 kg/m2; obese ≥ 27.5 kg/m2) were used for Asian subgroups. Standard BMI cut points (overweight = 25–29.9 kg/m2; obese ≥ 30 kg/m2) were applied for other groups. Results Among Asian subgroups, overweight/obesity was highest among Filipinos (78.6%), which was higher than NHWs (p Asians with BMI = 23–24.9 kg/m2 and Koreans, Filipinos and Japanese with BMI = 27.5–29.9 kg/m2, the ranges WHO recommends as overweight or obese for Asians but not for other groups. Conclusions Filipinos should be a priority population for overweight/obesity screening. Filipinos, Vietnamese, Korean, South Asians and Japanese have higher diabetes prevalence at lower BMI cut points. WHO Asian BMI cut points may have clinical utility to identify at-risk Asian Americans. PMID:24736092

  14. Pain prevalence in hospitalized children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Larsen, S; Pedersen, M T; Friis, S M

    2017-01-01

    admitted the same day. The single most common painful procedure named by the children was needle procedures, such as blood draw and intravenous cannulation. CONCLUSION: This study reveals high pain prevalence in children across all age groups admitted to four Danish university hospitals. The majority......BACKGROUND: Pain management in hospitalized children is often inadequate. The prevalence and main sources of pain in Danish university hospitals is unknown. METHODS: This prospective mixed-method cross-sectional survey took place at four university hospitals in Denmark. We enrolled 570 pediatric...... patients who we asked to report their pain experience and its management during the previous 24 hours. For patients identified as having moderate to severe pain, patient characteristics and analgesia regimes were reviewed. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirteen children (37%) responded that they had experienced...

  15. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  16. Prevalent knee pain and sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of knee pain in active athletes and to investigate potential associations to type, amount and duration of sports participation. MEASUREMENTS: 339 athletes gave information about occupation, sports activity and different features of knee pain, based...... on a self-filled questionnaire. MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of knee pain within the preceding 12 months, constant or recurrent knee pain, absence from sport and absence from work due to knee pain, was 54%, 34%, 19% and 4%, respectively. Knee pain was positively associated with years of jogging...... and with weekly hours of participation in competitive gymnastics but negatively with weekly hours of tennis. Constant or recurrent knee pain was positively associated with years of swimming. Absence from sport due to knee pain was positively associated with weekly hours of soccer participation. CONCLUSIONS: Knee...

  17. Acid dew point measurement in flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struschka, M.; Baumbach, G.

    1986-06-01

    The operation of modern boiler plants requires the continuous measurement of the acid dew point in flue gases. An existing measuring instrument was modified in such a way that it can determine acid dew points reliably, reproduceably and continuously. The authors present the mechanisms of the dew point formation, the dew point measuring principle, the modification and the operational results.

  18. 18 CFR 157.211 - Delivery points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delivery points. 157... for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.211 Delivery points. (a) Construction and operation—(1... delivery point, excluding the construction of certain delivery points subject to the prior notice...

  19. Pigmentary retinopathy associated with the mitochondrial DNA 3243 point mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, C M; Mitchell, P; Crimmins, D S; Moshegov, C; Byrne, E; Morris, J G

    1997-10-01

    Fourteen patients from four unrelated families were studied to determine the prevalence of retinal pigmentary abnormalities associated with the MELAS A to G 3243 point mutation. Neurologic and ophthalmic examinations, retinal photography, pattern shift visual evoked potentials, and electroretinography were performed in all patients. Eight of the 14 patients had retinal pigmentary abnormalities characterized by symmetric areas of depigmentation involving predominantly the posterior pole and midperipheral retina. None of the patients had optic atrophy and only one patient with pigmentary retinal abnormalities had impaired visual acuity. None of the diabetic subjects (n = 6) had signs of diabetic retinopathy. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated mottled hyper- and hypofluorescent areas indicating multiple window defects in the retinal pigmentary epithelium. Visual evoked potentials showed delayed P100 responses in four of the eight patients with retinal pigmentary abnormalities. We conclude that there is a high prevalence of retinal pigmentary abnormalities in patients with MELAS A to G 3243 point mutation. These abnormalities are usually asymptomatic and best detected by retinal photography.

  20. Insomnia: prevalence and associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Cátia; Lopes, Daniela; Ferreira, Sofia; Correia, Teresa; Pinto, Isabel C.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays sleep disorders are very common and affect most of the population, the most common may be insomnia. Insomnia is defined as the difficulty of initiating or maintaining sleep it, may also be reflected in an early wake up and by the presence of a non-restful sleep and it is associated with impairment in social and occupational functioning of the individual. Knowing the prevalence and the associated factors of insomnia. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study. The pop...

  1. Satellite- and Epoch Differenced Precise Point Positioning Based on a Regional Augmentation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Precise Point Positioning (PPP has been demonstrated as a simple and effective approach for user positioning. The key issue in PPP is how to shorten convergence time and improve positioning efficiency. Recent researches mainly focus on the ambiguity resolution by correcting residual phase errors at a single station. The success of this approach (referred to hereafter as NORM-PPP is subject to how rapidly one can fix wide-lane and narrow-lane ambiguities to achieve the first ambiguity-fixed solution. The convergence time of NORM-PPP is receiver type dependent, and normally takes 15–20 min. Different from the general algorithm and theory by which the float ambiguities are estimated and the integer ambiguities are fixed, we concentrate on a differential PPP approach: the satellite- and epoch differenced (SDED approach. In general, the SDED approach eliminates receiver clocks and ambiguity parameters and thus avoids the complicated residual phase modeling procedure. As a further development of the SDED approach, we use a regional augmentation network to derive tropospheric delay and remaining un-modeled errors at user sites. By adding these corrections and applying the Robust estimation, the weak mathematic properties due to the ED operation is much improved. Implementing this new approach, we need only two epochs of data to achieve PPP positioning converging to centimeter-positioning accuracy. Using seven days of GPS data at six CORS stations in Shanghai, we demonstrate the success rate, defined as the case when three directions converging to desired positioning accuracy of 10 cm, reaches 100% when the interval between the two epochs is longer than 15 min. Comparing the results of 15 min’ interval to that of 10 min’, it is observed that the position RMS improves from 2.47, 3.95, 5.78 cm to 2.21, 3.93, 4.90 cm in the North, East and Up directions, respectively. Combining the SDED coordinates at the starting point and the ED relative

  2. Professional SharePoint 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, Tom; Fried, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Learn to leverage the features of the newest version of SharePoint, in this update to the bestseller. More than simply a portal, SharePoint is Microsoft's popular content management solution for building intranets and Web sites or hosting wikis and blogs. Offering broad coverage on all aspects of development for the SharePoint platform, this comprehensive book shows you exactly what SharePoint does, how to build solutions, and what features are accessible within SharePoint. Written by one of the most recognized names in SharePoint development, Professional SharePoint 2010 Development offers an

  3. MOVING WINDOW SEGMENTATION FRAMEWORK FOR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first component segments points within a window shifting over the point cloud. The second component stitches the segments within the windows together. In this fashion a point cloud can be streamed through these two components in sequence, thus producing a segmentation. The algorithm has been tested on airborne lidar point cloud and some results of the performance of the framework are presented.

  4. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Yield point of metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Futoshi; Ogata, Shigenobu; Li, Ju

    2006-01-01

    Shear bands form in most bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) within a narrow range of uniaxial strain ε y ≅ 2%. We propose this critical condition corresponds to embryonic shear band (ESB) propagation, not its nucleation. To propagate an ESB, the far-field shear stress τ ∞ ∼ Eε y /2 must exceed the quasi-steady-state glue traction τ glue of shear-alienated glass until the glass transition temperature is approached internally due to frictional heating, at which point ESB matures as a runaway shear crack. The incubation length scale l inc necessary for this maturation is estimated to be ∼10 2 nm for Zr-based BMGs, below which sample size-scale shear localization does not happen. In shear-alienated glass, the last resistance against localized shearing comes from extremely fast downhill dissipative dynamics of timescale comparable to atomic vibrations, allowing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to capture this recovery process which governs τ glue . We model four metallic glasses: a binary Lennard-Jones system, two binary embedded atom potential systems and a quinternary embedded atom system. Despite vast differences in the structure and interatomic interactions, the four MD calculations give ε y predictions of 2.4%, 2.1%, 2.6% and 2.9%, respectively

  6. Anesthesiology Point of Care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, John S; Noback, Carl R; Cheng, Drew; Lee, T K; Nenov, Val

    2002-01-01

    We are developing a dynamic prototype visual communication system for the operating room environs. This has classically been viewed as an isolated and impenetrable workplace. All medical experiences and all teaching remain in a one to one closed loop with no recall or subsequent sharing for the training and education of other colleagues. The "Anesthesia Point of Care" (APOC) concept embraces the sharing of, recording of, and presentation of various physiological and pharmacological events so that real time memory can be shared at a later time for the edification of other colleagues who were not present at the time of the primary learning event. In addition it also provides a remarkably rapid tool for fellow faculty to respond to obvious stress and crisis events that can be broadcast instantly at the time of happening. Finally, it also serves as an efficient and effective means of paging and general communication throughout the daily routines among various healthcare providers in anesthesiology who work as a team unit; these include the staff, residents, CRNAs, physician assistants, and technicians. This system offers a unique opportunity to eventually develop future advanced ideas that can include training exercises, presurgical evaluations, surgical scheduling and improvements in efficiency based upon earlier than expected case completion or conversely later than expected case completion and even as a unique window to development of improved billing itemization and coordination.

  7. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  8. Gravity and Zero Point Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, U. W.

    When Planck introduced the 1/2 hv term to his 1911 black body equation he showed that there is a residual energy remaining at zero degree K after all thermal energy ceased. Other investigators, including Lamb, Casimir, and Dirac added to this information. Today zero point energy (ZPE) is accepted as an established condition. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the density of the ZPE is given by the gravity constant (G) and the characteristics of its particles are revealed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Eddies of ZPE particles created by flow around mass bodies reduce the pressure normal to the eddy flow and are responsible for the force of gravity. Helium atoms resonate with ZPE particles at low temperature to produce superfluid helium. High velocity micro vortices of ZPE particles about a basic particle or particles are responsible for electromagnetic forces. The speed of light is the speed of the wave front in the ZPE and its value is a function of the temperature and density of the ZPE.

  9. Tipping Points, Great and Small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Foster

    2010-12-01

    The Forum by Jordan et al. [2010] addressed environmental problems of various scales in great detail, but getting the critical message through to the formulators of public policies requires going back to basics, namely, that exponential growth (of a population, an economy, or most anything else) is not sustainable. When have you heard any politician or economist from anywhere across the ideological spectrum say anything other than that more growth is essential? There is no need for computer models to demonstrate “limits to growth,” as was done in the 1960s. Of course, as one seeks more details, the complexity of modeling will rapidly outstrip the capabilities of both observation and computing. This is common with nonlinear systems, even simple ones. Thus, identifying all possible “tipping points,” as suggested by Jordan et al. [2010], and then stopping just short of them, is impractical if not impossible. The main thing needed to avoid environmental disasters is a bit of common sense.

  10. Turkey Point tritium. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostlund, H.G.; Dorsey, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    In 1972-73 the Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) began operation of two nuclear reactors at Turkey Point on lower Biscayne Bay. One radioactive by-product resulting from the operation of the nuclear reactors, tritium, provides a unique opportunity to study transport and exchange processes on a local scale. Since the isotope in the form of water is not removed from the liquid effluent, it is discharged to the cooling canal system. By studying its residence time in the canal and the pathways by which it leaves the canals, knowledge of evaporative process, groundwater movement, and bay exchange with the ocean can be obtained. Preliminary results obtained from measurement of tritium levels, both in the canal system and in the surrounding environment are discussed. Waters in lower Biscayne Bay and Card and Barnes Sounds receive only a small portion of the total tritium produced by the nuclear plant. The dominating tritium loss most likely is through evaporation from the canals. The capability of measuring extremely low HTO levels allows the determination of the evaporation rate experimentally by measuring the tritium levels of air after having passed over the canals

  11. Focal Points, Endogenous Processes, and Exogenous Shocks in the Autism Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Autism prevalence has increased rapidly in the United States during the past two decades. We have previously shown that the diffusion of information about autism through spatially proximate social relations has contributed significantly to the epidemic. This study expands on this finding by identifying the focal points for interaction that drive…

  12. Refining Game Addiction Questionnairs: Evidence for a natural cut-off point?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents data from a pilot study, which was designed to illuminate critical flaws in the currently used instruments used to measure the prevalence of ‘computer game addiction’. The study found that the prevalence rate could be set anywhere between 23% and 0,6% depending on how the data...... is unique in the field of prevalence studies of computer game addiction both in its design and its findings. The findings and conclusions need to be addressed by future research in the area.......’ from ‘addicted gamers’ by making implicit assumptions about negative effects explicit will cause prevalence rates to drop even further. Unexpectedly, the data from this modified questionnaire provides preliminary evidence for a natural cut-off point that clearly separates addicted play from normal play...

  13. Prevalence of mental disorders in 6-16-year-old students in Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuan; Jiang, Hongyun; Zhang, Ni; Wang, Dahai; Guo, Lanting

    2015-05-13

    To investigate the point prevalence of mental disorders in school students, multistage cluster stratified random sampling and two-phase survey methods were used to identify 40 primary and middle schools. The students were screened using the Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist and diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The prevalence of behavioral problems was 19.13%. The prevalence of behavioral problems significantly differed by sex, age, city of residence, and caretaker. The six-month prevalence of any mental disorder was 15.24% (95% CI: 15.49%-16.97%). Psychiatric disorders were more prevalent in boys (17.33%) relative to girls (13.11%; p mental disorders significantly differed by community and caretaker, and 36.46% of students exhibited comorbidity. Results demonstrated important mental health issues, with a high incidence of comorbidities, in this population. Students' mental health requires increased attention, particularly in poverty-stricken areas and left-behind children and adolescents.

