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Sample records for serum progesterone compared

  1. Direct 125I-radioligand assays for serum progesterone compared with assays involving extraction of serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, W.A.; Corrie, J.E.T.; Dalziel, A.H.; Macpherson, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Two direct radioimmunoassays for progesterone in 50 μL of unextracted serum or plasma with assays involving extraction of serum were compared. The direct assays include the use of either danazol at pH 7.4 or 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid at pH 4.0 to displace progesterone from serum binding-proteins. Progesterone is then assayed by using an antiserum to a progesterone 11α-hemisuccinyl conjugate and the radioligand 125 I-labeled progesterone 11α-glucuronyl tyramine, with separation by double-antibody techniques. Direct assays with either displacing agent gave good analytical recovery of progesterone added to human serum, and progesterone values for patients' specimens correlated well (r > 0.96) with results of assays involving extraction of serum. Precision was similar with each displacing agent over the working range 2.5-100 nmol/L and superior to that of extraction assays. We conclude that these direct assays of progesterone are analytically valid and more robust, precise, and technically convenient than many conventional methods involving extraction of serum

  2. Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in unextracted serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, S.P.; Corcoran, J.M.; Eastman, C.J.; Doy, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid, precise radioimmunoassay for progesterone in 25 μL of unextracted serum is described. Progesterone is released from its binding protein by adding an optimal amount of cortisol, which binds to the same protein (cortisol binding globulin) as progesterone. The amount of cortisol required does not cross react with the specific progesterone antibody used. This approach considerably shortens assay time and removes a tedious and imprecise stage in the conventional assay of serum progesterone. Results correlated well (r = 0.97) with a method involving organic solvent extraction of progesterone from serum. During the two years we have used this mehod in a busy diagnostic endocrine laboratory, the between-assay precision (CV) for low-, medium-, and high-concentration quality control sera was 12, 7, and 9%, respectively. Data from participation in an independent external quality-control program verified the adequacies of the method

  3. Comparative evaluation of various solid phases for the development of coated tube assays for the estimation of progesterone in human serum, bovine serum and bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karir, Tarveen; Samuel, Grace; Sivaprasad, N.; Venkatesh, Meera

    2009-01-01

    Immobilization of progesterone antibody using three polystyrene surfaces and two progesterone radiotracers for use in the development of a coated tube assay for the evaluation of progesterone levels in human serum, bovine serum and bovine milk was studied. The selection of the solid phase and the tracers were based on the maximum binding, non-specific binding, sensitivity and percentage recovery. Amongst the polystyrene tubes studied, streptavidin coated tubes showed the acceptable assay features such as low non-specific binding (0.5-1.0%), adequate sensitivity (0.13-0.16 ng/ml) and recovery (85-115%) for all the three sample matrices, human serum, bovine serum and bovine milk.

  4. Radioimmunoassay kit formulation and its validation for serum progesterone using progesterone radiotracer purified by gel filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karir, T.; Pal, N.; Sivaprasad, N.

    2003-01-01

    Purification of the radioiodinated progesterone tyrosine methyl ester conjugate by gel filtration and the development, optimization and clinical validation of a direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of progesterone using this radiotracer are described. High purity radiotracer is essential for the error free performance of any RIA. Progesterone 11α hemisuccinate was conjugated to tyrosine methyl ester (TME) by the mixed anhydride method and this conjugate was then radioiodinated by the chloramine-T method. Purification of the radioiodinated product was carried out by gel filtration. About 12 batches of the radiotracer were prepared and purified. The purification by gel filtration gave reproducible elution pattern and purity. The radiotracer thus purified was found to have consistent quality as compared to that of any other purification methods. Non-specific binding of the radiotracer was found to be 95% as checked by paper electrophoresis. The stability (retention of the immunoreactivity) of the radiotracer was two to three months. No appreciable changes in the assay characteristics were observed during this period. The assay involved 3 hours incubation of progesterone antibody with individual standards or sample and radiotracer at room temperature. The optimized assay was then validated for internal and external quality control parameters. A RIA kit was then formulated with this radiotracer for estimation of progesterone in serum. The assay kit consisted of lyophilized individual standards ranging from 0.25 to 50 ng/ml. The clinical performance of the developed kit was compared with that of a commercial ELISA kit and a correlation of 0.94 was observed. (author)

  5. Direct radioimmunoassay of serum progesterone using heterologous bridge tracer and antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, K.; Pillai, M.R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The standardisation of a direct radioimmunoassay for progesterone using an 125 I labeled progesterone prepared by iodinating the tyrosine methyl ester (TME) conjugated to a progesterone hemiphthalate derivative and an antibody prepared using a progesterone linked to bovine serum albumin through 11α hemisuccinate derivative is described. The hemiphthalate derivative of progesterone was prepared by reacting 11α-hydroxy progesterone with phthalic anhydride which was then conjugated to TME by using isobutyl chloroformate. The conjugate was iodinated with 125 I using chloramine-T as oxidising agent and purified by thin layer chromatography. Radiochemical purity of the tracer was >95% in all batches. The tracer gave 70-75% binding with excess antibody. Assays were optimised with 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulphonic acid (ANS) and sodium salicylate as blocking agents to release the progesterone from binding proteins. The assays optimised with sodium salicylate as blocking agent has a sensitivity of 0.25 ng/ml and a working range of 0.25-50 ng/ml, whereas the assay with ANS has a sensitivity of 0.75 ng/ml and a working range of 0.75-100 ng/ml. Serum samples were analysed and compared with the values obtained with a homologous bridge assay. (author)

  6. Production of antiserum and development of radioimmunoassay for progesterone measurement in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, O.M; Abbas, S.H.

    2004-03-01

    The anti progesterone antibody was obtained by injection of local sudanese sheep (bevies arias) intramuscularly and subcutaneously using 11-a-hydroxy progesterone conjugated with bovine serum albumin and emulsified in friend's adjuvant. The blood samples collected one week after the 3 rd injection was tested for anti-progesterone antibodies. Different dilutions of antisera in Pbs containing 0.0.1 % BSA and 0.1 % Na N 3 (Ph 7.4) were made. Using these dilutions, polystyrene balls of 6.4 mm diameter were coated with a coating volume of 500 μ1/bead.The antibody dilution of 1/200000 was selected and used for assembling a kit to measure progesterone level in serum. Optimization of the assay condition resulted in the following recipes: Fifty μ1 of standard or Qc (Low, normal and high) from Bio Rad for 2 hours. The reaction medium aspirated, washed twice and read for 100 seconds in gamma counter. Assay validation tests including Linearity, recovery, reproducibility and comparability were done. In regards to linearity, the measured concentrations of progesterone in serum samples were plotted against the expected values. The correlation coefficient was 0.997 and a linear regression equation was Y=1.1019+0.9895 X. The mean recovery was 96.86% of the sample replicates ranged from 0.2% to 6%. between assay reproducibility was assessed fro the results obtained from 3 samples which were used for quality control in different assays. The results obtained were in the reference range and were close to each other. Comparison between local and American Dpc reagents for progesterone determination in serum showed high correlation high correlation where r 0.9492.(Author)

  7. Interaction of glucocorticoids and progesterone derivatives with human serum albumin.

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    Abboud, Rola; Akil, Mohammad; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2017-10-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) and progesterone derivatives (PGDs) are steroid hormones with well-known biological activities. Their interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) may control their distribution. Their binding to albumin is poorly studied in literature. This paper deals with the interaction of a series of GCs (cortisol, cortisone, prednisolone, prednisone, 6-methylprednisolone and 9-fluorocortisol acetate) and PGDs (progesterone, hydroxylated PGDs, methylated PGDs and dydrogesterone) with HSA solution (pH 7.4) at molar ratios steroid to HSA varying from 0 to 10. Similar titrations were conducted using Trp aqueous solution. Fluorescence titration method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used. PGDs (except dydrogesterone), cortisone and 9-fluorocortisol acetate affected weakly the fluorescence of Trp in buffer solution while they decreased in a dose-dependent manner that of HSA. Their binding constants to HSA were then calculated. Moreover, displacement experiment was performed using bilirubin as a site marker. The binding constant of bilirubin to albumin was determined in the absence and presence of a steroid at a molar ratio steroid to HSA of 1. The results indicate that the steroids bind to HSA at site I in a pocket different from that of bilirubin. Furthermore, the peak positions of amide I and amide II bands of HSA were shifted in the presence of progesterone, dydrogesterone and GCs. Also a variation was observed in amide I region indicating the formation of hydrogen bonding between albumin and steroids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of single serum progesterone and endometrial biopsy for confirmation of ovulation in infertile Nigerian women.

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    Ilesanmi, A O; Adeleye, J A; Osotimehin, B O

    1995-03-01

    Infertility remains a medico-social problem in Nigeria and it accounts for a large percentage of outpatient gynecological consultations. The evaluation of the infertile couple remains a continuing challenge to the practising doctor in this part of the world. The need to evaluate the two methods commonly used for determining ovulation in these patients is indicated. Endometrial biopsy specimen and a single sample for serum progesterone estimation were obtained simultaneously in the luteal phase from 50 normally menstruating infertile Nigerian women. Subsequent analysis showed that a serum progesterone value of 6.6 nmol/l (2.2 ng/ml) or above was always associated with a secretory endometrium. Forty-six cycles yielded sufficient information to compare the two methods for confirmation of ovulation. Patients who ovulated with a progesterone value of 6.6 nmol/l (2.2 ng/ml) were 91.3% (42/46) or above, while 89% (41/46) showed secretory endometrium. Forty-six of the cases 86.9% (40/46) were judged to have ovulated by both parameters while 6.5% demonstrated anovulatory cycle using both criteria. From the study, a significant correlation was obtained between endometrial biopsy and progesterone assay methods in confirming ovulation.

  9. Serum Progesterone and Estradiol-17β Profiles in Nili Ravi Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with and without Dystocia

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    Muhammad Amjad Ali, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi and Faiz-ul-Hassan1*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare serum hormone profiles (progesterone and estradiol-17β in buffaloes with dystocia and unassisted calving in three agro-ecological zones of Punjab, Pakistan. One hundred and seventy three buffaloes (n=173 with assisted (dystocia and unassisted calving (normal birth were sampled for study. The results showed that the buffaloes suffering with dystocia had significantly higher (P<0.05 mean serum progesterone level compared with those having normal calving. The comparison amongst the agro-ecological zones revealed that serum progesterone level of dystocia cases in buffaloes of northern irrigated zone was significantly lower (P<0.05 compared with those in the southern irrigated zone and the arid zone, whereas the latter two did not differ between each other. No difference was observed in serum progesterone levels in normal buffaloes when compared amongst three agro-ecological zones. The serum estradiol-17β profile showed a significant (P<0.05 lower level in buffaloes with dystocia as compared to those with normal calving. Mean serum estradiol-17β level in the buffaloes affected with dystocia in the northern irrigated zone was significantly lower (P<0.05 compared to those in the southern irrigated zone and the arid zone wherein the latter two did not differ between each other.

  10. Progesterone production requires activation of caspase-3 in preovulatory granulosa cells in a serum starvation model.

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    An, Li-Sha; Yuan, Xiao-Hua; Hu, Ying; Shi, Zi-Yun; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Qin, Li; Wu, Gui-Qing; Han, Wei; Wang, Ya-Qin; Ma, Xu

    2012-11-01

    Granulosa cells proliferate, differentiate, and undergo apoptosis throughout follicular development. Previous studies have demonstrated that stimulation of progesterone production is accompanied by caspase-3 activation. Moreover, we previously reported that arsenic enhanced caspase-3 activity coupled with progesterone production. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity can significantly inhibit progesterone production induced by arsenic or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Here, we report that serum starvation induces caspase-3 activation coupled with augmentation of progesterone production. Serum starvation also increased the levels of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, both of which may contribute to progesterone synthesis in preovulatory granulosa cells. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity resulted in a decrease in progesterone production. Deactivation of caspase-3 activity by caspase-3 specific inhibitor also resulted in decreases in P450scc and StAR expression, which may partly contribute to the observed decrease in progesterone production. Our study demonstrates for the first time that progesterone production in preovulatory granulosa cells is required for caspase-3 activation in a serum starvation model. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity can result in decreased expression of the steroidogenic proteins P450scc and StAR. Our work provides further details on the relationship between caspase-3 activation and steroidogenesis and indicates that caspase-3 plays a critical role in progesterone production by granulosa cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of estradiol, estrone and progesterone in serum and human endometrium in correlation to the content of steroid receptors and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity during menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Gollwitzer, M.; Eiletz, J.; Pachaly, J.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been carried out to compare the influence of estradiol estrone and progesterone on the estradiol and progesterone receptor levels and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity in human endometrium. The steroid hormone concentrations were measured simultaneously in both serum and endometrial tissue. The estradiol receptor levels were highest during the early proliferative phase and were inversely correlated to the endometrial tissue and serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone. The highest progesterone binding capacity was found in endometrical cytosol during the late proliferative phase (midcycle) of the menstrual cycle. The midcycle peak of the progesterone receptor level correlated well with the first peak of the serum and tissue concentrations of estradiol. During,the luteal phase, in contrast to the proliferative phase, the progesterone receptor level decreased whereas serum progesterone concentrations were high. Estrone concentrations were higher in secretory than proliferative endometrium and were correlated to the increase of progesterone receptor content and 17β-HSD activity during early secretory phase. The 17β-HSD activity was approximately 10-fold higher during the early secretory than during the proliferative phase. The progesterone receptor level was highly correlated to the specific 17β-HSD activity of the microsomal fraction whereas a significant inverse correlation between the enzyme activity and the estradiol receptor level was observed. (orig.) [de

  12. Serum levels of progesterone and some biochemical parameters in relation to productive activities and level of production in fowl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Sayed, S.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: 1- estimation of progesterone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine levels and some biochemical parameters in blood serum of fayoumi and rhode island red laying pullets during the time of egg formation. 2 - The variation in progesterone, thyroxine, triiodo-thyronine levels and some blood serum parameters in fayoumi and RIR breeds due to the different clutch size. 3- The relationship between serum progesterone levels and the thyroxine, triiodothyronine, total protein, albumin, globulin, calcium, inorganic phosphorus and cholesterol levels at ovulation time in fayoumi and RIR pullets

  13. Research of the changes of serum level of estradiol and progesterone in patients with postpartum depression by RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Fu Zheng

    2004-01-01

    The relationship of the changes of hormone in patients with postpartum depressive disorder on 28-32 weeks of pregnancy, 1 week and 4 weeks postpartum was studied. Depress affection and anxious affections were measured in 200 postpartum women by self-rating depression scale and self-rating anxiety scale. Serum estradiol (E 2 ) and progesterone (P) levels in postpartum women were measured by RIA with control group. Results showed that the prevalence rate of depress affection was 11% and that of anxious affection was 14%. The serum levels of P on the 1 week postpartum, E 2 in antepartum were showed higher in the depressed group compared with control group. There was a significant difference in the changes of serum E 2 before and after delivery between the depressed group and control group (P 2 and P levels in the patients with postpartum depression after delivery. (authors)

  14. Development of solid phase radioimmunoassay using antibody coupled magnetizable particles for measurement of progesterone in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehany, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) reagents. Development as well as optimization and validation of RIA system using solid phase magnetic particles for the measurement of progesterone in human serum are described. The production of polyclonal antibodies was carried out by immunizing five white New-Zealand rabbits subcutaneously. Low density magnetizable cellulose iron oxide particles have been used to couple covalently to the IgG fraction of polyclonal anti-progesterone using carbonyl diimidazole activation method and applied as a solid phase separating agent for RIA of serum progesterone. 125 I-progesterone tracer was prepared using chloramine-T and iodogen oxidation methods and purified using high performance liquid chromatography. The progesterone standards were prepared using highly purified progesterone powder with hormone free serum as standard matrix. Optimization and validation of the assay were carried out. The results obtained provide a low cost, simple, sensitive, specific and accurate RIA system of progesterone based on magnetizable solid phase separation. This may be extremely helpful in diagnosis and proper management of ovulation during childbearing years

  15. EFFECT OF POST-MATING GNRH TREATMET ON SERUM PROGESTERONE, LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS, DURATION OF ESTROUS CYCLE AND PREGNANCY RATES IN COWS

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    H. YILDIZ, E. KAYGUSUZOĞLU, M. KAYA1 AND M. ÇENESIZ1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy rate, estrous cycle lenght, serum progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH concentrations were determined in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 10.5 μg synthetic gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist, receptal administered cows on day 12 post-mating (n=9 compared to control cows (n=8. Their oestrous cycles were synchronised by intramuscular administration of prostaglandin F2 alpha (its analog, cloprostenol twice at 11 days interval. Estrous exhibited cows were mated naturally. Blood samples were collected every two days from all animals. Serum progesterone and LH concentrations were measured by ELISA method. GnRH administration significantly increased serum LH concentration which reached peak levels 2-3 h after treatment. However, serum progesterone concentration was not affected. There were no differences in mean progesterone concentrations on days 12 to 24 post-mating between GnRH administrated and control pregnant cows. However, in non pregnant animals, progesterone concentrations on days 16 in the treated group were lower than control group (P<0.01. Pregnancy diagnosis in animals made by B-mode ultrasonography between the 30th and 35th day showed that 77.7% of treated cows were pregnant compared to 50% in control group. Duration of the estrous cycle in the non-pregnant animals was not affected by the treatment (control, 21.3 ± 0.8 days; treated, 22.5 ± 0.5 days. In conclusion, this study supports the use of GnRH on day 12 post-mating as a method for enhancing pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cattle.

  16. Milk and serum progesterone assay for evaluation of reproductive performance of dairy herds in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraraksa, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Cross-bred dairy cows (n=202) were used to study the milk progesterone profiles 0, 5, 7, 12, 20, 28, 35 and 45 days after artificial insemination. It was found that 57% (115/202) of the cows had a normal oestrous cycle and conceived, but in 13% (15/115) of cows that conceived the embryos died between 28 and 35 days of gestation. A total of 43% (87/202) of the cows did not become pregnant and these could be classified into four groups: 15% (31/202) had normal oestrous cycles; 7% (15/202) were inseminated during the luteal phase, i.e. when progesterone concentrations were elevated; 14% (29/202) had irregular cycles; and 6% (12/202) were acyclic. In another study milk samples were collected every 3 days from 90 cross-bred dairy cows, commencing 15 days after parturition and continuing until each animal had been inseminated. The milk progesterone profiles of each cow were collated with the records of oestrus and insemination. The average post-partum anoestrous periods of primiparous and multiparous cows were 35.0 ± 16.4 and 34.9 ± 14.5 days, respectively. In 68% of the primiparous cows and 65% of the multiparous cows oestrus occurred between days 20 and 40 of the post-partum period. Sequential serum samples from 42 repeat breeder cows and 8 infertile heifers were analysed for progesterone, and their ovaries were examined weekly by rectal palpation. They were treated with either human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) or prostaglandin F 2α . As a result, 23 cows and 5 heifers re-established oestrous cycles and became pregnant after AI. Progesterone profiles and rectal palpation revealed various causes of infertility, including ovarian cysts, irregular oestrous cycles, inactive ovaries and abnormal oviducts. Fifty-six per cent of repeat breeder cows and infertile heifers responded to hormone treatment in terms of resumed ovarian function. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Determination of serum progesterone by radioimmunoassay (RIA) on fertility control and early pregnancy diagnosis in angora goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsar, S.; Guven, B.; Ozekin, N.; Noyan, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on diagnosis of cyclicity, confirmation of estrus so that mating timing and confirmation of return on non-return (pregnancy diagnosis) in Angora goats by using progesterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) in serum as well as observing the sexual behaviours of the goats. The cyclic reproductive activity of 20 mature Angora goat does with normal previous reproductive function, 5 does which had never become pregnant in the previous breeding seasons, and 10 does which were old for breeding was investigated. Circulating progesterone was relatively low (0.45 ng/ml) at estrus (day 0) and increased progressively to 3.45 ng/ml during the subsequent luteal phase. This high level was maintained until day-3 of the succeding estrus cycle, when it decreased abruptly. Pregnancy diagnosis based on the levels of progesterone in serum was confirmed by kidding. 1.5 ng/ml or more progesterone was used as an indication of pregnancy (within 21 days after mating). The accuracy of pregnancy by progesterone assay was 100%. It was concluded that the use of progesterone RIA in serum is a reliable and convenient means of monitoring ovarian activity and early pregnancy. (author)

  18. Performance of the fully automated progesterone assays on the Abbott AxSYM and the Technicon Immuno 1 Analyser compared with the radioimmunoassay progesterone MAIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsberg, J.; Jost, E.; Van der Ven, H.

    1997-01-01

    Test performance of two automated progesterone assays available on the immunoassay analysers Abbott AxSYM and Technicon Immuno 1, respectively, was evaluated in comparison with the radioimmunoassay Progesterone MAIA. For assessment of test performance imprecision, functional sensitivity and linearity of dilution was examined. Correlation with the manual radioimmunoassay was assessed using 122 serum samples over the range 0-110 nmol/L. Imprecision studies revealed for the AxSYM Progesterone within-run CV's of 1.8-6.4% and day-to-day CV's of 3.5-9.7% (concentration range 2.3-75 nmol/L); Immuno 1 Progesterone: within-run CV's 1.0-7.3%, day-to-day CV's 2.3-7.7% (concentration range 1.2-60 nmol/L). The functional sensitivity was <1.7 nmol/L for the AxSYM Progesterone and <1.1 nmol/L for the Immuno 1 Progesterone. With the AxSYM Progesterone the mean recovery after dilution from five samples was 102% (89-107%), from one sample only 69-80% was recovered; with the Immuno 1 Progesterone the mean recovery was 95% (80-105%). Despite of a quite good overall correlation (coefficients 0.972 and 0.981) the relationship of both assays to the Progesterone MAIA significantly deviate from linearity with a considerably higher slope within the lower concentration range. The relationship between the automated assays was linear over the entire concentration range (Immuno = 1.207 * AxSYM + 1; r = 0.986). The time to first result was 20 min for the AxSYM Progesterone, 45 min for the Immuno 1 Progesterone and 90 min for the Progesterone MAIA. The evaluated progesterone assays both exhibit an excellent precision and a high degree of sensitivity. They offer a rapid and flexible method for progesterone determination which may be especially useful for the monitoring of ovarian stimulation during in-vitro fertilization. (author)

  19. Mammary tumors and serum hormones in the bitch treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or progesterone for four years

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    Frank, D.W.; Kirton, K.T.; Murchison, T.E.; Quinlan, W.J.; Coleman, M.E.; Gilbertson, T.J.; Feenstra, E.S.; Kimball, F.A.

    1978-01-01

    After four years of a long term contraceptive steroid safety study, the incidence and the histologic type of mammary dysplasia produced is similar in beagles treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (medroxyprogesterone) or progesterone. Serum insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine, growth hormone, prolactin, 17..beta..-estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay on samples collected after 45 months of treatment. Serum growth hormone and insulin concentrations were elevated in a dose related manner in both treatment groups. Triiodothyronine, cortisol, and estradiol-17..beta.. (medroxyprogesterone only) were lowered. TSH and prolactin concentrations were not changed. Pituitary--gonadal hormone interaction in the pathogenesis of mammary neoplasia of the dog is discussed. Prolonged treatment of the beagle with massive doses of progesterone or medroxyprogesterone results in a dose related incidence of mammary modules.

