Sample records for set domain group

  1. A Preliminary Core Domain Set for Clinical Trials of Shoulder Disorders: A Report from the OMERACT 2016 Shoulder Core Outcome Set Special Interest Group. (United States)

    Buchbinder, Rachelle; Page, Matthew J; Huang, Hsiaomin; Verhagen, Arianne P; Beaton, Dorcas; Kopkow, Christian; Lenza, Mario; Jain, Nitin B; Richards, Bethan; Richards, Pamela; Voshaar, Marieke; van der Windt, Danielle; Gagnier, Joel J


    The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Shoulder Core Outcome Set Special Interest Group (SIG) was established to develop a core outcome set (COS) for clinical trials of shoulder disorders. In preparation for OMERACT 2016, we systematically examined all outcome domains and measurement instruments reported in 409 randomized trials of interventions for shoulder disorders published between 1954 and 2015. Informed by these data, we conducted an international Delphi consensus study including shoulder trial experts, clinicians, and patients to identify key domains that should be included in a shoulder disorder COS. Findings were discussed at a stakeholder premeeting of OMERACT. At OMERACT 2016, we sought consensus on a preliminary core domain set and input into next steps. There were 13 and 15 participants at the premeeting and the OMERACT 2016 SIG meeting, respectively (9 attended both meetings). Consensus was reached on a preliminary core domain set consisting of an inner core of 4 domains: pain, physical function/activity, global perceived effect, and adverse events including death. A middle core consisted of 3 domains: emotional well-being, sleep, and participation (recreation and work). An outer core of research required to inform the final COS was also formulated. Our next steps are to (1) analyze whether participation (recreation and work) should be in the inner core, (2) conduct a third Delphi round to finalize definitions and wording of domains and reach final endorsement for the domains, and (3) determine which instruments fulfill the OMERACT criteria for measuring each domain.

  2. Report from the OMERACT Hand Osteoarthritis Working Group: Set of Core Domains and Preliminary Set of Instruments for Use in Clinical Trials and Observational Studies. (United States)

    Kloppenburg, Margreet; Bøyesen, Pernille; Visser, A Willemien; Haugen, Ida K; Boers, Maarten; Boonen, Annelies; Conaghan, Philip G; Hawker, Gillian A; Kvien, Tore K; Landewé, Robert; Uhlig, Till; Smeets, Wilma; Greibrokk, Elsie; van der Heijde, Désirée M


    During OMERACT 12, a workshop was held with the aim to endorse a core set of domains for 3 settings: clinical trials of symptom and structure modification and observational studies. Additional goals were to endorse a core set of contextual factors for these settings, and to define preliminary instruments for each core domain. Finally, an agenda for future research in hand osteoarthritis (OA) was to be proposed. Literature reviews of preliminary instruments for each core domain of the proposed core set for hand OA in the settings described above. Literature review of radiographic scoring methods and modern imaging in hand OA were also performed. Proposed contextual factors for a core set were identified through 2 Delphi exercises with participation of hand OA experts, patient partners, and OMERACT participants. Results from Delphi exercises and systematic literature reviews were presented and discussed. It was agreed that a preliminary core domain set for the setting clinical trials of symptom modification should contain at least "pain, physical function, patient global assessment, joint activity and hand strength." The settings clinical trial of structure modification and observational studies would in addition include structural damage. Preliminary instruments for the proposed domains were agreed on. A list of prioritized contextual factors was defined and endorsed for further research. A research agenda was proposed for domain instrument validation according to the OMERACT Filter 2.0. Preliminary core sets for clinical trials of symptom and structure modification and observational studies in hand osteoarthritis, including preliminary instruments and contextual factors, were agreed upon during OMERACT 12.

  3. Report from the OMERACT Hand Osteoarthritis Working Group: Set of Core Domains and Preliminary Set of Instruments for Use in Clinical Trials and Observational Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenburg, Margreet; Bøyesen, Pernille; Visser, A. Willemien; Haugen, Ida K.; Boers, Maarten; Boonen, Annelies; Conaghan, Philip G.; Hawker, Gillian A.; Kvien, Tore K.; Landewé, Robert; Uhlig, Till; Smeets, Wilma; Greibrokk, Elsie; van der Heijde, Désirée M.


    During OMERACT 12, a workshop was held with the aim to endorse a core set of domains for 3 settings: clinical trials of symptom and structure modification and observational studies. Additional goals were to endorse a core set of contextual factors for these settings, and to define preliminary

  4. SET DOMAIN GROUP 708, a histone H3 lysine 36-specific methyltransferase, controls flowering time in rice (Oryza sativa). (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Wei, Gang; Shi, Jinlei; Jin, Jing; Shen, Ting; Ni, Ting; Shen, Wen-Hui; Yu, Yu; Dong, Aiwu


    As a key epigenetic modification, the methylation of histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) modulates chromatin structure and is involved in diverse biological processes. To better understand the language of H3K36 methylation in rice (Oryza sativa), we chose potential histone methylation enzymes for functional exploration. In particular, we characterized rice SET DOMAIN GROUP 708 (SDG708) as an H3K36-specific methyltransferase possessing the ability to deposit up to three methyl groups on H3K36. Compared with the wild-type, SDG708-knockdown rice mutants displayed a late-flowering phenotype under both long-day and short-day conditions because of the down-regulation of the key flowering regulatory genes Heading date 3a (Hd3a), RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1), and Early heading date 1 (Ehd1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that H3K36me1, H3K36me2, and H3K36me3 levels were reduced at these loci in SDG708-deficient plants. More importantly, SDG708 was able to directly target and effect H3K36 methylation on specific flowering genes. In fact, knockdown of SDG708 led to misexpression of a set of functional genes and a genome-wide decrease in H3K36me1/2/3 levels during the early growth stages of rice. SDG708 is a methyltransferase that catalyses genome-wide deposition of all three methyl groups on H3K36 and is involved in many biological processes in addition to flowering promotion. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Development of a Draft Core Set of Domains for Measuring Shared Decision Making in Osteoarthritis: An OMERACT Working Group on Shared Decision Making. (United States)

    Toupin-April, Karine; Barton, Jennifer; Fraenkel, Liana; Li, Linda; Grandpierre, Viviane; Guillemin, Francis; Rader, Tamara; Stacey, Dawn; Légaré, France; Jull, Janet; Petkovic, Jennifer; Scholte-Voshaar, Marieke; Welch, Vivian; Lyddiatt, Anne; Hofstetter, Cathie; De Wit, Maarten; March, Lyn; Meade, Tanya; Christensen, Robin; Gaujoux-Viala, Cécile; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E; Boonen, Annelies; Pohl, Christoph; Martin, Richard; Tugwell, Peter S


    Despite the importance of shared decision making for delivering patient-centered care in rheumatology, there is no consensus on how to measure its process and outcomes. The aim of this Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) working group is to determine the core set of domains for measuring shared decision making in intervention studies in adults with osteoarthritis (OA), from the perspectives of patients, health professionals, and researchers. We followed the OMERACT Filter 2.0 method to develop a draft core domain set by (1) forming an OMERACT working group; (2) conducting a review of domains of shared decision making; and (3) obtaining opinions of all those involved using a modified nominal group process held at a session activity at the OMERACT 12 meeting. In all, 26 people from Europe, North America, and Australia, including 5 patient research partners, participated in the session activity. Participants identified the following domains for measuring shared decision making to be included as part of the draft core set: (1) identifying the decision, (2) exchanging information, (3) clarifying views, (4) deliberating, (5) making the decision, (6) putting the decision into practice, and (7) assessing the effect of the decision. Contextual factors were also suggested. We proposed a draft core set of shared decision-making domains for OA intervention research studies. Next steps include a workshop at OMERACT 13 to reach consensus on these proposed domains in the wider OMERACT group, as well as to detail subdomains and assess instruments to develop a core outcome measurement set.

  6. Evidence for Updating the Core Domain Set of Outcome Measures for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Report from a Special Interest Group at OMERACT 2016. (United States)

    Morgan, Esi M; Riebschleger, Meredith P; Horonjeff, Jennifer; Consolaro, Alessandro; Munro, Jane E; Thornhill, Susan; Beukelman, Timothy; Brunner, Hermine I; Creek, Emily L; Harris, Julia G; Horton, Daniel B; Lovell, Daniel J; Mannion, Melissa L; Olson, Judyann C; Rahimi, Homaira; Gallo, Maria Chiara; Calandra, Serena; Ravelli, Angelo; Ringold, Sarah; Shenoi, Susan; Stinson, Jennifer; Toupin-April, Karine; Strand, Vibeke; Bingham, Clifton O


    The current Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) Core Set was developed in 1997 to identify the outcome measures to be used in JIA clinical trials using statistical and consensus-based techniques, but without patient involvement. The importance of patient/parent input into the research process has increasingly been recognized over the years. An Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) JIA Core Set Working Group was formed to determine whether the outcome domains of the current core set are relevant to those involved or whether the core set domains should be revised. Twenty-four people from the United States, Canada, Australia, and Europe, including patient partners, formed the working group. Guided by the OMERACT Filter 2.0 process, we performed (1) a systematic literature review of outcome domains, (2) a Web-based survey (142 patients, 343 parents), (3) an idea-generation study (120 parents), (4) 4 online discussion boards (24 patients, 20 parents), and (5) a Special Interest Group (SIG) activity at the OMERACT 13 (2016) meeting. A MEDLINE search of outcome domains used in studies of JIA yielded 5956 citations, of which 729 citations underwent full-text review, and identified additional domains to those included in the current JIA Core Set. Qualitative studies on the effect of JIA identified multiple additional domains, including pain and participation. Twenty-one participants in the SIG achieved consensus on the need to revise the entire JIA Core Set. The results of qualitative studies and literature review support the need to expand the JIA Core Set, considering, among other things, additional patient/parent-centered outcomes, clinical data, and imaging data.

  7. Normative data set identifying properties of the macula across age groups: integration of visual function and retinal structure with microperimetry and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Sabates, Felix N; Vincent, Ryan D; Koulen, Peter; Sabates, Nelson R; Gallimore, Gary


    A normative database of functional and structural parameters of the macula from normal subjects was established to identify reference points for the diagnosis of patients with macular disease using microperimetry and scanning laser ophthalmoscope/spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This was a community-based, prospective, cross-sectional study of 169 eyes from subjects aged 21 years to 85 years with best-corrected visual acuity of 20/25 or better and without any ocular disease. Full-threshold macular microperimetry combined with the acquisition of structural parameters of the macula with scanning laser ophthalmoscope/SD-OCT was recorded (SD-OCT/scanning laser ophthalmoscope with add-on Microperimetry module; OPKO). Fixation, central, subfield, and mean retinal thickness were acquired together with macular sensitivity function. Thickness and sensitivity as primary outcome measures were mapped and superimposed correlating topographically differentiated macular thickness with sensitivity. Statistical evaluation was performed with age, gender, and ethnicity as covariates. Subfield and mean retinal thickness and sensitivity were measured with macular microperimetry combined with SD-OCT and differentiated by macular topography and subjects' age, gender, and ethnicity. Mean retinal sensitivity and thickness were calculated for 169 healthy eyes (mean age, 48 ± 17 years). A statistically significant decrease in sensitivity was found only in the age group of participants ≥ 70 years and in peripheral portions of the macula in individuals aged ≥60 years and was more pronounced in the area surrounding the fovea than in the center of the macula, while retinal thickness did not change with age. No statistically significant differences in the primary outcome measures or their correlations were found when using gender or ethnicity as a covariate. A database for normal macular thickness and sensitivity was generated with a combined microperimetry SD

  8. Establishing a core domain set to measure rheumatoid arthritis flares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bykerk, Vivian P; Lie, Elisabeth; Bartlett, Susan J


    Filter 2.0 methodology. RESULTS: A pre-meeting combined Delphi exercise for defining flare identified 9 domains as important (>70% consensus from patients or HCP). Four new patient-reported domains beyond those included in the RA disease activity core set were proposed for inclusion (fatigue......OBJECTIVE: The OMERACT Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Flare Group (FG) is developing a data-driven, patient-inclusive, consensus-based RA flare definition for use in clinical trials, longterm observational studies, and clinical practice. At OMERACT 11, we sought endorsement of a proposed core domain set...... to measure RA flare. METHODS: Patient and healthcare professional (HCP) qualitative studies, focus groups, and literature review, followed by patient and HCP Delphi exercises including combined Delphi consensus at Outcome Measures in Rheumatology 10 (OMERACT 10), identified potential domains to measure flare...

  9. Identification and Analysis of the SET-Domain Family in Silkworm, Bombyx mori. (United States)

    Zhao, Hailong; Zheng, Chunqin; Cui, Hongjuan


    As an important economic insect, Bombyx mori is also a useful model organism for lepidopteran insect. SET-domain-containing proteins belong to a group of enzymes named after a common domain that utilizes the cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to achieve methylation of its substrates. Many SET-domain-containing proteins have been shown to display catalytic activity towards particular lysine residues on histones, but emerging evidence also indicates that various nonhistone proteins are specifically targeted by this clade of enzymes. To explore their diverse functions of SET-domain superfamily in insect, we identified, cloned, and analyzed the SET-domains proteins in silkworm, Bombyx mori. Firstly, 24 genes containing SET domain from silkworm genome were characterized and 17 of them belonged to six subfamilies of SUV39, SET1, SET2, SUV4-20, EZ, and SMYD. Secondly, SET domains of silkworm SET-domain family were intraspecifically and interspecifically conserved, especially for the catalytic core "NHSC" motif, substrate binding site, and catalytic site in the SET domain. Lastly, further analyses indicated that silkworm SET-domain gene BmSu(var)3-9 owned different characterization and expression profiles compared to other invertebrates. Overall, our results provide a new insight into the functional and evolutionary features of SET-domain family.

  10. Identification and Analysis of the SET-Domain Family in Silkworm, Bombyx mori

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    Hailong Zhao


    Full Text Available As an important economic insect, Bombyx mori is also a useful model organism for lepidopteran insect. SET-domain-containing proteins belong to a group of enzymes named after a common domain that utilizes the cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM to achieve methylation of its substrates. Many SET-domain-containing proteins have been shown to display catalytic activity towards particular lysine residues on histones, but emerging evidence also indicates that various nonhistone proteins are specifically targeted by this clade of enzymes. To explore their diverse functions of SET-domain superfamily in insect, we identified, cloned, and analyzed the SET-domains proteins in silkworm, Bombyx mori. Firstly, 24 genes containing SET domain from silkworm genome were characterized and 17 of them belonged to six subfamilies of SUV39, SET1, SET2, SUV4-20, EZ, and SMYD. Secondly, SET domains of silkworm SET-domain family were intraspecifically and interspecifically conserved, especially for the catalytic core “NHSC” motif, substrate binding site, and catalytic site in the SET domain. Lastly, further analyses indicated that silkworm SET-domain gene BmSu(var3-9 owned different characterization and expression profiles compared to other invertebrates. Overall, our results provide a new insight into the functional and evolutionary features of SET-domain family.

  11. Evolution of SET-domain protein families in the unicellular and multicellular Ascomycota fungi (United States)


    Background The evolution of multicellularity is accompanied by the occurrence of differentiated tissues, of organismal developmental programs, and of mechanisms keeping the balance between proliferation and differentiation. Initially, the SET-domain proteins were associated exclusively with regulation of developmental genes in metazoa. However, finding of SET-domain genes in the unicellular yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe suggested that SET-domain proteins regulate a much broader variety of biological programs. Intuitively, it is expected that the numbers, types, and biochemical specificity of SET-domain proteins of multicellular versus unicellular forms would reflect the differences in their biology. However, comparisons across the unicellular and multicellular domains of life are complicated by the lack of knowledge of the ancestral SET-domain genes. Even within the crown group, different biological systems might use the epigenetic 'code' differently, adapting it to organism-specific needs. Simplifying the model, we undertook a systematic phylogenetic analysis of one monophyletic fungal group (Ascomycetes) containing unicellular yeasts, Saccharomycotina (hemiascomycetes), and a filamentous fungal group, Pezizomycotina (euascomycetes). Results Systematic analysis of the SET-domain genes across an entire eukaryotic phylum has outlined clear distinctions in the SET-domain gene collections in the unicellular and in the multicellular (filamentous) relatives; diversification of SET-domain gene families has increased further with the expansion and elaboration of multicellularity in animal and plant systems. We found several ascomycota-specific SET-domain gene groups; each was unique to either Saccharomycotina or Pezizomycotina fungi. Our analysis revealed that the numbers and types of SET-domain genes in the Saccharomycotina did not reflect the habitats, pathogenicity, mechanisms of sexuality, or the ability to undergo morphogenic

  12. Updating the Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orbai, Ana-Maria; de Wit, Maarten; Mease, Philip J


    24 focus groups with 130 patients from 7 countries representing 5 continents to identify patient domains. We achieved consensus through 2 rounds of separate surveys with 50 patients and 75 physicians, and a nominal group technique meeting with 12 patients and 12 physicians. We conducted a workshop......-related quality of life, and systemic inflammation, which were recommended for all RCT and LOS. These were important, but not required in all RCT and LOS: economic cost, emotional well-being, participation, and structural damage. Independence, sleep, stiffness, and treatment burden were on the research agenda...

  13. Catalytic and functional roles of conserved amino acids in the SET domain of the S. cerevisiae lysine methyltransferase Set1.

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    Kelly Williamson

    Full Text Available In S. cerevisiae, the lysine methyltransferase Set1 is a member of the multiprotein complex COMPASS. Set1 catalyzes mono-, di- and trimethylation of the fourth residue, lysine 4, of histone H3 using methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine, and requires a subset of COMPASS proteins for this activity. The methylation activity of COMPASS regulates gene expression and chromosome segregation in vivo. To improve understanding of the catalytic mechanism of Set1, single amino acid substitutions were made within the SET domain. These Set1 mutants were evaluated in vivo by determining the levels of K4-methylated H3, assaying the strength of gene silencing at the rDNA and using a genetic assessment of kinetochore function as a proxy for defects in Dam1 methylation. The findings indicate that no single conserved active site base is required for H3K4 methylation by Set1. Instead, our data suggest that a number of aromatic residues in the SET domain contribute to the formation of an active site that facilitates substrate binding and dictates product specificity. Further, the results suggest that the attributes of Set1 required for trimethylation of histone H3 are those required for Pol II gene silencing at the rDNA and kinetochore function.

  14. Development of a Draft Core Set of Domains for Measuring Shared Decision Making in Osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toupin-April, Karine; Barton, Jennifer; Fraenkel, Liana


    for measuring shared decision making in intervention studies in adults with osteoarthritis (OA), from the perspectives of patients, health professionals, and researchers. METHODS: We followed the OMERACT Filter 2.0 method to develop a draft core domain set by (1) forming an OMERACT working group; (2) conducting...... a review of domains of shared decision making; and (3) obtaining opinions of all those involved using a modified nominal group process held at a session activity at the OMERACT 12 meeting. RESULTS: In all, 26 people from Europe, North America, and Australia, including 5 patient research partners...

  15. Setting the stage: workshops and group interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Kyng, Morten; Greenbaum, Joan


    In the Autumn of 1984, my colleague Pelle Ehn and I went on a trip to the United Stated to discuss our experiences from Denmark and Sweden with involving workers in the design of computer systems. By the i had been working together with "end users" and trade unions for a decade, but I was still...... considered an outsider at my university: Working with end users was not "academic", and doing design instead of controlled experiments was considered "unscientific." The people we visited in the U.S. were not mainstream computer scientists, either. But the interest we encountered, as well as the discussions...... we had, convinced us that designing cooperatively with end users was woth pursuing, not only in a Scandinavian setting. it had something to offer system designers who wanted computers to improve people's work, and it had a lot to offer end users, who generally don't get the chance to be actively...

  16. Patient Endorsement of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Total Joint Replacement (TJR) clinical trial draft core domain set. (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Dowsey, Michelle; Choong, Peter F


    A patient- and surgeon-Delphi-derived Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) draft core domain set for total joint arthroplasty (TJR) trials was recently developed. Our objective was to obtain further patient stakeholder endorsement of draft core domain set for TJR clinical trials. We surveyed two patient groups: (1) OMERACT patient partners; and (2) patients who had undergone hip or knee TJR. Patients received an introductory email with explanations about the core domain set and instructions to rate the core domains, i.e., important aspects, of OMERACT TJR clinical trial draft core domain set. Rating was on a nominal scale, where 1-3 indicated a domain of limited importance, 4-6 an important, but not critical domain, and 7-9 a critical domain. We used Mann-Whitney test (a non-parametric test) to compare the distribution of ratings between the two groups. Thirty one survey participants from the OMERACT patient partner group and 118 knee/hip TJR patients responded with response rates of 66 and 80%, respectively. Majority of the survey respondents were female, 87 vs. 53%, and were 55 years or older, 57 vs. 94%. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) scores for six core domains by OMERACT and knee/hip TJR patient groups were, respectively: pain, 8 [8, 9] and 9 [8, 9]; function, 9 [8, 9] and 9 [8, 9]; patient satisfaction, 8 [8, 9] and 8 [7, 9]; revision surgery, 7 [7, 8] and 7 [5, 9]; adverse events, 8 [7, 9] and 8 [6, 9]; and death, 9 [6, 9] and 9 [4, 9]. No statistically significant differences in rating were noted for any of the six core domains between the two groups (p ≥ 0.31). Among the additional domains, ratings for patient participation did not differ by group (p = 0.98), but ratings for cost were significantly different (p = 0.005). Patients provided qualitative feedback regarding core domains, and did not propose any modifications to the draft core domain set. Two separate patient stakeholder groups endorsed the OMERACT TJR draft core domain

  17. Core outcome sets in dermatology: report from the second meeting of the International Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcome Set Initiative. (United States)

    Kottner, J; Jacobi, L; Hahnel, E; Alam, M; Balzer, K; Beeckman, D; Busard, C; Chalmers, J; Deckert, S; Eleftheriadou, V; Furlan, K; Horbach, S E R; Kirkham, J; Nast, A; Spuls, P; Thiboutot, D; Thorlacius, L; Weller, K; Williams, H C; Schmitt, J


    Results of clinical trials are the most important information source for generating external clinical evidence. The use of different outcomes across trials, which investigate similar interventions for similar patient groups, significantly limits the interpretation, comparability and clinical application of trial results. Core outcome sets (COSs) aim to overcome this limitation. A COS is an agreed standardized collection of outcomes that should be measured and reported in all clinical trials for a specific clinical condition. The Core Outcome Set Initiative within the Cochrane Skin Group (CSG-COUSIN) supports the development of core outcomes in dermatology. In the second CSG-COUSIN meeting held in 2017, 11 COS development groups working on skin diseases presented their current work. The presentations and discussions identified the following overarching methodological challenges for COS development in dermatology: it is not always easy to define the disease focus of a COS; the optimal method for outcome domain identification and level of detail needed to specify such domains is challenging to many; decision rules within Delphi surveys need to be improved; appropriate ways of patient involvement are not always clear. In addition, there appear to be outcome domains that may be relevant as potential core outcome domains for the majority of skin diseases. The close collaboration between methodologists in the Core Outcome Set Initiative and the international Cochrane Skin Group has major advantages for trialists, systematic reviewers and COS developers. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Structural Studies of the SET Domain from RIZ1 Tumor Suppressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briknarova, Klara; Zhou, Xinliang; Satterthwait, Arnold C.; Hoyt, David W.; Ely, Kathryn R.; Huang, Shi


    Histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs) are involved in regulation of chromatin structure, and, as such, are important for longterm gene activation and repression that is associated with cell memory and establishment of cell-type specific transcriptional programs. Most HKMTs contain a SET domain, which is responsible for their catalytic activity. RIZ1 is a transcription regulator and tumor suppressor that catalyzes methylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 and contains a rather distinct SET domain. Similar SET domains, sometimes refererred to as PR (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ1 homology) domains, are also found in other proteins including Blimp-1/PRDI-BF1, MDS1-EVI1 and Meisetz. We determined the solution structure of the PR domain from RIZ1 and characterized its interaction with S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) and a peptide from histone H3. Despite low sequence identity with canonical SET domains, the PR domain displays a typical SET fold including a pseudo-knot at the C-terminus. The N-flanking sequence of RIZ1 PR domain adopts a novel conformation and interacts closely with the SET fold. The C-flanking sequence contains an α-helix that exhibits higher mobility than the SET fold and points away from the protein face that harbors active site in other SET domains. Residues that interact with the methylation cofactor in SET domains are not conserved in RIZ1 or other PR domains, and the SET fold of RIZ1 does not bind SAH. However, the PR domain of RIZ1 interacts specifically with a synthetic peptide comprising residues 1-20 of histone H3.

  19. Effects of Group Size on Students Mathematics Achievement in Small Group Settings (United States)

    Enu, Justice; Danso, Paul Amoah; Awortwe, Peter K.


    An ideal group size is hard to obtain in small group settings; hence there are groups with more members than others. The purpose of the study was to find out whether group size has any effects on students' mathematics achievement in small group settings. Two third year classes of the 2011/2012 academic year were selected from two schools in the…

  20. Application of Time Domain Reflectometers in Urban Settings ... (United States)

    Time domain reflectometers (TDRs) are sensors that measure the volumetric water content of soils and porous media. The sensors consist of stainless steel rods connected to a circuit board in an epoxy housing. An electromagnetic pulse is propagated along the rods. The time, or period, required for the signal to travel down the rods and back varies with the volumetric water content of the surrounding media and temperature. A calibration curve is needed for the specific media. TDRs were developed mostly for agricultural applications; however, the technology has also been applied to forestry and ecological research. This study demonstrates the use of TDRs for quantifying drainage properties in low impact development (LID) stormwater controls, specifically permeable pavement and rain garden systems. TDRs were successfully used to monitor the responses of urban fill, engineered bioretention media, and the aggregate storage layer under permeable pavement to multiple rain events of varying depth, intensity, and duration. The hydrologic performance of permeable pavement and rain garden systems has previously been quantified for underdrain systems, but there have been few studies of systems that drain to the underlying soils. We know of no published studies outlining the use of TDR technology to document drainage properties in media other than soil. In this study TDRs were installed at multiple locations and depths in underlying urban fill soils, engineered bior

  1. The induction of acute psychosis in a group setting. (United States)

    Powell, C


    The case histories of two patients are described, each of whom suffered a severe psychotic decompensation, one apparently schizophreniform and the other affective, after attending a seven day marathon group conducted by a charismatic, aggressive leader. The work of Yalom and Lieberman is reviewed, with regard to leader and participant characteristics in encounter group casualties. Drawing upon the work of Bion and Kernberg, a specific means for the induction of psychosis is suggested, involving primitive splitting and the projection of "all bad" self-object constellations within a group setting.

  2. The SET domain protein, Set3p, promotes the reliable execution of cytokinesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rentas

    Full Text Available In response to perturbation of the cell division machinery fission yeast cells activate regulatory networks that ensure the faithful completion of cytokinesis. For instance, when cells are treated with drugs that impede constriction of the actomyosin ring (low doses of Latrunculin A, for example these networks ensure that cytokinesis is complete before progression into the subsequent mitosis. Here, we identify three previously uncharacterized genes, hif2, set3, and snt1, whose deletion results in hyper-sensitivity to LatA treatment and in increased rates of cytokinesis failure. Interestingly, these genes are orthologous to TBL1X, MLL5, and NCOR2, human genes that encode components of a histone deacetylase complex with a known role in cytokinesis. Through co-immunoprecipitation experiments, localization studies, and phenotypic analysis of gene deletion mutants, we provide evidence for an orthologous complex in fission yeast. Furthermore, in light of the putative role of the complex in chromatin modification, together with our results demonstrating an increase in Set3p levels upon Latrunculin A treatment, global gene expression profiles were generated. While this analysis demonstrated that the expression of cytokinesis genes was not significantly affected in set3Δ backgrounds, it did reveal defects in the ability of the mutant to regulate genes with roles in the cellular response to stress. Taken together, these findings support the existence of a conserved, multi-protein complex with a role in promoting the successful completion of cytokinesis.

  3. Uncertainty principle for measurable sets and signal recovery in quaternion domains (United States)

    Kou, Kit Ian; Yang, Yan; Zou, Cuiming


    The classical uncertainty principle of harmonic analysis states that a nontrivial function and its Fourier transform cannot both be sharply localized. It plays an important role in signal processing and physics. This paper generalizes the uncertainty principle for measurable sets from complex domain to hypercomplex domain using quaternion algebras, associated with the Quaternion Fourier transform. The performance is then evaluated in signal recovery problems where there is an interplay of missing and time-limiting data.

  4. Crystal structure of the trithorax group protein ASH2L reveals a forkhead-like DNA binding domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvan, Sabina; Avdic, Vanja; Tremblay, Véronique; Chaturvedi, Chandra-Prakash; Zhang, Pamela; Lanouette, Sylvain; Blais, Alexandre; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Brand, Marjorie; Couture, Jean-François (Ottawa Hosp.); (Ottawa); (NWU)


    Absent, small or homeotic discs-like 2 (ASH2L) is a trithorax group (TrxG) protein and a regulatory subunit of the SET1 family of lysine methyltransferases. Here we report that ASH2L binds DNA using a forkhead-like helix-wing-helix (HWH) domain. In vivo, the ASH2L HWH domain is required for binding to the {beta}-globin locus control region, histone H3 Lys4 (H3K4) trimethylation and maximal expression of the {beta}-globin gene (Hbb-1), validating the functional importance of the ASH2L DNA binding domain.

  5. Acupuncture Therapy in a Group Setting for Chronic Pain. (United States)

    Kligler, Benjamin; Nielsen, Arya; Kohrherr, Corinne; Schmid, Tracy; Waltermaurer, Eve; Perez, Elidania; Merrell, Woodson


    This project was designed to test the feasibility and effectiveness of acupuncture therapy given in a group setting for chronic pain. Nonrandomized, repeated measures quasi-experimental trial. Care was delivered in a primary care clinic waiting area after clinic hours. Included were primary care patients (≥18 years old) with chronic pain of the neck, back, shoulder, or osteoarthritis of any site of at least three months' duration. Subjects received eight weekly acupuncture therapy sessions in a group setting. Acupuncture therapy included a combination of palpation, acupuncture needling, Tui na, Gua sha, and auricular treatment. Baseline pain levels were established in a two- to four-week run-in; assessment of the intervention impact on pain intensity, mood, and functional status were made at the end of the treatment period (eight weeks) and 16 weeks after completion of intervention (24 weeks). Of the total 113 participants recruited for the trial, 96 completed the 24-week protocol. We found a statistically and clinically significant decrease in pain severity, pain interference, and depression in our study population. There were no serious adverse events. Acupuncture therapy offered in the group setting was effective in reducing pain severity, pain interference, and depression in patients with chronic neck, back, or shoulder pain or osteoarthritis. Benefit persisted through the 24-week measure despite no additional treatment. This finding has potentially important implications for improving access to effective acupuncture treatment for patients with limited financial resources.

  6. Toward the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Rehabilitation Set: A Minimal Generic Set of Domains for Rehabilitation as a Health Strategy. (United States)

    Prodinger, Birgit; Cieza, Alarcos; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Bickenbach, Jerome; Üstün, Tevfik Bedirhan; Chatterji, Somnath; Stucki, Gerold


    To develop a comprehensive set of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories as a minimal standard for reporting and assessing functioning and disability in clinical populations along the continuum of care. The specific aims were to specify the domains of functioning recommended for an ICF Rehabilitation Set and to identify a minimal set of environmental factors (EFs) to be used alongside the ICF Rehabilitation Set when describing disability across individuals and populations with various health conditions. Secondary analysis of existing data sets using regression methods (Random Forests and Group Lasso regression) and expert consultations. Along the continuum of care, including acute, early postacute, and long-term and community rehabilitation settings. Persons (N=9863) with various health conditions participated in primary studies. The number of respondents for whom the dependent variable data were available and used in this analysis was 9264. Not applicable. For regression analyses, self-reported general health was used as a dependent variable. The ICF categories from the functioning component and the EF component were used as independent variables for the development of the ICF Rehabilitation Set and the minimal set of EFs, respectively. Thirty ICF categories to be complemented with 12 EFs were identified as relevant to the identified ICF sets. The ICF Rehabilitation Set constitutes of 9 ICF categories from the component body functions and 21 from the component activities and participation. The minimal set of EFs contains 12 categories spanning all chapters of the EF component of the ICF. The identified sets proposed serve as minimal generic sets of aspects of functioning in clinical populations for reporting data within and across heath conditions, time, clinical settings including rehabilitation, and countries. These sets present a reference framework for harmonizing existing information on disability across

  7. A Domain-Specific Languane for Regular Sets of Strings and Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Klarlund, Nils


    We propose a new high-level progr amming notation, called FIDO, that we have designed to concisely express regular sets of strings or trees. In particular, it can be viewed as a domain-specific language for the expression of finite-state automata on large alphabets (of sometimes astronomical size...

  8. Multi-domain, higher order level set scheme for 3D image segmentation on the GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Zhang, Qin; Anton, François


    to evaluate level set surfaces that are $C^2$ continuous, but are slow due to high computational burden. In this paper, we provide a higher order GPU based solver for fast and efficient segmentation of large volumetric images. We also extend the higher order method to multi-domain segmentation. Our streaming...

  9. Ranking Cognitive Flexibility in a Group Setting of Rhesus Monkeys with a Set-Shifting Procedure. (United States)

    Shnitko, Tatiana A; Allen, Daicia C; Gonzales, Steven W; Walter, Nicole A R; Grant, Kathleen A


    Attentional set-shifting ability is an executive function underling cognitive flexibility in humans and animals. In humans, this function is typically observed during a single experimental session where dimensions of playing cards are used to measure flexibility in the face of changing rules for reinforcement (i.e., the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)). In laboratory animals, particularly non-human primates, variants of the WCST involve extensive training and testing on a series of dimensional discriminations, usually in social isolation. In the present study, a novel experimental approach was used to assess attentional set-shifting simultaneously in 12 rhesus monkeys. Specifically, monkeys living in individual cages but in the same room were trained at the same time each day in a set-shifting task in the same housing environment. As opposed to the previous studies, each daily session began with a simple single-dimension discrimination regardless of the animal's performance on the previous session. A total of eight increasingly difficult, discriminations (sets) were possible in each daily 45 min session. Correct responses were reinforced under a second-order schedule of flavored food pellet delivery, and criteria for completing a set was 12 correct trials out of a running total of 15 trials. Monkeys progressed through the sets at their own pace and abilities. The results demonstrate that all 12 monkeys acquired the simple discrimination (the first set), but individual differences in the ability to progress through all eight sets were apparent. A performance index (PI) that encompassed progression through the sets, errors and session duration was calculated and used to rank each monkey's performance in relation to each other. Overall, this version of a set-shifting task results in an efficient assessment of reliable differences in cognitive flexibility in a group of monkeys.

  10. Quality evaluation of value sets from cancer study common data elements using the UMLS semantic groups. (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G


    The objective of this study is to develop an approach to evaluate the quality of terminological annotations on the value set (ie, enumerated value domain) components of the common data elements (CDEs) in the context of clinical research using both unified medical language system (UMLS) semantic types and groups. The CDEs of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Data Standards Repository, the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) concepts and the UMLS semantic network were integrated using a semantic web-based framework for a SPARQL-enabled evaluation. First, the set of CDE-permissible values with corresponding meanings in external controlled terminologies were isolated. The corresponding value meanings were then evaluated against their NCI- or UMLS-generated semantic network mapping to determine whether all of the meanings fell within the same semantic group. Of the enumerated CDEs in the Cancer Data Standards Repository, 3093 (26.2%) had elements drawn from more than one UMLS semantic group. A random sample (n=100) of this set of elements indicated that 17% of them were likely to have been misclassified. The use of existing semantic web tools can support a high-throughput mechanism for evaluating the quality of large CDE collections. This study demonstrates that the involvement of multiple semantic groups in an enumerated value domain of a CDE is an effective anchor to trigger an auditing point for quality evaluation activities. This approach produces a useful quality assurance mechanism for a clinical study CDE repository.

  11. Updating the Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set: A Report from the PsA Workshop at OMERACT 2016. (United States)

    Orbai, Ana-Maria; de Wit, Maarten; Mease, Philip J; Callis Duffin, Kristina; Elmamoun, Musaab; Tillett, William; Campbell, Willemina; FitzGerald, Oliver; Gladman, Dafna D; Goel, Niti; Gossec, Laure; Hoejgaard, Pil; Leung, Ying Ying; Lindsay, Chris; Strand, Vibeke; van der Heijde, Désirée M; Shea, Bev; Christensen, Robin; Coates, Laura; Eder, Lihi; McHugh, Neil; Kalyoncu, Umut; Steinkoenig, Ingrid; Ogdie, Alexis


    To include the patient perspective in accordance with the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter 2.0 in the updated Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and longitudinal observational studies (LOS). At OMERACT 2016, research conducted to update the PsA Core Domain Set was presented and discussed in breakout groups. The updated PsA Core Domain Set was voted on and endorsed by OMERACT participants. We conducted a systematic literature review of domains measured in PsA RCT and LOS, and identified 24 domains. We conducted 24 focus groups with 130 patients from 7 countries representing 5 continents to identify patient domains. We achieved consensus through 2 rounds of separate surveys with 50 patients and 75 physicians, and a nominal group technique meeting with 12 patients and 12 physicians. We conducted a workshop and breakout groups at OMERACT 2016 in which findings were presented and discussed. The updated PsA Core Domain Set endorsed with 90% agreement by OMERACT 2016 participants included musculoskeletal disease activity, skin disease activity, fatigue, pain, patient's global assessment, physical function, health-related quality of life, and systemic inflammation, which were recommended for all RCT and LOS. These were important, but not required in all RCT and LOS: economic cost, emotional well-being, participation, and structural damage. Independence, sleep, stiffness, and treatment burden were on the research agenda. The updated PsA Core Domain Set was endorsed at OMERACT 2016. Next steps for the PsA working group include evaluation of PsA outcome measures and development of a PsA Core Outcome Measurement Set.

  12. A CRM domain protein functions dually in group I and group II intron splicing in land plant chloroplasts. (United States)

    Asakura, Yukari; Barkan, Alice


    The CRM domain is a recently recognized RNA binding domain found in three group II intron splicing factors in chloroplasts, in a bacterial protein that associates with ribosome precursors, and in a family of uncharacterized proteins in plants. To elucidate the functional repertoire of proteins with CRM domains, we studied CFM2 (for CRM Family Member 2), which harbors four CRM domains. RNA coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that CFM2 in maize (Zea mays) chloroplasts is associated with the group I intron in pre-trnL-UAA and group II introns in the ndhA and ycf3 pre-mRNAs. T-DNA insertions in the Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog condition a defective-seed phenotype (strong allele) or chlorophyll-deficient seedlings with impaired splicing of the trnL group I intron and the ndhA, ycf3-int1, and clpP-int2 group II introns (weak alleles). CFM2 and two previously described CRM proteins are bound simultaneously to the ndhA and ycf3-int1 introns and act in a nonredundant fashion to promote their splicing. With these findings, CRM domain proteins are implicated in the activities of three classes of catalytic RNA: group I introns, group II introns, and 23S rRNA.

  13. Characterization of the molecular basis of group II intron RNA recognition by CRS1-CRM domains. (United States)

    Keren, Ido; Klipcan, Liron; Bezawork-Geleta, Ayenachew; Kolton, Max; Shaya, Felix; Ostersetzer-Biran, Oren


    CRM (chloroplast RNA splicing and ribosome maturation) is a recently recognized RNA-binding domain of ancient origin that has been retained in eukaryotic genomes only within the plant lineage. Whereas in bacteria CRM domains exist as single domain proteins involved in ribosome maturation, in plants they are found in a family of proteins that contain between one and four repeats. Several members of this family with multiple CRM domains have been shown to be required for the splicing of specific plastidic group II introns. Detailed biochemical analysis of one of these factors in maize, CRS1, demonstrated its high affinity and specific binding to the single group II intron whose splicing it facilitates, the plastid-encoded atpF intron RNA. Through its association with two intronic regions, CRS1 guides the folding of atpF intron RNA into its predicted "catalytically active" form. To understand how multiple CRM domains cooperate to achieve high affinity sequence-specific binding to RNA, we analyzed the RNA binding affinity and specificity associated with each individual CRM domain in CRS1; whereas CRM3 bound tightly to the RNA, CRM1 associated specifically with a unique region found within atpF intron domain I. CRM2, which demonstrated only low binding affinity, also seems to form specific interactions with regions localized to domains I, III, and IV. We further show that CRM domains share structural similarities and RNA binding characteristics with the well known RNA recognition motif domain.

  14. Improvement of training set structure in fusion data cleaning using Time-Domain Global Similarity method (United States)

    Liu, J.; Lan, T.; Qin, H.


    Traditional data cleaning identifies dirty data by classifying original data sequences, which is a class-imbalanced problem since the proportion of incorrect data is much less than the proportion of correct ones for most diagnostic systems in Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) devices. When using machine learning algorithms to classify diagnostic data based on class-imbalanced training set, most classifiers are biased towards the major class and show very poor classification rates on the minor class. By transforming the direct classification problem about original data sequences into a classification problem about the physical similarity between data sequences, the class-balanced effect of Time-Domain Global Similarity (TDGS) method on training set structure is investigated in this paper. Meanwhile, the impact of improved training set structure on data cleaning performance of TDGS method is demonstrated with an application example in EAST POlarimetry-INTerferometry (POINT) system.

  15. Remaining a Nonparticipant in a Cooperative Group Setting. (United States)

    Deardoff, Richard


    A high school history teacher of gifted students examined difficulties in establishing cooperative groups when members changed frequently. Student interviews and surveys indicated that some students were happy to remain nonparticipants in any group. Participation was less a factor of group makeup than a factor of student opinion about grades.…

  16. Domain analysis of computational science - Fifty years of a scientific computing group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.


    I employed bibliometric- and historical-methods to study the domain of the Scientific Computing group at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for an extended period of fifty years, from 1958 to 2007. I noted and confirmed the growing emergence of interdisciplinarity within the group. I also identified a strong, consistent mathematics and physics orientation within it.

  17. Microbial F-type lectin domains with affinity for blood group antigens. (United States)

    Mahajan, Sonal; Khairnar, Aasawari; Bishnoi, Ritika; Ramya, T N C


    F-type lectins are fucose binding lectins with characteristic fucose binding and calcium binding motifs. Although they occur with a selective distribution in viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, most biochemical studies have focused on vertebrate F-type lectins. Recently, using sensitive bioinformatics search techniques on the non-redundant database, we had identified many microbial F-type lectin domains with diverse domain organizations. We report here the biochemical characterization of F-type lectin domains from Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001, Myxococcus hansupus and Leucothrix mucor. We demonstrate that while all these three microbial F-type lectin domains bind to the blood group H antigen epitope on fucosylated glycans, there are fine differences in their glycan binding specificity. Cyanobium sp. PCC 7001 F-type lectin domain binds exclusively to extended H type-2 motif, Myxococcus hansupus F-type lectin domain binds to B, H type-1 and Lewis(b) motifs, and Leucothrix mucor F-type lectin domain binds to a wide range of fucosylated glycans, including A, B, H and Lewis antigens. We believe that these microbial lectins will be useful additions to the glycobiologist's toolbox for labeling, isolating and visualizing glycans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Core domain and outcome measurement sets for shoulder pain trials are needed: Systematic review of physical therapy trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Page (Matthew J.); J.E. McKenzie (Joanne E.); S.E. Green (Sally E.); D.E. Beaton (Dorcas E.); N.B. Jain (Nitin B.); M. Lenza (Mario); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne P.); S. Surace (Stephen); J. Deitch (Jessica); R. Buchbinder (Rachelle)


    textabstractObjectives To explore the outcome domains and measurement instruments reported in published randomized controlled trials of physical therapy interventions for shoulder pain (rotator cuff disease, adhesive capsulitis, or nonspecific shoulder pain). Study Design and Setting We included

  19. Impact of discussion on preferences elicited in a group setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne Ruairidh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completeness of preferences is assumed as one of the axioms of expected utility theory but has been subject to little empirical study. Methods Fifteen non-health professionals was recruited and familiarised with the standard gamble technique. The group then met five times over six months and preferences were elicited independently on 41 scenarios. After individual valuation, the group discussed the scenarios, following which preferences could be changed. Changes made were described and summary measures (mean and median before and after discussion compared using paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out to explore attitudes to discussing preferences. These were transcribed, read by two investigators and emergent themes described. Results Sixteen changes (3.6% were made to preferences by seven (47% of the fifteen members. The difference between individual preference values before and after discussion ranged from -0.025 to 0.45. The average effect on the group mean was 0.0053. No differences before and after discussion were statistically significant. The group valued discussion highly and suggested it brought four main benefits: reassurance; improved procedural performance; increased group cohesion; satisfying curiosity. Conclusion The hypothesis that preferences are incomplete cannot be rejected for a proportion of respondents. However, brief discussion did not result in substantial number of changes to preferences and these did not have significant impact on summary values for the group, suggesting that incompleteness, if present, may not have an important effect on cost-utility analyses.

  20. TNO/Centaurs grouping tested with asteroid data sets (United States)

    Fulchignoni, M.; Birlan, M.; Barucci, M. A.


    Recently, we have discussed the possible subdivision in few groups of a sample of 22 TNO and Centaurs for which the BVRIJ photometry were available (Barucci et al., 2001, A&A, 371,1150). We obtained this results using the multivariate statistics adopted to define the current asteroid taxonomy, namely the Principal Components Analysis and the G-mode method (Tholen & Barucci, 1989, in ASTEROIDS II). How these methods work with a very small statistical sample as the TNO/Centaurs one? Theoretically, the number of degrees of freedom of the sample is correct. In fact it is 88 in our case and have to be larger then 50 to cope with the requirements of the G-mode. Does the random sampling of the small number of members of a large population contain enough information to reveal some structure in the population? We extracted several samples of 22 asteroids out of a data-base of 86 objects of known taxonomic type for which BVRIJ photometry is available from ECAS (Zellner et al. 1985, ICARUS 61, 355), SMASS II (S.W. Bus, 1999, PhD Thesis, MIT), and the Bell et al. Atlas of the asteroid infrared spectra. The objects constituting the first sample were selected in order to give a good representation of the major asteroid taxonomic classes (at least three samples each class): C,S,D,A, and G. Both methods were able to distinguish all these groups confirming the validity of the adopted methods. The S class is hard to individuate as a consequence of the choice of I and J variables, which imply a lack of information on the absorption band at 1 micron. The other samples were obtained by random choice of the objects. Not all the major groups were well represented (less than three samples per groups), but the general trend of the asteroid taxonomy has been always obtained. We conclude that the quoted grouping of TNO/Centaurs is representative of some physico-chemical structure of the outer solar system small body population.

  1. Priority setting for health research: lessons from developing countries. The Working Group on Priority Setting. (United States)


    Research resources for addressing health problems of developing countries remain disproportionately low compared with the tremendous disease burdens borne by these countries. There is a need to focus these scarce resources on research that will optimize health benefits and lead to equity. This paper reviews processes and methods that have been used for setting research priorities. Past and current processes have focused on expert-driven research agenda, emphasizing scientific autonomy and global analyses. Methods for setting priorities have focused on the metrics of disease burdens, while less attention has been placed on who sets priorities and how choices are made. The paper proposes a strategy of priority setting, based on lessons learned from essential national health research (ENHR) approaches attempted in several developing countries. With equity in health and development as its goal, the proposed model is demand-driven, and involves multi-dimensional inputs and multiple stakeholders. Various steps of the process are discussed: getting participants involved; gathering evidence and information; determining criteria for priority setting; and implementation and evaluation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the gap between national research priorities and the research agenda set at regional and global levels, an issue that needs to be satisfactorily addressed in the future.

  2. Steric Clash in the SET Domain of Histone Methyltransferase NSD1 as a Cause of Sotos Syndrome and Its Genetic Heterogeneity in a Brazilian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungsoo Ha


    Full Text Available Most histone methyltransferases (HMTase harbor a predicted Su(var3–9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax (SET domain, which transfers a methyl group to a lysine residue in their substrates. Mutations of the SET domains were reported to cause intellectual disability syndromes such as Sotos, Weaver, or Kabuki syndromes. Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome with intellectual disability caused by haploinsufficiency of the nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 1 (NSD1 gene, an HMTase at 5q35.2–35.3. Here, we analyzed NSD1 in 34 Brazilian Sotos patients and identified three novel and eight known mutations. Using protein modeling and bioinformatic approaches, we evaluated the effects of one novel (I2007F and 21 previously reported missense mutations in the SET domain. For the I2007F mutation, we observed conformational change and loss of structural stability in Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations which may lead to loss-of-function of the SET domain. For six mutations near the ligand-binding site we observed in simulations steric clashes with neighboring side chains near the substrate S-Adenosyl methionine (SAM binding site, which may disrupt the enzymatic activity of NSD1. These results point to a structural mechanism underlying the pathology of the NSD1 missense mutations in the SET domain in Sotos syndrome. NSD1 mutations were identified in only 32% of the Brazilian Sotos patients in our study cohort suggesting other genes (including unknown disease genes underlie the molecular etiology for the majority of these patients. Our studies also found NSD1 expression to be profound in human fetal brain and cerebellum, accounting for prenatal onset and hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis seen in Sotos syndrome.

  3. Tunable dual-wavelength filter and its group delay dispersion in domain-engineered lithium niobate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-hao Shao


    Full Text Available A tunable dual-wavelength filter is experimentally demonstrated in domain-engineered lithium niobate. Application of an electric field on the y-surfaces of the sample results in the optical axes rotating clockwise and anticlockwise, which makes selective polarization rotation. The quasi phase-matching wavelengths could be adjusted through suitable domain design. A unique dual valley spectrum is obtained in a periodically poled lithium niobate structure with a central defect if the sample is placed between two parallel polarizers. The expected bandwidth could be varied from ∼1 nm to ∼40 nm. Moreover, both the spectral response and group delay dispersion could be engineered.

  4. Concentrated ERP Delivered in a Group Setting: A Replication Study. (United States)

    Havnen, Audun; Hansen, Bjarne; Öst, Lars-Göran; Kvale, Gerd


    In a previous effectiveness study (Havnen et al., 2014), 35 obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients underwent Concentrated Exposure Treatment (cET), which is a newly developed group treatment format delivered over four consecutive days. The primary aims of the present study were to evaluate the treatment results for a new sample of OCD patients receiving the cET treatment approach and to replicate the effectiveness study described in Havnen et al. (2014). Forty-two OCD patients underwent cET treatment. Treatment was delivered by different therapists than in Havnen et al. (2014), except for two groups led by the developers of the treatment. Assessments of OCD symptom severity, treatment satisfaction, and occupational impairment were included. The results showed a significant reduction in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale scores from pre-treatment to post-treatment, which was maintained at 6-month follow-up. At post-treatment, 74% of the sample was remitted; at 6-month follow-up, 60% were recovered. The sample showed a very high degree of overall treatment satisfaction. The results from the present study were statistically compared with those obtained in the previous study. The analyses showed that the study samples had comparable demographic data and equal application of treatment. The outcome of the present and original study did not differ significantly on primary and secondary outcome measures. This study shows that cET was successfully replicated in a new patient sample treated by different therapists than the original study. The results indicate that cET is well accepted by the patients, and the potential for dissemination is discussed.

  5. Single-channel EEG sleep stage classification based on a streamlined set of statistical features in wavelet domain. (United States)

    da Silveira, Thiago L T; Kozakevicius, Alice J; Rodrigues, Cesar R


    The main objective of this study was to enhance the performance of sleep stage classification using single-channel electroencephalograms (EEGs), which are highly desirable for many emerging technologies, such as telemedicine and home care. The proposed method consists of decomposing EEGs by a discrete wavelet transform and computing the kurtosis, skewness and variance of its coefficients at selected levels. A random forest predictor is trained to classify each epoch into one of the Rechtschaffen and Kales' stages. By performing a comprehensive set of tests on 106,376 epochs available from the Physionet public database, it is demonstrated that the use of these three statistical moments has enhanced performance when compared to their application in the time domain. Furthermore, the chosen set of features has the advantage of exhibiting a stable classification performance for all scoring systems, i.e., from 2- to 6-state sleep stages. The stability of the feature set is confirmed with ReliefF tests which show a performance reduction when any individual feature is removed, suggesting that this group of feature cannot be further reduced. The accuracies and kappa coefficients yield higher than 90 % and 0.8, respectively, for all of the 2- to 6-state sleep stage classification cases.

  6. Expansion and diversification of the SET domain gene family following whole-genome duplications in Populus trichocarpa (United States)


    Background Histone lysine methylation modifies chromatin structure and regulates eukaryotic gene transcription and a variety of developmental and physiological processes. SET domain proteins are lysine methyltransferases containing the evolutionarily-conserved SET domain, which is known to be the catalytic domain. Results We identified 59 SET genes in the Populus genome. Phylogenetic analyses of 106 SET genes from Populus and Arabidopsis supported the clustering of SET genes into six distinct subfamilies and identified 19 duplicated gene pairs in Populus. The chromosome locations of these gene pairs and the distribution of synonymous substitution rates showed that the expansion of the SET gene family might be caused by large-scale duplications in Populus. Comparison of gene structures and domain architectures of each duplicate pair indicated that divergence took place at the 3'- and 5'-terminal transcribed regions and at the N- and C-termini of the predicted proteins, respectively. Expression profile analysis of Populus SET genes suggested that most Populus SET genes were expressed widely, many with the highest expression in young leaves. In particular, the expression profiles of 12 of the 19 duplicated gene pairs fell into two types of expression patterns. Conclusions The 19 duplicated SET genes could have originated from whole genome duplication events. The differences in SET gene structure, domain architecture, and expression profiles in various tissues of Populus suggest that members of the SET gene family have a variety of developmental and physiological functions. Our study provides clues about the evolution of epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. PMID:22497662

  7. Measuring implementation behaviour of menu guidelines in the childcare setting: confirmatory factor analysis of a theoretical domains framework questionnaire (TDFQ). (United States)

    Seward, Kirsty; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiggers, John; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Presseau, Justin; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Yoong, Sze Lin


    While there are number of frameworks which focus on supporting the implementation of evidence based approaches, few psychometrically valid measures exist to assess constructs within these frameworks. This study aimed to develop and psychometrically assess a scale measuring each domain of the Theoretical Domains Framework for use in assessing the implementation of dietary guidelines within a non-health care setting (childcare services). A 75 item 14-domain Theoretical Domains Framework Questionnaire (TDFQ) was developed and administered via telephone interview to 202 centre based childcare service cooks who had a role in planning the service menu. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was undertaken to assess the reliability, discriminant validity and goodness of fit of the 14-domain theoretical domain framework measure. For the CFA, five iterative processes of adjustment were undertaken where 14 items were removed, resulting in a final measure consisting of 14 domains and 61 items. For the final measure: the Chi-Square goodness of fit statistic was 3447.19; the Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) was 0.070; the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.072; and the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) had a value of 0.78. While only one of the three indices support goodness of fit of the measurement model tested, a 14-domain model with 61 items showed good discriminant validity and internally consistent items. Future research should aim to assess the psychometric properties of the developed TDFQ in other community-based settings.

  8. Achieving Consensus on Total Joint Replacement Trial Outcome Reporting Using the OMERACT Filter: Endorsement of the Final Core Domain Set for Total Hip and Total Knee Replacement Trials for Endstage Arthritis. (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Dowsey, Michelle M; Dohm, Michael; Goodman, Susan M; Leong, Amye L; Scholte Voshaar, Marieke M J H; Choong, Peter F


    Discussion and endorsement of the OMERACT total joint replacement (TJR) core domain set for total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR) for endstage arthritis; and next steps for selection of instruments. The OMERACT TJR working group met at the 2016 meeting at Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. We summarized the previous systematic reviews, the preliminary OMERACT TJR core domain set and results from previous surveys. We discussed preliminary core domains for TJR clinical trials, made modifications, and identified challenges with domain measurement. Working group participants (n = 26) reviewed, clarified, and endorsed each of the inner and middle circle domains and added a range of motion domain to the research agenda. TJR were limited to THR and TKR but included all endstage hip and knee arthritis refractory to medical treatment. Participants overwhelmingly endorsed identification and evaluation of top instruments mapping to the core domains (100%) and use of subscales of validated multidimensional instruments to measure core domains for the TJR clinical trial core measurement set (92%). An OMERACT core domain set for hip/knee TJR trials has been defined and we are selecting instruments to develop the TJR clinical trial core measurement set to serve as a common foundation for harmonizing measures in TJR clinical trials.

  9. Spectral-domain tandem interferometry to measure the group dispersion of optical samples


    Chlebus, Radek; Hlubina, Petr; Ciprian, Dalibor


    A spectral-domain technique based on tandem interferometry is used for measuring the group dispersion of optical samples over a wide wavelength range. The technique utilizes a tandem configuration of a Michelson interferometer and an unbalanced Mach–Zehnder interferometer with a sample inserted into its test arm. First, the theoretical background of the technique is presented and then experiments with individual interferometers and their tandem configuration are specified. In all the experime...

  10. Setting the PAS, the role of circadian PAS domain proteins during environmental adaptation in plants. (United States)

    Vogt, Julia H M; Schippers, Jos H M


    The per-ARNT-sim (PAS) domain represents an ancient protein module that can be found across all kingdoms of life. The domain functions as a sensing unit for a diverse array of signals, including molecular oxygen, small metabolites, and light. In plants, several PAS domain-containing proteins form an integral part of the circadian clock and regulate responses to environmental change. Moreover, these proteins function in pathways that control development and plant stress adaptation responses. Here, we discuss the role of PAS domain-containing proteins in anticipation, and adaptation to environmental changes in plants.