  14. Beginning SharePoint 2010 Administration Windows SharePoint Foundation 2010 and Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Husman, Göran

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage on the latest advances in SharePoint 2010 administration. SharePoint 2010 comprises an abundance of new features, and this book shows you how to take advantage of all SharePoint 2010's many improvements. Written by a four-time SharePoint MVP, Beginning SharePoint 2010 Administration begins with a comparison of SharePoint 2010 compared to the previous version and then examines the differences between WSS 4.0 and MSS 2010. Packed with step-by-step instructions, tips and tricks, and real-world examples, this book dives into the basics of how to install, manage, and administrate

  15. [Prevalence of anemia in reproductive-age Mexican women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Villalpando, Salvador; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Méndez Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    To update the prevalence of anemia and its trend in Mexican women of childbearing age over the past 13 years using information from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 and 2006 (ENSANUT 2012 and ENSANUT 2006, respectively) and from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (ENN 99). Data came from three national probabilistic surveys, representative at regional and rural / urban level. Hemoglobin (Hb) in women was measured using a HemoCue photometer and classified as anemia according to the WHO criteria. Frequencies and CI95% were estimated for each survey (ENSANUT 2012, ENSANUT 2006 and ENN 99) as well as percentage changes in anemia prevalence among pregnant and non-pregnant women in this survey sequence. The national prevalence of anemia in 2012 in non-pregnant women was 11.6% and in pregnant women was 17.9%. Between 1999 and 2012, a 10 percentage point (pp) decreasing in anemia prevalence was observed in the first ones and a 13.5 pp in the second ones. Although it has declined in the past 13 years, anemia in women of childbearing age remains as a serious public health problem. It is considered necessary to design strategies to prevent iron deficiency and for the early detection of anemia in women.

  16. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress among women requesting induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin Lundell, Inger; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Frans, Orjan; Helström, Lotti; Högberg, Ulf; Moby, Lena; Nyberg, Sigrid; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Georgsson Öhman, Susanne; Östlund, Ingrid; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta

    2013-12-01

    To describe the prevalence and pattern of traumatic experiences, to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), to identify risk factors for PTSD and PTSS, and to analyse the association of PTSD and PTSS with concomitant anxiety and depressive symptoms in women requesting induced abortion. A Swedish multi-centre study of women requesting an induced abortion. The Screen Questionnaire - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Of the 1514 respondents, almost half reported traumatic experiences. Lifetime- and point prevalence of PTSD were 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8-8.5) and 4% (95% CI: 3.1-5.2), respectively. The prevalence of PTSS was 23% (95% CI: 21.1-25.4). Women who reported symptoms of anxiety or depression when requesting abortion were more likely to have ongoing PTSD or PTSS. Also single-living women and smokers displayed higher rates of ongoing PTSD. Although PTSD is rare among women who request an induced abortion, a relatively high proportion suffers from PTSS. Abortion seeking women with trauma experiences and existing or preexisting mental disorders need more consideration and alertness when counselled for termination.

  17. Increasing Autism Prevalence in Metropolitan New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-01-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder,…

  18. Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    period 1987 - 1989. Prevalence rates were low to moderate with an overaJl prevalence of 42%. These ranged from approximately 10% in the low-prevalence ... PH. DC. C. C. Appieton. PI-lD. Department of Zoology, University of Tr

  19. Comparison of Dose When Prescribed to Point A and Point H for Brachytherapy in Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, Ji Hyeong; Gim, Il Hwan; Hwang, Seon Boong; Kim, Woong; Im, Hyeong Seo; Gang, Jin Mook; Gim, Gi Hwan; Lee, Ah Ram [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seou (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare plans prescribed to point A with these prescribed to point H recommended by ABS (American Brachytherapy Society) in high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma. This study selected 103 patients who received HDR (High Dose Rate) brachytherapy using tandem and ovoids from March 2010 to January 2012. Point A, bladder point, and rectal point conform with Manchester System. Point H conforms with ABS recommendation. Also Sigmoid colon point, and vagina point were established arbitrarily. We examined distance between point A and point H. The percent dose at point A was calculated when 100% dose was prescribed to point H. Additionally, the percent dose at each reference points when dose is prescribed to point H and point A were calculated. The relative dose at point A was lower when point H was located inferior to point A. The relative doses at bladder, rectal, sigmoid colon, and vagina points were higher when point H was located superior to point A, and lower when point H was located inferior to point A. This study found out that as point H got located much superior to point A, the absorbed dose of surrounding normal organs became higher, and as point H got located much inferior to point A, the absorbed dose of surrounding normal organs became lower. This differences dose not seem to affect the treatment. However, we suggest this new point is worth being considered for the treatment of HDR if dose distribution and absorbed dose at normal organs have large differences between prescribed to point A and H.

  20. Point Lepreau refurbishment - update 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Eagles, E.R.; Hickman, C.N.; Baker, R.; Thompson, P.D.; Howieson, J.Q.; Ichiyen, N.

    2005-01-01

    NB Power Nuclear is planning to conduct a 18-month maintenance outage of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) beginning in April 2008. The major activity would be the replacement of all 380 Fuel Channel and Calandria Tube assemblies and connecting feeder pipes. This activity is referred to as Retube. NB Power Nuclear would also take advantage of this outage to conduct a number of repairs, replacements, inspection and upgrades (such as rewinding or replacing the generator, replacement of shutdown system trip computers, replacement of certain valves and expansion joints, inspection of systems not normally accessible, etc.). These collective activities are referred to as Refurbishment. This would allow the station to operate for an additional 25 to 30 years. The scope or the project was determined [mm the outcome of a two year study involving a detailed condition assessment of the station which examined Issues relating to ageing and obsolescence, along with a detailed review or Safety and Licensing issues associated with extended operation. The Refurbishment outage would be preceded by a detailed Engineering Project Phase that would: Finalize details of the Retube process including modeling, tooling development, site facilities and training of personnel. Perform necessary engineering activities related to design modifications. Construct the new waste storage structures to house Retube Waste and other additional waste storage structures for the extended life of the station. Setup necessary temporary construction facilities (offices, storage areas, change moms, decontamination an maintenance areas) to support Retube. Procure equipment and components. Perform detailed outage planning. Initiate development of detailed commissioning as well as lay-up, monitoring and return to service procedures. At the present time, the NB Power Nuclear Board of Directors and the New Brunswick Provincial government are reviewing a proposal for a lease arrangement from Bruce Power

  1. Professional SharePoint 2010 Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Klindt, Todd; Caravajal, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Thorough coverage of the improvements and changes to SharePoint 2010. SharePoint 2010 boasts a variety of incredible new features that will challenge even the most experienced administrator who is upgrading from SharePoint 2007. Written by a team of SharePoint experts, this book places a takes aim at showing you how to make these new features work right for you. Offering an in-depth look at SharePoint 2010, the authors focus on how SharePoint functionality has changed from its earliest version to its newest, and they provide you with detailed coverage of all the new features and capabilities.:

  2. SharePoint 2010 Field Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Steven; Gazmuri, Pablo; Caravajal, Steve; Wheeler, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Hands-on solutions for common SharePoint 2010 challenges Aimed at the more than 100 million licensed SharePoint 2010 users, this indispensable field guide addresses an abundance of common SharePoint 2010 problems and offers proven solutions. A team of authors encourages you to customize SharePoint beyond the out-of-the-box functionality so that you can build more complex solutions to these challenges. You?ll discover intricate details and specific full-scale solutions that you can then implement to your own SharePoint 2010 solutions.Tackles a variety of SharePoint 2010 problems ranging from si

  3. Professional SharePoint 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, Tom; Fried, Jeff; Swider, Paul J; Hillier, Scot; Schaefer, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Updated guidance on how to take advantage of the newest features of SharePoint programmability More than simply a portal, SharePoint is Microsoft's popular content management solution for building intranets and websites or hosting wikis and blogs. Offering broad coverage on all aspects of development for the SharePoint platform, this comprehensive book shows you exactly what SharePoint does, how to build solutions, and what features are accessible within SharePoint. Written by a team of SharePoint experts, this new edition offers an extensive selection of field-tested best practices that shows

  4. Professional SharePoint 2013 administration

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Shane; Klindt, Todd

    2013-01-01

    SharePoint admin author gurus return to prepare you for working with the new features of SharePoint 2013! The new iteration of SharePoint boasts exciting new features. However, any new version also comes with its fair share of challenges and that's where this book comes in. The team of SharePoint admin gurus returns to presents a fully updated resource that prepares you for making all the new SharePoint 2013 features work right. They cover all of the administration components of SharePoint 2013 in detail, and present a clear understanding of how they affect the role of the adminis

  5. SharePoint 2010 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Vanessa L

    2012-01-01

    Here's the bestselling guide on SharePoint 2010, updated to cover Office 365 SharePoint Portal Server is an essential part of the enterprise infrastructure for many businesses. The Office 365 version includes significantly enhanced cloud capabilities. This second edition of the bestselling guide to SharePoint covers getting a SharePoint site up and running, branded, populated with content, and more. It explains ongoing site management and offers plenty of advice for administrators who want to leverage SharePoint and Office 365 in various ways.Many businesses today rely on SharePoint Portal Ser

  6. Prevalence of hypodontia in Chinese orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pambudi Rahardjo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypodontia is a phenomenon of congenitally missing teeth in human. A thousand and twelve panoramic radiographs of Chinese orthodontic patients were examined for agenesis of permanent teeth including third molars. The patients with missing teeth were divided into four group: the patients with missing less than 4 molars, missing all third molars, hypodontia and oligodontia. The result revealed, 210 patients affected one or more teeth agenesis with a total of 455 teeth missing. The prevalence of tooth agenesis was maxillary third molar 259 (56.9%, mandibular third molar 143 (31.4%, mandibular second premolar 15 (3.3%, mandibular lateral incisors 13 (2.8%, maxillary lateral incisors 8 (1.7%, maxillary second premolars 7 (1.5%, other teeth 10 (2.2% respectively. Of the mesial mandibular first permanent molar, mandibular second premolars were the most frequent missing teeth. Although hypodontia did not represent a public health problem, from orthodontic point of view it might cause esthetic and masticatory function disorders as well as more complex mechanotherapy of a patient.

  7. [Pedophilia. Prevalence, etiology, and diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokros, A; Osterheider, M; Nitschke, J

    2012-03-01

    Pedophilia is a disorder of sexual preference that increases the risk for committing sexual offenses against children. Consequently, pedophilia is not only relevant in psychiatric therapy and prognostics, but also greatly influences the public attitude towards criminality. Public opinion seems to equate pedophilia with child sexual abuse and vice versa which leads to stigmatization of patients and may impede treatment. The present paper provides information on recent studies on the potential origins of the disorder and introduces new diagnostic methods. Moreover, the article presents estimates on the prevalence of pedophilic sexual interest.

  8. Testing Local Independence between Two Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allard, Denis; Brix, Anders; Chadæuf, Joël

    2001-01-01

    Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush......Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush...

  9. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This point theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as points. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  10. Implementation of Steiner point of fuzzy set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiuzhen; Wang, Dejiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the implementation of Steiner point of fuzzy set. Some definitions and properties of Steiner point are investigated and extended to fuzzy set. This paper focuses on establishing efficient methods to compute Steiner point of fuzzy set. Two strategies of computing Steiner point of fuzzy set are proposed. One is called linear combination of Steiner points computed by a series of crisp α-cut sets of the fuzzy set. The other is an approximate method, which is trying to find the optimal α-cut set approaching the fuzzy set. Stability analysis of Steiner point of fuzzy set is also studied. Some experiments on image processing are given, in which the two methods are applied for implementing Steiner point of fuzzy image, and both strategies show their own advantages in computing Steiner point of fuzzy set.

  11. The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points Email Facebook Twitter ... was last updated February 2017 Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal ...

  12. Zero Point Energy of Renormalized Wilson Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Pisarski, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    The quark antiquark potential, and its associated zero point energy, can be extracted from lattice measurements of the Wilson loop. We discuss a unique prescription to renormalize the Wilson loop, for which the perturbative contribution to the zero point energy vanishes identically. A zero point energy can arise nonperturbatively, which we illustrate by considering effective string models. The nonperturbative contribution to the zero point energy vanishes in the Nambu model, but is nonzero wh...

  13. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Ou...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  14. Using appropriate body mass index cut points for overweight and obesity among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jih, Jane; Mukherjea, Arnab; Vittinghoff, Eric; Nguyen, Tung T; Tsoh, Janice Y; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Bender, Melinda S; Tseng, Winston; Kanaya, Alka M

    2014-08-01

    Asian Americans have low prevalence of overweight/obesity based on standard BMI cut points yet have higher rates of diabetes. We examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity, using lower BMI cut points recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for Asians, and diabetes in Asian American subgroups in California. Secondary analysis of the 2009 adult California Health Interview Survey (n=45,946) of non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), African Americans, Hispanics and Asians (Vietnamese, Chinese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian and Japanese). WHO Asian BMI cut points (overweight=23-27.5kg/m(2); obese≥27.5kg/m(2)) were used for Asian subgroups. Standard BMI cut points (overweight=25-29.9kg/m(2); obese≥30kg/m(2)) were applied for other groups. Among Asian subgroups, overweight/obesity was highest among Filipinos (78.6%), which was higher than NHWs (pAmericans and Hispanics. Compared to NHW, diabetes prevalence was higher for Vietnamese, Koreans, Filipinos and South Asians with BMI=23-24.9kg/m(2) and Koreans, Filipinos and Japanese with BMI=27.5-29.9kg/m(2), the ranges WHO recommends as overweight or obese for Asians but not for other groups. Filipinos should be a priority population for overweight/obesity screening. Filipinos, Vietnamese, Korean, South Asians and Japanese have higher diabetes prevalence at lower BMI cut points. WHO Asian BMI cut points may have clinical utility to identify at-risk Asian Americans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acceptability and Feasibility of Integrating Point-of-Care Diagnostic Testing of Sexually Transmitted Infections into a South African Antenatal Care Program for HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Morikawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV infections may increase the risk of vertical transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. In resource-limited settings, symptomatic screening, and syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs during pregnancy continue to be the standard of care. In the absence of diagnostic testing, asymptomatic infections in pregnant women go untreated. Objective. To describe the acceptability and feasibility of integrating diagnostic STI screening into first antenatal care visits for HIV-infected pregnant women. Methods. HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited during their first antenatal care visit from three antenatal care clinics in Tshwane District, South Africa, between June 2016 and October 2017. Self-collected vaginal swabs were used to screen for CT, NG, and TV with a diagnostic point-of-care (POC nucleic acid amplification test. Those with STIs were provided treatment per South African national guidelines. Results. Of 442 eligible women, 430 (97.3% agreed to participate and were tested. Of those with a positive STI test result (n = 173; 40.2%, 159 (91.9% received same-day results and treatment; 100% of STI-infected women were treated within seven days. Conclusions. Integration of POC diagnostic STI screening into first-visit antenatal care services was feasible and highly acceptable for HIV-infected pregnant women.