  20. Predictive value of uterine contractility and the serum levels of progesterone and oestrogens with regard to preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, D A; Essed, G G; de Haan, J

    1984-01-01

    A longitudinal investigation regarding the serum concentrations of oestradiol, oestriol and progesterone in relation to uterine activity has been performed in 80 healthy primigravid women during the course of pregnancy up to the 37th week of pregnancy. The frequency of uterine contractions was quantitatively objectivated by means of external toco-dynamometry; simultaneously the uterine activity has been recorded by the pregnant women qualitatively. It appears that there is a gradual increase of all the three mentioned hormones during the course of pregnancy. However, there is a large interindividual spread. There exists no relation between the hormonal serum levels and uterine activity (quantitatively as well as qualitatively recorded). Between these two latter there is a poor relation. It is impossible to predict the occurrence of preterm birth based on hormonal serum changes. This holds for the progesterone-oestradiol ratio.

  1. Maternal Serum Lipid, Estradiol, and Progesterone Levels in Pregnancy, and the Impact of Placental and Hepatic Pathologies

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    Pecks, U.; Rath, W.; Kleine-Eggebrecht, N.; Maass, N.; Voigt, F.; Goecke, T. W.; Mohaupt, M. G.; Escher, G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lipids and steroid hormones are closely linked. While cholesterol is the substrate for (placental) steroid hormone synthesis, steroid hormones regulate hepatic lipid production. The aim of this study was to quantify circulating steroid hormones and lipid metabolites, and to characterize their interactions in normal and pathological pregnancies with a focus on hepatic and placental pathologies. Methods: A total of 216 serum samples were analyzed. Group A consisted of 32 patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who were analyzed at three different time-points in pregnancy (from the first through the third trimester) and once post partum. Group B consisted of 36 patients (24th to 42nd week of gestation) with pregnancy pathologies (IUGR n = 10, preeclampsia n = 13, HELLP n = 6, intrahepatic cholestasis n = 7) and 31 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Steroid profiles including estradiol, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured by GC-MS and compared with lipid concentrations. Results: In Group A, cholesterol and triglycerides correlated positively with estradiol (cholesterol ρ = 0.50, triglycerides ρ = 0.57) and progesterone (ρ = 0.49, ρ = 0.53) and negatively with dehydroepiandrosterone (ρ = − 0.47, ρ = − 0.38). Smoking during pregnancy affected estradiol concentrations, leading to lower levels in the third trimester compared to non-smoking patients (p < 0.05). In Group B, cholesterol levels were found to be lower in IUGR pregnancies and in patients with HELLP syndrome compared to controls (p < 0.05). Steroid hormone concentrations of estradiol (p < 0.05) and progesterone (p < 0.01) were lower in pregnancies with IUGR. Discussion: Lipid and steroid levels were affected most in IUGR pregnancies, while only minor changes in concentrations were observed for other pregnancy-related disorders. Each of the analyzed entities displayed specific changes. However, since the

  2. Progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.M.; Redshaw, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    This patent claims a radioimmunoassay for progesterone, which comprises contacting, in an acidic medium a sample of liquid with a predetermined amount of antibodies raised against a progesterone-protein complex, the protein being attached to the 11-position of progesterone by means of a bridging group and with a predetermined amount of a progesterone derivative having an iodinatable group attached to its 3-position by means of a bridging group, the iodinatable group being iodinated with one or more atom(s) of a radioisotope of iodine, separating the steroid bound in the resulting antibody-antigen complex from the free steroid and measuring the radioactivity of the free steroid component or of the antibody-antigen complex. Sufficient sensitivity has been achieved to enable a progesterone assay to be carried out directly on a sample of biological fluid, such as serum, plasma, urine or milk. (U.K.)

  3. Validation of a serum immunoassay to measure progesterone and diagnose pregnancy in the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus)

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    Tripp, K.M.; Verstegen, J.P.; Deutsch, C.J.; Bonde, R.K.; Rodriguez, M.; Morales, B.; Schmitt, D.L.; Harr, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to validate a high-sensitivity chemiluminescent assay of serum progesterone concentrations for pregnancy diagnosis in manatees. Assay analytical sensitivity was 0.1 ng/mL, with mean intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation of 9.7 and 9.2%, respectively, and accuracy had a mean adjusted R2 of 0.98. Methods comparison (relative to Siemen's Coat-A-Count RIA) demonstrated r = 0.98, Deming regression slope of 0.95, and an intercept of 0.01. Based on ROC analysis, a progesterone concentration ???0.4 ng/mL was indicative of pregnancy. Assay results were not significantly altered by two freeze-thaw cycles of samples. Characteristic progesterone concentrations during pregnancy were Months 1-4 (1.7-4.7 ng/mL), 5-8 (???1.0 ng/mL), and 10 and 11 (0.3-0.5 ng/mL), whereas two late-pregnant females with impending abortion had progesterone concentrations of 0.1 ng/mL. Among pregnant females, maximum progesterone concentrations occurred in autumn (3.9 ?? 1.8 ng/mL), and were greater during all seasons than concentrations in non-pregnant females (0.1-0.2 ng/mL). Progesterone concentrations were also significantly higher in pregnant females than in non-pregnant females and males. This highly sensitive, specific, and diagnostic assay will be valuable for monitoring pregnancy and abortion in manatees. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Serum concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol during the ovarian cycle of Syrian Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2005-01-01

    It was possible, for the first time, to characterise hormonally and precisely the oestrous cycle of the Syrian Awassi ewes, and to determine normal progesterone and oestradiol concentrations during the different phases of oestrous cycle. It is concluded that progesterone and oestradiol concentrations showed a cyclic pattern during the oestrous cycle, in addition, a negative and significant correlation between the concentrations of the two hormones was found. (author)

  5. Liquid phase radioimmunoassay system for determination of progesterone in human serum using different radiolabeled tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehany, N.L.; El-Kolaly, M.T.; Sallam, Kh.M.; EI-Hashash, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The preparation and development of primary reagents of progesterone radioimmunoassay (R1A) technique with low cost is considered to be the main objective of the present study . The preparation of 125 l-progesterone radiotracers was carried out using chloramine-T, iodogen and lactoperoxidase oxidation methods and they were purified using high perfomance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Tyramine hydrochloride was conjugated with activated progesterone 11α-hemisuccinate and then iodinated using Na 125 I.The tracers obtained were investigated in terms of radiochemical purity, radiochemical yield and immunoreactivity. The production of polyclonal antibodies was undertaken by immunizing six New-Zealand rabbits subcutaneously through primary injection and four booster doses.The preparation of progesterone standards were carried out by preparing stock standard solution of progesterone in ethanol. After evaporation of ethanol, the steroid assay buffer was used as a standard matrix to prepare the working standards required. Optimization and validation of the assay were carried out. The results obtained provide a highly sensitive, specific and accurate RIA system of progesterone based on liquid phase separation. In conclusion, this assay could be used in evaluating corpus luteum insufficiency among women in child bearing period

  6. Serum progesterone levels using radioimmunoassay during the oestrous cycle of indigenous Damascus does

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2000-11-01

    An experiment was conducted on Damascus does to characterize the oestrous cycle, the activity of the corpus luteum and to determine normal progesterone profiles during different phases of the oestrous cycle using radioimmunoassay. Fifteen indigenous cycling Damascus does were used during the normal breeding season for two consecutive oestrous cycles. Average length of the oestrous cycles was 21.2 ± 1.5 days (range: 19 - 26 days), divided into: 2.9 ± 0.8 days (2 - 5 days), where progesterone level was low averaging 0.69 ± 0.85 nmol l -1 (range: 0.00 - 3.08 nmol l -1 , followed by a sharp increase in progesterone secretion, i.e. presence of active corpora lutea, lasted on average for 15.3 ± 1.4 days (range: 13 - 20 days), with an average progesterone level of 13.4 nmol l -1 (range: 3.26 - 27.98 nmol l -1 ), followed by a sharp decline in progesterone level, i.e. inactive corpora lutea, lasted on average for 3.1 ± 0.6 days (range: 2 - 5 days), with an average progesterone level of 0.68 nmol l -1 (range: 0.00 - 2.81 nmol l -1 ). Maximum progesterone level during the luteal phase averaged 18.67 ± 3.15 nmol l -1 (range: 14.00 - 27.98 nmol l -1 ), occurred on average on 12.2 ± 3.2 days of the oestrous cycle. It was possible, for the first time, to characterize the oestrous cycle of the Damascus doe, and to determine normal progesterone profiles during different phases of oestrous cycle. Based on the results reported above, it is also concluded that progesterone levels under 3.18 nmol l -1 were found on average during 2.9 days at the start of the oestrous cycle and during 3.1 days at the end of the oestrous cycle (follicular phase), and that progesterone levels above 3.18 nmol l -1 were found during the luteal phase lasting on average 15.3 days. (Author)

  7. Clinical Value of Basal Serum Progesterone Prior to Initiate Ovarian Hyper-Stimulation with GnRH Antagonists: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulisi, Sonia; Reschini, Marco; Borroni, Raffaella; Paffoni, Alessio; Busnelli, Andrea; Somigliana, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    The routine assessment of day 3 serum progesterone prior to initiation of ovarian hyper-stimulation with the use of GnRH antagonists is under debate. In this study, we evaluated the clinical utility of this policy. Retrospective cohort study of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with the use of GnRH antagonists aimed at determining the frequency of cases with progesterone levels exceeding the recommended threshold of 1,660 pg/ml and at evaluating whether this assessment may be predictive of pregnancy. Serum progesterone exceeded the recommended threshold in one case (0.3%, 95% CI 0.01-1.5). The median (interquartile range) basal progesterone in women who did (n = 95) and did not (n = 217) become pregnant were 351 (234-476) and 380 (237-531) pg/ml, respectively (p = 0.28). The 90th percentile of the basal progesterone distribution in women who became pregnant was 660 pg/ml. Cases with serum progesterone exceeding this threshold in successful and unsuccessful cycles were 10 (10%) and 30 (14%), respectively (p = 0.47). The capacity of basal progesterone to predict pregnancy was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve = 0.54, 95% CI 0.47-0.61, p = 0.28). No graphically evident threshold emerged. Routine day 3 serum progesterone assessment in IVF cycles with the use of GnRH antagonists is not justified. Further evidence is warranted prior to claiming its systematic use. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Clinical usefulness of dynamic determination of serum progesterone and HCG levels in patients with threatened abortion, inevitable abortion and ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Fengjuan; Ding Jiefeng; Liu Qi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical differential diagnostic usefulness of dynamic determinations of serum progesterone and HCG levels in patients with abortion and ectopic pregnancy. Methods: Serum progesterone (with CLIA) and HCG (with RIA) levels were determined twice (48h apart) in 98 patients with threatened abortion, 75 patients with inevitable abortion, 52 patients with ectopic pregnancy, and 83 controls. Results: Among the three groups of patients, the serum progesterone levels were highest in the patients with threatened abortion, being significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.05, P<0.01). The progesterone levels were lowest in the patients with ectopic pregnancy, being significantly less than those in other two groups (P<0.05, P<0.01). The serum HCG levels were also significantly higher in the patients with threatened abortion than those in the other two groups (P < 0.05 ), but there were no significant differences between the levels in patients with inevitable abortion and patients with ectopic pregnancy. The differences between the first and second determination HCG levels, either increased or decreased, in patients with ectopic pregnancy were significantly less than those in patients with inevitable abortion (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dynamic determination of serum progesterone and HCG levels might be of differential diagnostic help in patients with threatened abortion, inevitable abortion and ectopic pregnancy. (authors)

  9. Reinstatement of serum pregnanolone isomers and progesterone during alcohol detoxification therapy in premenopausal women

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hill, M.; Popov, P.; Havlíková, H.; Kancheva, L.; Vrbíková, J.; Meloun, M.; Kancheva, R.; Cibula, D.; Pouzar, Vladimír; Černý, Ivan; Stárka, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2005), s. 1010-1017 ISSN 0145-6008 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NB7070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : pregnanolone * progesterone * detoxification therapy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.636, year: 2005

  10. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccinato Carla A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Methods Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. Results GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose–response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (−7 M resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone productio n was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (−8 M, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Conclusions The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation.

  11. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinato, Carla A; Montrezor, Luis H; Collares, Cristhianna A V; Vireque, Alessandra A; Rosa e Silva, Alzira A M

    2012-11-22

    Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC) culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose-response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (-7) M) resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone production was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (-8) M), a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation.

  12. Accuracy of serum markers, progesterone and vitamins measurements for early screening of abortions in the eastern region of Algeria (Batna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mouffouk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous abortion is an involuntary interruption of pregnancy before 22 weeks of gestation. According to the Algerian National Institute of Public Health the percentage of women suffering from permanent complications during pregnancy is approximately 15%. The aim of this study is the determination of some biochemical analytes, including folic acid, vitamin B12, alphafoetoproteine, beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG, progesterone and oestradiol (uE3, which are involved in the detection of pregnancy failures. This case-control study was carried out on women in the process of abortion and a control group with viable pregnancies in the East region of Algeria (Batna during the year 2015. In the present investigation, 69 pregnant women during the first and second trimester were recruited during the first and second trimesters as cases (with miscarriages and the control group (n=69 was constituted of women who had normal ultrasound. The average concentration of alpha-fetoprotein is significantly low during the first trimester, but it is very high during the second trimester between cases and controls. The median values of β- hCG, uE3 and progesterone decrease very significantly. The mean concentration of serum folate and vitamin B12 did not change significantly between cases and controls in the first and second trimesters. The results of this study revealed that, spontaneous abortions are associated with changes in serum markers and progesterone, which could form an important part in the early diagnosis of non-viable pregnancies. However, vitamins levels have no significant effects on these pregnancies.

  13. Endocrine correlates of reproduction in the wolf. I. Serum progesterone, estradiol and LH during the estrous cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.; Packard, J.M.; Mech, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    The estrous cycle of 10 intact female wolves, aged 8 months-8 years at the initiation of the study, was characterized in terms of vaginal smears, behavioral observations and serum concentrations of estradiol-17β, progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) from January through June. No estrous cycles occurred in these animals between June and December. All were housed with male wolves. Two pups and 1 adult remained anestrous during this interval. One pup and 2 adults produced litters between May 4-6. Four adults exhibited endocrine changes similar to those of the pregnant animals but no litters or signs of abortion were observed. The duration of proestrus was 15.7 ± 1.6 days (X ± SEM, n = 6), of estrus 9.0 ± 1.2 days (n = 4) and of the luteal phase 63 ± 2 days (n = 6). The duration of pregnancy was between 60-65 days. The anestrous females (86 blood samples) had 6 progesterone values between 1-2 ng/ml and the remainder below 1 ng/ml. Their estradiol-17β concentrations varied between 5-20 pg/ml. Values for LH varied between 0.1-2 ng/ml, except for 1 value above 15 ng/ml for each of the 2 anestrous pups on 12 January.The 7 estrous animals (260 samples) included 1 pup and 2 adults that delivered litters. Estradiol-17β varied between 10-20 pg/ml during proestrus, peaked at 30-70 pg/ml late in proestrus and fluctuated between 10-30 pg/ml during pregnancy or the duration of luteal activity in the nonpregnant animals. The preovulatory LH rise, 5-15 ng/ml, extended over 3 days during and immediately following the peak estradiol-17β values. An earlier elevation in LH was observed in 3 of the estrous animals. Progesterone began increasing during the LH surge and peaked 11-14 days later at 22-40 ng/ml. Progesterone concentrations greater than 3 ng/ml were maintained for 56-68 days in 6 of the 7 animals exhibiting estrus. Progesterone concentrations declined at parturition but continued to fluctuate between 0.2-3 ng/ml for 3-6 weeks.

  14. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies specific for Progesterone

    OpenAIRE

    YÜCEL, Fatıma

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone levels in milk and serum are indicators of pregnancy in cattle. The progesterone level reaches a peak on the 21 st and 22 nd days of pregnancy. Monoclonal antibodies specific to progesterone could be used for the immunodetection of milk and serum progesterone levels. We report here the development of hybrid cells prdoducing monoclonal antibodies specific for progesterone using hybridoma technology. Hybridoma cells secreting monoclonal antibodies against progesterone (MAM 2H1...

  15. Ovulation following gonadotrophin treatment and determination of serum estradiol and progesterone by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesper, B.; Lisse, K.; Ittrich, G.

    1979-01-01

    The use of gonadotrophins to release ovulation is indicated in women with urgent desire for children and with negative response to clomiphene therapy. 69 patients treated with 100 therapeutic gonadotrophin series were examined. Estrogens and progesterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. The treatment resulted in ovulation in 54 women, 12 patients developed an ovarian reaction with an increase of estrogen, and in 34 cases no ovarian response was detectable. 6 women became pregnant during gonadotrophin therapy and further 2 after treatment

  16. Radioimmunological determination of 5a-pregnane-3, 20-dione and progesterone in the serum in the case of abortus imminens in early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedsam, E.

    1986-01-01

    The standardised method of radioimmunological hormone determination of the progesterone concentration in the mother's serum between the sixth and eighteenth week of pregnancy allows for a reliable prognosis in the case of abortus imminens (Knapstein, 1980). Permanently low or declining values with living fetuses indicate an unfavourable ending of the pregnancy. In this work it shall be clarified to what extent the two hormones, progesterone and 5a-DHP, can be used as prognostic parameters. The hormones were retrospectively determined in 83 women with normally progressing pregnancies and 57 women with abortus imminens symptomatology. In the women with abortus imminens symptomatology and with an abortion within a week the progesterone as well as the 5a-DHP median values lay statistically significantly below the values of the normal ones. In the corresponding women with premature births, respectively full term births, the values do not differentiate so clearly. In the abortus imminens group 61% of the women showed progesterone values which lay below the 10th percentile of the normal group, 44% aborted within a week, 10% after a several week long latency, 5% carried full term. 46% of the women had 5a-DHP values which lay below the 10th percentile of the normal group, 35% aborted within a week, 7% after a several week long latency, there was one premature birth and one full term birth. 30% of the women had progesterone values which lay within the 80th interpercentile level of the normal group, 5% aborted within a week. 28% of the women had 5a-DHP values within this same level and 14% aborted within a week. In the normal and abortus imminens groups there is an association between serum progesterone and 5a-MHP. Specificity: 95% for progesterone and 5a-DHP. Sensitivity: 58% (progesterone) and 44% (5a-DHP). (TRV) [de

  17. Radioimmunological oestrogen and progesterone measurement in the serum and ovaries of pseudogravid female rats after PMS and HCG treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, P.

    1978-01-01

    Infantile female rats were made pseudogravid with PMS-HCG (according to Karg). Two bioassays were employed to investigate the effects of HCG on the ovaries; the HCG was injected subactaneously in the back of the animals in varying doses and at various intervals after the initial PMS administration. As specific parameters, oestrogen and progesterone levels in serum and ovary homogenate were determined radioimmunologically. The first animal experiment showed that the ovaries of pseudogravid animals had reached maximum sensitivity for corpus luteum production after HCG administration between 50 and 70 hours after PMS administration. In the second animal experiment with repeated HCG stimulus in the luteal phase, it was found that the corpus luteum of the rat ovary is apparently unable to synthesize oestrogens. In contrast, progesteron synthesis received maximum stimulation already with the lowest dose administered (3 IE HCG). The experiments clearly showed a dependence on HCG dose and the time which the test substance is allowed to take effect. (orig./AJ) 891 AJ/orig.- 892 KN [de

  18. Concentrations of progesterone and insulin in serum of nonlactating dairy cows in response to carbohydrate source and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Scatena, T S; Sá Filho, O G; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2008-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of carbohydrate source and processing on serum progesterone (P4) and insulin concentrations of nonlactating dairy cows. In experiment 1, 12 ovariectomized grazing Gir x Holstein cows were stratified by body weight and body condition score, and randomly assigned to receive a supplement containing either finely ground corn or citrus pulp in a Latin square crossover design. Diets were fed individually, twice daily at a rate of 10.9 kg of dry matter per cow. Cows received a controlled intravaginal P4-releasing insert before the beginning of the study, and inserts were replaced every 7 d. During the first experimental period, cows were adapted to treatments from d 0 to 13 and blood was collected on d 14, whereas during the second experimental period cows were adapted to treatments from d 0 to 6 and blood samples were collected on d 7. In both periods, blood samples were collected immediately before and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after the first supplement feeding of the collection day. In experiment 2, the cows utilized in experiment 1 were randomly assigned to receive a supplement based on finely ground corn, coarsely ground corn, or high-moisture corn in a Latin square crossover design. Cows were fed and received the controlled intravaginal P4-releasing insert as in experiment 1. Within each of the 3 experimental periods, cows were adapted to diets from d 0 to 6, and blood samples were collected on d 7 as in experiment 1. Time effects were detected in experiments 1 and 2 because insulin concentrations increased by 1 h (4.6 +/- 0.90 vs. 7.4 +/- 0.91 microIU/mL for 0 and 1 h, respectively) and P4 concentrations decreased by 3 h (1.8 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.11 ng/mL for 0 and 3 h, respectively) after supplements were offered. In experiment 2, insulin concentrations were greater in cows fed high-moisture corn compared with those fed coarsely or finely ground corn (8.8 +/- 1.05, 5.7 +/- 1.05, and 6.1 +/- 1.05 micro

  19. Changes in serum progesterone concentrations in Bernese mountain dogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejll Kirchhoff, K; Goericke-Pesch, S

    2016-10-15

    Progesterone (P4) concentrations during canine pregnancy follow a specific pattern. Although the general pattern is similar, it is likely that breed-specific differences exist. Detailed knowledge about the physiological range of P4 concentrations may be helpful in cases of suspected hypoluteoidism. The aim of this study was to investigate P4 changes during pregnancy in a small and a large breed, to obtain reference values for specific intervals during pregnancy and to test for breed- or body weight-specific differences. We studied P4 concentrations in pregnancies from healthy Bernese mountain dogs (BMDs, n = 6) and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs, n = 6) with a normal reproductive history. Blood samples for P4 were taken to determine the day of ovulation and after confirmation of pregnancy in regular intervals from Days 23 to 29 to Days 60 to 64. Bernese mountain dogs delivered 6.2 ± 2.6 puppies (range: 3-9) 63.4 ± 1.5 (range: 61-65) days after ovulation (excluding data from one BMD with elective c-section) and CKCS delivered 3.3 ± 1.9 puppies (range: 1-5) 63.5 ± 1.1 (range: 62-65) days after ovulation. In general, the P4 concentrations of individual dogs continuously decreased from the first to the last sampling during pregnancy. Respective mean concentrations were Days 23 to 29: 19.2 ± 4.3/22.2 ± 3.9 ng/mL (BMD/CKCS), Days 30 to 34: 15.6 ± 2.3/17.7 ± 5.8 ng/mL, Days 35 to 39: 12.5 ± 2.8/14.1 ± 3.4 ng/mL, Days 40 to 44: 8.9 ± 1.4/11.8 ± 3.7 ng/mL, Days 45 to 49: 7.7 ± 1.6/8.9 ± 1.9 ng/mL, Days 50 to 54: 6.0 ± 1.3/8.7 ± 7.1 ng/mL, Days 55 to 59: 4.7 ± 1.2/5.3 ± 2.8 ng/mL, and Days 60 to 64: 3.69 ± 1.86/2.62 ± 0.42 ng/mL. ANOVA indicated significant differences over time within each breed when considered individually (P parturition). Other than expected, we failed to proof significant differences in P4 between CKCS and BMD. Further studies are required to confirm the results on a larger

  20. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74±24.331, 365.9±16.55, and 367.5±21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325±0.243, 0.341±0.022, and 0.357  ±  0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6  ±  26.75, 315.6  ±  13.08, and 332.08  ±  24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P=.001. This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47% of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46% without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0% fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P=.017. ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P<.05. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele and fertile (P<.05. Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with

  1. Serum progesterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) for evaluation of reproductive performance of dairy herds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, F.; Stefanllari, K.; Lamce, Th.