  11. Kinetics of heme transfer by the Shr NEAT domains of Group A Streptococcus. (United States)

    Ouattara, Mahamoudou; Pennati, Andrea; Devlin, Darius J; Huang, Ya-Shu; Gadda, Giovanni; Eichenbaum, Zehava


    The hemolytic Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a notorious human pathogen. Shr protein of GAS participates in iron acquisition by obtaining heme from host hemoglobin and delivering it to the adjacent receptor on the surface, Shp. Heme is then conveyed to the SiaABC proteins for transport across the membrane. Using rapid kinetic studies, we investigated the role of the two heme binding NEAT modules of Shr. Stopped-flow analysis showed that holoNEAT1 quickly delivered heme to apoShp. HoloNEAT2 did not exhibit such activity; only little and slow transfer of heme from NEAT2 to apoShp was seen, suggesting that Shr NEAT domains have distinctive roles in heme transport. HoloNEAT1 also provided heme to apoNEAT2, by a fast and reversible process. To the best of our knowledge this is the first transfer observed between isolated NEAT domains of the same receptor. Sequence alignment revealed that Shr NEAT domains belong to two families of NEAT domains that are conserved in Shr orthologs from several species. Based on the heme transfer kinetics, we propose that Shr proteins modulate heme uptake according to heme availability by a mechanism where NEAT1 facilitates fast heme delivery to Shp, whereas NEAT2 serves as a temporary storage for heme on the bacterial surface. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Giraldo, R.; Acosta-Reyes, F. J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Malarkey, C. S. [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Saperas, N. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Churchill, M. E. A., E-mail: [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Campos, J. L., E-mail: [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    The crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an unmodified AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. A new mode of DNA recognition for HMG box proteins is found in which two box A domains bind in an unusual configuration generating a highly kinked DNA structure. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1–DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA.

  13. The Effect of Small Group Discussion on Cutoff Scores during Standard Setting (United States)

    Deunk, Marjolein I.; van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Bosker, Roel J.


    Standard setting methods, like the Bookmark procedure, are used to assist education experts in formulating performance standards. Small group discussion is meant to help these experts in setting more reliable and valid cutoff scores. This study is an analysis of 15 small group discussions during two standards setting trajectories and their effect…

  14. Transport domain unlocking sets the uptake rate of an aspartate transporter (United States)

    Akyuz, Nurunisa; Georgieva, Elka R.; Zhou, Zhou; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Cuendet, Michel A.; Khelashvili, George; Altman, Roger B.; Terry, Daniel S.; Freed, Jack H.; Weinstein, Harel; Boudker, Olga; Blanchard, Scott C.


    Glutamate transporters terminate neurotransmission by clearing synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space, allowing repeated rounds of signaling and preventing glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Crystallographic studies on an archaeal homologue, GltPh, showed that distinct transport domains translocate substrates into the cytoplasm by moving across the membrane within a central trimerization scaffold. Here, we report direct observations of these 'elevator-like' transport domain motions in the context of reconstituted proteoliposomes and physiological ion gradients using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) imaging. We show that GltPh bearing two “humanizing” mutations exhibits markedly increased transport domain dynamics, which parallels an increased rate of substrate transport, thereby establishing a direct temporal relationship between transport domain motions and substrate uptake. Crystallographic and computational investigations reveal that these mutations favor structurally “unlocked” states with increased solvent occupancy at the interface between the transport domain and the trimeric scaffold. PMID:25652997

  15. Protocol for the development of a core domain set for hidradenitis suppurativa trial outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Ingram, John R; Garg, Amit


    INTRODUCTION: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) should have well-defined primary and secondary outcomes to answer questions generated by the main hypotheses. However, for the chronic, inflammatory skin disease hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), the reported outcome measures are numerous and diverse...... for dealing with these problems is to develop a core outcome set (COS). A COS is a list of outcomes that are meant as mandatory and should be measured and reported in all clinical trials. The aim of this study is to develop a COS for the management of HS. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: An international steering group...... Delphi rounds are then planned together with 2 face-to-face consensus meetings (1 in Europe and 1 in the USA) to ensure global representation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study will be performed according to the Helsinki declaration. All results from the study, including inconclusive or negative...

  16. Spectral-domain tandem interferometry to measure the group dispersion of optical samples (United States)

    Chlebus, R.; Hlubina, P.; Ciprian, D.


    A spectral-domain technique based on tandem interferometry is used for measuring the group dispersion of optical samples over a wide wavelength range. The technique utilizes a tandem configuration of a Michelson interferometer and an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a sample inserted into its test arm. First, the theoretical background of the technique is presented and then experiments with individual interferometers and their tandem configuration are specified. In all the experiments the spectral signals are recorded to measure the equalization wavelength as a function of the path length difference, or equivalently the group dispersion. We measure the group refractive index as a function of wavelength for a glass sample of known thickness and for a quartz crystal as well.

  17. Hesitant Fuzzy Soft Sets with Application in Multicriteria Group Decision Making Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-qiang Wang


    Full Text Available Soft sets have been regarded as a useful mathematical tool to deal with uncertainty. In recent years, many scholars have shown an intense interest in soft sets and extended standard soft sets to intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, interval-valued fuzzy soft sets, and generalized fuzzy soft sets. In this paper, hesitant fuzzy soft sets are defined by combining fuzzy soft sets with hesitant fuzzy sets. And some operations on hesitant fuzzy soft sets based on Archimedean t-norm and Archimedean t-conorm are defined. Besides, four aggregation operations, such as the HFSWA, HFSWG, GHFSWA, and GHFSWG operators, are given. Based on these operators, a multicriteria group decision making approach with hesitant fuzzy soft sets is also proposed. To demonstrate its accuracy and applicability, this approach is finally employed to calculate a numerical example.

  18. Transport domain unlocking sets the uptake rate of an aspartate transporter. (United States)

    Akyuz, Nurunisa; Georgieva, Elka R; Zhou, Zhou; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Cuendet, Michel A; Khelashvili, George; Altman, Roger B; Terry, Daniel S; Freed, Jack H; Weinstein, Harel; Boudker, Olga; Blanchard, Scott C


    Glutamate transporters terminate neurotransmission by clearing synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space, allowing repeated rounds of signalling and preventing glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Crystallographic studies of a glutamate transporter homologue from the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii, GltPh, showed that distinct transport domains translocate substrates into the cytoplasm by moving across the membrane within a central trimerization scaffold. Here we report direct observations of these 'elevator-like' transport domain motions in the context of reconstituted proteoliposomes and physiological ion gradients using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) imaging. We show that GltPh bearing two mutations introduced to impart characteristics of the human transporter exhibits markedly increased transport domain dynamics, which parallels an increased rate of substrate transport, thereby establishing a direct temporal relationship between transport domain motion and substrate uptake. Crystallographic and computational investigations corroborated these findings by revealing that the 'humanizing' mutations favour structurally 'unlocked' intermediate states in the transport cycle exhibiting increased solvent occupancy at the interface between the transport domain and the trimeric scaffold.

  19. The effects of alcohol expectancies on drinking behaviour in peer groups: Observations in a naturalistic setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, S.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Knibbe, R.A.


    AIMS: To study the functionality of alcohol expectancies in predicting drinking behaviour in existing peer groups of young adults in a 'naturalistic' setting. DESIGN AND SETTING: Young adults were invited to join an experiment with their peer group in a bar annex laboratory. During a 'break' of 50

  20. Jordan domain and Fatou set concerning diamond-like hierarchical Potts models (United States)

    Jianyong, Qiao; Junyang, Gao


    For the Potts models on the diamond-like hierarchical lattice, the domains of the complex phases are indeed the Fatou components of a family of rational maps. In this paper, we deal with the relationships between this family of Fatou components and the Jordan domains and describe the topological structures of this family of Fatou components completely. The research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No 10625107) and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (Grant No 04-0490).

  1. Expanding the Domain of Agenda-Setting Research Strategies for Theoretical Development. (United States)

    McCombs, Maxwell E.

    This review of the research into the agenda-setting function of mass communications posits a structure of the agenda-setting process in order to (1) organize the existing research literature in a coherent fashion and (2) identify the gaps in our existing knowledge of the agenda-setting function of the press. Major sections of the paper discuss the…

  2. Crystal Structure of the N-terminal Domain of the Group B Streptococcus Alpha C Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auperin,T.; Bolduc, G.; Baron, M.; Heroux, A.; Filman, D.; Madoff, L.; Hogle, J.


    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis among neonates and an important cause of morbidity among pregnant women and immunocompromised adults. Invasive diseases due to GBS are attributed to the ability of the pathogen to translocate across human epithelial surfaces. The alpha C protein (ACP) has been identified as an invasin that plays a role in internalization and translocation of GBS across epithelial cells. The soluble N-terminal domain of ACP (NtACP) blocks the internalization of GBS. We determined the 1.86-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of NtACP comprising residues Ser{sup 52} through Leu{sup 225} of the full-length ACP. NtACP has two domains, an N-terminal {beta}-sandwich and a C-terminal three-helix bundle. Structural and topological alignments reveal that the {beta}-sandwich shares structural elements with the type III fibronectin fold (FnIII), but includes structural elaborations that make it unique. We have identified a potential integrin-binding motif consisting of Lys-Thr-Asp{sup 146}, Arg{sup 110}, and Asp{sup 118}. A similar arrangement of charged residues has been described in other invasins. ACP shows a heparin binding activity that requires NtACP. We propose a possible heparin-binding site, including one surface of the three-helix bundle, and nearby portions of the sandwich and repeat domains. We have validated this prediction using assays of the heparin binding and cell-adhesion properties of engineered fragments of ACP. This is the first crystal structure of a member of the highly conserved Gram-positive surface alpha-like protein family, and it will enable the internalization mechanism of GBS to be dissected at the atomic level.

  3. A parametric level-set approach for topology optimization of flow domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingen, Georg; Waidmann, Matthias; Evgrafov, Anton


    and the versatility of topology optimization methods for fluidic systems can be improved by employing a parametric level-set description. In general, level-set methods allow controlling the smoothness of boundaries, yield a non-local influence of design variables, and decouple the material description from the flow...... field discretization. The parametric level-set method used in this study utilizes a material distribution approach to represent flow boundaries, resulting in a non-trivial mapping between design variables and local material properties. Using a hydrodynamic lattice Boltzmann method, we study...... the performance of our level-set approach in comparison to a traditional material distribution approach. By numerical examples, the parametric level-set approach is validated through comparison with traditional material distribution based methods. While the parametric level-set approach leads to similar optimal...

  4. Transport domain unlocking sets the uptake rate of an aspartate transporter


    Akyuz, Nurunisa; Elka R. Georgieva; Zhou, Zhou; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Cuendet, Michel A.; Khelashvili, George; Altman, Roger B.; Daniel S. Terry; Freed, Jack H.; Weinstein, Harel; Boudker, Olga; Blanchard, Scott C.


    Glutamate transporters terminate neurotransmission by clearing synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space, allowing repeated rounds of signaling and preventing glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Crystallographic studies on an archaeal homologue, GltPh, showed that distinct transport domains translocate substrates into the cytoplasm by moving across the membrane within a central trimerization scaffold. Here, we report direct observations of these 'elevator-like' transport dom...

  5. Setting up and Running a Loss and Bereavement Support Group for Adults with Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Boyden, Paul; Freeman, Adele; Offen, Liz


    Following evidence based literature, the Birmingham Clinical Psychology Service for People with Learning Disabilities ran a Loss and Bereavement Psychotherapy Group. The group consisted of five adults with mild learning disabilities, who met for 8 consecutive weeks. This paper reports the process of setting up a bereavement group for people with…

  6. Applicability domains for classification problems: benchmarking of distance to models for AMES mutagenicity set (United States)

    For QSAR and QSPR modeling of biological and physicochemical properties, estimating the accuracy of predictions is a critical problem. The “distance to model” (DM) can be defined as a metric that defines the similarity between the training set molecules and the test set compound ...

  7. Group supervision in a private setting: Practice and method for theory and practice in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziana Mangiacavallo


    Full Text Available The report aims to tell the experience of a supervision group in a private setting. The group consists of professional psychotherapists driven by the more experienced practitioner, who shares a clinical reasoning on psychotherapy with younger colleagues. The report aims to present the supervision group as a methode and to showcase its features. The supervision group becomes a container of professional experiences that speak of the new way of doing psychotherapy. 

  8. A Multi-Smartwatch System for Assessing Speech Characteristics of People with Dysarthria in Group Settings


    Dubey, Harishchandra; Goldberg, J. Cody; Mankodiya, Kunal; Mahler, Leslie


    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) frequently use vocal exercises in the treatment of patients with speech disorders. Patients receive treatment in a clinical setting and need to practice outside of the clinical setting to generalize speech goals to functional communication. In this paper, we describe the development of technology that captures mixed speech signals in a group setting and allows the SLP to analyze the speech signals relative to treatment goals. The mixed speech signals are bl...

  9. Neural model for learning-to-learn of novel task sets in the motor domain. (United States)

    Pitti, Alexandre; Braud, Raphaël; Mahé, Sylvain; Quoy, Mathias; Gaussier, Philippe


    During development, infants learn to differentiate their motor behaviors relative to various contexts by exploring and identifying the correct structures of causes and effects that they can perform; these structures of actions are called task sets or internal models. The ability to detect the structure of new actions, to learn them and to select on the fly the proper one given the current task set is one great leap in infants cognition. This behavior is an important component of the child's ability of learning-to-learn, a mechanism akin to the one of intrinsic motivation that is argued to drive cognitive development. Accordingly, we propose to model a dual system based on (1) the learning of new task sets and on (2) their evaluation relative to their uncertainty and prediction error. The architecture is designed as a two-level-based neural system for context-dependent behavior (the first system) and task exploration and exploitation (the second system). In our model, the task sets are learned separately by reinforcement learning in the first network after their evaluation and selection in the second one. We perform two different experimental setups to show the sensorimotor mapping and switching between tasks, a first one in a neural simulation for modeling cognitive tasks and a second one with an arm-robot for motor task learning and switching. We show that the interplay of several intrinsic mechanisms drive the rapid formation of the neural populations with respect to novel task sets.

  10. Ethics and equity in research priority-setting: stakeholder engagement and the needs of disadvantaged groups. (United States)

    Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Rana, Sangeeta; Karimkhani, Chante; Welch, Vivian; Armstrong, Rebecca; Pottie, Kevin; Dellavalle, Robert; Dhakal, Purushottam; Oliver, Sandy; Francis, Damian K; Nasser, Mona; Crowe, Sally; Aksut, Baran; Amico, Roberto D


    A transparent and evidence-based priority-setting process promotes the optimal use of resources to improve health outcomes. Decision-makers and funders have begun to increasingly engage representatives of patients and healthcare consumers to ensure that research becomes more relevant. However, disadvantaged groups and their needs may not be integrated into the priority-setting process since they do not have a "political voice" or are unable to organise into interest groups. Equitable priority-setting methods need to balance patient needs, values, experiences with population-level issues and issues related to the health system.

  11. Large and small sets with respect to homomorphisms and products of groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Gusso


    Full Text Available We study the behaviour of large, small and medium subsets with respect to homomorphisms and products of groups. Then we introduce the definition af a P-small set in abelian groups and we investigate the relations between this kind of smallness and the previous one, giving some examples that distinguish them.

  12. The Nonsignificant Impact of an Agenda Setting Treatment for Groups: Implications for Future Research and Practice (United States)

    Bridbord, Karen; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.; Jones, Edlyn; Gerrity, Deborah A.


    This pilot study compared the effect of two writing techniques, Agenda Setting and Group Focus, to a cognitive technique, reading process notes at the start of a group session, to examine their impact on social climate, member involvement, and behavior. Theoretically an intervention that helps members to focus directly on their goals and potential…

  13. The Effect of Goal Setting on Group Performance: A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Kleingeld, Ad; van Mierlo, Heleen; Arends, Lidia


    Updating and extending the work of O'Leary-Kelly, Martocchio, and Frink (1994), with this meta-analysis on goal setting and group performance we show that specific difficult goals yield considerably higher group performance compared with nonspecific goals (d = 0.80 plus or minus 0.35, k = 23 effect sizes). Moderately difficult and easy goals were…

  14. Bloom’s Taxonomy (Cognitive Domain in Higher Education Settings: Reflection Brief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Hyder


    Full Text Available The role of taxonomy of objectives is considered to be one of the most imperative elements in curriculum designing and drafting of learning outcomes and objectives. Several educationists and academicians have regarded this model in facilitating learning achievement from lower level knowledge acquisition to higher order thinking. However, a few others have critiqued this phenomenon by reconnoitering its implications on segmentation of knowledge application into a hierarchical model, that may restrict learners, specifically in higher education settings to limit their acquisition of a concept. Moreover, students’ learning and motivation are hampered while undergoing such an intensive, structured assessment of those learning outcomes. This reflection brief will appraise and reflect in favour of the various critiques established around the phenomenon of progressive Bloom’s taxonomy and will briefly discuss the idea of reversing the level of taxonomy in higher education settings to sustain student learning motivation.

  15. Using stimulus equivalence technology to teach statistical inference in a group setting. (United States)

    Critchfield, Thomas S; Fienup, Daniel M


    Computerized lessons employing stimulus equivalence technology, used previously under laboratory conditions to teach inferential statistics concepts to college students, were employed in a group setting for the first time. Students showed the same directly taught and emergent learning gains as in laboratory studies. A brief paper-and-pencil examination, suitable for classroom use, captured effects demonstrated previously through laboratory tests. The results support the extension of the lessons to more naturalistic settings.

  16. Supplier Selection Group Decision Making in Logistics Service Value Cocreation Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Wang


    Full Text Available Intuitionistic fuzzy information aggregation plays an important role in intuitionistic fuzzy set theory and is widely used in group decision making. In this paper, an induced intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein hybrid aggregation operator (I-IFEHA is investigated for supplier selection group decision making in logistics service value cocreation based on fuzzy measures. We first introduce some aggregation operators and Einstein operations on intuitionistic fuzzy sets and develop a new induced intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein hybrid aggregation operator to accommodate the environment in which the given arguments are intuitionistic fuzzy values. Then, we study the supplier selection group decision model in logistics service value cocreation based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets with the I-IFEHA operator. Finally, an example of 3PL supplier selection in logistics service value cocreation environment is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed approach.

  17. Puncture black hole initial data: A single domain Galerkin-collocation method for trumpet and wormhole data sets (United States)

    Clemente, P. C. M.; de Oliveira, H. P.


    We present a single-domain Galerkin-collocation method to calculate puncture initial data sets for single and binary black holes, either in the trumpet or wormhole geometries. The combination of aspects belonging to the Galerkin and the collocation methods together with the adoption of spherical coordinates in all cases are shown to be very effective. We propose a unified expression for the conformal factor to describe trumpet and spinning black holes. In particular, for the spinning trumpet black holes, we exhibit the deformation of the limit surface due to the spin from a sphere to an oblate spheroid. We also revisit the energy content in the trumpet and wormhole puncture data sets. The algorithm can be extended to describe binary black holes.

  18. Simplified neutrosophic sets and their applications in multi-criteria group decision-making problems (United States)

    Peng, Juan-juan; Wang, Jian-qiang; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong-yu; Chen, Xiao-hong


    As a variation of fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, neutrosophic sets have been developed to represent uncertain, imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent information that exists in the real world. Simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs) have been proposed for the main purpose of addressing issues with a set of specific numbers. However, there are certain problems regarding the existing operations of SNSs, as well as their aggregation operators and the comparison methods. Therefore, this paper defines the novel operations of simplified neutrosophic numbers (SNNs) and develops a comparison method based on the related research of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. On the basis of these operations and the comparison method, some SNN aggregation operators are proposed. Additionally, an approach for multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) problems is explored by applying these aggregation operators. Finally, an example to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method is provided and a comparison with some other methods is made.

  19. A rough set approach for determining weights of decision makers in group decision making. (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Du, Ping-An; Wang, Yong; Liang, Bin


    This study aims to present a novel approach for determining the weights of decision makers (DMs) based on rough group decision in multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems. First, we construct a rough group decision matrix from all DMs' decision matrixes on the basis of rough set theory. After that, we derive a positive ideal solution (PIS) founded on the average matrix of rough group decision, and negative ideal solutions (NISs) founded on the lower and upper limit matrixes of rough group decision. Then, we obtain the weight of each group member and priority order of alternatives by using relative closeness method, which depends on the distances from each individual group member' decision to the PIS and NISs. Through comparisons with existing methods and an on-line business manager selection example, the proposed method show that it can provide more insights into the subjectivity and vagueness of DMs' evaluations and selections.

  20. Priority setting in primary health care - dilemmas and opportunities: a focus group study (United States)


    Background Swedish health care authorities use three key criteria to produce national guidelines for local priority setting: severity of the health condition, expected patient benefit, and cost-effectiveness of medical intervention. Priority setting in primary health care (PHC) has significant implications for health costs and outcomes in the health care system. Nevertheless, these guidelines have been implemented to a very limited degree in PHC. The objective of the study was to qualitatively assess how general practitioners (GPs) and nurses perceive the application of the three key priority-setting criteria. Methods Focus groups were held with GPs and nurses at primary health care centres, where the staff had a short period of experience in using the criteria for prioritising in their daily work. Results The staff found the three key priority-setting criteria (severity, patient benefit, and cost-effectiveness) to be valuable for priority setting in PHC. However, when the criteria were applied in PHC, three additional dimensions were identified: 1) viewpoint (medical or patient's), 2) timeframe (now or later), and 3) evidence level (group or individual). Conclusions The three key priority-setting criteria were useful. Considering the three additional dimensions might enhance implementation of national guidelines in PHC and is probably a prerequisite for the criteria to be useful in priority setting for individual patients. PMID:20863364

  1. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders With Personality Disorders in Day Clinic Setting. (United States)

    Holas, Pawel; Suszek, Hubert; Szaniawska, Monika; Kokoszka, Andrzej


    Short-term group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) with weekly homogeneous group sessions for treating specific anxiety disorders is relatively well developed and recognized. However, 12 weeks of intensive daily therapy for mixed anxiety and personality disorders is not. The current article aims to fill this gap by presenting the method of intensive transdiagnostic GCBT for anxiety disorders with comorbid personality disorders in a day hospital setting. Preliminary studies showed that participants exhibited significant improvement during this type of treatment. This article reviews the advantages of group therapy that is transdiagnostic over the homogeneous group and individual therapy formats. The detailed description of the current therapeutical program may facilitate the development of similar programs in day clinic settings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Creative attitude in a group of youths gifted in the domain of science subjects


    Monika Sztolpa; Aleksandra Lewandowska-Walter; Małgorzata Lipowska


    Background We attempted to assess whether students identified by their teachers as gifted in the domain of science are characterised by significantly higher levels of intelligence and creativity than other students. We investigated the features of their personalities that are indicators of their exhibited creative or reproductive attitude in the cognitive and the motivational domains. As a consequence, criteria will be developed for identifying gifted students. Participants and...

  3. Finite groups with the set of the number of subgroups of possible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently, Chen et al. [3] determined the groups in which the number of subgroups of possible order is less than or equal to 3, but there exist some gaps in the proof of their theorem. If we denote by n(G) the set of the number of subgroups of possible order of a group G, then we can investigate the structure of G by n(G).

  4. Ultra-refractory mantle domains in the Luqu ophiolite (Tibet): Petrology and tectonic setting (United States)

    Zhang, Chang; Liu, Chuan-Zhou; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Ji, Wen-Bin; Liu, Tong; Xu, Yang


    Fresh mantle peridotites occur in the Luqu ophiolite, which is located at the central segment of the Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone in the Tibetan Plateau. This study presents major and trace element compositions of clinopyroxene from harzburgites and dunites of the Luqu ophiolite, with the aim to study melt depletion and late-stage melt-rock interaction processes. The studied harzburgites have refractory to ultra-refractory compositions, as indicated by low whole-rock Al2O3 and high MgO contents, as well as high spinel Cr# values. Clinopyroxenes in the Luqu harzburgites are variably depleted in light rare earth elements (LREEs) relative to the middle and heavy rare earth elements (MREEs and HREEs), with Yb contents of 1.4-3.4 times of CI chondrites. Modeling results suggest that the Luqu harzburgites have experienced up to 8% garnet-facies melting followed by 10-18% fractional melting in the stability field of spinel. In both cases melting occurred under anhydrous conditions. This suggests that the Luqu ophiolite originated from a mid-ocean ridge setting rather than a supra-subduction zone environment. Nevertheless, the high degrees of partial melting are inconsistent with the thin oceanic crustal sequence preserved in the Luqu ophiolite, implying that the Luqu peridotites might have experienced melt extraction prior to entering into the spreading centers of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean during the Early Cretaceous. Clinopyroxenes in the dunites are interstitial among olivine grains. They display slightly LREE-enriched patterns and have higher REE contents than those in the harzburgites. They also show markedly positive anomalies in Sr, Zr and Hf. These features suggest that the dunites were generated through reaction between percolating melts and the harzburgites, during which the interstitial clinopyroxenes formed.

  5. Adapting the nominal group technique for priority setting of evidence-practice gaps in implementation science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Rankin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a variety of methods for priority setting in health research but few studies have addressed how to prioritise the gaps that exist between research evidence and clinical practice. This study aimed to build a suite of robust, evidence based techniques and tools for use in implementation science projects. We applied the priority setting methodology in lung cancer care as an example. Methods We reviewed existing techniques and tools for priority setting in health research and the criteria used to prioritise items. An expert interdisciplinary consensus group comprised of health service, cancer and nursing researchers iteratively reviewed and adapted the techniques and tools. We tested these on evidence-practice gaps identified for lung cancer. The tools were pilot tested and finalised. A brief process evaluation was conducted. Results We based our priority setting on the Nominal Group Technique (NGT. The adapted tools included a matrix for individuals to privately rate priority gaps; the same matrix was used for group discussion and reaching consensus. An investment exercise was used to validate allocation of priorities across the gaps. We describe the NGT process, criteria and tool adaptations and process evaluation results. Conclusions The modified NGT process, criteria and tools contribute to building a suite of methods that can be applied in prioritising evidence-practice gaps. These methods could be adapted for other health settings within the broader context of implementation science projects.

  6. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health to identify outcome domains for a core outcome set for aphasia: a comparison of stakeholder perspectives. (United States)

    Wallace, Sarah J; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Tanya; Le Dorze, Guylaine


    This study synthesised the findings of three separate consensus processes exploring the perspectives of key stakeholder groups about important aphasia treatment outcomes. This process was conducted to generate recommendations for outcome domains to be included in a core outcome set for aphasia treatment trials. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health codes were examined to identify where the groups of: (1) people with aphasia, (2) family members, (3) aphasia researchers, and (4) aphasia clinicians/managers, demonstrated congruence in their perspectives regarding important treatment outcomes. Codes were contextualized using qualitative data. Congruence across three or more stakeholder groups was evident for ICF chapters: Mental functions; Communication; and Services, systems, and policies. Quality of life was explicitly identified by clinicians/managers and researchers, while people with aphasia and their families identified outcomes known to be determinants of quality of life. Core aphasia outcomes include: language, emotional wellbeing, communication, patient-reported satisfaction with treatment and impact of treatment, and quality of life. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health coding can be used to compare stakeholder perspectives and identify domains for core outcome sets. Pairing coding with qualitative data may ensure important nuances of meaning are retained. Implications for rehabilitation The outcomes measured in treatment research should be relevant to stakeholders and support health care decision making. Core outcome sets (agreed, minimum set of outcomes, and outcome measures) are increasingly being used to ensure the relevancy and consistency of the outcomes measured in treatment studies. Important aphasia treatment outcomes span all components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Stakeholders demonstrated congruence in the identification of important

  7. The Good Behavior Game for Latino English Language Learners in a Small-Group Setting (United States)

    Ortiz, Jennifer; Bray, Melissa A.; Bilias-Lolis, Evelyn; Kehle, Thomas J.


    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a group contingency intervention that has effectively reduced disruptive behavior and improved classroom management in many replications, for various settings and populations. The student composition of American public schools is changing, leading to culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms with unique…

  8. A Review of the Use of Group Contingencies in Preschool Settings (United States)

    Pokorski, Elizabeth A.; Barton, Erin E.; Ledford, Jennifer R.


    Individual contingency management systems have been used successfully to improve behaviors in school settings--including preschools--but often come with associated challenges in time and personnel management. Group contingencies, in the form of independent, interdependent, and dependent contingencies, have been used in preschools to address these…

  9. Teaching children clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC) in a group setting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobussen-Boekhorst, H.J.; Kuppenveld, J. van; Verheij, P.P.; Jong, L.W.A.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Kortmann, B.B.M.; Feitz, W.F.J.


    OBJECTIVE: To teach children to perform clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC) at our institution, the nurse practitioner uses a step-by-step approach in combination with an instruction model in an outpatient setting. For a small group of children the procedure remains difficult to learn.

  10. Holistic Medicine IV: Principles of Existential Holistic Group Therapy and the Holistic Process of Healing in a Group Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt


    experience as �the spiritual design�. This design is actually an underlying regulation that appears when people, through their feelings and engagement for each other, tie the group together and engage their complex emotional intelligence. Practically, this means that all participants are sunk in the same information matrix, so that everybody learns from each other. Everything that happens in the perception of each trainee has immediate and developing relevance for him.Spontaneous healing happens far more effectively in a group setting, where all the participants stand together and support each other, than it does in the clinic, where the therapist is alone with the patient. A 5-day course in personal development can be compatible to a half year of holistic individual therapy.

  11. Teaching children clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC) in a group setting. (United States)

    Cobussen-Boekhorst, Hanny J G L; Kuppenveld Van, Jet H P A; Verheij, Perijn P J P W; Jong De, Lieke L W M; Gier De, Robert R P E; Kortmann, Barbara B B M; Feitz, Wouter W F J


    To teach children to perform clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC) at our institution, the nurse practitioner uses a step-by-step approach in combination with an instruction model in an outpatient setting. For a small group of children the procedure remains difficult to learn. For them, we developed a multidisciplinary, group-wise training program. Small groups of children, aged 7-12 years, and their parents consulted our clinic during six meetings. The group training was provided by a pediatric urology nurse practitioner, physiotherapist and behavioural practitioner. Using a tell/show/do method each intervention was instructed group wise. The actual CISC was performed individually within a private setting. Elements of the training were: sharing of mastery and difficulties with other children/parents, cognitive restructuring to enhance understanding and motivation, handling and trying out of devices, relaxation as a response to physical stress, and supporting parental guidance. The preliminary results of seven children were successful after group-wise intervention. Children were less anxious and more cooperative. Parents could share their difficulties dealing with their child at home and were given suggestions to help their children with CISC. Group interactions and a multidisciplinary approach seems to be of great help in learning CISC for selected children. Copyright (c) 2010 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dealing with Feelings: the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural group treatment for women in secure settings. (United States)

    Long, Clive G; Fulton, Barbara; Dolley, Olga; Hollin, Clive R


    Women in secure psychiatric settings have gender specific treatment needs. The current study examined the feasibility of a Dealing with Feelings Skills Group training for dual diagnosis women admitted to a medium secure setting. A pre-test--post-test design was used to evaluate a group programme adapted from dialectical behaviour therapy skills training. Most patients had a primary diagnosis of personality disorder. Treatment completers (n = 29) were compared with non-completers (n = 15). Clinically significant changes in treatment completers were apparent on coping response measures of positive reappraisal, problem solving and alternative rewards; on measures of anxiety and suicidality; on self-reported ability to engage in activities to reduce negative mood and to recognize mood changes. Self-harming and aggressive behaviours also reduced in the 3 months following group treatment. An adapted coping skills component of DBT benefit many dual diagnosis patients: issues related to treatment drop-out and failure to benefit are discussed.

  13. Group Decision-Making for Hesitant Fuzzy Sets Based on Characteristic Objects Method

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    Shahzad Faizi


    Full Text Available There are many real-life problems that, because of the need to involve a wide domain of knowledge, are beyond a single expert. This is especially true for complex problems. Therefore, it is usually necessary to allocate more than one expert to a decision process. In such situations, we can observe an increasing importance of uncertainty. In this paper, the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM method called the Characteristic Objects Method (COMET is extended to solve problems for Multi-Criteria Group Decision-Making (MCGDM in a hesitant fuzzy environment. It is a completely new idea for solving problems of group decision-making under uncertainty. In this approach, we use L-R-type Generalized Fuzzy Numbers (GFNs to get the degree of hesitancy for an alternative under a certain criterion. Therefore, the classical COMET method was adapted to work with GFNs in group decision-making problems. The proposed extension is presented in detail, along with the necessary background information. Finally, an illustrative numerical example is provided to elaborate the proposed method with respect to the support of a decision process. The presented extension of the COMET method, as opposed to others’ group decision-making methods, is completely free of the rank reversal phenomenon, which is identified as one of the most important MCDM challenges.

  14. Domains of health-related quality of life important and relevant to multiethnic English-speaking Asian systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a focus group study. (United States)

    Ow, Yen Ling Mandy; Thumboo, Julian; Cella, David; Cheung, Yin Bun; Yong Fong, Kok; Wee, Hwee Lin


    To identify health-related quality of life (HRQOL) domains of importance to multiethnic Asian systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, to identify content gaps in existing SLE-specific HRQOL measures, and to determine whether the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) item banks could serve as a core set of questions for HRQOL assessment among SLE patients. English-speaking patients with physician-diagnosed SLE from a specialist clinic in a tertiary care hospital in Singapore and a patient support group were recruited. Thematic analysis was performed to distill themes from transcripts through open coding by 2 independent coders and axial coding for refinement of categories. Items from 3 existing SLE-specific measures and PROMIS Version 1.0 Item Banks were compared with identified subthemes. Twenty-seven female and 2 male participants (21 Chinese, 4 Malay, 3 Indian, 1 other) ages 23-62 years participated in 6 focus groups and 2 individual interviews, respectively. Twenty-one domains and 92 subthemes were identified. Domains of family, relationships, stigma and discrimination, and freedom were unaddressed by existing SLE-specific measures. Forty subthemes from 14 domains were addressed by the PROMIS Version 1.0 Item Banks (Physical Function, Pain, Fatigue, Sleep Disturbance, Sleep-Related Impairment, Anger, Anxiety, and Depression banks). Family and stigma and discrimination (identified as content gaps) may be accentuated in the Asian sociocultural context. PROMIS item banks have tremendous potential to serve as a core set of items for HRQOL assessment in SLE patients. Additional items may be written to fill the gaps in existing PROMIS item banks. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  15. Gender differences in leadership amongst first-year medical students in the small-group setting. (United States)

    Wayne, Nancy L; Vermillion, Michelle; Uijtdehaage, Sebastian


    To investigate the extent of gender bias in the volunteerism of small-group leaders amongst first-year medical students, and whether bias could be eliminated with special instructions to the students. The gender of leaders in small-group sessions in a real academic setting was monitored under two conditions: control conditions, in which basic instructions were provided to participants, and intervention conditions, in which the same basic instructions were provided plus a brief "pep talk" on the importance of experiencing a leadership role in a safe environment. During the small-group sessions, an observer noted the gender and names of group leaders for later analysis. After a class debriefing, a subset of leaders and nonleaders from both the control and intervention groups were invited to be interviewed about their perceptions of the small-group experience. Interviews were tape recorded and transcribed for analysis. In 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, disproportionately fewer women than men volunteered to become small-group leaders under control conditions. This gender bias was eliminated under intervention conditions. The interviews illustrated how a subtle change in instructions helped some female students take on a leadership role. Gender bias in leadership in the small-group setting amongst medical students-even when women make up half of the class-may persist without targeted intervention. The authors suggest that frequent and consistent intervention during medical school could be an important factor in encouraging women to identify themselves as leaders, promoting confidence to consider leadership roles in medicine.

  16. Achievement emotions in elementary, middle, and high school: how do students feel about specific contexts in terms of settings and subject-domains? (United States)

    Raccanello, Daniela; Brondino, Margherita; De Bernardi, Bianca


    The present work investigates students' representation of achievement emotions, focusing in context-specific situations in terms of settings and subject-domains, as a function of grade level. We involved 527 fourth-, seventh-, and eleventh-graders, who evaluated ten discrete emotions through questionnaires, with reference to verbal language and mathematics, and different settings (class, homework, tests). Confirmatory multitrait-multimethod analyses indicated higher salience of subject-domains rather than settings for all the emotions; however, complexity of reality was best explained when also settings were accounted for. Analyses of variance revealed higher intensity of positive emotions for younger students, and the opposite pattern for older students; significant differences for most of the emotions based on the evaluative nature of settings, moderated by class levels; more intense positive emotions for mathematics and more intense negative emotions for Italian. Results are discussed considering their theoretical and applied relevance, corroborating previous literature on domain-specificity. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  17. Effectiveness of communication strategies for deaf or hard of hearing workers in group settings. (United States)

    Haynes, Scott


    In group settings, background noise and an obstructed view of the speaker are just a few of the issues that can make workplace communication difficult for an individual who is deaf or hard of hearing. Accommodation strategies such as amplification of the speaker's voice or the use of text-based alternatives exist to address these issues. However, recent studies have shown that there are still unmet needs related to workplace communication in group settings for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. Identify the most common strategies used by individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing to improve communication in group settings and gauge the perceived effectiveness of those strategies. An online survey was conducted with individuals who self-identified as deaf or hard of hearing. The survey presented specific communication strategies based on three functional approaches (aural/oral, text, visual). The strategies applied to both receptive and expressive communication in five different meeting types ranging in size and purpose. 161 adults (age 22-90 yrs.) with limited hearing ability completed the survey. Text-based strategies were typically the least frequently used strategies in group settings, yet they ranked high in perceived effectiveness for receptive and expressive communication. Those who used an interpreter demonstrated a strong preference for having a qualified interpreter present in the meeting rather than an interpreter acting remotely. For expressive communication, participants in general preferred to use their own voice or signing abilities and ranked those strategies as highly effective. A more accessible workplace for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing would incorporate more ubiquitous text-based strategy options. Also, qualified interpreters, when used, should be present in the meeting for maximum effectiveness.

  18. The use of computer simulations in whole-class versus small-group settings (United States)

    Smetana, Lara Kathleen

    This study explored the use of computer simulations in a whole-class as compared to small-group setting. Specific consideration was given to the nature and impact of classroom conversations and interactions when computer simulations were incorporated into a high school chemistry course. This investigation fills a need for qualitative research that focuses on the social dimensions of actual classrooms. Participants included a novice chemistry teacher experienced in the use of educational technologies and two honors chemistry classes. The study was conducted in a rural school in the south-Atlantic United States at the end of the fall 2007 semester. The study took place during one instructional unit on atomic structure. Data collection allowed for triangulation of evidence from a variety of sources approximately 24 hours of video- and audio-taped classroom observations, supplemented with the researcher's field notes and analytic journal; miscellaneous classroom artifacts such as class notes, worksheets, and assignments; open-ended pre- and post-assessments; student exit interviews; teacher entrance, exit and informal interviews. Four web-based simulations were used, three of which were from the ExploreLearning collection. Assessments were analyzed using descriptive statistics and classroom observations, artifacts and interviews were analyzed using Erickson's (1986) guidelines for analytic induction. Conversational analysis was guided by methods outlined by Erickson (1982). Findings indicated (a) the teacher effectively incorporated simulations in both settings (b) students in both groups significantly improved their understanding of the chemistry concepts (c) there was no statistically significant difference between groups' achievement (d) there was more frequent exploratory talk in the whole-class group (e) there were more frequent and meaningful teacher-student interactions in the whole-class group (f) additional learning experiences not measured on the assessment

  19. Mammography test sets: reading location and prior images do not affect group performance. (United States)

    Soh, B P; Lee, W B; McEntee, M F; Kench, P L; Reed, W M; Heard, R; Chakraborty, D P; Brennan, P C


    To examine how the location where reading takes place and the availability of prior images can affect performance in breast test-set reading. Under optimized viewing conditions, 10 expert screen readers each interpreted a reader-specific set of images containing 200 mammographic cases. Readers, randomly divided into two groups read images under one of two pairs of conditions: clinical read with prior images and laboratory read with prior images; laboratory read with prior images and laboratory read without prior images. Region-of-interest (ROI) figure-of-merit (FOM) was analysed using JAFROC software. Breast side-specific sensitivity and specificity were tested using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests. Agreement between pairs of readings was measured using Kendall's coefficient of concordance. Group performances between test-set readings demonstrated similar ROI FOMs, sensitivity and specificity median values, and acceptable levels of agreement between pairs of readings were shown (W = 0.75-0.79, p reading conditions. On an individual reader level, two readers demonstrated significant decreases (p images were unavailable. Reading location had an inconsistent impact on individual performance. Reading location and availability of prior images did not significantly alter group performance. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Creative attitude in a group of youths gifted in the domain of science subjects

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    Monika Sztolpa


    Full Text Available Background We attempted to assess whether students identified by their teachers as gifted in the domain of science are characterised by significantly higher levels of intelligence and creativity than other students. We investigated the features of their personalities that are indicators of their exhibited creative or reproductive attitude in the cognitive and the motivational domains. As a consequence, criteria will be developed for identifying gifted students. Participants and procedure Ninety-seven students, aged 13-17, took part in the study. The students were previously identified by their teachers as gifted. Levels of intellectual functioning were assessed using a battery of tests for diagnosing intelligence (APIS-P and Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM. Creativity was estimated using the Test for Creative Thinking – Drawing Production (TCT-DP, and creative attitude was assessed using the KANH questionnaire. Results Analysis of the results revealed that students nominated by their teachers scored significantly higher than their peers in general intelligence and creativity tests. Moreover, they were characterised by a more frequent choice of heuristic behaviours in the cognitive domain and nonconformity in the motivational domain. Additionally, there was a statistical trend a general creative attitude among the nominated students. Conclusions We found that gifted students scored high on general intelligence and creativity tests. Consistency between the teachers’ nominations and our results indicates that the criteria for identifying gifted students are appropriate. Moreover, instructing teachers about a creative attitude helped them to also identify gifted students with higher levels of nonconformity and who create their own heuristics for behaviour. These characteristics are valuable for innovative activity, which is what programmes for gifted students try to encourage.

  1. Consensus on draft OMERACT core domains for clinical trials of Total Joint Replacement outcome by orthopaedic surgeons: a report from the International consensus on outcome measures in TJR trials (I-COMiTT) group. (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Dohm, Michael; Choong, Peter F


    There are no core outcome domain or measurement sets for Total Joint Replacement (TJR) clinical trials. Our objective was to achieve an International consensus by orthopaedic surgeons on the OMERACT core domain/area set for TJR clinical trials. We conducted surveys of two orthopaedic surgeon cohorts, which included (1) the leadership of international orthopaedic societies and surgeons (IOS; cohort 1), and (2) the members of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons' Outcome Special Interest Group (AAOS-Outcome SIG), and/or the Outcome Research Interest Group of the Orthopaedic Research Society (ORS; cohort 2). Participants rated OMERACT-endorsed preliminary core area set for TJR clinical trials on a 1 to 9 scale, indicating 1-3 as domain of limited importance, 4-6 being important, but not critical, and 7-9 being critical. Eighteen survey participants from the IOS group and 69 participants from the AAOS-Outcome SIG/ORS groups completed the survey questionnaire. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) scores were seven or higher for all six proposed preliminary core areas/domains across both groups, IOS and AAOS-Outcome SIG/ORS, respectively: pain, 8 [8, 9] and 8 [7, 9]; function, 8 [8, 8] and 8 [7, 9]; patient satisfaction, 8 [7, 9] and 8 [7, 8]; revision surgery, 7 [6, 9] and 8 [6, 8]; adverse events, 7 [5, 8] and 7 [6, 9]; and death, 7 [7, 9] and 8 [5, 9]. Respective median scores were lower for two additional optional domains: patient participation, 6.5 [5, 7] and 6 [5, 8]; and cost, 6 [5, 7] and 6 [5, 7]. This study showed that two independent surveys dervied from three groups of orthopaedic surgeons with international representation endorsed a preliminary/draft OMERACT core domain/area set for Joint Replacement clinical trials.

  2. Computer-aided identification of polymorphism sets diagnostic for groups of bacterial and viral genetic variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huygens Flavia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and genes that exhibit presence/absence variation have provided informative marker sets for bacterial and viral genotyping. Identification of marker sets optimised for these purposes has been based on maximal generalized discriminatory power as measured by Simpson's Index of Diversity, or on the ability to identify specific variants. Here we describe the Not-N algorithm, which is designed to identify small sets of genetic markers diagnostic for user-specified subsets of known genetic variants. The algorithm does not treat the user-specified subset and the remaining genetic variants equally. Rather Not-N analysis is designed to underpin assays that provide 0% false negatives, which is very important for e.g. diagnostic procedures for clinically significant subgroups within microbial species. Results The Not-N algorithm has been incorporated into the "Minimum SNPs" computer program and used to derive genetic markers diagnostic for multilocus sequence typing-defined clonal complexes, hepatitis C virus (HCV subtypes, and phylogenetic clades defined by comparative genome hybridization (CGH data for Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica and Clostridium difficile. Conclusion Not-N analysis is effective for identifying small sets of genetic markers diagnostic for microbial sub-groups. The best results to date have been obtained with CGH data from several bacterial species, and HCV sequence data.

  3. Improved group contribution parameter set for the application of solubility parameters to melt extrusion. (United States)

    Just, Susann; Sievert, Frank; Thommes, Markus; Breitkreutz, Jörg


    Hot-melt extrusion is gaining importance for the production of amorphous solid solutions; in parallel, predictive tools for estimating drug solubility in polymers are increasingly demanded. The Hansen solubility parameter (SP) approach is well acknowledged for its predictive power of the miscibility of liquids as well as the solubility of some amorphous solids in liquid solvents. By solely using the molecular structure, group contribution (GC) methods allow the calculation of Hansen SPs. The GC parameter sets available were derived from liquids and polymers which conflicts with the object of prediction, the solubility of solid drugs. The present study takes a step from the liquid based SPs toward their application to solid solutes. On the basis of published experimental Hansen SPs of solid drugs and excipients only, a new GC parameter set was developed. In comparison with established parameter sets by van Krevelen/Hoftyzer, Beerbower/Hansen, Breitkreutz and Stefanis/Panayiotou, the new GC parameter set provides the highest overall predictive power for solubility experiments (correlation coefficient r = -0.87 to -0.91) as well as for literature data on melt extrudates and casted films (r = -0.78 to -0.96). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sport-Specific Outdoor Rehabilitation In A Group Setting: Do The Intentions Match Actual Training Load? (United States)

    de Bruijn, Jeroen; van der Worp, Henk; Korte, Mark; de Vries, Astrid A J; Nijland, Rick; Brink, Michel M S


    Previous research has shown a weak relationship between intended and actual training load in various sports. Due to variety in group and content, this relationship is expected to be even weaker during group rehabilitation. The goal of our study was to examine the relationship between intended and actual training load during sport-specific rehabilitation in a group setting. Observational study Setting: We performed this study during three outdoor rehabilitation sessions. Nine amateur soccer players recovering from lower limb injury participated in our study (age 22 ± 3 y, height 179 ± 9 cm, body mass 75 ± 13 kg). We collected physiotherapists' ratings of intended exertion (RIE) and players' ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Furthermore, Zephyr Bioharness 3 equipped with GPS-trackers provided heart rate and distance data. We computed heart rate-based training loads using Edwards' method and a modified TRIMP. Overall, we found weak correlations (N = 42) between RIE and RPE (r = 0.35), Edwards' (r = 0.34), TRIMPMOD (r = 0.07) and distance (r = 0.26). In general, the physiotherapists tended to underestimate training loads. To check whether the intended training loads are met, it is thus recommended to monitor training loads during rehabilitation.

  5. Facebook usage among those who have received treatment for an eating disorder in a group setting. (United States)

    Saffran, Kristina; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Kass, Andrea E; Wilfley, Denise E; Taylor, Craig Barr; Trockel, Mickey


    This study explored Facebook use among individuals with a history of receiving treatment for an eating disorder (ED) in a group setting (e.g., inpatient, residential, outpatient group), focusing primarily on comparisons individuals make about their bodies, eating, or exercise to those of their peers from treatment on Facebook and the relation between these comparisons and ED pathology. Individuals (N = 415; mean age 28.15 years ± 8.41; 98.1% female) who self-reported receipt of ED treatment in a group setting were recruited via e-mail and social media to complete an online survey. Participants reported having an average of 10-19 Facebook friends from treatment and spending up to 30 min per day interacting on Facebook with individuals from treatment or ED-related organizations. More comparison to treatment peers on Facebook was associated with greater ED psychopathology and ED-related impairment. Conversely, positive interaction with treatment peers on Facebook was associated with lower ED psychopathology and ED-related impairment. Individuals who had been in treatment longer, more times, and more recently had more Facebook friends from treatment and ED-related organizations as well as spent more time in ED groups' pages on Facebook. Few participants (19.5%) reported that a therapist asked about the impact of Facebook on pathology. Interactions on Facebook could affect patients' recovery and potential for relapse. It may be helpful for treatment providers to discuss Facebook use and its potential benefits and drawbacks with patients preparing for discharge from group treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:764-777). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A randomized trial of group parent training: reducing child conduct problems in real-world settings. (United States)

    Kjøbli, John; Hukkelberg, Silje; Ogden, Terje


    Group-based Parent Management Training, the Oregon model (PMTO, 12 sessions) was delivered by the regular staff of municipal child and family services. PMTO is based on social interaction learning theory and promotes positive parenting skills in parents of children with conduct problems. This study examined the effectiveness of the group-based training intervention in real world settings both immediately following and six months after termination of the intervention. One hundred thirty-seven children (3-12 years) and their parents participated in this study. The families were randomly assigned to group-based training or a comparison group. Data were collected from parents and teachers. The caregiver assessments of parenting practices and child conduct problems and caregiver and teacher reported social competence revealed immediate and significant intervention effects. Short- and long-term beneficial effects were reported from parents, although no follow-up effects were evident on teacher reports. These effectiveness findings and the potential for increasing the number of families served to support the further dissemination and implementation of group-based parent training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Iron in galaxy groups and clusters: confronting galaxy evolution models with a newly homogenized data set (United States)

    Yates, Robert M.; Thomas, Peter A.; Henriques, Bruno M. B.


    We present an analysis of the iron abundance in the hot gas surrounding galaxy groups and clusters. To do this, we first compile and homogenize a large data set of 79 low-redshift (tilde{z} = 0.03) systems (159 individual measurements) from the literature. Our analysis accounts for differences in aperture size, solar abundance, and cosmology, and scales all measurements using customized radial profiles for the temperature (T), gas density (ρgas), and iron abundance (ZFe). We then compare this data set to groups and clusters in the L-GALAXIES galaxy evolution model. Our homogenized data set reveals a tight T-ZFe relation for clusters, with a scatter in ZFe of only 0.10 dex and a slight negative gradient. After examining potential measurement biases, we conclude that some of this negative gradient has a physical origin. Our model suggests greater accretion of hydrogen in the hottest systems, via stripping from infalling satellites, as a cause. In groups, L-GALAXIES over-estimates ZFe, indicating that metal-rich gas removal (via e.g. AGN feedback) is required. L-GALAXIES is consistent with the observed ZFe in the intracluster medium (ICM) of the hottest clusters at z = 0, and shows a similar rate of ICM enrichment as that observed from at least z ˜ 1.3 to the present day. This is achieved without needing to modify any of the galactic chemical evolution (GCE) model parameters. However, the ZFe in intermediate-T clusters could be under-estimated in our model. We caution that modifications to the GCE modelling to correct this disrupt the agreement with observations of galaxies' stellar components.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Dawson


    Full Text Available The first purpose of the present study examined whether individuals with different exercise behaviors (classified by attendance experienced different or similar cognitive patterns. It was hypothesized that different behavior would lead to different cognitive appraisals. It was predicted that there would be a difference between the three behavioral frequency groups with regard to self-efficacy measures and goal measures. The second purpose of the study was to describe, evaluate and observe whether social factors were associated with participating in exercise in groups. It was hypothesized that those who engage in exercise classes would elicit a social focus. Participants for the study included 39 females who registered in-group fitness classes at a mid-sized university. Attendance over the 10-week course was assessed and participants completed a self-report questionnaire during week seven. The attendance data were used to create 3 exercise frequency groups (regular attenders, sporadic attenders, and dropouts based on ACSM's exercise guidelines. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, means and frequencies were used to describe the data. There were no significant differences on measures of self-efficacy, goal measures, enjoyment, and external motivation among the three groups (all p's > 0.05. An analysis of the whole group (N=39 discovered a low social focus and high ratings of self-efficacy. Continued research is necessary to investigate the benefit of social support in a group exercise setting, as well as to better understand how self-regulation through self-efficacy and goal factors influences and is influenced by actual behavior.

  9. Enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders adapted for a group setting. (United States)

    Wade, Stephanie; Byrne, Sue; Allen, Karina


    This randomized control trial is an evaluation of the effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT-E) for eating disorders adapted for a group setting. The study aimed to examine the effects of group CBT-E on eating disorder psychopathology and additional maintaining pathology. A transdiagnostic sample of individuals with eating disorders with a BMI ≥ 18 kg/m2 (N = 40) were randomized to an immediate-start or delayed-start condition so as to compare therapeutic effects of group CBT-E with a waitlist control. Global Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) scores, BMI, and measures of Clinical Perfectionism, Self-Esteem, Interpersonal Difficulties, and Mood Intolerance were measured across the 8-week control period, throughout the group treatment and at 3-months post-treatment. Over 70% of those who entered the trial completed treatment. The first eight weeks of group CBT-E were more effective at reducing Global EDE-Q scores than no treatment (waitlist control). By post-treatment, good outcome (a Global EDE-Q within 1 SD of Australian community norms plus BMI ≥ 18.5) was achieved by 67.9% of treatment completers and 66.7% of the total sample. Symptom abstinence within the previous month was reported by 14.3% of treatment completers and 10.3% of the total sample. Significant reductions in Clinical Perfectionism, Self-Esteem, Interpersonal Difficulties, and Mood Intolerance were also observed. This study demonstrated that a group version of CBT-E can be effective at reducing eating disorder psychopathology in a transdiagnostic sample of individuals with eating disorders. Group CBT-E could provide a means of increasing availability of evidence-based treatment for eating disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Drosophila ash1 gene product, which is localized at specific sites on polytene chromosomes, contains a SET domain and a PHD finger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripoulas, N.; LaJeunesse, D.; Gildea, J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others


    The determined state of Drosophila imaginal discs depends on stable patterns of homeotic gene expression. The stability of these patterns requires the function of the ash1 gene, a member of the trithorax group. The primary translation product of the 7.5-kb ash1 transcript is predicted to be a basic protein of 2144 amino acids. The ASH1 protein contains a SET domain and a PHD finger. Both of these motifs are found in the products of some trithorax group and Polycomb group genes. We have determined the nucleotide sequence alterations in 10 ash1 mutant alleles and have examined their mutant phenotype. The best candidate for a null allele is ash1{sup 22}. The truncated protein product of this mutant allele is predicted to contain only 47 amino acids. The ASH1 protein is localized on polytene chromosomes of larval salivary glands at >100 sites. The chromosomal localization of ASH1 implies that it functions at the transcriptional level to maintain the expression pattern of homeotic selector genes. 54 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Flexible and scalable methods for quantifying stochastic variability in the era of massive time-domain astronomical data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Brandon C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Becker, Andrew C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Sobolewska, Malgosia [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716, Warsaw (Poland); Siemiginowska, Aneta [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Uttley, Phil [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    We present the use of continuous-time autoregressive moving average (CARMA) models as a method for estimating the variability features of a light curve, and in particular its power spectral density (PSD). CARMA models fully account for irregular sampling and measurement errors, making them valuable for quantifying variability, forecasting and interpolating light curves, and variability-based classification. We show that the PSD of a CARMA model can be expressed as a sum of Lorentzian functions, which makes them extremely flexible and able to model a broad range of PSDs. We present the likelihood function for light curves sampled from CARMA processes, placing them on a statistically rigorous foundation, and we present a Bayesian method to infer the probability distribution of the PSD given the measured light curve. Because calculation of the likelihood function scales linearly with the number of data points, CARMA modeling scales to current and future massive time-domain data sets. We conclude by applying our CARMA modeling approach to light curves for an X-ray binary, two active galactic nuclei, a long-period variable star, and an RR Lyrae star in order to illustrate their use, applicability, and interpretation.

  12. Smoking cessation in workplace settings: quit rates and determinants in a group behaviour therapy programme. (United States)

    Hausherr, Yann; Quinto, Carlos; Grize, Leticia; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole


    To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions. Between 2006 and 2012, 1287 smokers aged 16 to 68 years voluntarily attended smoking cessation training at their workplace. The intervention was based on a cognitive behavioural group therapy combined with individual proactive telephone counselling. The evaluation consisted of three anonymised questionnaires (pre- and postintervention, and 12-month follow-up). In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the association of smoking quit rates with training and participant characteristics, including withdrawal symptoms, by use of multilevel logistic regression analysis with a random intercept for training courses. The self-reported abstinence rate was 72.4% at the end of the training, and 18.6% 1 year later. The risk of relapse during the training was positively associated with the number of years and daily cigarettes smoked, and negatively with increased appetite, sleeping troubles and satisfaction with learned techniques. Failed abstinence within the first year was associated with younger age, higher numbers of daily smoked cigarettes and unsuccessful recent quit attempts. Our evaluation suggests that younger and more addicted smokers attending smoking cessation trainings may need additional support to achieve long lasting abstinence rates. Offering smoking cessation training in a workplace setting can achieve reasonable long-term quit rates, but a subset of employees needs additional support at the group or personal level. Group behaviour therapy could be an effective method to achieve

  13. Facebook Usage Amongst Those Who Have Received Treatment for an Eating Disorder in a Group Setting (United States)

    Saffran, Kristina; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Kass, Andrea E.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr; Trockel, Mickey


    Objective This study explored Facebook use among individuals with a history of receiving treatment for an eating disorder (ED) in a group setting (e.g., inpatient, residential, outpatient group), focusing primarily on comparisons individuals make about their bodies, eating, or exercise to those of their peers from treatment on Facebook and the relation between these comparisons and ED pathology. Method Individuals (N = 415; mean age 28.15 years ± 8.41; 98.1% female) who self-reported receipt of ED treatment in a group setting were recruited via email and social media to complete an online survey. Results Participants reported having an average of 10–19 Facebook friends from treatment and spending up to 30 minutes per day interacting on Facebook with individuals from treatment or ED-related organizations. More comparison to treatment peers on Facebook was associated with greater ED psychopathology and ED-related impairment. Conversely, positive interaction with treatment peers on Facebook was associated with lower ED psychopathology and ED-related impairment. Individuals who had been in treatment longer, more times, and more recently had more Facebook friends from treatment and ED-related organizations as well as spent more time in ED groups’ pages on Facebook. Few participants (19.5%) reported that a therapist asked about the impact of Facebook on pathology. Discussion Interactions on Facebook could affect patients’ recovery and potential for relapse. It may be helpful for treatment providers to discuss Facebook use and its potential benefits and drawbacks with patients preparing for discharge from group treatment. PMID:27302908

  14. Ingroup/Outgroup Attitudes and Group Evaluations: The Role of Competition in British Classroom Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia L. Lam


    Full Text Available Children’s intergroup bias is one of the consequences of their readiness to categorise people into ingroups and outgroups, even when groups are assigned arbitrarily. The present study examined the influence of intergroup competition on children’s ingroup and outgroup attitudes developed within the minimal-group setting in British classrooms. One hundred and twelve children in two age groups (6-7- and 9-10-year-olds were assessed on classification skills and self-esteem before being allocated to one of two colour “teams.” In the experimental condition, children were told that the teams would have a competition after two weeks and teachers made regular use of these teams to organise activities. In the control condition, where no competition ensued, teachers did not refer to “teams.” Then children completed trait attributions to their own-team (ingroup and other-team (outgroup members and group evaluations. It was found that children developed positive ingroup bias across conditions, but outgroup negative bias was shown only by 6-7-year-olds in the experimental condition, particularly if they lost the competition, where they evaluated their team more critically. Better classification skills were associated with less negativity towards the outgroup in the experimental condition. Findings are discussed in relation to relevant theoretical premises and particulars of the intergroup context.