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factor of Neck Pain in Elderly Korean Community Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyeong Min; Cho, Nam H.; Lim, Seung Hun

    2013-01-01

    Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal condition, which causes substantial medical cost. In Korea, prevalence of neck pain in community based population, especially in elderly subjects, has scarcely been reported. We evaluated the prevalence, the severity and the risk factors of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents. Data for neck pain were collected for 1,655 subjects from a rural farming community. The point, 6-months and cumulative lifetime prevalence of neck pain was obtained in addition to the measurement of the severity of neck pain. The mean age of the study subjects was 61 yr and 57% were females. The lifetime prevalence of neck pain was 20.8% with women having a higher prevalence. The prevalence did not increase with age, and the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain. Subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score in all domains except for mental health. The prevalence of neck pain was significantly associated with female gender, obesity and smoking. This is the first large-scale Korean study estimating the prevalence of neck pain in elderly population. Although the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain, subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score indicating that neck pain has significant health impact. PMID:23678258

  17. A Systematic Review on the Prevalence of Low Back Pain in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Bello

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context Low back pain (LBP is a common musculoskeletal disorder affecting the general population. The prevalence of LBP varies across the studied populations, geographic areas, and age groups. Evidence Acquisition Prevalence of LBP in Nigeria is largely occupational based. The prevalence differs based on the type of occupation, population, or age group. Therefore, it is necessary to collect data that can help to identify a point or annual prevalence that guides practice and policy making. The databases of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and SciELO were searched from the inception to May, 2016. A strategy was developed to search the databases. Articles were included if they reported the prevalence of LBP in Nigeria. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed. Results A total of 103 studies were yielded among which 12 studies were relevant. The 12-month prevalence of LBP was commonly reported, and it was estimated from 32.5% to 73.53%. All of the reviewed studies were occupational based and did not depict a true general population prevalence of LBP. Conclusions The findings of the current review demonstrated a high prevalence of LBP among workers. Future studies with appropriate methodological design on a general population helps to identify the impact of LBP in Nigeria.

  18. Influence of the burning point on the dew point in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teetz, C.

    1982-06-01

    A computation on the influence of the ignition point on the dew point in a cylinder of a diesel engine is presented. The cylinder-pressure diagrams are shown. The results of computation are given. A later ignition point diminishes the area with cylinder wall temperatures below the dew point. The endangering by cylinder wall temperatures below the dew point is illustrated.

  19. Towards extending IFC with point cloud data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, T.F.; Beetz, J.; Ochmann, S.; Vock, R.; Wessel, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we suggest an extension to the Industry Foundation Classes model to integrate point cloud datasets. The proposal includes a schema extension to the core model allowing the storage of points either as Cartesian coordinates, points in parametric space of a surface associated with a

  20. Moving window segmentation framework for point clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sithole, G.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2012-01-01

    As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first

  1. Computing bubble-points of CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdin, M.; Balaji, S.P.; Vicent Luna, J.M.; Torres-Knoop, A; Chen, Q.; Dubbeldam, D.; Calero, S; de Loos, T.W.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Computing bubble-points of multicomponent mixtures using Monte Carlo simulations is a non-trivial task. A new method is used to compute gas compositions from a known temperature, bubble-point pressure, and liquid composition. Monte Carlo simulations are used to calculate the bubble-points of

  2. Inhomogeneous Markov point processes by transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva B. Vedel; Nielsen, Linda Stougaard

    2000-01-01

    We construct parametrized models for point processes, allowing for both inhomogeneity and interaction. The inhomogeneity is obtained by applying parametrized transformations to homogeneous Markov point processes. An interesting model class, which can be constructed by this transformation approach......, is that of exponential inhomogeneous Markov point processes. Statistical inference For such processes is discussed in some detail....

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FLASH POINTS OF SOME BINARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    Miscellaneous binary blends containing solvent neutral-150 (SN-150), ... viscosity, the flash point test has always been a standard part of a lubricant's specification. ... between structure and flash points of organic compounds [5-12] and fuels [13, 14]. ... in binary mixtures, the gaps between flash points would be high enough.

  4. How PowerPoint Is Killing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isseks, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Although it is essential to incorporate new technologies into the classroom, says Isseks, one trend has negatively affected instruction--the misuse of PowerPoint presentations. The author describes how poorly designed PowerPoint presentations reduce complex thoughts to bullet points and reduce the act of learning to transferring text from slide to…

  5. Characterization of finite spaces having dispersion points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bsoul, A. T

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we shall characterize the finite spaces having dispersion points. Also, we prove that the dispersion point of a finite space with a dispersion points fixed under all non constant continuous functions which answers the question raised by J. C obb and W. Voxman in 1980 affirmatively for finite space. Some open problems are given. (author). 16 refs

  6. The Fermat point for a taxicab triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J. R.

    2015-04-01

    The Fermat point P for a triangle ABC is the point P the sum of whose distances from the vertices A, B and C is a minimum. This note will show how to find the Fermat point for any triangle using the taxicab metric.

  7. Prevalence and incidence of epilepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of international studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiest, Kirsten M; Sauro, Khara M; Wiebe, Samuel; Patten, Scott B; Kwon, Churl-Su; Dykeman, Jonathan; Pringsheim, Tamara; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Jetté, Nathalie

    2017-01-17

    To review population-based studies of the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy worldwide and use meta-analytic techniques to explore factors that may explain heterogeneity between estimates. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standards were followed. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles published on the prevalence or incidence of epilepsy since 1985. Abstract, full-text review, and data abstraction were conducted in duplicate. Meta-analyses and meta-regressions were used to explore the association between prevalence or incidence, age group, sex, country level income, and study quality. A total of 222 studies were included (197 on prevalence, 48 on incidence). The point prevalence of active epilepsy was 6.38 per 1,000 persons (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 5.57-7.30), while the lifetime prevalence was 7.60 per 1,000 persons (95% CI 6.17-9.38). The annual cumulative incidence of epilepsy was 67.77 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 56.69-81.03) while the incidence rate was 61.44 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 50.75-74.38). The prevalence of epilepsy did not differ by age group, sex, or study quality. The active annual period prevalence, lifetime prevalence, and incidence rate of epilepsy were higher in low to middle income countries. Epilepsies of unknown etiology and those with generalized seizures had the highest prevalence. This study provides a comprehensive synthesis of the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy from published international studies and offers insight into factors that contribute to heterogeneity between estimates. Significant gaps (e.g., lack of incidence studies, stratification by age groups) were identified. Standardized reporting of future epidemiologic studies of epilepsy is needed. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Prevalência do aleitamento materno Prevalence of breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Pinto da Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os indicadores de aleitamento materno em consultórios particulares e centros de saúde no município de Lins, SP, e comparar a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo dessa região com a encontrada em outras pesquisas. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal com amostra aleatória de 255 crianças de quatro a doze meses de idade, estratificada por sexo, condição socioeconômica e escolaridade dos pais. Foram avaliados os indicadores de aleitamento materno em dois grupos de crianças: as acompanhadas em consultórios particulares e as acompanhadas em centros de saúde. Foram utilizados questionários respondidos pelos responsáveis. Os dados desta pesquisa foram comparados aos de outros estudos. RESULTADOS: Apesar de haver diferenças significativas nas condições de renda, estrato social e escolaridade dos pais, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de aleitamento materno entre os dois grupos. No grupo total, a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo aos quatro meses foi de 61,1% e a mediana de aleitamento materno exclusivo foi de 120 dias. Os resultados foram superiores aos dos demais estudos consultados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram diferenças relacionadas às condições socioeconômicas, porém, os índices de aleitamento materno foram semelhantes entre os dois grupos. Os resultados de aleitamento materno exclusivo foram superiores aos das demais pesquisas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the breastfeeding indicators registered for two groups of infants in the city of Lins, São Paulo, Brazil. To compare the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in this area with data found in other studies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a random sample of 255 infants between 4 and 12 months of age, found in two groups: the infants attended at private medical offices, and those attended at the county health care centers of the city of Lins. The subjects were stratified by sex, parental socioeconomic class and

  9. Prevalence of actinic keratosis among dermatology outpatients in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, C; Plazas, M J; Sabaté, M; Palomino, R

    2016-10-01

    Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common skin lesions associated with an increased risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma. Few studies in Europe have focused on AK prevalence. To determine the point prevalence of AKs in a dermatology outpatient population in Spain, to describe the clinical characteristics of these lesions and to characterise the profile of AK patients. Observational, cross-sectional, multicentre study conducted in 19 hospitals (dermatology outpatient services) around Spain. A total of 204 consecutive patients per hospital who were ≥45 years old were screened for the presence of AKs. 3877 patients were assessed and the overall AKs prevalence was 28.6%. Prevalence was significantly higher in men than women (38.4% vs. 20.8%, p<0.0001) and increased with age for both sexes (45.2% in 71-80 years). Scalp and ear lesion locations were significantly more frequent in men (51.9% vs. 2.7% and 16.9% vs. 2.4%, respectively, p<0.0001 both cases) and the cheek, nose and neckline in women (46.3% vs. 34.0% [p<0.0001], 43.0% vs. 24.8% [p<0.0001] and 5.3% vs. 1.8% [p=0.002]). Men showed a significantly higher frequency of ≥2 affected areas than women (42.7% vs. 20.3%, p<0.0001). Among patients with AK lesions, only 65% confirmed that they were the reason for the visit to the clinic. Approximately a quarter of the dermatology outpatient population in Spain aged ≥45 years old have AKs, with the prevalence rate being highest in men and in older age groups. AK is underdiagnosed and a proactive strategy is needed for the diagnosis and early treatment of these lesions. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Tobacco point-of-sale advertising in Guatemala City, Guatemala and Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Mejia, Raul; Szeinman, Debora; Kummerfeldt, Carlos E

    2010-08-01

    To determine tobacco point of sale advertising prevalence in Guatemala City, Guatemala and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Convenience stores (120 per city) were chosen from randomly selected blocks in low, middle and high socioeconomic neighbourhoods. To assess tobacco point of sale advertising we used a checklist developed in Canada that was translated into Spanish and validated in both countries studied. Analysis was conducted by neighbourhood and store type. All stores sold cigarettes and most had tobacco products in close proximity to confectionery. In Guatemala, 60% of stores had cigarette ads. High and middle socioeconomic status neighbourhood stores had more indoor cigarette ads, but these differences were determined by store type: gas stations and supermarkets were more prevalent in high socioeconomic status neighbourhoods and had more indoor cigarette ads. In poorer areas, however, more ads could be seen from outside the stores, more stores were located within 100 metres of schools and fewer stores had 'No smoking' or 'No sales to minors' signs. In Argentina, 80% of stores had cigarette ads and few differences were observed by neighbourhood socioeconomic status. Compared to Guatemala, 'No sales to minors' signs were more prevalent in Argentina. Tobacco point of sale advertising is highly prevalent in these two cities of Guatemala and Argentina. An advertising ban should also include this type of advertising.

  11. Prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci, other than Staphylococcus aureus, in bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, J R; Fox, L K; Hancock, D D; Gay, J M; Besser, T E

    1996-01-01

    To determine prevalence and relevance of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus and S intermedius intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows and determine the ability of the 4-hour tube coagulase (TC) test to differentiate the coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Prevalence of CPS was determined for primiparous cows (point prevalence and prevalence at first parturition) and multiparous cows (point prevalence) of 2 herd groups: 10% CPS IMI prevalence = high prevalence (HP). For prevalence, cows of 22 dairy herds. For TC, 1,038 CPS strains isolated from cow milk. Speciation of CPS from aseptically collected composite milk samples was performed. Coagulase-positive isolates from 4 cow groups were tested for their ability to coagulate rabbit plasma by 4 hours: LP and HP primiparous cows at parturition, and LP and HP cows any time after first parturition. Of 487 CPS in the prevalence study, 82.1% were S aureus, 17.7% were coagulase-positive S hyicus, and 0.2% were S intermedius. Of all CPS IMI in LP herds, 34% were coagulase-positive S hyicus; of all CPS IMI in HP herds, 9% were coagulase-positive S hyicus. Coagulase-positive S hyicus appeared to persist to the end of lactation in 4 cows (mean linear somatic cell count = 3.7). The TC test was > or = 97% sensitive, < or = 33% specific, and had a predictive value positive range of 60 to 97% for S aureus isolates. Coagulase-positive S hyicus appears capable of inducing chronic, low-grade IMI. Staphylococcus intermedius does not appear to be an important mastitis pathogen. The TC test is not valid to use as the sole method to differentiate CPS species.