    1996-01-01

    This publication summarizes the principal application of P 4-RIA of blood which helped to determine the time for onset of sexual functions after parturition, the incidence of silent oestrus, and the correct timing of service. Progesterone profiles showed that cows in this herd ovulated considerably later than 35+/-7 days after calving, which is the value reported for many other herds of dairy cows. The percentage of cows in oestrus was found 66% within 60 days post-partum while the incidence of silent oestrus was 20%. The correct timing of service is 85%. According to this study, the major causes for the lowered reproductive efficiency in this herd were found to be the delayed onset of post-partum ovarian activity and the incidence of silent oestrus. 9 refs. 3 tabs

  2. Effects of intravenous glucose infusion and nutritional balance on serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and progesterone in nonlactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, F V R; Lopes, C N; Cappellozza, B I; Scarpa, A B; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and progesterone in nonlactating dairy cows according to nutritional balance and glucose infusion. Ten nonlactating, ovariectomized Gir x Holstein cows were stratified by body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) on d -28 of the study, and randomly assigned to 1) negative nutrient balance (NB) or 2) positive nutrient balance (PB). From d -28 to d 0, cows were allocated according to nutritional treatment (5 cows/treatment) into 2 low-quality pastures with reduced forage availability. However, PB cows individually received, on average, 3 kg/cow per day (as-fed) of a concentrate during the study. All cows had an intravaginal progesterone releasing device inserted on d -14, which remained in cows until the end of the study. Cow BW and BCS were assessed again on d 0. On d 0, cows within nutritional treatment were randomly assigned to receive, in a crossover design containing 2 periods of 24h each, 1) intravenous glucose infusion (GLU; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW, as a 5% glucose solution administered, on average, at 32 mL/min over a 3-h period), or 2) intravenous saline infusion (SAL; 0.9% solution infused on average at 32 mL/min over a 3-h period). Prior to the beginning of each period, all cows were fasted for 12h. Blood samples were collected, relative to the beginning of the infusion, at -12 and -11.5h (beginning of fasting), and at -0.5, 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6h. Following the last blood collection of period 1, cows received (PB) or not (NB) concentrate and were returned to their respective pastures. Changes in BCS and BW were greater in NB cows compared with PB cows (-0.60 and -0.25+/-0.090 for BCS, respectively; -22.4 and 1.2+/-6.58 kg for BW, respectively). Cows receiving GLUC had greater glucose concentrations from 0.5 to 3h relative to infusion compared with SAL cows. Insulin concentrations were greater in PB cows assigned to GLUC compared

  3. Serum progesterone levels for diagnosing pregnancy and monitoring corpora lutea function during different reproductive stages in hormonally-treated heat synchronized female damascus goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakawi, M.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on female damascus goats the breeding season to diagnose pregnancy on days 21-22 and 40-44 after mating and to monitor the corpora lutea function during different reproductive stages by measuring serum progesterone levels using radioimmunoassay. A total of 75 intact female damascus goats were divided into 3 equal groups, S, P and C. females in group S were fitted with sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) for 14 days and injected, at the sponge withdrawal, with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG). Females in group P were injected twice with prostaglandin F 2a at 11 day intervals. Females in group C (control) received no treatment. The results indicated that the accuracy of positive pregnancy on days 21-22 and 40-44 was 90.5% and 94.4%, respectively, and it was 100% for detecting non-pregnancy. There was no significant difference(p>0.05)among the 3 groups in serum progesterone level between days 21-22 and 40-44 after mating. Whereas, there were significant(p -1 at matinf, during pregnancy and at kidding. The triplet carrying goats had a significantly(p -1 , respectively. While, there was no significant difference in serum progesterone levels between the single and twin-carrying goats

  4. The value of combined detection of serum β-HCG and progesterone in diagnosis of early ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanting; Wang Taisong

    2011-01-01

    To explore the value of combined detection of serum β-HCG and P in diagnosis of early ectopic pregnancy and expectant therapeutic efficacy. Serum levels of β-HCG and P of 324 patients with early ectopic pregnancy and 146 normal early pregnant women were determined and compared by RIA, Serum β-HCG and P were compared between before and after treatment. The required time when serum β-HCG and P decreased to the normal rang of the patients treated successfully were observed respectively. The results showed that the serum β-HCG and P value in ectopic pregnancy group were significantly lower than those in intrauterine gestation group (P<0.05). The variation of P was significant between success and failure groups of drug conservative treatment, but β-HCG had no significant difference. The required time when serum P decreased to the normal was significantly less than the serum β-HCG dropped to normal. Combined detection of serum levels of β-HCG and P is an adjunctive method to diagnose early ectopic pregnancy, so it giants opportunity for treatment of early ectopic pregnancy and is of positive clinical application value for observation therapeutic effect and prognosis of the disease. P values may be one of the more important reference index to predict whether conservative treatment is successful or not than β-HCG. (authors)

  5. The correlation between LH determination in the urine (luteonosticon and HI-gonavis) and serum LH, FSH, oestradiol, progesterone testosterone and prolactin levels at midcycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeter, P.; Woegerbauer, C.; Gring, H.; Salzer, H.; Friedrich, F.; Breitenecker, G.

    1979-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays (RIA) were carried out of serum gonadotrophins, prolactin, oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone at the time of presumed ovulation in 15 normal cycles and in 4 clomiphen-stimulated cycles of 14 women. In addition, daily measurements of LH in urine were performed using two semiquantitative methods: Luteonosticon and HI-Gonavis. Finally, the viscosity of the cervical mucus was assessed daily in order to find out the optimum time for conception. LH in serum, as well as in urine, increased significantly at midcycle and so did FSH, progesterone, testosterone, prolactin and viscosity. Lutenosticon, used in the modification of Keller and Gerber 1970 showed the first significant increase 2 days before the serum LH peak. HI-Gonavis, on the other hand, showed a significant increase only on the day of LH peak in serum. The best correlation of the 3 LH methods was found between LH in serum (RIA) and HI-Gonavis in urine. For the evaluation of the optimum time for conception in normal and clomiphen-stimulated cycles, determination of the uriany LH increase at midcycle by HI-Gonavis appears to be the most economic, both in time and expense, hormone method tested. Since only one significant increase in LH becomes apparent at midcycle by this method, the interpretation of the results is easy and additional gynaecological investigations are, thus, not absolutely necessary. (author)

  6. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K63.a,b: Non-peptide hormones in serum: cortisol and progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    S-C Tai, Susan; Duewer, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate many life functions. Deviations from normal hormone levels can have serious health consequences. Accurate measurement of hormone levels in serum can be beneficial in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating a number of diseases. Two steroid hormones, cortisol and progesterone, were selected by the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) to evaluate its member Institutes' measurement capabilities for this important class of measurand. Serum concentrations of cortisol range from 30 ng/mL to 230 ng/mL. Serum concentrations of progesterone in adult females range from 0.15 ng/mL to 25 ng/mL but can rise to approx230 ng/mL during pregnancy. The ability to measure cortisol is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones at concentration levels similar to cortisol. The ability to measure progesterone is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones with similar functional groups and concentration levels, such as testosterone. Pilot studies CCQM-P77.a and CCQM-P77.b on the determination of cortisol and progesterone in human serum were completed in 2006. There was good agreement among the results reported by participants who used isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (ID/MS) with either gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC). In 2007 the OAWG decided to proceed with key comparison (KC) CCQM-K63.a, cortisol in human serum, and CCQM-K63.b, progesterone in human serum. Thus, following established OAWG procedure, only results from participants that (1) used an ID/MS-based method, (2) participated in the relevant pilot study, and (3) used a metrologically traceable primary standard were to be eligible for use in calculating the key comparison reference value (KCRV) for each measurand. Six laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.a and eight laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.b. The same pooled frozen female serum material was used in both of the KCs. The mean value for the six ID

  7. Evaluation of serum PSA after cyproterone compound treatment compared with oral contraceptive pill in hirsute polycystic ovary syndrome patients

    OpenAIRE

    R. Taheripanah; M. Sepahvandi; A. Entezari; Z. Amiri; E. Neisani Samani

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of oral contraceptive on the serum free prostatic specific antigen (PSA) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOD) compared with cyproterone compound. Materials and methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 60 hirsute PCOD patients that referred to Imam Hossein hospital were enrolled. Baseline Ferriman–Gallway score (FG), body mass index (BMI), free PSA, 17-hydroxy progesterone (17-OHP), free testosterone, and dehydroepiandrestandione sulfate (DHEAS...

  8. Short communication: Acute but transient increase in serum insulin reduces messenger RNA expression of hepatic enzymes associated with progesterone catabolism in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, F V R; Cooke, R F; Aboin, A C; Lima, P; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of glucose infusion on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and progesterone (P4), as well as mRNA expression of hepatic CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 in nonlactating, ovariectomized cows in adequate nutritional status. Eight Gir × Holstein cows were maintained on a low-quality Brachiaria brizantha pasture with reduced forage availability, but they individually received, on average, 3 kg/cow daily (as fed) of a corn-based concentrate from d -28 to 0 of the experiment. All cows had an intravaginal P4-releasing device inserted on d -14, which remained in cows until the end of the experiment (d 1). On d 0, cows were randomly assigned to receive, in a crossover design containing 2 periods of 24h each (d 0 and 1), (1) an intravenous glucose infusion (GLUC; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW, over a 3-h period) or (2) an intravenous saline infusion (SAL; 0.9%, over a 3-h period). Cows were fasted for 12h before infusions, and they remained fasted during infusion and sample collections. Blood samples were collected at 0, 3, and 6h relative to the beginning of infusions. Liver biopsies were performed concurrently with blood collections at 0 and 3h. After the last blood collection of period 1, cows received concentrate and returned to pasture. Cows gained BW (16.5 ± 3.6 kg) and BCS (0.08 ± 0.06) from d -28 to 0. Cows receiving GLUC had greater serum glucose and insulin concentrations at 3h compared with SAL cohorts. No treatment effects were detected for serum P4 concentrations, although mRNA expression of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 after the infusion period was reduced for cows in the GLUC treatment compared with their cohorts in the SAL treatment. In conclusion, hepatic CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 mRNA expression can be promptly modulated by glucose infusion followed by acute increases in circulating insulin, which provides novel insight into the physiological mechanisms associating nutrition and reproductive function in dairy cows

  9. Diurnal rhythms in gonadotropins and progesterone in lactating and photoperiod induced acyclic hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, R.S.; Goldman, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    Levels of LH, FSH, and progesterone in serum were measured in lactating hamsters and in hamsters in which acyclicity was induced with altered photoperiod. Lactating hamsters were found to have low titers of LH, FSH, and progesterone in serum at 0900 (lights on 0500--1900) on Days 4, 9, 14, and 19 of lactation and increased levels of these hormones at 1600. Levels of LH and FSH in serum at both 0900 and 1600 remained relatively constant throughout lactation. In contrast, levels of progesterone in serum obtained at both 0900 and 1600 sampling times increased as lactation progressed. Ovariectomy on Day 9 of lactation reduced serum levels of progesterone at both 0900 and 1600 and eliminated the afternoon surge in progesterone in animals bled 5 days after surgery. The levels and pattern of LH in serum remained unchanged after ovariectomy in lactating hamsters. However, serum FSH levels in the ovariectomized, lactating animals were elevated at both 0900 and 1600 when compared to levels present in intact, lactating hamsters bled at the same times. Females which were acyclic due to altered photoperiod displayed similar patterns of LH, FSH, and progesterone in serum. Levels of LH, FSH, and progesterone in serum were low at 1000 (lights on 0500--1500) and were increased 2 to 10 fold at 1500. Ovariectomy was followed by lower progesterone levels in serum at 1000 and 1500 and eliminated the afternoon rise of this hormone. Serum levels of LH were unaffected by ovariectomy. As in lactating hamsters, levels of FSH in serum were elevated 3--4 days following ovariectomy at both bleeding times, but the levels were higher at 1500. These results indicate that acyclicity induced by lactation or exposure to a short photoperiod is characterized by similar diurnal patterns of circulating hormones in the hamster

  10. Effect of ELISA kit manufacturing process and incubation time on progesterone concentration measured in dog serum for ovulation diagnosis - Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuróczy, Julianna; Reiczigel, Jenő; Balogh, Lajos

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-two serum samples of healthy bitches were tested with the frozen and lyophilised version of the same ELISA kit (Quanticheck, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Budapest, Hungary). Samples were chosen on the basis of their progesterone (P4) concentrations, which were between 1.00 and 20.00 ng/mL. As it is well known, this range has the highest clinical relevance in ovulation diagnosis. Both types of microplates were read at 15-min intervals from the 15th until the 90th minute (min) of incubation, and the results were compared with those of frozen plates at 60 min of incubation as 100 percent. Lyophilised microplates gave on average 18 percent higher results than the frozen version at equal incubation times. The highest difference between lyophilised and frozen samples was observed at 45 and 60 min of incubation. Ninety-four percent of the reaction in the frozen microplate occurred in the first 15 min, and during the subsequent 30 min the reaction seemingly stopped. After the 45th min of incubation, this 94 percent increased to 108 percent in the subsequent 30 min, which remained the final approximate result at the end of the 90 min of incubation. In contrast to the frozen microplate, the measured concentration increased continuously in the lyophilised version and reached the highest level at the 60th min. The results of the lyophilised microplate reached the same level at 30 min of incubation as those of the frozen version at 60 min. In conclusion, a mechanical increase or decrease of the incubation time does not generate a linear change in the test results. This study demonstrated that the results of a series of samples collected from the same bitch cannot be compared if they are measured with different laboratory methods or different ELISA kits.

  11. A prospective randomized multicentre study comparing vaginal progesterone gel and vaginal micronized progesterone tablets for luteal support after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Christina; Lindenberg, Svend; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2012-01-01

    fertility centres in Denmark and Sweden between March 2006 and January 2010. A web-based randomization program was used with concealed allocation of patients. Patients were randomized to one of two groups: vaginal progesterone gel or vaginal micronized progesterone tablets. There was no blinding of patients....... PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 2057 women ≤ 40 years of age were included and down-regulated, using the long agonist protocol and rFSH for stimulation. Luteal support was given for 19 days after embryo transfer or until a negative pregnancy test Day 14 after embryo transfer. Patient convenience...... (pregnancy) is robust, blinding would have been unlikely to affect the results. Unfortunately, owing to an error in the randomization, the intended age distribution allocated older women to the micronized progesterone tablet group. In the analysis of results, adjustments were made for age and number...

  12. Concentração sérica de progesterona em bezerras da raça nelore e mestiças tratadas com progesterona em veículo de liberação lenta Serum progesterone concentration in Nelore and crossbreed heifers treated with long-acting progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P.C. Lima

    2007-06-01

    day 13, but with values over 1ng/ml. The results show that the drug was absorbed rapidly after its administration and remained in satisfactory concentration in the circulation until day 13. The average total concentration of serum progesterone was higher in Nelore heifers when compared to the concentration in crossbreed ones, indicating difference in the metabolism of the drug between the two genetic groups.

  13. Progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroufova, A.; Kozlova, J.

    1976-01-01

    RIA methods of determining progestorone using the SORIN kit made in Italy and the NEN kit made in Great Britain were compared. Plasma extraction, the initial sample size for examination and recovery, the range of calibration curves of the two kits, the variation coefficient, the values of the blank sample and the values of progesterone determined in the normal menstrual cycle are discussed in detail. Variation coefficient: Sorin (calibration curve 9 to 11%, biological material 9.2%), NEN (calibration curve 12%, biological material 27.8%); determinations of progesterone levels during a normal menstrual cycle were 10 to 15% higher with the NEN kit; tritiated samples were measured with a 30 to 37% efficiency using the SORIN kit and 15 to 18% efficiency using the NEN kit. The turbidity and later sediment which formed during the determination of steroid hormones in biological materials after the addition of the scintillation solution did not reduce the efficiency of measurement. Priority is given to the SORIN kit. (L.O.)

  14. Serum levels at moment of breeding of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and progesterone in Saanen goats females during normal and induced heat and testosterone in 12 Saanen goats males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestes, Nereu C.; Vulcano, Luiz C.; Mamprim, Maria J.; Oba, Eunice

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to measure the level of triiodothyronine(T 3 ), thyroxine(T 4 ) and progesterone in the serum of females Saanen goats. The progesterone levels were: 0.59 and 0.79 ng/μl considering breeding during normal and induced heat respectively. The T 3 values were: 192.8 and 251.32 ng/dl while T 4 values were: 36.38 and 31.68 ng/dl in the same condition above. The average testosterone level at the moment of breeding in the serum of 12 males was 1.38 pg/ml. (author)

  15. Comparative serum biochemistry of captive mugger crocodiles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard serum biochemical parameters were determined for 28 mugger crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris) using Supra-occipital plexus technique and/or Cardiocentesis technique at the Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur, Chennai, Guindy Snake Park Trust and Amaravathy Crocodile farm, Tamilnadu, India (13° 0´ N; ...

  16. Body condition loss and increased serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids enhance progesterone levels at estrus and reduce estrous activity and insemination rates in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttgenau, J; Purschke, S; Tsousis, G; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-03-01

    Data from 96 Holstein Friesian cows on a commercial dairy farm were used to investigate whether body condition and serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) postpartum (pp) affect progesterone (P4) levels, estrous activity, and fertility in dairy cows. The examination period started 14 days before the expected calving date and ended either when a cow was inseminated or at a maximum of 90 days pp. Body condition score (BCS; 1-5 scale) and backfat thickness (BFT) were determined every 2 weeks. Blood for analysis of NEFA and P4 concentrations was sampled weekly during the first 35 days pp and then every 48 hours until an ovulation was observed. Transrectal ultrasonography of the ovaries started at 21 days pp and was performed after blood sampling. If cows were not inseminated because of silent ovulation, sampling and ultrasonography continued on Days 7, 14, and 18 after ovulation and again every 48 hours until the next ovulation. Estrous activity was continuously measured with the Heatime estrus detection system. Pregnancy controls were performed ultrasonographically 28 and 42 days after AI. Cows with increased NEFA levels at 28 days pp had an increased risk of maintaining minimum P4 levels above 0.4 ng/mL at first recognized estrus (P = 0.03). Higher NEFA levels at Day 7 were associated with lower probability for a cow to have elevated P4 levels (≥2 ng/mL) by Day 35 pp, indicating delayed commencement of luteal activity (C-LA). Estrous activity was not influenced (P > 0.10) by minimum P4 concentrations at estrus, but more animals with C-LA until Day 35 pp showed estrous activity compared to cows without C-LA throughout this period (P = 0.006). Estrous activity was lower in cows with a low BCS 14 days pp (P = 0.02) and with a low BFT 42 days pp (P = 0.03). Moreover, the probability to exhibit estrus was reduced with higher NEFA levels at 21 days pp (P = 0.01). Eighty-five cows were inseminated and 37 (44%) got pregnant after insemination. Higher NEFA levels

  17. Estrus, ovulation, and serum progesterone, estradiol, and LH concentrations in mares after an increased photoperiod during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxender, W D; Noden, P A; Hafs, H D

    1977-02-01

    On December 11, 1974, 15 seasonally anestrous mares were assigned at random to 1 of 3 experimental groups: outdoor-control, indoor-control, or indoor light-treated (a 16-hour photo-period). This experiment was terminated on April 21, 1975. The five mares in the indoor light-treated group ovulated 59.0+/-6.9 days later, which was 74 days earlier (P less than 0.01) than 2 of the 5 outdoor-controls (the other 3 ovulated after April 21 during a subsequent experiment) and 50 days earlier (P less than 0.05) than the indoor-controls. Durations of the 1st estrus for the 3 groups of mares were 13.3+/-3.6, 8.4+/-2.0, and 6.0+/-1.0 days for the indoor light-treated, indoor-control, and outdoor-control groups, respectively. The indoor light-treated mares averaged 4.2 estrous cycles before April 21, the indoor-control mares averaged 1.4 estrous cycles, and 2 of 5 outdoor-control mares ovulated 1 time during the experiment. The peripheral blood luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and progesterone concentrations were minimal during winter anestrous. The hormone changes normally associated with estrous cycle activity in mares--maximal estradiol and luteinizing hormone concentrations near ovulation and maximal progesterone concentration during diestrus--were observed in all mares beginning at the 1st estrus. Hair loss was observed earlier in the light-treated mares, than in either of the other groups. In conclusion, a 16-hour photo-period initiated in early December for anestrous brood mares caused endocrinologically normal estrous cycles to begin within 2 months. This may allow breeding and foaling considerably earlier than normally expected.

  18. Progesterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement therapy, or help diagnose the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding When To Get Tested? At specific times during ... receiving progesterone replacement therapy; when a woman has abnormal uterine bleeding Sample Required? A blood sample drawn from a ...

  19. Altrenogest and progesterone therapy during pregnancy in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with progesterone insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, Todd R; Gill, Claudia; Doescher, Bethany M; Sweeney, Jay; De Laender, Piet; Van Elk, Cornelis E; O'Brien, Justine K

    2012-06-01

    Progesterone production is essential for growth and development of the conceptus during pregnancy. Abnormal development of the corpus luteum (CL) after conception can result in early embryonic loss or fetal abortion. Routine monitoring of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) pregnancy after artificial insemination or natural conception with ultrasonography and serum progesterone determination has allowed for the establishment of expected fetal growth rates and hormone concentrations. Using these monitoring techniques, we revealed four pregnant dolphins (12-24 yr old) with abnormally low progesterone production indicative of luteal insufficiency. Once diagnosed, animals were placed on altrenogest (0.044-0.088 mg/kg once daily) alone or with oral progesterone (50-200 mg twice daily). Doses of hormone were increased or decreased in each animal based on how fetal skull biparietal and thoracic growth rates compared with published normal values. Hormones were withdrawn starting from day 358 of gestation in animals 1 and 2, with labor occurring 6 and 7 days after withdrawal and at 376 and 373 days of gestation, respectively. Both deliveries were dystocic, with each calf requiring manual extraction and fetotomy for calf 1. The fetuses in animals 3 and 4 died at 348 and 390 days of gestation, respectively. Induction of labor was attempted in both animals, after fetal death, by using a combination of rapid progesterone withdrawal and steroid and prostaglandin F2alpha administration. The calf of animal 4 had to be removed with manual cervical dilation and fetotomy All adult females survived the procedures. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that the CL is the primary source of progesterone throughout pregnancy in the bottlenose dolphin. Until further characterization of hormones required during pregnancy and at parturition has been accomplished, the exogenous progestagen supplementation protocol described here cannot be recommended for treatment of progesterone

  20. Antibody bond to the microcrystalline cellulose in progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krnavek, B.

    1992-01-01

    A suspension of microcrystalline cellulose with bonded globulin fraction of the polyclonal antibody against progesterone was prepared and applied to the radioimmunoanalysis of progesterone in full milk and in blood serum. The results were compared with those obtained using RETRO-test kits; the comparison gave evidence that the novel technique can fully replace the RETRO-test, the elimination of the separating medium (activated carbon, polyethylene glycol) being an asset. The obtained correlation coefficient and regression equation for a simultaneous determination of 120 samples by the two methods were r = 0.964 and y = 1.113x - 0.939, respectively

  1. Blastocyst transfer does not improve cycle outcome as compared to D3 transfer in antagonist cycles with an elevated progesterone level on the day of hCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cem; Aydoğdu, Serkan; Özdemir, Arzu İlknur; Keskin, Gülşah; Baştu, Ercan; Buyru, Faruk

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the association between progesterone elevation on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration and clinical pregnancy rates of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles with the transfer of embryos at different developmental stages (day-3 versus day-5 ETs). This is a retrospective analysis of fresh IVF/ICSI; 194 cycles out of 2676 conducted in a single center. A total of 2676 cycles were analyzed, of which 386 had no progesterone measurements available. Two hundred eighteen cycles had progesterone elevation (p>1.5 ng/mL) giving an overall incidence of 9.5%. Twenty-four cycles were excluded from further analysis. Of the remaining 194 cycles, 151 had day-3 transfers and 43 had blastocyst transfers. There was no statistically significant difference in pregnancy and clinical pregnancy rates per transfer between the D3-ET and D5-ET groups (46% vs. 49%, and 39% vs. 35%, respectively). The results of this study suggest that blastocyst transfer does not improve cycle outcomes compared with D3 transfer in GnRH antagonist cycles with an elevated progesterone level on the day of hCG.