  15. Subject domain differences in secondary school teachers' attitudes towards grouping pupils by ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallam Susan


    Full Text Available Previous research has revealed that teachers' attitudes to ability grouping are influenced by the type of ability grouping adopted in the school where they teach. This research aimed to compare the attitudes of teachers of different subjects teaching low, high or mixed ability classes in years 7 to 9 in 45 secondary schools. Over 1500 teachers from 45 secondary schools, with a range of subject specialisms completed a questionnaire which elicited their responses to statements of beliefs about ability grouping and its effects. Teachers of mathematics and modern foreign languages were more in favour of structured ability grouping than those teaching English and humanities. Science, arts and PE, and ICT, design and business studies teachers expressed intermediate attitudes. Attitudes were determined in part by conceptions of the nature of the subject but also by the type of ability groupings adopted by the school in which they taught. In taking decisions about the type of ability grouping to adopt consideration needs to be given to the nature of the subject matter to be taught and the attitudes of the teachers who teach that subject.

  16. Collective Efficacy and Group Functioning: The Effect of Performance Feedback on Efficacy Assessments, Goal Setting, Task Persistence and Overall Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meisenhelder, Helen


    .... Specifically, this experiment used performance feedback to manipulate efficacy levels in order to investigate the effect of efficacy on group goal setting, task persistence, and overall performance...

  17. Sporting programs for inactive population groups: factors influencing implementation in the organized sports setting. (United States)

    Ooms, Linda; Veenhof, Cindy; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; de Bakker, Dinny H


    The organized sports sector has received increased attention as a setting to promote health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) to the general population. For significant public health impact, it is important that successful HEPA programs are widely adopted, implemented and continued as ongoing practice. The importance of evaluating the context in which programs are implemented has been identified as critical. However, little research has focused on understanding the organized sports implementation context, including factors facilitating and impeding implementation. In this study, the main factors influencing implementation of HEPA programs in the organized sports setting were studied. Fourteen sporting programs in the Netherlands aimed at increasing participation in sports by inactive population groups and funded within the National Action Plan for Sport and Exercise (NAPSE) were investigated. The programs were developed by ten Dutch National Sports Federations (NSFs) and implemented by different sports clubs in the Netherlands over a 3-year implementation period (June 2008-June 2011). The qualitative research component involved yearly face-to-face interviews (i.e. fourteen interviews each year, n = 12 program coordinators) and a group meeting with the program coordinators of the NSFs (n = 8). Cross-case comparisons and thematic analyses were performed to identify and categorize important facilitating and impeding factors respectively. The quantitative research component, used to identify the most important facilitating and impeding factors across all sporting programs, consisted of ranking of factors according to importance by the program coordinators (n = 12). Different factors act during six identified (implementation) phases. When comparing factors across phases, several key learnings were evident. Successful implementation relied, for example, on program design and enthusiastic individuals within sporting organizations. On the other hand, inactive

  18. Metformin Elicits Antitumor Effects and Downregulates the Histone Methyltransferase Multiple Myeloma SET Domain (MMSET) in Prostate Cancer Cells. (United States)

    White-Al Habeeb, Nicole M A; Garcia, Julia; Fleshner, Neil; Bapat, Bharati


    This study explored the biological effects of metformin on prostate cancer (PCa) cells and determined molecular pathways and epigenetic regulators implicated in its mechanism of action. We performed mRNA expression profiling in 22Rv1 cells following 2.5 mM and 5 mM metformin treatment. Genes significantly modified by metformin treatment were ranked based on altered expression, involvement with cancer-related processes, and reported dysregulation in PCa. The effects of the top ranked gene, MMSET, on the proliferative and invasive capabilities of PCa cells were investigated via siRNA knockdown alone and also combined with metformin treatment. Metformin treatment decreased cell growth of PCa cell line 22Rv1 and stalled cells at the G1/S checkpoint in a time- and dose-dependent manner, resulting in increased cells in G1 (P Metformin activated the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway as shown by increased p-AMPK and decreased p-p70S6K. mRNA expression profiling following metformin treatment identified significant changes in 136 chromatin-modifying genes. The top ranked gene, multiple myeloma SET domain (MMSET) showed increased expression in PCa cell lines (22Rv1 and DU145) when compared to the benign prostate epithelium-derived cell-line RWPE-1, and its expression was decreased upon metformin treatment. siRNA-mediated knockdown of MMSET showed decreased cellular migration and invasion in DU-145 cells. MMSET knockdown in combination with metformin treatment resulted in further reduction in the capacity of PCa cells to migrate and invade. These data suggest MMSET may play a role in the inhibitory effect of metformin on PCa and could serve as a potential novel therapeutic target for PCa. Prostate 76:1507-1518, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. CD33: increased inclusion of exon 2 implicates the Ig V-set domain in Alzheimer's disease susceptibility (United States)

    Raj, Towfique; Ryan, Katie J.; Replogle, Joseph M.; Chibnik, Lori B.; Rosenkrantz, Laura; Tang, Anna; Rothamel, Katie; Stranger, Barbara E.; Bennett, David A.; Evans, Denis A.; De Jager, Philip L.; Bradshaw, Elizabeth M.


    We previously demonstrated that the Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated risk allele, rs3865444C, results in a higher surface density of CD33 on monocytes. Here, we find alternative splicing of exon 2 to be the primary mechanism of the genetically driven differential expression of CD33 protein. We report that the risk allele, rs3865444C, is associated with greater cell surface expression of CD33 in both subjects of European and African–American ancestry and that there is a single haplotype influencing CD33 surface expression. A meta-analysis of the two populations narrowed the number of significant SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r2 > 0.8) with rs3865444 to just five putative causal variants associated with increased protein expression. Using gene expression data from flow-sorted CD14+CD16− monocytes from 398 healthy subjects of three populations, we show that the rs3865444C risk allele is strongly associated with greater expression of CD33 exon 2 (pMETA = 2.36 × 10−60). Western blotting confirms increased protein expression of the full-length CD33 isoform containing exon 2 relative to the rs3865444C allele (P < 0.0001). Of the variants in strong LD with rs3865444, rs12459419, which is located in a putative SRSF2 splice site of exon 2, is the most likely candidate to mediate the altered alternative splicing of CD33's Immunoglobulin V-set domain 2 and ultimately influence AD susceptibility. PMID:24381305

  20. Acidobacteria form a coherent but highly diverse group within the bacterial domain: evidence from environmental genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaiser, Achim; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Lanz, Christa


    Acidobacteria have been established as a novel phylum of Bacteria that is consistently detected in many different habitats around the globe by 16S rDNA-based molecular surveys. The phylogenetic diversity, ubiquity and abundance of this group, particularly in soil habitats, suggest an important...... insert libraries directly from DNA of a calcerous grassland soil. Genomic fragments of Acidobacteria were identified with specific 16S rDNA probes and sequence analyses of six independently identified clones were performed, representing in total more than 210,000 bp. The 16S rRNA genes of the genomic...... fragments differed between 2.3% and 19.9% and were placed into two different subgroups of Acidobacteria (groups III and V). Although partial co-linearity was found between genomic fragments, the gene content around the rRNA operons was generally not conserved. Phylogenetic reconstructions with orthologues...

  1. Taking action against malnutrition in Asian healthcare settings: an initiative of a Northeast Asia Study Group. (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takashi; Arai, Hidenori; Claytor, Ling Hui; Kuzuya, Masafumi; Kotani, Joji; Lee, Shyh-Dye; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Nogami, Tetsushi; Peng, Nanhai


    Malnutrition is common in Asia, especially among people who are critically ill and/or older. Study results from China, Japan, and Taiwan show that malnutrition or risk of malnutrition is found in up to 30% of communitydwelling people and as much as 50% of patients admitted to hospitals-with prevalence even higher among those older than 70 years. In Asia, malnutrition takes substantial tolls on health, physical function, and wellbeing of people affected, and it adds huge financial burdens to healthcare systems. Attention to nutrition, including protein intake, can help prevent or delay disease- and age-related disabilities and can speed recovery from illness or surgery. Despite compelling evidence and professional guidelines on appropriate nutrition care in hospital and community settings, patients' malnutrition is often overlooked and under-treated in Asian healthcare, as it is worldwide. Since the problem of malnutrition continues to grow as many Asian populations become increasingly "gray", it is important to take action now. A medical education (feedM.E.) Global Study Group developed a strategy to facilitate best-practice hospital nutrition care: screen-intervene-supervene. As members of a newly formed feedM.E. Northeast Asia Study Group, we endorse this care strategy, guiding clinicians to screen each patient's nutritional status upon hospital admission or at initiation of care, intervene promptly when nutrition care is needed, and supervene or follow-up routinely with adjustment and reinforcement of nutrition care plans, including post-discharge. To encourage best-practice nutrition in Asian patient care settings, our paper includes a simple, stepwise Nutrition Care Pathway (NCP) in multiple languages.

  2. An unadjusted 25 group neutron cross section set for fast reactor core calculations from JENDL-2 library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devan, K.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Lee, S.M. [Nuclear Data Section Indira Ganhi Centre for Atomic Research, Tamilnadu (India)


    We have created a 25 group neutron cross section set (IGCJENDL) for nuclides of interest to LMFBRs from the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library - Version 2 (JENDL-2) in the format of French adjusted Cadarache Version 2 set (1969). The integral validation of IGCJENDL set was done by analyzing nine fast critical assemblies proposed by Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG). The calculated integral parameters agreed reasonably well with the reported measured values. It is found that this set predicts the integral parameters, k-eff in particular, close to that predicted by adjusted CARNAVAL IV (French) or BNAB-78 (Russian) sets, for a 1200 MWe theoretical benchmark, representing a large power reactor.

  3. Domains and domain loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut


    The domain concept, originally suggested by Schmidt-Rohr in the 1930’s (as credited in Fishman’s writings in the 1970s), was an attempt to sort out different areas of language use in multilingual societies, which are relevant for language choice. In Fishman’s version, domains were considered...... as theoretical constructs that can explain language choice which were supposed to be a more powerful explanatory tool than more obvious (and observable) parameters like topic, place (setting) and interlocutor. In the meantime, at least in Scandinavia, the term ‘domain’ has been taken up in the debate among...... politicians and in the media, especially in the discussion whether some languages undergo ‘domain loss’ vis-à-vis powerful international languages like English. An objection that has been raised here is that domains, as originally conceived, are parameters of language choice and not properties of languages...

  4. Cognitive behavioral therapy for depression among adults in Japanese clinical settings: a single-group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Toshiaki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT for treating Japanese patients with major depression is lacking, therefore, a feasibility study of CBT for depression in Japanese clinical settings is urgently required. Findings A culturally adapted, 16-week manualized individual CBT program for Japanese patients with major depressive disorder was developed. A total of 27 patients with major depression were enrolled in a single-group study with the purpose of testing the feasibility of the program. Twenty six patients (96% completed the study. The mean total score on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II for all patients (Intention-to-treat sample improved from 32.6 to 11.7, with a mean change of 20.8 (95% confidence interval: 17.0 to 24.8. Within-group effect size at the endpoint assessment was 2.64 (Cohen's d. Twenty-one patients (77.7% showed treatment response and 17 patients (63.0% achieved remission at the end of the program. Significant improvement was observed in measurement of subjective and objective depression severity (assessed by BDI-II, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Rated, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, dysfunctional attitude (assessed by Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, global functioning (assessed by Global Assessment of Functioning of DSM-IV and subjective well-being (assessed by WHO Subjective Well-being Inventory (all p values Conclusions Our manualized treatment comprised of a 16-week individual CBT program for major depression appears feasible and may achieve favorable treatment outcomes among Japanese patients with major depression. Further research involving a larger sample in a randomized, controlled trial design is warranted. Trial registration UMIN-CTR UMIN000002542.

  5. Comparative genomic analysis of SET domain family reveals the origin, expansion, and putative function of the arthropod-specific SmydA genes as histone modifiers in insects (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Liu, Qing; Wang, Yanli; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Huimin; Song, Tianqi; Yang, Meiling


    Abstract The SET domain is an evolutionarily conserved motif present in histone lysine methyltransferases, which are important in the regulation of chromatin and gene expression in animals. In this study, we searched for SET domain–containing genes (SET genes) in all of the 147 arthropod genomes sequenced at the time of carrying out this experiment to understand the evolutionary history by which SET domains have evolved in insects. Phylogenetic and ancestral state reconstruction analysis revealed an arthropod-specific SET gene family, named SmydA, that is ancestral to arthropod animals and specifically diversified during insect evolution. Considering that pseudogenization is the most probable fate of the new emerging gene copies, we provided experimental and evolutionary evidence to demonstrate their essential functions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis and in vitro methyltransferase activity assays showed that the SmydA-2 gene was transcriptionally active and retained the original histone methylation activity. Expression knockdown by RNA interference significantly increased mortality, implying that the SmydA genes may be essential for insect survival. We further showed predominantly strong purifying selection on the SmydA gene family and a potential association between the regulation of gene expression and insect phenotypic plasticity by transcriptome analysis. Overall, these data suggest that the SmydA gene family retains essential functions that may possibly define novel regulatory pathways in insects. This work provides insights into the roles of lineage-specific domain duplication in insect evolution. PMID:28444351

  6. A Group-Lasso Active Set Strategy for Multiclass Hyperspectral Image Classification (United States)

    Tuia, D.; Courty, N.; Flamary, R.


    Hyperspectral images have a strong potential for landcover/landuse classification, since the spectra of the pixels can highlight subtle differences between materials and provide information beyond the visible spectrum. Yet, a limitation of most current approaches is the hypothesis of spatial independence between samples: images are spatially correlated and the classification map should exhibit spatial regularity. One way of integrating spatial smoothness is to augment the input spectral space with filtered versions of the bands. However, open questions remain, such as the selection of the bands to be filtered, or the filterbank to be used. In this paper, we consider the entirety of the possible spatial filters by using an incremental feature learning strategy that assesses whether a candidate feature would improve the model if added to the current input space. Our approach is based on a multiclass logistic classifier with group-lasso regularization. The optimization of this classifier yields an optimality condition, that can easily be used to assess the interest of a candidate feature without retraining the model, thus allowing drastic savings in computational time. We apply the proposed method to three challenging hyperspectral classification scenarios, including agricultural and urban data, and study both the ability of the incremental setting to learn features that always improve the model and the nature of the features selected.

  7. The Visual Matrix Method: Imagery and Affect in a Group-Based Research Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Froggett


    Full Text Available The visual matrix is a method for researching shared experience, stimulated by sensory material relevant to a research question. It is led by imagery, visualization and affect, which in the matrix take precedence over discourse. The method enables the symbolization of imaginative and emotional material, which might not otherwise be articulated and allows "unthought" dimensions of experience to emerge into consciousness in a participatory setting. We describe the process of the matrix with reference to the study "Public Art and Civic Engagement" (FROGGETT, MANLEY, ROY, PRIOR & DOHERTY, 2014 in which it was developed and tested. Subsequently, examples of its use in other contexts are provided. Both the matrix and post-matrix discussions are described, as is the interpretive process that follows. Theoretical sources are highlighted: its origins in social dreaming; the atemporal, associative nature of the thinking during and after the matrix which we describe through the Deleuzian idea of the rhizome; and the hermeneutic analysis which draws from object relations theory and the Lorenzerian tradition of scenic understanding. The matrix has been conceptualized as a "scenic rhizome" to account for its distinctive quality and hybrid origins in research practice. The scenic rhizome operates as a "third" between participants and the "objects" of contemplation. We suggest that some of the drawbacks of other group-based methods are avoided in the visual matrix—namely the tendency for inter-personal dynamics to dominate the event. URN:

  8. Group vs. single mindfulness meditation: exploring avoidance, impulsivity, and weight management in two separate mindfulness meditation settings. (United States)

    Mantzios, Michail; Giannou, Kyriaki


    Recent research has identified that mindfulness meditation in group settings supports people who are trying to lose weight. The present research investigated mindfulness meditation in group and individual settings, and explored the potential impact on weight loss and other factors (i.e. mindfulness, impulsivity, and avoidance) that may assist or hinder weight loss. Specifically, the hypotheses tested were that the group setting assisted dieters more than the individual setting by reducing weight, cognitive-behavioral avoidance, and impulsivity and by increasing mindfulness. Participants (n = 170) who were trying to lose weight were randomly assigned to practice meditation for 6 weeks within a group or independently. Measurements in mindfulness, cognitive-behavioral avoidance, impulsivity, and weight occurred twice (pre- and post-intervention). Results indicated that participants in the group setting lost weight and lowered their levels of cognitive-behavioral avoidance, while impulsivity and mindfulness remained stable. On the other hand, participants in the individual condition lost less weight, while there was an increase in cognitive-behavioral avoidance and mindfulness scores, but a decrease in impulsivity. Seeing that benefits and limitations observed in group settings are not replicated when people meditate alone, this study concluded that mindfulness meditation in individual settings needs to be used with caution, although there are some potential benefits that could aid future weight loss research. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  9. Testing hypotheses about the sister group of the passeriformes using an independent 30-locus data set. (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Braun, Edward L; Kimball, Rebecca T


    Although many phylogenetic studies have focused on developing hypotheses about relationships, advances in data collection and computation have increased the feasibility of collecting large independent data sets to rigorously test controversial hypotheses or carefully assess artifacts that may be misleading. One such relationship in need of independent evaluation is the position of Passeriformes (perching birds) in avian phylogeny. This order comprises more than half of all extant birds, and it includes one of the most important avian model systems (the zebra finch). Recent large-scale studies using morphology, mitochondrial, and nuclear sequence data have generated very different hypotheses about the sister group of Passeriformes, and all conflict with an older hypothesis generated using DNA-DNA hybridization. We used novel data from 30 nuclear loci, primarily introns, for 28 taxa to evaluate five major a priori hypotheses regarding the phylogenetic position of Passeriformes. Although previous studies have suggested that nuclear introns are ideal for the resolution of ancient avian relationships, introns have also been criticized because of the potential for alignment ambiguities and the loss of signal due to saturation. To examine these issues, we generated multiple alignments using several alignment programs, varying alignment parameters, and using guide trees that reflected the different a priori hypotheses. Although different alignments and analyses yielded slightly different results, our analyses excluded all but one of the five a priori hypotheses. In many cases, the passerines were sister to the Psittaciformes (parrots), and taxa were members of a larger clade that includes Falconidae (falcons) and Cariamidae (seriemas). However, the position of Coliiformes (mousebirds) was highly unstable in our analyses of 30 loci, and this represented the primary source of incongruence among analyses. Mousebirds were united with passerines or parrots in some analyses

  10. Mobile technologies and communication strategies in an urban Midwifery Group Practice setting. An exploratory study. (United States)

    Forti, Amanda; Stapleton, Helen; Kildea, Sue


    Around-the-clock access to a known midwife is a distinct feature of Midwifery Group Practice (MGP) and caseload midwifery settings; although the literature suggests this aspect of working life may hinder recruitment and retention to this model of care. Mobile technologies, known as mHealth where they are used in health care, facilitate access and hence communication, however little is known about this area of midwifery practice. Which communication modalities are used, and most frequently, by MGP midwives and clients? A prospective, cross sectional design included a purposive sample of MGP midwives from an Australian tertiary maternity hospital. Data on modes of midwife-client contact were collected 24h/day, for two consecutive weeks, and included: visits, phone-calls, texts and emails. Demographic data were also collected. Details about 1442 midwife-client contacts were obtained. The majority of contact was via text, between the hours of 07:00 and 14:59, with primiparous women, when the primary midwife was on-call. An average of 96 contacts per fortnight occurred. The majority of contact was between the midwife and their primary clients, reiterating a key tenet of caseload models and confirming mobile technologies as a significant and evolving aspect of practice. The pattern of contact within social (or daytime) hours is reassuring for midwives considering caseload midwifery, who are concerned about the on-call burden. The use of text as the preferred communication modality raises issues regarding data security and retrieval, accountability, confidentiality and text management during off-duty periods. The development of Australian-wide guidelines to inform local policies and best practice is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Facilitator Co-Location and Alignment on the Efficacy of Group Support Systems Employed in a Distributed Setting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lea, Jeffrey


    ... of decision making groups in order to facilitate the reengineering of logistics processes in an any place/any time environment To date GSSs have been studied and employed primarily in the same time/same place setting...

  12. Setting Cut Scores on an EFL Placement Test Using the Prototype Group Method: A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Analysis (United States)

    Eckes, Thomas


    This paper presents an approach to standard setting that combines the prototype group method (PGM; Eckes, 2012) with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The combined PGM-ROC approach is applied to setting cut scores on a placement test of English as a foreign language (EFL). To implement the PGM, experts first named learners whom…

  13. An Analysis of Training Focused on Improving SMART Goal Setting for Specific Employee Groups (United States)

    Worden, Jeannie M.


    This quantitative study examined the proficiency of employee SMART goal setting following the intervention of employee SMART goal setting training. Current challenges in higher education substantiate the need for employees to align their performance with the mission, vision, and strategic directions of the organization. A performance management…

  14. Social Episodes and Social Structure in an Academic Setting: The Social Environment of an Intact Group. (United States)

    Forgas, Joseph P.


    Some theorists maintain that human group activity should be studied through the eyes and experience of the people who have developed the activity. This study attempts to represent the social life of an intact group by quantitative descriptive techniques, using the group members' knowledge and understanding of their own social environment.…

  15. The Attunement Principles: A Comparison of Nurture Group and Mainstream Settings (United States)

    Cubeddu, Daniela; MacKay, Tommy


    Two key areas identified for research are differences in practice between nurture groups and mainstream classrooms, and nurturing approaches in rural and low-density populations. This study compared classroom practice in a nurture group serving a wide rural area with the four mainstream classes to which the five children in the group belonged. The…

  16. International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) Release 3.0 - Monthly Summary Groups (MSG) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS), is the most widely-used freely available collection of surface marine observations,...

  17. Qualitative Evaluation of a Physical Activity Health Promotion Programme for People with Intellectual Disabilities in a Group Home Setting (United States)

    Dixon-Ibarra, A.; Driver, S.; Nery-Hurwit, M.; VanVolkenburg, H.


    Background: There is a lack of health promotion programming designed to change the physical activity environment of the group home setting. The Menu-Choice programme assists staff in creating physical activity goals alongside residents with intellectual disabilities and provides strategies to incorporate activity into the group home schedule. The…

  18. Ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes in the wPip strain of Wolbachia from the Culex pipiens group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkhill Julian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia are obligate endosymbiotic bacteria maternally transmitted through the egg cytoplasm that are responsible for several reproductive disorders in their insect hosts, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI in infected mosquitoes. Species in the Culex pipiens complex display an unusually high number of Wolbachia-induced crossing types, and based on present data, only the wPip strain is present. Results The sequencing of the wPip strain of Wolbachia revealed the presence of 60 ankyrin repeat domain (ANK encoding genes and expression studies of these genes were carried out in adult mosquitoes. One of these ANK genes, pk2, is shown to be part of an operon of three prophage-associated genes with sex-specific expression, and is present in two identical copies in the genome. Another homolog of pk2 is also present that is differentially expressed in different Cx. pipiens group strains. A further two ANK genes showed sex-specific regulation in wPip-infected Cx. pipiens group adults. Conclusion The high number, variability and differential expression of ANK genes in wPip suggest an important role in Wolbachia biology, and the gene family provides both markers and promising candidates for the study of reproductive manipulation.

  19. Sport-specific Outdoor Rehabilitation in a Group Setting : Do the Intentions Match Actual Training Load?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Jeroen; van der Worp, Henk; Korte, Mark; de Vries, Astrid J; Nijland, Rick; Brink, Michel S


    CONTEXT: Previous research has shown a weak relationship between intended and actual training load in various sports. Due to variety in group and content, this relationship is expected to be even weaker during group rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our study was to examine the relationship

  20. Student-Initiated Study Groups for STEM Classes in Community College Settings (United States)

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Blasius, Eileen; Klingsmith, Libby; Waite, Cheryl


    This article describes a focus group research study that examined the experiences of community college students who initiated study groups for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) courses based on self-identified needs for learning support. Results indicated that students identified early in the semester that they needed…

  1. Student Perceptions about Group Based Problem Solving Process in Online and In-Class Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Birişçi


    Full Text Available The aim of this study, through qualitative measures, was to systematically examine the perspectives and meanings formed by the teachers about teaching and learning. This study took place in the spring semester of the 2010-2011 academic year of Artvin Çoruh University. The sample size was 27. The participants were divided in two groupsGroup 1 with group work taking place in an online test (D1, N=12; Group 2 with group work taking place in a classroom experiment (D2, N=12. After six weeks implementation, semi-structured interviews were conducted in order to determine students’ thoughts on problem solving and group work with success on attitudes towards mathematics. Positive change in students’ attitudes towards mathematics occurred in both the D1 and D2 groups. According to the application, the students stated that they developed increased interest towards mathematics and it turned into enjoyable.Key Words:    Problem solving, group study, online learning, student views

  2. Lipid domains in intact fiber-cell plasma membranes isolated from cortical and nuclear regions of human eye lenses of donors from different age groups. (United States)

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K


    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors' age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors' age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  3. Provenance and tectonic setting of the Triassic Yidun Group, the Yidun Terrane, Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Qiu Wang


    Prominently high Zr/Sc ratio or Hf concentration and Paleoproterozoic Nd modal ages (1.94–2.21 Ga point to input of recycling components derived from old sedimentary source in a relatively stable tectonic setting.

  4. Goal Setting during Early Childhood Parent-Teacher Conferences: A Comparison of Three Groups of Parents (United States)

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.


    Parent-teacher communication and partnerships are important in children's early years. This study compared goal setting, conducted in English, during Head Start parent-teacher conferences with native Spanish speaking, Latino bilingual, and native English speaking parents and their children's teachers. To understand conference goal-setting…

  5. The probability that an element of a metacyclic 5-group fixes a set and its orbit graphs (United States)

    Zamri, Siti Norziahidayu Amzee; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Khasraw, Sanhan Muhammad Salih; Omer, Sanaa Mohamed Saleh; El-Sanfaz, Mustafa Anis


    Let G be a metacyclic 5-group and Ω is the set of all ordered pairs (x, y) in G × G such that lcm(|x|, |y|) = 5, xy = yx and x ≠ y. In this paper, the probability that an element of G fixes a set Ω is determined by using conjugation action. The results obtained are then applied to graph theory, more precisely to the orbit graph.

  6. Setting the Record Straight: Interest Group Influence on Climate Policy at the Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    Cook, Jeffrey J.

    It is clear that interest groups are involved in the rulemaking process at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), but it has been difficult to determine whether certain groups are more influential on outcomes. This debate persists because the literature illustrates that groups can be influential at discrete stages in the process, but the field rarely analyzes the entire rulemaking process. This uncertainty has spurred controversy regarding the EPA's recent climate change regulations. Therefore, this dissertation conducted three case studies of recent climate change regulations and addresses three questions. First, what, if any, strategies did interest groups use to influence the content of these climate change rules? Second, did these strategies translate into influence? Third, what can these climate change case studies tell us about the role of interest groups in other controversial rules at the EPA, and across the bureaucracy more broadly? Ultimately, I argue that interest group influence was generally balanced across each of the three case studies. These findings then serve as the basis to develop my Regulatory Spheres of Influence Framework. The framework illustrates that given the nature of EPA rulemakings, it is very difficult for one side either business or environmental to dominate the process in highly controversial rules. It is possible that these conclusions track to other controversial rules across the bureaucracy and I note that my framework could be applied in other contexts to test this assertion.

  7. Sleep Patterns and Sleep Problems Among Preschool and School-Aged Group Children in a Primary Care Setting


    Mohammadi, M; B Ghalebaghi; MF Ghaleh Bandi; E Amintehrani; Sh Khodaie; Sh Shoaee; MR Ashrafi


    Objective: To describe sleep patterns and sleep problems among preschool and school aged group children in a primary care setting in Iran. Material & Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in two primary care pediatric clinics in Tehran from March 2006 to September 2006.Findings: Sleep patterns of 215 children studied (101 were in preschool age group; 2-6 years old, and 114 were in primary school age group; 7-12 years old). Sleep problems were common in study group, as follows: bed...

  8. Within-trait heterogeneity in age group differences in personality domains and facets: implications for the development and coherence of personality traits. (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Johnson, Wendy


    The study investigated differences in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) domains and facets across adulthood. The main questions were whether personality scales reflected coherent units of trait development and thereby coherent personality traits more generally. These questions were addressed by testing if the components of the trait scales (items for facet scales and facets for domain scales) showed consistent age group differences. For this, measurement invariance (MI) framework was used. In a sample of 2,711 Estonians who had completed the NEO Personality Inventory 3 (NEO PI-3), more than half of the facet scales and one domain scale did not meet the criterion for weak MI (factor loading equality) across 12 age groups spanning ages from 18 to 91 years. Furthermore, none of the facet and domain scales met the criterion for strong MI (intercept equality), suggesting that items of the same facets and facets of the same domains varied in age group differences. When items were residualized for their respective facets, 46% of them had significant (p facets were residualized for their domain scores, a majority had significant (p facets as embodied in the NEO PI-3 do not reflect aetiologically coherent traits.

  9. Psychoeducative groups help control type 2 diabetes in a primary care setting. (United States)

    Cervantes Cuesta, Miguel Ángel; García-Talavera Espín, Noelia Victoria; Brotons Román, Josefa; Núñez Sánchez, M Ángeles; Brocal Ibáñez, Pedro; Villalba Martín, Pilar; Saura García, Carmen; Sánchez Esteban, Tomasa; Romero López-Reinoso, Helena; Delgado Aroca, Ma José; Sánchez Gil, Dolores; Meoro Avilés, Amparo; Soriano Palao, José


    The purpose of this study is to measure the impact of a psychoeducational group intervention in diabetes using glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), the body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) compared with conventional educational measures provided individually. A quasi-experimental study (pre/post-intervention) with a non-equivalent control group was conducted, including 72 type 2 individuals with diabetes (mean data: age 63.08 years, HbA1C 6.98%, BMI 30.48 kg/m2).The beneficial effect of psychoeducational group therapy in the study group (PGT) was compared with conventional diabetes education in the control group (CG). The PGT had a higher mean HbA1c reduction (-0.51 ± 1.7 vs. -0.06 ± 0.53%, p 0.003), met the objectives of optimal control of HbA1c to a higher degree (80% vs. 48%, p 0.005) and greater mean weight reduction (-1.93 ± 3.57 vs. 0.52 ± 1.73 kg, p 0002) than the CG.A significant improvement in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was achieved in PGT (all p programs should be considered to introduce these more efficient therapies for diabetes education in primary care. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comparison of Quality-of-Life Domains and Clinical Factors in Ovarian Cancer Patients: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study (United States)

    von Gruenigen, Vivian E.; Huang, Helen Q.; Gil, Karen M.; Gibbons, Heidi E.; Monk, Bradley J.; Rose, Peter G.; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Cella, David; Wenzel, Lari


    Context Women diagnosed with ovarian cancer are at risk for reduced quality of life (QOL). It is imperative to further define these declines to interpret treatment outcomes and design appropriate clinical interventions. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to compare data obtained from ovarian cancer patients with normative data to assess the degree to which QOL differs from the norm. Secondary objectives were to examine demographic variables and determine if there was a correlation between physical/functional and social/emotional scores during chemotherapy. Methods Patients with Stage III/IV ovarian cancer on Gynecologic Oncology Group Protocols 152 and 172 who underwent surgery followed by intravenous paclitaxel and cisplatin completed the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Ovarian. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale includes the four domains of physical, functional, social, and emotional well-being (PWB, FWB, SWB, and EWB, respectively). Results Ovarian cancer patients had a total QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General) score similar to the U.S. female adult population. However, the reported subscale scores were 2.0 points (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–2.5, P < 0.001, effect size = 0.37) lower in PWB, 0.9 points (95% CI 0.3–1.5, P = 0.005, effect size = 0.13) lower in FWB, 5.0 points (95% CI 4.6–5.3, P < 0.001, effect size = 0.74) higher in SWB, and 0.8 points (95% CI 0.3–1.2, P < 0.001, effect size = 0.16) lower in EWB. Correlation between the sum of PWB and FWB and the sum of SWB and EWB was r = 0.53 (P < 0.001). Age was positively correlated with EWB (r = 0.193; 95% CI 0.09–0.29). Conclusion Ovarian cancer patients have decreased QOL in physical, functional, and emotional domains; however, they may compensate with increased social support. At the time of diagnosis and treatment, patients’ QOL is affected by inherent characteristics. Assessment of treatment outcomes should take into account the

  11. Preventive Strategies and Processes to Counteract Bullying in Health Care Settings: Focus Group Discussions. (United States)

    Strandmark K, Margaretha; Rahm, GullBritt; Wilde Larsson, Bodil; Nordström, Gun; Rystedt, Ingrid


    The aim of the present study was to explore preventive strategies and processes to counteract bullying in workplaces. Data were collected by individual interviews and focus group discussions at one hospital and two nursing home wards for elderly, a total of 29 participants. In the analysis of the interviews we were inspired by constructivist grounded theory. Persistent work with a humanistic value system by supervisor and coworkers, raising awareness about the bullying problem, strong group collaboration, and conflict management, along with an open atmosphere at the workplace, appears to be imperative for accomplishing a policy of zero tolerance for bullying.

  12. The role of the leader in managing the preoedipal patient in the group setting. (United States)

    Ormont, L R


    Preoedipal patients present a special problem in group treatment. This is because their difficulties arose largely before they learned to use words. Such patients are prone to act rather than talk. They do not respond well to interpretation. They must be approached and influenced through feelings. We can utilize the group to provide them with maturational experiences, helping them reach a more adult level of mental functioning so that our usual technical interventions can be brought into play. The paper discusses methods for enhancing this process, including reflection, emotional communication, using reconstruction to close developmental gaps, and immunization.

  13. Learning through Discussions: Comparing the Benefits of Small-Group and Large-Class Settings (United States)

    Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin; Wilson, Bruce M.


    The literature on teaching and learning heralds the benefits of discussion for student learner outcomes, especially its ability to improve students' critical thinking skills. Yet, few studies compare the effects of different types of face-to-face discussions on learners. Using student surveys, we analyze the benefits of small-group and large-class…

  14. A Guide to Setting up a College Bereavement Group: Using Monologue, Soliloquy, and Dialogue (United States)

    Prior, Alexandra


    Childhood grief disrupts and reshapes a developing child's primary attachments, emotional regulation system, and identity formation. Bereft college students have to build their grief identity simultaneously with their social, academic, vocational, and sexual identities. This article describes a bereavement group to help students work on these…

  15. The Implementation of Maternity Group Home Programs: Serving Pregnant and Parenting Teens in a Residential Setting.


    Lara K. Hulsey; Robert G. Wood; Anu Rangarajan


    Maternity group homes offer an innovative and intensive approach to addressing the needs of an extremely vulnerable population—teenage mothers and their children who have no other suitable place to live. This report documents the implementation of such programs in seven states. Issues discussed include management, funding, target populations, services, staffing, and costs.

  16. The influence of an animal on social interactions of nursing home residents in a group setting. (United States)

    Fick, K M


    This study was conducted to determine the effect of the presence and absence of a dog on the frequency and types of social interactions among nursing home residents during a socialization group. Point sampling was used to evaluate the behaviors of 36 male nursing home residents at a Veterans Administration Medical Center under two conditions, Dog Present and Dog Absent. A significant difference in verbal interactions among residents occurred with the dog present, F(1, 69) = 4.92, p socialization among residents in long-term care facilities. Because an increase in social interactions can improve the social climate of an institution and occupational therapists frequently incorporate group process into their treatment, the therapeutic use of animals can become a valuable adjunct to reaching treatment goals.

  17. Return of Individual Research Results and Incidental Findings in the Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Setting (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian


    The NCI funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects patient samples for correlative research. The Cooperative Group Bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of Incidental Findings (IFs) and Individual Research Results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the ten consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Re-identification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation. PMID:22382800

  18. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting. (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian


    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  19. Provenance and tectonic setting of the Triassic Yidun Group, the Yidun Terrane, Tibet


    Bai-Qiu Wang; Wei Wang; Mei-Fu Zhou


    The Yidun Group extends from the Shangri-La region to the south and the Changtai region to the north, and is an important component of the Triassic Yidun arc in the eastern Tibetan plateau. It is composed of the Lieyi, Qugasi, Tumugou and Lanashan Formations from the base upward. Both the Lieyi and Lanashan Formations consist dominantly of black or gray slate and sandstone, whereas the Qugasi and Tumugou Formations have variable amounts of mafic to felsic volcanic rocks and tuffs accompanied ...

  20. Treatment integrity of elaborated semantic feature analysis aphasia therapydelivered in individual and group settings


    Kladouchou, V.; Papathanasiou, I.; Efstratiadou, E. A.; Christaki, V.; Hilari, K.


    Background & Aims\\ud \\ud This study ran within the framework of the Thales Aphasia Project that investigated the efficacy of elaborated semantic feature analysis (ESFA). We evaluated the treatment integrity (TI) of ESFA, i.e., the degree to which therapists implemented treatment as intended by the treatment protocol, in two different formats: individual and group therapy.\\ud \\ud Methods & Procedures\\ud \\ud Based on the ESFA manual, observation of therapy videos and TI literature, we developed...

  1. Problem-based learning: facilitating multiple small teams in a large group setting. (United States)

    Hyams, Jennifer H; Raidal, Sharanne L


    Problem-based learning (PBL) is often described as resource demanding due to the high staff-to-student ratio required in a traditional PBL tutorial class where there is commonly one facilitator to every 5-16 students. The veterinary science program at Charles Sturt University, Australia, has developed a method of group facilitation which readily allows one or two staff members to facilitate up to 30 students at any one time while maintaining the benefits of a small PBL team of six students. Multi-team facilitation affords obvious financial and logistic advantages, but there are also important pedagogical benefits derived from uniform facilitation across multiple groups, enhanced discussion and debate between groups, and the development of self-facilitation skills in students. There are few disadvantages to the roaming facilitator model, provided that several requirements are addressed. These requirements include a suitable venue, large whiteboards, a structured approach to support student engagement with each disclosure, a detailed facilitator guide, and an open, collaborative, and communicative environment.

  2. Establishing the Reliability and Validity of a Computerized Assessment of Children's Working Memory for Use in Group Settings (United States)

    St Clair-Thompson, Helen


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of a brief standardized assessment of children's working memory; "Lucid Recall." Although there are many established assessments of working memory, "Lucid Recall" is fully automated and can therefore be administered in a group setting. It is therefore…

  3. Comparison of the frequency of functional SH3 domains with different limited sets of amino acids using mRNA display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Tanaka

    Full Text Available Although modern proteins consist of 20 different amino acids, it has been proposed that primordial proteins consisted of a small set of amino acids, and additional amino acids have gradually been recruited into the genetic code. This hypothesis has recently been supported by comparative genome sequence analysis, but no direct experimental approach has been reported. Here, we utilized a novel experimental approach to test a hypothesis that native-like globular proteins might be easily simplified by a set of putative primitive amino acids with retention of its structure and function than by a set of putative new amino acids. We performed in vitro selection of a functional SH3 domain as a model from partially randomized libraries with different sets of amino acids using mRNA display. Consequently, a library rich in putative primitive amino acids included a larger number of functional SH3 sequences than a library rich in putative new amino acids. Further, the functional SH3 sequences were enriched from the primitive library slightly earlier than from a randomized library with the full set of amino acids, while the function and structure of the selected SH3 proteins with the primitive alphabet were comparable with those from the 20 amino acid alphabet. Application of this approach to various combinations of codons in protein sequences may be useful not only for clarifying the precise order of the amino acid expansion in the early stages of protein evolution but also for efficiently creating novel functional proteins in the laboratory.

  4. Antecedents of the attitude towards inter-group reconciliation in a setting of armed conflict. (United States)

    Alzate, Mónica; Sabucedo, José-Manuel; Durán, Mar


    The concept of Reconciliation as applied to inter-group conflict has come into use only recently. Throughout the history of Psychology, Reconciliation was mostly understood at the individual and inter-personal level. In the present study we shall analyse the roles played by trust, negotiating attitude, legitimacy and ethnocentric attitude over the attitude towards social reconciliation. To this end we studied a group of 188 Colombian civilians living under conditions of real socio-political conflict. A path analysis was performed using the statistical program AMOS whose fit indexes indicate a good fit of the model and a variance of .36. The results show that the variables of trust, negotiating attitude and legitimacy have a significant and positive effect on the reconciliation variable, and significant negative effect on the ethnocentric attitude variable. This study contributes to the integration of a number of variables that facilitate process of social reconciliation, as it explicitly deals with some of the perceptions, attitudes and beliefs which could change the course of a confrontation.

  5. Groups, rings, modules

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Maurice


    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  6. Olecranon septic bursitis managed in an ambulatory setting. The Calgary Home Parenteral Therapy Program Study Group. (United States)

    Laupland, K B; Davies, H D


    The epidemiology, outcome and management of olecranon septic bursitis (OSB) have not been described in a large cohort of ambulatory patients. A retrospective study of all 118 cases of OSB presenting over 21 months to all regional Home Parenteral Therapy Program clinics in Calgary (referral base approximately 1 million). The minimum population annual incidence was 10/100,000. The mean (and standard deviation) age was 44 (13) years, and males predominated (88%). One-third of patients had at least one comorbid illness, with preceding injury in 53% of cases. The most common symptoms were pain (87%), redness (77%) and fever or chills (45%). Common signs included erythema (92%), swelling (85%), edema (75%), tenderness (59%), fluctuance (50%), heat (36%) and reduced range of motion (27%). Fever (body temperature of > or =37.8 degrees C) occurred in 20%. Staphylococcus aureus was identified in 88% of culture-proven cases of OBS. The most common antibiotic regimen was sequential intravenous administration of cefazolin (for a median of 4 d) followed by clindamycin orally (for a median of 8 d). Sixty (51%) patients required a drainage procedure and only 1 patient required admission to hospital. OSB is more common than reported and can be treated successfully in ambulatory settings with sequential intravenous therapy followed by oral therapy and drainage in selected cases.

  7. Structural basis of human PR/SET domain 9 (PRDM9) allele C-specific recognition of its cognate DNA sequence. (United States)

    Patel, Anamika; Zhang, Xing; Blumenthal, Robert M; Cheng, Xiaodong


    PRDM9 is the only mammalian gene that has been associated with speciation. The PR/SET domain 9 (PRDM9) protein is a major determinant of meiotic recombination hot spots and acts through sequence-specific DNA binding via its C2H2 zinc finger (ZF) tandem array, which is highly polymorphic within and between species. The most common human variant, PRDM9 allele A (PRDM9a), contains 13 fingers (ZF1-13). Allele C (PRDM9c) is the second-most common among African populations and differs from PRDM9a by an arginine-to-serine change (R764S) in ZF9 and by replacement of ZF11 with two other fingers, yielding 14 fingers in PRDM9c. Here we co-crystallized the six-finger fragment ZF8-13 of PRDM9c, in complex with an oligonucleotide representing a known PRDM9c-specific hot spot sequence, and compared the structure with that of a characterized PRDM9a-specific complex. There are three major differences. First, Ser764 in ZF9 allows PRDM9c to accommodate a variable base, whereas PRDM9a Arg764 recognizes a conserved guanine. Second, the two-finger expansion of ZF11 allows PRDM9c to recognize three-base-pair-longer sequences. A tryptophan in the additional ZF interacts with a conserved thymine methyl group. Third, an Arg-Asp dipeptide immediately preceding the ZF helix, conserved in two PRDM9a fingers and three PRDM9c fingers, permits adaptability to variations from a C:G base pair (G-Arg interaction) to a G:C base pair (C-Asp interaction). This Arg-Asp conformational switch allows identical ZF modules to recognize different sequences. Our findings illuminate the molecular mechanisms for flexible and conserved binding of human PRDM9 alleles to their cognate DNA sequences. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Predicting and analyzing DNA-binding domains using a systematic approach to identifying a set of informative physicochemical and biochemical properties (United States)


    Background Existing methods of predicting DNA-binding proteins used valuable features of physicochemical properties to design support vector machine (SVM) based classifiers. Generally, selection of physicochemical properties and determination of their corresponding feature vectors rely mainly on known properties of binding mechanism and experience of designers. However, there exists a troublesome problem for designers that some different physicochemical properties have similar vectors of representing 20 amino acids and some closely related physicochemical properties have dissimilar vectors. Results This study proposes a systematic approach (named Auto-IDPCPs) to automatically identify a set of physicochemical and biochemical properties in the AAindex database to design SVM-based classifiers for predicting and analyzing DNA-binding domains/proteins. Auto-IDPCPs consists of 1) clustering 531 amino acid indices in AAindex into 20 clusters using a fuzzy c-means algorithm, 2) utilizing an efficient genetic algorithm based optimization method IBCGA to select an informative feature set of size m to represent sequences, and 3) analyzing the selected features to identify related physicochemical properties which may affect the binding mechanism of DNA-binding domains/proteins. The proposed Auto-IDPCPs identified m=22 features of properties belonging to five clusters for predicting DNA-binding domains with a five-fold cross-validation accuracy of 87.12%, which is promising compared with the accuracy of 86.62% of the existing method PSSM-400. For predicting DNA-binding sequences, the accuracy of 75.50% was obtained using m=28 features, where PSSM-400 has an accuracy of 74.22%. Auto-IDPCPs and PSSM-400 have accuracies of 80.73% and 82.81%, respectively, applied to an independent test data set of DNA-binding domains. Some typical physicochemical properties discovered are hydrophobicity, secondary structure, charge, solvent accessibility, polarity, flexibility, normalized Van Der

  9. Probing adenine rings and backbone linkages using base specific isotope-edited Raman spectroscopy: application to group II intron ribozyme domain V. (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Eldho, Nadukkudy V; Dayie, T Kwaku; Carey, Paul R


    Raman difference spectroscopy is used to probe the properties of a 36-nt RNA molecule, "D5", which lies at the heart of the catalytic apparatus in group II introns. For D5 that has all of its adenine residues labeled with (13)C and (15)N and utilizing Raman difference spectroscopy, we identify the conformationally sensitive -C-O-P-O-C- stretching modes of the unlabeled bonds adjacent to adenine bases, as well as the adenine ring modes themselves. The phosphodiester modes can be assigned to individual adenine residues based on earlier NMR data. The effect of Mg(2+) binding was explored by analyzing the Raman difference spectra for [D5 + Mg(2+)] minus [D5 no Mg(2+)], for D5 unlabeled, or D5 labeled with (13)C/(15)N-enriched adenine. In both sets of data we assign differential features to G ring modes perturbed by Mg(2+) binding at the N7 position. In the A-labeled spectra we attribute a Raman differential near 1450 cm(-1) and changes of intensity at 1296 cm(-1) to Mg binding at the N7 position of adenine bases. The A and G bases involved in Mg(2+) binding again can be identified using earlier NMR results. For the unlabeled D5, a change in the C-O-P-O-C stretch profile at 811 cm(-1) upon magnesium binding is due to a "tightening up" (in the sense of a more rigid molecule with less dynamic interchange among competing ribose conformers) of the D5 structure. For adenine-labeled D5, small changes in the adenine backbone bond signatures in the 810-830 cm(-1) region suggest that small conformational changes occur in the tetraloop and bulge regions upon binding of Mg(2+). The PO(2)(-) stretching vibration, near 1100 cm(-1), from the nonbridging phosphate groups, probes the effect of Mg(2+)-hydrate inner-sphere interactions that cause an upshift. In turn, the upshift is modulated by the presence of monovalent cations since in the presence of Na(+) and Li(+) the upshift is 23 +/- 2 cm(-1) while in the presence of K(+) and Cs(+) it is 13 +/- 3 cm(-1), a finding that correlates

  10. Linkage mapping methods applied to the COGA data set: presentation Group 4 of Genetic Analysis Workshop 14. (United States)

    Daw, E Warwick; Doan, Betty Q; Elston, Robert C


    Presentation Group 4 participants analyzed the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism data provided for Genetic Analysis Workshop 14. This group examined various aspects of linkage analysis and related issues. Seven papers included linkage analyses, while the eighth calculated identity-by-descent (IBD) probabilities. Six papers analyzed linkage to an alcoholism phenotype: ALDX1 (four papers), ALDX2 (one paper), or a combination both (one paper). Methods used included Bayesian variable selection coupled with Haseman-Elston regression, recursive partitioning to identify phenotype and covariate groupings that interact with evidence for linkage, nonparametric linkage regression modeling, affected sib-pair linkage analysis with discordant sib-pair controls, simulation-based homozygosity mapping in a single pedigree, and application of a propensity score to collapse covariates in a general conditional logistic model. Alcoholism linkage was found with > or =2 of these approaches on chromosomes 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 14, and 21. The remaining linkage paper compared the utility of several single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and microsatellite marker maps for Monte Carlo Markov chain combined oligogenic segregation and linkage analysis, and analyzed one of the electrophysiological endophenotypes, ttth1, on chromosome 7. Linkage was found with all marker sets. The last paper compared the multipoint IBD information content of several SNP sets and the microsatellite set, and found that while all SNP sets examined contained more information than the microsatellite set, most of the information contained in the SNP sets was captured by a subset of the SNP markers with approximately 1-cM marker spacing. From these papers, we highlight three points: a 1-cM SNP map seems to capture most of the linkage information, so denser maps do not appear necessary; careful and appropriate use of covariates can aid linkage analysis; and sources of increased gene-sharing between relatives

  11. [Nutritional support groups at a hospital setting. Size, composition, relationships and actions]. (United States)

    Santana Porbén, S; Barreto Penié, J


    The hospital Nutricional Support Group (NSG) represents the ultimate step in the evolution of the forms of provision of nutritional and feeding care to hospitalized patients. The NSG outdoes other preceeding forms for its harmony and cohesion among its members, the multi-, inter- and transdisciplinarity, the dedication to the activity on a full time basis, and the capability to self-finance by means of the savings derived from the implementation of a nutritional policy consistent with the Good Practices of Feeding and Nutrition. It is to be expected that the inception and operation of a NSG in a hospital environment allows the realization of the benefits embedded into the Metabolic, Nutritional and Feeding Intervention Programs. Guidelines and recommendations for the definition of the size and composition of an hospital NSG are presented in this article, along with the responsabilities, functions and tasks to be assumed by its members, and a timetable for its implementation, always from the experiencies of the authors after conducting a NSG in a tertiary-care hospital in Havana (Cuba).

  12. [The Therapy Process of Accompanying Mothers in Multiple Family Therapy Groups: Evidence from a German Child Psychiatric Setting]. (United States)

    von der Lippe, Holger; Radloff, Josefine; Schadow, Jeanette; Röttger, Ulrike; Flechtner, Hans-Henning


    The Therapy Process of Accompanying Mothers in Multiple Family Therapy Groups: Evidence from a German Child Psychiatric Setting This study provides an empirical contribution to the understanding of parents that accompany their children in psychiatric multiple family therapy settings (MFT). To this end, we conducted qualitative interviews with mothers that had successfully participated, with their diagnosed children (ages 3 to 9), in disorder-independent, age-homogeneous, and open family groups (the "Magdeburg Model") for several months. We performed a theoretical coding approach to the extensive interview material (n = 6 interviews, duration = 70 to 100 minutes each) according to Grounded Theory and extracted seven main and 29 sub-categories. These categories yield a coherent, complete, and specific subjective therapy model for this setting. One of the central findings is a profound understanding of to what extent and by which means the family group as a social arena paves and supports the arrival of the mothers in the group, their engagement into the therapy process, and their motivational and volitional steps during therapy. Another relevant result is a reconstruction of what we termed Arriving Home, which is the epitome of the positive cognitive, affective, and behavioral therapeutic development that mothers perceive. Conclusions for clinical practice as well as for qualitative and mixed methods therapy research are discussed.

  13. Are we on a learning curve or a treadmill? The benefits of participative group goal setting become apparent as tasks become increasingly challenging over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haslam, S.A.; Wegge, J.; Postmes, T.

    A large body of research has pointed to the utility) of individual and group goal setting as a performance enhancement strategy. However, group goal setting is more complex than individual goal setting as the group context often strengthens the desire for voice and the possibility, of resistance. In

  14. [Study of engagement in a group of people with dementia in traditional care settings and a group with person centred care]. (United States)

    García-Soler, Álvaro; Díaz-Veiga, Pura; Suárez Pérez de Eulate, Nerea; Mondragón, Gabriela; Sancho, Mayte

    People with dementia in the residential care setting have a high level of apathy and disengagement. The lack of stimulation and customised activities, a common aspect in residential centres, could be contextual elements that promote these behaviours. The person-centred care model (PCCM) promotes the participation of people in their daily activities in relation to their resources, interests, and needs. The aim of this study is to compare the frequency of engagement behaviours in the daily activities in two groups of users residing in Psychogeriatric Units, one receiving a traditional care model and the other assisted under PCCM. The study involved 28 patients with cognitive impairment in Psychogeriatric Units, 14 of whom were in a traditional unit (control group), and 14 were in a unit where PCCM (experimental group) was implemented. Groups were equivalent in cognitive impairment, functional capabilities, and years in the long-term care institution. The Registering Engagement Instrument (REI) was used to observe the frequency of 12 categories of engagement behaviour in two distinct periods in both groups: before the interventions associated with PCCM, and 18 months after starting them. Both groups increased the frequency of their engagement behaviours in the post-evaluation, but the experimental group decreased their disengagement behaviours while the control group increased them. According to the data, PCCM interventions could reduce disengagement behaviours in the residential context, and could facilitate the participation and involvement in the activities of daily living. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. The Mediator complex subunit MED25 is targeted by the N-terminal transactivation domain of the PEA3 group members. (United States)

    Verger, Alexis; Baert, Jean-Luc; Verreman, Kathye; Dewitte, Frédérique; Ferreira, Elisabeth; Lens, Zoé; de Launoit, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Monté, Didier


    PEA3, ERM and ER81 belong to the PEA3 subfamily of Ets transcription factors and play important roles in a number of tissue-specific processes. Transcriptional activation by PEA3 subfamily factors requires their characteristic amino-terminal acidic transactivation domain (TAD). However, the cellular targets of this domain remain largely unknown. Using ERM as a prototype, we show that the minimal N-terminal TAD activates transcription by contacting the activator interacting domain (ACID)/Prostate tumor overexpressed protein 1 (PTOV) domain of the Mediator complex subunit MED25. We further show that depletion of MED25 disrupts the association of ERM with the Mediator in vitro. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of MED25 as well as the overexpression of MED25-ACID and MED25-VWA domains efficiently inhibit the transcriptional activity of ERM. Moreover, mutations of amino acid residues that prevent binding of MED25 to ERM strongly reduce transactivation by ERM. Finally we show that siRNA depletion of MED25 diminishes PEA3-driven expression of MMP-1 and Mediator recruitment. In conclusion, this study identifies the PEA3 group members as the first human transcriptional factors that interact with the MED25 ACID/PTOV domain and establishes MED25 as a crucial transducer of their transactivation potential.

  16. Social status and the pursuit of positive social identity: Systematic domains of intergroup differentiation and discrimination for high- and low- status groups. (United States)

    Oldmeadow, Julian A; Fiske, Susan T


    Research on intergroup discrimination has focused on the cognitive and motivational mechanisms involved, but the role of stereotype content has been neglected. Drawing on social identity theory and stereotype content research, the current studies investigated the role of stereotype content in intergroup differentiation and discrimination. Across two studies, students from high- and low-status groups differentiated themselves positively on stereotypes of competence and warmth respectively, and in allocations of resources in domains relevant to competence (academics, research) and warmth (sports, community outreach). Furthermore, there was evidence that discrimination by high- and low-status groups was driven by their respective stereotypes of competence and warmth. It is argued that stereotypes of competence and warmth, derived from status and power relations between groups, define the domains in which groups pursue positively distinct identities.

  17. Academic Skills Groups for Middle School Children With ADHD in the Outpatient Mental Health Setting: An Open Trial. (United States)

    Ciesielski, Heather A; Tamm, Leanne; Vaughn, Aaron J; Cyran, Jessica E M; Epstein, Jeffery N


    To conduct an open trial assessing the initial efficacy of an intervention focusing on increasing skills related to academic performance (planning, organization, studying, and homework behaviors) for middle school children diagnosed with ADHD. The intervention is modeled on evidence-based interventions but designed for administration in the outpatient setting. Parents and their children diagnosed with ADHD attended seven weekly group sessions targeting academic, organizational, and homework skills. Parents completed the Homework Problem Checklist and Impairment Rating Scale pre- and post-treatment. Following intervention, significant improvements in homework completion and management, as well as reductions in academic impairment and improvements in parent confidence and family relations, were reported. Despite limitations including small sample size and lack of a control group, our results demonstrate initial efficacy of an academic skills intervention designed for use in the outpatient setting with middle school children diagnosed with ADHD on clinically relevant outcome measures. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  18. A re-appraisal of the petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the\\ud Ordovician Fishguard Volcanic Group, SW Wales


    Phillips, Bethan A.; Kerr, Andrew Craig; Bevins, Richard Eric


    The Fishguard Volcanic Group represents an excellently preserved example of a volcanic\\ud sequence linked to the closure of the Iapetus Ocean. This study re-examines the petrogenesis and\\ud proposed tectonic setting for the Llanvirn (467–458 Ma) Fishguard Volcanic Group, South Wales,\\ud UK. New major and trace element geochemical data and petrographic observations are used to reevaluate\\ud the magma chamber processes, mantle melting and source region. The new data reveal that\\ud the Fishguard...