  12. SharePoint 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Withee, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling guide on running SharePoint, now updated to cover all the new features of SharePoint 2013 SharePoint Portal Server is an essential part of the enterprise infrastructure for many businesses. Building on the success of previous versions of SharePoint For Dummies, this new edition covers all the latest features of SharePoint 2013 and provides you with an easy-to-understand resource for making the most of all that this version has to offer. You'll learn how to get a site up and running, branded, and populated with content, workflow, and management. In addition, t

  13. Pro SharePoint 2013 administration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Pro SharePoint 2013 Administration is a practical guide to SharePoint 2013 for intermediate to advanced SharePoint administrators and power users, covering the out-of-the-box feature set and capabilities of Microsoft's collaboration and business productivity platform. SharePoint 2013 is an incredibly complex product, with many moving parts, new features, best practices, and 'gotchas.' Author Rob Garrett distills SharePoint's portfolio of features, capabilities, and utilities into an in-depth professional guide-with no fluff and copious advice-that is designed from scratch to be the manual Micr

  14. Equipartitioning and balancing points of polygons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunmugam Pillay

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The centre of mass G of a triangle has the property that the rays to the vertices from G sweep out triangles having equal areas. We show that such points, termed equipartitioning points in this paper, need not exist in other polygons. A necessary and sufficient condition for a quadrilateral to have an equipartitioning point is that one of its diagonals bisects the other. The general theorem, namely, necessary and sufficient conditions for equipartitioning points for arbitrary polygons to exist, is also stated and proved. When this happens, they are in general, distinct from the centre of mass. In parallelograms, and only in them, do the two points coincide.

  15. Beginning SharePoint Designer 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Windischman, Woodrow W; Rehmani, Asif

    2010-01-01

    Teaching Web designers, developers, and IT professionals how to use the new version of SharePoint Designer. Covering both the design and business applications of SharePoint Designer, this complete Wrox guide brings readers thoroughly up to speed on how to use SharePoint Designer in an enterprise. You'll learn to create and modify web pages, use CSS editing tools to modify themes, use Data View to create interactivity with SharePoint and other data, and much more. Coverage includes integration points with Visual Studio, Visio, and InfoPath.: Shows web designers, developers, and IT professionals

  16. Zero point energy of renormalized Wilson loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Pisarski, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    The quark-antiquark potential, and its associated zero point energy, can be extracted from lattice measurements of the Wilson loop. We discuss a unique prescription to renormalize the Wilson loop, for which the perturbative contribution to the zero point energy vanishes identically. A zero point energy can arise nonperturbatively, which we illustrate by considering effective string models. The nonperturbative contribution to the zero point energy vanishes in the Nambu model, but is nonzero when terms for extrinsic curvature are included. At one loop order, the nonperturbative contribution to the zero point energy is negative, regardless of the sign of the extrinsic curvature term.

  17. Pro SharePoint 2010 Search

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, J; Bakman-Mikalski, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Pro SharePoint 2010 Search gives you expert advice on planning, deploying and customizing searches in SharePoint 2010. Drawing on the authors' extensive experience of working with real-world SharePoint deployments, this book teaches everything you'll need to know to create well-designed SharePoint solutions that always keep the end-user's experience in mind. Increase your search efficiency with SharePoint 2010's search functionality: extend the search user interface using third-party tools, and utilize analytics to improve relevancy. This practical hands-on book is a must-have resource for any

  18. X-point effect on edge stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarelma, S; Kirk, A; Kwon, O J

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of the X-point configuration on edge localized mode (ELM) triggering peeling and ballooning modes using fixed boundary equilibria and modifying the plasma shape to approach the limit of a true X-point. The current driven pure peeling modes are asymptotically stabilized by the X-point while the stabilizing effect on ballooning modes depends on the poloidal location of the X-point. The coupled peeling-ballooning modes experience the elimination of the peeling component as the X-point is introduced. This can significantly affect the edge stability diagrams used to analyse the ELM triggering mechanisms.

  19. Bayesian inference for disease prevalence using negative binomial group testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Nicholas A.; Tebbs, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Group testing, also known as pooled testing, and inverse sampling are both widely used methods of data collection when the goal is to estimate a small proportion. Taking a Bayesian approach, we consider the new problem of estimating disease prevalence from group testing when inverse (negative binomial) sampling is used. Using different distributions to incorporate prior knowledge of disease incidence and different loss functions, we derive closed form expressions for posterior distributions and resulting point and credible interval estimators. We then evaluate our new estimators, on Bayesian and classical grounds, and apply our methods to a West Nile Virus data set. PMID:21259308

  20. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kusdiantara, Rudy, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Puspita, Dila, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A., E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  1. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab

  2. Handbook of floating-point arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Jean-Michel; de Dinechin, Florent; Jeannerod, Claude-Pierre; Joldes, Mioara; Lefèvre, Vincent; Melquiond, Guillaume; Revol, Nathalie; Torres, Serge

    2018-01-01

    This handbook is a definitive guide to the effective use of modern floating-point arithmetic, which has considerably evolved, from the frequently inconsistent floating-point number systems of early computing to the recent IEEE 754-2008 standard. Most of computational mathematics depends on floating-point numbers, and understanding their various implementations will allow readers to develop programs specifically tailored for the standard’s technical features. Algorithms for floating-point arithmetic are presented throughout the book and illustrated where possible by example programs which show how these techniques appear in actual coding and design. The volume itself breaks its core topic into four parts: the basic concepts and history of floating-point arithmetic; methods of analyzing floating-point algorithms and optimizing them; implementations of IEEE 754-2008 in hardware and software; and useful extensions to the standard floating-point system, such as interval arithmetic, double- and triple-word arithm...

  3. The Prevalence of Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohorst, John J.; Bruce, Alison J.; Torgerson, Rochelle R.; Schenck, Louis A.; Davis, Mark D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as symptoms of persistent burning in the mouth without objective findings accounting for the symptoms. Objectives To calculate the point prevalence of BMS in Olmsted County, Minnesota, on December 31, 2010. Methods The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) medical records linkage system was used to identify BMS cases diagnosed or potentially diagnosed before December 31, 2009. Inclusion criteria were subjective oral discomfort, normal oral examination, and documented BMS diagnosis by a REP physician. Results In total, 149 BMS cases were confirmed, representing age- and sex-adjusted point prevalence of BMS in Olmsted County of 0.11%, or 105.6 (95% CI, 88.6–122.6) per 100,000 persons. Age-adjusted prevalence in women was significantly higher than men: 168.6 (95% CI, 139.0–198.2) vs 35.9 (95% CI, 21.4–50.3) per 100,000 persons (P<.001). The highest prevalence was in women aged 70 through 79 years (527.9 per 100,000 persons). Mean (SD) age at BMS diagnosis was 59.4 (15.1) years (range, 25–90 years). Conclusions To our knowledge, we provide the first report of population-based BMS prevalence. The data show that BMS most commonly affects women older than 50 years, and when defined through diagnostic criteria, it is less prevalent than described previously. PMID:25495557

  4. Burnout syndrome prevalence in physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Blanca; López-Arza, María Victoria González; Montanero-Fernández, Jesús; Varela-Donoso, Enrique; Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; Mingote-Adán, José Carlos

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate burnout syndrome in its three aspects, jointly as well as independently, in physiotherapists from the Extremadura region (Spain). Analytic descriptive epidemiological transversal trial in primary care and institutional practice, with physiotherapists practicing in Extremadura who met the inclusion criteria, after having signed an informed consent form. Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional accomplishment were the outcomes measured. Physiotherapists from Extremadura show a 65.23 point level of burnout syndrome, according to the Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. Therefore, they are positioned in the middle of the rating scale for the syndrome, and very near to the high level at starting score of 66 points. Physiotherapists in Extremadura present moderate scores for the three dimensions of burnout syndrome, namely, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional accomplishment. For this reason, they are in the moderate level of the syndrome and very near to the high level, which starts at a score of 66 points. No relation between burnout syndrome and age has been found in our study.

  5. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkney, Alfred E., E-mail: Fred_Pinkney@fws.gov [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Chesapeake Bay Field Office, 177 Admiral Cochrane Drive, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Harshbarger, John C., E-mail: jcharshbarger@verizon.net [Department of Pathology, George Washington University Medical Center, 2300 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Karouna-Renier, Natalie K., E-mail: nkarouna@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC, Bldg. 308, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Jenko, Kathryn [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC, Bldg. 308, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Balk, Lennart, E-mail: lennart.balk@itm.su.se [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Skarphe Latin-Small-Letter-Eth insdottir, Halldora; Liewenborg, Birgitta [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Rutter, Michael A., E-mail: mar36@psu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Penn State Erie, The Behrend College, 5091 Station Road, Erie, PA 16563 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    . - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compared brown bullhead liver and skin tumors in four Chesapeake Bay tributaries: South, Severn, Rhode, and Choptank. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer South River had highest prevalence of skin tumors (19%-58%); liver tumors were 0%-6% except for one collection (20%). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prevalence of skin and liver tumors not associated with exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons or alkylating agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using logistic regression, we found that length and sex were covariates for liver tumors, only length for skin tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study provides further evidence that the etiologies of skin and liver tumor induction in brown bullhead are different.

  6. Combined audit of hospital antibiotic use and a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, E

    2010-05-01

    Appropriate antibiotic use improves patient outcome and prevents the emergence of antibiotic resistance. A point-prevalence audit of antibiotic use at Beaumont Hospital, Dublin was carried out during the collection of data for the 2006 Hospital Infection Society (HIS) Prevalence Survey of Healthcare-Associated Infection. All inpatients who met the HIS survey entry criteria were included in the HIS survey, and all inpatients who were receiving antibiotics at the time of the survey were included in the point-prevalence audit of antibiotic use. Among these, 7.18% and 36.8% of patients had a healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and were on antibiotics, respectively. Unnecessary collection of duplicate data was avoided by conducting an audit of antibiotic use and a national survey of HCAI simultaneously.

  7. Population aging, macroeconomic changes, and global diabetes prevalence, 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsanan, Nikkil; Ali, Mohammed K; Mehta, Neil K; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is an important contributor to global morbidity and mortality. The contributions of population aging and macroeconomic changes to the growth in diabetes prevalence over the past 20 years are unclear. We used cross-sectional data on age- and sex-specific counts of people with diabetes by country, national population estimates, and country-specific macroeconomic variables for the years 1990, 2000, and 2008. Decomposition analysis was performed to quantify the contribution of population aging to the change in global diabetes prevalence between 1990 and 2008. Next, age-standardization was used to estimate the contribution of age composition to differences in diabetes prevalence between high-income (HIC) and low-to-middle-income countries (LMICs). Finally, we used non-parametric correlation and multivariate first-difference regression estimates to examine the relationship between macroeconomic changes and the change in diabetes prevalence between 1990 and 2008. Globally, diabetes prevalence grew by two percentage points between 1990 (7.4 %) and 2008 (9.4 %). Population aging was responsible for 19 % of the growth, with 81 % attributable to increases in the age-specific prevalences. In both LMICs and HICs, about half the growth in age-specific prevalences was from increasing levels of diabetes between ages 45-65 (51 % in HICs and 46 % in LMICs). After age-standardization, the difference in the prevalence of diabetes between LMICs and HICs was larger (1.9 % point difference in 1990; 1.5 % point difference in 2008). We found no evidence that macroeconomic changes were associated with the growth in diabetes prevalence. Population aging explains a minority of the recent growth in global diabetes prevalence. The increase in global diabetes between 1990 and 2008 was primarily due to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes at ages 45-65. We do not find evidence that basic indicators of economic growth, development, globalization, or urbanization were related

  8. Prevalence of dental fear and phobia relative to other fear and phobia subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterink, F.M.D.; de Jongh, A.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate the point prevalence of dental fear and dental phobia relative to 10 other common fears and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR subtypes of specific phobia. Data were also analysed to examine differences with regard to

  9. The Prevalence of Sleep Disorders in College Students: Impact on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of risk for sleep disorders among college students by gender and age, and their associations with grade point average (GPA). Participants: Participants were 1,845 college students at a large, southeastern public university. Methods: A validated sleep disorder questionnaire surveyed sleep data during the…

  10. Interval Mathematics Applied to Critical Point Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito A. Stradi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of critical points of mixtures is important for both practical and theoretical reasons in the modeling of phase behavior, especially at high pressure. The equations that describe the behavior of complex mixtures near critical points are highly nonlinear and with multiplicity of solutions to the critical point equations. Interval arithmetic can be used to reliably locate all the critical points of a given mixture. The method also verifies the nonexistence of a critical point if a mixture of a given composition does not have one. This study uses an interval Newton/Generalized Bisection algorithm that provides a mathematical and computational guarantee that all mixture critical points are located. The technique is illustrated using several example problems. These problems involve cubic equation of state models; however, the technique is general purpose and can be applied in connection with other nonlinear problems.

  11. SharePoint 2007 Collaboration For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Greg

    2009-01-01

    If you're looking for a way to help your teams access what they need to know, work together, and get the job done, SharePoint can do just that. SharePoint 2007 Collaboration For Dummies shows you the easiest way to set up and customize SharePoint, manage your data, interact using SharePoint blogs and wikis, integrate Office programs, and make your office more productive. You'll learn what SharePoint can do and how to make it work for your business, understand the technical terms, and enable your people to collaborate on documents and spreadsheets. You'll even discover how to get SharePoint hel

  12. Describing chaotic attractors: Regular and perpetual points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkowski, Dawid; Prasad, Awadhesh; Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    We study the concepts of regular and perpetual points for describing the behavior of chaotic attractors in dynamical systems. The idea of these points, which have been recently introduced to theoretical investigations, is thoroughly discussed and extended into new types of models. We analyze the correlation between regular and perpetual points, as well as their relation with phase space, showing the potential usefulness of both types of points in the qualitative description of co-existing states. The ability of perpetual points in finding attractors is indicated, along with its potential cause. The location of chaotic trajectories and sets of considered points is investigated and the study on the stability of systems is shown. The statistical analysis of the observing desired states is performed. We focus on various types of dynamical systems, i.e., chaotic flows with self-excited and hidden attractors, forced mechanical models, and semiconductor superlattices, exhibiting the universality of appearance of the observed patterns and relations.