  2. The relationship between embryo quality assessed using routine embryology or time–lapse videography and serum progesterone concentration on the day of ovulatory trigger in in vitro fertilization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhe Liu

    2015-06-01

    Results: In cycles using conventional culture, serum progesterone per follicle ≥14 mm (median 0.42 nmol/L/follicle, range 0.05-3.50 nmol/L/follicle was a significant negative predictor of live-birth (ROC AUC = 0.395, 95% CI 0.345-0.445; P=0.000 as were progesterone/estradiol ratio (0.442, 0.391-0.494; P=0.027 and progesterone per oocyte (0.374, 0.326-0.421; P=0.000 but not progesterone alone (0.470, 0.419-0.521; P>0.05. Women with an EP/follicle (>0.42 nmol/L/follicle had reduced live birth rates if they were ≥35 yrs (14.4% vs. 24.2%, P0.42 nmol/L/follicle adversely affects embryo implantation in women aged ≥35 years, but not <35 yrs. However, no adverse features were seen in the embryos from these affected cycles in terms of morphological appearance, abnormal patterns of cleavage, or morphokinetic timings.

  3. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... 30 control subjects (15 men and 15 women) of comparable age. There were ... estrogens and progestins makes the brain more vulnerable to acute insults ... estrogen or ratio of progesterone to estrogen is different in ischemia ...

  4. MicroRNA array and microarray evaluation of endometrial receptivity in patients with high serum progesterone levels on the day of hCG administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ping

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effect of higher progesterone (P level on endometrial receptivity. Methods This was a prospective analysis conducted in the Reproductive Medical Center of Peking University Third Hospital. All patients received IVF treatment and canceled embryo transfer in the same cycle and were divided into group 1 (normal P; 7 patients and group 2 (elevated P; 12 patients. Endometrial biopsies were performed 6 days after oocyte retrieval. The global miRNA and mRNA gene expressions in endometrial biopsies were investigated with a V4.0 miRNA probe and 22 K Human Genome Array. Fold ratios were derived to compare gene regulation between the groups. Spp1 and Ang gene expression was selected to verify the array results by RT-PCR and the protein expression of osteopontin and VEGF was determined using an immunohistochemical method. Results There were 4 miRNA (all down-regulated and 22 mRNA (13 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated exhibiting differential expression between the groups on the microRNA and microarray chips. miRNA-451, Spp1, and Ang expression in RT-PCR verified the array results. Osteopontin and VEGF were also shown to have positive expression in the endometrium. Conclusions Data from microRNA and microarray analysis suggests dissimilar endometrial receptivity in patients with high P levels on the day of hCG, and elevated osteopontin and decreased VEGF had poor pregnancy rates.

  5. Accuracy of Ultrasonography and Rectal Palpation in the Diagnosis of Silent Heat in Cows Compared to Plasma Progesterone Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdunczyk, S.; Janowski, T.; Ras, A.; Baranski, W.

    2009-01-01

    The study was carried out on five dairy herds in the North-East Poland. The cows, which showed no visible oestrus signs until day 60 postpartum, were examined by ultrasonography and rectal palpation twice, at a 10-d interval. A real-time, B-mode scanner with a 5 MHz probe was used. The plasma progesterone concentration was determined using RIA. A high progesterone level on the first examination, but low on the second, or low on the first and high on the second examination were interpreted as a silent heat. Based on the progesterone values, silent heat was diagnosed in 145 anoestrous cows, whereas ultrasonographically, 106 cows were found to have silent heat. The accuracy of the ultrasonography and rectal palpation in the diagnosis of silent heat in cows was 89.0 % and 69.7 %, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). For the diagnosis of the corpus luteum, the sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasonography was 94.7 % and 84.0 %, and for rectal palpation 86.2 % and 70.3 %, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). Our results showed that ultrasonography is a useful tool in the diagnosis of silent heat in cows. (authors)

  6. Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis induces decreased prolificacy and increased progesterone levels in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Orihuela-Trujillo, Agustín; Togno-Peirce, Cristián; Murcia-Mejía, Clara; Bielli, Alejandro; Hoffman, Kurt L; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván

    2016-10-15

    Reproductive alterations in hosts infected by parasites have been recognized in several phyla, especially in arthropods and mollusks, but it has been less studied in higher vertebrates, particularly in mammals. In the present study, ten eight week-old female New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were either infected with Taenia pisiformis eggs or uninfected, and 7 weeks later they were mated. We found that serum progesterone levels were increased during pregnancy in infected does. At birth, litter size of infected does was reduced by half as compared to the control group, and, at weaning, the number of kits and the weight of litters was lower. Since serum progesterone levels have a key role in the maintenance of pregnancy and implantation, we propose that the observed prolificacy alterations in does infected with T. pisiformis infection were due to changes in the levels of circulating progesterone during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The benefits of progesterone therapy in imminent abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abadi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes of imminent abortion are multi-factorial. The biggest causal factor is the low level of serum progesterone level. The lowest critical level of serum progesterone for survivability of pregnancy is 10 ng/ml. Eighty percent of patients experiencing abortion showed that their progesterone level was < 10 ng/ml. Patients who realized that their pregnancy would experience hemorrhage generally would suffer from depression. Stress was one of the factors responsible for the occurence of abortion. Administration of natural progesterone substitution (not  progestogen accelerates the disappearance of uterine contractions, and speeds up the stoppage of bleeding. In addition, progesterone has the effect of anti-anxiety. Adminstration of oral progesterone would result in metabolism in the intestine and liver, such that physiological level of serum progesterone could not be reached, while administration of suppositoria progesterone would result in physiological level of serum, such that it was effective to prevent imminent abortion. (Med J Indones 2005; 14:258-62Keywords: progesterone, imminent abortion

  8. Plasma progesterone levels in progesterone treated cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosskopf, J.F.W.; Van Niekerk, C.H.; Morgenthal, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for the radioimmunoassay of progesterone in plasma is described. In one trial the oestrous cycles of four cycling cows and in another trial of one non-cycling cow and two cycling heifers were synchronized by the administration of progesterone. Each female received either 50 mg or 0,1 mg/kg of progesterone intramuscularly on alternate days in two courses of four and six injections respectively. Blood samples of the animals were collected either daily or two-daily before, over the entire period of treatment and for eight days after the last progesterone injection. The results of the progesterone assays are represented graphically for each individual cow or heifer. The plasma progesterone levels during treatment were maintained reasonably well at levels corresponding to those normally encountered during the luteal phase of the cycle. The progesterone levels, however, did not drop as rapidly as desired after the last injection but might have been influenced by a residual corpus luteum from a previous ovulation

  9. Identification of monohydroxy progesterones produced by CYP106A2 using comparative HPLC and electrospray ionisation collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisurek, Michael; Kang, M.-J.; Hartmann, Rolf W.; Bernhardt, Rita

    2004-01-01

    Two previously uncharacterised products, produced by recombinant CYP106A2 of Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13368 using progesterone as substrate, were identified. For this purpose a combination of comparative HPLC and electrospray ionisation collision induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI CID MS) was established and applied for rapid identification of the steroids, which were identified as 11α-hydroxyprogesterone and 9α-hydroxyprogesterone. The pharmaceutical relevance of these steroids is discussed. Furthermore, the hydroxylation activity was quantified for all monohydroxylation products (15β-hydroxyprogesterone, 6β-hydroxyprogesterone, 11α-hydroxyprogesterone, and 9α-hydroxyprogesterone). The V max values for 15β-hydroxyprogesterone, 6β-hydroxyprogesterone, 11α-hydroxyprogesterone, and 9α-hydroxyprogesterone were determined as 337.3 ± 43.7, 22.3 ± 0.9, 17.5 ± 0.9, and 6.5 ± 0.3 nmol product/min/nmol CYP106A2, respectively

  10. Relationship between time post-ovulation and progesterone on oocyte maturation and pregnancy in canine cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joung Joo; Park, Kang Bae; Choi, Eun Ji; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Jeong, Yeon Woo; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2017-10-01

    Canine oocytes ovulated at prophase complete meiosis and continue to develop in presence of a high progesterone concentration in the oviduct. Considering that meiotic competence of canine oocyte is accomplished in the oviductal environment, we postulate that hormonal milieu resulting from the circulating progesterone concentration may affect oocyte maturation and early development of embryos. From 237 oocyte donors, 2620 oocytes were collected and their meiotic status and morphology were determined. To determine optimal characteristics of the mature oocytes subjected to nuclear transfer, a proportion of the meiotic status of the oocytes were classified in reference to time post-ovulation as well as progesterone (P4) level. A high proportion of matured oocytes were collected from >126h (55.5%) post-ovulation or 40-50ngmL -1 (46.4%) group compared to the other groups. Of the oocyte donors that provided mature oocytes in vivo, there was no correlation between serum progesterone of donors and time post ovulation, however, time post-ovulation were significantly shorter for cloned embryos were reconstructed and transferred into 77 surrogates. In order to determine the relationship between pregnancy performance and serum progesterone level, embryos were transferred into surrogates showing various P4 serum levels. The highest pregnancy (31.8%) and live birth cloning efficacy (2.2%) rates were observed when the embryos were transferred into surrogates with circulating P4 levels were from 40 to 50ngmL -1 . In conclusion, measurement of circulating progesterone of female dog could be a suitable an indicator of the optimal time to collect quality oocyte and to select surrogates for cloning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical Kinetics of Progesterone Radioimmunoassay System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; Moustsfs, K.A.; El-Kolally, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    Progesterone is one of the steroids secreted by the corpus Iuteum in females during the menstrual cycle, and in a much higher amount by the placenta during pregnancy. It is also secreted in a minor quantities by the adrenal cortex in both males and females. Measurement of serum progesterone represents one of diagnostic values in menstrual disorders and infertility. The progesterone radioimmunoassay is based on the competition between unlabelled progesterone and a fixed quantity of 125 I-labeled progesterone for a limited number of binding sites on progesterone specific antibody. Allowing for a fixed amount of magnetizable immunosorbent to react, the antigen-antibody complex is bound on solid particles which are then separated by magnetic rack, and the radioactivity of the solid phase was counted using gamma counter. In this work, the chemical kinetics of the assay was followed, where the specific rate constant (K) was calculated at 4 degree and 37 degree and the activation energy (E act ) were calculated and the reaction rate was deduced

  12. A Comparative Assessment of Serum Vitamin C and Serum Lead Among Periodontitis and Diabetic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Akshatha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Pre and post-operative nutritional status are not often tested on a consistent basis when patients are analyzed and diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM or have chronic periodontitis. Thus, this study pursues to evaluate the predictive value of serum vitamin C and lead levels in this population at baseline and after periodontal treatment.

  13. Effects of supplementation of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on serum concentrations of progesterone and insulin of pregnant dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipe Moriel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five non-lactating, pregnant Holstein animals (18 heifers and 27 multiparous cows; BW = 561±114 kg; BCS = 2.9±0.3; days pregnant = 110±56 d were stratified by initial BW and BCS, and randomly assigned to receive daily (as-fed basis 0.50 kg of ground corn plus 0.22 kg of kaolin (CON, calcium salts of saturated fatty acids (SFA or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PF for 14 d. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 14, immediately prior to (0 h and 3, 6, 9 and 12 h after feeding, to determine the serum concentrations of P4 and insulin. No treatment effects were detected for serum concentrations of P4 (5.52, 6.13 and 5.63±0.41 ng/mL for CON, SFA and PF, respectively. No treatment effects were detected for serum concentrations of insulin (11.5, 10.5 and 10.1±1.43 µIU/mL for CON, SFA and PF, respectively. Heifers had greater serum concentrations of P4 than multiparous cows (6.35 vs. 5.16±0.42 ng/mL, but lower serum concentrations of insulin (7.0 vs. 14.4±1.49 µIU/mL. Feeding 0.22 kg of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids is not sufficient to increase the serum concentrations of P4 and insulin of non-lactating, pregnant dairy cows.

  14. Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ford, Olive; Lethaby, Anne; Roberts, Helen; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: About 5% of women experience severe symptoms called premenstrual syndrome (PMS), only in the two weeks before their menstrual periods. Treatment with progesterone may restore a deficiency, balance menstrual hormone levels or reduce effects of falling progesterone levels on the brain or

  15. Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ford, Olive; Lethaby, Anne; Roberts, Helen; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2012-01-01

    Background About 5% of women experience severe symptoms called premenstrual syndrome (PMS), only in the two weeks before their menstrual periods. Treatment with progesterone may restore a deficiency, balance menstrual hormone levels or reduce effects of falling progesterone levels on the brain or on

  16. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bansari G; Rudnicki, Martin; Yu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Aberrant progesterone signaling in the endometrium plays a significant role in impaired decidualization and establishment of ectopic endometrial implants. Eutopic endometrial cells from women...... with endometriosis fail to downregulate genes needed for decidualization, such as those involved in cell cycle regulation, leading to unbridled proliferation. Several causes of progesterone resistance in the endometrium have been postulated, including congenital "preconditioning", whereby the in utero environment...... renders infants susceptible to neonatal uterine bleeding and endometriosis. Progesterone action is crucial to decreasing inflammation in the endometrium, and deviant progesterone signaling results in a proinflammatory phenotype. Conversely, chronic inflammation can induce a progesterone resistant state...

  17. Antibody against progesterone in local rabbit following low dose of progesterone injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyadi Suyadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Antibody against progesgerone was produced from serum of local rabbit following low dose of progesterone injection: While a control group (Control; n=5 was injected with Freund's adjuvant solution in aquadest, the treatment groups were either firstly injected with progesterone conjugated to Freund's Adjuvant (P--CFA, 150 p.l : 150 pl or progesterone conjugated to Freund's Adjuvant and bovine serum albumin (P-CFA-BSA; 135 p;l : 150 tt1 : 15 gl. Twice boostering injections were adminstered using incomplete Freund's Adjuvant on day 14 and 52 after first immunization. Weekly bleeding for serum collection were done from 1 week following first booster immunization to week 10, Using ELISA technique it was shown that the antibody titer to progesterone after first and second booster immunization in the P-CFA groug was higher than Control- and P-CFA-BSA groups. The antibody titer in the P-CFA-BSA remained low similar in the Control group: Key words: antibody; progesterone; rabbit

  18. [Assessment of progesterone levels on the day of the hCG administration as a predictor of success of antagonist stimulation protocols for IVF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably-Ambe, Alberta; Roque-Sánchez, Armando Miguel; Soriano-Ortega, Karla Patricia; Carballo-Mondragón, Esperanza; Durán-Monterrosas, Leonor

    2015-03-01

    There are reports of deleterious effect when progesterone concentration is high during the follicular phase in cycles of in vitro fertilization. In our environment has not carried out a study to evaluate the pregnancy rate compared with progesterone concentration on the day of application of hCG. To evaluate the pregnancy rate and outcome of in vitro fertilization cycle according to serum progesterone concentration on the day of application of hCG. A retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study of 486 cycles of in vitro fertilization was done in the Centro Mexicano de Fertilidad of CEPAM (Hospital Angeles de las Lomas) from January 2009 to February 2014. We included all cases where it was used a stimulation protocol GnRH antagonist flexible scheme. When levels of progesterone are high, those of estradiol are also high and the number of retrieved oocytes and oocyte quality are lower. There was no difference in the percentage of fertilization, but at higher concentration of progesterone lower percentage of embryonic segmentation. Difference was recorded in the pregnancy rate only when progesterone concentration on the day of hCG application was > 4 ng/mL. Pregnancy rate decreases when the concentration of progesterone on the day of hCG application is ≥ 4 ng/mL.

  19. Comparative study of radio gas-chromatography and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry coupling in the identification of metabolites of estrogens and progesterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adessi, G.; Nhuan, T.Q.; Jayle, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    Radio-gas chromatography (RGC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to identify estrogen and progesterone metabolites. The RGC enables the identification of metabolites of labelled precursors ( 3 H)-estradiol-17β and ( 14 C)-progesterone were used as precursors. The GC-MS analytical technique with mass fragmentography, offers the interest of using unlabelled precursors at physiological levels. The identification of metabolites was based on obtaining the mass spectrum or the compiled fragmentogram on the basis of the most characteristic fragment ions. More over, several metabolites can be quantified on the same fragmentogram. Results on the metabolism of estradiol-17β and progesterone by the hepatic tissue of guinea pigs are given. (Auth.)

  20. Radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, L; Veleminsky, J [Institute of Clinical Endocrinology, Lubochna (Czechoslovakia); Hampl, R; Starka, L [Vyzkumny Ustav Endokrinologicky, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Holan, J [Comenius Univ., School of Medicine, Martin (Czechoslovakia). Dept. of Physics and Nuclear Medicine

    1978-06-30

    A simple modification of plasma progesterone radioimmunoassay is described. 11..cap alpha..-Hydroxyprogesterone hemisuccinate - BSA conjugate was used as an immunogen. (1,2,6,7-H-3) Progesterone specific radioactivity 82 Ci.mmol/sup -1/ was purchased from Radiochemical Centre Amersham (England). The method has been applied for the analysis of more than 2000 plasma samples. The typical fluctuation of progesterone in plasma during the menstrual cycle, using data obtained with this method is illustrated. The reliability criteria of the method are given.

  1. Radiation effect on pregnant rats receiving progesterone and Biochemical changes during pregnancy in rats under effect of gamma rays. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.F.; Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; Abdel-Gawad, I.I.

    1996-01-01

    The following terms were carried out to provide a comprehensive picture of the radiation induced biochemical changes in pregnant rats with and without progesterone injections. 1- serum total proteins. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant increase in serum total proteins on the day 8 of gestation in irradiated animals as compared to control animals, while on the other days serum total proteins increased significantly in irradiated animals compared to control animals. 2- serum total lipids. Animals irradiated on the third day of gestation and 8 th day all showed significant increase in serum total lipids with exception of those on the 14 th which showed nonsignificant change. Those on the 21 st showed a reverse effect of decrease. 3- serum progesterone. It is evident that animals irradiated on third day sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant change in serum progesterone on the day 8, but on the other days it is significantly decreased compared to control levels. 4-Calcium. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on the 8 th day change in calcium level, others showed a significant decrease compared to control level. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Radiation effect on pregnant rats receiving progesterone and Biochemical changes during pregnancy in rats under effect of gamma rays. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Wahab, M F; Abdel-Aziz, S M; Abdel-Gawad, I I [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The following terms were carried out to provide a comprehensive picture of the radiation induced biochemical changes in pregnant rats with and without progesterone injections. 1- serum total proteins. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant increase in serum total proteins on the day 8 of gestation in irradiated animals as compared to control animals, while on the other days serum total proteins increased significantly in irradiated animals compared to control animals. 2- serum total lipids. Animals irradiated on the third day of gestation and 8{sup th} day all showed significant increase in serum total lipids with exception of those on the 14{sup th} which showed nonsignificant change. Those on the 21{sup st} showed a reverse effect of decrease. 3- serum progesterone. It is evident that animals irradiated on third day sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant change in serum progesterone on the day 8, but on the other days it is significantly decreased compared to control levels. 4-Calcium. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on the 8{sup th} day change in calcium level, others showed a significant decrease compared to control level. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The value of creatine kinase, estradiol and progesterone levels in early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancies: a prospective controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride Mimaroğlu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the role of serum creatine kinase, progesterone and estradiol as a biochemical marker in the early diagnosis of tubal pregnancy. MATERIAL-METHODS: A prospective controlled study was carried out on 44 women with first trimester pregnancy. First group (n=22 with tubal pregnancy formed the study group and second group (n=22 with normal intrauterine pregnancy was taken as controls. Serum beta hCG, creatine kinase, progesterone and estradiol levels in the two groups were compared. Surgical treatment had choosen as a treatment modality of ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS: The optimal cutoff value of creatine kinase to be used for the prediction of ectopic pregnancy was 45 IU/l, which resulted in a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 31%, positive predictive value 55 % and negative predictive value 70 %. The same values for estradiol and progesterone were detected >225 pg/ml, 100 %, 68 %, 75%, 100 % and >13 ng/mL, 95 %, 81 %, % 84, % 97 in discriminating ectopic pregnancies. According to AUC levels there was a significant difference between estradiol-creatine kinase levels, progesterone-estradiol levels and progesterone–creatin kinase levels (p values 0.024, 0.0082, and 0.0001, respectively. CONCLUSION: Serum creatine kinase values appear to be a useful marker in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

  4. Endometrial Receptivity Profile in Patients with Premature Progesterone Elevation on the Day of hCG Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Haouzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a premature elevation of serum progesterone level, the day of hCG administration in patients under controlled ovarian stimulation during IVF procedure, on human endometrial receptivity is still debated. In the present study, we investigated the endometrial gene expression profile shifts during the prereceptive and receptive secretory stage in patients with normal and elevated serum progesterone level on the day of hCG administration in fifteen patients under stimulated cycles. Then, specific biomarkers of endometrial receptivity in these two groups of patients were tested. Endometrial biopsies were performed on oocyte retrieval day and on day 3 of embryo transfer, respectively, for each patient. Samples were analysed using DNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. The endometrial gene expression shift from the prereceptive to the receptive stage was altered in patients with high serum progesterone level (>1.5 ng/mL on hCG day, suggesting accelerated endometrial maturation during the periovulation period. This was confirmed by the functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes as it showed downregulation of cell cycle-related genes. Conversely, the profile of endometrial receptivity was comparable in both groups. Premature progesterone rise alters the endometrial gene expression shift between the prereceptive and the receptive stage but does not affect endometrial receptivity.

  5. COLPOCITOLOGY AND SERUM CONCENTRATIONS OF PROGESTERONE IN NULIPAROUS GOATS SUBMMITED TO ARTIFICIAL PHOTOPERIODS COLPOCITOLOGIA E CONCENTRAÇÕES SÉRICAS DE PROGESTERONA EM CABRAS NULÍPARAS SUBMETIDAS AO FOTOPERÍODO ARTIFICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Rocha de Oliveira Lima

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present work was to evaluate the changes of cervico-vaginal epithelial cells and progesterone levels of nuliparous goats submitted to artificial photoperiod, in Middle-West of Brazil. Seventh Alpine and six crossbreed nuliparous goats were used, distributed in two groups: control (GC, maintained at isolated stall and submitted to natural light for the time of the year, and treated (GT, submitted to an alternate regime among natural and artificial light, for 24 hours and 35 uninterrupted days. Cérvico-vaginal content was collected, prepared on glass slides and differential cellular counts were carried out on Papanicolau smears. The progesterone concentration in blood serum was measurement by ELISA. Parabasal were the most frequent cell type present, followed by intermediate cells, mainly in the end of metaestrus and diestrus. Superficial cornified cells were present during proestrus and estrus. The cellular profile and progesterone concentrations oscillated in agreement with estrus cycle phase in control animals, but confuse on the begin of experimental period for treated animals. Cytological evaluation of cervico-vaginal content could be of value for a hormonal bioassay of estrus cycle of goats submitted to artificial photoperiod just after the adaptation period.