  19. Extended Functional Groups (EFG: An Efficient Set for Chemical Characterization and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Chemical Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Salmina


    Full Text Available The article describes a classification system termed “extended functional groups” (EFG, which are an extension of a set previously used by the CheckMol software, that covers in addition heterocyclic compound classes and periodic table groups. The functional groups are defined as SMARTS patterns and are available as part of the ToxAlerts tool ( of the On-line CHEmical database and Modeling (OCHEM environment platform. The article describes the motivation and the main ideas behind this extension and demonstrates that EFG can be efficiently used to develop and interpret structure-activity relationship models.

  20. Efficacy of formative evaluation using a focus group for a large classroom setting in an accelerated pharmacy program. (United States)

    Nolette, Shaun; Nguyen, Alyssa; Kogan, David; Oswald, Catherine; Whittaker, Alana; Chakraborty, Arup


    Formative evaluation is a process utilized to improve communication between students and faculty. This evaluation method allows the ability to address pertinent issues in a timely manner; however, implementation of formative evaluation can be a challenge, especially in a large classroom setting. Using mediated formative evaluation, the purpose of this study is to determine if a student based focus group is a viable option to improve efficacy of communication between an instructor and students as well as time management in a large classroom setting. Out of 140 total students, six students were selected to form a focus group - one from each of six total sections of the classroom. Each focus group representative was responsible for collecting all the questions from students of their corresponding sections and submitting them to the instructor two to three times a day. Responses from the instructor were either passed back to pertinent students by the focus group representatives or addressed directly with students by the instructor. This study was conducted using a fifteen-question survey after the focus group model was utilized for one month. A printed copy of the survey was distributed in the class by student investigators. Questions were of varying types, including Likert scale, yes/no, and open-ended response. One hundred forty surveys were administered, and 90 complete responses were collected. Surveys showed that 93.3% of students found that use of the focus group made them more likely to ask questions for understanding. The surveys also showed 95.5% of students found utilizing the focus group for questions allowed for better understanding of difficult concepts. General open-ended answer portions of the survey showed that most students found the focus group allowed them to ask questions more easily since they did not feel intimidated by asking in front of the whole class. No correlation was found between demographic characteristics and survey responses. This may

  1. Internet-versus group-administered cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in a psychiatric setting: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internet administered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT is a promising new way to deliver psychological treatment, but its effectiveness in regular care settings and in relation to more traditional CBT group treatment has not yet been determined. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Internet-and group administered CBT for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia in a randomised trial within a regular psychiatric care setting. The second aim of the study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Methods Patients referred for treatment by their physician, or self-referred, were telephone-screened by a psychiatric nurse. Patients fulfilling screening criteria underwent an in-person structured clinical interview carried out by a psychiatrist. A total of 113 consecutive patients were then randomly assigned to 10 weeks of either guided Internet delivered CBT (n = 53 or group CBT (n = 60. After treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up, patients were again assessed by the psychiatrist, blind to treatment condition. Results Immediately after randomization 9 patients dropped out, leaving 104 patients who started treatment. Patients in both treatment conditions showed significant improvement on the main outcome measure, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS after treatment. For the Internet treatment the within-group effect size (pre-post on the PDSS was Cohen's d = 1.73, and for the group treatment it was d = 1.63. Between group effect sizes were low and treatment effects were maintained at 6-months follow-up. We found no statistically significant differences between the two treatment conditions using a mixed models approach to account for missing data. Group CBT utilised considerably more therapist time than did Internet CBT. Defining effect as proportion of PDSS responders, the cost-effectiveness analysis concerning therapist time showed that Internet treatment had superior cost

  2. Using the theoretical domains framework to guide the development of a self-management program for individuals with spinal cord injury: Results from a national stakeholder advisory group. (United States)

    Munce, Sarah E P; Allin, Sonya; Wolfe, Dalton L; Anzai, Karen; Linassi, Gary; Noonan, Vanessa K; Jaglal, Susan B


    To determine the implementation considerations for a targeted self-management program for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) from the perspective of a national stakeholder advisory group using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) as a guide. Qualitative descriptive approach. Two focus groups held at the 6(th) National Spinal Cord Injury Conference (October 2-4(th), 2014) in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A total of 25 stakeholders from across Canada participated in focus groups or "brainstorming sessions". The stakeholders included 5 clinicians, 14 researchers, 3 policy makers, and 3 individuals with SCI. Not applicable. Not applicable. All 14 theoretical domains were identified in the brainstorming sessions. No new themes or domains were identified. The need to consider the theoretical domains of Knowledge, Skills, Reinforcement, Intentions, Goals (e.g. the readiness of the individual with SCI), Environmental Context and Resources (e.g. considerations for governance and ownership of the program and a business model for sustainability), as well as Social Influences (e.g. issues of privacy and security in the context of on-line delivery) was identified. The current study provides complementary results to our previous series of studies on the implementation considerations for the development of a targeted self-management program for individuals with SCI by emphasizing the health care professional/health policy perspective. It is anticipated that such a program could not only reduce secondary complications and subsequent inappropriate health care use but it may also improve the quality of life for individuals with SCI and their caregivers.

  3. Generalizing the findings from group dynamics-based physical activity research to practice settings: what do we know? (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M; Burke, Shauna M; Haile, Amanda M; Estabrooks, Paul A


    The general purpose of this secondary analysis of a prior systematic review was to determine the degree to which group dynamics-based physical activity interventions align with research processes and outcomes that are more likely to facilitate the translation of research into practice. To accomplish this, a systematic search was conducted within Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Arts and Humanities Citation Index, and MEDLINE databases to identify articles published prior to 2010 that used at least one group dynamics-based strategy (e.g., group interaction, group goal setting) in physical activity promotion. These 17 intervention studies were identified and coded based on the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance framework and Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (for trial design characteristics). Reporting was infrequent for external validity factors (i.e., representativeness, adoption, cost, maintenance) but more frequent for internal validity factors (e.g., inclusion criteria). Intervention costs were not reported. Studies were more likely to be pragmatic (i.e., designed to determine the effects of an intervention under the usual conditions in which it will be applied) in areas of participant compliance and practitioner adherence and explanatory (i.e., designed to determine the effects of an intervention under ideal conditions) and in areas of practitioner expertise and flexibility of intervention protocol. While a number of these interventions were tested in more pragmatic settings, external validity factors were still underreported. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Next Generation Very Large Array Memo No. 9 Science Working Group 4: Time Domain, Fundamental Physics, and Cosmology


    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Demorest, Paul; Braatz, James; Broderick, Avery; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Butler, Bryan; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chomiuk, Laura; Cordes, Jim; Darling, Jeremy; Eilek, Jean; Hallinan, Gregg; Kanekar, Nissim; Kramer, Michael; Marrone, Dan


    We report here on key science topics for the Next Generation Very Large Array in the areas of time domain, fundamental physics, and cosmology. Key science cases considered are pulsars in orbit around the Galactic Center massive black hole, Sagittarius A*, electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves, and astrometric cosmology. These areas all have the potential for ground-breaking and transformative discovery. Numerous other topics were discussed during the preparation of this report a...

  5. Student recognition of visual affordances: Supporting use of physics simulations in whole class and small group settings (United States)

    Stephens, A. Lynn

    The purpose of this study is to investigate student interactions with simulations, and teacher support of those interactions, within naturalistic high school physics classroom settings. This study focuses on data from two lesson sequences that were conducted in several physics classrooms. The lesson sequences were conducted in a whole class discussion format in approximately half of the class sections and in a hands-on-computer small group format in matched class sections. Analysis used a mixed methods approach where: (1) quantitative methods were used to evaluate pre-post data; (2) open coding and selective coding were used for transcript analysis; and (3) comparative case studies were used to consider the quantitative and qualitative data in light of each other and to suggested possible explanations. Although teachers expressed the expectation that the small group students would learn more, no evidence was found in pre-post analysis for an advantage for the small group sections. Instead, a slight trend was observed in favor of the whole class discussion sections, especially for students in the less advanced sections. In seeking to explain these results, qualitative analyses of transcript and videotape data were conducted, revealing that many more episodes of support for interpreting visual elements of the simulations occurred in the whole class setting than in the matched small group discussions; not only teachers, but, at times, students used more visual support moves in the whole class discussion setting. In addition, concepts that had been identified as key were discussed for longer periods of time in the whole class setting than in the matched small group discussions in six of nine matched sets. For one of the lesson sequences, analysis of student work on in-class activity sheets identified no evidence that any of the Honors or College Preparatory students in the small groups had made use in their thinking of the key features of the sophisticated and popular

  6. A Within-Group Analysis of African American Mothers' Authoritarian Attitudes, Limit-Setting and Children's Self-Regulation. (United States)

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Swanson, Dena Phillips


    Research suggests that higher levels of authoritarian parenting exist in African American (AA) families than in European American (EA) families, and that authoritarian attitudes may be associated with more positive outcomes in AA families than EA families. However, less is known about authoritarian attitudes and children's development within AA families. This within-group study of 50 African American mothers and their 3-year-old children examined associations between maternal authoritarian attitudes, observed maternal limit-setting strategies, and children's self-regulation during a limit-setting interaction. The findings indicate that while AA families may hold more authoritarian attitudes than EA families, the direction of effect of authoritarian attitudes on children's outcomes appears to be the same in both ethnic groups. In this sample, when examining AA authoritarian attitudes relative to those of other AA mothers, less or lower authoritarian attitudes were associated with authoritative limit-setting behavior (firm limits within the context of overall warmth and responsiveness) and better children's self-regulation.

  7. Group schema therapy for personality disorders: A pilot study for implementation in acute psychiatric in-patient settings. (United States)

    Nenadić, Igor; Lamberth, Sina; Reiss, Neele


    Group schema therapy (GST) has been proposed as a novel long-term treatment programme for borderline and cluster C personality disorders. We implemented a short-term GST programme (12-15 sessions, based on the manual by Farrell and Shaw (2012), including both cognitive / behavioural and experiential interventions for in-patients (n=9) with either borderline or cluster C personality disorders (and axis I co-morbidities) treated in a (sub)acute psychiatric in-patient setting. We evaluated pre- and post-treatment self-report of maladaptive and adaptive schema modes (using the SMI) and early maladaptive schemas (YSQ-3), as well as overall symptom severity (brief symptom check list, BSCL-53-S), patient satisfaction (ZUF-8) and group climate and coherence (GCQ-S). We found significant reduction of symptoms, and trend-level improvement for schema mode activation, but not maladaptive schemas. Effect sizes of Cohen's d=0.857 for symptoms and d=0.693 for maladaptive schema mode reduction were, however, lower than previous GST trials in in-patient settings with a longer treatment phase and outpatient GST trials using the Farrell and Shaw-model, indicating importance of duration in ST treatment. Our findings in this uncontrolled study provide first evidence that GST (based on the Farrell and Shaw model) can be implemented and adapted for use in short-term in-patient (sub)acute settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Setting the question for inquiry: The effects of whole class vs small group on student achievement in elementary science (United States)

    Cavagnetto, Andy Roy

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of two different student-centered approaches to setting the question for inquiry. The first approach (whole class) consisted of students setting a single question for inquiry after which students worked in small groups during an investigation phase of the activity with all groups exploring the same question. The second approach (small group) consisted of each group of students setting a question resulting in numerous questions being explored per class. A mixed method quasi-experimental design was utilized. Two grade five teachers from a small rural school district in the Midwestern United States participated, each teaching two sections of science (approximately 25 students per section). Results indicate three major findings. Instructional approach (whole class vs. small group) did not effect student achievement in science or language arts. Observational data indicated the actions and skills teachers utilized to implement the approaches were similar. Specifically, the pedagogical skills of dialogical interaction (which was found to be influenced by teacher level of control of learning and teacher content knowledge) and effective rather than efficient use of time were identified as key factors in teachers' progression toward a student-centered, teacher-managed instructional approach. Unit exams along with qualitative and quantitative teacher observation data indicated that these factors do have an impact on student achievement. Specifically increased dialogical interaction in the forms of greater student voice, and increased cognitive demands placed on students by embedding and emphasizing science argument within the student inquiry corresponded to positive gains in student achievement. Additionally, teacher's perception of student abilities was also found to influence professional growth. Finally, allowing students to set the questions for inquiry and design the experiments impact the classroom environment as teacher

  9. Single case design studies in music therapy: resurrecting experimental evidence in small group and individual music therapy clinical settings. (United States)

    Geist, Kamile; Hitchcock, John H


    The profession would benefit from greater and routine generation of causal evidence pertaining to the impact of music therapy interventions on client outcomes. One way to meet this goal is to revisit the use of Single Case Designs (SCDs) in clinical practice and research endeavors in music therapy. Given the appropriate setting and goals, this design can be accomplished with small sample sizes and it is often appropriate for studying music therapy interventions. In this article, we promote and discuss implementation of SCD studies in music therapy settings, review the meaning of internal study validity and by extension the notion of causality, and describe two of the most commonly used SCDs to demonstrate how they can help generate causal evidence to inform the field. In closing, we describe the need for replication and future meta-analysis of SCD studies completed in music therapy settings. SCD studies are both feasible and appropriate for use in music therapy clinical practice settings, particularly for testing effectiveness of interventions for individuals or small groups. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  10. Palliative care for cancer patients in a primary health care setting:Bereaved relatives' experience, a qualitative group interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Jensen, Anders Bonde


    care setting to explore barriers and facilitators for delivery of good palliative home care. Methods: Three focus group interviews with fourteen bereaved relatives in Aarhus County, Denmark. Results: Three main categories of experience were identified: 1) The health professionals' management, where...... a need to optimize was found. 2) Shared care, which was lacking. 3) The relatives' role, which needs an extra focus. Conclusion: Relatives experience insufficient palliative care mainly due to organizational and cultural problems among professionals. Palliative care in primary care in general needs......Background: Knowledge about the quality and organisation of care to terminally ill cancer patients with a relatives' view in a primary health care setting is limited. The aim of the study is to analyse experiences and preferences of bereaved relatives to terminally ill cancer patients in a primary...

  11. An Extension of the MULTIMOORA Method for Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making Based upon Hesitant Fuzzy Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hui Li


    Full Text Available In order to determine the membership of an element to a set owing to ambiguity between a few different values, the hesitant fuzzy set (HFS has been proposed and widely diffused to deal with vagueness and uncertainty involved in the process of multiple criteria group decision making (MCGDM problems. In this paper, we develop novel definitions of score function and distance measure for HFSs. Some examples are given to illustrate that the proposed definitions are more reasonable than the traditional ones. Furthermore, our study extends the MULTIMOORA (Multiple Objective Optimization on the basis of Ratio Analysis plus Full Multiplicative Form method with HFSs. The proposed method thus provides the means for multiple criteria decision making (MCDM regarding uncertain assessments. Utilization of hesitant fuzzy power aggregation operators also enables facilitating the process of MCGDM. A numerical example of software selection demonstrates the possibilities of application of the proposed method.

  12. Scale Setting Using the Extended Renormalization Group and the Principle of Maximal Conformality: the QCD Coupling at Four Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Wu, Xing-Gang; /SLAC /Chongqing U.


    A key problem in making precise perturbative QCD predictions is to set the proper renormalization scale of the running coupling. The extended renormalization group equations, which express the invariance of physical observables under both the renormalization scale- and scheme-parameter transformations, provide a convenient way for estimating the scale- and scheme-dependence of the physical process. In this paper, we present a solution for the scale-equation of the extended renormalization group equations at the four-loop level. Using the principle of maximum conformality (PMC)/Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) scale-setting method, all non-conformal {beta}{sub i} terms in the perturbative expansion series can be summed into the running coupling, and the resulting scale-fixed predictions are independent of the renormalization scheme. Different schemes lead to different effective PMC/BLM scales, but the final results are scheme independent. Conversely, from the requirement of scheme independence, one not only can obtain scheme-independent commensurate scale relations among different observables, but also determine the scale displacements among the PMC/BLM scales which are derived under different schemes. In principle, the PMC/BLM scales can be fixed order-by-order, and as a useful reference, we present a systematic and scheme-independent procedure for setting PMC/BLM scales up to NNLO. An explicit application for determining the scale setting of R{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}}(Q) up to four loops is presented. By using the world average {alpha}{sub s}{sup {ovr MS}}(MZ) = 0.1184 {+-} 0.0007, we obtain the asymptotic scale for the 't Hooft associated with the {ovr MS} scheme, {Lambda}{sub {ovr MS}}{sup 'tH} = 245{sub -10}{sup +9} MeV, and the asymptotic scale for the conventional {ovr MS} scheme, {Lambda}{sub {ovr MS}} = 213{sub -8}{sup +19} MeV.

  13. Symptom Domain Groups of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Tools Independently Predict Hospitalizations and Re-hospitalizations in Cirrhosis. (United States)

    Patidar, Kavish R; Thacker, Leroy R; Wade, James B; White, Melanie B; Gavis, Edith A; Fagan, Andrew; Sterling, Richard K; Fuchs, Michael; Siddiqui, Mohammad S; Matherly, Scott; Stravitz, Richard T; Sanyal, Arun J; Puri, Puneet; Luketic, Velimir A; Bajaj, Jasmohan S


    Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) tools can identify health-related quality of life (HRQOL) domains that could differentially affect disease progression. Cirrhotics are highly prone to hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations, but the current clinical prognostic models may be insufficient, and thus studying the contribution of individual HRQOL domains could improve prognostication. Analyze the impact of individual HRQOL PROMIS domains in predicting time to all non-elective hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations in cirrhosis. Outpatient cirrhotics were administered PROMIS computerized tools. The first non-elective hospitalization and subsequent re-hospitalizations after enrollment were recorded. Individual PROMIS domains significantly contributing toward these outcomes were generated using principal component analysis. Factor analysis revealed three major PROMIS domain groups: daily function (fatigue, physical function, social roles/activities and sleep issues), mood (anxiety, anger, and depression), and pain (pain behavior/impact) accounted for 77% of the variability. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used for these groups to evaluate time to first hospitalization and re-hospitalization. A total of 286 patients [57 years, MELD 13, 67% men, 40% hepatic encephalopathy (HE)] were enrolled. Patients were followed at 6-month (mth) intervals for a median of 38 mths (IQR 22-47), during which 31% were hospitalized [median IQR mths 12.5 (3-27)] and 12% were re-hospitalized [10.5 mths (3-28)]. Time to first hospitalization was predicted by HE, HR 1.5 (CI 1.01-2.5, p = 0.04) and daily function PROMIS group HR 1.4 (CI 1.1-1.8, p = 0.01), independently. In contrast, the pain PROMIS group were predictive of the time to re-hospitalization HR 1.6 (CI 1.1-2.3, p = 0.03) as was HE, HR 2.1 (CI 1.1-4.3, p = 0.03). Daily function and pain HRQOL domain groups using PROMIS tools independently predict hospitalizations and re

  14. Bonding in Heavier Group 14 Zero-Valent Complexes-A Combined Maximum Probability Domain and Valence Bond Theory Approach. (United States)

    Turek, Jan; Braïda, Benoît; De Proft, Frank


    The bonding in heavier Group 14 zero-valent complexes of a general formula L2 E (E=Si-Pb; L=phosphine, N-heterocyclic and acyclic carbene, cyclic tetrylene and carbon monoxide) is probed by combining valence bond (VB) theory and maximum probability domain (MPD) approaches. All studied complexes are initially evaluated on the basis of the structural parameters and the shape of frontier orbitals revealing a bent structural motif and the presence of two lone pairs at the central E atom. For the VB calculations three resonance structures are suggested, representing the "ylidone", "ylidene" and "bent allene" structures, respectively. The influence of both ligands and central atoms on the bonding situation is clearly expressed in different weights of the resonance structures for the particular complexes. In general, the bonding in the studied E(0) compounds, the tetrylones, is best described as a resonating combination of "ylidone" and "ylidene" structures with a minor contribution of the "bent allene" structure. Moreover, the VB calculations allow for a straightforward assessment of the π-backbonding (E→L) stabilization energy. The validity of the suggested resonance model is further confirmed by the complementary MPD calculations focusing on the E lone pair region as well as the E-L bonding region. Likewise, the MPD method reveals a strong influence of the σ-donating and π-accepting properties of the ligand. In particular, either one single domain or two symmetrical domains are found in the lone pair region of the central atom, supporting the predominance of either the "ylidene" or "ylidone" structures having one or two lone pairs at the central atom, respectively. Furthermore, the calculated average populations in the lone pair MPDs correlate very well with the natural bond orbital (NBO) populations, and can be related to the average number of electrons that is backdonated to the ligands. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The SET-domain protein SUVR5 mediates H3K9me2 deposition and silencing at stimulus response genes in a DNA methylation-independent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Caro

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, environmental and developmental signals alter chromatin structure and modulate gene expression. Heterochromatin constitutes the transcriptionally inactive state of the genome and in plants and mammals is generally characterized by DNA methylation and histone modifications such as histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9 methylation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DNA methylation and H3K9 methylation are usually colocated and set up a mutually self-reinforcing and stable state. Here, in contrast, we found that SUVR5, a plant Su(var3-9 homolog with a SET histone methyltransferase domain, mediates H3K9me2 deposition and regulates gene expression in a DNA methylation-independent manner. SUVR5 binds DNA through its zinc fingers and represses the expression of a subset of stimulus response genes. This represents a novel mechanism for plants to regulate their chromatin and transcriptional state, which may allow for the adaptability and modulation necessary to rapidly respond to extracellular cues.

  16. The PR-Set7 binding domain of Riz1 is required for the H4K20me1-H3K9me1 trans-tail 'histone code' and Riz1 tumor suppressor function. (United States)

    Congdon, Lauren M; Sims, Jennifer K; Tuzon, Creighton T; Rice, Judd C


    PR-Set7/Set8/KMT5a is the sole histone H4 lysine 20 monomethyltransferase (H4K20me1) in metazoans and is essential for proper cell division and genomic stability. We unexpectedly discovered that normal cellular levels of monomethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me1) were also dependent on PR-Set7, but independent of its catalytic activity. This observation suggested that PR-Set7 interacts with an H3K9 monomethyltransferase to establish the previously reported H4K20me1-H3K9me1 trans-tail 'histone code'. Here we show that PR-Set7 specifically and directly binds the C-terminus of the Riz1/PRDM2/KMT8 tumor suppressor and demonstrate that the N-terminal PR/SET domain of Riz1 preferentially monomethylates H3K9. The PR-Set7 binding domain was required for Riz1 nuclear localization and maintenance of the H4K20me1-H3K9me1 trans-tail 'histone code'. Although Riz1 can function as a repressor, Riz1/H3K9me1 was dispensable for the repression of genes regulated by PR-Set7/H4K20me1. Frameshift mutations resulting in a truncated Riz1 incapable of binding PR-Set7 occur frequently in various aggressive cancers. In these cancer cells, expression of wild-type Riz1 restored tumor suppression by decreasing proliferation and increasing apoptosis. These phenotypes were not observed in cells expressing either the Riz1 PR/SET domain or PR-Set7 binding domain indicating that Riz1 methyltransferase activity and PR-Set7 binding domain are both essential for Riz1 tumor suppressor function.

  17. Probing Adenine Rings and Backbone Linkages Using Base Specific Isotope-Edited Raman Spectroscopy: Application to Group II Intron Ribozyme Domain V† (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Eldho, Nadukkudy V.


    Raman difference spectroscopy is used to probe the properties of a 36-nt RNA molecule, “D5”, which lies at the heart of the catalytic apparatus in group II introns. For D5 that has all its adenine residues labeled with 13C and 15N, and utilizing Raman difference spectroscopy, we identify the conformational sensitive -C-O-P-O-C- stretching modes of the unlabeled bonds adjacent to adenine bases, as well as the adenine ring modes themselves. The phosphodiester modes can be assigned to individual adenine residues based on earlier NMR data. The effect of Mg2+ binding was explored by analyzing the Raman difference spectra for [D5 + Mg2+] minus [D5 no Mg2+], for D5 unlabeled, or D5 labeled with 13C/15N-enriched adenine. In both sets of data we assign differential features to G ring modes perturbed by Mg2+ binding at the N7 position. In the A labeled spectra we attribute a Raman differential near 1450 cm−1 and changes of intensity at 1296 cm−1 to Mg binding at the N7 position of adenine bases. The A and G bases involved in Mg2+ binding again can be identified using earlier NMR results. For the unlabeled D5, a change in the C-O-P-O-C stretch profile at 811 cm−1 upon magnesium binding is due to a “tightening up” (in the sense of a more rigid molecule with less dynamic interchange among competing ribose conformers) of the D5 structure. For adenine labeled D5, small changes in the adenine backbone bond signatures in the 810 – 830 cm−1 region suggest small conformational changes occur in the tetraloop and bulge regions upon binding of Mg2+. The PO2− stretching vibration, near 1100 cm−1, from the non-bridging phosphate groups, probes the effect of Mg2+-hydrate inner-sphere interactions that cause an up-shift. In turn, the up-shift is modulated by the presence of monovalent cations since in the presence of Na+ and Li+ the up-shift is (23±2 cm−1) while in the presence of K+ and Cs+ it is (13±3 cm−1), a finding that correlates with the differences in

  18. Group-wise similarity registration of point sets using Student's t-mixture model for statistical shape models. (United States)

    Ravikumar, Nishant; Gooya, Ali; Çimen, Serkan; Frangi, Alejandro F; Taylor, Zeike A


    A probabilistic group-wise similarity registration technique based on Student's t-mixture model (TMM) and a multi-resolution extension of the same (mr-TMM) are proposed in this study, to robustly align shapes and establish valid correspondences, for the purpose of training statistical shape models (SSMs). Shape analysis across large cohorts requires automatic generation of the requisite training sets. Automated segmentation and landmarking of medical images often result in shapes with varying proportions of outliers and consequently require a robust method of alignment and correspondence estimation. Both TMM and mrTMM are validated by comparison with state-of-the-art registration algorithms based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs), using both synthetic and clinical data. Four clinical data sets are used for validation: (a) 2D femoral heads (K= 1000 samples generated from DXA images of healthy subjects); (b) control-hippocampi (K= 50 samples generated from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of healthy subjects); (c) MCI-hippocampi (K= 28 samples generated from MR images of patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment); and (d) heart shapes comprising left and right ventricular endocardium and epicardium (K= 30 samples generated from short-axis MR images of: 10 healthy subjects, 10 patients diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension and 10 diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). The proposed methods significantly outperformed the state-of-the-art in terms of registration accuracy in the experiments involving synthetic data, with mrTMM offering significant improvement over TMM. With the clinical data, both methods performed comparably to the state-of-the-art for the hippocampi and heart data sets, which contained few outliers. They outperformed the state-of-the-art for the femur data set, containing large proportions of outliers, in terms of alignment accuracy, and the quality of SSMs trained, quantified in terms of generalization, compactness and

  19. The ERAD inhibitor Eeyarestatin I is a bifunctional compound with a membrane-binding domain and a p97/VCP inhibitory group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyan Wang


    Full Text Available Protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER has recently emerged as a therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Disruption of ER homeostasis results in ER stress, which is a major cause of cell death in cells exposed to the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, an anti-cancer drug approved for treatment of multiple myeloma and Mantle cell lymphoma. We recently reported that the ERAD inhibitor Eeyarestatin I (EerI also disturbs ER homeostasis and has anti-cancer activities resembling that of Bortezomib.Here we developed in vitro binding and cell-based functional assays to demonstrate that a nitrofuran-containing (NFC group in EerI is the functional domain responsible for the cytotoxicity. Using both SPR and pull down assays, we show that EerI directly binds the p97 ATPase, an essential component of the ERAD machinery, via the NFC domain. An aromatic domain in EerI, although not required for p97 interaction, can localize EerI to the ER membrane, which improves its target specificity. Substitution of the aromatic module with another benzene-containing domain that maintains membrane localization generates a structurally distinct compound that nonetheless has similar biologic activities as EerI.Our findings reveal a class of bifunctional chemical agents that can preferentially inhibit membrane-bound p97 to disrupt ER homeostasis and to induce tumor cell death. These results also suggest that the AAA ATPase p97 may be a potential drug target for cancer therapeutics.

  20. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  1. 32 CFR 705.33 - Participation by Armed Forces bands, choral groups, and troops in the public domain. (United States)


    ... choral group may be authorized; background, dinner, dance or other social music is considered... the capability of a civilian group. For example, music to accompany the presentation of the national..., dinner, dance or other social music cannot be authorized. The specified programs which may be authorized...

  2. Consolidation of glycosyl hydrolase family 30 : a dual domain 4/7 hydrolase family consisting of two structurally distinct groups (United States)

    Franz J. St John; Javier M. Gonzalez; Edwin Pozharski


    In this work glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 30 (GH30) is analyzed and shown to consist of its currently classified member sequences as well as several homologous sequence groups currently assigned within family GH5. A large scale amino acid sequence alignment and a phylogenetic tree were generated and GH30 groups and subgroups were designated. A partial rearrangement...

  3. Facility with the English language and problem-based learning group interaction: findings from an Arabic setting. (United States)

    Mpofu, D J; Lanphear, J; Stewart, T; Das, M; Ridding, P; Dunn, E


    The Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), United Arab Emirates (UAE) University is in a unique position to explore issues related to English language proficiency and medical student performance. All students entering the FMHS have English as a second language. This study focused on the issues of students' proficiency in English as measured by the TOEFL test, student background factors and interaction in problem-based learning (PBL) groups. Using a modification of Bales Interaction Process Analysis, four problem-based learning groups were observed over four thematic units, to measure the degree of student interaction within PBL groups and to compare this to individual TOEFL scores and key background variables. The students' contributions correlated highly with TOEFL test results in the giving of information (range r = 0.67-0.74). The female students adhered to interacting in English during group sessions, whereas the male students were more likely to revert to using Arabic in elaborating unclear phenomena (p TOEFL scores for the male students, but not for female students. Multivariate analysis was undertaken to analyse the relative contribution of the TOEFL, parental education and years of studying in English. The best predictor of students' contributions in PBL groups was identified as TOEFL scores. The study demonstrates the importance of facilitating a locally acceptable level of English proficiency prior to admission to the FMHS. However, it also highlights the importance of not focusing only on English proficiency but paying attention to additional factors in facilitating medical students in maximizing benefits from interactions in PBL settings.

  4. Stepwise group sparse regression (SGSR): gene-set-based pharmacogenomic predictive models with stepwise selection of functional priors. (United States)

    Jang, In Sock; Dienstmann, Rodrigo; Margolin, Adam A; Guinney, Justin


    Complex mechanisms involving genomic aberrations in numerous proteins and pathways are believed to be a key cause of many diseases such as cancer. With recent advances in genomics, elucidating the molecular basis of cancer at a patient level is now feasible, and has led to personalized treatment strategies whereby a patient is treated according to his or her genomic profile. However, there is growing recognition that existing treatment modalities are overly simplistic, and do not fully account for the deep genomic complexity associated with sensitivity or resistance to cancer therapies. To overcome these limitations, large-scale pharmacogenomic screens of cancer cell lines--in conjunction with modern statistical learning approaches--have been used to explore the genetic underpinnings of drug response. While these analyses have demonstrated the ability to infer genetic predictors of compound sensitivity, to date most modeling approaches have been data-driven, i.e. they do not explicitly incorporate domain-specific knowledge (priors) in the process of learning a model. While a purely data-driven approach offers an unbiased perspective of the data--and may yield unexpected or novel insights--this strategy introduces challenges for both model interpretability and accuracy. In this study, we propose a novel prior-incorporated sparse regression model in which the choice of informative predictor sets is carried out by knowledge-driven priors (gene sets) in a stepwise fashion. Under regularization in a linear regression model, our algorithm is able to incorporate prior biological knowledge across the predictive variables thereby improving the interpretability of the final model with no loss--and often an improvement--in predictive performance. We evaluate the performance of our algorithm compared to well-known regularization methods such as LASSO, Ridge and Elastic net regression in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (Sanger

  5. Ethyl group as matrix modifier and inducer of ordered domains in hybrid xerogels synthesised in acidic media using ethyltriethoxysilane (ETEOS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Xabier; Moriones, Paula; Echeverría, Jesús C. [Departamento de Química Aplicada, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus Arrosadía, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Luquin, Asunción; Laguna, Mariano [Instituto de Síntesis Química y Catálisis Homogénea (CSIC), Departamento de Química Inorgánica. Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, Julián J., E-mail: [Departamento de Química Aplicada, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus Arrosadía, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)


    Hybrid silica xerogels favourably combine the properties of organic and inorganic components in one material; consequently these materials are useful for multiple applications. The versatility and mild synthetic conditions provided by the sol-gel process are ideal for the synthesis of hybrid materials. The specific aims of this study were to synthesise hybrid xerogels in acidic media using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and ethyltriethoxysilane (ETEOS) as silica precursors, and to assess the role of the ethyl group as a matrix modifier and inducer of ordered domains in xerogels. All xerogels were synthesised at pH 4.5, at 60 °C, with 1:4.75:5.5 TEOS:EtOH:H{sub 2}O molar ratio. Gelation time exponentially increased with the ETEOS molar ratio. Incorporation of the ethyl groups into the structure of xerogels reduced cross-linking, increased the average siloxane bond length, and promoted the formation of ordered domains. As a result, a transition from Q{sup n} to T{sup n} signals detected in the {sup 29}Si NMR spectra, the Si–O structural band in the FTIR spectra shifted to lower wavelength, and a new peak in the XRD pattern at 2θ < 10° appeared in the XRD patterns. Mass spectroscopy detected fragments with high numbers of silicon atoms and a polymeric distribution. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hybrid xerogels were synthesised for ETEOS/TEOS mixtures up to 80% ETEOS. • The gelification time exponentially increased with ETEOS content. • FTIR, XRD and MAS NMR demonstrated the presence of ethyl groups into xerogels. • For ETEOS contents ≤30%, ethyl group acted as matrix modifier. • For ETEOS contents ≥30%, ethyl groups induced the formation of ordered domains.

  6. The Crystal Structure of Escherichia coli Group 4 Capsule Protein GfcC Reveals a Domain Organization Resembling That of Wza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiyamoorthy, Karthik; Mills, Erez; Franzmann, Titus M.; Rosenshine, Ilan; Saper, Mark A. (Michigan); (Hebrew)


    We report the 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli GfcC, a periplasmic protein encoded by the gfc operon, which is essential for assembly of group 4 polysaccharide capsule (O-antigen capsule). Presumed gene orthologs of gfcC are present in capsule-encoding regions of at least 29 genera of Gram-negative bacteria. GfcC, a member of the DUF1017 family, is comprised of tandem {beta}-grasp (ubiquitin-like) domains (D2 and D3) and a carboxyl-terminal amphipathic helix, a domain arrangement reminiscent of that of Wza that forms an exit pore for group 1 capsule export. Unlike the membrane-spanning C-terminal helix from Wza, the GfcC C-terminal helix packs against D3. Previously unobserved in a {beta}-grasp domain structure is a 48-residue helical hairpin insert in D2 that binds to D3, constraining its position and sequestering the carboxyl-terminal amphipathic helix. A centrally located and invariant Arg115 not only is essential for proper localization but also forms one of two mostly conserved pockets. Finally, we draw analogies between a GfcC protein fused to an outer membrane {beta}-barrel pore in some species and fusion proteins necessary for secreting biofilm-forming exopolysaccharides.

  7. Serum concentrations of mood stabilizers are associated with memory, but not other cognitive domains in psychosis spectrum disorders; explorative analyses in a naturalistic setting. (United States)

    Steen, Nils Eiel; Aas, Monica; Simonsen, Carmen; Dieset, Ingrid; Tesli, Martin; Nerhus, Mari; Gardsjord, Erlend; Mørch, Ragni; Agartz, Ingrid; Melle, Ingrid; Vaskinn, Anja; Spigset, Olav; Andreassen, Ole A


    Mood stabilizers like lithium and anticonvulsants are used in bipolar and related psychotic disorders. There is a lack of knowledge of the relationship of these medications and cognition in the psychosis spectrum. We studied the association between serum concentration of mood stabilizers and cognitive performance in a well-characterized sample of bipolar and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Serum concentrations of valproate, lamotrigine, and lithium were analyzed for associations to performance on neuropsychological tests in six cognitive domains in individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 167) and in a combined sample of individuals with bipolar or schizophrenia spectrum disorders (n = 217). Linear regression with adjustments for gender, age, and symptom levels of depression, mania, and psychosis were applied for the association analyses. There were negative associations between serum levels of valproate and short term delayed recall (bipolar: p = 0.043; combined: p = 0.044) and working memory (bipolar: p = 0.043). A positive association was suggested between serum level of lithium and working memory (bipolar: p = 0.039). There were no other significant relationships between serum levels of valproate, lamotrigine, or lithium and neuropsychological test performance in neither the bipolar disorder nor the combined group. Serum levels of mood stabilizers were unrelated to cognitive performance in most domains, indicating that higher dose does not lead to broader cognitive impairments in bipolar and related psychotic disorder patients. However, worsened memory with increasing levels of valproate suggests cautious dosing of anticonvulsants, while increasing lithium level seems to be associated with improved memory. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to the explorative, naturalistic design.

  8. Integrated play groups: promoting symbolic play and social engagement with typical peers in children with ASD across settings. (United States)

    Wolfberg, Pamela; DeWitt, Mila; Young, Gregory S; Nguyen, Thanh


    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) face pervasive challenges in symbolic and social play development. The Integrated Play Groups (IPG) model provides intensive guidance for children with ASD to participate with typical peers in mutually engaging experiences in natural settings. This study examined the effects of a 12-week IPG intervention on the symbolic and social play of 48 children with ASD using a repeated measures design. The findings revealed significant gains in symbolic and social play that generalized to unsupported play with unfamiliar peers. Consistent with prior studies, the outcomes provide robust and compelling evidence that further validate the efficacy of the IPG model. Theoretical and practical implications for maximizing children's developmental potential and social inclusion in play are discussed.

  9. Chinese Gini Coefficient from 2005 to 2012, Based on 20 Grouped Income Data Sets of Urban and Rural Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Chen


    Full Text Available Data insufficiency has become the primary factor affecting research on income disparity in China. To resolve this issue, this paper explores Chinese income distribution and income inequality using distribution functions. First, it examines 20 sets of grouped data on family income between 2005 and 2012 by the China Yearbook of Household Surveys, 2013, and compares the fitting effects of eight distribution functions. The results show that the generalized beta distribution of the second kind has a high fitting to the income distribution of urban and rural residents in China. Next, these results are used to calculate the Chinese Gini ratio, which is then compared with the findings of relevant studies. Finally, this paper discusses the influence of urbanization on income inequality in China and suggests that accelerating urbanization can play an important role in narrowing the income gap of Chinese residents.

  10. SET domain-containing protein 5 is required for expression of primordial germ cell specification-associated genes in murine embryonic stem cells. (United States)

    Yu, Seung Eun; Kim, Min Seong; Park, Su Hyung; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Kyung Hee; Jang, Yeun Kyu


    Primordial germ cell (PGC) specification is one of the most fundamental processes in developmental biology. Because PGCs are a common source of both gametes, generation of PGCs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a useful model for analysing the germ line lineage. Although several studies focused on the role of epigenetic regulation on PGC differentiation from ESCs in vitro have been published, germ line commitment remains poorly understood. Here, we show that SET domain-containing protein (Setd5), which has a previously unknown function, is essential for regulating germ cell-associated genes in murine ESCs (mESCs). Even though Setd5 knockdown with 3 distinct shRNAs did not affect expression of pluripotency genes or levels of global histone methylation, all 3 shRNAs significantly diminished the expression of early and late-stage PGC-associated genes. Furthermore, our immunoprecipitation assay showed that Setd5 can interact with Tbl1xr1 and Ctr9, which are components of 2 different transcriptional regulatory complexes, namely, NcoR1 corepressor complex and Paf1 complex, respectively, in mESCs. Taken together, our data suggest that Setd5 is required for maintaining PGC-associated genes and Setd5-associated protein complexes containing Tbl1xr1 and Ctr9, which in turn are likely involved in regulating germ cell-related genes in mESCs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Palliative care for cancer patients in a primary health care setting: Bereaved relatives' experience, a qualitative group interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Anders


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the quality and organisation of care to terminally ill cancer patients with a relatives' view in a primary health care setting is limited. The aim of the study is to analyse experiences and preferences of bereaved relatives to terminally ill cancer patients in a primary care setting to explore barriers and facilitators for delivery of good palliative home care. Methods Three focus group interviews with fourteen bereaved relatives in Aarhus County, Denmark. Results Three main categories of experience were identified: 1 The health professionals' management, where a need to optimize was found. 2 Shared care, which was lacking. 3 The relatives' role, which needs an extra focus. Conclusion Relatives experience insufficient palliative care mainly due to organizational and cultural problems among professionals. Palliative care in primary care in general needs improvement and attention should be drawn to the "professionalization" of the relatives and the need to strike a balance between their needs, wishes and resources in end-of-life care and bereavement.

  12. Eliminating latent tuberculosis in low-burden settings: are the principal beneficiaries to be disadvantaged groups or the broader population? (United States)

    Degeling, Chris; Denholm, Justin; Mason, Paul; Kerridge, Ian; Dawson, Angus


    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the burdens of this disease continue to track prior disadvantage. In order to galvanise a coordinated global response, WHO has recently launched the End TB Campaign that aims to eliminate TB by 2050. Key to this is the introduction of population screening programmes in low-burden settings to identify and treat people who have latent TB infection (LTBI). The defining features of LTBI are: that it is not an active disease but confers an increased risk of disease; the socially disadvantaged are those most in danger and uncertainty persists as to who will be harmed or benefitted from screening-led prophylactic interventions. Systematic screening programmes that include surveillance, case-finding and treatment of asymptomatic individuals inevitably redistribute the risk of harms and the potential for benefits within a population. The extent to which those targeted within such programmes should be exposed to higher levels of risk in the pursuit of individual or community benefits requires careful consideration prior to implementation. As currently construed, it remains unclear who stands to benefit most from how LTBI screening in high-income countries is being organised, and whose health is being prioritised: members of disadvantaged groups or the broader community. Unless the aims of LTBI screening programmes in these settings are made transparent and their prioritisation ethically justified, there is a significant danger that such a targeted intervention will further disadvantage those who have the least capacity to bear the burdens of TB elimination. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. Resistance to changing practice from pro re nata prescriptions to patient group directions in acute mental health settings. (United States)

    Price, O; Baker, J A


    Poor practice associated with pro re nata (PRN) prescriptions in mental health is known to be common and can increase the risk of serious and potentially fatal side effects. A contributing factor to poor practice is the lack of a clear chain of accountability between the decision to prescribe and administer PRN prescriptions. To address this problem, a patient group direction (PGD) for acute behavioural disturbance (lorazepam 0.5-2 mg) and staff training materials were developed. The intention was to replace PRN prescriptions with the PGD in two mental health trusts. One of the potential benefits of this would be the removal of the contribution of PRN to high and combined dose antipsychotic prescriptions. This proposal, however, was met with significant resistance in both trusts and did not replace PRN as a result. A series of interviews and focus groups were conducted with 16 RMNs working in the two trusts, to explore the reasons why the PGD was met with resistance. Senior nurses perceived resistance to be associated with anxieties over increased responsibility for decision making. Junior nurses reported concerns regarding the medicalization of the nursing role, the paperwork associated with the PGD and the training approach used. Future efforts to implement PGDs in mental health settings must carefully consider the methods for engaging effectively with participating organizations, in terms of managing change and completing the necessary groundwork for successful implementation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Micrometer-scale U–Pb age domains in eucrite zircons, impact re-setting, and the thermal history of the HED parent body (United States)

    Hopkins, M.D.; Mojzsis, S.J.; Bottke, W.F.; Abramov, Oleg


    Meteoritic zircons are rare, but some are documented to occur in asteroidal meteorites, including those of the howardite–eucrite–diogenite (HED) achondrite clan (Rubin, A. [1997]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 32, 231–247). The HEDs are widely considered to originate from the Asteroid 4 Vesta. Vesta and the other large main belt asteroids record an early bombardment history. To explore this record, we describe sub-micrometer distributions of trace elements (U, Th) and 235,238U–207,206Pb ages from four zircons (>7–40 μm ∅) separated from bulk samples of the brecciated eucrite Millbillillie. Ultra-high resolution (∼100 nm) ion microprobe depth profiles reveal different zircon age domains correlative to mineral chemistry and to possible impact scenarios. Our new U–Pb zircon geochronology shows that Vesta’s crust solidified within a few million years of Solar System formation (4561 ± 13 Ma), in good agreement with previous work (e.g. Carlson, R.W., Lugmair, G.W. [2000]. Timescales of planetesimal formation and differentiation based on extinct and extant radioisotopes. In: Canup, R., Righter, K. (Eds.), Origin of the Earth and Moon. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 25–44). Younger zircon age domains (ca. 4530 Ma) also record crustal processes, but these are interpreted to be exogenous because they are well after the effective extinction of 26Al (t1/2 = 0.72 Myr). An origin via impact-resetting was evaluated with a suite of analytical impact models. Output shows that if a single impactor was responsible for the ca. 4530 Ma zircon ages, it had to have been ⩾10 km in diameter and at high enough velocity (>5 km s−1) to account for the thermal field required to re-set U–Pb ages. Such an impact would have penetrated at least 10 km into Vesta’s crust. Later events at ca. 4200 Ma are documented in HED apatite 235,238U–207,206Pb ages (Zhou, Q. et al. [2011]. Early basaltic volcanism and Late Heavy Bombardment on Vesta: U–Pb ages of small

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV distribution and sexual behaviors across gender and age group in an African setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Fleury Djoba Siawaya

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to (1 describe the distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV cases across gender and age groups in Libreville (Gabon; (2 examine Gabonese Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs-related risk behaviour. METHODS: The sampled population was people attending the "Laboratoire National de Santé Plublique". Between 2007 and 2011, 14 667 and 9 542 people respectively, were tested for CT and HIV infections. 1 854 of them were tested for both infections. We calculated CT and HIV rates across gender and age groups. Also analysed was the groups' contribution to the general CT and HIV epidemiology. STIs-related risk behaviours were assessed in 224 men and 795 women (between July 2011 and March 2013 who agreed and answered a questionnaire including questions on their marital status, number of sex partners, sexual practices, history of STIs, sex frequency and condom use. RESULTS: Data showed a 24% dropped in the CT infection rate between 2007 and 2010, followed by a 14% increase in 2011. The HIV infection rates for the same period were between 15% and 16%. The risk of a CT-positive subject getting HIV is about 0.71 times the risk of a CT-negative subject. Young adult aged between 18 and 35 years old represented 65.2% of people who had STIs. 80% of women and 66% of men confessed to an inconsistent use of condoms. 11.6% of women and 48% of men declared having multiple sex partners. 61% of questioned women and 67% of men declared knowing their HIV status. CONCLUSIONS: In this Gabonese setting, the population-aged from 18 to 35 years is the most affected by STIs. Other matters of concern are the inconsistent use of protection and sex with non-spousal or non-life partners.

  16. The Laminin 511/521 Binding Site on the Lutheran Blood Group Glycoprotein is Located at theFlexible Junction of Ig Domains 2 and 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankelow, Tosti J.; Burton, Nicholas; Stedansdottir, Fanney O.; Spring, Frances A.; Parsons, Stephen F.; Pesersen, Jan S.; Oliveira, Cristiano L.P.; Lammie, Donna; Wess, Timothy; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel A.; Brady, R. Leo; Anstee, David J.


    The Lutheran blood group glycoprotein, first discovered on erythrocytes, is widely expressed in human tissues. It is a ligand for the {alpha}5 subunit of Laminin 511/521, an extracellular matrix protein. This interaction may contribute to vasocclusive events that are an important cause of morbidity in sickle cell disease. Using X-ray crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering and site directed mutagenesis we show that the extracellular region of Lutheran forms an extended structure with a distinctive bend between the second and third immunoglobulin-like domains. The linker between domains 2 and 3 appears to be flexible and is a critical determinant in maintaining an overall conformation for Lutheran that is capable of binding to Laminin. Mutagenesis studies indicate that Asp312 of Lutheran and the surrounding cluster of negatively charged residues in this linker region form the Laminin binding site. Unusually, receptor binding is therefore not a function of the domains expected to be furthermost from the plasma membrane. These studies imply that structural flexibility of Lutheran may be essential for its interaction with Laminin and present a novel opportunity for the development of therapeutics for sickle cell disease.

  17. "helix Nebula - the Science Cloud", a European Science Driven Cross-Domain Initiative Implemented in via AN Active Ppp Set-Up (United States)

    Lengert, W.; Mondon, E.; Bégin, M. E.; Ferrer, M.; Vallois, F.; DelaMar, J.


    Helix Nebula, a European science cross-domain initiative building on an active PPP, is aiming to implement the concept of an open science commons[1] while using a cloud hybrid model[2] as the proposed implementation solution. This approach allows leveraging and merging of complementary data intensive Earth Science disciplines (e.g. instrumentation[3] and modeling), without introducing significant changes in the contributors' operational set-up. Considering the seamless integration with life-science (e.g. EMBL), scientific exploitation of meteorological, climate, and Earth Observation data and models open an enormous potential for new big data science. The work of Helix Nebula has shown that is it feasible to interoperate publicly funded infrastructures, such as EGI [5] and GEANT [6], with commercial cloud services. Such hybrid systems are in the interest of the existing users of publicly funded infrastructures and funding agencies because they will provide "freedom and choice" over the type of computing resources to be consumed and the manner in which they can be obtained. But to offer such freedom and choice across a spectrum of suppliers, various issues such as intellectual property, legal responsibility, service quality agreements and related issues need to be addressed. Finding solutions to these issues is one of the goals of the Helix Nebula initiative. [1] [2] [3] e.g. [5] [6]

  18. Cellular settings mediating Src Substrate switching between focal adhesion kinase tyrosine 861 and CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) tyrosine 734. (United States)

    Wortmann, Andreas; He, Yaowu; Christensen, Melinda E; Linn, Mayla; Lumley, John W; Pollock, Pamela M; Waterhouse, Nigel J; Hooper, John D


    Reciprocal interactions between Src family kinases (SFKs) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are critical during changes in cell attachment. Recently it has been recognized that another SFK substrate, CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1), is differentially phosphorylated during these events. However, the molecular processes underlying SFK-mediated phosphorylation of CDCP1 are poorly understood. Here we identify a novel mechanism in which FAK tyrosine 861 and CDCP1-Tyr-734 compete as SFK substrates and demonstrate cellular settings in which SFKs switch between these sites. Our results show that stable CDCP1 expression induces robust SFK-mediated phosphorylation of CDCP1-Tyr-734 with concomitant loss of p-FAK-Tyr-861 in adherent HeLa cells. SFK substrate switching in these cells is dependent on the level of expression of CDCP1 and is also dependent on CDCP1-Tyr-734 but is independent of CDCP1-Tyr-743 and -Tyr-762. In HeLa CDCP1 cells, engagement of SFKs with CDCP1 is accompanied by an increase in phosphorylation of Src-Tyr-416 and a change in cell morphology to a fibroblastic appearance dependent on CDCP1-Tyr-734. SFK switching between FAK-Tyr-861 and CDCP1-Tyr-734 also occurs during changes in adhesion of colorectal cancer cell lines endogenously expressing these two proteins. Consistently, increased p-FAK-Tyr-861 levels and a more epithelial morphology are seen in colon cancer SW480 cells silenced for CDCP1. Unlike protein kinase Cδ, FAK does not appear to form a trimeric complex with Src and CDCP1. These data demonstrate novel aspects of the dynamics of SFK-mediated cell signaling that may be relevant during cancer progression.

  19. Depositional setting and geochemistry of phosphorites and metalliferous black shales in the Carboniferous-Permian Lisburne Group, Northern Alaska (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Slack, John F.; Whalen, Michael T.; Harris, Anita G.


    Phosphatic rocks are distributed widely in the Lisburne Group, a mainly Carboniferous carbonate succession that occurs throughout northern Alaska. New sedimentologic, paleontologic, and geochemical data presented here constrain the geographic and stratigraphic extent of these strata and their depositional and paleogeographic settings. Our findings support models that propose very high oxygen contents of the Permo-Carboniferous atmosphere and oceans, and those that suggest enhanced phosphogenesis in iron-limited sediments; our data also have implications for Carboniferous paleogeography of the Arctic. Lisburne Group phosphorites range from granular to nodular, are interbedded with black shale and lime mudstone rich in radiolarians and sponge spicules, and accumulated primarily in suboxic outer- to middle-ramp environments. Age constraints from conodonts, foraminifers, and goniatite cephalopods indicate that most are middle Late Mississippian (early Chesterian; early late Visean). Phosphorites form 2- to 40-cm-thick beds of sand- to pebble-sized phosphatic peloids, coated grains, and (or) bioclasts cemented by carbonate, silica, or phosphate that occur through an interval =12 m thick. High gamma-ray response through this interval suggests strongly condensed facies related to sediment starvation and development of phosphatic hardgrounds. Phosphorite textures, such as unconformity-bounded coated grains, record multiple episodes of phosphogenesis and sedimentary reworking. Sharp bed bases and local grading indicate considerable redeposition of phosphatic material into deeper water by storms and (or) gravity flows. Lisburne Group phosphorites contain up to 37 weight percent P2O5, 7.6 weight percent F, 1,030 ppm Y, 517 ppm La, and 166 ppm U. Shale-normalized rare earth element (REE) plots show uniformly large negative Ce anomalies Ce/Ce*=0.11 + or - 0.03) that are interpreted to reflect phosphate deposition in seawater that was greatly depleted in Ce due to increased

  20. WRKY domain-encoding genes of a crop legume chickpea (Cicer arietinum): comparative analysis with Medicago truncatula WRKY family and characterization of group-III gene(s). (United States)

    Kumar, Kamal; Srivastava, Vikas; Purayannur, Savithri; Kaladhar, V Chandra; Cheruvu, Purnima Jaiswal; Verma, Praveen Kumar


    The WRKY genes have been identified as important transcriptional modulators predominantly during the environmental stresses, but they also play critical role at various stages of plant life cycle. We report the identification of WRKY domain (WD)-encoding genes from galegoid clade legumes chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula). In total, 78 and 98 WD-encoding genes were found in chickpea and barrel medic, respectively. Comparative analysis suggests the presence of both conserved and unique WRKYs, and expansion of WRKY family in M. truncatula primarily by tandem duplication. Exclusively found in galegoid legumes, CaWRKY16 and its orthologues encode for a novel protein having a transmembrane and partial Exo70 domains flanking a group-III WD. Genomic region of galegoids, having CaWRKY16, is more dynamic when compared with millettioids. In onion cells, fused CaWRKY16-EYFP showed punctate fluorescent signals in cytoplasm. The chickpea WRKY group-III genes were further characterized for their transcript level modulation during pathogenic stress and treatments of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) by real-time PCR. Differential regulation of genes was observed during Ascochyta rabiei infection and SA treatment. Characterization of A. rabiei and SA inducible gene CaWRKY50 showed that it localizes to plant nucleus, binds to W-box, and have a C-terminal transactivation domain. Overexpression of CaWRKY50 in tobacco plants resulted in early flowering and senescence. The in-depth comparative account presented here for two legume WRKY genes will be of great utility in hastening functional characterization of crop legume WRKYs and will also help in characterization of Exo70Js. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  1. Biomarkers to Stratify Risk Groups among Children with Malnutrition in Resource-Limited Settings and to Monitor Response to Intervention. (United States)

    McGrath, Christine J; Arndt, Michael B; Walson, Judd L


    Despite global efforts to reduce childhood undernutrition, current interventions have had little impact on stunting and wasting, and the mechanisms underlying growth faltering are poorly understood. There is a clear need to distinguish populations of children most likely to benefit from any given intervention and to develop tools to monitor response to therapy prior to the development of morbid sequelae. In resource-limited settings, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is common among children, contributing to malnutrition and increasing childhood morbidity and mortality risk. In addition to EED, early alterations in the gut microbiota can adversely affect growth through nutrient malabsorption, altered metabolism, gut inflammation, and dysregulation of the growth hormone axis. We examined the evidence linking EED and the gut microbiome to growth faltering and explored novel biomarkers to identify subgroups of children at risk of malnutrition due to underlying pathology. These and other biomarkers could be used to identify specific groups of children at risk of malnutrition and monitor response to targeted interventions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. A novel missense mutation in the high mobility group domain of SRY drastically reduces its DNA-binding capacity and causes paternally transmitted 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis. (United States)

    Filges, Isabel; Kunz, Christophe; Miny, Peter; Boesch, Nemya; Szinnai, Gabor; Wenzel, Friedel; Tschudin, Sibil; Zumsteg, Urs; Heinimann, Karl


    To investigate the familial segregation, role, and function of a novel SRY missense mutation c.347T>C in two half-sisters affected by 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis (CDG) compatible with a successful pregnancy outcome. Phenotypic, mutational, and functional study. Academic research unit. Two half-sisters, their common father, and 100 healthy control individuals. Chromosome, molecular cytogenetic analysis, and Sanger sequencing of the SRY gene in blood lymphocytes of the proband, her affected half-sister, and in inflammatory tissue of the father postmortem. Cloning and expression of high mobility group box carboxy-terminal domains of Sry and electrophoretic mobility shift assay were performed. Not applicable. A novel SRY missense mutation c.347T>C (p.Leu116Ser) was identified in two half-sisters and segregates with the CGD phenotype. It is present in the common healthy father in a mosaic state. Functional analyses demonstrate the pathogenic effect of the mutation by a strong reduction of DNA affinity for the mutant p.Leu116Ser SRY protein. The missense mutation c.347T>C in the high mobility group domain of SRY causes 46,XY CGD. Paternal gonadal mosaicism is likely to explain the familial occurrence of 46,XY CGD suggesting a de novo mutational event during the early stages of embryonic development. This novel mutation is compatible with a successful pregnancy outcome. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. RRM domain of Arabidopsis splicing factor SF1 is important for pre-mRNA splicing of a specific set of genes

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Keh Chien


    The RNA recognition motif of Arabidopsis splicing factor SF1 affects the alternative splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS M pre-mRNA and a heat shock transcription factor HsfA2 pre-mRNA. Splicing factor 1 (SF1) plays a crucial role in 3\\' splice site recognition by binding directly to the intron branch point. Although plant SF1 proteins possess an RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain that is absent in its fungal and metazoan counterparts, the role of the RRM domain in SF1 function has not been characterized. Here, we show that the RRM domain differentially affects the full function of the Arabidopsis thaliana AtSF1 protein under different experimental conditions. For example, the deletion of RRM domain influences AtSF1-mediated control of flowering time, but not the abscisic acid sensitivity response during seed germination. The alternative splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) pre-mRNA is involved in flowering time control. We found that the RRM domain of AtSF1 protein alters the production of alternatively spliced FLM-β transcripts. We also found that the RRM domain affects the alternative splicing of a heat shock transcription factor HsfA2 pre-mRNA, thereby mediating the heat stress response. Taken together, our results suggest the importance of RRM domain for AtSF1-mediated alternative splicing of a subset of genes involved in the regulation of flowering and adaptation to heat stress.