  13. Algorithms for solving common fixed point problems

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2018-01-01

    This book details approximate solutions to common fixed point problems and convex feasibility problems in the presence of perturbations. Convex feasibility problems search for a common point of a finite collection of subsets in a Hilbert space; common fixed point problems pursue a common fixed point of a finite collection of self-mappings in a Hilbert space. A variety of algorithms are considered in this book for solving both types of problems, the study of which has fueled a rapidly growing area of research. This monograph is timely and highlights the numerous applications to engineering, computed tomography, and radiation therapy planning. Totaling eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to foundational material and moves on to examine iterative methods in metric spaces. The dynamic string-averaging methods for common fixed point problems in normed space are analyzed in Chapter 3. Dynamic string methods, for common fixed point problems in a metric space are introduced and discussed in Chapter ...

  14. Kantian Turning Point in Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Bosáková

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is treating the theme of a Kantian turning-point in the philosophical hermeneutics of H.- G. Gadamer based on of the harmonic relationship between metaphysics and science in Kantian philosophy from the point of view of the philosophical hermeneutics of Gadamer. The philosophical work of Kant had such an influence on Gadamer that without exaggerating we can talk about the Kantian turning-point in Gadamerian hermeneutics. Grondin, a former student of Gadamer, is talking about Kantian turning-point on the field of aesthetics, but in reality Kantian turning-point means much more than a mere change in the reception of the concept of judgement. It is a discovery of harmonical relationship between the beauty and the moral, between the reason and the sensitivity, between the modern sciences and the metaphysical tradition in the Kantian philosophy, made by Gadamer. This is what we call the Kantian turning-point in Gadamerian hermeneutics.

  15. Prevalence of depression: Comparisons of different depression definitions in population-based samples of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Linnea; Karlsson, Björn; Atti, Anna-Rita; Skoog, Ingmar; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2017-10-15

    Depression prevalence in older adults varies largely across studies, which probably reflects methodological rather than true differences. This study aims to explore whether and to what extent the prevalence of depression varies when using different diagnostic criteria and rating scales, and various samples of older adults. A population-based sample of 3353 individuals aged 60-104 years from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) were examined in 2001-2004. Point prevalence of depression was estimated by: 1) diagnostic criteria, ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5; 2) rating scales, MADRS and GDS-15; and 3) self-report. Depression prevalence in sub-samples by dementia status, living place, and socio-demographics were compared. The prevalence of any depression (including all severity grades) was 4.2% (moderate/severe: 1.6%) for ICD-10 and 9.3% (major: 2.1%) for DSM-IV-TR; 10.6% for MADRS and 9.2% for GDS-15; and 9.1% for self-report. Depression prevalence was lower in the dementia-free sample as compared to the total population. Furthermore, having poor physical function, or not having a partner were independently associated with higher depression prevalence, across most of the depression definitions. The response rate was 73.3% and this may have resulted in an underestimation of depression. Depression prevalence was similar across all depression definitions except for ICD-10, showing much lower figures. However, independent of the definition used, depression prevalence varies greatly by dementia status, physical functioning, and marital status. These findings may be useful for clinicians when assessing depression in older adults and for researchers when exploring and comparing depression prevalence across studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Defining tipping points for social-ecological systems scholarship—an interdisciplinary literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkoreit, Manjana; Hodbod, Jennifer; Baggio, Jacopo; Benessaiah, Karina; Calderón-Contreras, Rafael; Donges, Jonathan F.; Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rocha, Juan Carlos; Schoon, Michael; Werners, Saskia E.

    2018-03-01

    The term tipping point has experienced explosive popularity across multiple disciplines over the last decade. Research on social-ecological systems (SES) has contributed to the growth and diversity of the term’s use. The diverse uses of the term obscure potential differences between tipping behavior in natural and social systems, and issues of causality across natural and social system components in SES. This paper aims to create the foundation for a discussion within the SES research community about the appropriate use of the term tipping point, especially the relatively novel term ‘social tipping point.’ We review existing literature on tipping points and similar concepts (e.g. regime shifts, critical transitions) across all spheres of science published between 1960 and 2016 with a special focus on a recent and still small body of work on social tipping points. We combine quantitative and qualitative analyses in a bibliometric approach, rooted in an expert elicitation process. We find that the term tipping point became popular after the year 2000—long after the terms regime shift and critical transition—across all spheres of science. We identify 23 distinct features of tipping point definitions and their prevalence across disciplines, but find no clear taxonomy of discipline-specific definitions. Building on the most frequently used features, we propose definitions for tipping points in general and social tipping points in SES in particular.

  17. Fixed points of occasionally weakly biased mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Mahendra Singh, M. R. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Common fixed point results due to Pant et al. [Pant et al., Weak reciprocal continuity and fixed point theorems, Ann Univ Ferrara, 57(1), 181-190 (2011)] are extended to a class of non commuting operators called occasionally weakly biased pair[ N. Hussain, M. A. Khamsi A. Latif, Commonfixed points for JH-operators and occasionally weakly biased pairs under relaxed conditions, Nonlinear Analysis, 74, 2133-2140 (2011)]. We also provideillustrative examples to justify the improvements. Abstract....

  18. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    In 1976, Jungck [4] proved a common fixed point theorem for commuting maps generalizing the Banach's fixed point theorem, which states that, 'let (X, d) be a complete metric space. If T satisfies d(Tx,Ty) ≤ kd(x,y) for each x,y ∈ X where 0 ≤ k < 1, then T has a unique fixed point in X'. This theorem has many applications, ...

  19. Infra-red fixed points in supersymmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ¾c /font>, and c stands for the color quadratic Casimir of the field. Fixed points arise when R* ¼ or when R*. /nobr>. ´S-½. µ ´r ·b¿µ. The stability of the solutions may be tested by linearizing the system about the fixed points. For the non-trivial fixed points we need to consider the eigenvalues of the stability matrix whose ...

  20. Bayesian analysis of Markov point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Kasper Klitgaard; Møller, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Recently Møller, Pettitt, Berthelsen and Reeves introduced a new MCMC methodology for drawing samples from a posterior distribution when the likelihood function is only specified up to a normalising constant. We illustrate the method in the setting of Bayesian inference for Markov point processes...... a partially ordered Markov point process as the auxiliary variable. As the method requires simulation from the "unknown" likelihood, perfect simulation algorithms for spatial point processes become useful....

  1. Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the current prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Denmark from 1995 to 2000—2002. Methods: Cross-sectional national dietary surveys were conducted in 1995 and 2000—2002. The analysis was based on two random population samples from the Danish...... civil registration system. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight for 1,026 and 1,152 children and adolescents (4—18 years), who participated in 1995 and 2000—2002, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was defined according to the international age...... and gender-specific child BMI cut-off points. In the statistical analysis, overweight and obesity were included in the prevalence of overweight. Results: Mean BMI increased significantly between 1995 and 2000—2002 for all combinations of age groups (4—6, 7—10, 11—14 and 15—18 years) and genders. Prevalence...

  2. Prevalence of insomnia in the adult Norwegian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, S; Nordhus, I H; Nielsen, G H; Havik, O E; Kvale, G; Johnsen, B H; Skjøtskift, S

    2001-11-01

    A representative adult sample (18 years and above) of the Norwegian population, comprising 2001 subjects, participated in telephone interviews, focusing on the one-month point prevalence of insomnia and use of prescribed hypnotics. Employment of DSM-IV inclusion criteria of insomnia yielded a prevalence rate of 11.7%. Logistic regression analysis performed on the different insomnia symptoms revealed that somatic and psychiatric health were the strongest predictors of insomnia, whereas gender, age, and socioeconomic status showed a more inconsistent relationship. Use of prescribed hypnotic drugs was reported by 6.9% and was related to being female, elderly, and having somatic and emotional problems. Sleep onset problems and daytime impairment were more common during winter compared to summer. Use of hypnotics was more common in the southern (rather than the northern) regions of Norway. For sleep onset problems a Season x Region interaction was found, indicating that the prevalence of sleep onset problems increased in southern Norway from summer to winter, while the opposite pattern was found in the northern regions. The importance of clinically adequate criteria and seasonal variation in the evaluation of insomnia is briefly discussed.

  3. Urinary incontinence in hospital patients: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Betteloni Junqueira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze the prevalence of urinary incontinence and its associated factors in hospital patients. Method: this is a cross-sectional epidemiological study whose data were collected using the instruments Sociodemographic and Clinical Data, Characteristics of Urinary Leakage and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form. Prevalence was surveyed on a single day for four consecutive months. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression (forward stepwise. Results: the final sample consisted of 319 hospital adults (57.1% female, mean age of 47.9 years (SD=21.1. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 22.9% (28% in women and 16.1% in men and the associated factors were: female sex (OR=3.89, age (OR=1.03, asthma (OR=3.66, use of laxatives (OR=3.26, use of diaper during the evaluation (OR=2.75, use of diaper at home (OR=10.29, and use of diaper at some point during the hospital stay (OR=6.74. Conclusion: the findings of this study differ from those found in the scarce existing literature on the subject in hospital patients. There is a need for previous studies such as this before proposing the implementation of preventive and therapeutic actions during the hospital stay.

  4. Professional SharePoint 2013 development

    CERN Document Server

    Alirezaei, Reza; Ranlett, Matt; Hillier, Scot; Wilson, Brian; Fried, Jeff; Swider, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Thorough coverage of development in SharePoint 2013 A team of well-known Microsoft MVPs joins forces in this fully updated resource, providing you with in-depth coverage of development tools in the latest iteration of the immensely popular SharePoint. From building solutions to building custom workflow and content management applications, this book shares field-tested best practices on all aspect of SharePoint 2013 development. Offers a thorough look at Windows Azure and SharePoint 2013Includes new chapters on Application Life Cycle Management, developing apps in ShareP

  5. Calculation of melting points of oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobkova, O.S.; Voskobojnikov, V.G.; Kozin, A.I.

    1975-01-01

    The correlation between the melting point and thermodynamic parameters characterizing the strength of oxides and compounds is given. Such thermodynamic paramters include the energy and antropy of atomization

  6. Beginning SharePoint 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Discover how to take advantage of the many new features in SharePoint 2010. SharePoint provides content management (enterprise content management, Web content management, records management, and more), workflow, and social media features, and the new version boasts enhanced capabilities. This introductory-level book walks you through the process of learning, developing, and deploying SharePoint 2010 solutions. You'll leverage your existing skills and tools to grasp the fundamental programming concepts and practices of SharePoint 2010. The author clearly explains how to develop your first appli

  7. EPA Region 1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas (Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage represents point equivalents of environmentally sensitive areas in EPA New England. This coverage represents polygon equivalents of environmentally...

  8. PowerPoint 2007 for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2007-01-01

    New and inexperienced PowerPoint users will discover how to use the latest enhancements to PowerPoint 2007 quickly and efficiently so that they can produce unique and informative presentations PowerPoint continues to be the world's most popular presentation software This updated For Dummies guide shows users different ways to create powerful and effective slideshow presentations that incorporate data from other applications in the form of charts, clip art, sound, and video Shares the key features of PowerPoint 2007 including creating and editing slides, working with hyperlinks and action butt

  9. Blossom Point Satellite Tracking and Command Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Blossom Point Satellite Command and Tracking Facility (BP) provides engineering and operational support to several complex space systems for the Navy...

  10. Track length estimation applied to point detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rief, H.; Dubi, A.; Elperin, T.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of the track length estimator is applied to the uncollided point flux estimator (UCF) leading to a new algorithm of calculating fluxes at a point. It consists essentially of a line integral of the UCF, and although its variance is unbounded, the convergence rate is that of a bounded variance estimator. In certain applications, involving detector points in the vicinity of collimated beam sources, it has a lower variance than the once-more-collided point flux estimator, and its application is more straightforward

  11. Mastering Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Callahan, C A

    2011-01-01

    Everything IT professionals need to create collaborative solutions. SharePoint Foundation 2010 is the newest version of a powerful collaboration tool used in many Exchange-enabled organizations. This book gets network professionals and business application administrators up to speed on the updates, features, and installation procedures, preparing them to create powerful collaboration structures for their companies.: Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 is the successor to Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 and is used with Microsoft Office SharePoint Server to enable collaboration; this guide pre

  12. Teach yourself visually PowerPoint 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, William

    2013-01-01

    A straightforward, visual approach to learning the new PowerPoint 2013! PowerPoint 2013 boasts updated features and new possibilities; this highly visual tutorial provides step-by-step instructions to help you learn all the capabilities of PowerPoint 2013. It covers the basics, as well as all the exciting new changes and additions in a series of easy-to-follow, full-color, two-page tutorials. Learn how to create slides, dress them up using templates and graphics, add sound and animation, and more. This book is the ideal ""show me, don't tell me"" guide to PowerPoint 2013.De

  13. Wolf Point Substation, Roosevelt County, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western), an agency of the United States Department of Energy, is proposing to construct the 115-kV Wolf Point Substation near Wolf Point in Roosevelt County, Montana (Figure 1). As part of the construction project, Western's existing Wolf Point Substation would be taken out of service. The existing 115-kV Wolf Point Substation is located approximately 3 miles west of Wolf Point, Montana (Figure 2). The substation was constructed in 1949. The existing Wolf Point Substation serves as a ''Switching Station'' for the 115-kV transmission in the region. The need for substation improvements is based on operational and reliability issues. For this environmental assessment (EA), the environmental review of the proposed project took into account the removal of the old Wolf Point Substation, rerouting of the five Western lines and four lines from the Cooperatives and Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, and the new road into the proposed substation. Reference to the new proposed Wolf Point Substation in the EA includes these facilities as well as the old substation site. The environmental review looked at the impacts to all resource areas in the Wolf Point area. 7 refs., 6 figs

  14. Prevalence of depression among a population aged over 45 years in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangtongkum, Suparus; Sucharitakul, Phongsakorn; Wongjaroen, Sriwanna; Maneechompoo, Suthin

    2008-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of depression in Thai people of 45 years and over. The presented project was a cross sectional study on the prevalence of depression and cognitive impairment in Chiang Mai. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of Chiang Mai. The research was conducted between October 2004 and September 2005. Data were collected on subject that were 45 years old and over. All subjects were selected from all districts in Chiang Mai. Thai Mini Mental State Examination (TMSE) and Thai Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used as the assessment tool If the subjects had a TMSE score less than 24 points, it was assumed as a cognitive impairment. One thousand four hundred ninety two people, 610 males and 882 females, were enrolled in the present study. Their mean age was 59.7 +/- 10.4 years (45-88 year). The prevalence of depression only was 29.2%, the prevalence of cognitive impairment only was 5.63% and the prevalence of cognitive impairment with depression was 3.96%. The prevalence of depression increased with age. The prevalence of depression in Thai people of 45 years and over was 29.2% and increased with age.