     

    KEY WORDS: Artificial photoperiod, caprine, hormone, vaginal cytology.

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as alterações celulares do epitélio cérvico-vaginal e as concentrações de progesterona sérica em cabras nulíparas expostas ao fotoperíodo artificial, na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Dezessete cabras da raça Alpina e seis mestiças, nulíparas, foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em grupo-controle (GC, mantido em galpão isolado e submetido ao regime de luz natural para a época do ano, e grupo tratado (GT, submetido ao regime alternado entre luz natural e

  6. Endogenous progesterone is associated to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo Monachelli, G; Meyer, M; Rodríguez, G E; Garay, L I; Sica, R E P; De Nicola, A F; González Deniselle, M C

    2011-01-01

    Negative prognostic factors in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis include advanced age, shorter time from disease onset to diagnosis, bulbar onset and rapid progression rate. To compare progesterone (PROG) and cortisol serum levels in patients and controls and ascertain its relationship to prognostic factors and survival. We assessed serum hormonal levels in 27 patients and 21 controls. Both hormones were 1.4-fold higher in patients. PROG showed a negative correlation with age, positive correlation with survival and positive trend with time to diagnosis. Increased PROG was observed in spinal onset and slow progression patients. No correlation was demonstrated with cortisol. Increased hormonal levels in patients are probably due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. Nevertheless, in this preliminary report only PROG correlated positively with factors predicting better prognosis and survival. We hypothesize endogenous PROG and cortisol may be engaged in differential roles, the former possibly involved in a neuroprotective response. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma levels of ...

  8. Evaluation of Serum Cystatin C compared with Creatinine: A study in patients with Pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Malik Mmordas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is cross sectional study aim to evaluate of serum Cystatin C and Creatinine level among pre-clampsia patients. Hundred subjects were evaluate in this study, 50 preclampsia patients as cases and 50 healthy apparently as control groups. Serum Cystatin C and Creatinine were measuring using MISP-i2, Mindray respectively. In assessment of renal function and compare with creatin in women which diagnostic   preeclampsia.  Result showed there was significant increase in mean concentration of Cystatin C in case versus control groups with P-value 0.000, insignificant different in Creatinine level when compare case group with control group with P-value 0.706. The study conclude that serum Cystatin C is higher in preclampsia patients while Creatinine show insignificant different as serum Cystatin C as marker for glomerular filtration, may be useful as marker for renal disease in preclampsia.  

  9. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajiuon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat were used: control, sham (under exposed, experimental 1 (receiving garlic extract, and experimental 2 and 3 (receiving both extract and microwaves. After a one month, rats were weighed and serum levels of hormones were measured. Results: In male the mean body weight in the sham showed a significant decrease, whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3 compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body weights in different groups showed no significant changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3. Conclusion: Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive system, reflected only in the serum progesterone concentration. Also they reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. The differences observed in the responses of male and female to cell phone radiation might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body and sensitivity of testis to heat.

  10. Evaluation of Serum Cystatin C compared with Creatinine: A study in patients with Pre-eclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Malik Mmordas; Omer Fadol Edris

    2015-01-01

    This is cross sectional study aim to evaluate of serum Cystatin C and Creatinine level among pre-clampsia patients. Hundred subjects were evaluate in this study, 50 preclampsia patients as cases and 50 healthy apparently as control groups. Serum Cystatin C and Creatinine were measuring using MISP-i2, Mindray respectively. In assessment of renal function and compare with creatin in women which diagnostic   preeclampsia.  Result showed there was significant increase in mean concentration of Cys...

  11. Progesterone radioimmunoassay with the use of progesterone derivative substituted at 12α position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kula, E.; Stupnicka, R.

    1981-01-01

    A direct (non-extraction) radioimmunoassay method for progesterone determination in blood plasma has been presented. A new progesterone derivative substituted at 12α position was used as antigen for production of antibody. Cheap and easily accessible substrate -deoxycholic acid - was used as starting material for 9 step degradation procedure yielding 12α-hydroxy-progesterone. The latter compound was subsequently esterified with succinic anhydrine and conjugated with bovine serum albumin. The conjugate was then used for the immunization of rabbits to obtain immune antisera. After the detailed characterization, the obtained antibodies have been used for the determination of progesterone in human and cattle blood plasma. Transcortin present in samples used for the determinations was saturated with the excess of cortisol. The sensitivity of the method was found to be 5 pg in a sample, which corresponds to the concentration of about 0.25 ng/ml in blood plasma, in as much as the volume of plasma used for analysis was 20 ml. The within-series error was 7% when progesterone concentration in plasma samples was higher than 2.5 ng/ml. (author)

  12. Gender differences in serum testosterone and cortisol in patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaka, Hisashi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Kida, Sayaka; Kurita, Hirofumi; Shimano, Takahisa; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone may have a role distinct from cortisol in the pathophysiology of depression. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis affects the functions of sex steroid hormones through interaction with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The objective of this study was to investigate differences in serum levels of testosterone and cortisol in male and female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants included 87 inpatients with MDD at Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital. Serum levels of testosterone and cortisol were assessed at admission. Matched controls included 128 healthy individuals. Data from MDD patients and controls were compared separately for men and women. Correlations between serum hormone levels and scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) of patients were assessed by sex. Effects of various factors on testosterone and cortisol were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. In male patients with MDD, a significant negative correlation was seen between testosterone levels and the "retardation" score of HAM-D. However, serum testosterone levels were not significantly different in either male or female MDD patients compared with controls. Serum testosterone was negatively associated with the number of depressive episodes in male patients with MDD. Serum cortisol levels in female patients were significantly increased compared with female controls with no significant correlations between cortisol levels and HAM-D scores. The negative correlation between the sub-score of the HAM-D and testosterone may be associated with the biological pathophysiology of male depression. Findings of serum cortisol levels in women may suggest distinct characteristics of these hormones in men and women with MDD.

  13. Comparative evaluation of blood and serum samples in rapid immunochromatographic tests for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Khanal, Basudha; Tiwary, Puja; Mudavath, Shyam Lal; Tiwary, Narendra K; Singh, Rupa; Koirala, Kanika; Boelaert, Marleen; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam

    2013-12-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on the detection of specific antibodies in serum are commonly used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Several commercial kits are available, and some of them allow the use of whole-blood samples instead of serum. An RDT is much more user-friendly for blood samples than for serum samples. In this study, we examined the sensitivities and specificities of six different commercially available immunochromatographic tests for their accuracy in detecting Leishmania infection in whole blood and serum of parasitologically confirmed VL cases. This study was performed in areas of India and Nepal where VL is endemic. A total of 177 confirmed VL cases, 208 healthy controls from areas of endemicity (EHCs), 26 malaria patients (MP), and 37 tuberculosis (TB) patients were enrolled. The reproducibilities of the blood and serum results and between-reader and between-laboratory results were tested. In India, the sensitivities of all the RDTs ranged between 94.7 and 100.0%, with no significant differences between whole blood and serum. The specificities ranged between 92.4 and 100.0%, except for the specificity of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB kit, which was lower (33.6 to 42.0%). No differences in specificities were observed for blood and serum. In Nepal, the sensitivities of all the test kits, for whole-blood as well as serum samples, ranged between 96.3 and 100.0%, and the specificities ranged between 90.1 and 96.1%, again with the exception of that of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB test, which was markedly lower (48.7 to 49.3%). The diagnostic accuracies of all the tests, except for one brand, were excellent for the whole-blood and serum samples. We conclude that whole blood is an adequate alternative for serum in RDTs for VL, with sensitivities and specificities comparable to those obtained in serum samples, provided that the test kit is of overall good quality.

  14. Progranulin gene variation affects serum progranulin levels differently in Danish bipolar individuals compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Nielsen, Marit N; Thotakura, Gangadaar; Lee, Chris W; Nykjær, Anders; Mors, Ole; Glerup, Simon

    2017-06-01

    The identification of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder is of great importance and has the potential to improve diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Recent studies have reported lower plasma progranulin levels in bipolar individuals compared with controls and association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the progranulin gene (GRN). In the present study, we investigated the effect of GRN and sortilin (SORT1) gene variation on serum progranulin levels in bipolar individuals and controls. In a Danish cohort of individuals with bipolar disorder and controls, we analysed the serum progranulin level (nbipolar=80, ncontrols=76) and five SNPs located within GRN and two SNPs near the SORT1 gene encoding sortilin, a progranulin scavenger receptor known to affect circulating progranulin levels (nbipolar=166, ncontrols=186). We observed no significant difference in the serum progranulin level between cases and controls and none of the analysed SNPs located within GRN or close to SORT1 were associated with bipolar disorder. Crude and adjusted (adjusted for case-control status, sex and age) linear regression analyses showed no effect of any SNPs on the serum progranulin level. However, we observed that the mean serum progranulin level in cases and controls is affected differently depending on the genotypes of two SNPs within GRN (rs2879096 and rs4792938). The sample size is relatively small and detailed information on medication and polarity of the disorder is not available. No correction for multiple testing was performed. Our study suggests that the potential of progranulin as a biomarker for bipolar disorder is genotype dependent.

  15. A Pilot Comparative Study of 26 Biochemical Markers in Seminal Plasma and Serum in Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xiang Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The relationships of the biochemical components in seminal plasma and serum, and their origins and physiological effects in male reproductive system have been poorly understood. Methods. Based on the calibration and quality control measures, 26 biochemical markers, in seminal plasma and serum samples from 36 male infertility patients with nonazoospermia were detected and compared. Results. Only PA was undetectable in all seminal plasma samples. There were significant differences of all other 24 biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum (P<0.05 except for UA (P=0.214. There were rich proteins in seminal plasma, and globulin accounted for about 90%. There were also abundant enzymes in seminal plasma, and the activities of ALT, AST, AKP, GGT, LDH, CK, and αHBDH in seminal plasma were significantly higher than those in serum while ADA was inversely lower. There were relatively low levels of Glu, TG, TC, and hsCRP in seminal plasma, but Glu was undetectable in 8 of 36 cases. Conclusions. The differences of the levels of biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum might be associated with the selective secretion of testis, epididymis and male accessory glands, and the specific environment needed for sperm metabolism and function maintenance.

  16. Basal progesterone level as the main determinant of progesterone elevation on the day of hCG triggering in controlled ovarian stimulation cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Enrico; Corti, Laura; Vanni, Valeria Stella; Pagliardini, Luca; Ottolina, Jessica; De Michele, Francesca; La Marca, Antonio; Viganò, Paola; Candiani, Massimo

    2014-07-01

    Modest increases of serum progesterone at human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) cycles have been shown to have a negative impact on pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify early predictors of progesterone elevation at hCG. Pregnancy outcome of 303 consecutive patients undergoing COH and fresh day-3 embryo transfer was analysed. Considering the non-linear relationship between progesterone at hCG triggering and pregnancy outcomes, partial area under the curve (pAUC) analysis was used to implement marker identification potential of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Multivariate logistic analysis was then performed to identify predictors of progesterone rise. Pregnancy outcomes could be predicted by pAUC analysis (pAUC = 0.58, 95 % CI 0.51-0.66, p = 0.02) and a significant detrimental cut-off could be calculated (progesterone at hCG > 1.35 ng/ml). Total dose of rFSH administered, E2 level at hCG but mostly basal progesterone level (OR = 12.21, 95 % CI 1.82-81.70) were predictors of progesterone rise above the cut-off. Basal progesterone is shown to be the main prognostic factor for progesterone elevation. This observation should be taken into consideration in the clinical management of IVF/ICSI cycles to improve pregnancy outcomes.

  17. Comparative Circadian Metabolomics Reveal Differential Effects of Nutritional Challenge in the Serum and Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondante, Serena; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; Ceglia, Nicholas J; Baldi, Pierre; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2016-02-05

    Diagnosis and therapeutic interventions in pathological conditions rely upon clinical monitoring of key metabolites in the serum. Recent studies show that a wide range of metabolic pathways are controlled by circadian rhythms whose oscillation is affected by nutritional challenges, underscoring the importance of assessing a temporal window for clinical testing and thereby questioning the accuracy of the reading of critical pathological markers in circulation. We have been interested in studying the communication between peripheral tissues under metabolic homeostasis perturbation. Here we present a comparative circadian metabolomic analysis on serum and liver in mice under high fat diet. Our data reveal that the nutritional challenge induces a loss of serum metabolite rhythmicity compared with liver, indicating a circadian misalignment between the tissues analyzed. Importantly, our results show that the levels of serum metabolites do not reflect the circadian liver metabolic signature or the effect of nutritional challenge. This notion reveals the possibility that misleading reads of metabolites in circulation may result in misdiagnosis and improper treatments. Our findings also demonstrate a tissue-specific and time-dependent disruption of metabolic homeostasis in response to altered nutrition. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. [Laboratory diagnostics in transient loss of consciousness : Serum lactate compared to serum creatine kinase as diagnostic indicator for generalized tonic-clonic seizures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafotakis, M; Heckelmann, J; Zechbauer, S; Litmathe, J; Brokmann, J; Willmes, K; Surges, R; Matz, O

    2018-03-21

    Laboratory parameters can help in the differential diagnostics of acute episodes of transient loss of consciousness. Especially serum lactate and serum creatine kinase (CK) levels may provide valuable hints to distinguish generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) from syncope. Serum lactate levels at admission and CK levels 10-48 h after the episodes that led to admission were compared between patients with GTCS (n = 30) and those with syncope (n = 15). In addition, sensitivity and specificity of lactate and CK as diagnostic markers for syncope and GTCS were determined. The serum lactate and serum CK levels were significantly increased in patients with GTCS as compared to syncope patients (serum lactate: p lactate as an indicator for GTCS was 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-1.0). For CK the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis produced an AUC of only 0.77 (95% CI: 0.63-0.9). The determination of the lactate value as point-of-care diagnostics appears to be highly relevant in the rapid clarification of unclear episodes with transient loss of consciousness. The CK level at follow-up is also suitable for distinguishing GTCS from syncope but is inferior to the serum lactate value.

  19. HIGHER SERUM CAFFEINE IN SMOKERS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA COMPARED TO SMOKING CONTROLS

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Kunal K; Williams, Jill M; Menza, Matthew; Galazyn, Magdalena; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of high dietary caffeine intake in individuals with schizophrenia have not demonstrated biological evidence of higher intake or controlled smoking behavior. This study aimed to examine differences in serum caffeine levels in 104 smokers with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SCZ/SA) and compare them to 63 smokers without any mental illness (CON). Since we were interested in measuring caffeine levels, we excluded all non caffeine users from the study. Blood draws were st...

  20. Comparative Analysis of Serum Levels of Aluminum and Lead in Dialysis Patients, Pre and post Dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Atieh Makhlough; Mohammad Shokrzadeh; Maryam Shaliji; Siyavash Abedi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulation or deficiency of trace elements can occur in hemodialysis patients and it increases risk of cardiovascular or other organs disorders. Special ions levels such as sodium and bicarbonate in dialysis fluid are accurately regulated but the remaining elements are not regularly measured. Aluminum and lead belong to the biologic performance free heavy metals .They also has a tendency to accumulate in hemodialysis patients. This study aims to compare serum aluminum and lead l...

  1. Progesterone for preterm birth prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Lucovnik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progesterone is important in maintaining pregnancy. Progesterone supplementation may reduce risk of preterm birth in certain populations of pregnant women. The objective of this review was to develop evidence-based clinical recommendation for progesterone treatment in the prevention of preterm birth.Methods: A search in the Medline database was performed using keywords: progesterone, pregnancy, preterm birth, preterm labour, preterm delivery, randomized trial, and randomized controlled trial. We only included studies of vaginal progesterone treatments for the prevention of preterm birth and excluded studies on 17-α-hydroksiprogesterone caproate.Results: We report findings from twelve randomized trials conducted since 2003. These trials differ regarding inclusion criteria, progesterone dose, vehicle used, and duration of treatment. Inclusion criteria were: short uterine cervix (two trials, history of previous preterm birth (two trials, signs and symptoms of preterm labour (three trials, twin pregnancies (three trials, and multiple risk factors (among these history of previous preterm birth was the most common (two trials. Six of these twelve trials showed a significant reduction in preterm birth in the progesterone groups.Conclusions: Based on current evidence we recommend treatment with 200 mg of micronized progesterone daily, administered vaginally, in pregnant women found to have a short cervix (≤ 25 mm at 19-24 weeks. The treatment should be continued until 37 weeks.

  2. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in dysthymia: a comparative study with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Omer; Deveci, Artuner; Taskin, Oryal E; Taneli, Fatma; Esen-Danaci, Aysen

    2007-06-30

    In this present work, it is aimed to demonstrate BDNF serum concentrations in patients with dysthymia and to compare them with BDNF serum concentrations in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy subjects. The study was carried out in Celal Bayar University Hospital, Manisa, Turkey. Seventeen patients with dysthymia, 24 patients with major depressive disorder and 26 subjects without any psychiatric diagnosis and any psychiatric treatment were included in the study. The severity of depression was assessed with 17-item HAM-D. All subjects were asked to give their written consent. Blood samples were collected at baseline. Serum BDNF was kept at -70 degrees C before testing, and assayed with an ELISA Kit (Promega; Madison, WI, USA), after dilution with the Block and Sample solution provided with the kit. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance. The BDNF serum concentrations of the dysthymia group (mean=28.9+/-9.2 ng/ml) were significantly higher than that of the major depressive disorder group (21.2+/-11.3 ng/ml) (p=0.002), and it was not different from the level of the control group (31.4+/-8.8 ng/ml). BDNF serum concentrations and HAM-D score did not have any significant correlation in the dysthymia and major depression groups (r=-0.276, p=0.086). The low level of BDNF in patients with dysthymic disorder seems to point out that BDNF changes in mood disorders are state-dependent and vary according to the severity of depressive episodes.

  3. Protective role of melatonin in progesterone production by human luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Toshiaki; Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Lee, Lifa; Kizuka, Fumie; Tamura, Isao; Taniguchi, Ken; Maekawa, Ryo; Asada, Hiromi; Shimamura, Katsunori; Reiter, Russel J; Sugino, Norihiro

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated whether melatonin protects luteinized granulosa cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an antioxidant to enhance progesterone production in the follicle during ovulation. Follicular fluid was sampled at the time of oocyte retrieval in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Melatonin concentrations in the follicular fluid were positively correlated with progesterone concentrations (r = 0.342, P progesterone and 8-OHdG concentrations were negatively correlated (r = -0.246, P Progesterone production by luteinized granulosa cells was significantly inhibited by H(2)O(2). Melatonin treatment overcame the inhibitory effect of H(2) O(2) . Twenty-five patients who had luteal phase defect (serum progesterone concentrations progesterone concentrations (>10 ng/mL during the mid-luteal phase) in nine of 14 women (64.3%), whereas only two of 11 women (18.1%) showed normal serum progesterone levels in the control group. In conclusion, melatonin protects granulosa cells undergoing luteinization from ROS in the follicle and contributes to luteinization for progesterone production during ovulation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Efeito da aplicação de hCG ou GnRH sobre a concentração sérica de progesterona e eficiência reprodutiva em porcas Effect of injection of hCG or GnRH on progesterone serum concentration and reproductive efficiency of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.R. Carvalho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação de diferentes hormônios no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação sobre a concentração sérica de progesterona e sobre as características reprodutivas, em 103 porcas entre o terceirro e sexto parto. As matrizes foram divididas em: grupo-controle (n=35, não tratado, grupo GnRH (n=34, animais submetidos à aplicação intramuscular (IM de 50mcg de um análogo-GnRH no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação, e grupo hCG (n=34, animais submetidos à aplicação IM de 500UI de hCG no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação. A aplicação dos hormônios não influenciou as características reprodutivas taxa de parto, número total de nascidos, número de nascidos vivos e peso da leitegada (P>0,05. Cinco animais de cada grupo foram submetidos a coletas de sangue da veia cava nos dias 3, 5, 8, 12, 21 e 28 após a primeira inseminação para avaliação da concentração sérica de progesterona (ng/ml, utilizando a técnica de radioimunoensaio. Não houve diferença significativa quanto à concentração sérica de progesterona entre os grupos.Two different hormones were administered on the fifth day after the first insemination to evaluate their influence on serum progesterone concentrations and on reproductive efficiency, in multiparous sows between the third and the sixth parturition. The reproductive performance was evaluated in 103 sows distributed into three groups: 1-Control (n=35; 2-GnRH, 50m g of GnRH-analogue, administered IM on the fifth day after the first insemination (n=34; and 3-hCG, 500 IU of hCG administered IM in the fifth day after the first insemination (n=34. No effect (P>0.05 of hormone treatments on farrowing rate, litter size, live born and litter weight was observed. Five sows of each group were blood sampled on days 3, 5, 8, 12, 21, 28, after the first insemination, to evaluate serum progesterone concentrations (ng/ml. Serum progesterone concentrations were not affected (P>0.05 by

  5. Bluetongue virus: comparative evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunodiffusion, and serum neutralization for detection of viral antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Poli, G; Stott, J; Liu, Y S; Manning, J S

    1982-01-01

    Comparative studies on the detection of bovine serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to bluetongue virus with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, an immunodiffusion method, and a serum neutralization assay demonstrated complete concordance between the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the serum neutralization assay results. However, the immunodiffusion method failed to detect bluetongue virus antibody in a substantial number of sera found to possess bluetongue virus immunoglobulin G with th...

  6. Role of female sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone, in mast cell behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eZierau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Female sex hormones have long been suspected to have an effect on mast cell (MC behaviour. This assumption is based on the expression of hormone receptors in MCs as well as on the fact that many MC-related pathophysiological alterations have a different prevalence in females than in males. Further, serum IgE levels are much higher in allergic female mice compared to male mice. Ovariectomized rats developed less airway inflammation compared to sham controls. Following estrogen replacement ovariectomized rats re-established airway inflammation levels’ found in intact females. In humans, a much higher asthma prevalence was found in women at reproductive age as compared to men. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone have been directly correlated with the clinical and functional features of asthma. Around 30 to 40% of women who have asthma experienced worsening of their symptoms during the perimenstrual phase, the so-called perimenstrual asthma. Postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy have an increased risk of new onset of asthma. Beside, estrus cycle dependent changes on female sex hormones are related to changes on MC number in mouse uterine tissue and estradiol and progesterone were shown to induce uterine MC maturation and degranulation. We will discuss here the currently available information concerning the role of these female sex hormones on MC behavior.

  7. Serum levels of T3 and T4 among workers of contraceptive pills industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, E.Z.; Emara, A.; Yassen, Y.Z.; Amr, M.M.; Jaras, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Serum levels of thyroxine and triiodothyronine were determined in 24 workers engaged in contraceptive pills industry and 20 control subjects. Serum thyroxine in exposed subjects was significantly lower, compared to its level in controls. On the other hand, triiodothyronine was significantly higher in exposed workers. Thus, it is concluded that exposure to the dust of contraceptive drugs, namely estrogen and progesterone, produced disturbances in thyroid gland function and thyroid hormone metabolism. (author)

  8. NephroCheck data compared to serum creatinine in various clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajenda, Sahra; Ilhan-Mutlu, Aysegül; Preusser, Matthias; Roka, Sebastian; Druml, Wilfred; Wagner, Ludwig

    2015-12-09

    Acute kidney injury is frequently observed at the intensive care unit, after surgery, and after toxic drug administration. A rise in serum creatinine and a fall in urine output are consequences of much earlier injury to the most sensitive part of tubular cells located at the proximal tubule. The aim of the present study was to investigate the course of two cell-cycle arrest urinary biomarkers compared to serum creatinine in four clinical settings: ischemic reperfusion injury, cardiac failure, severe acute kidney injury, and chemotherapy-induced kidney injury. A recently developed bedside test known as NephroCheck measures two urinary parameters: insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2). The test is based on a sandwich immunoassay technique. The final test output, labeled AKIRisk, is shown as a numeric result. This report revealed that [IGFBP7] · [TIMP-2] in urine rise rapidly prior to any change in serum creatinine. A unique feature of all four clinical settings is that a rapid decline predicts the recovery of kidney function. Besides, a subclinical kidney injury might be detected by the test. This bedside test detects biomarkers of renal injury. A rapid decline in AKIRisk was associated with the restoration of kidney function, whereas a prolonged high AKIRisk score was associated with end-stage renal disease. However, the dynamics seem to differ, depending on the cause and the extent of injury. Further studies will be needed to clarify the issue.