  4. Recursive solutions for multi-group neutron kinetics diffusion equations in homogeneous three-dimensional rectangular domains with time dependent perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Claudio Z. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capao do Leao (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.; Vilhena, Marco T. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Barros, Ricardo C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico


    In the present work we solve in analytical representation the three dimensional neutron kinetic diffusion problem in rectangular Cartesian geometry for homogeneous and bounded domains for any number of energy groups and precursor concentrations. The solution in analytical representation is constructed using a hierarchical procedure, i.e. the original problem is reduced to a problem previously solved by the authors making use of a combination of the spectral method and a recursive decomposition approach. Time dependent absorption cross sections of the thermal energy group are considered with step, ramp and Chebyshev polynomial variations. For these three cases, we present numerical results and discuss convergence properties and compare our results to those available in the literature.

  5. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussières André E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF was developed to investigate determinants of specific clinical behaviors and inform the design of interventions to change professional behavior. This framework was used to explore the beliefs of chiropractors in an American Provider Network and two Canadian provinces about their adherence to evidence-based recommendations for spine radiography for uncomplicated back pain. The primary objective of the study was to identify chiropractors’ beliefs about managing uncomplicated back pain without x-rays and to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based recommendations on lumbar spine x-rays. A secondary objective was to compare chiropractors in the United States and Canada on their beliefs regarding the use of spine x-rays. Methods Six focus groups exploring beliefs about managing back pain without x-rays were conducted with a purposive sample. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis based on the TDF. Results Five domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs within these domains included the following: conflicting comments about the potential consequences of not ordering x-rays (risk of missing a pathology, avoiding adverse treatment effects, risks of litigation, determining the treatment plan, and using x-ray-driven techniques contrasted with perceived benefits of minimizing patient radiation exposure and reducing costs; beliefs about consequences; beliefs regarding professional autonomy, professional credibility, lack of standardization, and agreement with guidelines widely varied ( social/professional role & identity; the influence of formal training, colleagues, and patients also appeared to be important factors ( social influences; conflicting comments regarding levels of confidence and comfort in managing patients

  6. County-Level Human Well-Being Index and Domain Scores (2000-2010) plus EQI data set (2000-2005) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The HWBI_Draft_1 is an internal map service being prepared for public release (early FY18). This map services contains mean county-level HWBI, domain, indicators and...

  7. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and the Metabolic Syndrome in Ethnic Minority Groups: The Healthy Life in an Urban Setting Study. (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; Agyemang, Charles; Schene, Aart H; Peters, Ron J G; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E


    Ethnic differences in the metabolic syndrome could be explained by perceived ethnic discrimination (PED). It is unclear whether PED is associated with the metabolic syndrome. We assessed this association and quantified the contribution of PED to the metabolic syndrome. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study collected in the Netherlands from 2011 to 2014. The population-based sample included South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaian, Turkish, and Moroccan participants (aged 18 to 70 years). PED was measured using the Everyday Discrimination Scale. The metabolic syndrome was determined according to the harmonized definition of the International Diabetes Federation, American Heart Association, and others. Logistic regression was used for analysis. population-attributable fraction was used to calculate the contribution of PED. PED was positively associated with the metabolic syndrome in South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, and Moroccan participants (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.13 [0.99-1.30], 1.15 [1.00-1.32], and 1.19 [1.03-1.38], respectively) after adjusting for potential confounders and mediators. No significant association was observed among Ghanaian and Turkish participants. For the individual components, the associations were statistically significant for blood pressure, fasting glucose, and waist circumference among Surinamese participants. PED was associated with dyslipidemia in Moroccan participants. The population-attributable fractions were 5% for South-Asian Surinamese and Moroccan participants, and 7% for African Surinamese participants. We found a positive association of PED with the metabolic syndrome in some ethnic groups, with PED contributing around 5% to 7% to the metabolic syndrome among Surinamese and Moroccans. This suggests that PED might contribute to ethnic differences in the metabolic syndrome.

  8. The conversation group: using group psychoanalytic techniques to resolve resistances of recently immigrated Chinese students to learning English in a high school setting. (United States)

    Zaretsky, Sheila


    Does group psychoanalytic theory and technique have an application in an ordinary high school classroom? In this article, the writer describes a research project in which she attempts to answer this question by applying the techniques with a group of recently immigrated Chinese students who wished to improve their spoken English.

  9. Private peer group settings as an environmental determinant of alcohol use in Dutch adolescents: results from a representative survey in the region of Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, J.; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Postel, Marloes Gerda; van Hoof, Joris Jasper


    This study supports the hypothesis that the drinking setting can be an environmental risk factor for hazardous alcohol use. In a survey of Dutch adolescents (n=1516), alcohol consumption and participation in private peer group settings (PPSs), environments where adolescents meet and drink alcohol

  10. Transcript-based redefinition of grouped oligonucleotide probe sets using AceView: High-resolution annotation for microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cam Margaret C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracting biological information from high-density Affymetrix arrays is a multi-step process that begins with the accurate annotation of microarray probes. Shortfalls in the original Affymetrix probe annotation have been described; however, few studies have provided rigorous solutions for routine data analysis. Results Using AceView, a comprehensive human transcript database, we have reannotated the probes by matching them to RNA transcripts instead of genes. Based on this transcript-level annotation, a new probe set definition was created in which every probe in a probe set maps to a common set of AceView gene transcripts. In addition, using artificial data sets we identified that a minimal probe set size of 4 is necessary for reliable statistical summarization. We further demonstrate that applying the new probe set definition can detect specific transcript variants contributing to differential expression and it also improves cross-platform concordance. Conclusion We conclude that our transcript-level reannotation and redefinition of probe sets complement the original Affymetrix design. Redefinitions introduce probe sets whose sizes may not support reliable statistical summarization; therefore, we advocate using our transcript-level mapping redefinition in a secondary analysis step rather than as a replacement. Knowing which specific transcripts are differentially expressed is important to properly design probe/primer pairs for validation purposes. For convenience, we have created custom chip-description-files (CDFs and annotation files for our new probe set definitions that are compatible with Bioconductor, Affymetrix Expression Console or third party software.

  11. Is Group Sex a Higher-Risk Setting for HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Compared With Dyadic Sex Among Men Who Have Sex With Men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boom, Wijnand; Davidovich, Udi; Heuker, José; Lambers, Femke; Prins, Maria; Sandfort, Theo; Stolte, Ineke G.


    Group sex has been suggested as a potential high-risk setting for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated whether group sex is associated with lower condom use during anal sex and higher proportions of STIs compared with dyadic sex

  12. Stereotype Threat in Classroom Settings: The Interactive Effect of Domain Identification, Task Difficulty and Stereotype Threat on Female Students' Maths Performance (United States)

    Keller, Johannes


    Background: Stereotype threat research revealed that negative stereotypes can disrupt the performance of persons targeted by such stereotypes. This paper contributes to stereotype threat research by providing evidence that domain identification and the difficulty level of test items moderate stereotype threat effects on female students' maths…

  13. Stereotype threat in classroom settings: the interactive effect of domain identification, task difficulty and stereotype threat on female students' maths performance. (United States)

    Keller, Johannes


    Stereotype threat research revealed that negative stereotypes can disrupt the performance of persons targeted by such stereotypes. This paper contributes to stereotype threat research by providing evidence that domain identification and the difficulty level of test items moderate stereotype threat effects on female students' maths performance. The study was designed to test theoretical ideas derived from stereotype threat theory and assumptions outlined in the Yerkes-Dodson law proposing a nonlinear relationship between arousal, task difficulty and performance. Participants were 108 high school students attending secondary schools. Participants worked on a test comprising maths problems of different difficulty levels. Half of the participants learned that the test had been shown to produce gender differences (stereotype threat). The other half learned that the test had been shown not to produce gender differences (no threat). The degree to which participants identify with the domain of maths was included as a quasi-experimental factor. Maths-identified female students showed performance decrements under conditions of stereotype threat. Moreover, the stereotype threat manipulation had different effects on low and high domain identifiers' performance depending on test item difficulty. On difficult items, low identifiers showed higher performance under threat (vs. no threat) whereas the reverse was true in high identifiers. This interaction effect did not emerge on easy items. Domain identification and test item difficulty are two important factors that need to be considered in the attempt to understand the impact of stereotype threat on performance.

  14. Three nested randomized controlled trials of peer-only or multiple stakeholder group feedback within Delphi surveys during core outcome and information set development. (United States)

    Brookes, Sara T; Macefield, Rhiannon C; Williamson, Paula R; McNair, Angus G; Potter, Shelley; Blencowe, Natalie S; Strong, Sean; Blazeby, Jane M


    Methods for developing a core outcome or information set require involvement of key stakeholders to prioritise many items and achieve agreement as to the core set. The Delphi technique requires participants to rate the importance of items in sequential questionnaires (or rounds) with feedback provided in each subsequent round such that participants are able to consider the views of others. This study examines the impact of receiving feedback from different stakeholder groups, on the subsequent rating of items and the level of agreement between stakeholders. Randomized controlled trials were nested within the development of three core sets each including a Delphi process with two rounds of questionnaires, completed by patients and health professionals. Participants rated items from 1 (not essential) to 9 (absolutely essential). For round 2, participants were randomized to receive feedback from their peer stakeholder group only (peer) or both stakeholder groups separately (multiple). Decisions as to which items to retain following each round were determined by pre-specified criteria. Whilst type of feedback did not impact on the percentage of items for which a participant subsequently changed their rating, or the magnitude of change, it did impact on items retained at the end of round 2. Each core set contained discordant items retained by one feedback group but not the other (3-22 % discordant items). Consensus between patients and professionals in items to retain was greater amongst those receiving multiple group feedback in each core set (65-82 % agreement for peer-only feedback versus 74-94 % for multiple feedback). In addition, differences in round 2 scores were smaller between stakeholder groups receiving multiple feedback than between those receiving peer group feedback only. Variability in item scores across stakeholders was reduced following any feedback but this reduction was consistently greater amongst the multiple feedback group. In the development of

  15. High-mobility group nucleosome-binding domain 2 protein inhibits the invasion of Klebsiella pneumoniae into mouse lungs in vivo. (United States)

    Zheng, Shuang; Ren, Laibin; Li, Heng; Shen, Xiaofei; Yang, Xiaolong; Li, Na; Wang, Xinyuan; Guo, Xiaojuan; Wang, Xiaoying; Huang, Ning


    Since bacterial invasion into host cells is a critical step in the infection process and the predominance of multiple-antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae strains, using molecular agents to interfere with K. pneumoniae invasion is an attractive approach for the prevention of infection and suppress the immune inflammatory response. In previous studies by our group, high-mobility group nucleosome-binding domain 2 (HMGN2) protein was shown to exhibit anti-bacterial activity in vitro. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of HMGN2 protein on the invasion of K. pneumoniae 03183 in vivo. The results showed that pre-treatment with 128 µg/ml HMGN2 significantly reduced K. pneumoniae 03183 invasion into mouse lungs and increased the mRNA expression of CXCL1 and LCN2 within 2 h. Immunohistochemical staining showed that F-actin expression was significantly decreased, and fluorescence microscopy and western blot analysis further demonstrated that HMGN2 significantly blocked K. pneumoniae 03183-induced actin polymerization. These changes implied that HMGN2 may provide protection against K. pneumoniae 03183 infection in vivo.

  16. Population and forensic data for three sets of forensic genetic markers in four ethnic groups from Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lena; Farzad, Maryam Sharafi; Børsting, Claus


    A total of 255 individuals (Persians, Lurs, Kurds and Azeris) from Iran were typed for three sets of forensic genetic markers with the NGM SElect™, DIPplex(®) and Argus X-12 kits. Statistically significant deviations (P≤0.002) from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were observed for the insertion...

  17. Implementation of Lifestyle Modification Program Focusing on Physical Activity and Dietary Habits in a Large Group, Community-Based Setting (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Falcon, Ashley; Arheart, Kris; Stasi, Selina; Portacio, Francia; Stepanenko, Bryan; Lan, Mary L.; Castruccio-Prince, Catarina; Nackenson, Joshua


    Background: Lifestyle modification programs improve several health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA) and nutrition. However, few of these programs have been expanded to impact a large number of individuals in one setting at one time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a PA- and nutrition-based lifestyle…

  18. A multi-set charged system search for truss optimization with variables of different natures; element grouping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali Kaveh; Ali Zolghadr


      Optimization problems may include variables of different natures. In structural optimization for example different variables representing cross-sectional, geometrical, topological and grouping properties of the structure may be present...

  19. PDP: protein domain parser. (United States)

    Alexandrov, Nickolai; Shindyalov, Ilya


    We have developed a program for automatic identification of domains in protein three-dimensional structures. Performance of the program was assessed by three different benchmarks: (i) by comparison with the expert-curated SCOP database of structural domains; (ii) by comparison with a collection of manual domain assignments; and (iii) by comparison with a set of 55 proteins, frequently used as a benchmark for automatic domain assignment. In all these benchmarks PDP identified domains correctly in more than 80% of proteins.

  20. Analysis of a cultural consensus model of two good-life sub-domains--health & well-being and migration & socioeconomic milieu--in three population groups in Croatia. (United States)

    Peternel, Lana; Malnar, Ana; Klarić, Irena Martinović


    In this study the construct of a 'good life' was explored among upper secondary school senior pupils and their parents and teachers by applying cultural consensus model analysis. A total of 469 students, 474 parents and 158 teachers from four Croatian cities participated in the study, which was conducted in 2011/2012. The information collected through interviewing and free-listing during the first phase of the study was used to create a set of structured questionnaire questions as a part of the survey in the second phase of data collection. The results are reported on two good-life sub-domains: 'health & well-being' and 'migration & socioeconomic milieu'. The results indicate heterogeneity of the sample groups, incomplete inter-generational transmission of cultural values and examples of two sub-groups that resist cultural norms and do not comply with the dominant 'competence-as-sharing' paradigm. The value of testing the cultural consensus model based on the emic approach and locally significant phenomena is demonstrated for planning and conducting holistic anthropological research.

  1. Protein covalent immobilization via its scarce thiol versus abundant amine groups: Effect on orientation, cell binding domain exposure and conformational lability. (United States)

    Ba, O M; Hindie, M; Marmey, P; Gallet, O; Anselme, K; Ponche, A; Duncan, A C


    Quantity, orientation, conformation and covalent linkage of naturally cell adhesive proteins adsorbed or covalently linked to a surface, are known to influence the preservation of their subsequent long term cell adhesion properties and bioactivity. In the present work, we explore two different strategies for the covalent linking of plasma fibronectin (pFN) - used as a cell adhesive model protein, onto a polystyrene (PS) surface. One is aimed at tethering the protein to the surface in a semi-oriented fashion (via one of the 4 free thiol reactive groups on the protein) with a heterofunctional coupling agent (SSMPB method). The other aims to immobilize the protein in a more random fashion by reaction between the abundant pendant primary amine bearing amino acids of the pFN and activated carboxylic surface functions obtained after glutaric anhydride surface treatment (GA method). The overall goal will be to verify the hypothesis of a correlation between covalent immobilization of a model cell adhesive protein to a PS surface in a semi-oriented configuration (versus randomly oriented) with promotion of enhanced exposure of the protein's cell binding domain. This in turn would lead to enhanced cell adhesion. Ideally the goal is to elaborate substrates exhibiting a long term stable protein monolayer with preserved cell adhesive properties and bioactivity for biomaterial and/or cell adhesion commercial plate applications. However, the initial restrictive objective of this paper is to first quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the reversibly (merely adsorbed) versus covalently irreversibly bound protein to the surface after the immobilization procedure. Although immobilized surface amounts were similar (close to the monolayer range) for all immobilization approaches, covalent grafting showed improved retention and stronger "tethering" of the pFN protein to the surface (roughly 40%) after SDS rinsing compared to that for mere adsorption (0%) suggesting an added value

  2. The Effectiveness of Peer Taught Group Sessions of Physiotherapy Students within the Clinical Setting: A Quasi-Experimental Study (United States)

    Scott, Dee; Jelsma, Jennifer


    The study aimed to investigate whether learning from peers, learning from a clinical educator, or being the peer teacher during clinical group sessions was more effective at enhancing student learning outcomes for different health conditions. A secondary aim was to determine which method students found more satisfactory. Physiotherapy students at…

  3. International Neurocognitive Normative Study: Neurocognitive Comparison Data in Diverse Resource Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271 (United States)

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, SR; Marra, CM; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, TB; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N; La Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L.; Amod, F; Walawander, A


    Summary ACTG A5271 collected neurocognitive normative comparison test data in 2400 at-risk HIV seronegative participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe. The participants were enrolled in strata by site (10 levels), age (2 levels), education (2 levels), and gender (2 levels). These data provide necessary normative data infrastructure for future clinical research and care in these diverse resource limited settings. Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impede research and clinical care. Here we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel, and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At 10 sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n=240), India (n=480), Malawi (n=481), Peru (n=239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n=240) and Zimbabwe (n=240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline, and 770 at six-months. Participants were enrolled in 8 strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 years and ≥ 10 years), and age (<35 years and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the six-month follow up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p<.0001). There was variation between the age, gender and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the

  4. Utility of the MMPI-2-RF (Restructured Form) Validity Scales in Detecting Malingering in a Criminal Forensic Setting: A Known-Groups Design (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Toomey, Joseph A.; Wygant, Dustin B.; Kucharski, L. Thomas; Duncan, Scott


    The current study examined the utility of the recently released Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) validity scales to detect feigned psychopathology in a criminal forensic setting. We used a known-groups design with the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS;…

  5. Domain analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger


    The domain-analytic approach to knowledge organization (KO) (and to the broader field of library and information science, LIS) is outlined. The article reviews the discussions and proposals on the definition of domains, and provides an example of a domain-analytic study in the field of art studie....... Varieties of domain analysis as well as criticism and controversies are presented and discussed....

  6. GlycoDomainViewer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Hiren J; Jørgensen, Anja; Schjoldager, Katrine T


    The GlycoDomainViewer is a bioinformatic tool to aid in the mining of glycoproteomic data sets from different sources and facilitate incorporation of glycosylation into studies of protein structure and function. We present a version 2.0 of GlycoDomainViewer incorporating a number of advanced feat...

  7. Video-games used in a group setting is feasible and effective to improve indicators of physical activity in individuals with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Givon, Noa; Zeilig, Gabi; Weingarden, Harold; Rand, Debbie


    To investigate the feasibility of using video-games in a group setting and to compare the effectiveness of video-games as a group intervention to a traditional group intervention for improving physical activity in individuals with chronic stroke. A single-blind randomized controlled trial with evaluations pre and post a 3-month intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Compliance (session attendance), satisfaction and adverse effects were feasibility measures. Grip strength and gait speed were measures of physical activity. Hip accelerometers quantified steps/day and the Action Research Arm Test assessed the functional ability of the upper extremity. Forty-seven community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke (29-78 years) were randomly allocated to receive video-game (N=24) or traditional therapy (N=23) in a group setting. There was high treatment compliance for both interventions (video-games-78%, traditional therapy-66%), but satisfaction was rated higher for the video-game (93%) than the traditional therapy (71%) (χ(2)=4.98, P=0.026). Adverse effects were not reported in either group. Significant improvements were demonstrated in both groups for gait speed (F=3.9, P=0.02), grip strength of the weaker (F=6.67, P=0.002) and stronger hands (F=7.5, P=0.001). Daily steps and functional ability of the weaker hand did not increase in either group. Using video-games in a small group setting is feasible, safe and satisfying. Video-games improve indicators of physical activity of individuals with chronic stroke. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The effect of Korean-group cognitive behavioural therapy among patients with panic disorder in clinic settings. (United States)

    Choi, Y S; Lee, E J; Cho, Y


    by correcting these cognitive distortions by controlling negative thoughts and panic attacks. Aims This study verified whether group CBT is more effective than treatment as usual (TAU) in South Korean patients with panic disorder. Methods The study participants consisted of 76 panic disorder patients. Patients in the therapy condition attended sessions once a week for a total of 12 sessions in addition to drug treatment. Results In the therapy condition, there were significant decreases in panic-related bodily sensations and ranking and belief scores for catastrophic misinterpretation of external events. Discussion Group CBT, in comparison to TAU, decreases panic and agoraphobia symptom severity in South Korean patients with panic disorder. Our study provides evidence for the effectiveness of a panic disorder management programme that integrates group CBT and traditional pharmacotherapeutic treatment for patients with panic disorder. Implications for Practice The cognitive behavioural approach is needed to reduce panic and agoraphobia symptoms for hospitalized patients with panic disorder more than activity therapies, medications and supportive counselling by doctors and nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings. (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning


    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school.

  10. Development of pharmacophore similarity-based quantitative activity hypothesis and its applicability domain: applied on a diverse data-set of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. (United States)

    Kumar, Sivakumar Prasanth; Jasrai, Yogesh T; Mehta, Vijay P; Pandya, Himanshu A


    Quantitative pharmacophore hypothesis combines the 3D spatial arrangement of pharmacophore features with biological activities of the ligand data-set and predicts the activities of geometrically and/or pharmacophoric similar ligands. Most pharmacophore discovery programs face difficulties in conformational flexibility, molecular alignment, pharmacophore features sampling, and feature selection to score models if the data-set constitutes diverse ligands. Towards this focus, we describe a ligand-based computational procedure to introduce flexibility in aligning the small molecules and generating a pharmacophore hypothesis without geometrical constraints to define pharmacophore space, enriched with chemical features necessary to elucidate common pharmacophore hypotheses (CPHs). Maximal common substructure (MCS)-based alignment method was adopted to guide the alignment of carbon molecules, deciphered the MCS atom connectivity to cluster molecules in bins and subsequently, calculated the pharmacophore similarity matrix with the bin-specific reference molecules. After alignment, the carbon molecules were enriched with original atoms in their respective positions and conventional pharmacophore features were perceived. Distance-based pharmacophoric descriptors were enumerated by computing the interdistance between perceived features and MCS-aligned 'centroid' position. The descriptor set and biological activities were used to develop support vector machine models to predict the activities of the external test set. Finally, fitness score was estimated based on pharmacophore similarity with its bin-specific reference molecules to recognize the best and poor alignments and, also with each reference molecule to predict outliers of the quantitative hypothesis model. We applied this procedure to a diverse data-set of 40 HIV-1 integrase inhibitors and discussed its effectiveness with the reported CPH model.

  11. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D. (NIH); (NIID-Japan)


    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  12. Development of the fast reactor group constant set JFS-3-J3.2R based on the JENDL-3.2

    CERN Document Server

    Chiba, G


    It is reported that the fast reactor group constant set JFS-3-J3.2 based on the newest evaluated nuclear data library JENDL3.2 has a serious error in the process of applying the weighting function. As the error affects greatly nuclear characteristics, and a corrected version of the reactor constant set, JFS-3-J3.2R, was developed, as well as lumped FP cross sections. The use of JFS-3-J3.2R improves the results of analyses especially on sample Doppler reactivity and reaction rate in the blanket region in comparison with those obtained using the JFS-3-J3.2.

  13. Implementing DDR in Settings of Ongoing Conflict: The Organization and Fragmentation of Armed Groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Richards


    Full Text Available Although it is common for armed groups to splinter (or “fragment” during contexts of multi-party civil war, current guidance on Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR does not address the challenges that arise when recalcitrant fighters, unwilling to report to DDR, break ranks and form new armed groups. This Practice Note addresses this issue, drawing lessons from the multi-party context of the DRC and from the experiences of former members of three armed groups: the Rally for Congolese Democracy-Goma (RCD-Goma, the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP, and the DRC national army (FARDC. While the findings indicate that the fragmentation of armed groups may encourage desertion and subsequent participation in DDR, they also show that active armed groups may monitor DDR programs and track those who demobilize. Remobilization may follow, either as active armed groups target ex-combatants for forced re-recruitment or as ex-combatants remobilize in armed groups of their own choice. Given these dynamics, practitioners in settings of partial peace may find it useful to consider non-traditional methods of DDR such as the use of mobile patrols and mobile disarmament units. The temporary relocation of ex-combatants to safe areas free from armed groups, or to protected transitional assistance camps, may also help to minimize remobilization during the reintegration phase.

  14. Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) versus Supportive Expressive Group Therapy (SET) for distressed breast cancer survivors: evaluating mindfulness and social support as mediators. (United States)

    Schellekens, Melanie P J; Tamagawa, Rie; Labelle, Laura E; Speca, Michael; Stephen, Joanne; Drysdale, Elaine; Sample, Sarah; Pickering, Barbara; Dirkse, Dale; Savage, Linette Lawlor; Carlson, Linda E


    Despite growing evidence in support of mindfulness as an underlying mechanism of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), it has been suggested that nonspecific therapeutic factors, such as the experience of social support, may contribute to the positive effects of MBIs. In the present study, we examined whether change in mindfulness and/or social support mediated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) compared to another active intervention (i.e. Supportive Expressive Group Therapy (SET)), on change in mood disturbance, stress symptoms and quality of life. A secondary analysis was conducted of a multi-site randomized clinical trial investigating the impacts of MBCR and SET on distressed breast cancer survivors (MINDSET). We applied the causal steps approach with bootstrapping to test mediation, using pre- and post-intervention questionnaire data of the participants who were randomised to MBCR (n = 69) or SET (n = 70). MBCR participants improved significantly more on mood disturbance, stress symptoms and social support, but not on quality of life or mindfulness, compared to SET participants. Increased social support partially mediated the impact of MBCR versus SET on mood disturbance and stress symptoms. Because no group differences on mindfulness and quality of life were observed, no mediation analyses were performed on these variables. Findings showed that increased social support was related to more improvement in mood and stress after MBCR compared to support groups, whereas changes in mindfulness were not. This suggests a more important role for social support in enhancing outcomes in MBCR than previously thought.

  15. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shanklin


    This Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for defining the remedial design requirements, preparing the design documentation, and defining the remedial actions for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the design developed to support the remediation and disposal activities selected in the Final Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision.

  16. OnSet: A Visualization Technique for Large-scale Binary Set Data. (United States)

    Sadana, Ramik; Major, Timothy; Dove, Alistair; Stasko, John


    Visualizing sets to reveal relationships between constituent elements is a complex representational problem. Recent research presents several automated placement and grouping techniques to highlight connections between set elements. However, these techniques do not scale well for sets with cardinality greater than one hundred elements. We present OnSet, an interactive, scalable visualization technique for representing large-scale binary set data. The visualization technique defines a single, combined domain of elements for all sets, and models each set by the elements that it both contains and does not contain. OnSet employs direct manipulation interaction and visual highlighting to support easy identification of commonalities and differences as well as membership patterns across different sets of elements. We present case studies to illustrate how the technique can be successfully applied across different domains such as bio-chemical metabolomics and task and event scheduling.

  17. Population and forensic data for three sets of forensic genetic markers in four ethnic groups from Iran: Persians, Lurs, Kurds and Azeris. (United States)

    Poulsen, L; Farzad, M Sharafi; Børsting, C; Tomas, C; Pereira, V; Morling, N


    A total of 255 individuals (Persians, Lurs, Kurds and Azeris) from Iran were typed for three sets of forensic genetic markers with the NGM SElect™, DIPplex(®) and Argus X-12 kits. Statistically significant deviations (P≤0.002) from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were observed for the insertion-deletion markers HLD97 and HLD93 after Holm-Šidák correction. Statistically significant (P<0.05) levels of linkage disequilibrium were observed between markers within two of the four studied X-chromosomal linkage groups. AMOVA analyses of the three sets of markers did not show population structure when the individuals were grouped according to their ethnic group. The Iranian population grouped closely to populations living geographically near to Iran based on pairwise FST distances. The matching probabilities ranged from 1 in 3.2×10(7) males by using haplotype frequencies of four X-chromosomal haplogroups to 1 in 3.4×10(21) individuals for the 16 autosomal STRs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Control region sequences for East Asian individuals in the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods forensic mtDNA data set. (United States)

    Allard, Marc W; Wilson, Mark R; Monson, Keith L; Budowle, Bruce


    The Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) population data set is used to infer the relative rarity of mtDNA profiles obtained from evidence samples and of profiles used to identify missing persons. In this study, the East Asian haplogroup patterns in the SWGDAM data sets were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to determine relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and to describe haplogroup distributions for Asians (n = 753; with a breakdown of individuals from China n = 356, Korea n = 182, Japan n = 163, and Thailand n = 52). We focus on the patterns observed in the SWGDAM Chinese data set and refer to interesting differences in the smaller subgroup data sets for the other East Asian populations (Japanese, Korean, and Thai). A total of 218 SNPs were observed in the data set, including 37 observed positions not previously reported. In the largest of the East Asian SWGDAM data sets (Chinese), these SNPs ranged from having 1 to 29 changes in the phylogenetic tree, with site 16519 being the most variable. On average there were 4.5 changes for a character on the tree. The most variable sites (with 14 or more changes each listed from fastest to slowest) observed were 16519 (L = 29), 16311 (L = 27), 152 (L = 24), 146 (L = 21), 16172 (L = 17), 16189 (L = 17), 195 (L = 16), 16362 (L = 15), 16093 (L = 14), 16129 (L = 14) and 150 (L = 14). These rapidly changing sites are consistent with other published analyses. Only 28 SNPs are needed to identify all clusters containing 1% (n = 7) or more individuals in the East Asian data set. All 36 haplogroups previously observed in East Asian populations were also seen in the SWGDAM data sets and include: A, B, B4, B4a, B4b, B5a, B5b, C, D, D4, D4a, D4b, D5, D5a, F, F1, F1a, F1b, F1c, F2a, G2, G2a, M, M7a1, M7b, M7b1, M7b2, M7c, M8a, M9, M10, N9a, R, R9a, Y, and Z. Haplogroups A, B4a, D4, and F1a were the most commonly observed clusters in the Chinese data set (the largest of the data

  19. Development of a group-specific 16S rRNA-targeted probe set for the identification of Marinobacter by fluorescence in situ hybridization (United States)

    McKay, Luke J.; Gutierrez, Tony; Teske, Andreas P.


    Members of the Marinobacter genus play an important role in hydrocarbon degradation in the ocean - a topic of special significance in light of the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010. The Marinobacter group has thus far lacked a genus level phylogenetic probe that would allow in situ identification of representative members. Here, we developed two new 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes (Mrb-0625-a and Mrb-0625-b) to enumerate Marinobacter species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In silico analysis of this probe set demonstrated 80% coverage of the Marinobacter genus. A competitor probe was developed to block hybridization by Mrb-0625-a to six Halomonas species with which it shared a one base pair mismatch. The probe set was optimized using pure cultures, and then used in an enrichment experiment with a deep sea oil plume water sample collected from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Marinobacter cells rapidly increased as a significant fraction of total microbial abundance in all incubations of original contaminated seawater as well as those amended with n-hexadecane, suggesting this group may be among the first microbial responders to oil pollution in the marine environment. The new probe set will provide a reliable tool for quantifying Marinobacter in the marine environment, particularly at contaminated sites where these organisms can play an important role in the biodegradation of oil pollutants.

  20. Feature-level domain adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouw, Wouter M.; Van Der Maaten, Laurens J P; Krijthe, Jesse H.


    Domain adaptation is the supervised learning setting in which the training and test data are sampled from different distributions: training data is sampled from a source domain, whilst test data is sampled from a target domain. This paper proposes and studies an approach, called feature...

  1. Comparative Analysis of Protein Domain Organization


    Ye, Yuzhen; Godzik, Adam


    We have developed a set of graph theory-based tools, which we call Comparative Analysis of Protein Domain Organization (CADO), to survey and compare protein domain organizations of different organisms. In the language of CADO, the organization of protein domains in a given organism is shown as a domain graph in which protein domains are represented as vertices, and domain combinations, defined as instances of two domains found in one protein, are represented as edges. CADO provides a new way ...

  2. Do action learning sets facilitate collaborative, deliberative learning?: A focus group evaluation of Graduate Entry Pre-registration Nursing (GEN) students' experience. (United States)

    Maddison, Charlotte; Strang, Gus


    The aim of this study was to investigate if by participating in action learning sets, Graduate Entry Pre-registration Nursing (GEN) students were able to engage in collaborative and deliberative learning. A single focus group interview involving eleven participants was used to collect data. Data analysis identified five themes; collaborative learning; reflection; learning through case study and problem-solving; communication, and rejection of codified learning. The themes are discussed and further analysed in the context of collaborative and deliberative learning. The evidence from this small scale study suggests that action learning sets do provide an environment where collaborative and deliberative learning can occur. However, students perceived some of them, particularly during year one, to be too 'teacher lead', which stifled learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure/Function Analysis of Recurrent Mutations in SETD2 Protein Reveals a Critical and Conserved Role for a SET Domain Residue in Maintaining Protein Stability and Histone H3 Lys-36 Trimethylation. (United States)

    Hacker, Kathryn E; Fahey, Catherine C; Shinsky, Stephen A; Chiang, Yun-Chen J; DiFiore, Julia V; Jha, Deepak Kumar; Vo, Andy H; Shavit, Jordan A; Davis, Ian J; Strahl, Brian D; Rathmell, W Kimryn


    The yeast Set2 histone methyltransferase is a critical enzyme that plays a number of key roles in gene transcription and DNA repair. Recently, the human homologue, SETD2, was found to be recurrently mutated in a significant percentage of renal cell carcinomas, raising the possibility that the activity of SETD2 is tumor-suppressive. Using budding yeast and human cell line model systems, we examined the functional significance of two evolutionarily conserved residues in SETD2 that are recurrently mutated in human cancers. Whereas one of these mutations (R2510H), located in the Set2 Rpb1 interaction domain, did not result in an observable defect in SETD2 enzymatic function, a second mutation in the catalytic domain of this enzyme (R1625C) resulted in a complete loss of histone H3 Lys-36 trimethylation (H3K36me3). This mutant showed unchanged thermal stability as compared with the wild type protein but diminished binding to the histone H3 tail. Surprisingly, mutation of the conserved residue in Set2 (R195C) similarly resulted in a complete loss of H3K36me3 but did not affect dimethylated histone H3 Lys-36 (H3K36me2) or functions associated with H3K36me2 in yeast. Collectively, these data imply a critical role for Arg-1625 in maintaining the protein interaction with H3 and specific H3K36me3 function of this enzyme, which is conserved from yeast to humans. They also may provide a refined biochemical explanation for how H3K36me3 loss leads to genomic instability and cancer. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Care Groups I: An Innovative Community-Based Strategy for Improving Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health in Resource-Constrained Settings. (United States)

    Perry, Henry; Morrow, Melanie; Borger, Sarah; Weiss, Jennifer; DeCoster, Mary; Davis, Thomas; Ernst, Pieter


    In view of the slow progress being made in reducing maternal and child mortality in many priority countries, new approaches are urgently needed that can be applied in settings with weak health systems and a scarcity of human resources for health. The Care Group approach uses facilitators, who are a lower-level cadre of paid workers, to work with groups of 12 or so volunteers (the Care Group), and each volunteer is responsible for 10-15 households. The volunteers share messages with the mothers of the households to promote important health behaviors and to use key health services. The Care Groups create a multiplying effect, reaching all households in a community at low cost. This article describes the Care Group approach in more detail, its history, and current NGO experience with implementing the approach across more than 28 countries. A companion article also published in this journal summarizes the evidence on the effectiveness of the Care Group approach. An estimated 1.3 million households—almost entirely in rural areas—have been reached using Care Groups, and at least 106,000 volunteers have been trained. The NGOs with experience implementing Care Groups have achieved high population coverage of key health interventions proven to reduce maternal and child deaths. Some of the essential criteria in applying the Care Group approach include: peer-to-peer health promotion (between mothers), selection of volunteers by mothers, limited workload for the volunteers, limited number of volunteers per Care Group, frequent contact between the volunteers and mothers, use of visual teaching tools and participatory behavior change methods, and regular supervision of volunteers. Incorporating Care Groups into ministries of health would help sustain the approach, which would require creating posts for facilitators as well as supervisors. Although not widely known about outside the NGO child survival and food security networks, the Care Group approach deserves broader

  5. Reflections on the practice of facilitating group-based antenatal education: should a midwife wear a uniform in the hospital setting? (United States)

    Wisanskoonwong, Peeranan; Fahy, Kathleen; Hastie, Carolyn


    The first author of this paper, a Thai midwife, conducted a feminist action research project aimed at collaboratively developing a model for group-based antenatal education in Thailand. Should a midwife wear a uniform when facilitating midwife-led group-based antenatal education sessions in the hospital setting? This paper reports on a single example of reflection in and on midwifery practice that aimed to answer the guiding question. The practice and reflection occurred over a number of months at the beginning of the feminist action research project. The midwife should wear normal clothes when facilitating group-based antenatal education as a symbol of equality in power relationships within the group. When power relationships between women and the midwife are equalized, women are more able to take responsibility for their health as they are less likely to defer to the 'expert'. Reflection in and on practice is a powerful tool to allow the midwife to understand and change her own practice as required to meet those goals. Self-change is a critical first step because there can be no change in the way maternity care is provided without each midwife being willing to be self-aware and open to appropriate self-change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Training in basic Internet skills for special target groups in non-formal educational settings – conclusions from three pilot projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Berger


    Full Text Available With the progress of Digital Inclusion, it becomes important to address marginalised groups that face specific barriers in being part of the information society. From 2009 to 2011 within the framework of the nation-wide Initiative Internet erfahren, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics, Stiftung Digitale Chancen has accompanied three pilot projects and researched the hindrances and motivations of specific target groups including young migrants from Russia, women in the low-wage sector and disabled elderly people, regarding their use of information and communication technology and related skills. This article describes the teaching methodologies in the training provided in non-formal education settings, exposes the different evaluation methods and sums up the results. A special focus in the discussion is given to the role of the teacher and the relationship between teacher and students as there turned out to be similarities in all three target groups. Understanding the balance between the training and abilities and preferences of the learners will facilitate the further development of training appropriate to those who are still digitally excluded.

  7. Chemokine degradation by the Group A streptococcal serine proteinase ScpC can be reconstituted in vitro and requires two separate domains. (United States)

    Fritzer, Andrea; Noiges, Birgit; Schweiger, Daniela; Rek, Angelika; Kungl, Andreas J; von Gabain, Alexander; Nagy, Eszter; Meinke, Andreas L


    Streptococcus pyogenes is one of the most common human pathogens and possesses diverse mechanisms to evade the human immune defence. One example of its immune evasion is the degradation of the chemokine IL (interleukin)-8 by ScpC, a serine proteinase that prevents the recruitment of neutrophils to an infection site. By applying the ANTIGENome technology and using human serum antibodies, we identified Spy0416, annotated as ScpC, as a prominent antigen that induces protective immune responses in animals. We demonstrate here for the first time that the recombinant form of Spy0416 is capable of IL-8 degradation in vitro in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Mutations in the conserved amino acid residues of the catalytic triad of Spy0416 completely abolished in vitro activity. However, the isolated predicted proteinase domain does not exhibit IL-8-degrading activity, but is dependent on the presence of the C-terminal region of Spy0416. Binding to IL-8 is mainly mediated by the catalytic domain. However, the C-terminal region modulates substrate binding, indicating that the proteolytic activity is amenable to regulation via the non-catalytic regions. The specificity for human substrates is not restricted to IL-8, since we also detected in vitro protease activity for another CXC chemokine GRO-alpha (growth-related oncogene alpha), but not for NAP-2 (neutrophil-activating protein 2), SDF (stromal-cell-derived factor)-1alpha, PF-4 (platelet factor 4), I-TAC (interferon-gamma-inducible T-cell alpha-chemoattractant), IP-10 (interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10) and MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1). The degradation of two human CXC chemokines in vitro, the high sequence conservation, the immunogenicity of the protein in humans and the shown protection in animal studies suggest that Spy0416 is a promising vaccine candidate for the prevention of infections by S. pyogenes.

  8. Exploring the impact of common assessment instrumentation on communication and collaboration in inpatient and community-based mental health settings: a focus group study. (United States)

    Martin, Lynn; Hirdes, John P


    Recognition that integrated services can lead to more efficient and effective care has made the principle of integration a priority for health systems worldwide for the last decade. However, actually bringing fully integrated services to life has eluded most health care organizations. Mental health has followed the rule, rather than the exception, when it comes integrating services. The lack of effective mechanisms to evaluate the needs of persons across mental health care services has been an important barrier to communication between professionals involved in care. This study sought to understand communication among inpatient and community-based mental health staff during transfers of care, before and after implementation of compatible assessment instrumentation. Two focus groups were held with staff from inpatient (n = 10) and community (n = 10) settings in an urban, specialized psychiatric hospital in Ontario (Canada) - prior to and one year after implementation of compatible instrumentation in the community program. Transcripts were coded and aggregated into themes. Very different views of current communication patterns during transfers of care emerged. Inpatient mental health staff described a predictable, well-known process, whereas community-based staff emphasized unpredictability. Staff also discussed issues related to trust and the circle of care. All agreed that compatible assessments in inpatient and community mental health settings would facilitate communication through use of a common assessment language. However, no change in communication patterns was reported one year post implementation of compatible instrumentation. Though all participants agreed on the potential for compatible instrumentation to improve communication during transfers of care, this cannot happen overnight. A number of issues related to trust, evidence-based practice, and organizational factors act as barriers to communication. In particular, staff noted the need for the results

  9. Examination of the MMPI-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) validity scales in civil forensic settings: findings from simulation and known group samples. (United States)

    Wygant, Dustin B; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Arbisi, Paul A; Berry, David T R; Freeman, David B; Heilbronner, Robert L


    The current study examined the effectiveness of the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath and Tellegen, 2008) over-reporting indicators in civil forensic settings. The MMPI-2-RF includes three revised MMPI-2 over-reporting validity scales and a new scale to detect over-reported somatic complaints. Participants dissimulated medical and neuropsychological complaints in two simulation samples, and a known-groups sample used symptom validity tests as a response bias criterion. Results indicated large effect sizes for the MMPI-2-RF validity scales, including a Cohen's d of .90 for Fs in a head injury simulation sample, 2.31 for FBS-r, 2.01 for F-r, and 1.97 for Fs in a medical simulation sample, and 1.45 for FBS-r and 1.30 for F-r in identifying poor effort on SVTs. Classification results indicated good sensitivity and specificity for the scales across the samples. This study indicates that the MMPI-2-RF over-reporting validity scales are effective at detecting symptom over-reporting in civil forensic settings.

  10. Determination of L-AP4-bound human mGlu8 receptor amino terminal domain structure and the molecular basis for L-AP4's group III mGlu receptor functional potency and selectivity. (United States)

    Schkeryantz, Jeffery M; Chen, Qi; Ho, Joseph D; Atwell, Shane; Zhang, Aiping; Vargas, Michelle C; Wang, Jing; Monn, James A; Hao, Junliang


    L-2-Amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) is a known potent and selective agonist for the Group III mGlu receptors. However, it does not show any selectivity among the individual group III mGlu subtypes. In order to understand the molecular basis for this group selectivity, we solved the first human mGlu8 amino terminal domain (ATD) crystal structures in complex with L-glu and L-AP4. In comparison with other published L-glu-bound mGlu ATD structures, we have observed L-glu binds in a significantly different manner in mGlu1. Furthermore, these new structures provided evidence that both the electronic and steric nature of the distal phosphate of L-AP4 contribute to its exquisite Group III functional agonist potency and selectivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved Neuropsychological and Neurological Functioning Across Three Antiretroviral Regimens in Diverse Resource-Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5199, the International Neurological Study (United States)

    Robertson, K.; Jiang, H.; Kumwenda, J.; Supparatpinyo, K.; Evans, S.; Campbell, T. B.; Price, R.; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N.; La Rosa, A.; Santos, B.; Silva, M. T.; Montano, S.; Kanyama, C.; Faesen, S.; Murphy, R.; Hall, C.; Marra, C. M.; Marcus, C.; Berzins, B.; Allen, R.; Housseinipour, M.; Amod, F.; Sanne, I.; Hakim, J.; Walawander, A.; Nair, A.


    Background. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5199 compared the neurological and neuropsychological (NP) effects of 3 antiretroviral regimens in participants infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in resource-limited settings. Methods. Participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and Zimbabwe were randomized to 3 antiretroviral treatment arms: A (lamivudine-zidovudine plus efavirenz, n = 289), B (atazanavir, emtricitabine, and didanosine-EC, n = 293), and C (emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate plus efavirenz, n = 278) as part of the ACTG PEARLS study (A5175). Standardized neurological and neuropsychological (NP) screening examinations (grooved pegboard, timed gait, semantic verbal fluency, and finger tapping) were administered every 24 weeks from February 2006 to May 2010. Associations with neurological and neuropsychological function were estimated from linear and logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations. Results. The median weeks on study was 168 (Q1 = 96, Q3 = 192) for the 860 participants. NP test scores improved (P  .10). Significant country effects were noted on all NP tests and neurological outcomes (P < .01). Conclusions. The study detected no significant differences in neuropsychological and neurological outcomes between randomized ART regimens. Significant improvement occurred in neurocognitive and neurological functioning over time after initiation of ARTs. The etiology of these improvements is likely multifactorial, reflecting reduced central nervous system HIV infection, better general health, and practice effects. This study suggests that treatment with either of the World Health Organization –recommended first-line antiretroviral regimens in resource-limited settings will improve neuropsychological functioning and reduce neurological dysfunction. Clinical trials registration.  NCT00096824. PMID:22661489

  12. Suppression of the Arboviruses Dengue and Chikungunya Using a Dual-Acting Group-I Intron Coupled with Conditional Expression of the Bax C-Terminal Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Carter

    Full Text Available In portions of South Asia, vectors and patients co-infected with dengue (DENV and chikungunya (CHIKV are on the rise, with the potential for this occurrence in other regions of the world, for example the United States. Therefore, we engineered an antiviral approach that suppresses the replication of both arboviruses in mosquito cells using a single antiviral group I intron. We devised unique configurations of internal, external, and guide sequences that permit homologous recognition and splicing with conserved target sequences in the genomes of both viruses using a single trans-splicing Group I intron, and examined their effectiveness to suppress infections of DENV and CHIKV in mosquito cells when coupled with a proapoptotic 3' exon, ΔN Bax. RT-PCR demonstrated the utility of these introns in trans-splicing the ΔN Bax sequence downstream of either the DENV or CHIKV target site in transformed Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells, independent of the order in which the virus specific targeting sequences were inserted into the construct. This trans-splicing reaction forms DENV or CHIKV ΔN Bax RNA fusions that led to apoptotic cell death as evidenced by annexin V staining, caspase, and DNA fragmentation assays. TCID50-IFA analyses demonstrate effective suppression of DENV and CHIKV infections by our anti-arbovirus group I intron approach. This represents the first report of a dual-acting Group I intron, and demonstrates that we can target DENV and CHIKV RNAs in a sequence specific manner with a single, uniquely configured CHIKV/DENV dual targeting group I intron, leading to replication suppression of both arboviruses, and thus providing a promising single antiviral for the transgenic suppression of multiple arboviruses.

  13. Geochemistry of sandstones and shales from the Ecca Group, Karoo Supergroup, in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: Implications for provenance, weathering and tectonic setting (United States)

    Baiyegunhi, Christopher; Liu, Kuiwu; Gwavava, Oswald


    Geochemical compositions of twenty-four sandstone and shale samples from the Ecca Group were analysed to decipher their provenance, paleoweathering conditions and tectonic setting. The shales have high Fe2O3, K2O, TiO2, Ce, Cu, Ga, La, Nb, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sr, Th and Y content more than the sandstones, whereas, sandstones are higher in SiO2, Hf and Zr than the shales. The positive correlations of Al2O3 with other elements as well as the abundance of Ba, Ce, Th, Rb, Zn and Zr suggest that these elements are primarily controlled by the dominant clay minerals. Tectonic discrimination diagrams revealed that the sandstones and shales are mostly of quartzose sedimentary provenance, suggesting that they were derived from a cratonic interior or recycled orogen. The binary plots of TiO2 versus Ni, TiO2 against Zr and La/Th versus Hf as well as the ternary diagrams of V-Ni-Th*10 indicate that the shales and sandstones were derived from felsic igneous rocks. A-CN-K (Al2O3-CaO-K2O) ternary diagram and indices of weathering (CIA, CIW and PIS) suggest that the granitic source rocks underwent moderate to high degree of chemical weathering. The CIA values range between 24.41% and 83.76%, indicating low to high weathering conditions. The CIW values for the studied sandstones and shales range from 25.90 to 96.25%, suggesting moderate to high intensive chemical weathering. ICV values for the sandstones and shales vary from 0.71 to 3.6 (averaging 1.20) and 0.41 to 1.05 (averaging 0.82), respectively. The k2O/Na2O ratios for the studied samples vary from 0.71 to 8.29, which reveal moderate to high maturity. The plot of CIA against ICV shows that most of the shales are geochemically mature and were derived from both weak and intensively weathered source rocks. The tectonic setting discrimination diagrams support passive-active continental margin setting of the provenance.

  14. Can a core outcome set improve the quality of systematic reviews? – a survey of the Co-ordinating Editors of Cochrane review groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkham Jamie J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Missing outcome data or the inconsistent reporting of outcome data in clinical research can affect the quality of evidence within a systematic review. A potential solution is an agreed standardized set of outcomes known as a core outcome set (COS to be measured in all studies for a specific condition. We investigated the amount of missing patient data for primary outcomes in Cochrane systematic reviews, and surveyed the Co-ordinating Editors of Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs on issues related to the standardization of outcomes in their CRG’s reviews. These groups are responsible for the more than 7,000 protocols and full versions of Cochrane Reviews that are currently available, and the several hundred new reviews published each year, presenting the world’s largest collection of standardized systematic reviews in health care. Methods Using an unselected cohort of Cochrane Reviews, we calculated and presented the percentage of missing patient data for the primary outcome measure chosen for each review published by each CRG. We also surveyed the CRG Co-ordinating Editors to see what their policies are with regards to outcome selection and outcomes to include in the Summary of Finding (SoF tables in their Cochrane Reviews. They were also asked to list the main advantages and challenges of standardizing outcomes across all reviews within their CRG. Results In one fifth of the 283 reviews in the sample, more than 50% of the patient data for the primary outcome was missing. Responses to the survey were received from 90% of Co-ordinating Editors. Thirty-six percent of CRGs have a centralized policy regarding which outcomes to include in the SoF table and 73% of Co-ordinating Editors thought that a COS for effectiveness trials should be used routinely for a SoF table. Conclusions The reliability of systematic reviews, in particular meta-analyses they contain, can be improved if more attention is paid to missing outcome data. The

  15. Improving PCR detection of prey in molecular diet studies: importance of group-specific primer set selection and extraction protocol performances. (United States)

    Zarzoso-Lacoste, Diane; Corse, Emmanuel; Vidal, Eric


    While the morphological identification of prey remains in predators' faeces is the most commonly used method to study trophic interactions, many studies indicate that this method does not detect all consumed prey. Polymerase chain reaction-based methods are increasingly used to detect prey DNA in the predator food bolus and have proven efficient, delivering highly accurate results. When studying complex diet samples, the extraction of total DNA is a critical step, as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors may be co-extracted. Another critical step involves a careful selection of suitable group-specific primer sets that should only amplify DNA from the targeted prey taxon. In this study, the food boluses of five Rattus rattus and seven Rattus exulans were analysed using both morphological and molecular methods. We tested a panel of 31 PCR primer pairs targeting bird, invertebrate and plant sequences; four of them were selected to be used as group-specific primer pairs in PCR protocols. The performances of four DNA extraction protocols (QIAamp(®) DNA stool mini kit, DNeasy(®) mericon food kit and two of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-based methods) were compared using four variables: DNA concentration, A(260) /A(280) absorbance ratio, food compartment analysed (stomach or faecal contents) and total number of prey-specific PCR amplification per sample. Our results clearly indicate that the A(260) /A(280) absorbance ratio, which varies between extraction protocols, is positively correlated to the number of PCR amplifications of each prey taxon. We recommend using the DNeasy(®) mericon food kit (QIAGEN), which yielded results very similar to those achieved with the morphological approach. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Mapping the Moral Domain (United States)

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.


    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  17. Domain crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraefel, M. C.; Rouncefield, Mark; Kellogg, Wendy


    In CSCW, how much do we need to know about another domain/culture before we observe, intersect and intervene with designs. What optimally would that other culture need to know about us? Is this a “how long is a piece of string” question, or an inquiry where we can consider a variety of contexts...

  18. Probing Adenine Rings and Backbone Linkages Using Base Specific Isotope-Edited Raman Spectroscopy: Application to Group II Intron Ribozyme Domain V†


    Chen, Yuanyuan; Eldho, Nadukkudy V.; Dayie, T. Kwaku; Carey, Paul R.


    Raman difference spectroscopy is used to probe the properties of a 36-nt RNA molecule, “D5”, which lies at the heart of the catalytic apparatus in group II introns. For D5 that has all its adenine residues labeled with 13C and 15N, and utilizing Raman difference spectroscopy, we identify the conformational sensitive -C-O-P-O-C- stretching modes of the unlabeled bonds adjacent to adenine bases, as well as the adenine ring modes themselves. The phosphodiester modes can be assigned to individual...

  19. A group randomized trial of a complexity-based organizational intervention to improve risk factors for diabetes complications in primary care settings: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Polly H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients with type 2 diabetes have suboptimal control of their glucose, blood pressure (BP, and lipids – three risk factors for diabetes complications. Although the chronic care model (CCM provides a roadmap for improving these outcomes, developing theoretically sound implementation strategies that will work across diverse primary care settings has been challenging. One explanation for this difficulty may be that most strategies do not account for the complex adaptive system (CAS characteristics of the primary care setting. A CAS is comprised of individuals who can learn, interconnect, self-organize, and interact with their environment in a way that demonstrates non-linear dynamic behavior. One implementation strategy that may be used to leverage these properties is practice facilitation (PF. PF creates time for learning and reflection by members of the team in each clinic, improves their communication, and promotes an individualized approach to implement a strategy to improve patient outcomes. Specific objectives The specific objectives of this protocol are to: evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of PF to improve risk factor control in patients with type 2 diabetes across a variety of primary care settings; assess the implementation of the CCM in response to the intervention; examine the relationship between communication within the practice team and the implementation of the CCM; and determine the cost of the intervention both from the perspective of the organization conducting the PF intervention and from the perspective of the primary care practice. Intervention The study will be a group randomized trial conducted in 40 primary care clinics. Data will be collected on all clinics, with 60 patients in each clinic, using a multi-method assessment process at baseline, 12, and 24 months. The intervention, PF, will consist of a series of practice improvement team meetings led by trained facilitators over 12

  20. Trusted Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Torbensen, Rune


    In the digital age of home automation and with the proliferation of mobile Internet access, the intelligent home and its devices should be accessible at any time from anywhere. There are many challenges such as security, privacy, ease of configuration, incompatible legacy devices, a wealth...... of wireless standards, limited resources of embedded systems, etc. Taking these challenges into account, we present a Trusted Domain home automation platform, which dynamically and securely connects heterogeneous networks of Short-Range Wireless devices via simple non-expert user. interactions, and allows...... remote access via IP-based devices such as smartphones. The Trusted Domain platform fits existing legacy technologies by managing their interoperability and access controls, and it seeks to avoid the security issues of relying on third-party servers outside the home. It is a distributed system...

  1. Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Moe


    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.


    Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die

  2. Being an outpatient with rheumatoid arthritis - a focus group study on patients' self-efficacy and experiences from participation in a short course and one of three different outpatient settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Jette; Wagner, Lis; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim


    A Danish study compared three different outpatient settings for persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). All participants completed a short course before random allocation to one of three groups. A third of the patients continued with planned medical consultations. A third was allocated to a shared...... care setting with no planned consultations. The final third was allocated for planned nursing consultations every 3 months. Little knowledge exists of patients' experiences at different outpatient settings....

  3. Bifurcations of Baker domains (United States)

    Lauber, Arnd


    We consider the family of transcendental entire functions given by \\{f_c:{\\mathbb C} \\rightarrow {\\mathbb C}:z-c+e^z, c \\in {\\mathbb C} \\} . If Re c > 0, then fc features a Baker domain as the only component of the Fatou set, while the functions fc show a different dynamical behaviour if c \\in \\rmi{\\mathbb R} . We describe the dynamical planes of these functions and show that the Julia sets converge in the limit process f_{c_1+\\rmi c_2} \\rightarrow f_{\\rmi c_2} with respect to the Hausdorff metric, where c_1 \\in {\\mathbb R}^+ and c_2 \\in {\\mathbb R} . We use this to show that Baker domains of any type (concerning a classification of König) are not necessarily stable under perturbation.