  15. Smoking prevalence trends in Indigenous Australians, 1994-2004: a typical rather than an exceptional epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas David P

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, national smoking prevalence has successfully fallen below 20%, but remains about 50% amongst Indigenous Australians. Australian Indigenous tobacco control is framed by the idea that nothing has worked and a sense of either despondency or the difficulty of the challenge. Methods This paper examines the trends in smoking prevalence of Australian Indigenous men and women aged 18 and over in three large national cross-sectional surveys in 1994, 2002 and 2004. Results From 1994 to 2004, Indigenous smoking prevalence fell by 5.5% and 3.5% in non-remote and remote men, and by 1.9% in non-remote women. In contrast, Indigenous smoking prevalence rose by 5.7% in remote women from 1994 to 2002, before falling by 0.8% between 2002 and 2004. Male and female Indigenous smoking prevalences in non-remote Australia fell in parallel with those in the total Australian population. The different Indigenous smoking prevalence trends in remote and non-remote Australia can be plausibly explained by the typical characteristics of national tobacco epidemic curves, with remote Indigenous Australia just at an earlier point in the epidemic. Conclusion Reducing Indigenous smoking need not be considered exceptionally difficult. Inequities in the distribution of smoking related-deaths and illness may be reduced by increasing the exposure and access of Indigenous Australians, and other disadvantaged groups with high smoking prevalence, to proven tobacco control strategies.

  16. SOCIAL PHOBIA PREVALENCE IN YOUNGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD REZA ZAMANI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most common psychiatric disorder of new communities are the anxiety disorders. In this survey Isfahans' high school students' social phobia were assessed as an important part of anxiety disorders. Methods & Materials: In this cross sectional study, 500 high school students (250 male, 250 female whom selected by multi-stage cluster and simple random sampling, were enrolled into study. Data collection performed by multiple choice question are and analysis were done by SPSS software with 0.05 significance level. Results: 11 percents of selected students with mean age about 16 Yrs, have had Social Phobia (male=56.4%, female=43.6 % . Parents' education of affected group were higher than non-affected, and birth rank had significant relation with Social Phobia (P = 0.043. Conclusions: Unfortunately in spite of high prevalence of social phobia, It's remain unknown and affected students would have numerous educational and communicational problems because of this disorder, therefore for complications' prevention and on time treatment, its need to inform people and physicians about this disorder and its' diagnose.

  17. Updates of the prevalence of problem gambling in Romanian teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Viorel; Todirita, Izabela Ramona

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find out what is the prevalence of pathological in Romanian teenagers. We questioned one thousand thirty-two teenagers in Cluj-Napoca and Harghita counties. Participants completed a questionnaire with 40 items including gamblers anonymous twenty questions. The sample included teenagers aged 11-19 years; 65.57% were male and 34.43% were female. The subjects were divided into three groups: non-gambling/recreational gambling or occasional gambling (0-1 positive answers -Level 1)-753 subjects (72.96%) [316 females and 437 males]; problem gambling (2-6 points-Level 2)-243 subjects (23.54%) [43 females and 200 males]; pathological gambling (above 7 points-Level 3)-36 subjects (3.48%) [3 females and 33 males]. The mean age of pathological gamblers was 16.48 years. Gender differences were as expected, males engaging in pathological gambling (91.66% from pathological gamblers) more than females did (8.33% from pathological gamblers). Data revealed that the most encountered games practiced weekly were sport bets and slot machines in the case of 36.11% of the pathological gamblers; lotto, internet casino and pool bets each with 25%, followed by roulette and black-jack with 22.22%.From those who reported practicing gambling at a pathological level 66.66% engaged in alcohol consumption, 13.88% illicit drug use and 19.44% licit drugs. Just 16.66% smoke cigarettes. Data revealed higher rates of prevalence in Romanian teenagers than in other Central and Eastern European countries. A prevalence study at a national level should be designed.

  18. Healthcare Antibiotic Resistance Prevalence - DC (HARP-DC): A Regional Prevalence Assessment of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in Healthcare Facilities in Washington, District of Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Jacqueline; Donegan, Nancy; Wortmann, Glenn; DeBiasi, Roberta; Song, Xiaoyan; Kumar, Princy; McFadden, Mary; Clagon, Sylvia; Mirdamadi, Janet; White, Diane; Harris, Jo Ellen; Browne, Angella; Hooker, Jane; Yochelson, Michael; Walker, Milena; Little, Gary; Jernigan, Gail; Hansen, Kathleen; Dockery, Brenda; Sinatro, Brendan; Blaylock, Morris; Harmon, Kimary; Iyengar, Preetha; Wagner, Trevor; Nelson, Jo Anne

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a significant clinical and public health concern. Understanding the distribution of CRE colonization and developing a coordinated approach are key components of control efforts. The prevalence of CRE in the District of Columbia is unknown. We sought to determine the CRE colonization prevalence within healthcare facilities (HCFs) in the District of Columbia using a collaborative, regional approach. DESIGN Point-prevalence study. SETTING This study included 16 HCFs in the District of Columbia: all 8 acute-care hospitals (ACHs), 5 of 19 skilled nursing facilities, 2 (both) long-term acute-care facilities, and 1 (the sole) inpatient rehabilitation facility. PATIENTS Inpatients on all units excluding psychiatry and obstetrics-gynecology. METHODS CRE identification was performed on perianal swab samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction, culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). Prevalence was calculated by facility and unit type as the number of patients with a positive result divided by the total number tested. Prevalence ratios were compared using the Poisson distribution. RESULTS Of 1,022 completed tests, 53 samples tested positive for CRE, yielding a prevalence of 5.2% (95% CI, 3.9%-6.8%). Of 726 tests from ACHs, 36 (5.0%; 95% CI, 3.5%-6.9%) were positive. Of 244 tests from long-term-care facilities, 17 (7.0%; 95% CI, 4.1%-11.2%) were positive. The relative prevalence ratios by facility type were 0.9 (95% CI, 0.5-1.5) and 1.5 (95% CI, 0.9-2.6), respectively. No CRE were identified from the inpatient rehabilitation facility. CONCLUSION A baseline CRE prevalence was established, revealing endemicity across healthcare settings in the District of Columbia. Our study establishes a framework for interfacility collaboration to reduce CRE transmission and infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:921-929.

  19. Parametric Architectural Design with Point-clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Evers, Henrik Leander; Tamke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the efforts and benefits of the implementation of point clouds into architectural design processes and tools. Based on a study on the principal work processes of designers with point clouds the prototypical plugin/library - Volvox - was developed for the parametric modelling...

  20. Point cloud data management (extended abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Ravada, S.; Horhammer, M.; Martinez Rubi, O.; Ivanova, M.; Kodde, M.; Tijssen, T.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Point cloud data are important sources for 3D geo-information. The point cloud data sets are growing in popularity and in size. Modern Big Data acquisition and processing technologies, such as laser scanning from airborne, mobile, or static platforms, dense image matching from photos, multi-beam

  1. The Psychic Organ Point of Autistic Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with autistic syntax and its expressions both in the fully fledged autistic structure and in the autistic zones of other personality structures. The musical notion of the organ point serves as a point of departure in an attempt to describe how autistic syntax transforms what was meant to constitute the substrate for linguistic…

  2. Finite Elements on Point Based Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarenz, U.; Rumpf, M.; Telea, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for processing point-based surfaces via partial differential equations (PDEs). Our framework efficiently and effectively brings well-known PDE-based processing techniques to the field of point-based surfaces. Our method is based on the construction of local tangent planes and

  3. Magnetic Fixed Points and Emergent Supersymmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, Oleg; Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    We establish in perturbation theory the existence of fixed points along the renormalization group flow for QCD with an adjoint Weyl fermion and scalar matter reminiscent of magnetic duals of QCD [1-3]. We classify the fixed points by analyzing their basin of attraction. We discover that among...

  4. The improbability of Harris interest points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2010-01-01

    An elementary characterization of the map underlying Harris corners, also known as Harris interest points or key points, is provided. Two principal and basic assumptions made are: 1) Local image structure is captured in an uncommitted way, simply using weighted raw image values around every image...

  5. Gravitational Zero Point Energy induces Physical Observables

    OpenAIRE

    Garattini, Remo

    2010-01-01

    We consider the contribution of Zero Point Energy on the induced Cosmological Constant and on the induced Electric/Magnetic charge in absence of matter fields. The method is applicable to every spherically symmetric background. Extensions to a generic $f(R) $ theory are also allowed. Only the graviton appears to be fundamental to the determination of Zero Point Energy.

  6. Zero-point energy in spheroidal geometries

    OpenAIRE

    Kitson, A. R.; Signal, A. I.

    2005-01-01

    We study the zero-point energy of a massless scalar field subject to spheroidal boundary conditions. Using the zeta-function method, the zero-point energy is evaluated for small ellipticity. Axially symmetric vector fields are also considered. The results are interpreted within the context of QCD flux tubes and the MIT bag model.

  7. State estimation for temporal point processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, Maria Nicolette Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with combined inference for point processes on the real line observed in a broken interval. For such processes, the classic history-based approach cannot be used. Instead, we adapt tools from sequential spatial point processes. For a range of models, the marginal and

  8. Metallic and antiferromagnetic fixed points from gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Chandrima

    2018-06-01

    We consider SU(2) × U(1) gauge theory coupled to matter field in adjoints and study RG group flow. We constructed Callan-Symanzik equation and subsequent β functions and study the fixed points. We find there are two fixed points, showing metallic and antiferromagnetic behavior. We have shown that metallic phase develops an instability if certain parametric conditions are satisfied.

  9. Developing a Teachable Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kim

    2007-01-01

    As professors of management and organizational behavior mature in their teaching, they should begin to develop a teachable point of view. In this article, the author describes several attributes of a teachable point of view. Based on his own teaching experience, the author outlines five criteria for the content of the material taught--the what of…

  10. The Improbability of Harris Interest Points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loog, M.; Lauze, F.B.

    2010-01-01

    An elementary characterization of the map underlying Harris corners, also known as Harris interest points or key points, is provided. Two principal and basic assumptions made are: 1) Local image structure is captured in an uncommitted way, simply using weighted raw image values around every image

  11. Impedance analysis of acupuncture points and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teplan, Michal; Kukucka, Marek; Ondrejkovicová, Alena

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of impedance characteristics of acupuncture points from acoustic to radio frequency range is addressed. Discernment and localization of acupuncture points in initial single subject study was unsuccessfully attempted by impedance map technique. Vector impedance analyses determined possible resonant zones in MHz region.

  12. TOPOLOGY OF RANDOM POINTS YOGESHWARAN. D.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Balls grow at unit rate centred at the points of the point cloud/ process. ... Idea of persistence : Keep track of births and deaths of topological features. ..... holes, Betti numbers, etc., one will be more interested in the distribution of such objects on ...