  9. Comparative Serum Fatty Acid Profiles of Captive and Free-Ranging Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Bettina; Heinrich, Sonja K.; Reyers, Fred; Mienie, Lodewyk J.

    2016-01-01

    Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are highly specialised large felids, currently listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red data list. In captivity, they are known to suffer from a range of chronic non-infectious diseases. Although low heterozygosity and the stress of captivity have been suggested as possible causal factors, recent studies have started to focus on the contribution of potential dietary factors in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fatty acids are an important component of the diet, not only providing a source of metabolisable energy, but serving other important functions in hormone production, cellular signalling as well as providing structural components in biological membranes. To develop a better understanding of lipid metabolism in cheetahs, we compared the total serum fatty acid profiles of 35 captive cheetahs to those of 43 free-ranging individuals in Namibia using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The unsaturated fatty acid concentrations differed most remarkably between the groups, with all of the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, except arachidonic acid and hypogeic acid, detected at significantly lower concentrations in the serum of the free-ranging animals. The influence of age and sex on the individual fatty acid concentrations was less notable. This study represents the first evaluation of the serum fatty acids of free-ranging cheetahs, providing critical information on the normal fatty acid profiles of free-living, healthy individuals of this species. The results raise several important questions about the potential impact of dietary fatty acid composition on the health of cheetahs in captivity. PMID:27992457

  10. Comparative Serum Fatty Acid Profiles of Captive and Free-Ranging Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Wachter, Bettina; Heinrich, Sonja K; Reyers, Fred; Mienie, Lodewyk J

    2016-01-01

    Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are highly specialised large felids, currently listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red data list. In captivity, they are known to suffer from a range of chronic non-infectious diseases. Although low heterozygosity and the stress of captivity have been suggested as possible causal factors, recent studies have started to focus on the contribution of potential dietary factors in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fatty acids are an important component of the diet, not only providing a source of metabolisable energy, but serving other important functions in hormone production, cellular signalling as well as providing structural components in biological membranes. To develop a better understanding of lipid metabolism in cheetahs, we compared the total serum fatty acid profiles of 35 captive cheetahs to those of 43 free-ranging individuals in Namibia using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The unsaturated fatty acid concentrations differed most remarkably between the groups, with all of the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, except arachidonic acid and hypogeic acid, detected at significantly lower concentrations in the serum of the free-ranging animals. The influence of age and sex on the individual fatty acid concentrations was less notable. This study represents the first evaluation of the serum fatty acids of free-ranging cheetahs, providing critical information on the normal fatty acid profiles of free-living, healthy individuals of this species. The results raise several important questions about the potential impact of dietary fatty acid composition on the health of cheetahs in captivity.

  11. Brix refractometry in serum as a measure of failure of passive transfer compared to measured immunoglobulin G and total protein by refractometry in serum from dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D; Nydam, D V; Godden, S M; Bristol, L S; Kryzer, A; Ranum, J; Schaefer, D

    2016-05-01

    A series of trials were conducted to evaluate Brix refractometry (Brix %) for the assessment of failure of passive transfer (FPT) in dairy calves compared to: (1) serum IgG (reference standard) when measured by radial immunodiffusion (RID) or a turbidometric immunoassay (TIA), and (2) serum total protein refractometry (STP). For the serum samples tested with TIA, STP, and Brix % (n = 310; Holstein calves), the median concentrations were 21.3 g/L IgG, 58 g/L STP, and 9.2%, respectively. For the serum samples tested with RID, STP and Brix % (n = 112; Jersey calves), the mean concentrations were 38 g/L IgG, 68 g/L STP, and 10.2%, respectively. For samples tested with only Brix % and STP (n = 265; Holstein calves), median STP and Brix % were 50 g/L STP and 8.5%, respectively. Correlations between Brix % and RID, and between Brix % and TIA were equal (r = 0.79, respectively). Brix % and STP were positively correlated (r = 0.99). Brix % estimated serum IgG concentrations determined by TIA and RID (r(2) = 0.63, 0.62, respectively). When FPT was defined as serum IgG refractometry predicted successful transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves, but further evaluation as a diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of FPT is warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Radioimmunoassay compared to an enzymatic method for serum bile acid determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelson, K.

    1980-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid was compared to a total bile acid determination with 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α HSD) and a gas liquid chromatographic (GLC) determination of individual bile acids. When sera from patients with increased bile acid concentration were analysed the results indicated a good correlation between GLC and the other methods. Analysis of sera from healthy subjects indicated a good correlation between GLC and RIA. No correlation existed between RIA and 3α-HSD when serum bile acids were analysed in healthy subjects partly due to the presence of varying amounts of secondary bile acids. (author)

  13. Progesterone is essential for protecting against LPS-induced pregnancy loss. LIF as a potential mediator of the anti-inflammatory effect of progesterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Aisemberg

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration to mice on day 7 of gestation led to 100% embryonic resorption after 24 h. In this model, nitric oxide is fundamental for the resorption process. Progesterone may be responsible, at least in part, for a Th2 switch in the feto-maternal interface, inducing active immune tolerance against fetal antigens. Th2 cells promote the development of T cells, producing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, which seems to be important due to its immunomodulatory action during early pregnancy. Our aim was to evaluate the involvement of progesterone in the mechanism of LPS-induced embryonic resorption, and whether LIF can mediate hormonal action. Using in vivo and in vitro models, we provide evidence that circulating progesterone is an important component of the process by which infection causes embryonic resorption in mice. Also, LIF seems to be a mediator of the progesterone effect under inflammatory conditions. We found that serum progesterone fell to very low levels after 24 h of LPS exposure. Moreover, progesterone supplementation prevented embryonic resorption and LPS-induced increase of uterine nitric oxide levels in vivo. Results show that LPS diminished the expression of the nuclear progesterone receptor in the uterus after 6 and 12 h of treatment. We investigated the expression of LIF in uterine tissue from pregnant mice and found that progesterone up-regulates LIF mRNA expression in vitro. We observed that LIF was able to modulate the levels of nitric oxide induced by LPS in vitro, suggesting that it could be a potential mediator of the inflammatory action of progesterone. Our observations support the view that progesterone plays a critical role in a successful pregnancy as an anti-inflammatory agent, and that it could have possible therapeutic applications in the prevention of early reproductive failure associated with inflammatory disorders.

  14. Progesterone in Breast Cancer Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Monica C.; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of steroid hormones in breast carcinogenesis is well established. Recent evidence suggests that angiogenesis can be regulated by hormones. Both oestrogen and progesterone have been implicated in the angiogenic process of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a growth factor involved in angiogenesis in breast cancer that is up-regulated by estrogens. In our study we evaluated the role of progesterone in the expression of ...

  15. Knockdown of Progesterone Receptor (PGR) in Macaque Granulosa Cells Disrupts Ovulation and Progesterone Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Cecily V; Hennebold, Jon D; Kahl, Christoph A; Stouffer, Richard L

    2016-05-01

    Adenoviral vectors (vectors) expressing short-hairpin RNAs complementary to macaque nuclear progesterone (P) receptor PGR mRNA (shPGR) or a nontargeting scrambled control (shScram) were used to determine the role PGR plays in ovulation/luteinization in rhesus monkeys. Nonluteinized granulosa cells collected from monkeys (n = 4) undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation protocols were exposed to either shPGR, shScram, or no virus for 24 h; human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was then added to half of the wells to induce luteinization (luteinized granulosa cells [LGCs]; n = 4-6 wells/treatment/monkey). Cells/media were collected 48, 72, and 120 h postvector for evaluation of PGR mRNA and P levels. Addition of hCG increased (P < 0.05) PGR mRNA and medium P levels in controls. However, a time-dependent decline (P < 0.05) in PGR mRNA and P occurred in shPGR vector groups. Injection of shPGR, but not shScram, vector into the preovulatory follicle 20 h before hCG administration during controlled ovulation protocols prevented follicle rupture in five of six monkeys as determined by laparoscopic evaluation, with a trapped oocyte confirmed in three of four follicles of excised ovaries. Injection of shPGR also prevented the rise in serum P levels following the hCG bolus compared to shScram (P < 0.05). Nuclear PGR immunostaining was undetectable in granulosa cells from shPGR-injected follicles, compared to intense staining in shScram controls. Thus, the nuclear PGR appears to mediate P action in the dominant follicle promoting ovulation in primates. In vitro and in vivo effects of PGR knockdown in LGCs also support the hypothesis that P enhances its own synthesis in the primate corpus luteum by promoting luteinization. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  16. Systemic progesterone for modulating electrocautery-induced secondary brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Un, Ka Chun; Wang, Yue Chun; Wu, Wutian; Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit

    2013-09-01

    Bipolar electrocautery is an effective and commonly used haemostatic technique but it may also cause iatrogenic brain trauma due to thermal injury and secondary inflammatory reactions. Progesterone has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions in traumatic brain injury. However, its potential use in preventing iatrogenic brain trauma has not been explored. We conducted a pilot animal study to investigate the effect of systemic progesterone on brain cellular responses to electrocautery-induced injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received standardized bipolar electrocautery (40 W for 2 seconds) over the right cerebral cortex. The treatment group received progesterone intraperitoneally 2 hours prior to surgery; the control group received the drug vehicle only. Immunohistochemical studies showed that progesterone could significantly reduce astrocytic hypertrophy on postoperative day 1, 3 and 7, as well as macrophage infiltration on day 3. The number of astrocytes, however, was unaffected. Our findings suggest that progesterone should be further explored as a neuroprotective agent against electrocautery-induced or other forms of iatrogenic trauma during routine neurosurgical procedures. Future studies may focus on different dosing regimens, neuronal survival, functional outcome, and to compare progesterone with other agents such as dexamethasone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative digoxin determination in serum by means of a radioimmuno- and an enzyme immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, M.

    1981-01-01

    Two immunologic measuring methods for the quantitative digoxin determination in serum were compared. One method bases on the principle of radioisotope dilution, the second one on the principle of enzyme inhibition. The radioimmunoassay served as reference method. The limit of detection for RIA is 0.23 ng/ml, for EIA 0.40 ng/ml. For both methods the measuring range extends up to approx. 5.5 ng/ml. The degree of precision in series is 8.2% for RIA, 10.8% for EIA. Day-to-day precision is 4.4% for RIA, 15.2% for EIA. On comparison, the 59 serum samples of patients who received digoxin did not show any systematic difference. The results obtained can be transformed by means of the equations Csub(EIA) = 0.041 ng/ml + 0.936 Csub(RIA). In pathologic sera, however, there are significant differences disfavoring EIA, because due to high color concentrations or turbidities these sera do not permit any or any exact extinction measurements. The enzyme immunoassay should not be used with such sera. With regard to practicability the EIA corresponds more or less to RIA. The EIA can essentially be economized by using semi-microcuvettes and applying only the half of the recommended enzyme and antibody volume. (orig.) [de

  18. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Progesterone, Estradiole by Simultaneous Injection of Different Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    YÜCEL, Fatima ŞAHİNGÖZ

    2014-01-01

    We report here the development of hybrid cells producing monoclonal antibodies specific for two different steroid hormones with mixed immunization using hybridoma technology. BALB/c mice were immunized with a mixture of three steroid antigens: progesterone, estradiole and testosterone linked to bovine serum albumine. These mice were used for fusion. In the two fusion experiments, ELISA tests showed that among 645 wells only 2 hybrids reacted with progesterone (MAM 3C2, MAM 3E3) and one o...

  19. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kandasamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP and hemoglobin (Hb levels. Materials and Methods: The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Results: Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased (P < 0.01 in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. Conclusion: The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  20. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, M; Jaisanghar, N; Austin, Ravi David; Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Anusuya, G Sai; Anisa, N

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA) levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased ( P < 0.01) in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  1. A randomized, open-label, crossover study comparing the effects of oral versus transdermal estrogen therapy on serum androgens, thyroid hormones, and adrenal hormones in naturally menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifren, Jan L; Desindes, Sophie; McIlwain, Marilyn; Doros, Gheorghe; Mazer, Norman A

    2007-01-01

    To compare the changes induced by oral versus transdermal estrogen therapy on the total and free serum concentrations of testosterone (T), thyroxine (T4), and cortisol (C) and the concentrations of their serum binding globulins sex hormone-binding globulin, thyroxine-binding globulin, and cortisol-binding globulin in naturally menopausal women. Randomized, open-label, crossover. Interventions included a 6-week withdrawal from previous hormone therapy (baseline), followed in randomized order by 12 weeks of oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) (0.625 mg/d) and 12 weeks of transdermal estradiol (TD E2) (0.05 mg/d), with oral micronized progesterone (100 mg/d) given continuously during both transdermal estrogen therapy regimens. Twenty-seven women were enrolled in the study, and 25 completed both treatment periods. The mean(SD) percentage changes from baseline of sex hormone-binding globulin, total T, and free T with oral CEE were +132.1% (74.5%), +16.4% (43.8%), and -32.7% (25.9%), respectively, versus +12.0% (25.1%), +1.2% (43.7%), and +1.0% (45.0%) with TD E2. The mean (SD) percentage changes of thyroxine-binding globulin, total T4, and free T4 with oral CEE were +39.9% (20.1%), +28.4% (29.2%), and -10.4% (22.3%), respectively, versus +0.4% (11.1%), -0.7% (16.5%), and +0.2% (26.6%) with TD E2. The mean (SD) percentage changes of cortisol-binding globulin, total C, and free C with oral CEE were +18.0% (19.5%), +29.2% (46.3%), and +50.4% (126.5%), respectively, versus -2.2% (11.3%), -6.7% (30.8%), and +1.8% (77.1%) with TD E2. Concentrations of all hormones and binding globulins were significantly different (P < or = 0.003) during administration of oral versus transdermal estrogen therapy, except for free T4 and free C. Compared with oral CEE, TD E2 exerts minimal effects on the total and free concentrations of T, T4, and C and their binding proteins.

  2. Comparison of serum hormone levels of captive and free-living maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus

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    O.B. Maia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Serum hormone levels were compared between captive and free-living maned wolves and seasonal variations of sex hormones were studied. Blood samples were collected from 16 male and 26 female adult animals from Brazilian zoos, and from 30 male and 24 female free-living adults to determine serum progesterone and testosterone by radioimmunoassay. Serum testosterone concentrations varied (P 0.05. Sixteen captive males showed higher testosterone concentration during winter and spring compared with 30 free-living animals (P < 0.05. Progesterone concentration varied among seasons in 26 captive females (P < 0.05, being higher in autumn (15.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL than in summer (6.6 ± 1.5 ng/mL, winter (5.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL and spring (4.3 ± 0.7 ng/mL. Progesterone concentration of 24 free-living females varied between autumn (17.1 ± 6.0 ng/mL and winter (1.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL (P < 0.05, but we could not obtain data for spring or summer. No difference in progesterone levels was observed between captive and free-living females in autumn and winter.

  3. Quadro citológico vaginal, concentração plasmática de progesterona durante a gestação e medidas fetais em paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 Vaginal citology, serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy and fetal measurements in paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

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    Vânia Maria França Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 objetivou-se descrever aos 30, 60 e 90 dias (D de prenhez diagnosticada por ultrassonografia (US, os tipos celulares do epitélio vaginal em esfregaços vaginais, relatar as condições de abertura da vulva e as características do muco vaginal, determinar a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 por radioimunoensaio, e ainda, mensurar por ultrassonografia (US o diâmetro biparietal (DBP fetal aos 60 e 90 dias de prenhez. No D30, 40% das amostras exibiram células (com características estrogênicas superficiais e presença de núcleos nus. Nos D60 e D90, células parabasais, intermediárias, superficiais e naviculares estavam presentes nas mesmas proporções, mas células endocervicais foram descritas em apenas 73,9% e 69% das amostras daqueles dias, respectivamente. No D30 a maior proporção de células naviculares e superficiais diferiu (p The objective of this work was to describe in 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 at 30, 60 and 90 days (D of pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasonography (U.S. the cell types of the vaginal epithelium by vaginal smears, to report the vulva opening condition and the characteristics of vaginal mucus, to determine the progesterone (P4 serum concentration by radioimmunoassay, and also measure by ultrasound (U.S. the fetuses biparietal diameter (BPD at 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. At D30, 40% of the smears exhibited surface cells (with estrogenic characteristics and of naked nuclei. At D60 and D90, parabasal, intermediate, superficial, and navicular cells were present in the same proportions, but endocervical cells were described in only 73.9% and 69% of those day's smears, respectively. At D30 the highest proportion of navicular and surface cells differed (p < 0.05 compared with other cell types. The vaginal mucus was crystalline and fluid in 100% and 70% of females at D30 and D60, respectively. It was observed the vaginal vestibule open in around 50% of

  4. Comparative evaluation of serum antioxidant levels in periodontally diseased patients: An interventional study

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    Biju Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is an immune-inflammatory disease characterized by connective tissue breakdown, loss of attachment and alveolar bone resorption. In normal physiology, there is a dynamic equilibrium between reactive oxygen species activity and antioxidant defense capacity and when that equilibrium shifts in favor of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress results. Oxidative stress is thought to play a causative role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Catalase (CAT protects cells from hydrogen peroxide generated within them. Even though, CAT is not essential for some cell types under normal conditions, it plays an important role countering the effects of oxidative stress on the cell. Aim: This study was designed to estimate and compare the CAT and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC levels in the serum of periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy individuals before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. The study was designed as a single blinded interventional study comprising of 75 subjects, inclusive of both sexes and divided into three groups of 25 patients each. Patients were categorized into chronic periodontitis, gingivitis and healthy. The severity of inflammation was assessed by using gingival index and pocket probing depth. Biochemical analysis was done to estimate the TAOC and CAT levels before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Results obtained were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and paired t-test. Results: The results showed a higher level of serum TAOC and CAT in the healthy group compared with the other groups. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.0001. The posttreatment levels of TAOC were statistically higher than the pretreatment levels in periodontitis group.

  5. Comparative evaluation of serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels in periodontally diseased patients: An interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Biju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is an immune-inflammatory disease characterized by connective tissue breakdown, loss of attachment, and alveolar bone resorption. Under normal physiological conditions, a dynamic equilibrium is maintained between the reactive oxygen species (ROS and antioxidant defense capacity. Oxidative stress occurs when this equilibrium shifts in favor of ROS. Oxidative stress is thought to play a causative role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Aim: The present study was designed to estimate and compare the superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH levels in the serum of periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy individuals before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. The study was designed as a single blinded interventional study comprising 75 subjects, inclusive of both sexes and divided into three groups of 25 patients each. Patients were categorized into chronic periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy. The severity of inflammation was assessed using gingival index and pocket probing depth. Biochemical analysis was done to estimate the SOD and GSH levels before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Results obtained were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and paired t-test. Results: The results showed a higher level of serum SOD and GSH in the healthy group compared to the other groups. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.0001. The post-treatment levels of SOD were statistically higher than the pre-treatment levels in periodontitis and gingivitis group.

  6. Comparative evaluation of serum antioxidant levels in periodontally diseased patients: An interventional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Biju; Madani, Shabeer Mohamed; Prasad, B. Rajendra; Kumari, Suchetha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontal disease is an immune-inflammatory disease characterized by connective tissue breakdown, loss of attachment and alveolar bone resorption. In normal physiology, there is a dynamic equilibrium between reactive oxygen species activity and antioxidant defense capacity and when that equilibrium shifts in favor of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress results. Oxidative stress is thought to play a causative role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Catalase (CAT) protects cells from hydrogen peroxide generated within them. Even though, CAT is not essential for some cell types under normal conditions, it plays an important role countering the effects of oxidative stress on the cell. Aim: This study was designed to estimate and compare the CAT and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) levels in the serum of periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy individuals before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. The study was designed as a single blinded interventional study comprising of 75 subjects, inclusive of both sexes and divided into three groups of 25 patients each. Patients were categorized into chronic periodontitis, gingivitis and healthy. The severity of inflammation was assessed by using gingival index and pocket probing depth. Biochemical analysis was done to estimate the TAOC and CAT levels before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Results obtained were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and paired t-test. Results: The results showed a higher level of serum TAOC and CAT in the healthy group compared with the other groups. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P periodontitis group. PMID:25191070

  7. Relationship between Length of Estrous Cycle and all of Progesterone Level and Milk Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekry, A.E.; Farghaly, H.A.M.; Osman, K.T.; Regulaty, H.A.; Eboul-Ela, H.B.

    2010-01-01

    Ten non-pregnant and ten pregnant buffaloes were used in the present study and were milked twice daily (7 a.m. and 3 p.m.) whereas milk samples (15 ml) were collected at the morning every 4 days throughout the period from May 2007 to July 2007. At the same time blood samples (10 ml) were collected from every buffalo by puncture of the jugural vein into evacuated tubes. Blood and milk samples were placed immediately on ice and arrived at the laboratory immediately after collection. Blood and milk tubes were centrifuged at 1500 for 15 min in a centrifuge for serum and fat less milk separation. Serum and milk samples were frozen at -25 degree C and later analyzed for progesterone by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Progesterone concentrations in the first 2 samples were used to determine whether buffaloes were cycling or not. Buffaloes with serum progesterone ≥1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples were considered cycling, and those with both serum samples containing 1.0 ng/ml were considered as anovulatory /anestrous. Regression of the corpus luteum was considered if serum progesterone was 1.0 ng/ml. Buffaloes with serum progesterone ≤1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples considered pregnant. The data were statistically analyzed The data revealed that pregnant buffaloes had higher (P< 0.01) mean values of serum P4 and milk P4 than non-pregnant buffaloes. At the same time, milk P4 profile was higher (P< 0.01) than serum P4 and the ratio between milk P4 and serum P4 in both pregnant and non-pregnant buffaloes. However, milk P4 was 2.4 2nd International Conference on Radiation Sciences and Applications, 28/3 - 1/4/2010 34 times higher than that of serum P4 in pregnant buffaloes ; while milk P4 was 2.9 times higher than that of serum P4 in nonpregnant buffaloes. Total daily milk yield had higher (P< 0.01) mean values than both morning and after milk yield. Morning milk yield had higher (P< 0.01) mean values than after milk yield. Step-wise regression

  8. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women.