  4. The Staphylococcus aureus group II biotin protein ligase BirA is an effective regulator of biotin operon transcription and requires the DNA binding domain for full enzymatic activity. (United States)

    Henke, Sarah K; Cronan, John E


    Group II biotin protein ligases (BPLs) are characterized by the presence of an N-terminal DNA binding domain that functions in transcriptional regulation of the genes of biotin biosynthesis and transport. The Staphylococcus aureus Group II BPL which is called BirA has been reported to bind an imperfect inverted repeat located upstream of the biotin synthesis operon. DNA binding by other Group II BPLs requires dimerization of the protein which is triggered by synthesis of biotinoyl-AMP (biotinoyl-adenylate), the intermediate in the ligation of biotin to its cognate target proteins. However, the S. aureus BirA was reported to dimerize and bind DNA in the absence of biotin or biotinoyl-AMP (Soares da Costa et al. (2014) Mol Microbiol 91: 110-120). These in vitro results argued that the protein would be unable to respond to the levels of biotin or acceptor proteins and thus would lack the regulatory properties of the other characterized BirA proteins. We tested the regulatory function of the protein using an in vivo model system and examined its DNA binding properties in vitro using electrophoretic mobility shift and fluorescence anisotropy analyses. We report that the S. aureus BirA is an effective regulator of biotin operon transcription and that the prior data can be attributed to artifacts of mobility shift analyses. We also report that deletion of the DNA binding domain of the S. aureus BirA results in loss of virtually all of its ligation activity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Performance analysis of low-complexity adaptive frequency-domain equalization and MIMO signal processing for compensation of differential mode group delay in mode-division multiplexing communication systems using few-mode fibers (United States)

    Weng, Yi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi


    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission systems utilizing few-mode fibers (FMF) have been intensively explored to sustain continuous traffic growth. The key challenges of MDM systems are inter-modal crosstalk due to random mode coupling (RMC), and largely-accumulated differential mode group delay (DMGD), whilst hinders mode-demultiplexer implementation. The adaptive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) frequency-domain equalization (FDE) can dynamically compensate DMGD using digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. The frequency-domain least-mean squares (FD-LMS) algorithm has been universally adopted for high-speed MDM communications, mainly for its relatively low computational complexity. However, longer training sequence is appended for FD-LMS to achieve faster convergence, which incurs prohibitively higher system overhead and reduces overall throughput. In this paper, we propose a fast-convergent single-stage adaptive frequency-domain recursive least-squares (FD-RLS) algorithm with reduced complexity for DMGD compensation at MDM coherent receivers. The performance and complexity comparison of FD-RLS, with signal-PSD-dependent FD-LMS method and conventional FD-LMS approach, are performed in a 3000 km six-mode transmission system with 65 ps/km DMGD. We explore the convergence speed of three adaptive algorithms, including the normalized mean-square-error (NMSE) per fast Fourier transform (FFT) block at 14-30 dB OSNR. The fast convergence of FD-RLS is exploited at the expense of slightly-increased necessary tap numbers for MIMO equalizers, and it can partially save the overhead of training sequence. Furthermore, we demonstrate adaptive FD-RLS can also be used for chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation without increasing the filter tap length, thus prominently reducing the DSP implementation complexity for MDM systems.

  6. Scientific opinion on the appropriateness to set a group health based guidance value for T2 and HT2 toxin and its modified forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    of the three ester groups of T2. Less prominent hydroxylation reactions occur predominantly at the side chain. Phase II metabolism involves conjugation with glucose, modified glucose, sulfate, feruloyl and acetyl groups. The few data on occurrence of modified forms indicate that grain products are their main...... source. The CONTAM Panel found it appropriate to establish a group TDI and a group ARfD for T2 and HT2 and its modified forms. Potency factors relative to T2 for the modified forms were used to account for differences in acute and chronic toxic potencies. It was assumed that conjugates (phase II....... The uncertainties associated with the present assessment are considered as high. Using the established group, ARfD and TDI would overestimate any risk of modified T2 and HT2....

  7. [An analysis of the educational effects of group counseling with visual aids: efforts to prevent diabetes in a business office setting]. (United States)

    Satou, Yuka; Kanda, Junko; Okumura, Mayumi; Nishida, Kazuko


    We made this report with a view to clarifying the effects of group counseling with visual aids for railway workers enjoying improved health conducted as a part of prevention activities for lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes. We employed the use of visual aids including slides, samples of blood and the measurement of vascular age on diabetes, and carried out group counseling to improve the interest, knowledge and realization of diabetes and lifestyle. This group counseling was carried out both with and without visual aids. A comparative study of the immediate effects mediated by the use or absence of visual aids was conducted. The workers who accepted our study and cooperated with us totaled 1054 (the average age was 43 +/- 11.2). We divided them at random into the object group and comparative control group and two months later we were able to analyze 190 people among them who could be traced and followed up. As a result of using visual aids, the workers showed much more interest and realization of diabetes and their lifestyles (p visual aids in retention of this knowledge. On the other hand, we have not yet seen improvement in the physical data through group counseling. It is possible that the medical examination data taken beforehand for the object group and the comparative control group were both within the normal range, or the follow-up period was short at only two months after the group counseling was conducted. We conclude that the use of visual aids could lead to a change in consciousness among workers having some confidence in their health as the result of group counseling.

  8. Target setting in intensive insulin management is associated with metabolic control: the Hvidoere Childhood Diabetes Study Group Centre Differences Study 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swift, P.G.F.; Skinner, T.C.; de Beaufort, C.E.


    Objective: To evaluate glycaemic targets set by diabetes teams, their perception by adolescents and parents, and their influence on metabolic control. Methods: Clinical data and questionnaires were completed by adolescents, parents/carers and diabetes teams in 21 international centres. HbA1c was ...

  9. Gay-Straight Alliances as Settings to Discuss Health Topics: Individual and Group Factors Associated with Substance Use, Mental Health, and Sexual Health Discussions (United States)

    Poteat, V. P.; Heck, N. C.; Yoshikawa, H.; Calzo, J. P.


    Sexual minority (e.g. lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning; LGBQ) and gender minority (e.g. transgender) youth experience myriad health risks. Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based settings where they may have opportunities to discuss substance use, mental health, and sexual health issues in ways that are safe and tailored to their…

  10. .Gov Domains API (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset offers the list of all .gov domains, including state, local, and tribal .gov domains. It does not include .mil domains, or other federal domains outside...

  11. Fatou-Bieberbach domains in (United States)

    Forstnerič, Franc; Wold, Erlend F.


    We construct Fatou-Bieberbach domains in for n>1 which contain a given compact set K and at the same time avoid a totally real affine subspace L of dimension < n, provided that K∪ L is polynomially convex. By using this result, we show that the domain for 1≤ k< n enjoys the basic Oka property with approximation for maps from any Stein manifold of dimension < n.

  12. DAML: domain adaptation metric learning. (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao


    The state-of-the-art metric-learning algorithms cannot perform well for domain adaptation settings, such as cross-domain face recognition, image annotation, etc., because labeled data in the source domain and unlabeled ones in the target domain are drawn from different, but related distributions. In this paper, we propose the domain adaptation metric learning (DAML), by introducing a data-dependent regularization to the conventional metric learning in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). This data-dependent regularization resolves the distribution difference by minimizing the empirical maximum mean discrepancy between source and target domain data in RKHS. Theoretically, by using the empirical Rademacher complexity, we prove risk bounds for the nearest neighbor classifier that uses the metric learned by DAML. Practically, learning the metric in RKHS does not scale up well. Fortunately, we can prove that learning DAML in RKHS is equivalent to learning DAML in the space spanned by principal components of the kernel principle component analysis (KPCA). Thus, we can apply KPCA to select most important principal components to significantly reduce the time cost of DAML. We perform extensive experiments over four well-known face recognition datasets and a large-scale Web image annotation dataset for the cross-domain face recognition and image annotation tasks under various settings, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of DAML. © 2011 IEEE

  13. Defining an International Standard Set of Outcome Measures for Patients With Hip or Knee Osteoarthritis: Consensus of the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis Working Group (United States)

    Wissig, Stephanie; van Maasakkers, Lisa; Stowell, Caleb; Ackerman, Ilana; Ayers, David; Barber, Thomas; Benzakour, Thami; Bozic, Kevin; Budhiparama, Nicolaas; Caillouette, James; Conaghan, Philip G.; Dahlberg, Leif; Dunn, Jennifer; Grady‐Benson, John; Ibrahim, Said A.; Lewis, Sally; Malchau, Henrik; Manzary, Mojieb; March, Lyn; Nassif, Nader; Nelissen, Rob; Smith, Noel; Franklin, Patricia D.


    Objective To define a minimum Standard Set of outcome measures and case‐mix factors for monitoring, comparing, and improving health care for patients with clinically diagnosed hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA), with a focus on defining the outcomes that matter most to patients. Methods An international working group of patients, arthroplasty register experts, orthopedic surgeons, primary care physicians, rheumatologists, and physiotherapists representing 10 countries was assembled to review existing literature and practices for assessing outcomes of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic OA therapies, including surgery. A series of 8 teleconferences, incorporating a modified Delphi process, were held to reach consensus. Results The working group reached consensus on a concise set of outcome measures to evaluate patients’ joint pain, physical functioning, health‐related quality of life, work status, mortality, reoperations, readmissions, and overall satisfaction with treatment result. To support analysis of these outcome measures, pertinent baseline characteristics and risk factor metrics were defined. Annual outcome measurement is recommended for all patients. Conclusion We have defined a Standard Set of outcome measures for monitoring the care of people with clinically diagnosed hip or knee OA that is appropriate for use across all treatment and care settings. We believe this Standard Set provides meaningful, comparable, and easy to interpret measures ready to implement in clinics and/or registries globally. We view this set as an initial step that, when combined with cost data, will facilitate value‐based health care improvements in the treatment of hip and knee OA. PMID:26881821

  14. Time Domain Radar Laboratory Operating System Development and Transient EM Analysis. (United States)


    sonopole Pulse Response All receiving antennas are coupled to the Signal Processing Group through a coaxial end-coupling fitted through the imaging plane...The Operating System has been correspondingly 97 written in this language. However, BASIC as used by the GS has been extended to fit the language to...DPO service request. Flag P7 (indicates whether the acquired data is destined for use in Time Domain or Prony Methods) is set to 0 (Time Domain) in

  15. A diagenetic control on the Early Triassic Smithian-Spathian carbon isotopic excursions recorded in the marine settings of the Thaynes Group (Utah, USA). (United States)

    Thomazo, C; Vennin, E; Brayard, A; Bour, I; Mathieu, O; Elmeknassi, S; Olivier, N; Escarguel, G; Bylund, K G; Jenks, J; Stephen, D A; Fara, E


    In the aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction, Early Triassic sediments record some of the largest Phanerozoic carbon isotopic excursions. Among them, a global Smithian-negative carbonate carbon isotope excursion has been identified, followed by an abrupt increase across the Smithian-Spathian boundary (SSB; ~250.8 Myr ago). This chemostratigraphic evolution is associated with palaeontological evidence that indicate a major collapse of terrestrial and marine ecosystems during the Late Smithian. It is commonly assumed that Smithian and Spathian isotopic variations are intimately linked to major perturbations in the exogenic carbon reservoir. We present paired carbon isotopes measurements from the Thaynes Group (Utah, USA) to evaluate the extent to which the Early Triassic isotopic perturbations reflect changes in the exogenic carbon cycle. The δ(13) Ccarb variations obtained here reproduce the known Smithian δ(13) Ccarb -negative excursion. However, the δ(13) C signal of the bulk organic matter is invariant across the SSB and variations in the δ(34) S signal of sedimentary sulphides are interpreted here to reflect the intensity of sediment remobilization. We argue that Middle to Late Smithian δ(13) Ccarb signal in the shallow marine environments of the Thaynes Group does not reflect secular evolution of the exogenic carbon cycle but rather physicochemical conditions at the sediment-water interface leading to authigenic carbonate formation during early diagenetic processes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Vitamin D Analogues with a p-Hydroxyphenyl Group at the C25 Position: Crystal Structure of Vitamin D Receptor Ligand-Binding Domain Complexed with the Ligand Explains the Mechanism Underlying Full Antagonistic Action. (United States)

    Kato, Akira; Yamao, Makiko; Hashihara, Yuta; Ishida, Hiroaki; Itoh, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Keiko


    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) antagonists can be classified into two categories: the first category of VDR antagonists, which do not stabilize the helix 11-12, and the second category of antagonists, which destabilize the helix 6-7 region. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the first category antagonists by using the crystal structure, we designed and synthesized several VDR ligands with a p-hydroxyphenyl group at the C25-position. Of these, 22S-butyl-25-carbonyl analogue 5b and 25-di-p-hydoroxyphenyl analogues 6a,b showed strong antagonistic activity. We succeeded in cocrystallizing the ligand-binding domain of VDR complexed with 5b and found that the structure showed an alternative conformation of the helix 11-12 that explained the mechanism of the first category antagonists. Taking the present and previous studies together, we could elucidate the mechanisms underlying first and second categories antagonists based on individual crystal structures. This study provides significant insights into antagonism against not only VDR but also nuclear receptors.

  17. Evaluation of a primary-care setting at a veterinary teaching hospital by a student business group: implementing business training within the curriculum. (United States)

    Louisa Poon, W Y; Covington, Jennifer P; Dempsey, Lauren S; Goetgeluck, Scott L; Marscher, William F; Morelli, Sierra C; Powell, Jana E; Rivers, Elizabeth M; Roth, Ira G


    This article provides an introduction to the use of students' business skills in optimizing teaching opportunities, student learning, and client satisfaction in a primary health care setting at a veterinary teaching hospital. Seven veterinary-student members of the local chapter of the Veterinary Business Management Association (VBMA) evaluated the primary-care service at the University of Georgia (UGA) veterinary teaching hospital and assessed six areas of focus: (1) branding and marketing, (2) client experience, (3) staff and staffing, (4) student experience, (5) time management, and (6) standard operating procedures and protocols. For each area of focus, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats were identified. Of the six areas, two were identified as areas in need of immediate improvement, the first being the updating of standard operating protocols and the second being time management and the flow of appointments. Recommendations made for these two areas were implemented. Overall, the staff and students provided positive feedback on the recommended changes. Through such a student-centered approach to improving the quality of their education, students are empowered and are held accountable for their learning environment. The fact that the VBMA functions without a parent organization and that the primary-care service at UGA functions primarily as a separate entity from the specialty services at the College of Veterinary Medicine allowed students to have a direct impact on their learning environment. We hope that this model for advancing business education will be studied and promoted to benefit both veterinary education and business practice within academia.

  18. Ready, set, go: a cross-sectional survey to understand priorities and preferences for multiple health behaviour change in a highly disadvantaged group. (United States)

    Noble, Natasha; Paul, Christine; Sanson-Fisher, Robert; Turon, Heidi; Turner, Nicole; Conigrave, Katherine


    Socially disadvantaged groups, such as Aboriginal Australians, tend to have a high prevalence of multiple lifestyle risk factors, increasing the risk of disease and underscoring the need for services to address multiple health behaviours. The aims of this study were to explore, among a socially disadvantaged group of people attending an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS): a) readiness to change health behaviours; b) acceptability of addressing multiple risk factors sequentially or simultaneously; and c) preferred types of support services. People attending an ACCHS in regional New South Wales (NSW) completed a touchscreen survey while waiting for their appointment. The survey assessed participant health risk status, which health risks they would like to change, whether they preferred multiple health changes to be made together or separately, and the types of support they would use. Of the 211 participants who completed the survey, 94 % reported multiple (two or more) health risks. There was a high willingness to change, with 69 % of current smokers wanting to cut down or quit, 51 % of overweight or obese participants wanting to lose weight and 44 % of those using drugs in the last 12 months wanting to stop or cut down. Of participants who wanted to make more than one health change, over half would be willing to make simultaneous or over-lapping health changes. The most popular types of support were help from a doctor or Health Worker and seeing a specialist, with less than a quarter of participants preferring telephone or electronic (internet or smart phone) forms of assistance. The importance of involving family members was also identified. Strategies addressing multiple health behaviour changes are likely to be acceptable for people attending an ACCHS, but may need to allow flexibility in the choice of initial target behaviour, timing of changes, and the format of support provided.

  19. A Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study of Vaginal Carriage of Group B Streptococci (GBS and Escherichia coli in Resource-Poor Settings: Prevalences and Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Cools

    Full Text Available One million neonates die each year in low- and middle-income countries because of neonatal sepsis; group B Streptococcus (GBS and Escherichia coli are the leading causes. In sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological data on vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage, a prerequisite for GBS and E. coli neonatal sepsis, respectively, are scarce but necessary to design and implement prevention strategies. Therefore, we assessed vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage rates and risk factors and the GBS serotype distribution in three sub-Saharan countries.A total of 430 women from Kenya, Rwanda and South Africa were studied cross-sectionally. Vaginal carriage of GBS and E. coli, and GBS serotype were assessed using molecular techniques. Risk factors for carriage were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis.Vaginal carriage rates in reference groups from Kenya and South Africa were 20.2% (95% CI, 13.7-28.7% and 23.1% (95% CI, 16.2-31.9%, respectively for GBS; and 25.0% (95% CI, 17.8-33.9% and 27.1% (95% CI, 19.6-36.2%, respectively for E. coli. GBS serotypes Ia (36.8%, V (26.3% and III (14.0% were most prevalent. Factors independently associated with GBS and E. coli carriage were Candida albicans, an intermediate vaginal microbiome, bacterial vaginosis, recent vaginal intercourse, vaginal washing, cervical ectopy and working as a sex worker. GBS and E. coli carriage were positively associated.Reduced vaginal GBS carriage rates might be accomplished by advocating behavioral changes such as abstinence from sexual intercourse and by avoidance of vaginal washing during late pregnancy. It might be advisable to explore the inclusion of vaginal carriage of C. albicans, GBS, E. coli and of the presence of cervical ectopy in a risk- and/or screening-based administration of antibiotic prophylaxis. Current phase II GBS vaccines (a trivalent vaccine targeting serotypes Ia, Ib, and III, and a conjugate vaccine targeting serotype III would not protect the majority of

  20. ClimateQUAL® and Thinklets: Using ClimateQUAL® with Group Support Systems to Facilitate Discussion and Set Priorities for Organizational Change at Criss Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hillyer


    Full Text Available Objective – This article discusses a series of actions taken by the Criss Library at the University of Nebraska at Omaha to implement organizational change, using the ClimateQUAL® survey and facilitated discussions with ThinkTank™ group decision software. The library had experienced significant changes over a five-year period, with a renovation of the facility and three reorganizations resulting in a 50% staff turnover. Recognizing the strain that years of construction and personnel changes had placed on the organization, there was a desire to uncover the mood of the employees and reveal the issues behind low morale, uneasiness, and fear.Methods – In November 2009, the library conducted a ClimateQUAL® survey to develop a baseline to assess the effectiveness of any changes. After the results were distributed to library faculty and staff, a series of two-hour facilitated discussions was held to gather opinions and ideas for solutions using thinkLets, a pattern language for reasoning toward a goal. The group support system ThinkTank™ software was loaded onto computers, and employees were able to add their ideas anonymously during the sessions. Finally, 12 employees (29% completed a four-question survey on their perceptions of the facilitated discussions.Results – The facilitated discussions returned 76 sub-themes in 12 categories: staffing and scheduling issues, staff unity/teamwork, communication, goodwill/morale, accountability, decision-making, policy issues, skills and training, leadership, ergonomics/physical work environment, respect, and bullying. An advisory team culled the 76 sub-themes into 40 improvement strategies. Five were implemented immediately, and the remaining 35 were scheduled to be presented to the faculty and staff via an online survey. Participants’ perceptions of the facilitated discussions were mixed. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported that they did not feel safe speaking out about issues, most

  1. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting (United States)

    Stratton, Richard K.


    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  2. Risk factor scenario in an industrial set-up: Need for an effective screening tool to assess the high-risk group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer Uma


    Full Text Available Background: Industrial and technological revolution has resulted in nutrition transition. This calls for analyzing the risk factor scenario in the industrial population. Objective: The objective was to map the prevalence and assess the risk factors of industrial employees. Materials and Methods: The employees of a large petrochemical industry were enrolled (N=269 for the study. Risk factors were elicited through a structured questionnaire. Parameters monitored were fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. Relative risk was calculated to find out significant predictor variables. Results: The employees had high prevalence of overweight (27%, obesity (22%, central obesity (48.7%, prehypertension (43.2%, hypertension (36.6%, and dyslipidemia (41.4%. They had erroneous dietary habits such as low intake of fruits and vegetables and high fat intake. Most of the employees had low physical activity levels. The prevalence of smoking (13.5%, tobacco (28.2%, and alcohol use (22.2% were also high with 15.1% having multiple habits. One-fifth of the employees had metabolic syndrome (MS. Seven predictor variables, namely, family history, BMI, WHR, blood pressure, physical inactivity, TG, and TG/H were identified and used to develop the risk score card to identify people at high risk of CVD and DM. Conclusion: Multiple risk factor scenario among the industrial population studied calls for effective intervention strategies and policy changes to combat the burden of non-communicable diseases. The risk score card can be used to screen the high-risk group in the industrial population.

  3. Predicting domain-domain interaction based on domain profiles with feature selection and support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Li


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI plays essential roles in cellular functions. The cost, time and other limitations associated with the current experimental methods have motivated the development of computational methods for predicting PPIs. As protein interactions generally occur via domains instead of the whole molecules, predicting domain-domain interaction (DDI is an important step toward PPI prediction. Computational methods developed so far have utilized information from various sources at different levels, from primary sequences, to molecular structures, to evolutionary profiles. Results In this paper, we propose a computational method to predict DDI using support vector machines (SVMs, based on domains represented as interaction profile hidden Markov models (ipHMM where interacting residues in domains are explicitly modeled according to the three dimensional structural information available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB. Features about the domains are extracted first as the Fisher scores derived from the ipHMM and then selected using singular value decomposition (SVD. Domain pairs are represented by concatenating their selected feature vectors, and classified by a support vector machine trained on these feature vectors. The method is tested by leave-one-out cross validation experiments with a set of interacting protein pairs adopted from the 3DID database. The prediction accuracy has shown significant improvement as compared to InterPreTS (Interaction Prediction through Tertiary Structure, an existing method for PPI prediction that also uses the sequences and complexes of known 3D structure. Conclusions We show that domain-domain interaction prediction can be significantly enhanced by exploiting information inherent in the domain profiles via feature selection based on Fisher scores, singular value decomposition and supervised learning based on support vector machines. Datasets and source code are freely available on

  4. Domains in multiband superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y., E-mail: [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-8568 (Japan); Yanagisawa, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-8568 (Japan); Crisan, A. [University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)] [National Institute of Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Shirage, P.M.; Iyo, A. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-8568 (Japan); Tokiwa, K. [Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda-shi, Chiba-ken 278-8510 (Japan); Nishio, T. [Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Sundaresan, A. [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Terada, N. [Kagoshima University, Korimoto 1-21-24, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima-ken 890-8580 (Japan)


    Positive interband Josephson interactions disperse order parameters. It creates configuration domain in multiband superconductors. This domain poses a problem for the stability of superconductivity. However it also offer new potential for novel electronics. Multiband superconductors can have several types of domains that are inhibited in conventional single-band superconductors. These domains are phase domains and chiral domains and their domain wall are an interband phase difference soliton. In a superconductor with an odd number of electronic bands (five or more) and with positive interband Josephson interactions, we find other types of domains with different interband phase differences. We call these domains configuration domains because pseudo-order parameters for each band are dispersed in the complex plain and several configurations, which have several local minima. Fractional vortices serve as hubs for phase difference solitons (configuration domain walls). The divergence of the number of configurations with local minima would pose a serious problem for the stability of superconductivity.

  5. Why scientific research groups set the pace

    CERN Document Server

    Cookson, C


    The needs of science rather than industry have driven most of the great advances in distributed computing - from the birth of the internet through the invention of the WWW to the emergence of grid computing (2 pages).

  6. Efficient group decision making in workshop settings (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson


    Public land managers must treat multiple values coincidentally in time and space, which requires the participation of multiple resource specialists and consideration of diverse clientele interests in the decision process. This implies decision making that includes multiple participants, both internally and externally. Decades of social science research on decision...

  7. Impact of domain analysis on reuse methods (United States)

    Gilroy, Kathy


    The SPS is performing a study for the U.S. Army CECOM on the impact of domain analysis on reuse methods. Domain analysis is the first activity that should be performed in the development of reusable software. It identifies the commonalities between systems within a given problem (such as navigation systems or database management). In the software arena these commonalities are implemented as software components that can be reused by new systems within that application domain. The objectives of the study are to develop an approach that makes domain analysis practical and effective for the Army, to reinforce the importance of domain analysis for software reuse programs, and to summarize and coalesce domain analysis information into a single reference source. Existing methods and tools are being analyzed, critical issues identified, and key automation issues addressed. Based on these, a methodology and set of guidelines for domain analysis are being developed. Potential automated tools will be identified for each activity in the methodology.

  8. Domain 2: Sport Safety and Injury Prevention (United States)

    Gurchiek, Larry; Mokha, Monique Butcher


    Most coaches recognize the importance of creating a safe environment and preventing injuries of their athletes. Domain 2 is dedicated to this important aspect of coaching, and outlines specific areas within safety and injury prevention that coaches should address. Domain 2 sets the standards for facility, equipment, and environmental safety…

  9. Staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in quality improvement: a focus group discussion study at two hospital settings in Sweden. (United States)

    Hvitfeldt-Forsberg, Helena; Mazzocato, Pamela; Glaser, Daniel; Keller, Christina; Unbeck, Maria


    To explore healthcare staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in improvement efforts. Two focus group discussions were performed. Two settings were included: a rheumatology department and an orthopaedic section both situated in Sweden. Healthcare staff and managers (n=13) from the two settings. Two workshops were performed, one at each setting. Workshops were initiated by a short introduction to simulation modelling. Results from the respective simulation model were then presented and discussed in the following focus group discussion. Categories from the content analysis are presented according to the following research questions: how and when simulation modelling can assist healthcare improvement? Regarding how, the participants mentioned that simulation modelling could act as a tool for support and a way to visualise problems, potential solutions and their effects. Regarding when, simulation modelling could be used both locally and by management, as well as a pedagogical tool to develop and test innovative ideas and to involve everyone in the improvement work. Its potential as an information and communication tool and as an instrument for pedagogic work within healthcare improvement render a broader application and value of simulation modelling than previously reported. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Long-Term Testosterone Therapy Improves Cardiometabolic Function and Reduces Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Men with Hypogonadism: A Real-Life Observational Registry Study Setting Comparing Treated and Untreated (Control) Groups. (United States)

    Traish, Abdulmaged M; Haider, Ahmad; Haider, Karim Sultan; Doros, Gheorghe; Saad, Farid


    In the absence of large, prospective, placebo-controlled studies of longer duration, substantial evidence regarding the safety and risk of testosterone (T) therapy (TTh) with regard to cardiovascular (CV) outcomes can only be gleaned from observational studies. To date, there are limited studies comparing the effects of long-term TTh in men with hypogonadism who were treated or remained untreated with T, for obvious reasons. We have established a registry to assess the long-term effectiveness and safety of T in men in a urological setting. Here, we sought to compare the effects of T on a host of parameters considered to contribute to CV risk in treated and untreated men with hypogonadism (control group). Observational, prospective, cumulative registry study in 656 men (age: 60.7 ± 7.2 years) with total T levels ≤12.1 nmol/L and symptoms of hypogonadism. In the treatment group, men (n = 360) received parenteral T undecanoate (TU) 1000 mg/12 weeks following an initial 6-week interval for up to 10 years. Men (n = 296) who had opted against TTh served as controls. Median follow-up in both groups was 7 years. Measurements were taken at least twice a year, and 8-year data were analyzed. Mean changes over time between the 2 groups were compared by means of a mixed-effects model for repeated measures, with a random effect for intercept and fixed effects for time, group, and their interaction. To account for baseline differences between the 2 groups, changes were adjusted for age, weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, blood pressure, and lipids. There were 2 deaths in the T-treated group, none was related to CV events. There were 21 deaths in the untreated (control) group, 19 of which were related to CV events. The incidence of death in 10 patient-years was 0.1145 in the control group (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0746-0.1756; P control group and none in the T-treated group. Long-term TU was well tolerated with excellent adherence suggesting a high level of

  11. Perceived barriers and facilitators of using a Web-based interactive decision aid for colorectal cancer screening in community practice settings: findings from focus groups with primary care clinicians and medical office staff. (United States)

    Jimbo, Masahito; Shultz, Cameron Garth; Nease, Donald Eugene; Fetters, Michael Derwin; Power, Debra; Ruffin, Mack Thomas


    Information is lacking about the capacity of those working in community practice settings to utilize health information technology for colorectal cancer screening. To address this gap we asked those working in community practice settings to share their perspectives about how the implementation of a Web-based patient-led decision aid might affect patient-clinician conversations about colorectal cancer screening and the day-to-day clinical workflow. Five focus groups in five community practice settings were conducted with 8 physicians, 1 physician assistant, and 18 clinic staff. Focus groups were organized using a semistructured discussion guide designed to identify factors that mediate and impede the use of a Web-based decision aid intended to clarify patient preferences for colorectal cancer screening and to trigger shared decision making during the clinical encounter. All physicians, the physician assistant, and 8 of the 18 clinic staff were active participants in the focus groups. Clinician and staff participants from each setting reported a belief that the Web-based patient-led decision aid could be an informative and educational tool; in all but one setting participants reported a readiness to recommend the tool to patients. The exception related to clinicians from one clinic who described a preference for patients having fewer screening choices, noting that a colonoscopy was the preferred screening modality for patients in their clinic. Perceived barriers to utilizing the Web-based decision aid included patients' lack of Internet access or low computer literacy, and potential impediments to the clinics' daily workflow. Expanding patients' use of an online decision aid that is both easy to access and understand and that is utilized by patients outside of the office visit was described as a potentially efficient means for soliciting patients' screening preferences. Participants described that a system to link the online decision aid to a computerized reminder

  12. Learning processes across knowledge domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the problematics of learning across knowledge boundaries in organizational settings. The paper specifically explores learning processes that emerge, when a new knowledge domain is introduced into an existing organizational practice...... with the aim of creating a new combined practice. Design/methodology/approach - A case study was carried out as a "natural experiment" in an engineering consultancy, where emerging initiatives to integrate the newly acquired competencies into the existing practice were explored. A theoretical framework...... organization, it remained discrete in 'pockets' of learning; mainly at an individual level, at project level or as domain-specific learning. Learning processes were intertwined with elements of domain-specific interests, power, managerial support, structural conditions, material and epistemic differences...

  13. Phylogenetic and specificity studies of two-domain GNA-related lectins: generation of multispecificity through domain duplication and divergent evolution (United States)

    Van Damme, Els J. M.; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Smith, David F.; Ongenaert, Maté; Winter, Harry C.; Rougé, Pierre; Goldstein, Irwin J.; Mo, Hanqing; Kominami, Junko; Culerrier, Raphaël; Barre, Annick; Hirabayashi, Jun; Peumans, Willy J.


    A re-investigation of the occurrence and taxonomic distribution of proteins built up of protomers consisting of two tandem arrayed domains equivalent to the GNA [Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop) agglutinin] revealed that these are widespread among monotyledonous plants. Phylogenetic analysis of the available sequences indicated that these proteins do not represent a monophylogenetic group but most probably result from multiple independent domain duplication/in tandem insertion events. To corroborate the relationship between inter-domain sequence divergence and the widening of specificity range, a detailed comparative analysis was made of the sequences and specificity of a set of two-domain GNA-related lectins. Glycan microarray analyses, frontal affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance measurements demonstrated that the two-domain GNA-related lectins acquired a marked diversity in carbohydrate-binding specificity that strikingly contrasts the canonical exclusive specificity of their single domain counterparts towards mannose. Moreover, it appears that most two-domain GNA-related lectins interact with both high mannose and complex N-glycans and that this dual specificity relies on the simultaneous presence of at least two different independently acting binding sites. The combined phylogenetic, specificity and structural data strongly suggest that plants used domain duplication followed by divergent evolution as a mechanism to generate multispecific lectins from a single mannose-binding domain. Taking into account that the shift in specificity of some binding sites from high mannose to complex type N-glycans implies that the two-domain GNA-related lectins are primarily directed against typical animal glycans, it is tempting to speculate that plants developed two-domain GNA-related lectins for defence purposes. PMID:17288538

  14. Domain adaptation via transfer component analysis. (United States)

    Pan, Sinno Jialin; Tsang, Ivor W; Kwok, James T; Yang, Qiang


    Domain adaptation allows knowledge from a source domain to be transferred to a different but related target domain. Intuitively, discovering a good feature representation across domains is crucial. In this paper, we first propose to find such a representation through a new learning method, transfer component analysis (TCA), for domain adaptation. TCA tries to learn some transfer components across domains in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space using maximum mean miscrepancy. In the subspace spanned by these transfer components, data properties are preserved and data distributions in different domains are close to each other. As a result, with the new representations in this subspace, we can apply standard machine learning methods to train classifiers or regression models in the source domain for use in the target domain. Furthermore, in order to uncover the knowledge hidden in the relations between the data labels from the source and target domains, we extend TCA in a semisupervised learning setting, which encodes label information into transfer components learning. We call this extension semisupervised TCA. The main contribution of our work is that we propose a novel dimensionality reduction framework for reducing the distance between domains in a latent space for domain adaptation. We propose both unsupervised and semisupervised feature extraction approaches, which can dramatically reduce the distance between domain distributions by projecting data onto the learned transfer components. Finally, our approach can handle large datasets and naturally lead to out-of-sample generalization. The effectiveness and efficiency of our approach are verified by experiments on five toy datasets and two real-world applications: cross-domain indoor WiFi localization and cross-domain text classification.

  15. Social Set Visualizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesch, Benjamin; Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi


    application domain for the dashboard is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and the targeted end-users are CSR researchers and practitioners. The design of the dashboard was based on the "social set analytics" approach to computational social science. The development of the dash-board involved cutting......This paper presents a state-of-the art visual analytics dash-board, Social Set Visualizer (SoSeVi), of approximately 90 million Facebook actions from 11 different companies that have been mentioned in the traditional media in relation to garment factory accidents in Bangladesh. The enterprise...

  16. More on PT-Symmetry in (Generalized Effect Algebras and Partial Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paseka


    Full Text Available We continue in the direction of our paper on PT-Symmetry in (Generalized Effect Algebras and Partial Groups. Namely we extend our considerations to the setting of weakly ordered partial groups. In this setting, any operator weakly ordered partial group is a pasting of its partially ordered commutative subgroups of linear operators with a fixed dense domain over bounded operators. Moreover, applications of our approach for generalized effect algebras are mentioned.

  17. Change in basic motor abilities, quality of movement and everyday activities following intensive, goal-directed, activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting for children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaale Helga K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of intensive training for children with cerebral palsy (CP remain uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact on motor function, quality of movements and everyday activities of three hours of goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting, five days a week for a period of three weeks. Methods A repeated measures design was applied with three baseline and two follow up assessments; immediately and three weeks after intervention. Twenty-two children with hemiplegia (n = 7, diplegia (n = 11, quadriplegia (n = 2 and ataxia (n = 2 participated, age ranging 3-9 y. All levels of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS were represented. Parents and professionals participated in goal setting and training. ANOVA was used to analyse change over repeated measures. Results A main effect of time was shown in the primary outcome measure; Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66, mean change being 4.5 (p Conclusions Basic motor abilities and self-care improved in young children with CP after goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy with involvement of their local environment, and their need for caregiver assistance in self-care and mobility decreased. The individualized training within a group context during a limited period of time was feasible and well-tolerated. The coherence between acquisition of basic motor abilities and quality of movement should be further examined.

  18. Domains of laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvall, E; Wewer, U M


    Extracellular matrix molecules are often very large and made up of several independent domains, frequently with autonomous activities. Laminin is no exception. A number of globular and rod-like domains can be identified in laminin and its isoforms by sequence analysis as well as by electron...... microscopy. Here we present the structure-function relations in laminins by examination of their individual domains. This approach to viewing laminin is based on recent results from several laboratories. First, some mutations in laminin genes that cause disease have affected single laminin domains, and some...... laminin isoforms lack particular domains. These mutants and isoforms are informative with regard to the activities of the mutated and missing domains. These mutants and isoforms are informative with regard to the activities of the mutated and missing domains. Second, laminin-like domains have now been...

  19. Domain Specific Problem Solving. (United States)

    Eade, Frank


    Outlines a possible framework for allowing teachers to explore how children learn mathematics. A mathematical modelling process and three domains, including content, process and pragmatic domain, are described. Twelve strategies for encouraging children to translate between the domains are suggested. (YP)

  20. Domain similarity based orthology detection. (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich


    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at .

  1. CATHEDRAL: a fast and effective algorithm to predict folds and domain boundaries from multidomain protein structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver C Redfern


    Full Text Available We present CATHEDRAL, an iterative protocol for determining the location of previously observed protein folds in novel multidomain protein structures. CATHEDRAL builds on the features of a fast secondary-structure-based method (using graph theory to locate known folds within a multidomain context and a residue-based, double-dynamic programming algorithm, which is used to align members of the target fold groups against the query protein structure to identify the closest relative and assign domain boundaries. To increase the fidelity of the assignments, a support vector machine is used to provide an optimal scoring scheme. Once a domain is verified, it is excised, and the search protocol is repeated in an iterative fashion until all recognisable domains have been identified. We have performed an initial benchmark of CATHEDRAL against other publicly available structure comparison methods using a consensus dataset of domains derived from the CATH and SCOP domain classifications. CATHEDRAL shows superior performance in fold recognition and alignment accuracy when compared with many equivalent methods. If a novel multidomain structure contains a known fold, CATHEDRAL will locate it in 90% of cases, with <1% false positives. For nearly 80% of assigned domains in a manually validated test set, the boundaries were correctly delineated within a tolerance of ten residues. For the remaining cases, previously classified domains were very remotely related to the query chain so that embellishments to the core of the fold caused significant differences in domain sizes and manual refinement of the boundaries was necessary. To put this performance in context, a well-established sequence method based on hidden Markov models was only able to detect 65% of domains, with 33% of the subsequent boundaries assigned within ten residues. Since, on average, 50% of newly determined protein structures contain more than one domain unit, and typically 90% or more of these

  2. PTEN-PDZ domain interactions: Binding of PTEN to PDZ domains of PTPN13.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotelo, N.S.; Schepens, J.T.G.; Valiente, M.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Pulido, R.


    Protein modular interactions mediated by PDZ domains are essential for the establishment of functional protein networks controlling diverse cellular functions. The tumor suppressor PTEN possesses a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM) that is recognized by a specific set of PDZ domains from

  3. A Group-Administered social Skills Training for 8- to 12- Year-Old, high-Functioning Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Evaluation of its Effectiveness in a Naturalistic Outpatient Treatment Setting. (United States)

    Deckers, Anne; Muris, Peter; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Arntz, Arnoud


    A social skills training (SST) for high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was evaluated in an outpatient setting using a combined between- and within-subject design in which SST and a waiting list condition were compared. According to parents and teachers, the SST produced greater improvement of social skills than the waiting list, and these effects were maintained at 3 months follow-up. No between-group effects were found for loneliness, although in general scores on this outcome measure decreased from pre- to follow-up. The effects of SST were unaffected by social anxiety, ADHD symptoms, Theory of Mind, or desire for social interaction. Altogether, SST seems an effective intervention for high-functioning children with ASD that can be applied in daily clinical practice.

  4. On Probability Domains (United States)

    Frič, Roman; Papčo, Martin


    Motivated by IF-probability theory (intuitionistic fuzzy), we study n-component probability domains in which each event represents a body of competing components and the range of a state represents a simplex S n of n-tuples of possible rewards-the sum of the rewards is a number from [0,1]. For n=1 we get fuzzy events, for example a bold algebra, and the corresponding fuzzy probability theory can be developed within the category ID of D-posets (equivalently effect algebras) of fuzzy sets and sequentially continuous D-homomorphisms. For n=2 we get IF-events, i.e., pairs ( μ, ν) of fuzzy sets μ, ν∈[0,1] X such that μ( x)+ ν( x)≤1 for all x∈ X, but we order our pairs (events) coordinatewise. Hence the structure of IF-events (where ( μ 1, ν 1)≤( μ 2, ν 2) whenever μ 1≤ μ 2 and ν 2≤ ν 1) is different and, consequently, the resulting IF-probability theory models a different principle. The category ID is cogenerated by I=[0,1] (objects of ID are subobjects of powers I X ), has nice properties and basic probabilistic notions and constructions are categorical. For example, states are morphisms. We introduce the category S n D cogenerated by Sn=\\{(x1,x2,ldots ,xn)in In;sum_{i=1}nxi≤ 1\\} carrying the coordinatewise partial order, difference, and sequential convergence and we show how basic probability notions can be defined within S n D.

  5. Semi-Supervised Single- and Multi-Domain Regression with Multi-Domain Training

    CERN Document Server

    Michaeli, Tomer; Sapiro, Guillermo


    We address the problems of multi-domain and single-domain regression based on distinct and unpaired labeled training sets for each of the domains and a large unlabeled training set from all domains. We formulate these problems as a Bayesian estimation with partial knowledge of statistical relations. We propose a worst-case design strategy and study the resulting estimators. Our analysis explicitly accounts for the cardinality of the labeled sets and includes the special cases in which one of the labeled sets is very large or, in the other extreme, completely missing. We demonstrate our estimators in the context of removing expressions from facial images and in the context of audio-visual word recognition, and provide comparisons to several recently proposed multi-modal learning algorithms.

  6. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan


    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  7. Domains and Naive Theories. (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A; Noles, Nicholaus S


    Human cognition entails domain-specific cognitive processes that influence memory, attention, categorization, problem-solving, reasoning, and knowledge organization. This review examines domain-specific causal theories, which are of particular interest for permitting an examination of how knowledge structures change over time. We first describe the properties of commonsense theories, and how commonsense theories differ from scientific theories, illustrating with children's classification of biological and non-biological kinds. We next consider the implications of domain-specificity for broader issues regarding cognitive development and conceptual change. We then examine the extent to which domain-specific theories interact, and how people reconcile competing causal frameworks. Future directions for research include examining how different content domains interact, the nature of theory change, the role of context (including culture, language, and social interaction) in inducing different frameworks, and the neural bases for domain-specific reasoning.

  8. Mapping small molecule binding data to structural domains. (United States)

    Kruger, Felix A; Rostom, Raghd; Overington, John P


    Large-scale bioactivity/SAR Open Data has recently become available, and this has allowed new analyses and approaches to be developed to help address the productivity and translational gaps of current drug discovery. One of the current limitations of these data is the relative sparsity of reported interactions per protein target, and complexities in establishing clear relationships between bioactivity and targets using bioinformatics tools. We detail in this paper the indexing of targets by the structural domains that bind (or are likely to bind) the ligand within a full-length protein. Specifically, we present a simple heuristic to map small molecule binding to Pfam domains. This profiling can be applied to all proteins within a genome to give some indications of the potential pharmacological modulation and regulation of all proteins. In this implementation of our heuristic, ligand binding to protein targets from the ChEMBL database was mapped to structural domains as defined by profiles contained within the Pfam-A database. Our mapping suggests that the majority of assay targets within the current version of the ChEMBL database bind ligands through a small number of highly prevalent domains, and conversely the majority of Pfam domains sampled by our data play no currently established role in ligand binding. Validation studies, carried out firstly against Uniprot entries with expert binding-site annotation and secondly against entries in the wwPDB repository of crystallographic protein structures, demonstrate that our simple heuristic maps ligand binding to the correct domain in about 90 percent of all assessed cases. Using the mappings obtained with our heuristic, we have assembled ligand sets associated with each Pfam domain. Small molecule binding has been mapped to Pfam-A domains of protein targets in the ChEMBL bioactivity database. The result of this mapping is an enriched annotation of small molecule bioactivity data and a grouping of activity classes

  9. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system (United States)

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.


    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora.

  10. The symptom burden of cancer: Evidence for a core set of cancer-related and treatment-related symptoms from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study. (United States)

    Cleeland, Charles S; Zhao, Fengmin; Chang, Victor T; Sloan, Jeff A; O'Mara, Ann M; Gilman, Paul B; Weiss, Matthias; Mendoza, Tito R; Lee, Ju-Whei; Fisch, Michael J


    A set of common cancer-related and treatment-related symptoms has been proposed for quality of care assessment and clinical research. Using data from a large, multicenter, prospective study, the authors assessed the effects of disease site and stage on the percentages of patients rating these proposed symptoms as moderate to severe. The severity of 13 symptoms proposed to represent "core" oncology symptoms was rated by 3106 ambulatory patients with cancer of the breast, prostate, colon/rectum, or lung, regardless of disease stage or phase of care; 2801 patients (90%) repeated the assessment 4 to 5 weeks later. At the time of the initial assessment, approximately 33% of the patients reported ≥ 3 symptoms in the moderate-to-severe range; 11 of the 13 symptoms were rated as moderate to severe by at least 10% of all patients and 6 were rated as moderate to severe by at least 20% of those receiving active treatment. Fatigue/tiredness was the most severe symptom, followed by disturbed sleep, pain, dry mouth, and numbness/tingling. More patients with lung cancer and patients receiving active treatment reported moderate to severe symptoms. Percentages of symptomatic patients increased by disease stage, less adequate response to therapy, and declining Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. The percentages of patients reporting moderate to severe symptoms were stable across both assessments. The results of the current study support a core set of moderate to severe symptoms that are common across outpatients with solid tumors, that can guide consideration of progression-free survival as a trial outcome, and that should be considered in clinical care and in assessments of quality of care and treatment benefit. © 2013 American Cancer Society.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátya Alexandrina Matos Barreto Mota


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Nowadays we are living the age of the group as a strategy in health assistance such as in educational activities, considering official proposals of both Ministries of Health and Education. Thus, to domain this technology by the professionals as a background to guide their assistance and managing actions becomes, each day more important. In this updating article, we consider to develop some aspects of theoretical presupposes and group coordinator dilemmas, as well as pointing elements that can help the professionals who have in the group their field of work. The text also approaches the group setting organization, the handling of preview situations, the time administration, the handling of the group conflicts and the power of the group contract. The essence of this text is anchored in the main group coordinator dilemma that is to find the measure adjustment, or either, balance to do interventions on the contents that emerge from the group dynamics, centered in the scientific and emotional contexts which comes from the work with the group. In this interval between theory and practice, the professional and the personal is where we believe is possible to find the balance. In this way, the notion of the group complexity is basic to the coordinator, so that ahead of its singularity it can live the group and everything what emanates from it. Key words: Group Structure; Health Manpower; Sensitivity Training Group; Group Processes.

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis and Classification of the Fungal bHLH Domain (United States)

    Sailsbery, Joshua K.; Atchley, William R.; Dean, Ralph A.


    The basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) domain is an essential highly conserved DNA-binding domain found in many transcription factors in all eukaryotic organisms. The bHLH domain has been well studied in the Animal and Plant Kingdoms but has yet to be characterized within Fungi. Herein, we obtained and evaluated the phylogenetic relationship of 490 fungal-specific bHLH containing proteins from 55 whole genome projects composed of 49 Ascomycota and 6 Basidiomycota organisms. We identified 12 major groupings within Fungi (F1–F12); identifying conserved motifs and functions specific to each group. Several classification models were built to distinguish the 12 groups and elucidate the most discerning sites in the domain. Performance testing on these models, for correct group classification, resulted in a maximum sensitivity and specificity of 98.5% and 99.8%, respectively. We identified 12 highly discerning sites and incorporated those into a set of rules (simplified model) to classify sequences into the correct group. Conservation of amino acid sites and phylogenetic analyses established that like plant bHLH proteins, fungal bHLH–containing proteins are most closely related to animal Group B. The models used in these analyses were incorporated into a software package, the source code for which is available at PMID:22114358

  13. Life sciences domain analysis model. (United States)

    Freimuth, Robert R; Freund, Elaine T; Schick, Lisa; Sharma, Mukesh K; Stafford, Grace A; Suzek, Baris E; Hernandez, Joyce; Hipp, Jason; Kelley, Jenny M; Rokicki, Konrad; Pan, Sue; Buckler, Andrew; Stokes, Todd H; Fernandez, Anna; Fore, Ian; Buetow, Kenneth H; Klemm, Juli D


    Meaningful exchange of information is a fundamental challenge in collaborative biomedical research. To help address this, the authors developed the Life Sciences Domain Analysis Model (LS DAM), an information model that provides a framework for communication among domain experts and technical teams developing information systems to support biomedical research. The LS DAM is harmonized with the Biomedical Research Integrated Domain Group (BRIDG) model of protocol-driven clinical research. Together, these models can facilitate data exchange for translational research. The content of the LS DAM was driven by analysis of life sciences and translational research scenarios and the concepts in the model are derived from existing information models, reference models and data exchange formats. The model is represented in the Unified Modeling Language and uses ISO 21090 data types. The LS DAM v2.2.1 is comprised of 130 classes and covers several core areas including Experiment, Molecular Biology, Molecular Databases and Specimen. Nearly half of these classes originate from the BRIDG model, emphasizing the semantic harmonization between these models. Validation of the LS DAM against independently derived information models, research scenarios and reference databases supports its general applicability to represent life sciences research. The LS DAM provides unambiguous definitions for concepts required to describe life sciences research. The processes established to achieve consensus among domain experts will be applied in future iterations and may be broadly applicable to other standardization efforts. The LS DAM provides common semantics for life sciences research. Through harmonization with BRIDG, it promotes interoperability in translational science.

  14. Supersymmetric domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio


    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  15. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László


    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  16. Cholesterol Domains Enhance Transfection (United States)

    Betker, Jamie L.; Kullberg, Max; Gomez, Joe; Anchordoquy, Thomas J.


    The formation of cholesterol domains in lipoplexes has been associated with enhanced serum stability and transfection rates both in cell culture and in vivo. This study utilizes the ability of saturated phosphatidylcholines to promote the formation of cholesterol domains at much lower cholesterol contents than have been utilized in previous work. The results show that lipoplexes with identical cholesterol and cationic lipid contents exhibit significantly improved transfection efficiencies when a domain is present, consistent with previous work. In addition, studies assessing transfection rates in the absence of serum demonstrate that the ability of domains to enhance transfection is not dependent on interactions with serum proteins. Consistent with this hypothesis, characterization of the adsorbed proteins composing the corona of these lipoplex formulations did not reveal a correlation between transfection and the adsorption of a specific protein. Finally, we show that the interaction with serum proteins can promote domain formation in some formulations, and thereby result in enhanced transfection only after serum exposure. PMID:23557286

  17. Structuring very large domain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald


    at a lower level of detail have not been dealt with. This paper aims at filling this gap by reporting personal experiences from a very large scale industrial domain modeling project. There, structuring the logical view turned out to be a critical success factor. We explain the project and its setting......, analyze the role and repercussions of model structuring, and examine the implications model structuring decisions have on other parts of the project. We then explain the model structure abstracted from a very large scale industrial modeling project. Finally, we discuss lessons learned....

  18. Shared decision-making at the end of life: A focus group study exploring the perceptions and experiences of multi-disciplinary healthcare professionals working in the home setting. (United States)

    Brogan, Paula; Hasson, Felicity; McIlfatrick, Sonja


    Globally recommended in healthcare policy, Shared Decision-Making is also central to international policy promoting community palliative care. Yet realities of implementation by multi-disciplinary healthcare professionals who provide end-of-life care in the home are unclear. To explore multi-disciplinary healthcare professionals' perceptions and experiences of Shared Decision-Making at end of life in the home. Qualitative design using focus groups, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. A total of 43 participants, from multi-disciplinary community-based services in one region of the United Kingdom, were recruited. While the rhetoric of Shared Decision-Making was recognised, its implementation was impacted by several interconnecting factors, including (1) conceptual confusion regarding Shared Decision-Making, (2) uncertainty in the process and (3) organisational factors which impeded Shared Decision-Making. Multiple interacting factors influence implementation of Shared Decision-Making by professionals working in complex community settings at the end of life. Moving from rhetoric to reality requires future work exploring the realities of Shared Decision-Making practice at individual, process and systems levels.

  19. Local organizations` expectations towards remote management of heating units: a building management system users group; Attentes des collectivites locales dans le domaine de la telegestion des chaufferies: le groupement des utilisateurs de systemes de telegestion (GUST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irigoin, M. [Mairie de Montpellier, 34 - Montpellier (France)


    A users group has been created in France for collective local organizations (cities, etc.) using remote management systems for heating plants and units, public buildings, etc., with several objectives: comparison of the various control equipment and software codes and evaluation of their system compatibility, promotion of control systems for small size units and integration of non-energy related functions, monitoring and maintenance of heating systems, training, development of data transmission protocols

  20. Conserved Domain Database (CDD) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDD is a protein annotation resource that consists of a collection of well-annotated multiple sequence alignment models for ancient domains and full-length proteins.

  1. The ICF as a common language for rehabilitation goal-setting: comparing client and professional priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Merwe Aletia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint rehabilitation goals are an important component for effective teamwork in the rehabilitation field. The activities and participation domain of the ICF provides a common language for professionals when setting these goals. Involving clients in the formulation of rehabilitation goals is gaining momentum as part of a person-centred approach to rehabilitation. However, this is particularly difficult when clients have an acquired communication disability. The expressive communication difficulties negatively affect the consensus building process. As a result, obtaining information regarding rehabilitation goals from professionals and their clients warrants further investigation for this particular population. Methods This comparative study investigated clients and their assigned rehabilitation professionals' perception of the importance of ICF activities and participation domains for inclusion in their rehabilitation program. Twelve clients in an acute rehabilitation centre and twenty of their corresponding rehabilitation professionals participated in an activity using the Talking Mats™ visual framework for goal setting. Each participant rated the importance of the nine activities and participation domains of the ICF for inclusion in their current rehabilitation program. Results The ICF domains which consistently appear as very important across these groups are mobility, self-care and communication. Domains which consistently appear in the lower third of the rankings include spare time, learning and thinking and domestic life. Results indicate however that no statistical significant differences exist in terms of the individual domains across each of the participant groups. Within group differences however indicated that amongst the speech-language therapists and physiotherapists there was a statistical significant difference between spare time activities and communication and mobility. Conclusions Findings indicate that

  2. Peer Review-Based Scripted Collaboration to Support Domain-Specific and Domain-General Knowledge Acquisition in Computer Science (United States)

    Demetriadis, Stavros; Egerter, Tina; Hanisch, Frank; Fischer, Frank


    This study investigates the effectiveness of using peer review in the context of scripted collaboration to foster both domain-specific and domain-general knowledge acquisition in the computer science domain. Using a one-factor design with a script and a control condition, students worked in small groups on a series of computer science problems…

  3. Genome-wide identification, phylogenetic and co-expression analysis of OsSET gene family in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanhua Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SET domain is responsible for the catalytic activity of histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs during developmental process. Histone lysine methylation plays a crucial and diverse regulatory function in chromatin organization and genome function. Although several SET genes have been identified and characterized in plants, the understanding of OsSET gene family in rice is still very limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, a systematic analysis was performed and revealed the presence of at least 43 SET genes in rice genome. Phylogenetic and structural analysis grouped SET proteins into five classes, and supposed that the domains out of SET domain were significant for the specific of histone lysine methylation, as well as the recognition of methylated histone lysine. Based on the global microarray, gene expression profile revealed that the transcripts of OsSET genes were accumulated differentially during vegetative and reproductive developmental stages and preferentially up or down-regulated in different tissues. Cis-elements identification, co-expression analysis and GO analysis of expression correlation of 12 OsSET genes suggested that OsSET genes might be involved in cell cycle regulation and feedback. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study will facilitate further studies on OsSET family and provide useful clues for functional validation of OsSETs.

  4. Customer Driven Capacity Setting


    Hübl, Alexander; Altendorfer, Klaus; Jodlbauer, Herbert; Pilstl, Josef


    International audience; The purpose of this article is to develop a method for short and medium term capacity setting decisions for providing a market oriented level of available capacity for the investigated machine groups. An MTO (make to order) production system is considered. The basic concept is that the cumulative available capacity of the machine group has to be greater than or equal to the cumulative needed capacity influenced by the customer orders. The cumulative needed capacity is ...

  5. Large stable magnetic domains (United States)

    Pulliam, G. R.; Ross, W. E.; MacNeal, B.; Bailey, R. F.


    Large, thin-film single domain areas have been observed, in the absence of a bias field, in garnets with magnetization perpendicular to the film plane.1,2 The domain stability in the work by Krumme1 was attributed to a combination of low saturation magnetization and a low Curie temperature. Uchishiba2 relates the stability in his double layer system to appropriate anisotropy fields in one layer compared to the magnetization in the other layer. A more complete model for large domain stability in a bias field free environment is given in this work. Three distinct stability regimes are predicted by the model and all have been observed experimentally. Areas 3.5-cm in diameter have been made into stable single domains. This was achieved in a material showing a zero bias strip width of 4.5 μm. The single domain diameter was, therefore, 7500 times the equilibrium energy domain width. The technique developed and the model have led to a new means for observing magnetic defects. More importantly, it also offers a means for measuring the strength of the defects. Possible applications of the model are also discussed.

  6. Domain-General Factors Influencing Numerical and Arithmetic Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Knops


    Full Text Available This special issue contains 18 articles that address the question how numerical processes interact with domain-general factors. We start the editorial with a discussion of how to define domain-general versus domain-specific factors and then discuss the contributions to this special issue grouped into two core numerical domains that are subject to domain-general influences (see Figure 1. The first group of contributions addresses the question how numbers interact with spatial factors. The second group of contributions is concerned with factors that determine and predict arithmetic understanding, performance and development. This special issue shows that domain-general (Table 1a as well as domain-specific (Table 1b abilities influence numerical and arithmetic performance virtually at all levels and make it clear that for the field of numerical cognition a sole focus on one or several domain-specific factors like the approximate number system or spatial-numerical associations is not sufficient. Vice versa, in most studies that included domain-general and domain-specific variables, domain-specific numerical variables predicted arithmetic performance above and beyond domain-general variables. Therefore, a sole focus on domain-general aspects such as, for example, working memory, to explain, predict and foster arithmetic learning is also not sufficient. Based on the articles in this special issue we conclude that both domain-general and domain-specific factors contribute to numerical cognition. But the how, why and when of their contribution still needs to be better understood. We hope that this special issue may be helpful to readers in constraining future theory and model building about the interplay of domain-specific and domain-general factors.