  13. Fixed points in a group of isometries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorneveld, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Bruhat-Tits xed point theorem states that a group of isometries on a complete metric space with negative curvature possesses a xed point if it has a bounded orbit. This theorem is extended by a relaxation of the negative curvature condition in terms of the w-distance functions introduced by Kada

  14. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…

  15. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in the paediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiballah, Laila; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    A paucity of research related to the problem of pressure ulcers in paediatrics is found, with a variety of reported prevalence rates. To record the prevalence, location and categories of PU in the inpatient paediatric wards, and to identify the characteristics of pressure ulcer patients. A descriptive point prevalence study. All paediatric inpatient wards in two hospitals in Jordan. One of which is a university-affiliated hospital and the other a paediatric public hospital. Isolation, burn and emergency units, outpatients' clinics and psychiatric wards were excluded. One sixty six paediatric patients aged from one day up to 18 years from both hospitals. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were included and examined for the existence of pressure ulcers on one day in each hospital by the primary investigator. The European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel classification system was used to categorise each identified ulcer. The characteristics of ulcers were collected as well. Sixteen ulcers were identified in 11 patients, giving a prevalence rate of 6.6%.When Category I ulcers were excluded, the prevalence rate dropped to 2.4%. All except one of the PU patients were being treated in critical care units (n = 10, 90.9%), and most of the ulcers were category one (n = 7, 63.6%) and caused by devices (n = 7, 63.6). The face was the most frequently reported location of PUs (n = 6, 54.5%), followed by the occiput (n = 2, 18.2%). Most PU patients were male (n = 6, 54.5%), and less than 12 months old (n = 8, 72.7%). PU patients had experienced longer hospital stays than patients free from PU (U = 499.0, p = 0.02). Jordanian paediatric patients do have pressure ulcers, with a prevalence rate congruent with previously reported international rates. Most of the ulcers found were caused by devices used in critical care units. This should encourage nurses to pay extra attention to their paediatric patients when they are connected to medical devices. Copyright

  16. Prevalence of Hydronephrosis in Women With Advanced Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancz, Christina E; Walker, Daphne; Thomas, Diane; Özel, Begüm

    2015-08-01

    To describe the prevalence of hydronephrosis in advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and to describe clinical and urodynamic parameters associated with hydronephrosis. Prospective, observational cohort study examining the prevalence of hydronephrosis in advanced POP. Women with a POP-Q examination of at least +1 for points C, Aa, or Ba were enrolled and screened for hydronephrosis. Basic demographics, clinical, and urodynamic findings among women with and without hydronephrosis were compared. The University of Southern California IRB approved this protocol. A total of 180 participants were enrolled. Fifty-five women had some hydronephrosis, for a prevalence of 30.6% (24.3%-37.6%). Mean age was 57.9 (±9.0) years and mean body mass index was 29.2 kg/m(2) (± 4.6). Of the participants, 80.6% were postmenopausal. The presence of diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with hydronephrosis (8% without vs 21.8% with, P = .009), as was the degree of anterior and apical (median Aa, Ba, C, and D higher with hydronephrosis than without, P hydronephrosis had higher mean post void residuals (64.8 vs 38.5 mL, P = .007), lower mean first leak (199.6 vs 280.8 mL, P = .006), and higher mean maximum cystometric capacity (525.2 vs 476.7 mL, P = .02) compared with participants without hydronephrosis. The prevalence of hydronephrosis in women with advanced POP is 30.6%. Clinical factors associated with hydronephrosis include degree of anterior or apical POP and diabetes mellitus. Urodynamic factors associated with hydronephrosis include elevated postvoid residuals, larger cystometric capacity, and lower volume at first leak. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injury in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Preston J.; Gerrie, Brayden J.; Varner, Kevin E.; McCulloch, Patrick C.; Lintner, David M.; Harris, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most published studies on injuries in the ballet dancer focus on the lower extremity. The rigors of this activity require special training and care. By understanding prevalence and injury pattern to the musculoskeletal system, targeted prevention and treatment for this population can be developed. Purpose To determine the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in ballet. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A systematic review registered with PROSPERO was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Level 1 through 4 evidence studies reporting incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in male and female ballet dancers were included, with the numbers and types of injuries extracted from each. Injury rates were recorded and calculated based on professional status, sex, and nature of injury. Incidence was defined as number of injuries sustained over a specific time. Prevalence was defined as proportion of subjects with an injury at a given point in time. Results The studies analyzed reported injury incidence or prevalence in more than 1365 amateur and 900 professional dancers. The mean age was 16.2 years among amateur and 27.0 years among professional dancers. The incidence of injury among amateur dancers was 0.99 and 1.09 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively; 75% of injuries were overuse, with similar rates among males and females. In professional dancers, the incidence of injury was 1.06 and 1.46 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively, and 64% of female injuries were overuse, compared with 50% in males (P ballet dancers is 0.97 and 1.24 injuries per 1000 dance hours, respectively. The majority are overuse in both amateur and professional dancers, with amateur ballet dancers showing a higher proportion of overuse injuries than professionals (P < .001). Male professional dancers show a higher proportion of

  18. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in a low socioeconomic status population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Carlos AB

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia, as well as to assess the major symptoms of this syndrome in an adult, low socioeconomic status population assisted by the primary health care system in a city in Brazil. Methods We cross-sectionally sampled individuals assisted by the public primary health care system (n = 768, 35–60 years old. Participants were interviewed by phone and screened about pain. They were then invited to be clinically assessed (304 accepted. Pain was estimated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Fibromyalgia was assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, as well as screening for tender points using dolorimetry. Statistical analyses included Bayesian Statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis Anova test (significance level = 5%. Results From the phone-interview screening, we divided participants (n = 768 in three groups: No Pain (NP (n = 185; Regional Pain (RP (n = 388 and Widespread Pain (WP (n = 106. Among those participating in the clinical assessments, (304 subjects, the prevalence of fibromyalgia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [2.6%; 6.3%]. Symptoms of pain (VAS and FIQ, feeling well, job ability, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depression were statically different among the groups. In multivariate analyses we found that individuals with FM and WP had significantly higher impairment than those with RP and NP. FM and WP were similarly disabling. Similarly, RP was no significantly different than NP. Conclusion Fibromyalgia is prevalent in the low socioeconomic status population assisted by the public primary health care system. Prevalence was similar to other studies (4.4% in a more diverse socioeconomic population. Individuals with FM and WP have significant impact in their well being.

  19. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of ... manage and associated with severe sequelae. Key Words: – Prevalence; Chlamydia trachomatis; ... genital infection during pregnancy increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, premature delivery and ...

  20. Dutch diabetes prevalence estimates (DUDE-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Nanne; Landman, Gijsw. D.; Van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Meulepas, Marianne; Romeijnders, Arnold; Rutten, Guy E. H.; Klomp, Maarten; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    Background: Recent decades have seen a constant upward projection in the prevalence of diabetes. Attempts to estimate diabetes prevalence rates based on relatively small population samples quite often result in underestimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Dutch

  1. Dutch diabetes prevalence estimates (DUDE-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Nanne; Landman, Gijsw. D.; Van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Meulepas, Marianne; Romeijnders, Arnold; Rutten, Guy E. H.; Klomp, Maarten; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent decades have seen a constant upward projection in the prevalence of diabetes. Attempts to estimate diabetes prevalence rates based on relatively small population samples quite often result in underestimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Dutch

  2. The prevalence of stalking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, S.; Kunst, M.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Over eight years after the enactment of the Dutch anti-stalking provisions there are still no figures detailing the prevalence of stalking in The Netherlands. This article aims to estimate the lifetime and annual prevalence of this form of victimization within the Dutch population. Questionnaires

  3. Prevalence of gestrointestinal symptoms in pregnancy | Audu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of gestrointestinal symptoms in pregnancy. BM Audu, SK Mustapha. Abstract. Objectives: This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms among healthy pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. Methods: Questionnaires were ...

  4. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macur Mirna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia.

  5. Prevalence, Progression and Associated Risk Factors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) ranges between 4.5% and 57% and is independently associated with cardiovascular disease burden irrespective of symptoms. Two thirds of cases are thought to be asymptomatic and may go unrecognised. Local prevalence and natural progression of ...

  6. Tuberculosis prevalence surveys: rationale and cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaziou, P.; van der Werf, M. J.; Onozaki, I.; Dye, C.; Borgdorff, M. W.; Chiang, C.-Y.; Cobelens, F.; Enarson, D. A.; Gopi, P. G.; Holtz, T. H.; Kim, S. J.; van Leth, F.; Lew, W.-J.; Lonnroth, K.; van Maaren, P.; Narayanan, P. R.; Williams, B.

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first of the educational series 'Assessing tuberculosis (TB) prevalence through population-based surveys'. The series will give overall guidance in conducting cross-sectional surveys of pulmonary TB (PTB) disease. TB prevalence surveys are most valuable in areas where

  7. Measures of Disease Frequency: Prevalence and Incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2010-01-01

    To describe how often a disease or another health event occurs in a population, different measures of disease frequency can be used. The prevalence reflects the number of existing cases of a disease. In contrast to the prevalence, the incidence reflects the number of new cases of disease and can be

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION High prevalence of Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    Volume 20, Number 1, January 2018. 1. SHORT COMMUNICATION ... This study was designed to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among HIV infected populations. ... The prevalence of P. falciparum was high among HIV seropositive individuals in the Lake Victoria Zone, which calls for additional ...

  9. The Prevalence of Intraventricular Haemorrhage and Associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prevalence of Intraventricular Haemorrhage and Associated Risk Factors in Preterm Neonates in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the University Teaching ... any-IVH generated at the time of analysis was used in determining the prevalence of IVH and also as the dependent variable in multivariate logistic regression.

  10. NIM Realization of the Gallium Triple Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoke, Yan; Ping, Qiu; Yuning, Duan; Yongmei, Qu

    2003-09-01

    In the last three years (1999 to 2001), the gallium triple-point cell has been successfully developed, and much corresponding research has been carried out at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing, China. This paper presents the cell design, apparatus and procedure for realizing the gallium triple point, and presents studies on the different freezing methods. The reproducibility is 0.03 mK, and the expanded uncertainty of realization of the gallium triple point is evaluated to be 0.17 mK (p=0.99, k=2.9). Also, the reproducibility of the gallium triple point was compared with that of the triple point of water.

  11. MODEL FOR SEMANTICALLY RICH POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  12. Model for Semantically Rich Point Cloud Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Neuville, R.; Hallot, P.; Billen, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  13. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    2010-01-01

    are identified, and where we simulate backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and......In this paper we describe methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points......, thus, can be used as a graphical exploratory tool for inspecting the goodness-of-fit of a spatial point process model. Several examples, including clustered and inhibitive point processes, are considered....

  14. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    , and where one simulates backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and thus can......This paper describes methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points are identified...... be used as a diagnostic for assessing the goodness-of-fit of a spatial point process model. Several examples, including clustered and inhibitive point processes, are considered....

  15. SharePoint 2010 Development For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Withee, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A much-needed guide that shows you how to leverage SharePoint tools without writing a line of code!. The great news about SharePoint is…you don't need to be a seasoned .NET developer to develop custom functions for it. This book shows you how to use SharePoint Designer, Report Builder, Dashboard Designer, InfoPath, Excel, Word, Visio, and the SharePoint web-based UI to design and develop—without ever writing a line of code! Learn how to customize your site, build SharePoint apps, start social networking, or add Web parts.  This straightforward guide makes everything easier.: Introduces you to

  16. End point control of an actinide precipitation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muske, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    The actinide precipitation reactors in the nuclear materials processing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory are used to remove actinides and other heavy metals from the effluent streams generated during the purification of plutonium. These effluent streams consist of hydrochloric acid solutions, ranging from one to five molar in concentration, in which actinides and other metals are dissolved. The actinides present are plutonium and americium. Typical actinide loadings range from one to five grams per liter. The most prevalent heavy metals are iron, chromium, and nickel that are due to stainless steel. Removal of these metals from solution is accomplished by hydroxide precipitation during the neutralization of the effluent. An end point control algorithm for the semi-batch actinide precipitation reactors at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. The algorithm is based on an equilibrium solubility model of the chemical species in solution. This model is used to predict the amount of base hydroxide necessary to reach the end point of the actinide precipitation reaction. The model parameters are updated by on-line pH measurements

  17. Alarming prevalences of overweight and obesity for children of Turkish, Moroccan and Dutch origin in the Netherlands according to international standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredriks, A.M.; Buuren, S. van; Hira Sing, R.A.; Wit, J.M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Prevalences of overweight in The Netherlands, defined by international cut-off points, are presented in 14 500 children of Dutch origin, 2904 of Turkish and 2855 of Moroccan origin, aged 0-21 y. Results: The mean prevalence for Turkish boys and girls was 23.4% and 30.2%, for Moroccans 15.8% and

  18. Constipation prevalence in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Álvaro de Freitas Lins Neto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of constipation in diabetic patients treated at the endocrinology outpatient clinic at Hospital Universitário Professor Alberto Antunes and PAM Salgadinho, from April to August 2013. Methods: a descriptive and cross-sectional study, carried out through a questionnaire using the Rome III criteria in 372 patients treated at the outpatient endocrinology clinic. Results: of 372 patients evaluated, the frequency of constipation found was 31.2% among diabetic patients. Females predominated in the sample (72.8% as well as for the frequency of constipation (80.2%. The incidence of type II diabetes was 97.3% and it was observed that 80.2% of the sample was older than 50 years. One hundred and twelve patients with inadequate glycemic control (HgA1c ≥ 7 had an association with constipation. Conclusion: there was an increased frequency of constipation in patients with diabetes mellitus according to the Rome III criteria, in relation to the general population. The inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus increases the frequency of constipation and it is necessary to perform studies that allow the confirmation of this association to demonstrate this hypothesis. Resumo: Objetivo: analisar a prevalência da constipação intestinal em pacientes diabéticos atendidos no ambulatório de endocrinologia do Hospital Universitário Professor Alberto Antunes e no PAM Salgadinho (HUPAA, de abril de 2013 a agosto 2013. Método: estudo descritivo e transversal, realizado através da aplicação de um questionário com os critérios de Roma III no ambulatório de endocrinologia do HUPAA. Resultado: em 372 pacientes, 271 feminino, 101 masculino, 162 de etnia branca, 55 negros e 155 pardos, 297 pacientes estavam acima de 50 anos, houve uma frequência de constipação de 31,2% nos pacientes diabéticos. O gênero feminino prevaleceu na amostra (73% assim como no índice de frequ

  19. Detecting cardiometabolic syndrome using World Health Organization public health action points for Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandinetti, Andrew; Kaholokula, Joseph K; Mau, Marjorie K; Chow, Dominic C

    2010-01-01

    To assess the screening characteristics of World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index action points for cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) in Native Hawaiians and people of Asian ancestry (ie, Filipino and Japanese). Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,452 residents of a rural community of Hawai'i between 1997 and 2000, of which 1,198 were analyzed in this study. Ethnic ancestry was determined by self-report. Metabolic status was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Screening characteristics of WHO criteria for overweight and obesity were compared to WHO public health action points or to WHO West Pacific Regional Office (WPRO) cut-points. Among Asian-ancestry participants, WHO public health action points improved both sensitivity and specificity for detecting CMS. However, similar improvements were not observed for WPRO criteria for Native Hawaiians. Moreover, predictive values were high regardless of which criteria were utilized due to high CMS prevalence. WHO public health actions points for Asians provide a significant improvement in sensitivity in detection of CMS. However, predictive value, which varies greatly with disease prevalence, should be considered when deciding which criteria to apply.