  10. Pakistanis living in Oslo have lower serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels but higher serum ionized calcium levels compared with ethnic Norwegians. The Oslo Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Haug, Egil; Falch, Jan A

    2007-01-01

    Background Persons of Pakistani origin living in Oslo have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism but similar bone mineral density compared with ethnic Norwegians. Our objective was to investigate whether Pakistani immigrants living in Oslo have an altered vitamin D metabolism by means of compensatory higher serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH)2D) compared with ethnic Norwegians; and whether serum levels of ionized calcium (s-Ca2+) differ between Pakistanis and Norwegians. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study venous serum samples were drawn from 94 Pakistani men and 67 Pakistani women aged 30–60 years, and 290 Norwegian men and 270 Norwegian women aged 45–60 years; in total 721 subjects. Results Pakistanis had lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with Norwegians (p Oslo with low vitamin D status and secondary hyperparathyroidism have lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with ethnic Norwegians. However, the Pakistanis have higher s-Ca2+. The cause of the higher s-Ca2+ in Pakistanis in spite of their higher iPTH remains unclear. PMID:17945003

  11. Comparing the effect of aqueous extract of green tea and catechin on gonadotropins, β-estradiol, Progesterone, testosterone and ovarian follicle in polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Damoon Sadoughi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Compared with green tea, catechin has a more favorable effect on improving hormonal parameters, especially FSH hormone and increasing the number of ovarian follicles in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  12. Comparative Serum Challenges Show Divergent Patterns of Gene Expression and Open Chromatin in Human and Chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzollo, Jason; Nielsen, William J; Shibata, Yoichiro; Safi, Alexias; Crawford, Gregory E; Wray, Gregory A; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2018-03-01

    Humans experience higher rates of age-associated diseases than our closest living evolutionary relatives, chimpanzees. Environmental factors can explain many of these increases in disease risk, but species-specific genetic changes can also play a role. Alleles that confer increased disease susceptibility later in life can persist in a population in the absence of selective pressure if those changes confer positive adaptation early in life. One age-associated disease that disproportionately affects humans compared with chimpanzees is epithelial cancer. Here, we explored genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees in a well-defined experimental assay that mimics gene expression changes that happen during cancer progression: A fibroblast serum challenge. We used this assay with fibroblasts isolated from humans and chimpanzees to explore species-specific differences in gene expression and chromatin state with RNA-Seq and DNase-Seq. Our data reveal that human fibroblasts increase expression of genes associated with wound healing and cancer pathways; in contrast, chimpanzee gene expression changes are not concentrated around particular functional categories. Chromatin accessibility dramatically increases in human fibroblasts, yet decreases in chimpanzee cells during the serum response. Many regions of opening and closing chromatin are in close proximity to genes encoding transcription factors or genes involved in wound healing processes, further supporting the link between changes in activity of regulatory elements and changes in gene expression. Together, these expression and open chromatin data show that humans and chimpanzees have dramatically different responses to the same physiological stressor, and how a core physiological process can evolve quickly over relatively short evolutionary time scales.

  13. Transrectal ultrasound in detecting prostate cancer compared with serum total prostate-specific antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamsel, S.; Killi, R.; Demirpolat, G.; Hekimgil, M.; Soydan, S.; Altay, B.

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a retrospective study to review the efficiency of grey-scale transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in detecting prostate cancer compared with the data in recent published work, including alternative imaging methods of the prostate gland. Our study group consisted of 830 patients who underwent TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate between May 2000 and June 2004. The relation between abnormal TRUS findings and serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels was evaluated in patients with prostate cancer who were divided into three different groups according to serum tPSA levels. Group I included patients with tPSA levels of 4-9.9 ng/mL, group II included tPSA levels of 10-19.9 ng/mL and group III included patients with tPSA levels of 20 ng/mL or more. In general, TRUS detected 185 (64%) of 291 cancers with a specificity of 89%, a PPV of 76% and an accuracy of 80%. TRUS findings enabled the correct identification of 22 (56%) of the 39 cancers in group I, 28 (30%) of the 93 cancers in group II and 135 (85%) of the 159 cancers in group III. In conclusion, TRUS alone has a limited potential to identify prostate cancer, especially in patients with tPSA levels lower than 20 ng/mL. Therefore, increased numbers of systematically placed biopsy cores must be taken or alternative imaging methods are required to direct TRUS-guided biopsy for improving prostate cancer detection.

  14. The multifaceted nature of access to compounded progesterone: a cross-sectional study from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spark, M Joy; Willis, Jon; Byrne, Graeme; Iacono, Teresa

    2014-02-01

    To explore the influences on accessibility of compounded progesterone therapy for Australian women. A cross-sectional survey of a stratified sample of Australian women who use progesterone only products using the 'Perspectives on Progesterone' questionnaire. Principle components analysis (PCA) to determine components of access to progesterone treatment and multi-way analysis of variance to compare groups. Women using compounded progesterone were likely to have made at least one lifestyle adaptation (73%), and to have tried and stopped using at least one complementary and alternative medicine therapy (63%) or conventional hormone therapy (41%). PCA revealed six components of access to progesterone treatment: affordable, values natural treatments and is concerned about other treatments, conventionally available, perceived knowledge, values information gathered from a variety of sources, and rural & disadvantaged. The multifaceted nature of progesterone use illustrates that there are multiple aspects to use of non-conventional medicines. Women looking for non-conventional treatment are neither stupid nor uninformed, their understandings, based on experience and research, need to be addressed by health professionals while assessing their condition prior to discussing the risks and benefits of non-conventional medicines. Access to compounded progesterone is multifaceted, and many of the women who use it have tried other treatments first. Despite the clinical ambivalence towards progesterone as an alternative for women who may have tried and rejected other treatments, including conventional hormone therapy, the women described in this paper are using it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Interactions of Dihydroquinazolin Derivatives with Human Serum Albumin Observed via Multiple Spectroscopy

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    Yi Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of dihydroquinazolines with human serum albumin (HSA were studied in pH 7.4 aqueous solution via fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic techniques. In this work, 6-chloro-1-(3,3-dimethyl-butanoyl-2(unsubstitutedphenyl-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H-one (PDQL derivatives were designed and synthesized to study the impact of five similar substituents (methyl, methoxy, cyano, trifluoromethyl and isopropyl on the interactions between PDQL and HSA using a comparative methodology. The results revealed that PDQL quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching process. Displacement experiments with site-specific markers revealed that PDQL binds to HSA at site II (subdomain IIIA and that there may be only one binding site for PDQL on HSA. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrophobic interactions mainly drove the interactions between PDQL and HSA. The substitution using five similar groups in the benzene ring could increase the interactions between PDQL and HSA to some extent through the van der Waals force or hydrogen bond effects in the proper temperature range. Isopropyl substitution could particularly enhance the binding affinity, as observed via comparative studies

  16. Intrahippocampal administration of Vitamin C and progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin C and progesterone alone improved spatial memory in comparison to lesion group. Effective doses of vitamin C + effective dose of progesterone had more improving effect on memory. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurosteroid, Antioxidant, Demylination, Progesterone, Learning and memory impairments, Multiple ...

  17. Detection of pregnancy by radioimmunoassay of a pregnancy serum protein (PSP60) in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mialon, M.M.; Renand, G.; Camous, S.; Martal, J.; Menissier, F.

    1994-01-01

    The accuracy and efficiency of pregnancy diagnoses in cattle by pregnancy serum protein (PSP60) radioimmunoassay, a progesterone radioimmunoassay or oestrus detection were compared. Blood samples were taken from 349 suckling heifers and cows ( 1 191 inseminations) at 28, 35, 50 and 90 d post-insemination for PSP60 determination and at 22-23 d for progesterone. Females were declared nonpregnant when plasma PSP60 concentration was lower than 0.2 ng/ml at 28, 35 and 50 d and 0.5 ng/ml at 90 d. When compared with rectal palpation at 90 d, the accuracy of positive (negative) diagnoses by progesterone assay was 80% (100%) in heifers and 75% (99%) in cows. The accuracy of positive diagnoses by PSP60 assay increased with gestation stage from 90% on d 28 in heifers (74% in cows) to 100% (99% in cows) at the time of rectal palpation. This accuracy was 84% on d 28 in cows when the interval from calving to blood sampling was higher than 115 d. Whatever the stage, the accuracy of negative diagnoses was higher than 90%. Efficiency in detecting pregnant or nonpregnant females on d 28 was equivalent to the progesterone assay. The method for detecting oestrus applied in this experiment was as efficient as the PSP60 or progesterone test at any stage of gestation. The PSP60 test is very flexible, which makes its use particularly interesting in naturally mated suckling herds because of the uncertainty regarding the date of fertilization. (authors)

  18. [Progesterone Promotes Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Synthesize Fibronectin via ERK Pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yong; Chen, Jing-Li; Huang, Shu; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Fang; Wang, Yan; Bi, Xiao-Yun; Guo, Zi-Kuan

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether the progesterone can promote fibronection (FN) synthesis by human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and to explore the potential underlying mechanism. The human bone marrow MSCs were cultured in a serum-free medium with progesterone for 72 hours, the MTT test was performed to observe the proliferation status and adhension ability of the treated cells. Western blot was used to detect the content of FN in MSDs with GAPDH as the internal reference, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, as well as the FN content in MSC treated by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2. The progesterone at a range of certain doses not effect on the proliferation of human bone marrow MSCs. Progesterone (25 µg/L) treatment enhanced the FN expression and adherent ability of marrow MSCs. Progesterone could induce prompt phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and its promoting effects on FN synthesis was reversed by PD98059. The progesterone can promote FN synthesis by human bone marrow MSCs via ERK 1/2 pathway, and it might be used to culture MSCs in serum-free medium.

  19. Comparative evaluation of seven commercial products for human serum enrichment/depletion by shotgun proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Salvatore; Biosa, Grazia; Carcangiu, Laura; Uzzau, Sergio; Pagnozzi, Daniela

    2018-08-01

    Seven commercial products for human serum depletion/enrichment were tested and compared by shotgun proteomics. Methods were based on four different capturing agents: antibodies (Qproteome Albumin/IgG Depletion kit, ProteoPrep Immunoaffinity Albumin and IgG Depletion Kit, Top 2 Abundant Protein Depletion Spin Columns, and Top 12 Abundant Protein Depletion Spin Columns), specific ligands (Albumin/IgG Removal), mixture of antibodies and ligands (Albumin and IgG Depletion SpinTrap), and combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (ProteoMiner beads), respectively. All procedures, to a greater or lesser extent, allowed an increase of identified proteins. ProteoMiner beads provided the highest number of proteins; Albumin and IgG Depletion SpinTrap and ProteoPrep Immunoaffinity Albumin and IgG Depletion Kit resulted the most efficient in albumin removal; Top 2 and Top 12 Abundant Protein Depletion Spin Columns decreased the overall immunoglobulin levels more than other procedures, whereas specifically gamma immunoglobulins were mostly removed by Albumin and IgG Depletion SpinTrap, ProteoPrep Immunoaffinity Albumin and IgG Depletion Kit, and Top 2 Abundant Protein Depletion Spin Columns. Albumin/IgG Removal, a resin bound to a mixture of protein A and Cibacron Blue, behaved less efficiently than the other products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-invasively predicting differentiation of pancreatic cancer through comparative serum metabonomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shi; Zhan, Bohan; Feng, Jianghua; Hu, Weize; Lin, Xianchao; Bai, Jianxi; Huang, Heguang

    2017-11-02

    The differentiation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) could be associated with prognosis and may influence the choices of clinical management. No applicable methods could reliably predict the tumor differentiation preoperatively. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the metabonomic profiling of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with different differentiations and assess the feasibility of predicting tumor differentiations through metabonomic strategy based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. By implanting pancreatic cancer cell strains Panc-1, Bxpc-3 and SW1990 in nude mice in situ, we successfully established the orthotopic xenograft models of PDAC with different differentiations. The metabonomic profiling of serum from different PDAC was achieved and analyzed by using 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with the multivariate statistical analysis. Then, the differential metabolites acquired were used for enrichment analysis of metabolic pathways to get a deep insight. An obvious metabonomic difference was demonstrated between all groups and the pattern recognition models were established successfully. The higher concentrations of amino acids, glycolytic and glutaminolytic participators in SW1990 and choline-contain metabolites in Panc-1 relative to other PDAC cells were demonstrated, which may be served as potential indicators for tumor differentiation. The metabolic pathways and differential metabolites identified in current study may be associated with specific pathways such as serine-glycine-one-carbon and glutaminolytic pathways, which can regulate tumorous proliferation and epigenetic regulation. The NMR-based metabonomic strategy may be served as a non-invasive detection method for predicting tumor differentiation preoperatively.

  1. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Comparative milk and serum cholesterol content in dairy cow and camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Faye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare cholesterol contents in cow and camel milk in similar farming conditions, milk and blood of seven cows and seven camels maintained at normal diet at the middle of lactation were sampled at morning and evening, then after two weeks of keeping them at low protein diet. The cholesterol content in camel milk (5.64 ± 3.18 mg/100 g, SD was not significantly lower than in cow milk (8.51 ± 9.07 mg/100 g, SD. Fat contents in cow milk were higher. Cholesterol/fat ratios were similar in the two species (camel: 225 ± 125 mg/100 g fat; cow: 211 ± 142 mg/100 g fat. The serum cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in cow (227.8 ± 60.5 mg/100 ml than in camel (106.4 ± 28.9 mg/100 ml. There was a significant difference between morning and evening milking in milk fat compositions and concentrations in cholesterol. Fat levels increased in cow after two-week low energy-protein diet.

  3. Survey of Serum Zinc and Copper Levels in the Patients with Brucellosis and Comparing with Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Eini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection. Metabolism of trace elements such as zinc and copper can influence the response of immunity system and can activate host 's immunochemical mechanisms against the organism. Therefore, this study aimed to determine changes in serum levels of Zn and Cu in patients with brucellosis in pre and post treatment compared with healthy persons. Methods: In this individual matched case-control study, 26 patients participated who were admitted to infectious unit of Farshchian Hospital with brucellosis. Moreover, 26 healthy individuals were included in the control group. 5mL of venous blood was taken from all cases in pre-treatment as well post-treatment. Then, the serum samples were diluted with deionized water, and Cu and Zn levels were measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: In this study, 26 patients with brucellosis were enrolled, who were 13 men (50% and 13 women (50%. No significant difference was observed between the patients and the control group in regard with their age and sex. Serum level of Cu in patients with brucellosis was found to be 100.31µg/dl and 92.81µg/dl, respectively before and after the treatment (P=0.495. Serum level of Cu in healthy individuals was reported to be 97.96µg/dl. In addition, serum level of Zn in the patients and controls was 93 µg/dl and 96.38 µg/dl, respectively (P= 0.625. Patients' Zn Serum level was found to be 90.27µg/dl after the treatment. Conclusion: In this study, no significant changes were observed in serum levels of copper and zinc in the patients with brucellosis in comparison with the control group. Besides, no significant changes were reported in serum levels of these elements in the patients in the end of treatment.

  4. Plasma and Serum Metabolite Association Networks: Comparability within and between Studies Using NMR and MS Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Diez, Maria; Adam, Jonathan; Adamski, Jerzy; Chasapi, Styliani A; Luchinat, Claudio; Peters, Annette; Prehn, Cornelia; Santucci, Claudio; Spyridonidis, Alexandros; Spyroulias, Georgios A; Tenori, Leonardo; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Saccenti, Edoardo

    2017-07-07

    Blood is one of the most used biofluids in metabolomics studies, and the serum and plasma fractions are routinely used as a proxy for blood itself. Here we investigated the association networks of an array of 29 metabolites identified and quantified via NMR in the plasma and serum samples of two cohorts of ∼1000 healthy blood donors each. A second study of 377 individuals was used to extract plasma and serum samples from the same individual on which a set of 122 metabolites were detected and quantified using FIA-MS/MS. Four different inference algorithms (ARANCE, CLR, CORR, and PCLRC) were used to obtain consensus networks. The plasma and serum networks obtained from different studies showed different topological properties with the serum network being more connected than the plasma network. On a global level, metabolite association networks from plasma and serum fractions obtained from the same blood sample of healthy people show similar topologies, and at a local level, some differences arise like in the case of amino acids.

  5. The Effects of Sugammadex on Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Rats

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    Tayfun Et

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugammadex has been shown to decrease the efficiency of progesterone-containing oral contraceptive drugs which possess a steroid structure. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on progesterone levels in pregnant rats as well as on the physiological course of the pregnancy. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: This study was approved by the Selçuk University Ethical Committee for Experimental Animal Research. Pregnant Winster Albino rats (n=26 were divided into three groups and administered with various intravenous injections on the 7th day of pregnancy. The control group (Group K, n=6 received 1.5 mL serum physiologic, the sugammadex group (Group S, n=10 received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and the sugammadex + rocuronium group (Group SR, n=10 received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and 3.5 mg/kg rocuronium. Progesterone levels were measured and the offspring were monitored for morphologic status. Results: Mean progesterone levels were 94.16±15.54 ng/mL in Group K, 87.86±12.48 ng/mL in Group S, and 94.53±16.10 ng/mL in Group SR (p>0.05. No stillbirth or miscarriage was observed in the rats. The mean number of offspring was 6.8±1.47 in Group K, 6.5±1.35 in Group S, and 6.4±1.17 in Group SR. The offspring appeared macroscopically normal. Conclusion: Sugammadex does not appear to affect the progesterone levels in pregnant rats in the first trimester and the clinical course. Successful completion of pregnancy and the absence of stillbirth or miscarriage will guide future studies about the use of sugammadex, particularly in the first trimester of the pregnancy.

  6. [Levels of total lipids, cholesterol and progesterone during estrus synchronization and pregnancy in sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnicáková, M; Bekeová, E; Hendrichovský, V; Maracek, I

    1993-01-01

    Our investigations were concerned with dynamic changes in total lipids (CL), cholesterol (CHOL) and progesterone (P4) in blood serum of sheep in the period of oestrus synchronization treatment and during mating and gravidity. Our experiment was carried out using 10 animals housed under the conditions of productive rearing. Blood samples were taken from v. jugularis on day of swab application (day 0) and on days 3 and 7 of the action of Agelin vaginal swabs, on day of insemination, and on days 7, 14, 17 and in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th month of gravidity. Blood serum was used to determine total lipids and cholesterol by means of Bio-Lachema tests, and P4 concentrations employing RIA-test-Prog kits (URVJT, Kosice). A statistically significant decrease in concentrations of total lipids (Fig. 1, Tab. I) in sheep blood serum was recorded on day of insemination (P < 0.05) compared to day 0, with the value 1.59 +/- 0.31 g/l of serum, and in the 3rd month of gravidity (P < 0.01), at concentrations 1.36 +/- 0.38 g/l of serum. The determined decrease in their values in the mentioned period can be modulated by the mutually changing ratio of steroid hormones or by inhibition of synthesis of lipoproteins responsible for changes in total plasma lipids. Changes in cholesterol concentrations (Fig. 2, Tab. I) during the introduction of swabs were insignificant and ranged from 1.60 +/- 0.42 to 1.73 +/- 0.33 mmol/l of serum. An insignificant increase in cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05), with its highest levels 1.98 +/- 0.43 mmol/l of serum, was recorded in the 3rd month of gravidity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Results with commercial radioassay kits compared with microbiological assay of folate in serum and whole-blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGown, E.L.; Lewis, C.M.; Dong, M.H.; Sauberlich, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    Results with three commercial folate radioassay kits [Bio-Rad, New England Nuclear (NEN), and RIA Products] were compared with those by microbiological assay for more than 200 samples of human serum and whole blood. All but one kit (NEN) compared favorably with the microbiological assay for serum samples, although there were notable diagnostic discrepancies. Two kits (NEN and Bio-Rad) were tested on whole-blood samples; both yielded values significantly higher than those by microbiological assay. The frequency distributions of erythrocyte folate data differed strikingly between the two kits; the NEN method yielded a much narrower range of normal values than did either the Bio-Rad or the microbiological assay. Radioassay kits appear to be suitable diagnostic agents for serum folate, if the behavior of a particular kit is investigated thoroughly before its routine use. However, the diagnostic value of radioassays of erythrocyte folate needs to be validated

  8. Automated measurement of serum thyroxine with the ''AIRA II,'' as compared with competitive protein binding and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.V.R.

    1978-01-01

    Two conventional serum thyroxine assays, run in separate laboratories, one by competitive protein binding and one by radioimmunoassay, were used to evaluate the automated ARIA II (Becton Dickinson Immunodiagnostics) serum thyroxine assay. Competitive protein binding as compared to ARIA II with 111 clinical serum samples gave a slope of 1.04 and a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The radioimmunoassay comparison to ARIA II with 53 clinical serum samples gave a slope of 1.05 and a correlation coefficient of 0.92. The ARIA II inter-assay coefficient of variation for 10 replicates of low, medium, and high thyroxine serum samples was 6.2, 6.0, and 2.9%, respectively, with an inter-assay coefficient of variation among 15 different assays of 15.5, 10.1, and 7.9%. The automated ARIA II, with a 2.2-min cycle per sample, gives results that compare well with those by manual methodology

  9. Effects of metformin treatment on luteal phase progesterone concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakumari K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The causes of luteal phase progesterone deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are not known. To determine the possible involvement of hyperinsulinemia in luteal phase progesterone deficiency in women with PCOS, we examined the relationship between progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and insulin during the luteal phase and studied the effect of metformin on luteal progesterone levels in PCOS. Patients with PCOS (19 women aged 18-35 years were treated with metformin (500 mg three times daily for 4 weeks prior to the test cycle and throughout the study period, and submitted to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. Blood samples were collected from control (N = 5, same age range as PCOS women and PCOS women during the late follicular (one sample and luteal (3 samples phases and LH, insulin and progesterone concentrations were determined. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Duncan's test and Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation (r. The endocrine study showed low progesterone level (4.9 ng/ml during luteal phase in the PCOS women as compared with control (21.6 ng/ml. A significant negative correlation was observed between insulin and progesterone (r = -0.60; P < 0.01 and between progesterone and LH (r = -0.56; P < 0.05 concentrations, and a positive correlation (r = 0.83; P < 0.001 was observed between LH and insulin. The study further demonstrated a significant enhancement in luteal progesterone concentration (16.97 ng/ml in PCOS women treated with metformin. The results suggest that hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance may be responsible for low progesterone levels during the luteal phase in PCOS. The luteal progesterone level may be enhanced in PCOS by decreasing insulin secretion with metformin.

  10. Transition Metal Chelator Induces Progesterone Production in Mouse Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes and Corpora Lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X; Anthony, K; Diaz, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    Progesterone production is upregulated in granulosa cells (cumulus and mural) after the LH surge, but the intra-follicular mechanisms regulating this transition are not completely known. Recent findings show that the transition metal chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylenediamine (TPEN), impairs ovarian function. In this study, we provide evidence that chelating transition metals, including zinc, enhances progesterone production. The findings show that TPEN (transition metal chelator) increases abundance of Cyp11a1 and Star messenger RNA (mRNA) between 8- and 20-fold and progesterone production more than 3-fold in cultured cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC). Feeding a zinc-deficient diet for 10 days, but not 3 days, increased Star, Hsd3b, and prostaglandin F2 alpha receptor (Ptgfr) mRNA ~2.5-fold, suggesting that the effect of TPEN is through modulation of zinc availability. Progesterone from cumulus cells promotes oocyte developmental potential. Blocking progesterone production with epostane during maturation reduced subsequent blastocyst formation from 89 % in control to 18 % in epostane-treated complexes, but supplementation with progesterone restored blastocyst developmental potential to 94 %. Feeding a zinc-deficient diet for 5 days before ovulation did not affect the number of CL, STAR protein, or serum progesterone. However, incubating luteal tissue with TPEN increased abundance of Star, Hsd3b, and Ptgfr mRNA 2-3-fold and increased progesterone production 3-fold. TPEN is known to abolish SMAD2/3 signaling in cumulus cells. However, treatment of COC with the SMAD2/3 phosphorylation inhibitor, SB421542, did not by itself induce steroidogenic transcripts but did potentiate EGF-induced Star mRNA expression. Collectively, the results show that depletion of transition metals with TPEN acutely enhances progesterone biosynthesis in COC and luteal tissue.