  7. Incorporating Domain Knowledge in Matching Problems via Harmonic Analysis. (United States)

    Pachauri, Deepti; Collins, Maxwell; Kondor, Risi; Singh, Vikas


    Matching one set of objects to another is a ubiquitous task in machine learning and computer vision that often reduces to some form of the quadratic assignment problem (QAP). The QAP is known to be notoriously hard, both in theory and in practice. Here, we investigate if this difficulty can be mitigated when some additional piece of information is available: (a) that all QAP instances of interest come from the same application, and (b) the correct solution for a set of such QAP instances is given. We propose a new approach to accelerate the solution of QAPs based on learning parameters for a modified objective function from prior QAP instances. A key feature of our approach is that it takes advantage of the algebraic structure of permutations, in conjunction with special methods for optimizing functions over the symmetric group n in Fourier space. Experiments show that in practical domains the new method can outperform existing approaches.

  8. Domain knowledge patterns in pedagogical diagnostics (United States)

    Miarka, Rostislav


    This paper shows a proposal of representation of knowledge patterns in RDF(S) language. Knowledge patterns are used for reuse of knowledge. They can be divided into two groups - Top-level knowledge patterns and Domain knowledge patterns. Pedagogical diagnostics is aimed at testing of knowledge of students at primary and secondary school. An example of domain knowledge pattern from pedagogical diagnostics is part of this paper.

  9. Domain-Specific Modelling Languages in Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Gian David

    Modelling is a ubiquitous activity in human endeavours, and the construction of informatic models of many kinds is the key to understanding and managing the complexity of an increasingly computational world. We advocate the use of domain-specic modelling languages, instantiated within a \\tower......" of models, in order to improve the utility of the models we build, and to ease the process of model construction by moving the languages we use to express such models closer to their respective domains. This thesis is concerned with the study of bigraphical reactive systems as a host for domain...... for deciding reaction rule causation. Finally, we provide a mechanism for the modular construction of domain-specic modelling languages as bigraphical reactive systems, exploring the relationship between vertical renement and language specialisation in this setting. The thesis is composed of several...

  10. Chromatin epigenomic domain folding: size matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand R. Caré


    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, chromatin is coated with epigenetic marks which induce differential gene expression profiles and eventually lead to different cellular phenotypes. One of the challenges of contemporary cell biology is to relate the wealth of epigenomic data with the observed physical properties of chromatin. In this study, we present a polymer physics framework that takes into account the sizes of epigenomic domains. We build a model of chromatin as a block copolymer made of domains with various sizes. This model produces a rich set of conformations which is well explained by finite-size scaling analysis of the coil-globule transition of epigenomic domains. Our results suggest that size-dependent folding of epigenomic domains may be a crucial physical mechanism able to provide chromatin with tissue-specific folding states, these being associated with differential gene expression.

  11. A mixed domain structure in magnetic films with large anisotropy (United States)

    Akimov, M. L.; Polyakov, P. A.; Rusakova, N. E.


    Influence of anisotropy on a bending of a magnetic stripe domain wall due to a magnetostatic stray field of a cylindrical magnetic domain (CMD) that is located within the stripe one is under investigation. It is revealed that for a specific set of physical parameters of the domain structure, energy of domain wall bending anisotropy can suppress the bending. An analytical expression for the bending shape is obtained on account of a change of both magnetostatic energy of the configuration and energy of anisotropy of the domain wall.

  12. Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures (United States)

    Gregg, Marty


    Ferroelectric materials have great potential in influencing the future of small scale electronics. At a basic level, this is because ferroelectric surfaces are charged, and so interact strongly with charge-carrying metals and semiconductors - the building blocks for all electronic systems. Since the electrical polarity of the ferroelectric can be reversed, surfaces can both attract and repel charges in nearby materials, and can thereby exert complete control over both charge distribution and movement. It should be no surprise, therefore, that microelectronics industries have already looked very seriously at harnessing ferroelectric materials in a variety of applications, from solid state memory chips (FeRAMs) to field effect transistors (FeFETs). In all such applications, switching the direction of the polarity of the ferroelectric is a key aspect of functional behavior. The mechanism for switching involves the field-induced nucleation and growth of domains. Domain coarsening, through domain wall propagation, eventually causes the entire ferroelectric to switch its polar direction. It is thus the existence and behavior of domains that determine the switching response, and ultimately the performance of the ferroelectric device. A major issue, associated with the integration of ferroelectrics into microelectronic devices, has been that the fundamental properties associated with ferroelectrics, when in bulk form, appear to change quite dramatically and unpredictably when at the nanoscale: new modes of behaviour, and different functional characteristics from those seen in bulk appear. For domains, in particular, the proximity of surfaces and boundaries have a dramatic effect: surface tension and depolarizing fields both serve to increase the equilibrium density of domains, such that minor changes in scale or morphology can have major ramifications for domain redistribution. Given the importance of domains in dictating the overall switching characteristics of a device

  13. Therapists in Oncology Settings (United States)

    Hendrick, Susan S.


    This article describes the author's experiences of working with cancer patients/survivors both individually and in support groups for many years, across several settings. It also documents current best-practice guidelines for the psychosocial treatment of cancer patients/survivors and their families. The author's view of the important qualities…

  14. What is agenda setting in the clinical encounter? Consensus from literature review and expert consultation. (United States)

    Gobat, Nina; Kinnersley, Paul; Gregory, John W; Robling, Michael


    To establish consensus on the core domains of agenda setting in consultations. We reviewed the healthcare literature and, using a modified Delphi technique to embrace both patient and clinician perspectives, conducted an iterative online survey, with 30 experts in health communication. Participants described agenda setting and rated the importance of proposed domains. Consensus was determined where the group median was ≥5 on a 7-point Likert-like response scale, and the interquartile range fell to within one point on this scale. Relevant publications were identified in three overlapping bodies of healthcare literature. Survey respondents considered that agenda setting involved a process whereby patients and clinicians establish a joint focus for both their conversation and their working relationship. Consensus was obtained on six core domains: identifying patient talk topics, identifying clinician talk topics, agreement of shared priorities, establishing conversational focus, collaboration and engagement. New terminology--agenda mapping and agenda navigation--is proposed. We identified core agenda setting domains that embraced patient and clinician perspectives. An integrated conceptualization of agenda setting may now be used by researchers and educators in both clinician and patient focused interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Domain Theory for Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel

    Concurrent computation can be given an abstract mathematical treatment very similar to that provided for sequential computation by domain theory and denotational semantics of Scott and Strachey. A simple domain theory for concurrency is presented. Based on a categorical model of linear logic and ...... towards more expressive languages than HOPLA and Affine HOPLA—in particular concerning extensions to cover independence models. The thesis concludes with a discussion of related work towards a fully fledged domain theory for concurrency.......Concurrent computation can be given an abstract mathematical treatment very similar to that provided for sequential computation by domain theory and denotational semantics of Scott and Strachey. A simple domain theory for concurrency is presented. Based on a categorical model of linear logic...... equivalence. One language, called HOPLA for Higher-Order Process LAnguage, derives from an exponential of linear logic. It can be viewed as an extension of the simply-typed lambda calculus with CCS-like nondeterministic sum and prefix operations, in which types express the form of computation path of which...

  16. General Academic or Domain-Specific Vocabulary?: The Impact of Word Selection in High School Biology (United States)

    Birmingham, Elizabeth A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of learning various types of words in biology on students' reading comprehension, vocabulary performance, and science content knowledge. The study involved 315 ninth grade biology students who were placed in one of four groups and spent two weeks for ten minutes per day working on independent vocabulary packets in which they practiced a set of 15 words. Group one's list was a combination of domain-specific and general academic words, group two's list was a set of general academic words, and group three's list was a set of domain-specific words. The fourth group, the control group, did no formal vocabulary work but instead completed lessons involving the ecology content. In this quasi-experiment, the independent variable was the instructional group assignment, and the dependent variables were the students' performances on the reading comprehension, vocabulary (broken into various categories), and content assessments. Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) found the differences to be statistically significant. The individual dependent variables were analyzed and found two question types on the vocabulary test, the domainspecific and general academic, to be significant in the test of between-subjects effects. Further, instructional group assignment did not have an effect on reading comprehension and content Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A

  17. Robust phase-domain transmission line representation based on time-domain fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, Diana M.; Neves, Washington L.A. [Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Electrical Engineering Department, Av Aprigio Veloso, 882 Campina Grande, PB 58.109-970 (Brazil); Boaventura, Wallace do C. [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Electrical Engineering Department, Av Antonio Carlos, 6627 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG 31.270-010 (Brazil)


    This work presents a methodology for deriving a phase-domain transmission line representation based on time-domain fitting. A polynomial matrix in the discrete-time domain describes the resulting model. The robustness of the representation, its stability and passivity, is attained by imbedding a set of constraints in the solution of the fitting equations, which are solved using quadratic programming. Results demonstrating from transient simulations the features of the derived representation are presented for the case of an asymmetric, untransposed two-phase transmission line. (author)

  18. Cyclic Soft Groups and Their Applications on Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacı Aktaş


    Full Text Available In crisp environment the notions of order of group and cyclic group are well known due to many applications. In this paper, we introduce order of the soft groups, power of the soft sets, power of the soft groups, and cyclic soft group on a group. We also investigate the relationship between cyclic soft groups and classical groups.

  19. Reasoning in incomplete domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, S.


    Most real-world domains differ from the micro-worlds traditionally used in A.I. in that they have an incomplete factual data base which changes over time. Understanding in these domains can be thought of as the gneration of plausible infoerences which are able to use the facts available, and respond to changes in them. A traditional rule interpreter such as Planner can be extended to construct plausible inferences in these domains by allowing assumptions to be made in applying rules, resultsing in simplifications of rules which can be used in an incomplete data base; monitoring the antecedents and consequents of a rule so that inferences can be maintained over a changing data base.

  20. Emotional collectives : How groups shape emotions and emotions shape groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, G.A.; Fischer, A.H.


    Group settings are epicentres of emotional activity. Yet, the role of emotions in groups is poorly understood. How do group-level phenomena shape group members’ emotional experience and expression? How are emotional expressions recognised, interpreted and shared in group settings? And how do such

  1. Protein function prediction using domain families. (United States)

    Rentzsch, Robert; Orengo, Christine A


    Here we assessed the use of domain families for predicting the functions of whole proteins. These 'functional families' (FunFams) were derived using a protocol that combines sequence clustering with supervised cluster evaluation, relying on available high-quality Gene Ontology (GO) annotation data in the latter step. In essence, the protocol groups domain sequences belonging to the same superfamily into families based on the GO annotations of their parent proteins. An initial test based on enzyme sequences confirmed that the FunFams resemble enzyme (domain) families much better than do families produced by sequence clustering alone. For the CAFA 2011 experiment, we further associated the FunFams with GO terms probabilistically. All target proteins were first submitted to domain superfamily assignment, followed by FunFam assignment and, eventually, function assignment. The latter included an integration step for multi-domain target proteins. The CAFA results put our domain-based approach among the top ten of 31 competing groups and 56 prediction methods, confirming that it outperforms simple pairwise whole-protein sequence comparisons.

  2. Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy (United States)

    Murali, Supraja

    to this technology all of which have been demonstrated in full functional hardware conceived and built during the course of this research. First, it has been demonstrated that the coherence gate created by the femtosecond laser can be coupled into a scanning optical microscope using optical design methods to include liquid lens technology that enables scanning below the surface of skin with no moving parts and at high resolution throughout a 2x2x2 mm imaging cube. Second, the integration the variable-focus liquid lens technology within a fixed-optics microscope custom optical design helped increase the working NA by an order of magnitude over the limitation imposed by the liquid lens alone. Thus, this design has enabled homogenous axial and lateral resolution at the micron-level (i.e., 2 mum) while imaging in the spectral domain, and still maintaining in vivo speeds. The latest images in biological specimens clearly demonstrate sub-cellular resolution in all dimensions throughout the imaging volume. Third, this new modality for data collection has been integrated with an automated Gabor domain image registration and fusion algorithm to provide full resolution images across the data cube in real-time. We refer to this overall OCM method as Gabor domain OCM (GD-OCM). These advantages place GD-OCM in a unique position with respect to the diagnosis of cancer, because when fully developed, it promises to enable fast and accurate screening for early symptoms that could lead to prevention. The next step for this technology is to apply it directly, in a clinical environment. This step is underway and is expected to be reported by the next generation of researchers within this group.

  3. Valuing social identity: Consequences for motivation and performance in low-status groups


    Van Laar, Colette; Derks, Belle; Ellemers, Naomi; Bleeker, Dennis


    Presented is our perspective on the role of social identity in the motivation and performance of members of stigmatized groups (e.g., ethnic minorities, women in traditionally male-dominated fields). We discuss how stigmatized group members pursuing upward mobility face significant threats in out-group environments through the numerical dominance of the higher status out-group, the negative views held by the out-group of the low-status group, and the emphasis in outgroup settings on domains o...

  4. Domain-Specific Multimodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders

    the overall level of abstraction. It does, however, also introduce a new problem of coordinating multiple different languages in a single system. We call this problem the coordination problem. In this thesis, we present the coordination method for domain-specific multimodeling that explicitly targets...

  5. Charged Domain Walls


    Campanelli, L.; Cea, P.; Fogli, G. L.; Tedesco, L.


    In this paper we investigate Charged Domain Walls (CDW's), topological defects that acquire surface charge density $Q$ induced by fermion states localized on the walls. The presence of an electric and magnetic field on the walls is also discussed. We find a relation in which the value of the surface charge density $Q$ is connected with the existence of such topological defects.

  6. Domain: Labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.

    This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual

  7. 1-Set vs. 3-set resistance training: a crossover study. (United States)

    Humburg, Hartmut; Baars, Hartmut; Schröder, Jan; Reer, Rüdiger; Braumann, Klaus-Michael


    This crossover study was conducted to investigate the effects of a 1-set and 3-set strength training program. The subjects were untrained men and women who were randomly signed into 1 of 3 groups: 10 subjects trained during the first 9 weeks (training period 1) with 1 set and 8-12 repetitions per set. After the break (9 weeks), they trained with 3 sets and 8-12 repetitions in training period 2. Twelve subjects started with the 3-set program and continued with the 1-set regime after the break. The control group (n = 7) did not train. The subjects were tested on 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for the biceps curl, leg press (unilateral: left and right), and bench press. Analysis of the data was done in a sampled manner for each strength training program (1-set and 3-set). The 1-set (n = 22) and 3-set (n = 22) programs led to significantly (p < 0.05) improved 1RM performances in every exercise. The relative improvements (%) for the 1RM were significantly higher during the 3-set program for the biceps curl and the bench press compared with the 1-set program. The control group exhibited no changes in any of the tested parameters over the course of this study. The design of this study allowed insight into the effects of different strength training volume without any genetical variations. The same subjects improved their 1RM during the 3-set program by 2.3 kg (biceps curl; corresponding effect size = 0.24), 8.9 kg (leg press right; 0.30), 10.9 kg (leg press left; 0.28), and 2.5 kg (bench press; 0.09) more than during the 1-set program. Depending on the goals of each trainee, these differences between the effects of different strength training volumes indicate that it may be worth spending more time on working out with a 3-set strength training regime.

  8. Core Domains for Clinical Research in Acute Respiratory Failure Survivors: An International Modified Delphi Consensus Study. (United States)

    Turnbull, Alison E; Sepulveda, Kristin A; Dinglas, Victor D; Chessare, Caroline M; Bingham, Clifton O; Needham, Dale M


    To identify the "core domains" (i.e., patient outcomes, health-related conditions, or aspects of health) that relevant stakeholders agree are essential to assess in all clinical research studies evaluating the outcomes of acute respiratory failure survivors after hospital discharge. A two-round consensus process, using a modified Delphi methodology, with participants from 16 countries, including patient and caregiver representatives. Prior to voting, participants were asked to review 1) results from surveys of clinical researchers, acute respiratory failure survivors, and caregivers that rated the importance of 19 preliminary outcome domains and 2) results from a qualitative study of acute respiratory failure survivors' outcomes after hospital discharge, as related to the 19 preliminary outcome domains. Participants also were asked to suggest any additional potential domains for evaluation in the first Delphi survey. Web-based surveys of participants representing four stakeholder groups relevant to clinical research evaluating postdischarge outcomes of acute respiratory failure survivors: clinical researchers, clinicians, patients and caregivers, and U.S. federal research funding organizations. None. None. Survey response rates were 97% and 99% in round 1 and round 2, respectively. There were seven domains that met the a priori consensus criteria to be designated as core domains: physical function, cognition, mental health, survival, pulmonary function, pain, and muscle and/or nerve function. This study generated a consensus-based list of core domains that should be assessed in all clinical research studies evaluating acute respiratory failure survivors after hospital discharge. Identifying appropriate measurement instruments to assess these core domains is an important next step toward developing a set of core outcome measures for this field of research.

  9. An English language interface for constrained domains (United States)

    Page, Brenda J.


    The Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) Jargon Interpreter (MJI) demonstrates an English language interface for a constrained domain. A constrained domain is defined as one with a small and well delineated set of actions and objects. The set of actions chosen for the MJI is from the domain of MSOCC Applications Executive (MAE) Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) directives and contains directives for signing a cathode ray tube (CRT) on or off, calling up or clearing a display page, starting or stopping a procedure, and controlling history recording. The set of objects chosen consists of CRTs, display pages, STOL procedures, and history files. Translation from English sentences to STOL directives is done in two phases. In the first phase, an augmented transition net (ATN) parser and dictionary are used for determining grammatically correct parsings of input sentences. In the second phase, grammatically typed sentences are submitted to a forward-chaining rule-based system for interpretation and translation into equivalent MAE STOL directives. Tests of the MJI show that it is able to translate individual clearly stated sentences into the subset of directives selected for the prototype. This approach to an English language interface may be used for similarly constrained situations by modifying the MJI's dictionary and rules to reflect the change of domain.

  10. Vector domain decomposition schemes for parabolic equations (United States)

    Vabishchevich, P. N.


    A new class of domain decomposition schemes for finding approximate solutions of timedependent problems for partial differential equations is proposed and studied. A boundary value problem for a second-order parabolic equation is used as a model problem. The general approach to the construction of domain decomposition schemes is based on partition of unity. Specifically, a vector problem is set up for solving problems in individual subdomains. Stability conditions for vector regionally additive schemes of first- and second-order accuracy are obtained.

  11. The framing of scientific domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Christensen, Hans


    Purpose: By using the UNISIST models this article argues for the necessity of domain analysis in order to qualify scientific information seeking. The models better understanding of communication processes in a scientific domain and embraces the point that domains are always both unstable over time...... domains, and UNISIST helps understanding this navigation. Design/methodology/approach The UNISIST models are tentatively applied to the domain of art history at three stages, respectively two modern, partially overlapping domains, as well as an outline of an art historical domain anno c1820...... as according to the agents that are charting them. As such, power in a Foucauldian sense is unavoidable in outlining a domain. Originality/value 1. The UNISIST models are applied to the domain of art history; and 2. the article discusses the instability of a scientific domain as well as, at the same time...

  12. A Load Balanced Domain Decomposition Method Using Wavelet Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, L; Johnson, J; Hesthaven, J


    Wavelet Analysis provides an orthogonal basis set which is localized in both the physical space and the Fourier transform space. We present here a domain decomposition method that uses wavelet analysis to maintain roughly uniform error throughout the computation domain while keeping the computational work balanced in a parallel computing environment.

  13. The Promise of Domain Adaptation (United States)

    Mahabal, Ashish A.; Li, Jingling; Vaijanapurkar, Samarth; Bue, Brian; Miller, Adam; Donalek, Ciro; Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Drake, Andrew J.; Graham, Matthew; CRTS, iPTF


    Most new surveys spend an appreciable time in collecting data on which to train classifiers before they can be used on future observations from the same dataset. The result generating phase can start much earlier if the training could incorporate data accumulated from older surveys enhanced with a small set from the new survey. This is exactly what Domain Adaptation (DA) allows us to do. The main idea behind DAs can be summarized thus: if we have two classes of separable objects in some feature space of a Source survey (S), we can define a hyperplane to separate the two types. In a second Target survey (T), for the same features the hyperplane would be inclined differently. DA methods get the mapping between the two hyperplanes using a small fraction of data from the Target (T) survey and can then be used to predict the classes of the remaining majority of data in T. We discuss the parameters that need to be tuned, the difficulties involved, and ways to improve the results. As we move towards bigger, and deeper surveys, being able to use existing labelled information to conduct classification in future surveys will be more cost-effective and promote time efficiency as well. Starting with the light curve data of 50,000 periodic objects from Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS), we have applied domain adaptation techniques such as Geodesic Flow Kernel (GFK) with Random forest classifier and Co-training for domain adaptation (CODA) to the CRTS data which has 35,000 points overlapping with Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and 12,000 with Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR). The results suggest that domain adaptation is an area worth exploring as the knowledge between these surveys is transferable and the approaches to find the mappings between these surveys can be applied to the remaining data as well as for near future surveys such as CRTS-II, Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) to name a few at the optical

  14. Utilizing the Zero-One Linear Programming Constraints to Draw Multiple Sets of Matched Samples from a Non-Treatment Population as Control Groups for the Quasi-Experimental Design (United States)

    Li, Yuan H.; Yang, Yu N.; Tompkins, Leroy J.; Modarresi, Shahpar


    The statistical technique, "Zero-One Linear Programming," that has successfully been used to create multiple tests with similar characteristics (e.g., item difficulties, test information and test specifications) in the area of educational measurement, was deemed to be a suitable method for creating multiple sets of matched samples to be…

  15. A Group-Administered social Skills Training for 8- to 12- Year-Old, high-Functioning Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders : An Evaluation of its Effectiveness in a Naturalistic Outpatient Treatment Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, A.; Muris, P.; Roelofs, J.; Arntz, A.

    A social skills training (SST) for high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was evaluated in an outpatient setting using a combined between- and within-subject design in which SST and a waiting list condition were compared. According to parents and teachers, the SST produced

  16. A Group-Administered Social Skills Training for 8- to 12-Year-Old, High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Evaluation of Its Effectiveness in a Naturalistic Outpatient Treatment Setting (United States)

    Deckers, Anne; Muris, Peter; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Arntz, Arnoud


    A social skills training (SST) for high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was evaluated in an outpatient setting using a combined between- and within-subject design in which SST and a waiting list condition were compared. According to parents and teachers, the SST produced greater improvement of social skills than the…

  17. The Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set: validity and reliability from untrained adults. (United States)

    LoBue, Vanessa; Thrasher, Cat


    Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development-The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE). The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for six emotional facial expressions-angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted-and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants.

  18. The Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE Set: Validity and Reliability from Untrained Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eLoBue


    Full Text Available Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development—The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE. The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for 6 emotional facial expressions—angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted—and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants.

  19. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest


    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...... polarization response when compared to traditional integral chargeability inversion. The quality of the inversion results has been assessed by a complete uncertainty analysis of the model parameters; furthermore, borehole information confirm the outcomes of the field interpretations. With this new accurate...

  20. Independent set dominating sets in bipartite graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Zelinka


    Full Text Available The paper continues the study of independent set dominating sets in graphs which was started by E. Sampathkumar. A subset \\(D\\ of the vertex set \\(V(G\\ of a graph \\(G\\ is called a set dominating set (shortly sd-set in \\(G\\, if for each set \\(X \\subseteq V(G-D\\ there exists a set \\(Y \\subseteq D\\ such that the subgraph \\(\\langle X \\cup Y\\rangle\\ of \\(G\\ induced by \\(X \\cup Y\\ is connected. The minimum number of vertices of an sd-set in \\(G\\ is called the set domination number \\(\\gamma_s(G\\ of \\(G\\. An sd-set \\(D\\ in \\(G\\ such that \\(|D|=\\gamma_s(G\\ is called a \\(\\gamma_s\\-set in \\(G\\. In this paper we study sd-sets in bipartite graphs which are simultaneously independent. We apply the theory of hypergraphs.

  1. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad


    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  2. Change through Group Work. (United States)

    McAllan, Les; Friedman, Amy; Spears, Evans

    Perhaps the most well known treatment modalities in the field of prevention and treatment of addiction are groups. Group settings serve to bring individuals with addictions together at one time in one place to work on relevant issues together. Groups may serve as a safe environment for learning new social and relationship skills, gaining…

  3. Genome-wide identification and domain organization of lectin domains in cucumber. (United States)

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M


    Lectins are ubiquitous proteins in plants and play important roles in a diverse set of biological processes, such as plant defense and cell signaling. Despite the availability of the Cucumis sativus L. genome sequence since 2009, little is known with respect to the occurrence of lectins in cucumber. In this study, a total of 146 putative lectin genes belonging to 10 different lectin families were identified and localized in the cucumber genome. Domain architecture analysis revealed that most of these lectin gene sequences contain multiple domains, where lectin domains are linked with other domains, as such creating chimeric lectin sequences encoding proteins with dual activities. This study provides an overview of lectin motifs in cucumber and will help to understand their potential biological role(s). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural and functional analysis of multi-interface domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhao

    Full Text Available A multi-interface domain is a domain that can shape multiple and distinctive binding sites to contact with many other domains, forming a hub in domain-domain interaction networks. The functions played by the multiple interfaces are usually different, but there is no strict bijection between the functions and interfaces as some subsets of the interfaces play the same function. This work applies graph theory and algorithms to discover fingerprints for the multiple interfaces of a domain and to establish associations between the interfaces and functions, based on a huge set of multi-interface proteins from PDB. We found that about 40% of proteins have the multi-interface property, however the involved multi-interface domains account for only a tiny fraction (1.8% of the total number of domains. The interfaces of these domains are distinguishable in terms of their fingerprints, indicating the functional specificity of the multiple interfaces in a domain. Furthermore, we observed that both cooperative and distinctive structural patterns, which will be useful for protein engineering, exist in the multiple interfaces of a domain.

  5. PTEN-PDZ domain interactions: binding of PTEN to PDZ domains of PTPN13. (United States)

    Sotelo, Natalia S; Schepens, Jan T G; Valiente, Miguel; Hendriks, Wiljan J A J; Pulido, Rafael


    Protein modular interactions mediated by PDZ domains are essential for the establishment of functional protein networks controlling diverse cellular functions. The tumor suppressor PTEN possesses a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM) that is recognized by a specific set of PDZ domains from scaffolding and regulatory proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge on PTEN-PDZ domain interactions and tumor suppressor networks, describe methodology suitable to analyze these interactions, and report the binding of PTEN and the PDZ domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN13. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down analyses showed that PTEN binds to PDZ2/PTPN13 domain in a manner that depends on the specific PTPN13 PDZ domain arrangement involving the interdomain region between PDZ1 and PDZ2. Furthermore, a specific binding profile of PTEN to PDZ2/PTPN13 domain was observed by mutational analysis of the PTEN PDZ-BM. Our results disclose a PDZ-mediated physical interaction of PTEN and PTPN13 with potential relevance in tumor suppression and cell homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. One Health Core Competency Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Frankson


    Full Text Available The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting ‘One Health’ approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education as they describe the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches.

  7. Low performance on mathematical tasks in preschoolers: the importance of domain-general and domain-specific abilities. (United States)

    Costa, H M; Nicholson, B; Donlan, C; Van Herwegen, J


    Different domain-specific and domain-general cognitive precursors play a key role in the development of mathematical abilities. The contribution of these domains to mathematical ability changes during development. Primary school-aged children who show mathematical difficulties form a heterogeneous group, but it is not clear whether this also holds for preschool low achievers (LAs) and how domain-specific and domain-general abilities contribute to mathematical difficulties at a young age. The aim of this study was to explore the cognitive characteristics of a sample of preschool LAs and identify sub-types of LAs. 81 children were identified as LAs from 283 preschoolers aged 3 to 5 years old and were assessed on a number of domain-general and domain-specific tasks. Cluster analysis revealed four subgroups of LAs in mathematics: (1) a weak processing sub-type; (2) a general mathematical LAs sub-type; (3) a mixed abilities sub-type; and (4) a visuo-spatial deficit sub-type. Whilst two of the groups showed specific domain-general difficulties, none showed only domain-specific difficulties. Current findings suggest that preschool LAs constitute a heterogeneous group and stress the importance of domain-general factors for the development of mathematical abilities during the preschool years. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A new type of plant chitinase containing LysM domains from a fern (Pteris ryukyuensis): Roles of LysM domains in chitin binding and antifungal activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Onaga, Shoko; Taira, Toki


    .... The deduced amino acid sequence indicated that PrChi-A is composed of two N-terminal LysM domains and a C-terminal catalytic domain, belonging to the group of plant class IIIb chitinases, linked...

  9. Not just for stereotyping anymore: racial essentialism reduces domain-general creativity. (United States)

    Tadmor, Carmit T; Chao, Melody M; Hong, Ying-yi; Polzer, Jeffrey T


    Individuals who believe that racial groups have fixed underlying essences use stereotypes more than do individuals who believe that racial categories are arbitrary and malleable social-political constructions. Would this essentialist mind-set also lead to less creativity? We suggest that the functional utility derived from essentialism induces a habitual closed-mindedness that transcends the social domain and hampers creativity. Across studies, using both individual difference measures (in a pilot test) and experimental manipulations (Experiments 1, 2a, and 2b), we found that an essentialist mind-set is indeed hazardous for creativity, with the relationship mediated by motivated closed-mindedness (Experiments 2a and 2b). These results held across samples of majority cultural-group members (Caucasian Americans, Israelis) and minority-group members (Asian Americans), as well as across different measures of creativity (flexibility, association, insight). Our findings have important implications for understanding the connection between racial intolerance and creativity.

  10. Learning and Reasoning in Unknown Domains (United States)

    Strannegård, Claes; Nizamani, Abdul Rahim; Juel, Jonas; Persson, Ulf


    In the story Alice in Wonderland, Alice fell down a rabbit hole and suddenly found herself in a strange world called Wonderland. Alice gradually developed knowledge about Wonderland by observing, learning, and reasoning. In this paper we present the system Alice In Wonderland that operates analogously. As a theoretical basis of the system, we define several basic concepts of logic in a generalized setting, including the notions of domain, proof, consistency, soundness, completeness, decidability, and compositionality. We also prove some basic theorems about those generalized notions. Then we model Wonderland as an arbitrary symbolic domain and Alice as a cognitive architecture that learns autonomously by observing random streams of facts from Wonderland. Alice is able to reason by means of computations that use bounded cognitive resources. Moreover, Alice develops her belief set by continuously forming, testing, and revising hypotheses. The system can learn a wide class of symbolic domains and challenge average human problem solvers in such domains as propositional logic and elementary arithmetic.

  11. Does the Assessment of Recovery Capital scale reflect a single or multiple domains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt S


    Full Text Available Stephan Arndt,1–3 Ethan Sahker,1,4 Suzy Hedden1 1Iowa Consortium for Substance Abuse Research and Evaluation, 2Department of Psychiatry, Carver College of Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, 4Department of Psychological and Quantitative Foundations, Counseling Psychology Program College of Education, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether the 50-item Assessment of Recovery Capital scale represents a single general measure or whether multiple domains might be psychometrically useful for research or clinical applications. Methods: Data are from a cross-sectional de-identified existing program evaluation information data set with 1,138 clients entering substance use disorder treatment. Principal components and iterated factor analysis were used on the domain scores. Multiple group factor analysis provided a quasi-confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The solution accounted for 75.24% of the total variance, suggesting that 10 factors provide a reasonably good fit. However, Tucker’s congruence coefficients between the factor structure and defining weights (0.41–0.52 suggested a poor fit to the hypothesized 10-domain structure. Principal components of the 10-domain scores yielded one factor whose eigenvalue was greater than one (5.93, accounting for 75.8% of the common variance. A few domains had perceptible but small unique variance components suggesting that a few of the domains may warrant enrichment. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is one general factor, with a caveat. Using the 10 measures inflates the chance for Type I errors. Using one general measure avoids this issue, is simple to interpret, and could reduce the number of items. However, those seeking to maximally predict later recovery success may need to use the full instrument and all 10 domains. Keywords: social support, psychometrics, quality of life

  12. Group clinics for young adults with diabetes in an ethnically diverse, socioeconomically deprived setting (TOGETHER study): protocol for a realist review, co-design and mixed methods, participatory evaluation of a new care model. (United States)

    Papoutsi, Chrysanthi; Hargreaves, Dougal; Colligan, Grainne; Hagell, Ann; Patel, Anita; Campbell-Richards, Desirée; Viner, Russell M; Vijayaraghavan, Shanti; Marshall, Martin; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Finer, Sarah


    Young adults with diabetes often report dissatisfaction with care and have poor diabetes-related health outcomes. As diabetes prevalence continues to rise, group-based care could provide a sustainable alternative to traditional one-to-one consultations, by engaging young people through life stage-, context- and culturally-sensitive approaches. In this study, we will co-design and evaluate a group-based care model for young adults with diabetes and complex health and social needs in socioeconomically deprived areas. This participatory study will include three phases. In phase 1, we will carry out a realist review to synthesise the literature on group-based care for young adults with diabetes. This theory-driven understanding will provide the basis for phase 2, where we will draw on experience-based co-design methodologies to develop a new, group-based care model for young adults (aged quantitative methods (eg, biological markers, patient enablement instrument and diabetes distress scale), including a cost analysis. National Health Service ethics approval has been granted (reference 17/NI/0019). The project will directly inform service redesign to better meet the needs of young adults with diabetes in socioeconomically deprived areas and may guide a possible cluster-randomised trial, powered to clinical and cost-effectiveness outcomes. Findings from this study may be transferable to other long-term conditions and/or age groups. Project outputs will include briefing statements, summaries and academic papers, tailored for different audiences, including people living with diabetes, clinicians, policy makers and strategic decision makers. PROSPERO (CRD42017058726). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Healthcare priority setting in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukachi, Salome A.; Onyango-Ouma, Washington; Siso, Jared Maaka


    improves the priority setting decisions. This paper describes the healthcare priority setting processes in Malindi district, Kenya, prior to the implementation of A4R in 2008 and evaluates the process for its conformance with the conditions for A4R. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions with key...

  14. Maritime Domain Awareness FY08 assessment report


    MacKinnon, Douglas J.; Schacher, Gordon E.; Hutchins, Susan G.; Freeman, Jared


    The U.S. Navy has been given the responsibility to develop a comprehensive, worldwide Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) capability. PEO C4I has specified and assessed an initial set of systems, designated Spiral-1, to support MDS. Deputy Under Secretary of the Navy (DUSN) has appointed the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) to assess the overall capabilities and needs of MDA. This document reports the progress made in developing MDA capabilities during FY08. It summarizes information from PEO C4...

  15. Partial domain wall partition functions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foda, O; Wheeler, M


    We consider six-vertex model configurations on an (n × N) lattice, n ≤ N, that satisfy a variation on domain wall boundary conditions that we define and call partial domain wall boundary conditions...

  16. Examining online chat within a domain of uncertainty: the case of Asperger's syndrome. (United States)

    Lorence, Daniel


    To determine whether grounded theory can be applied as a cross-disciplinary evaluative framework for assessing health information, especially within domain-specific peer-to-peer networks. Using a grounded-theory approach, we seek to identify recurring themes of peer-based interaction, without the ongoing management of clinical experts, as a way to determine stakeholder concerns and interests in a domain of frequent clinical uncertainty and treatment, Asperger's syndrome. We find that users of web-based information in such areas often report reliance on information for medical decision making and disease management, at times to the point where interaction becomes a form of 'cybertherapy.' Further, such groups often evolve into disease-specific, 'virtual support groups', even where discussions highlight a lack of consensus regarding the role, function and quality of information within this unique domain. A grounded theory approach can successfully be applied in a domain-specific setting to identify themes in unstructured peer-to-peer discussion of ill-defined diseases and treatments.

  17. Whole-body single-cell sequencing reveals transcriptional domains in the annelid larval body. (United States)

    Achim, Kaia; Eling, Nils; Vergara, Hernando Martinez; Bertucci, Paola Yanina; Musser, Jacob; Vopalensky, Pavel; Brunet, Thibaut; Collier, Paul; Benes, Vladimir; Marioni, John C; Arendt, Detlev


    Animal bodies comprise diverse arrays of cells. To characterise cellular identities across an entire body, we have compared the transcriptomes of single cells randomly picked from dissociated whole larvae of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We identify five transcriptionally distinct groups of differentiated cells, each expressing a unique set of transcription factors and effector genes that implement cellular phenotypes. Spatial mapping of cells into a cellular expression atlas, and wholemount in situ hybridisation of group-specific genes reveals spatially coherent transcriptional domains in the larval body, comprising e.g. apical sensory-neurosecretory cells vs. neural/epidermal surface cells. These domains represent new, basic subdivisions of the annelid body based entirely on differential gene expression, and are composed of multiple, transcriptionally similar cell types. They do not represent clonal domains, as revealed by developmental lineage analysis. We propose that the transcriptional domains that subdivide the annelid larval body represent families of related cell types that have arisen by evolutionary diversification. Their possible evolutionary conservation makes them a promising tool for evo-devo research. (167/250). © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Evolutionary cores of domain co-occurrence networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaas Eivind


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The modeling of complex systems, as disparate as the World Wide Web and the cellular metabolism, as networks has recently uncovered a set of generic organizing principles: Most of these systems are scale-free while at the same time modular, resulting in a hierarchical architecture. The structure of the protein domain network, where individual domains correspond to nodes and their co-occurrences in a protein are interpreted as links, also falls into this category, suggesting that domains involved in the maintenance of increasingly developed, multicellular organisms accumulate links. Here, we take the next step by studying link based properties of the protein domain co-occurrence networks of the eukaryotes S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, M. musculus and H. sapiens. Results We construct the protein domain co-occurrence networks from the PFAM database and analyze them by applying a k-core decomposition method that isolates the globally central (highly connected domains in the central cores from the locally central (highly connected domains in the peripheral cores protein domains through an iterative peeling process. Furthermore, we compare the subnetworks thus obtained to the physical domain interaction network of S. cerevisiae. We find that the innermost cores of the domain co-occurrence networks gradually grow with increasing degree of evolutionary development in going from single cellular to multicellular eukaryotes. The comparison of the cores across all the organisms under consideration uncovers patterns of domain combinations that are predominately involved in protein functions such as cell-cell contacts and signal transduction. Analyzing a weighted interaction network of PFAM domains of Yeast, we find that domains having only a few partners frequently interact with these, while the converse is true for domains with a multitude of partners. Combining domain co-occurrence and interaction information, we observe

  19. Domain Generalization and Adaptation using Low Rank Exemplar SVMs. (United States)

    Li, Wen; Xu, Zheng; Xu, Dong; Dai, Dengxin; Van Gool, Luc


    Domain adaptation between diverse source and target domains is a challenging research problem, especially in the real-world visual recognition tasks where the images and videos consist of significant variations in viewpoints, illuminations, qualities, etc. In this paper, we propose a new approach for domain generalization and domain adaptation based on exemplar SVMs. Specifically, we decompose the source domain into many subdomains, each of which contains only one positive training sample and all negative samples. Each subdomain is relatively less diverse, and is expected to have a simpler distribution. By training one exemplar SVM for each subdomain, we obtain a set of exemplar SVMs. To further exploit the inherent structure of source domain, we introduce a nuclear-norm based regularizer into the objective function in order to enforce the exemplar SVMs to produce a low-rank output on training samples. In the prediction process, the confident exemplar SVM classifiers are selected and reweigted according to the distribution mismatch between each subdomain and the test sample in the target domain. We formulate our approach based on the logistic regression and least square SVM algorithms, which are referred to as low rank exemplar SVMs (LRE-SVMs) and low rank exemplar least square SVMs (LRE-LSSVMs), respectively. A fast algorithm is also developed for accelerating the training of LRE-LSSVMs. We further extend Domain Adaptation Machine (DAM) to learn an optimal target classifier for domain adaptation, and show that our approach can also be applied to domain adaptation with evolving target domain, where the target data distribution is gradually changing. The comprehensive experiments for object recognition and action recognition demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for domain generalization and domain adaptation with fixed and evolving target domains.

  20. Development of an international core outcome set for peripheral vascular malformations: the OVAMA project. (United States)

    Horbach, S E R; van der Horst, C M A M; Blei, F; van der Vleuten, C J M; Frieden, I J; Richter, G T; Tan, S T; Muir, T; Penington, A J; Boon, L M; Spuls, P I


    An important limitation in vascular malformation research is the heterogeneity in outcome measures used for the evaluation of treatment outcome. To reach international consensus on a core outcome set (COS) for clinical research on peripheral vascular malformations: lymphatic (LM), venous (VM) and arteriovenous malformations (AVM). In this consensus study, we determined what domains should constitute the COS. Thirty-six possibly relevant outcome domains were proposed to an international group of physicians, patients and the parents of patients. In a three-round e-Delphi process using online surveys, participants repeatedly rated the importance of these domains on a five-point Likert scale. Participants could also propose other relevant domains. This process was performed for LM, VM and AVM separately. Consensus was predefined as 80% agreement on the importance of a domain among both the physician group and the patient/parent group. Outcomes were then re-evaluated in an online consensus meeting. 167 physicians and 134 patients and parents of patients with LM (n = 50), VM (n = 71) and AVM (n = 29) participated in the study. After three rounds and a consensus meeting, consensus was reached for all three types of vascular malformations on the core domains of radiological assessment, physician-reported location-specific signs, patient-reported severity of symptoms, pain, quality of life, satisfaction and adverse events. Vascular malformation type-specific signs and symptoms were included for LM, VM and AVM, separately. Our recommendation is that therapeutic-efficacy studies on peripheral vascular malformations should measure at least these core outcome domains. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Domain walls on the brane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; van der Schaar, JP; Papadopoulos, G


    We show that all branes admit worldvolume domain wall solutions. We find one class of solutions for which the tension of the brane changes discontinuously along the domain wall. These solutions are not supersymmetric. We argue that there is another class of domain wall solutions which is

  2. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP): use of a small group reading activity run by persons with dementia in adult day health care and long-term care settings. (United States)

    Skrajner, Michael J; Camp, Cameron J


    Six persons in the early to middle stages of dementia ("leaders") were trained in Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP) to lead a reading activity for 22 persons with more advanced dementia ("participants") in an adult day health center (ADHC) and a special care unit (SCU) in a skilled nursing facility. Researchers assessed the leaders' abilities to learn and follow the procedures of leading a group, as well as their satisfaction with their roles. In addition, participants' engagement and affect were measured, both during standard activities programming and during client-led activities. Results of this study suggest that persons with dementia can indeed successfully lead small group activities, if several important prerequisites are met. Furthermore, the engagement and affect of participants was more positive in client-led activities than in standard activities programming.

  3. Metaphors, domains and embodiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Botha


    Full Text Available Investigations of metaphorical meaning constitution and meaning (in- variance have revealed the significance of semantic and semiotic domains and the contexts within which they function as basis for the grounding of metaphorical meaning. In this article some of the current views concerning the grounding of metaphorical meaning in experience and embodiment are explored. My provisional agreement with Lakoff, Johnson and others about the “conceptual” nature of metaphor rests on an important caveat, viz. that this bodily based conceptual structure which lies at the basis of linguistic articulations of metaphor, is grounded in a deeper ontic structure of the world and of human experience. It is the “metaphorical” (actually “analogical” ontological structure of this grounding that is of interest for the line of argumentation followed in this article. Because Johnson, Lakoff and other’s proposal to ground metaphorical meaning in embodiment and neural processes is open to being construed as subjectivist and materialist, I shall attempt to articulate the contours of an alternative theory of conceptual metaphor, meaning and embodiment which counteracts these possibilities. This theory grounds metaphorical meaning and meaning change in an ontological and anthropological framework which recognises the presence and conditioning functioning of radially ordered structures for reality. These categorisations in which humankind, human knowledge and reality participate, condition and constrain (ground analogical and metaphorical meaning transfer, cross-domain mappings, and blends in cognition and in language, provide the basis for the analogical concepts found in these disciplines.

  4. On Probability Domains IV (United States)

    Frič, Roman; Papčo, Martin


    Stressing a categorical approach, we continue our study of fuzzified domains of probability, in which classical random events are replaced by measurable fuzzy random events. In operational probability theory (S. Bugajski) classical random variables are replaced by statistical maps (generalized distribution maps induced by random variables) and in fuzzy probability theory (S. Gudder) the central role is played by observables (maps between probability domains). We show that to each of the two generalized probability theories there corresponds a suitable category and the two resulting categories are dually equivalent. Statistical maps and observables become morphisms. A statistical map can send a degenerated (pure) state to a non-degenerated one —a quantum phenomenon and, dually, an observable can map a crisp random event to a genuine fuzzy random event —a fuzzy phenomenon. The dual equivalence means that the operational probability theory and the fuzzy probability theory coincide and the resulting generalized probability theory has two dual aspects: quantum and fuzzy. We close with some notes on products and coproducts in the dual categories.

  5. On Probability Domains IV (United States)

    Frič, Roman; Papčo, Martin


    Stressing a categorical approach, we continue our study of fuzzified domains of probability, in which classical random events are replaced by measurable fuzzy random events. In operational probability theory (S. Bugajski) classical random variables are replaced by statistical maps (generalized distribution maps induced by random variables) and in fuzzy probability theory (S. Gudder) the central role is played by observables (maps between probability domains). We show that to each of the two generalized probability theories there corresponds a suitable category and the two resulting categories are dually equivalent. Statistical maps and observables become morphisms. A statistical map can send a degenerated (pure) state to a non-degenerated one —a quantum phenomenon and, dually, an observable can map a crisp random event to a genuine fuzzy random event —a fuzzy phenomenon. The dual equivalence means that the operational probability theory and the fuzzy probability theory coincide and the resulting generalized probability theory has two dual aspects: quantum and fuzzy. We close with some notes on products and coproducts in the dual categories.

  6. Revised domain structure of ulvan lyase and characterization of the first ulvan binding domain. (United States)

    Melcher, Rebecca L J; Neumann, Marten; Fuenzalida Werner, Juan Pablo; Gröhn, Franziska; Moerschbacher, Bruno M


    Biomass waste products from green algae have recently been given new life, as these polysaccharides have potential applications in industry, agriculture, and medicine. One such polysaccharide group called ulvans displays many different, potentially useful properties that arise from their structural versatility. Hence, performing structural analyses on ulvan is crucial for future applications. However, chemical reaction-based analysis methods cannot fully characterize ulvan and tend to alter its structure. Thus, better methods require well-characterized ulvan-degrading enzymes. Therefore, we analysed a previously sequenced ulvan lyase (Genebank TM reference number JN104480) and characterized its domains. We suggest that the enzyme consists of a shorter than previously described catalytic domain, a newly identified substrate binding domain, and a C-terminal type 9 secretion system signal peptide. By separately expressing the two domains in E. coli, we confirmed that the binding domain is ulvan specific, having higher affinity for ulvan than most lectins for their ligands (affinity constant: 10 5  M -1 ). To our knowledge, this is the first description of an ulvan-binding domain. Overall, identifying this new binding domain is one step towards engineering ulvan enzymes that can be used to characterize ulvan, e.g. through enzymatic/mass spectrometric fingerprinting analyses, and help unlock its full potential.

  7. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund


    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  8. Ligand binding by PDZ domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Celestine N.; Bach, Anders; Strømgaard, Kristian


    The postsynaptic density protein-95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) protein domain family is one of the most common protein-protein interaction modules in mammalian cells, with paralogs present in several hundred human proteins. PDZ domains are found in most cell types, but neuronal proteins......, for example, are particularly rich in these domains. The general function of PDZ domains is to bring proteins together within the appropriate cellular compartment, thereby facilitating scaffolding, signaling, and trafficking events. The many functions of PDZ domains under normal physiological as well...

  9. Broadband Beamspace DOA Estimation: Frequency-Domain and Time-Domain Processing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shefeng


    Full Text Available Frequency-domain and time-domain processing approaches to direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation for multiple broadband far field signals using beamspace preprocessing structures are proposed. The technique is based on constant mainlobe response beamforming. A set of frequency-domain and time-domain beamformers with constant (frequency independent mainlobe response and controlled sidelobes is designed to cover the spatial sector of interest using optimal array pattern synthesis technique and optimal FIR filters design technique. These techniques lead the resulting beampatterns higher mainlobe approximation accuracy and yet lower sidelobes. For the scenario of strong out-of-sector interfering sources, our approaches can form nulls or notches in the direction of them and yet guarantee that the mainlobe response of the beamformers is constant over the design band. Numerical results show that the proposed time-domain processing DOA estimator has comparable performance with the proposed frequency-domain processing method, and that both of them are able to resolve correlated source signals and provide better resolution at lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and lower root-mean-square error (RMSE of the DOA estimate compared with the existing method. Our beamspace DOA estimators maintain good DOA estimation and spatial resolution capability in the scenario of strong out-of-sector interfering sources.

  10. Observation of coupled magnetic and electric domains. (United States)

    Fiebig, M; Lottermoser, Th; Fröhlich, D; Goltsev, A V; Pisarev, R V


    Ferroelectromagnets are an interesting group of compounds that complement purely (anti-)ferroelectric or (anti-)ferromagnetic materials--they display simultaneous electric and magnetic order. With this coexistence they supplement materials in which magnetization can be induced by an electric field and electrical polarization by a magnetic field, a property which is termed the magnetoelectric effect. Aside from its fundamental importance, the mutual control of electric and magnetic properties is of significant interest for applications in magnetic storage media and 'spintronics'. The coupled electric and magnetic ordering in ferroelectromagnets is accompanied by the formation of domains and domain walls. However, such a cross-correlation between magnetic and electric domains has so far not been observed. Here we report spatial maps of coupled antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric domains in YMnO3, obtained by imaging with optical second harmonic generation. The coupling originates from an interaction between magnetic and electric domain walls, which leads to a configuration that is dominated by the ferroelectromagnetic product of the order parameters.

  11. Lie groups and algebraic groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    identity. It is a remarkable fact that simple. Lie groups can be completely classified; they are the special linear groups, orthogonal groups and symplectic groups. Apart from these, the list is a finite one (the so-called exceptional groups). This is the Cartan–Killing classification, which nowadays, is described in terms of the.

  12. Domain Specific Language Support for Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor-Crummey, John [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)


    A multi-institutional project known as D-TEC (short for “Domain- specific Technology for Exascale Computing”) set out to explore technologies to support the construction of Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) to map application programs to exascale architectures. DSLs employ automated code transformation to shift the burden of delivering portable performance from application programmers to compilers. Two chief properties contribute: DSLs permit expression at a high level of abstraction so that a programmer’s intent is clear to a compiler and DSL implementations encapsulate human domain-specific optimization knowledge so that a compiler can be smart enough to achieve good results on specific hardware. Domain specificity is what makes these properties possible in a programming language. If leveraging domain specificity is the key to keep exascale software tractable, a corollary is that many different DSLs will be needed to encompass the full range of exascale computing applications; moreover, a single application may well need to use several different DSLs in conjunction. As a result, developing a general toolkit for building domain-specific languages was a key goal for the D-TEC project. Different aspects of the D-TEC research portfolio were the focus of work at each of the partner institutions in the multi-institutional project. D-TEC research and development work at Rice University focused on on three principal topics: understanding how to automate the tuning of code for complex architectures, research and development of the Rosebud DSL engine, and compiler technology to support complex execution platforms. This report provides a summary of the research and development work on the D-TEC project at Rice University.

  13. Method for identification of rigid domains and hinge residues in proteins based on exhaustive enumeration. (United States)

    Sim, Jaehyun; Sim, Jun; Park, Eunsung; Lee, Julian


    Many proteins undergo large-scale motions where relatively rigid domains move against each other. The identification of rigid domains, as well as the hinge residues important for their relative movements, is important for various applications including flexible docking simulations. In this work, we develop a method for protein rigid domain identification based on an exhaustive enumeration of maximal rigid domains, the rigid domains not fully contained within other domains. The computation is performed by mapping the problem to that of finding maximal cliques in a graph. A minimal set of rigid domains are then selected, which cover most of the protein with minimal overlap. In contrast to the results of existing methods that partition a protein into non-overlapping domains using approximate algorithms, the rigid domains obtained from exact enumeration naturally contain overlapping regions, which correspond to the hinges of the inter-domain bending motion. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated on several proteins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs. (United States)

    Forslund, Kristoffer; Pekkari, Isabella; Sonnhammer, Erik L L


    As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence.To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation.The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the notion that orthologs are

  15. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs (United States)


    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  16. Geochemistry and Sm-Nd systematics of the 1.67 Ga Buanji Group of southwestern Tanzania: Paleo-weathering, provenance and paleo-tectonic setting implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H. Kasanzu


    The lower Buanji Formation yielded a depleted mantle Nd model age (TDM of ∼2100 Ma which indicates an Eburnean parentage. TDM ages of 2486–2155 Ma and 2535–2379 Ma obtained from middle and upper Buanji formations, respectively, suggest a progressive increase of sedimentary input from the Tanzania Craton up-stratigraphy. The Eburnean TDM ages of the lower Buanji rocks are attributed to their derivation through denudation of a decaying topographic high composed predominantly of rocks that were generated during the Palaeoproterozoic Ubendian orogenesis, possibly in the realm of Columbian Supercontinent assembly. Overlapping TDM ages between the middle and upper Buanji formations suggest multiple sources involving mixing of detritus from Archaean cratonic rocks and the Palaeoproterozoic Ubendian belt. However, the Archaean signal is relatively more pronounced in the upper Buanji Formation, suggesting sediments derivation from the craton, to the north of the basin. The middle Buanji Formation suggests more diverse protolith, given the relatively larger spread in the TDM ages. The Nb/Ta, Zr/Sm and Ce/Pb ratios coupled with the negative Nb and Ta anomalies, relative to primitive mantle, suggest that the tectonic setting of the source rocks for the Buanji sediments was a subduction zone akin to that generating modern Island Arc Basalts. Thus, we suggest that the Buanji's palaeogeography is consistent with an extensional continental backarc basin during the late Paleoproterozoic.

  17. Iterative Re-Weighted Instance Transfer for Domain Adaptation (United States)

    Paul, A.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.


    Domain adaptation techniques in transfer learning try to reduce the amount of training data required for classification by adapting a classifier trained on samples from a source domain to a new data set (target domain) where the features may have different distributions. In this paper, we propose a new technique for domain adaptation based on logistic regression. Starting with a classifier trained on training data from the source domain, we iteratively include target domain samples for which class labels have been obtained from the current state of the classifier, while at the same time removing source domain samples. In each iteration the classifier is re-trained, so that the decision boundaries are slowly transferred to the distribution of the target features. To make the transfer procedure more robust we introduce weights as a function of distance from the decision boundary and a new way of regularisation. Our methodology is evaluated using a benchmark data set consisting of aerial images and digital surface models. The experimental results show that in the majority of cases our domain adaptation approach can lead to an improvement of the classification accuracy without additional training data, but also indicate remaining problems if the difference in the feature distributions becomes too large.

  18. Comprehensive studies of hydrogeochemical processes and quality status of groundwater with tools of cluster, grouping analysis, and fuzzy set method using GIS platform: a case study of Dalcheon in Ulsan City, Korea. (United States)

    Venkatramanan, S; Chung, S Y; Rajesh, R; Lee, S Y; Ramkumar, T; Prasanna, M V


    This research aimed at developing comprehensive assessments of physicochemical quality of groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes at Dalcheon in Ulsan City, Korea. The mean concentration of major ions represented as follows: Ca (94.3 mg/L) > Mg (41.7 mg/L) > Na (19.2 mg/L) > K (3.2 mg/L) for cations and SO4 (351 mg/L) > HCO3 (169 mg/L) > Cl (19 mg/L) for anions. Thematic maps for physicochemical parameters of groundwater were prepared, classified, weighted, and integrated in GIS method with fuzzy logic. The maps exhibited that suitable zone of drinking and irrigation purpose occupied in SE, NE, and NW sectors. The undesirable zone of drinking purpose was observed in SW and central parts and that of irrigation was in the western part of the study area. This was influenced by improperly treated effluents from an abandoned iron ore mine, irrigation, and domestic fields. By grouping analysis, groundwater types were classified into Ca(HCO3)2, (Ca,Mg)Cl2, and CaCl2, and CaHCO3 was the most predominant type. Grouping analysis also showed three types of irrigation water such as C1S1, C1S2, and C1S3. C1S3 type of high salinity to low sodium hazard was the most dominant in the study area. Equilibrium processes elucidated the groundwater samples were in the saturated to undersaturated condition with respect to aragonite, calcite, dolomite, and gypsum due to precipitation and deposition processes. Cluster analysis suggested that high contents of SO4 and HCO3 with low Cl was related with water-rock interactions and along with mining impact. This study showed that the effluents discharged from mining waste was the main sources of groundwater quality deterioration.

  19. Prescriptive Group Leadership. (United States)

    Polcin, Douglas L.