  20. Wrox SharePoint 2010 SharePoint911 three-pack

    CERN Document Server

    Klindt, Todd; Mason, Jennifer; Rogers, Laura; Drisgill, Randy; Ross, John; Riemann, Larry; Perran, Amanda; Perran, Shane; Sanford, Jacob J; Stubbs, Paul; Caravajal, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Wrox SharePoint 2010 SharePoint911 Three-Pack combines the contents of three full e-books written by the experts from SharePoint911.  That's over 1800 pages of hands-on advice from Todd Klindt, Shane Young, Laura Rogers, Randy Drisgill, Jennifer Mason, John Ross, and Larry Riemann, among others. In Beginning SharePoint 2010: Building Business Solutions with SharePoint (ISBN 978-0-470-61789-2) by Amanda Perran, Shane Perran, Jennifer Mason, and Laura Rogers, readers learn the core concepts, terminology, and features of SharePoint 2010. In Professiona

  1. Beginning SharePoint 2010 Building Business Solutions with SharePoint

    CERN Document Server

    Perran, Amanda; Mason, Jennifer; Rogers, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Two SharePoint MVPs provide the ultimate introduction to SharePoint 2010Beginning SharePoint 2010: Building Team Solutions with SharePoint provides information workers and site managers with extensive knowledge and expert advice, empowering them to become SharePoint champions within their organizations.Provides expansive coverage of SharePoint topics, as well as specialty areas such as forms, excel services, records management, and web content managementDetails realistic usage scenarios, and includes practice examples that highlight best practices for configuration and customizationIncludes de

  2. The power of PowerPoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niamtu , J

    2001-08-01

    Carousel slide presentations have been used for academic and clinical presentations since the late 1950s. However, advances in computer technology have caused a paradigm shift, and digital presentations are quickly becoming standard for clinical presentations. The advantages of digital presentations include cost savings; portability; easy updating capability; Internet access; multimedia functions, such as animation, pictures, video, and sound; and customization to augment audience interest and attention. Microsoft PowerPoint has emerged as the most popular digital presentation software and is currently used by many practitioners with and without significant computer expertise. The user-friendly platform of PowerPoint enables even the novice presenter to incorporate digital presentations into his or her profession. PowerPoint offers many advanced options that, with a minimal investment of time, can be used to create more interactive and professional presentations for lectures, patient education, and marketing. Examples of advanced PowerPoint applications are presented in a stepwise manner to unveil the full power of PowerPoint. By incorporating these techniques, medical practitioners can easily personalize, customize, and enhance their PowerPoint presentations. Complications, pitfalls, and caveats are discussed to detour and prevent misadventures in digital presentations. Relevant Web sites are listed to further update, customize, and communicate PowerPoint techniques.

  3. Detecting Change-Point via Saddlepoint Approximations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoyuan LI; Maozai TIAN

    2017-01-01

    It's well-known that change-point problem is an important part of model statistical analysis.Most of the existing methods are not robust to criteria of the evaluation of change-point problem.In this article,we consider "mean-shift" problem in change-point studies.A quantile test of single quantile is proposed based on saddlepoint approximation method.In order to utilize the information at different quantile of the sequence,we further construct a "composite quantile test" to calculate the probability of every location of the sequence to be a change-point.The location of change-point can be pinpointed rather than estimated within a interval.The proposed tests make no assumptions about the functional forms of the sequence distribution and work sensitively on both large and small size samples,the case of change-point in the tails,and multiple change-points situation.The good performances of the tests are confirmed by simulations and real data analysis.The saddlepoint approximation based distribution of the test statistic that is developed in the paper is of independent interest and appealing.This finding may be of independent interest to the readers in this research area.

  4. Interest point detection for hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado-Muñoz, Leidy P.; Vélez-Reyes, Miguel; Roysam, Badrinath; Mukherjee, Amit

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for automated extraction of interest points (IPs)in multispectral and hyperspectral images. Interest points are features of the image that capture information from its neighbours and they are distinctive and stable under transformations such as translation and rotation. Interest-point operators for monochromatic images were proposed more than a decade ago and have since been studied extensively. IPs have been applied to diverse problems in computer vision, including image matching, recognition, registration, 3D reconstruction, change detection, and content-based image retrieval. Interest points are helpful in data reduction, and reduce the computational burden of various algorithms (like registration, object detection, 3D reconstruction etc) by replacing an exhaustive search over the entire image domain by a probe into a concise set of highly informative points. An interest operator seeks out points in an image that are structurally distinct, invariant to imaging conditions, stable under geometric transformation, and interpretable which are good candidates for interest points. Our approach extends ideas from Lowe's keypoint operator that uses local extrema of Difference of Gaussian (DoG) operator at multiple scales to detect interest point in gray level images. The proposed approach extends Lowe's method by direct conversion of scalar operations such as scale-space generation, and extreme point detection into operations that take the vector nature of the image into consideration. Experimental results with RGB and hyperspectral images which demonstrate the potential of the method for this application and the potential improvements of a fully vectorial approach over band-by-band approaches described in the literature.

  5. Point Information Gain and Multidimensional Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rychtáriková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the point information gain (PIG and derived quantities, i.e., point information gain entropy (PIE and point information gain entropy density (PIED, for the case of the Rényi entropy and simulate the behavior of PIG for typical distributions. We also use these methods for the analysis of multidimensional datasets. We demonstrate the main properties of PIE/PIED spectra for the real data with the examples of several images and discuss further possible utilizations in other fields of data processing.

  6. Dynamics and mission design near libration points

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, G; Llibre, J; Martínez, R

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the restricted three-body problem has triangular equilibrium points. These points are linearly stable for values of the mass parameter, µ , below Routh's critical value, µ 1 . It is also known that in the spatial case they are nonlinearly stable, not for all the initial conditions in a neighborhood of the equilibrium points L 4 , L 5 but for a set of relatively large measures. This follows from the celebrated Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem. In fact there are neighborhoods of computable size for which one obtains "practical stability" in the sense that the massless partic

  7. PowerPoint 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Get up and running with this full-color guide to PowerPoint 2013! PowerPoint, the number one presentation software, has been revised and improved with the introduction of Microsoft Office 2013. With this all-new, full-color book by your side, you will learn how to take full advantage of all of PowerPoint's powerful and dynamic capabilities. Bestselling veteran For Dummies, author Doug Lowe breaks it all down so that you can create a powerful and effective slideshow presentation with the new wide-screen theme and variant that incorporates videos, pictures, and shapes, and all

  8. The Antitriangular Factorization of Saddle Point Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mastronardi and Van Dooren [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 34 (2013), pp. 173-196] recently introduced the block antitriangular ("Batman") decomposition for symmetric indefinite matrices. Here we show the simplification of this factorization for saddle point matrices and demonstrate how it represents the common nullspace method. We show that rank-1 updates to the saddle point matrix can be easily incorporated into the factorization and give bounds on the eigenvalues of matrices important in saddle point theory. We show the relation of this factorization to constraint preconditioning and how it transforms but preserves the structure of block diagonal and block triangular preconditioners. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  9. The universal cardinal ordering of fixed points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Martin, Jesus; Moscoso, Ma Jose; Gonzalez Gomez, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present the theorem which determines, by a permutation, the cardinal ordering of fixed points for any orbit of a period doubling cascade. The inverse permutation generates the orbit and the symbolic sequence of the orbit is obtained as a corollary. Interestingly enough, it is important to point that this theorem needs no previous information about any other orbit; also the cardinal ordering is achieved automatically with no need to compare numerical values associated with every point of the orbit (as would be the case if kneading theory were used).

  10. About Applications of the Fixed Point Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucur Amelia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The fixed point theory is essential to various theoretical and applied fields, such as variational and linear inequalities, the approximation theory, nonlinear analysis, integral and differential equations and inclusions, the dynamic systems theory, mathematics of fractals, mathematical economics (game theory, equilibrium problems, and optimisation problems and mathematical modelling. This paper presents a few benchmarks regarding the applications of the fixed point theory. This paper also debates if the results of the fixed point theory can be applied to the mathematical modelling of quality.

  11. Hybrid fixed point in CAT(0 spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Pathak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an ultrapower approach to prove fixed point theorems for $H^{+}$-nonexpansive multi-valued mappings in the setting of CAT(0 spaces and prove several hybrid fixed point results in CAT(0 spaces for families of single-valued nonexpansive or quasinonexpansive mappings and multi-valued upper semicontinuous, almost lower semicontinuous or $H^{+}$-nonexpansive mappings which are weakly commuting. We also establish a result about structure of the set of fixed points of $H^{+}$-quasinonexpansive mapping on a CAT(0 space.

  12. SharePoint 2010 Enterprise Architect's Guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Brian; Baer, Bill; Kearn, Martin; Shah, Arpan; Adams, Jim; Bridport, Nigel; Esperanca, Huge; Gideon, Chris; Hassani, Sam; Hodgkinson, Neil; Juvonen, Vesa; Kleven, Scott; Morrish, Ian; Olenick, Paul; Ranlett, Matt; Voskresenskaya, Natalya; Walker, Simon; Whitehead, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Tips and techniques for becoming a successful SharePoint architect If you're eager to design and architect a successful deployment of SharePoint 2010, then this is the book for you. Packed with real-world experiences and solid processes, this guidebook provides you with everything you need to perform for designing and architecting enterprise portal services. Helpful examples examine the common design issues affecting SharePoint 2010 environments that can cause deployments to fail so you can learn what to avoid. Plus, key development and deployment issues are covered from an architecture perspe

  13. Quantum entanglement and fixed-point bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, Andrew P.; McKenzie, Ross H.; Milburn, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    How does the classical phase-space structure for a composite system relate to the entanglement characteristics of the corresponding quantum system? We demonstrate how the entanglement in nonlinear bipartite systems can be associated with a fixed-point bifurcation in the classical dynamics. Using the example of coupled giant spins we show that when a fixed point undergoes a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation, the corresponding quantum state--the ground state--achieves its maximum amount of entanglement near the critical point. We conjecture that this will be a generic feature of systems whose classical limit exhibits such a bifurcation

  14. Lévy based Cox point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmund, Gunnar; Prokesová, Michaela; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Lévy-driven Cox point processes (LCPs) as Cox point processes with driving intensity function Λ defined by a kernel smoothing of a Lévy basis (an independently scattered, infinitely divisible random measure). We also consider log Lévy-driven Cox point processes (LLCPs......) with Λ equal to the exponential of such a kernel smoothing. Special cases are shot noise Cox processes, log Gaussian Cox processes, and log shot noise Cox processes. We study the theoretical properties of Lévy-based Cox processes, including moment properties described by nth-order product densities...

  15. Power point 2002 for successful presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Insoo

    2002-01-01

    This book mentions power point 2002 for successful presentation, which deals with power point and presentation, all guide, the latest gear, for presentation, basic of power point 2002 such as slide, text compile, insertion of picture, figure and application of office guide, setting up new year plan using text like insertion text with various methods, compile effective text, and 200% application of tab, and addiction of pretty shape of characters, finishing of conversion of chinese character, and elimination of typographical error with spell checker.

  16. Fixed point theorems in spaces and -trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk WA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that if is a bounded open set in a complete space , and if is nonexpansive, then always has a fixed point if there exists such that for all . It is also shown that if is a geodesically bounded closed convex subset of a complete -tree with , and if is a continuous mapping for which for some and all , then has a fixed point. It is also noted that a geodesically bounded complete -tree has the fixed point property for continuous mappings. These latter results are used to obtain variants of the classical fixed edge theorem in graph theory.

  17. Incidence and prevalence of patellofemoral pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E Smith

    Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain is considered one of the most common forms of knee pain, affecting adults, adolescents, and physically active populations. Inconsistencies in reported incidence and prevalence exist and in relation to the allocation of healthcare and research funding, there is a clear need to accurately understand the epidemiology of patellofemoral pain.An electronic database search was conducted, as well as grey literature databases, from inception to June 2017. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and appraised methodological quality. If heterogeneous, data were analysed descriptively. Where studies were homogeneous, data were pooled through a meta-analysis.23 studies were included. Annual prevalence for patellofemoral pain in the general population was reported as 22.7%, and adolescents as 28.9%. Incidence rates in military recruits ranged from 9.7-571.4/1,000 person-years, amateur runners in the general population at 1080.5/1,000 person-years and adolescents amateur athletes 5.1%-14.9% over 1 season. One study reported point prevalence within military populations as 13.5%. The pooled estimate for point prevalence in adolescents was 7.2% (95% Confidence Interval: 6.3%-8.3%, and in female only adolescent athletes was 22.7% (95% Confidence Interval 17.4%-28.0%.This review demonstrates high incidence and prevalence levels for patellofemoral pain. Within the context of this, and poor long term prognosis and high disability levels, PFP should be an urgent research priority.CRD42016038870.

  18. Point-of-Purchase Advertising. Learning Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Ray

    1998-01-01

    In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)

  19. Columbia River ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bird nesting sites in the Columbia River area. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  20. Detecting change-points in extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Dupuis, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Even though most work on change-point estimation focuses on changes in the mean, changes in the variance or in the tail distribution can lead to more extreme events. In this paper, we develop a new method of detecting and estimating the change-points in the tail of multiple time series data. In addition, we adapt existing tail change-point detection methods to our specific problem and conduct a thorough comparison of different methods in terms of performance on the estimation of change-points and computational time. We also examine three locations on the U.S. northeast coast and demonstrate that the methods are useful for identifying changes in seasonally extreme warm temperatures.