    Reviews literature on group leadership from various theoretical orientations and maintains that variable group leadership functions are necessary to address needs of different client populations and to adapt to different clinical settings. Describes four leadership functions found to be related to outcome in research by Lieberman, Yalom, and Miles…

  20. The Garrison Domain: Civil Military Relations in the Cyberspace Domain (United States)


    governance, commerce , communications, and entertainment. The reliance on cyberspace is so predominant it seems unacceptable to not be part of the domain...Almost every type of person and organization on this planet arguably touches the cyberspace domain, directly or indirectly. Because this domain is...Department of Justice (DOJ) has also begun using cyberspace to gather information intelligence. Flying small civilian aircraft with electronic boxes to

  1. Geologic setting and characterization of coals and the modes of occurrence of selected elements from the Franklin coal zone, Puget Group, John Henry No. 1 mine, King County, Washington, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Cathcart, James D.; Brownfield, Isabelle K.; Rice, Cynthia A. [U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, MS 939, DFC, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Johnson, Samuel Y. [U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, MS 999, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States)


    Upper middle and upper Eocene coal-bearing strata in the Green River coal district of Washington state are in the Franklin coal zone of the undivided Puget Group. Coal-bearing strata accumulated in intertidal and deltaic environments along a tidally influenced delta plain. Numerous shale and tonstein partings within the coals indicate that the coal formed in low-lying peat mires. To evaluate variations in element distribution within these coals, vertical bench channel samples from the Franklin No. 7-8-9 (n=24) and the No. 10 (n=11) coal beds were collected. Coal beds in the John Henry No. 1 mine of the Green River coal district have an apparent rank of high volatile B bituminous. No. 7-8-9 and No. 10 have a mean sulfur content of 0.67 wt.% and 0.9 wt.% respectively. When compared statistically to other western U.S. Tertiary coals, the Franklin coal zone in the John Henry No. 1 mine Franklin coal zone is significantly higher in contents of ash, Si, Al, Mg, K, Ti, Ag, As, Cu, F, Ga, Hg, Li, Nb, Ni, P, Sc, Sr, V, Y, Yb, and Zr, and has significantly lower contents of Ca, Na, B, Nd, and Se. Mean contents of several elements in the Franklin No. 7-8-9 and No. 10 coal beds are uncommonly high compared to western U.S. Tertiary coals. The No. 7-8-9 bed is higher in As (6.6X, 44 ppm), Cu (3.8X, 42 ppm), F (3X, 190 ppm), Hg (44X, 4.4 ppm), Mn (3.4X, 170 ppm), Nb (4.4X, 10 ppm), Ni (3.5X, 16 ppm), V (4X, 68 ppm), and Zr (4.9X, 88 ppm). The No. 10 bed is higher in As (11X, 81 ppm), Cu (3.2X, 35 ppm), Hg (75X, 7.5 ppm), Ni (3.3X, 15 ppm), P (5.4X, 1300 ppm), Sc (4.1X, 8 ppm), Sr (2.5X, 680 ppm), V (3.7X, 63 ppm), and Zr (2.7X, 48 ppm). X-ray diffraction analysis of the low-temperature ash from these coals reveals the predominance of quartz and clays (kaolinite, minor illite, smectite group, and mixed layer) and minor plagiociase feldspar (albite, disordered, and ordered Ca-bearing), carbonate (ankerite, calcite, kutnohorite, and siderite), pyrite, and clinoptilolite. Minor

  2. Single Domain Antibodies as New Biomarker Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiuan Herng Leow


    Full Text Available Biomarkers are defined as indicators of biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers have been widely used for early detection, prediction of response after treatment, and for monitoring the progression of diseases. Antibodies represent promising tools for recognition of biomarkers, and are widely deployed as analytical tools in clinical settings. For immunodiagnostics, antibodies are now exploited as binders for antigens of interest across a range of platforms. More recently, the discovery of antibody surface display and combinatorial chemistry techniques has allowed the exploration of new binders from a range of animals, for instance variable domains of new antigen receptors (VNAR from shark and variable heavy chain domains (VHH or nanobodies from camelids. These single domain antibodies (sdAbs have some advantages over conventional murine immunoglobulin owing to the lack of a light chain, making them the smallest natural biomarker binders thus far identified. In this review, we will discuss several biomarkers used as a means to validate diseases progress. The potential functionality of modern singe domain antigen binders derived from phylogenetically early animals as new biomarker detectors for current diagnostic and research platforms development will be described.

  3. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah


    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  4. Symmetry groups of automata (United States)

    Ugalde, Edgardo; Urías, Jesús


    Symmetry transformations on the input and output code spaces of deterministic finite automata (DFA) are introduced. We show that the symmetry groups of transformations are produced by group DFA (gDFA) whose set of states and set of inputs are subgroups of the symmetric groups S q and S k, respectively ( q is the number of states and k the number of input symbols). The set of transitions of a gDFA is also a group. The symmetries of the n-moment delay DFA, relevant for cellular automata, are studied in detail. In particular, we show that the n-moment delay DFA on two symbols are self-symmetric. The symmetry gDFA of the 2-moment delay DFA on two symbols is displayed in detail. An algorithm to construct the symmetry gDFA of arbitrary DFA is given. An application of gDFA to cellular automata dynamics is mentioned.

  5. Group Flow and Group Genius (United States)

    Sawyer, Keith


    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  6. Group theory I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G


    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Group Theory I includes sets and mapping, groupoids and semi-groups, groups, isomorphisms and homomorphisms, cyclic groups, the Sylow theorems, and finite p-groups.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the axin DIX domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Naoki, E-mail: [Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5248 (Japan); Tomimoto, Yusuke [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hanamura, Toru; Yamamoto, Ryo; Ueda, Mai; Ueda, Yasufumi; Mizuno, Nobuhiro; Ogata, Hideaki [Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Komori, Hirofumi; Shomura, Yasuhito [Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5248 (Japan); Kataoka, Michihiko; Shimizu, Sakayu [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kondo, Jun [Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida-cho, Aoba-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-0033 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hideki; Kikuchi, Akira [Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Higuchi, Yoshiki, E-mail: [Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5248 (Japan)


    The DIX domain of rat axin has been purified and crystallized. Crystals diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Axin is a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt signalling pathway that mediates the phosphorylation of β-catenin by glycogen synthase kinase 3β. The DIX domain of rat axin, which is important for its homooligomerization and interactions with other regulators in the Wnt pathway, was purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 6000 and lithium sulfate as crystallization agents. Crystals belong to space group P6{sub 1} or P6{sub 5}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.49, c = 84.92 Å. An X-ray diffraction data set has been collected to a nominal resolution of 2.9 Å.

  8. Domain imaging in FINEMET ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveyra, J.M., E-mail: jsilveyra@fi.uba.a [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, UBA-CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, (C1063ACV) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vlasak, G.; Svec, P.; Janickovic, D. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Cremaschi, V.J., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, UBA-CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, (C1063ACV) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Member of Carrera del Investigador, CONICET (Argentina)


    The magnetization behaviour of a ferromagnetic material depends on its domain structure, which in turn is largely determined by magnetic anisotropies. In this work, domain patterns were observed by a quite forgotten but still the simplest and the cheapest technique: the Bitter method. A systematic study of the evolution of the domain structure in FINEMET ribbons after thermal annealing is presented, correlating the results with the crystalline structure, magnetostriction and coercivity measurements.

  9. An efficient, scalable, and adaptable framework for solving generic systems of level-set PDEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore R. Mosaliganti


    Full Text Available In the last decade, level-set methods have been actively developed for applications in image registration, segmentation, tracking, and reconstruction. However, the development of a wide variety of level-set PDEs and their numerical discretization schemes, coupled with hybrid combinations of PDE terms, stopping criteria, and reinitialization strategies, has created a software logistics problem. In the absence of an integrative design, current toolkits support only specific types of level-set implementations which restrict future algorithm development since extensions require significant code duplication and effort. In the new NIH/NLM Insight Toolkit (ITK v4 architecture, we implemented a level-set software design that is flexible to different numerical (continuous, discrete, and sparse and grid representations (point, mesh, and image-based. Given that a generic PDE is a summation of different terms, we used a set of linked containers to which level-set terms can be added or deleted at any point in the evolution process. This container-based approach allows the user to explore and customize terms in the level-set equation at compile-time in a flexible manner. The framework is optimized so that repeated computations of common intensity functions (e.g. gradient and Hessians across multiple terms is eliminated. The framework further enables the evolution of multiple level-sets for multi-object segmentation and processing of large datasets. For doing so, we restrict level-set domains to subsets of the image domain and use multithreading strategies to process groups of subdomains or level-set functions. Users can also select from a variety of reinitialization policies and stopping criteria. Finally, we developed a visualization framework that shows the evolution of a level-set in real-time to help guide algorithm development and parameter optimization. We demonstrate the power of our new framework using confocal microscopy images of cells in a

  10. Childhood disability population-based surveillance: Assessment of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire Third Edition and Washington Group on Disability Statistics/UNICEF module on child functioning in a rural setting in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Visser


    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological information on childhood disability provides the basis for a country to plan, implement and manage the provision of health, educational and social services for these vulnerable children. There is, however, currently no population-based surveillance instrument that is compatible with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, internationally comparable, methodologically sound and comprehensively researched, to identify children under 5 years of age who are living with disability in South Africa and internationally. We conducted a descriptive pilot study to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of translated versions of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire Third Edition (ASQ-III and the Washington Group on Disability Statistics/UNICEF module on child functioning (WG/UNICEF module as parent-reported measures. The aim of our study was to identify early childhood disabilities in children aged 24–48 months in a rural area of South Africa, to determine the appropriateness of these instruments for population-based surveillance in similar contexts internationally.Methods: This study was conducted in the Xhariep District of the Free State Province in central South Africa, with 50 carers whose children were registered on the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA database as recipients of a grant for one of the following: Care Dependency, Child Support or Foster Care. The researchers, assisted by community healthcare workers and SASSA staff members, conducted structured interviews using forward–backward translated versions of the ASQ-III and the WG/UNICEF module.Results: Both measurement instruments had a clinically meaningful sensitivity of 60.0%, high specificity of 95.6% for the ASQ-III and 84.4% for the WG/UNICEF module, and the two instruments agreed moderately (Kappa = 0.6.Conclusion: Since the WG/UNICEF module is quicker to administer, easier to understand

  11. Summarization by domain ontology navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik


    A summary is a concise description that reflects the essence of a subject. A text, a collection of text documents, or a query answer can be summarized by simple means such as an automatically generated list of the most frequent words or “advanced” by a meaningful natural language description...... be a simple taxonomy or a generative domain ontology. A domain ontology can be provided by a preanalysis of a domain corpus and can be used to condense improved summaries that better reflects the conceptualization of a given domain....

  12. Bifurcation Observation of Combining Spiral Gear Transmission Based on Parameter Domain Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Lin


    Full Text Available This study considers the bifurcation evolutions for a combining spiral gear transmission through parameter domain structure analysis. The system nonlinear vibration equations are created with piecewise backlash and general errors. Gill’s numerical integration algorithm is implemented in calculating the vibration equation sets. Based on cell-mapping method (CMM, two-dimensional dynamic domain planes have been developed and primarily focused on the parameters of backlash, transmission error, mesh frequency and damping ratio, and so forth. Solution demonstrates that Period-doubling bifurcation happens as the mesh frequency increases; moreover nonlinear discontinuous jump breaks the periodic orbit and also turns the periodic state into chaos suddenly. In transmission error planes, three cell groups which are Period-1, Period-4, and Chaos have been observed, and the boundary cells are the sensitive areas to dynamic response. Considering the parameter planes which consist of damping ratio associated with backlash, transmission error, mesh stiffness, and external load, the solution domain structure reveals that the system step into chaos undergoes Period-doubling cascade with Period-2m (m: integer periodic regions. Direct simulations to obtain the bifurcation diagram and largest Lyapunov exponent (LE match satisfactorily with the parameter domain solutions.

  13. Phylogenetic and Epigenetic Footprinting of the Putative Enhancers of the Peg3 Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joomyeong Kim

    Full Text Available The Peg3 (Paternally Expressed Gene 3 imprinted domain is predicted to be regulated through a large number of evolutionarily conserved regions (ECRs that are localized within its middle 200-kb region. In the current study, we characterized these potential cis-regulatory regions using phylogenetic and epigenetic approaches. According to the results, the majority of these ECRs are potential enhancers for the transcription of the Peg3 domain. Also, these potential enhancers can be divided into two groups based on their histone modification and DNA methylation patterns: ubiquitous and tissue-specific enhancers. Phylogenetic and bioinformatic analyses further revealed that several cis-regulatory motifs are frequently associated with the ECRs, such as the E box, PITX2, NF-κB and RFX1 motifs. A series of subsequent ChIP experiments demonstrated that the trans factor MYOD indeed binds to the E box of several ECRs, further suggesting that MYOD may play significant roles in the transcriptional control of the Peg3 domain. Overall, the current study identifies, for the first time, a set of cis-regulatory motifs and corresponding trans factors that may be critical for the transcriptional regulation of the Peg3 domain.

  14. Domain Theory, Its Models and Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Howard, Thomas J.; Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt


    , which can support design work and to form elements of designers’ mindsets and thereby their practice. The theory is a model-based theory, which means it is composed of concepts and models, which explains certain design phenomena. Many similar theories are described in the literature with differences...... and industrial applications especially for the DFX areas (not reported here) and for product modelling. The theory therefore contains a rich ontology of interrelated concepts. The Domain Theory is not aiming to create normative methods but the creation of a collection of concepts related to design phenomena...... in the set of concepts but assumingly all valid. The Domain Theory cannot be falsified or proven; but its value may be seen spanning from its range and productivity as described in the article....

  15. Permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Donald S


    This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature

  16. Hysteresis and noise in ferromagnetic materials with parallel domain walls


    Cerruti, B.; Durin, G.; Zapperi, S.


    We investigate dynamic hysteresis and Barkhausen noise in ferromagnetic materials with a huge number of parallel and rigid Bloch domain walls. Considering a disordered ferromagnetic system with strong in-plane uniaxial anisotropy and in-plane magnetization driven by an external magnetic field, we calculate the equations of motion for a set of coupled domain walls, considering the effects of the long-range dipolar interactions and disorder. We derive analytically an expression for the magnetic...

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_510961.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_510961.1 chr6 C1 set domains (antibody constant domain-like) d1syva1 chr6/NP_510961.1/NP_510961....1_apo_147-236.pdb d1im9a1 chr6/NP_510961.1/NP_510961.1_holo_147-236.pdb psi-blast 230K,235F,236I ALA,ASP,LYS 1 ...

  18. Structural Time Domain Identification (STDI) Toolbox for Use with MATLAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune


    The Structural Time Domain Identification (STDI) toolbox for use with MATLABTM is developed at Aalborg University, Denmark, based on the system identification research performed during recent years. By now, a reliable set of functions offers a wide spectrum of services for all the important steps...... of multivariate time domain system identification of time-variant as well as time-invariant civil engineering structures from ambient testing data. A graphical user interface (GUI) is also developed to make the toolbox more user friendly....

  19. Structural Time Domain Identification (STDI) Toolbox for Use with MATLAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune

    The Structural Time Domain Identification (STDI) toolbox for use with MATLABTM is developed at Aalborg University, Denmark, based on the system identification research performed during recent years. By now, a reliable set of functions offers a wide spectrum of services for all the important steps...... of multivariate time domain system identification of time-variant as well as time-invariant civil engineering structures from ambient testing data. A graphical user interface (GUI) is also developed to make the toolbox more user friendly....

  20. Docking protein domains in contact space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker-Taylor Alice


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many biological processes involve the physical interaction between protein domains. Understanding these functional associations requires knowledge of the molecular structure. Experimental investigations though present considerable difficulties and there is therefore a need for accurate and reliable computational methods. In this paper we present a novel method that seeks to dock protein domains using a contact map representation. Rather than providing a full three dimensional model of the complex, the method predicts contacting residues across the interface. We use a scoring function that combines structural, physicochemical and evolutionary information, where each potential residue contact is assigned a value according to the scoring function and the hypothesis is that the real configuration of contacts is the one that maximizes the score. The search is performed with a simulated annealing algorithm directly in contact space. Results We have tested the method on interacting domain pairs that are part of the same protein (intra-molecular domains. We show that it correctly predicts some contacts and that predicted residues tend to be significantly closer to each other than other pairs of residues in the same domains. Moreover we find that predicted contacts can often discriminate the best model (or the native structure, if present among a set of optimal solutions generated by a standard docking procedure. Conclusion Contact docking appears feasible and able to complement other computational methods for the prediction of protein-protein interactions. With respect to more standard docking algorithms it might be more suitable to handle protein conformational changes and to predict complexes starting from protein models.

  1. Grey sets and greyness


    Yang, Yingjie; John, Robert


    This paper discusses the application of grey numbers for uncertainty representation. It highlights the difference between grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets, and investigates the degree of greyness for grey sets. It facilitates the representation of uncertainty not only for elements of a set, but also the set itself as a whole. Our results show that a grey set could be specified for interval-valued fuzzy sets or rough sets under special conditions. With the notion of grey sets and their...

  2. Transmission conditions for the Helmholtzequation in perforated domains


    Dörlemann, Christina; Heida, Martin; Schweizer, Ben


    We study the Helmholtz equation in a perforated domain . The domain Ωε. The domain Ωε is obtained from an open set Ω⊂ℝ³ by removing small obstacles of typical size ε > 0, the obstacles are located along a 2-dimensional manifold Γ0 ⊂Ω, We derive effective transmission conditions across Γ0 that characterize solutions in the limit ε→0O. We obtain that, to leading order O(ε0)=O(1), the perforation is invisible. On the other hand, at order O(ε1)=O(ε), inhomogeneous jump conditions...

  3. Fuzzy sets, rough sets, multisets and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlbom, Anders; Narukawa, Yasuo


    This book is dedicated to Prof. Sadaaki Miyamoto and presents cutting-edge papers in some of the areas in which he contributed. Bringing together contributions by leading researchers in the field, it concretely addresses clustering, multisets, rough sets and fuzzy sets, as well as their applications in areas such as decision-making. The book is divided in four parts, the first of which focuses on clustering and classification. The second part puts the spotlight on multisets, bags, fuzzy bags and other fuzzy extensions, while the third deals with rough sets. Rounding out the coverage, the last part explores fuzzy sets and decision-making.

  4. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.


    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order

  5. Desiderata for domain reference ontologies in biomedicine. (United States)

    Burgun, Anita


    Domain reference ontologies represent knowledge about a particular part of the world in a way that is independent from specific objectives, through a theory of the domain. An example of reference ontology in biomedical informatics is the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA), an ontology of anatomy that covers the entire range of macroscopic, microscopic, and subcellular anatomy. The purpose of this paper is to explore how two domain reference ontologies--the FMA and the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology, can be used (i) to align existing terminologies, (ii) to infer new knowledge in ontologies of more complex entities, and (iii) to manage and help reasoning about individual data. We analyze those kinds of usages of these two domain reference ontologies and suggest desiderata for reference ontologies in biomedicine. While a number of groups and communities have investigated general requirements for ontology design and desiderata for controlled medical vocabularies, we are focusing on application purposes. We suggest five desirable characteristics for reference ontologies: good lexical coverage, good coverage in terms of relations, compatibility with standards, modularity, and ability to represent variation in reality.

  6. Cholesterol Bilayer Domains in the Eye Lens Health: A Review. (United States)

    Widomska, Justyna; Subczynski, Witold K; Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija


    The most unique biochemical characteristic of the eye lens fiber cell plasma membrane is its extremely high cholesterol content, the need for which is still unclear. It is evident, however, that the disturbance of Chol homeostasis may result in damages associated with cataracts. Electron paramagnetic resonance methods allow discrimination of two types of lipid domains in model membranes overloaded with Chol, namely, phospholipid-cholesterol domains and pure Chol bilayer domains. These domains are also detected in human lens lipid membranes prepared from the total lipids extracted from lens cortices and nuclei of donors from different age groups. Independent of the age-related changes in phospholipid composition, the physical properties of phospholipid-Chol domains remain the same for all age groups and are practically identical for cortical and nuclear membranes. The presence of Chol bilayer domains in these membranes provides a buffering capacity for cholesterol concentration in the surrounding phospholipid-Chol domains, keeping it at a constant saturating level and thus keeping the physical properties of the membrane consistent with and independent of changes in phospholipid composition. It seems that the presence of Chol bilayer domains plays an integral role in the regulation of cholesterol-dependent processes in fiber cell plasm membranes and in the maintenance of fiber cell membrane homeostasis.

  7. Associative Learning of Social Value in Dynamic Groups. (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Kroes, Marijn C W; Lackovic, Sandra; Phelps, Elizabeth A


    Although humans live in societies that regularly demand engaging with multiple people simultaneously, little is known about social learning in group settings. In two experiments, we combined a Pavlovian learning framework with dyadic economic games to test whether blocking mechanisms support value-based social learning in the gain (altruistic dictators) and loss (greedy robbers) domains. Subjects first learned about an altruistic dictator, who subsequently made altruistic splits collectively with a partner. Results revealed that because the presence of the dictator already predicted the outcome, subjects did not learn to associate value with the partner. This social blocking effect was not observed in the loss domain: A kind robber's partner, who could steal all the subjects' money but stole little, acquired highly positive value-which biased subjects' subsequent behavior. These findings reveal how Pavlovian mechanisms support efficient social learning, while also demonstrating that violations of social expectations can attenuate how readily these mechanisms are recruited.

  8. The monocyte binding domain(s) on human immunoglobulin G. (United States)

    Woof, J M; Nik Jaafar, M I; Jefferis, R; Burton, D R


    Monocyte binding has previously been assigned to the C gamma 3 domain of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) largely on the ability of the pFc' fragment to inhibit the monocyte-IgG interaction. This ability is markedly reduced compared to the intact parent IgG. We find this result with a conventional pFc' preparation but this preparation is found to contain trace contamination of parent IgG as demonstrated by reactivity with monoclonal antibodies directed against C gamma 2 domain and light-chain epitopes of human IgG. Extensive immunoaffinity purification of the pFc' preparation removes its inhibitory ability indicating that this originates in the trace contamination of parent IgG (or Fc). Neither of the human IgG1 paraproteins TIM, lacking the C gamma 2 domain, or SIZ, lacking the C gamma 3 domain, are found to inhibit the monocyte-IgG interaction. The hinge-deleted IgG1 Dob protein shows little or no inhibitory ability. Indirect evidence for the involvement of the C gamma 2 domain in monocyte binding is considered. We suggest finally that the site of interaction is found either on the C gamma 2 domain alone or between the C gamma 2 and C gamma 3 domains.

  9. Public domain optical character recognition (United States)

    Garris, Michael D.; Blue, James L.; Candela, Gerald T.; Dimmick, Darrin L.; Geist, Jon C.; Grother, Patrick J.; Janet, Stanley A.; Wilson, Charles L.


    A public domain document processing system has been developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The system is a standard reference form-based handprint recognition system for evaluating optical character recognition (OCR), and it is intended to provide a baseline of performance on an open application. The system's source code, training data, performance assessment tools, and type of forms processed are all publicly available. The system recognizes the handprint entered on handwriting sample forms like the ones distributed with NIST Special Database 1. From these forms, the system reads hand-printed numeric fields, upper and lowercase alphabetic fields, and unconstrained text paragraphs comprised of words from a limited-size dictionary. The modular design of the system makes it useful for component evaluation and comparison, training and testing set validation, and multiple system voting schemes. The system contains a number of significant contributions to OCR technology, including an optimized probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifier that operates a factor of 20 times faster than traditional software implementations of the algorithm. The source code for the recognition system is written in C and is organized into 11 libraries. In all, there are approximately 19,000 lines of code supporting more than 550 subroutines. Source code is provided for form registration, form removal, field isolation, field segmentation, character normalization, feature extraction, character classification, and dictionary-based postprocessing. The recognition system has been successfully compiled and tested on a host of UNIX workstations. This paper gives an overview of the recognition system's software architecture, including descriptions of the various system components along with timing and accuracy statistics.

  10. Priority setting, justice, and health care: conceptual analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nilstun, T


    ...). The proposal put forward is that the task of medical ethics is to provide conceptual clarification and value premises relevant to justify rules of priority setting. The actual choice of such rules belongs primarily to the domain of politics.

  11. Structural properties of PAS domains from the KCNH potassium channels. (United States)

    Adaixo, Ricardo; Harley, Carol A; Castro-Rodrigues, Artur F; Morais-Cabral, João H


    KCNH channels form an important family of voltage gated potassium channels. These channels include a N-terminal Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain with unknown function. In other proteins PAS domains are implicated in cellular responses to environmental queues through small molecule binding or involvement in signaling cascades. To better understand their role we characterized the structural properties of several channel PAS domains. We determined high resolution structures of PAS domains from the mouse EAG (mEAG), drosophila ELK (dELK) and human ERG (hERG) channels and also of the hERG domain without the first nine amino acids. We analyzed these structures for features connected to ligand binding and signaling in other PAS domains. In particular, we have found cavities in the hERG and mEAG structures that share similarities with the ligand binding sites from other PAS domains. These cavities are lined by polar and apolar chemical groups and display potential flexibility in their volume. We have also found that the hydrophobic patch on the domain β-sheet is a conserved feature and appears to drive the formation of protein-protein contacts. In addition, the structures of the dELK domain and of the truncated hERG domain revealed the presence of N-terminal helices. These helices are equivalent to the helix described in the hERG NMR structures and are known to be important for channel function. Overall, these channel domains retain many of the PAS domain characteristics known to be important for cell signaling.

  12. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion

  13. Designing Assistive Technologies for the ADHD Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Grønbæk, Kaj

    (ADHD). In this paper, we identify a set of challenges that children with ADHD typically experience, which provides an empirical foundation for pervasive health researchers to address the ADHD domain. The work is grounded in extensive empirical studies and it is contextualized using literature on ADHD....... Based on these studies, we also present lessons learned that are relevant to consider when designing assistive technology to support children with ADHD. Finally, we provide an example (CASTT) of our own work to illustrate how the presented findings can frame research activities and be used to develop...... novel assistive technology to empower children with ADHD and improve their wellbeing....

  14. Ontological Engineering for the Cadastral Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik; Stuckenschmidt, Heiner


    The term 'ontology' has been used in many ways and across different communities. In th following we will introduce ontologies as an explication of some shared vocabulary or conceptualization of a specific subject matter. The main problem with the use of a shared vocabulary according to a specific...... conceptualization of the world is that much information remains implicit. Ontologies have set out to overcome the problem of implicit and hidden knowledge by making the conceptualization of a domain (e.g. mathematics) explicit. Ontological engineering is thus an approach to achieve a conceptual rigor...

  15. Fourier transforms in the complex domain

    CERN Document Server

    Wiener, N


    With the aid of Fourier-Mellin transforms as a tool in analysis, the authors were able to attack such diverse analytic questions as those of quasi-analytic functions, Mercer's theorem on summability, Milne's integral equation of radiative equilibrium, the theorems of Münz and Szász concerning the closure of sets of powers of an argument, Titchmarsh's theory of entire functions of semi-exponential type with real negative zeros, trigonometric interpolation and developments in polynomials of the form \\sum^N_1A_ne^{i\\lambda_nx}, lacunary series, generalized harmonic analysis in the complex domain,

  16. Manganese nodule distribution in different topographic domains of the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.; Sudhakar, M.

    groups in all domains. Abundance and Fe and Co content typically form one group, while all other elements form another group. Genesis of nodules depends on the availability of supply of transition elements to the abyssal environment, maintenance...

  17. Open Set Logo Detection and Retrieval


    Tüzkö, Andras; Herrmann, Christian; Manger, Daniel; Beyerer, Jürgen


    Current logo retrieval research focuses on closed set scenarios. We argue that the logo domain is too large for this strategy and requires an open set approach. To foster research in this direction, a large-scale logo dataset, called Logos in the Wild, is collected and released to the public. A typical open set logo retrieval application is, for example, assessing the effectiveness of advertisement in sports event broadcasts. Given a query sample in shape of a logo image, the task is to find ...

  18. Domain walls riding the wave.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetrov, G.; Novosad, V.; Materials Science Division


    Recent years have witnessed a rapid proliferation of electronic gadgets around the world. These devices are used for both communication and entertainment, and it is a fact that they account for a growing portion of household energy consumption and overall world consumption of electricity. Increasing the energy efficiency of these devices could have a far greater and immediate impact than a gradual switch to renewable energy sources. The advances in the area of spintronics are therefore very important, as gadgets are mostly comprised of memory and logic elements. Recent developments in controlled manipulation of magnetic domains in ferromagnet nanostructures have opened opportunities for novel device architectures. This new class of memories and logic gates could soon power millions of consumer electronic devices. The attractiveness of using domain-wall motion in electronics is due to its inherent reliability (no mechanical moving parts), scalability (3D scalable architectures such as in racetrack memory), and nonvolatility (retains information in the absence of power). The remaining obstacles in widespread use of 'racetrack-type' elements are the speed and the energy dissipation during the manipulation of domain walls. In their recent contribution to Physical Review Letters, Oleg Tretiakov, Yang Liu, and Artem Abanov from Texas A&M University in College Station, provide a theoretical description of domain-wall motion in nanoscale ferromagnets due to the spin-polarized currents. They find exact conditions for time-dependent resonant domain-wall movement, which could speed up the motion of domain walls while minimizing Ohmic losses. Movement of domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires can be achieved by application of external magnetic fields or by passing a spin-polarized current through the nanowire itself. On the other hand, the readout of the domain state is done by measuring the resistance of the wire. Therefore, passing current through the

  19. Personality, posttraumatic stress and trauma type: factors contributing to posttraumatic growth and its domains in a Turkish community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Nuray Karanci


    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic growth (PTG is conceptualized as a positive transformation resulting from coping with and processing traumatic life events. This study examined the contributory roles of personality traits, posttraumatic stress (PTS severity and their interactions on PTG and its domains, as assessed with the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory Turkish form (PTGI-T. The study also examined the differences in PTG domains between survivors of accidents, natural disasters and unexpected loss of a loved one. Methods: The Basic Personality Traits Inventory, Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, and PTGI-T were administered to a large stratified cluster community sample of 969 Turkish adults in their home settings. Results: The results showed that conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience significantly related to the total PTG and most of the domains. The effects of extraversion, neuroticism and openness to experience were moderated by the PTS severity for some domains. PTG in relating to others and appreciation of life domains was lower for the bereaved group. Conclusion: Further research should examine the mediating role of coping between personality and PTG using a longitudinal design.

  20. Bregmanized Domain Decomposition for Image Restoration

    KAUST Repository

    Langer, Andreas


    Computational problems of large-scale data are gaining attention recently due to better hardware and hence, higher dimensionality of images and data sets acquired in applications. In the last couple of years non-smooth minimization problems such as total variation minimization became increasingly important for the solution of these tasks. While being favorable due to the improved enhancement of images compared to smooth imaging approaches, non-smooth minimization problems typically scale badly with the dimension of the data. Hence, for large imaging problems solved by total variation minimization domain decomposition algorithms have been proposed, aiming to split one large problem into N > 1 smaller problems which can be solved on parallel CPUs. The N subproblems constitute constrained minimization problems, where the constraint enforces the support of the minimizer to be the respective subdomain. In this paper we discuss a fast computational algorithm to solve domain decomposition for total variation minimization. In particular, we accelerate the computation of the subproblems by nested Bregman iterations. We propose a Bregmanized Operator Splitting-Split Bregman (BOS-SB) algorithm, which enforces the restriction onto the respective subdomain by a Bregman iteration that is subsequently solved by a Split Bregman strategy. The computational performance of this new approach is discussed for its application to image inpainting and image deblurring. It turns out that the proposed new solution technique is up to three times faster than the iterative algorithm currently used in domain decomposition methods for total variation minimization. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

  1. Multiaspect Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hashimah Sulaiman


    Full Text Available We introduce a novel concept of multiaspect soft set which is an extension of the ordinary soft set by Molodtsov. Some basic concepts, operations, and properties of the multiaspect soft sets are studied. We also define a mapping on multiaspect soft classes and investigate several properties related to the images and preimages of multiaspect soft sets.

  2. Fuzzy Soft Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazmul


    Full Text Available Notions of Lowen type fuzzy soft topological space are introduced and some of their properties are established in the present paper. Besides this, a combined structure of a fuzzy soft topological space and a fuzzy soft group, which is termed here as fuzzy soft topological group is introduced. Homomorphic images and preimages are also examined. Finally, some definitions and results on fuzzy soft set are studied.

  3. Group Grammar (United States)

    Adams, Karen


    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  4. Algebraic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    -theorists, and to stimulate contacts between participants. Each of the first four days was dedicated to one area of research that has recently seen decisive progress: \\begin{itemize} \\item structure and classification of wonderful varieties, \\item finite reductive groups and character sheaves, \\item quantum cohomology......The workshop continued a series of Oberwolfach meetings on algebraic groups, started in 1971 by Tonny Springer and Jacques Tits who both attended the present conference. This time, the organizers were Michel Brion, Jens Carsten Jantzen, and Raphaël Rouquier. During the last years, the subject...... of algebraic groups (in a broad sense) has seen important developments in several directions, also related to representation theory and algebraic geometry. The workshop aimed at presenting some of these developments in order to make them accessible to a "general audience" of algebraic group...

  5. Group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, W R


    Here is a clear, well-organized coverage of the most standard theorems, including isomorphism theorems, transformations and subgroups, direct sums, abelian groups, and more. This undergraduate-level text features more than 500 exercises.

  6. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudodepth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin


    Wavefields are commonly computed in the Cartesian coordinate frame. Its efficiency is inherently limited due to spatial oversampling in deep layers, where the velocity is high and wavelengths are long. To alleviate this computational waste due to uneven wavelength sampling, we convert the vertical axis of the conventional domain from depth to vertical time or pseudodepth. This creates a nonorthognal Riemannian coordinate system. Isotropic and anisotropic wavefields can be extrapolated in the new coordinate frame with improved efficiency and good consistency with Cartesian domain extrapolation results. Prestack depth migrations are also evaluated based on the wavefield extrapolation in the pseudodepth domain.© 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  7. Social Set Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hussain, Abid


    this limitation, based on the sociology of associations and the mathematics of set theory, this paper presents a new approach to big data analytics called social set analysis. Social set analysis consists of a generative framework for the philosophies of computational social science, theory of social data......, conceptual and formal models of social data, and an analytical framework for combining big social data sets with organizational and societal data sets. Three empirical studies of big social data are presented to illustrate and demonstrate social set analysis in terms of fuzzy set-theoretical sentiment...... analysis, crisp set-theoretical interaction analysis, and event-studies-oriented set-theoretical visualizations. Implications for big data analytics, current limitations of the set-theoretical approach, and future directions are outlined....

  8. Group Work. (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J; Brickman, Peggy; Brame, Cynthia J


    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty are increasingly incorporating both formal and informal group work in their courses. Implementing group work can be improved by an understanding of the extensive body of educational research studies on this topic. This essay describes an online, evidence-based teaching guide published by CBE-Life Sciences Education ( LSE ). The guide provides a tour of research studies and resources related to group work (including many articles from LSE ). Instructors who are new to group work, as well as instructors who have experienced difficulties in implementing group work, may value the condensed summaries of key research findings. These summaries are organized by teaching challenges, and actionable advice is provided in a checklist for instructors. Education researchers may value the inclusion of empirical studies, key reviews, and meta-analyses of group-work studies. In addition to describing key features of the guide, this essay also identifies areas in which further empirical studies are warranted. © 2018 K. J. Wilson et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  9. Test set for IVP solvers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Lioen (Walter); J.J.B. de Swart (Jacques); W.A. van der Veen


    textabstractIn this paper a collection of Initial Value test Problems for systems of Ordinary Differential Equations, Implicit Differential Equations and Differential-Algebraic Equations is presented. This test set is maintained by the project group for Parallel IVP Solvers of CWI, department of

  10. The role of set-shifting in auditory verbal hallucinations. (United States)

    Siddi, Sara; Petretto, Donatella Rita; Burrai, Caterina; Scanu, Rosanna; Baita, Antonella; Trincas, Pierfranco; Trogu, Emanuela; Campus, Liliana; Contu, Augusto; Preti, Antonio


    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a cardinal characteristic of psychosis. Recent research on the neuropsychological mechanism of AVHs has focused on source monitoring failure, but a few studies have suggested the involvement of attention, working memory, processing speed, verbal learning, memory, and executive functions. In this study we examined the neuropsychological profile of patients with AVHs, assuming that the mechanism underlying this symptom could be a dysfunction of specific cognitive domains. A large neuropsychological battery including set-shifting, working memory, processing speed, attention, fluency, verbal learning and memory, and executive functions was administered to 90 patients with psychotic disorders and 44 healthy controls. The group of patients was divided into two groups: 46 patients with AVHs in the current episode and 44 who denied auditory hallucinations or other modalities in the current episode. AVHs were assessed with the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS); the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale was used to measure long-term propensity to auditory verbal hallucination-like experiences (HLEs) in the sample. Patients showed poorer performances on all neuropsychological measures compared to the healthy controls' group. In the original dataset without missing data (n=58), patients with AVHs (n=29) presented poorer set shifting and verbal learning, higher levels of visual attention, and marginally significant poorer semantic fluency compared to patients without AVHs (n=29). In the logistic model on the multiple imputed dataset (n=90, 100 imputed datasets), lower capacity of set shifting and semantic fluency distinguished patients with AVHs from those without them. Patients experiencing persistent AVHs might fail to shift their attention away from the voices; poorer semantic fluency could be a secondary deficit of set-shifting failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Geometric group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bestvina, Mladen; Vogtmann, Karen


    Geometric group theory refers to the study of discrete groups using tools from topology, geometry, dynamics and analysis. The field is evolving very rapidly and the present volume provides an introduction to and overview of various topics which have played critical roles in this evolution. The book contains lecture notes from courses given at the Park City Math Institute on Geometric Group Theory. The institute consists of a set of intensive short courses offered by leaders in the field, designed to introduce students to exciting, current research in mathematics. These lectures do not duplicate standard courses available elsewhere. The courses begin at an introductory level suitable for graduate students and lead up to currently active topics of research. The articles in this volume include introductions to CAT(0) cube complexes and groups, to modern small cancellation theory, to isometry groups of general CAT(0) spaces, and a discussion of nilpotent genus in the context of mapping class groups and CAT(0) gro...

  12. Quantization on nilpotent Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Veronique


    This book presents a consistent development of the Kohn-Nirenberg type global quantization theory in the setting of graded nilpotent Lie groups in terms of their representations. It contains a detailed exposition of related background topics on homogeneous Lie groups, nilpotent Lie groups, and the analysis of Rockland operators on graded Lie groups together with their associated Sobolev spaces. For the specific example of the Heisenberg group the theory is illustrated in detail. In addition, the book features a brief account of the corresponding quantization theory in the setting of compact Lie groups. The monograph is the winner of the 2014 Ferran Sunyer i Balaguer Prize.

  13. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov


    which correlates with the phase state of the membrane. This is quantified by the generalized polarization (GP) function, and we demonstrate that a GP analysis can be performed on supported membranes. The results show that although the gel domains have heterogeneous texture, the membrane phase state does......We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...

  14. Group dynamics. (United States)

    Scandiffio, A L


    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  15. Isometry groups among topological groups


    Niemiec, Piotr


    It is shown that a topological group G is topologically isomorphic to the isometry group of a (complete) metric space iff G coincides with its G-delta-closure in the Rajkov completion of G (resp. if G is Rajkov-complete). It is also shown that for every Polish (resp. compact Polish; locally compact Polish) group G there is a complete (resp. proper) metric d on X inducing the topology of X such that G is isomorphic to Iso(X,d) where X = l_2 (resp. X = Q; X = Q\\{point} where Q is the Hilbert cu...

  16. Geometry of Homogeneous Bounded Domains

    CERN Document Server

    Vesentini, E


    This title includes: S.G. Gindikin, I.I. Pjateckii-Sapiro, E.B. Vinberg: Homogeneous Kahler manifolds; S.G. Greenfield: Extendibility properties of real submanifolds of Cn; W. Kaup: Holomorphische Abbildungen in Hyperbolische Raume; A. Koranyi: Holomorphic and harmonic functions on bounded symmetric domains; J.L. Koszul: Formes harmoniques vectorielles sur les espaces localement symetriques; S. Murakami: Plongements holomorphes de domaines symetriques; and E.M. Stein: The analogues of Fatous' theorem and estimates for maximal functions.

  17. Research Into the Role of Students’ Affective Domain While Learning Geology in Field Environments (United States)

    Elkins, J.


    Existing research programs in field-based geocognition include assessment of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains. Assessment of the affective domain often involves the use of instruments and techniques uncommon to the geosciences. Research regarding the affective domain also commonly results in the collection and production of qualitative data that is difficult for geoscientists to analyze due to their lack of familiarity with these data sets. However, important information about students’ affective responses to learning in field environments can be obtained by using these methods. My research program focuses on data produced by students’ affective responses to field-based learning environments, primarily among students at the introductory level. For this research I developed a Likert-scale Novelty Space Survey, which presents student ‘novelty space’ (Orion and Hofstien, 1993) as a polygon; the larger the polygons, the more novelty students are experiencing. The axises for these polygons correspond to novelty domains involving geographic, social, cognitive, and psychological factors. In addition to the Novelty Space Survey, data which I have collected/generated includes focus group interviews on the role of recreational experiences in geology field programs. I have also collected data concerning the motivating factors that cause students to take photographs on field trips. The results of these studies give insight to the emotional responses students have to learning in the field and are important considerations for practitioners of teaching in these environments. Collaborative investigations among research programs that cross university departments and include multiple institutions is critical at this point in development of geocognition as a field due to unfamiliarity with cognitive science methodology by practitioners teaching geosciences and the dynamic nature of field work by cognitive scientists. However, combining the efforts of cognitive

  18. Identifying protein domains by global analysis of soluble fragment data. (United States)

    Bulloch, Esther M M; Kingston, Richard L


    The production and analysis of individual structural domains is a common strategy for studying large or complex proteins, which may be experimentally intractable in their full-length form. However, identifying domain boundaries is challenging if there is little structural information concerning the protein target. One experimental procedure for mapping domains is to screen a library of random protein fragments for solubility, since truncation of a domain will typically expose hydrophobic groups, leading to poor fragment solubility. We have coupled fragment solubility screening with global data analysis to develop an effective method for identifying structural domains within a protein. A gene fragment library is generated using mechanical shearing, or by uracil doping of the gene and a uracil-specific enzymatic digest. A split green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay is used to screen the corresponding protein fragments for solubility when expressed in Escherichia coli. The soluble fragment data are then analyzed using two complementary approaches. Fragmentation "hotspots" indicate possible interdomain regions. Clustering algorithms are used to group related fragments, and concomitantly predict domain location. The effectiveness of this Domain Seeking procedure is demonstrated by application to the well-characterized human protein p85α. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Frequency Domain Electroretinography in Retinitis Pigmentosa versus Normal Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Hassan-Karimi


    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare electroretinogram (ERG characteristics in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP and normal subjects using frequency domain analysis. Methods: Five basic ERG recordings were performed in normal subjects and patients with a clinical diagnosis of RP according to the ISCEV (International Society of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision protocol. Frequency domain analysis was performed by MATLAB software. Different frequency domain parameters were compared between the study groups. Results: Peak frequency (Fmod of flicker and oscillatory responses in RP patients showed significant (P<0.0001 high pass response as compared to normal controls. Peak frequency (Fmod of the other responses was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: In addition to conventional ERG using time domain methods, frequency domain analysis may be useful for diagnosis of RP. Oscillatory and flicker responses may be analyzed in frequency domain. Fast Fourier transform may reveal two distinct high pass responses (shift to higher frequencies in Fmod. Time and frequency domain analyses may be performed simultaneously with many modern ERG machines and may therefore be recommended in RP patients.

  20. Emotional collectives: How groups shape emotions and emotions shape groups. (United States)

    van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H


    Group settings are epicentres of emotional activity. Yet, the role of emotions in groups is poorly understood. How do group-level phenomena shape group members' emotional experience and expression? How are emotional expressions recognised, interpreted and shared in group settings? And how do such expressions influence the emotions, cognitions and behaviours of fellow group members and outside observers? To answer these and other questions, we draw on relevant theoretical perspectives (e.g., intergroup emotions theory, social appraisal theory and emotions as social information theory) and recent empirical findings regarding the role of emotions in groups. We organise our review according to two overarching themes: how groups shape emotions and how emotions shape groups. We show how novel empirical approaches break important new ground in uncovering the role of emotions in groups. Research on emotional collectives is thriving and constitutes a key to understanding the social nature of emotions.

  1. Ordered groups and infinite permutation groups

    CERN Document Server


    The subjects of ordered groups and of infinite permutation groups have long en­ joyed a symbiotic relationship. Although the two subjects come from very different sources, they have in certain ways come together, and each has derived considerable benefit from the other. My own personal contact with this interaction began in 1961. I had done Ph. D. work on sequence convergence in totally ordered groups under the direction of Paul Conrad. In the process, I had encountered "pseudo-convergent" sequences in an ordered group G, which are like Cauchy sequences, except that the differences be­ tween terms of large index approach not 0 but a convex subgroup G of G. If G is normal, then such sequences are conveniently described as Cauchy sequences in the quotient ordered group GIG. If G is not normal, of course GIG has no group structure, though it is still a totally ordered set. The best that can be said is that the elements of G permute GIG in an order-preserving fashion. In independent investigations around that t...

  2. Post-Processing Partitions to Identify Domains of Modularity Optimization. (United States)

    Weir, William H; Emmons, Scott; Gibson, Ryan; Taylor, Dane; Mucha, Peter J


    We introduce the Convex Hull of Admissible Modularity Partitions (CHAMP) algorithm to prune and prioritize different network community structures identified across multiple runs of possibly various computational heuristics. Given a set of partitions, CHAMP identifies the domain of modularity optimization for each partition-i.e., the parameter-space domain where it has the largest modularity relative to the input set-discarding partitions with empty domains to obtain the subset of partitions that are "admissible" candidate community structures that remain potentially optimal over indicated parameter domains. Importantly, CHAMP can be used for multi-dimensional parameter spaces, such as those for multilayer networks where one includes a resolution parameter and interlayer coupling. Using the results from CHAMP, a user can more appropriately select robust community structures by observing the sizes of domains of optimization and the pairwise comparisons between partitions in the admissible subset. We demonstrate the utility of CHAMP with several example networks. In these examples, CHAMP focuses attention onto pruned subsets of admissible partitions that are 20-to-1785 times smaller than the sets of unique partitions obtained by community detection heuristics that were input into CHAMP.

  3. Domain Adaptation for Machine Translation with Instance Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biçici Ergun


    Full Text Available Domain adaptation for machine translation (MT can be achieved by selecting training instances close to the test set from a larger set of instances. We consider 7 different domain adaptation strategies and answer 7 research questions, which give us a recipe for domain adaptation in MT. We perform English to German statistical MT (SMT experiments in a setting where test and training sentences can come from different corpora and one of our goals is to learn the parameters of the sampling process. Domain adaptation with training instance selection can obtain 22% increase in target 2-gram recall and can gain up to 3:55 BLEU points compared with random selection. Domain adaptation with feature decay algorithm (FDA not only achieves the highest target 2-gram recall and BLEU performance but also perfectly learns the test sample distribution parameter with correlation 0:99. Moses SMT systems built with FDA selected 10K training sentences is able to obtain F1 results as good as the baselines that use up to 2M sentences. Moses SMT systems built with FDA selected 50K training sentences is able to obtain F1 point better results than the baselines.

  4. Improvement of learning domains of nursing students with the use of authentic assessment pedagogy in clinical practice. (United States)

    Chong, Edmund Jun Meng; Lim, Jessica Shih Wei; Liu, Yuchan; Lau, Yvonne Yen Lin; Wu, Vivien Xi


    With evolving healthcare demands, nursing educators need to constantly review their teaching methodologies in order to enhance learners' knowledge and competency of skills in the clinical settings. Learning is an active process in which meaning is accomplished on the basis of experience and that authentic assessment pedagogy will enable nursing students to play an active part in their learning. The study was conducted with an aim to examine nursing students' learning domains through the introduction of the authentic assessment pedagogy during their clinical practice. A quasi-experimental study (n = 54) was conducted over a period of 10 weeks at a local tertiary hospital. The experimental group was exposed to the authentic assessment pedagogy and were taught to use the assessment rubrics as an instrument to help enhance their learning. Students were assessed and scored according to the assessment rubrics, which were categorized into four domains; cognitive, psychomotor, affective and critical thinking abilities. The findings indicated that an overall score for the four domains between the experimental and control groups were significant, with p value of pedagogy in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sets in Coq, Coq in Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Barras


    Full Text Available This work is about formalizing models of various type theories of the Calculus of Constructions family. Here we focus on set theoretical models. The long-term goal is to build a formal set theoretical model of the Calculus of Inductive Constructions, so we can be sure that Coq is consistent with the language used by most mathematicians.One aspect of this work is to axiomatize several set theories: ZF possibly with inaccessible cardinals, and HF, the theory of hereditarily finite sets. On top of these theories we have developped a piece of the usual set theoretical construction of functions, ordinals and fixpoint theory. We then proved sound several models of the Calculus of Constructions, its extension with an infinite hierarchy of universes, and its extension with the inductive type of natural numbers where recursion follows the type-based termination approach.The other aspect is to try and discharge (most of these assumptions. The goal here is rather to compare the theoretical strengths of all these formalisms. As already noticed by Werner, the replacement axiom of ZF in its general form seems to require a type-theoretical axiom of choice (TTAC.

  6. A Novel Transfer Learning Method Based on Common Space Mapping and Weighted Domain Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze


    In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework for the problem of domain transfer learning. We map the data of two domains to one single common space, and learn a classifier in this common space. Then we adapt the common classifier to the two domains by adding two adaptive functions to it respectively. In the common space, the target domain data points are weighted and matched to the target domain in term of distributions. The weighting terms of source domain data points and the target domain classification responses are also regularized by the local reconstruction coefficients. The novel transfer learning framework is evaluated over some benchmark cross-domain data sets, and it outperforms the existing state-of-the-art transfer learning methods.

  7. Prevalence, specificity and determinants of lipid-interacting PDZ domains from an in-cell screen and in vitro binding experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylva Ivarsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PDZ domains are highly abundant protein-protein interaction modules involved in the wiring of protein networks. Emerging evidence indicates that some PDZ domains also interact with phosphoinositides (PtdInsPs, important regulators of cell polarization and signaling. Yet our knowledge on the prevalence, specificity, affinity, and molecular determinants of PDZ-PtdInsPs interactions and on their impact on PDZ-protein interactions is very limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened the human proteome for PtdInsPs interacting PDZ domains by a combination of in vivo cell-localization studies and in vitro dot blot and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR experiments using synthetic lipids and recombinant proteins. We found that PtdInsPs interactions contribute to the cellular distribution of some PDZ domains, intriguingly also in nuclear organelles, and that a significant subgroup of PDZ domains interacts with PtdInsPs with affinities in the low-to-mid micromolar range. In vitro specificity for the head group is low, but with a trend of higher affinities for more phosphorylated PtdInsPs species. Other membrane lipids can assist PtdInsPs-interactions. PtdInsPs-interacting PDZ domains have generally high pI values and contain characteristic clusters of basic residues, hallmarks that may be used to predict additional PtdInsPs interacting PDZ domains. In tripartite binding experiments we established that peptide binding can either compete or cooperate with PtdInsPs binding depending on the combination of ligands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our screen substantially expands the set of PtdInsPs interacting PDZ domains, and shows that a full understanding of the biology of PDZ proteins will require a comprehensive insight into the intricate relationships between PDZ domains and their peptide and lipid ligands.

  8. On the Domain Specificity of Cognitive Complexity: An Alternative Approach. (United States)

    Cohen, Harvey S.; Feldman, Jack M.

    This study attempts to assess differences in the three aspects of cognitive complexity--differentiation, discrimination, and integration--as functions of information about and interest in the relevant domain. The two groups of subjects consisted of 20 members of a local sports car club and an equal number from a local garden club. Each group had…

  9. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V


    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  10. Ferromagnetic domain structures and spin configurations measured in doped manganite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, J.Q.; Volkov, V.V.; Beleggia, Marco


    orientations from the expected 90 degrees head-to-tail configuration across the domain walls was attributed to the variation in the domains' aspect ratios as a result of the demagnetization field. Our study provides important insight on how the spin configuration coupled with the magnetic structure......We report on measurements of the spin configuration across ferromagnetic domains in La0.325Pr0.3Ca0.375MnO3 films obtained by means of low-temperature Lorentz electron microscopy with in situ magnetizing capabilities. Due to the particular crystal symmetry of the material, we observe two sets...... of independent ferromagnetic twin variants, one of which was pinned by crystallographic twinning. The spin orientation and configuration of the domains were measured quantitatively using electron diffraction and electron holography, and verified with structural modeling. The observed deviation of spin...

  11. Building an automated classification of DNA-binding protein domains. (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Julia V; Bourne, Philip E; Shindyalov, Ilya N


    Intensive growth in 3D structure data on DNA-protein complexes as reflected in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) demands new approaches to the annotation and characterization of these data and will lead to a new understanding of critical biological processes involving these data. These data and those from other protein structure classifications will become increasingly important for the modeling of complete proteomes. We propose a fully automated classification of DNA-binding protein domains based on existing 3D-structures from the PDB. The classification, by domain, relies on the Protein Domain Parser (PDP) and the Combinatorial Extension (CE) algorithm for structural alignment. The approach involves the analysis of 3D-interaction patterns in DNA-protein interfaces, assignment of structural domains interacting with DNA, clustering of domains based on structural similarity and DNA-interacting patterns. Comparison with existing resources on describing structural and functional classifications of DNA-binding proteins was used to validate and improve the approach proposed here. In the course of our study we defined a set of criteria and heuristics allowing us to automatically build a biologically meaningful classification and define classes of functionally related protein domains. It was shown that taking into consideration interactions between protein domains and DNA considerably improves the classification accuracy. Our approach provides a high-throughput and up-to-date annotation of DNA-binding protein families which can be found at

  12. Tectaria group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.


    Polypodiaceae subfam. Dryopteridoideae section A, auct.: C. Chr. in Verdoorn, Man. Pteridol. (1938) 543, p.p. Aspidiaceae tribe Aspidieae auct.: Ching, Sunyatsenia 5 (1940) 250, excl. Lomariopsis and related genera. — Aspidiaceae, group of Ctenitis Copel., Gen. Fil. (1947) 153. Aspidiaceae auct.:

  13. Value Set Authority Center (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The VSAC provides downloadable access to all official versions of vocabulary value sets contained in the 2014 Clinical Quality Measures (CQMs). Each value set...

  14. Landslides, Set 2 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This set expands the topics included in Set 1 and includes (in addition to landslides) rockfalls, rock avalanches, mud flows, debris flows, slumps, creep, and...

  15. Domain Decomposition Solvers for Frequency-Domain Finite Element Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Copeland, Dylan


    The paper is devoted to fast iterative solvers for frequency-domain finite element equations approximating linear and nonlinear parabolic initial boundary value problems with time-harmonic excitations. Switching from the time domain to the frequency domain allows us to replace the expensive time-integration procedure by the solution of a simple linear elliptic system for the amplitudes belonging to the sine- and to the cosine-excitation or a large nonlinear elliptic system for the Fourier coefficients in the linear and nonlinear case, respectively. The fast solution of the corresponding linear and nonlinear system of finite element equations is crucial for the competitiveness of this method. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  16. Protein domain analysis of genomic sequence data reveals regulation of LRR related domains in plant transpiration in Ficus. (United States)

    Lang, Tiange; Yin, Kangquan; Liu, Jinyu; Cao, Kunfang; Cannon, Charles H; Du, Fang K


    Predicting protein domains is essential for understanding a protein's function at the molecular level. However, up till now, there has been no direct and straightforward method for predicting protein domains in species without a reference genome sequence. In this study, we developed a functionality with a set of programs that can predict protein domains directly from genomic sequence data without a reference genome. Using whole genome sequence data, the programming functionality mainly comprised DNA assembly in combination with next-generation sequencing (NGS) assembly methods and traditional methods, peptide prediction and protein domain prediction. The proposed new functionality avoids problems associated with de novo assembly due to micro reads and small single repeats. Furthermore, we applied our functionality for the prediction of leucine rich repeat (LRR) domains in four species of Ficus with no reference genome, based on NGS genomic data. We found that the LRRNT_2 and LRR_8 domains are related to plant transpiration efficiency, as indicated by the stomata index, in the four species of Ficus. The programming functionality established in this study provides new insights for protein domain prediction, which is particularly timely in the current age of NGS data expansion.

  17. Development and Validation of the Scan of Postgraduate Educational Environment Domains (SPEED): A Brief Instrument to Assess the Educational Environment in Postgraduate Medical Education. (United States)

    Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Visscher, Maartje; Raat, A N Janet; Brand, Paul L P


    Current instruments to evaluate the postgraduate medical educational environment lack theoretical frameworks and are relatively long, which may reduce response rates. We aimed to develop and validate a brief instrument that, based on a solid theoretical framework for educational environments, solicits resident feedback to screen the postgraduate medical educational environment quality. Stepwise, we developed a screening instrument, using existing instruments to assess educational environment quality and adopting a theoretical framework that defines three educational environment domains: content, atmosphere and organization. First, items from relevant existing instruments were collected and, after deleting duplicates and items not specifically addressing educational environment, grouped into the three domains. In a Delphi procedure, the item list was reduced to a set of items considered most important and comprehensively covering the three domains. These items were triangulated against the results of semi-structured interviews with 26 residents from three teaching hospitals to achieve face validity. This draft version of the Scan of Postgraduate Educational Environment Domains (SPEED) was administered to residents in a general and university hospital and further reduced and validated based on the data collected. Two hundred twenty-three residents completed the 43-item draft SPEED. We used half of the dataset for item reduction, and the other half for validating the resulting SPEED (15 items, 5 per domain). Internal consistencies were high. Correlations between domain scores in the draft and brief versions of SPEED were high (>0.85) and highly significant (ppostgraduate medical education.

  18. Adaptive evolution by spontaneous domain fusion and protein relocalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farr, Andrew D.; Remigi, Philippe; Rainey, Paul B.


    Knowledge of adaptive processes encompasses understanding the emergence of new genes. Computational analyses of genomes suggest that new genes can arise by domain swapping; however, empirical evidence has been lacking. Here we describe a set of nine independent deletion mutations that arose during

  19. Four Critical Domains of Accountability for School Counselors (United States)

    Bemak, Fred; Willians, Joseph M.; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying


    Despite recognition of accountability for school counselors, no clear set of interrelated performance measures exists to guide school counselors in collecting and evaluating data that relates to student academic success. This article outlines four critical domains of accountability for school counselors (i.e., grades, attendance, disciplinary…

  20. Axiomatic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Suppes, Patrick


    This clear and well-developed approach to axiomatic set theory is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It examines the basic paradoxes and history of set theory and advanced topics such as relations and functions, equipollence, finite sets and cardinal numbers, rational and real numbers, and other subjects. 1960 edition.