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C 21 H 30 O 2 ; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.

  12. Thyroxin and progesterone concentrations in pregnant, nonpregnant bitches, and bitches during abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuróczy, Julianna; Müller, Linda; Kollár, Eszter; Balogh, Lajos

    2016-04-01

    Serum progesterone and thyroxin concentrations were measured weekly until 61 to 62 days after ovulation in 24 pregnant bitches and in the control group of nine nonpregnant bitches in the luteal phase. Fourteen of the 24 dogs had a normal pregnancy and parturition. Ten of the 24 dogs showed mucinous or colored vaginal discharge, decreased appetite, or lethargy. These initial signs of abortion or fetal resorption were noted during the fourth week of pregnancy, and the process occurred over the next 2 weeks. Progesterone and thyroxin concentrations were measured by quantitative ELISAs validated to dog serum. The serum progesterone concentrations of the group going through abortions differed significantly from the third week until the end of the eighth week. The mean serum thyroxin concentrations of healthy pregnant and nonpregnant groups significantly exceeded the reference range (20-45 nmol/L). The serum thyroxin concentrations in the abortion group were between 16.15 ± 3.17 and 40.78 ± 8.97 nmol/L. The values in this group were significantly different from the other two groups at the third week of the luteal phase. Clinical signs of abortion or fetus resorption manifested in midpregnancy. The clinical signs of abortion coincided in each case with a low serum progesterone concentration (<10 ng/mL). This phenomenon indicated, in contrast with other studies, that the decrease of serum progesterone below 10 ng/mL at the fourth week of pregnancy may signal impending abortion. In the second half of pregnancy, the thyroid gland was not able to respond adequately to the elevated requirement in thyroid hormone, although in other periods of the ovarian cycle, there were no clinical signs of hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Potential Role for Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Progesterone Deficiency in Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nozomi; Harada, Miyuki; Hirota, Yasushi; Zhao, Lin; Azhary, Jerilee M K; Yoshino, Osamu; Izumi, Gentaro; Hirata, Tetsuya; Koga, Kaori; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Obesity in reproductive-aged women is associated with a shorter luteal phase and lower progesterone levels. Lipid accumulation in follicles of obese women compromises endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, activating ER stress in granulosa cells. We hypothesized that ER stress activation in granulosa-lutein cells (GLCs) would modulate progesterone production and contribute to obesity-associated progesterone deficiency. Pretreatment with an ER stress inducer, tunicamycin or thapsigargin, inhibited human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated progesterone production in cultured human GLCs. Pretreatment of human GLCs with tunicamycin inhibited hCG-stimulated expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) messenger RNAs (mRNAs) without affecting expression of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), as determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Pretreatment with tunicamycin also inhibited hCG-stimulated expression of StAR protein and 3β-HSD enzyme activity in cultured human GLCs, as determined by Western blot analysis and an enzyme immunoassay, respectively, but did not affect hCG-induced intracellular 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation. Furthermore, tunicamycin attenuated hCG-induced protein kinase A and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, as determined by Western blot analysis. In vivo administration of tunicamycin to pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-treated immature mice prior to hCG treatment inhibited the hCG-stimulated increase in serum progesterone levels and hCG-induced expression of StAR and 3β-HSD mRNA in the ovary without affecting serum estradiol levels or the number of corpora lutea. Our findings indicate that ER stress in the follicles of obese women contributes to progesterone deficiency by inhibiting hCG-induced progesterone production in granulosa cells. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  14. A comparative study of serum uric acid, glucose, calcium and magnesium in pre-eclampsia and normal pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Dhungana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is associated with liver function abnormalities and renal function impairment. The objective of this study is to compare serum uric acid, glucose, calcium and magnesium in pre-eclampsia with normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Normal pregnant women and pre eclamptic women of age group 20-40 years were included. Serum magnesium, calcium, glucose, uric acid were analyzed.Results: Mean serum magnesium level in preeclampsia (1.83 ± 0.21mg/dl was lesser in comparison to normal pregnant women (2.03 ± 0.16 mg/dl. Serum calcium level was lower (8.10 ±0.56mg/dl than control (9.59 ±0.62 mg/dl with p<0.001. Uric acid, glucose and lactate dehydrogenase in preeclamptic women was significantly higher than that in normal pregnant women (6.14 ± 0.85 vs.4.01 ± 0.62, p=<0.001, (94.17± 18.65 vs.86.34 ± 10.19, p=0.033 and ( 466.80 ± 97.29 vs. 194.22 ± 39.76, p=<0.001 respectively.Conclusion: There were significant changes in serum magnesium, uric acid, calcium, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase and total protein in pregnant women.

  15. Comparing Serum and 24-hour Urine Calcium between Preeclamptic and Non-preeclamptic Patients

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    N Shahbazian

    2014-02-01

    Results: No statistically significant difference was found between serum calcium means in the two groups (p=0.07, though mean of 24-hour urine calcium in preeclamptic patients was significantly lower than that of control group (p=0.0003. In preeclamptic group, the degree of hypocalciuria was related to disordered liver enzymes, serum creatinine greater than 1.2 mg/dl, thrombocytopenia and proteinuria more than 2g/24h. Conclusion: Preeclampsia is associated with hypocalciuria; the more hypocalciuria there exists , the more preeclampsia is observed.

  16. Field trial on progesterone cycles, metabolic profiles, body condition score and their relation to fertility in Estonian Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarütel, J; Ling, K; Waldmann, A; Jaakson, H; Kaart, T; Leesmäe, A

    2008-08-01

    Resumption of luteal activity postpartum and fertility were investigated in an Estonian Holstein high milk production and good fertility dairy herd. Body condition was scored after every 10 days in 54 multiparous dairy cows (71 lactations) calving inside from December to March during 4-year period. Blood samples were taken 1-14 days before calving and 1-14, 28-42 and 63-77 days after calving: analytes estimated were serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose, ketone bodies, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides. The general linear mixed model was used to compare the data for cows with different characteristics in luteal activity postpartum based on their milk progesterone profiles. Forty-five per cent of cases had abnormal profiles; delayed resumption of ovarian cyclicity postpartum (DC) was the most prevalent abnormality. There was no difference in body condition scores between the groups. The DC and prolonged luteal phase groups had higher serum AST activity (p fertility.

  17. Effect of copper intrauterine device vs. injectable contraceptive on serum hormone levels and cell mitotic activity in endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtesam Moustafa Kamal

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Either copper intrauterine device or injectable contraceptive usage for more than 9 months results in significant decrease in endometrial proliferative or cell mitotic activity. While copper IUD has no effect on serum estradiol or progesterone levels, DMPA usage increased serum progesterone level with no effect on serum estradiol.

  18. Comparative study of fluoride concentration in human serum and drinking water in fluorinated endemic and non endemic areas of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayyum, M.; Ahmad, B.; Ahmad, M.

    2013-01-01

    For comparing the human blood serum and drinking water fluoride levels of subjects with dental fluorosis and bony deformities, this study is carried out with individuals ranging 8-17 age group fluorinated Sham Ki Bhatiyan, Punjab (endemic) and Queens Road, Lahore, Punjab (non-endemic) areas. Fluoride concentrations were determined using ion selective electrode methodology and statistically compared. Both the groups showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). Subjects from fluorotic area showed high concentration of fluoride in water and blood serum samples (mean value: 135.587+-77.435 and 2.765+-0.469 micro molL/sup -1/ in water and blood serum samples respectively) as compared to controls (mean value: 19.509+-2.432 and 2.364+- 0.667 micro molL -1). These findings indicate that serum and water fluoride concentrations have a significant positive dose response relationship with the prevalence of dental fluorosis in an area associated with high fluoride level in drinking water. (author)

  19. Molecular profiles of progesterone receptor loss in human breast tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creighton, Chad J.; Kent Osborne, C.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Foekens, John A.; Klijn, Jan G.; Horlings, Hugo M.; Nuyten, Dimitry; Wang, Yixin; Zhang, Yi; Chamness, Gary C.; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Lee, Adrian V.; Schiff, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Background Patient prognosis and response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer correlate with protein expression of both estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), with poorer outcome in patients with ER+/PR- compared to ER+/PR+ tumors. Methods To better understand the underlying

  20. Effect of Progesterone Therapy versus Diet Modification on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    progesterone therapy) compared to Group A (diet modification) (54% [154/281] and 62.98% [177/281] vs. 89.76% [614/684] and 91.08% [623/684], respectively) (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). Straining during defecation and manual maneuvers ...

  1. Blood periovulatory progesterone quantification using different techniques in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Robbe, Domenico

    2018-05-01

    Blood progesterone concentration is used in several procedures related to the reproduction in the bitch, such as ovulation monitoring, estimating time of parturition, or hypo-luteoidism management. Several techniques are available to evaluate blood progesterone concentration, such as the radioimmunoassay (RIA), the chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The aim of this study was to compare the blood progesterone concentration using these three methods during the periovulatory period of 23 bitches. Vaginal cytology was used to classify cytologic estrus (CE) and cytologic diestrus (CD), and blood samples were collected once during proestrus and every other day between CE and CD. The samples were retrospectively classified in the different phases of the estrus based on CD. Pregnancy rate and gestational length were also recorded. A significant increase of the circulating progesterone during the progression of the estrus was recorded, and there were significant differences in the values when using the different methods, with lesser, intermediate, and greatest values with use of the RIA, CLIA, and ELISA, respectively. There was a high correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.978) and substantial strength-of-agreement (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient = 0.966) between values obtained when using CLIA and RIA, while there was a high correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.955) but poor strength-of-agreement (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient = 0.866) with use of the ELISA and RIA. The data reported in this study provide evidence that the method used for measuring the blood progesterone concentration during the periovulatory phase of the bitch significantly affected the progesterone values. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between length of estrous cycle and progesterone levels and milk production in Egyptian buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ten non-pregnant and ten pregnant buffaloes were used in the present study and were milked twice daily (7 a.m. and 3 p.m.) whereas milk samples (20 ml) were collected at the morning every 4 days throughout the period from May 2010 to July 2010. At the same time blood samples (15 ml) were collected from every buffalo by puncture of the jugular vein into evacuated tubes. Progesterone concentrations in the first 2 samples were used to determine whether buffaloes were cycling or not. Buffaloes with serum progesterone ≥1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples were considered cycling, and those with both serum samples containing 1.0 ng/ml were considered as an ovulatory /anestrous. Regression of the corpus luteum was considered if serum progesterone was 1.0 ng/ml. Buffaloes with serum progesterone >1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples considered pregnant. The data were statistically analyzed The data revealed that pregnant buffaloes had higher (P<0.01) mean values of serum P4 and milk P4 than non-pregnant buffaloes. At the same time, milk P4 profile was higher (P<0.01) than serum P4 and the ratio between milk P4 and serum P4 in both pregnant and non-pregnant buffaloes. However, milk P4 was 2.4 times higher than that of serum P4 in pregnant buffaloes; while milk P4 was 2.9 times higher than that of serum P4 in non-pregnant buffaloes. Total daily milk yield had higher (P<0.01) mean values than both morning and after milk yield. Morning milk yield had higher (P<0.01) mean values than after milk yield. Step-wise regression analysis show that both serum P4 and milk P4 profiles depended on each other. Either serum P4 or milk P4 profiles can be accurately used for pregnancy detection in buffaloes. In addition, the close correlation between progesterone concentrations in milk and blood plasma suggests that it may be useful to measure milk progesterone in clinical cases of reproductive abnormalities in buffalo.

  3. Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) from mink, horse, and man: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhaug, G.; Husby, G.; Husebeck, A.; Sletten, K.

    1986-01-01

    Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) was isolated from mink, horse, and human serum by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration and characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Western blotting followed by autoradiography and N-terminal amino acid analysis. SAA was found in similar quantities in the high density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of serum from a patient suffering from systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and mink stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and in somewhat smaller quantities in serum from horses stimulated with Escherichia coli cultures. Only very small quantities were present in normal human controls and not detectable in normal mink and horse. Striking similarities were found between human and mink SAA with respect to molecular weight, isolectric point and degree of heterogeneity, while the molecular weight, isolectric point and degree of heterogeneity, while the molecular weight of horse SAA seemed to be somewhat lower, and no obvious heterogeneity could be demonstrated in this protein using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Immunologic cross-reactivity between SAA from the three species was not found. In contrast to human and horse HDL, mink HDL was found not to contain apoA-II and only minute amounts of apoC proteins. Normal horse HDL also contained additional apoproteins not present in HDL from the other species. N-terminal amino acids analysis of SAA from mink and horse demonstrated the same similarity with the corresponding AA protein as previously reported for human SAA/AA

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl serum levels in subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma as compared with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been recognized as human carcinogens and cause liver cancer in animal experimental studies. However, no study investigated their association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC so far.  This study aimed to evaluate the serum PCB concentration in HCC patients and in healthy subjects of the general population living in Brescia, North Italy, a highly industrialized area with heavy PCB environmental pollution due to the presence of a PCB producing factory. Methods. Lipid-adjusted PCB concentrations, computed as the sum of 24 congeners, were measured in the serum of 101 HCC patients and in 101 healthy subjects of the same age and gender.Results. Hepatitis B and C virus infection and history of heavy alcohol intake were found, alone and combined, in 87% of HCC patients. No difference was found in PCB serum concentration of HCC patients with and without, and according to, the major risk factors for liver disease. No significant difference was observed in serum total PCB concentration between HCC patients (median: 1081; range: 287.0-3182.0 ng/g lipid and healthy subjects (median: 1199.3; range: 225.7-22825 ng/g lipid. PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 180 and 194 were the only ones found over the detection limit in at least 30% of HCC patients. The serum level of PCB 118, but not that of other congeners, was higher in HCC patients than in healthy subjects.Conclusion. These findings  do not support the hypothesis that PCBs play an important role in HCC development, although a contribution by some specific congeners cannot be ruled out. 

  5. Amphiregulin mediates hCG-induced StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lanlan; Yu, Yiping; Zhang, Ruizhe; He, Jingyan; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2016-04-26

    Progesterone plays critical roles in maintaining a successful pregnancy at the early embryonic stage. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) rapidly induces amphiregulin (AREG) expression. However, it remains unknown whether AREG mediates hCG-induced progesterone production. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of AREG in hCG-induced progesterone production and the underlying molecular mechanism in human granulosa cells; primary cells were used as the experimental model. We demonstrated that the inhibition of EGFR and the knockdown of AREG abolished hCG-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone production. Importantly, follicular fluid AREG levels were positively correlated with progesterone levels in the follicular fluid and serum. Treatment with AREG increased StAR expression and progesterone production, and these stimulatory effects were abolished by EGFR inhibition. Moreover, activation of ERK1/2, but not PI3K/Akt, signaling was required for the AREG-induced up-regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. Our results demonstrate that AREG mediates hCG-induced StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells, providing novel evidence for the role of AREG in the regulation of steroidogenesis.

  6. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate (S) levels in medicated patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Hirofumi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Kida, Sayaka; Matsuzaka, Hisashi; Shimano, Takahisa; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2013-04-05

    There is accumulating evidence regarding gender differences in clinical symptoms or response to antidepressants in patients with depression. However, less attention has been given to sex differences in the underlying biological mechanisms of depression. The adrenal androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEA-S), play a critical role in controlling affect, mood, and anxiety. Changes in serum adrenal androgen levels have been reported in conditions pertaining to stress as well as in psychiatric disorders. The objective of the present study was to investigate differences in serum levels of adrenal androgens in male and female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants included 90 inpatients with MDD at the psychiatric ward of Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital who were receiving antidepressants. Serum levels of DHEA and DHEA-S were assessed at the time of admission. Matched controls (based on sex and age) included 128 healthy individuals. First, data from male and female MDD patients and controls were compared. Second, correlations between serum hormone levels and scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) of patients with MDD were assessed by gender. In addition, effects of various factors on adrenal androgens were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Serum DHEA levels were significantly increased in both male and female MDD patients compared with controls. Serum levels of DHEA-S in male patients were significantly decreased compared with male controls, whereas no significant differences were seen in female patients and controls. No significant correlations among adrenal androgens were observed in male patients with MDD, whereas significant positive correlations were found in both male and female controls. No significant correlations were seen between adrenal androgens and HAM-D scores in male or female patients. Multiple regression analysis showed that both hormones were affected by the age

  7. Comparative epigenetic influence of autologous versus fetal bovine serum on mesenchymal stem cells through in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fani, Nesa [Department of Genetics, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziadlou, Reihane [Department of Genetics, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahhoseini, Maryam, E-mail: m.shahhoseini@royaninstitute.org [Department of Genetics, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza, E-mail: eslami@royaninstitute.org [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM) represents a useful source of adult stem cells for cell therapy and tissue engineering. MSCs are present at a low frequency in the BM; therefore expansion is necessary before performing clinical studies. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a nutritional supplement for in vitro culture of MSCs is a suitable additive for human cell culture, but not regarding subsequent use of these cells for clinical treatment of human patients due to the risk of viral and prion transmission as well as xenogeneic immune responses after transplantation. Recently, autologous serum (AS) has been as a supplement to replace FBS in culture medium. We compared the effect of FBS versus AS on the histone modification pattern of MSCs through in vitro osteogenesis and adipogenesis. Differentiation of stem cells under various serum conditions to a committed state involves global changes in epigenetic patterns that are critically determined by chromatin modifications. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with real-time PCR showed significant changes in the acetylation and methylation patterns in lysine 9 (Lys9) of histone H3 on the regulatory regions of stemness (Nanog, Sox2, Rex1), osteogenic (Runx2, Oc, Sp7) and adipogenic (Ppar-γ, Lpl, adiponectin) marker genes in undifferentiated MSCs, FBS and AS. All epigenetic changes occurred in a serum dependent manner which resulted in higher expression level of stemness genes in undifferentiated MSCs compared to differentiated MSCs and increased expression levels of osteogenic genes in AS compared to FBS. Adipogenic genes showed greater expression in FBS compared to AS. These findings have demonstrated the epigenetic influence of serum culture conditions on differentiation potential of MSCs, which suggest that AS is possibly more efficient serum for osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in cell therapy purposes. - Highlights: • Bone marrow derived MSC could proliferate in AS as well as in FBS

  8. Comparative epigenetic influence of autologous versus fetal bovine serum on mesenchymal stem cells through in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fani, Nesa; Ziadlou, Reihane; Shahhoseini, Maryam; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM) represents a useful source of adult stem cells for cell therapy and tissue engineering. MSCs are present at a low frequency in the BM; therefore expansion is necessary before performing clinical studies. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a nutritional supplement for in vitro culture of MSCs is a suitable additive for human cell culture, but not regarding subsequent use of these cells for clinical treatment of human patients due to the risk of viral and prion transmission as well as xenogeneic immune responses after transplantation. Recently, autologous serum (AS) has been as a supplement to replace FBS in culture medium. We compared the effect of FBS versus AS on the histone modification pattern of MSCs through in vitro osteogenesis and adipogenesis. Differentiation of stem cells under various serum conditions to a committed state involves global changes in epigenetic patterns that are critically determined by chromatin modifications. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with real-time PCR showed significant changes in the acetylation and methylation patterns in lysine 9 (Lys9) of histone H3 on the regulatory regions of stemness (Nanog, Sox2, Rex1), osteogenic (Runx2, Oc, Sp7) and adipogenic (Ppar-γ, Lpl, adiponectin) marker genes in undifferentiated MSCs, FBS and AS. All epigenetic changes occurred in a serum dependent manner which resulted in higher expression level of stemness genes in undifferentiated MSCs compared to differentiated MSCs and increased expression levels of osteogenic genes in AS compared to FBS. Adipogenic genes showed greater expression in FBS compared to AS. These findings have demonstrated the epigenetic influence of serum culture conditions on differentiation potential of MSCs, which suggest that AS is possibly more efficient serum for osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in cell therapy purposes. - Highlights: • Bone marrow derived MSC could proliferate in AS as well as in FBS

  9. Comparative Diagnosis of Serum IgG1 and Coproantigen ELISA for Fasciolosis Detection of Goats in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Mendoza, Pedro; Hernández-Guzmán, Karina; Olivares-Pérez, Jaime; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Zumaquero-Ríos, José

    2016-01-01

    The objective of present study was to determine the prevalence of natural caprine fasciolosis in the Mixteca region of Mexico using coproantigen and serum IgG1 ELISA tests for comparative purposes. A total of 1070 serum and faecal samples were analyzed for IgG1 antibodies and coproantigens, using ELISA with E/S products as antigen and a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA. Prevalence of 73.46% was found using the serological ELISA and a percentage of 77.20 was found for coproantigen ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for serum ELISA were 86.7% and 96.4%, and for the coproantigen ELISA they were 93.1% and 97.8%, respectively. The seropositive samples were further categorized as low, medium, or high positivity. Results show a great proportion of low and medium positive goats when the serum ELISA test was used. Correlation coefficients between coproantigens and seropositivity were statistically significant (P < 0.01) for low seropositivity (r = 0.93) and medium seropositivity (r = 0.84). The accuracy of faecal antigen ELISA was higher compared to indirect ELISA serological test. Two ELISAs were shown to be useful for demonstrating the current status of F. hepatica infection in the endemic areas and can be employed in studies on epidemiology as well as anthelmintics treatment for preventing economic loss and the risk of transmission to humans. PMID:27563665

  10. Comparative study of sodium and potassium in different types of gallstones and in serum of subjects with gallstones and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Ghanghro, A.B.; Soomro, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease). It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p<0.05) between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.5). Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subject, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05) concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects. The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects. (author)

  11. Comparative Study of Sodium and Potassium in Different Types of Gallstones and in Serum of Subjects with Gallstones and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Soomro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease. It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p>0.05 between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.05. Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subjects, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05 concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects.The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects.

  12. Concentrações de FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterona e histamina no soro, no fluido peritoneal e no fluido folicular de mulheres com e sem endometriose FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, and histamine concentrations in serum, peritoneal fluid and follicular fluid of women with and without endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Pereira de Lima

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: relatos da literatura mostram que não há dados conclusivos sobre a associação entre a endometriose e as concentrações de hormônios envolvidos no controle da reprodução. Este estudo foi realizado para determinar as concentrações de FSH, LH, estradiol (E, progesterona (P e histamina (Hi no soro, no fluido peritoneal e no fluido folicular de mulheres com e sem endometriose. MÉTODOS: a extensão da doença foi estadiada de acordo com a American Fertility Society classification (1997. Para a coleta de soro e de fluido peritoneal foram selecionadas 28 mulheres com endometriose submetidas à laparoscopia diagnóstica (18 mulheres inférteis com endometriose I-II e dez mulheres inférteis com endometriose III-IV. Para o grupo controle, foram selecionadas 21 mulheres férteis submetidas à laparoscopia para esterilização tubárea. O fluido folicular foi obtido de 39 mulheres inférteis submetidas a fertilização in vitro (21 mulheres com endometriose e 18 mulheres sem endometriose. RESULTADOS: as concentrações de FSH e LH no soro, no fluido peritoneal e no fluido folicular não diferiram significativamente entre os grupos. As concentrações de E e P no fluido peritoneal foram significativamente mais baixas em mulheres inférteis com endometriose (E: 154,2±15,3 para estágios I-II e 89,3±9,8 ng/mL para estágios III-IV; P: 11,2±1,5 para estágios I-II e 7,6±0,8 ng/mL para estágios III-IV em comparação com mulheres controle (E: 289,1±30,1; P: 32,8±4,1 ng/mL (Testes de Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn; pPURPOSE: literature reports show that there are no conclusive data about the association between endometriosis and the concentrations of hormones involved in the control of reproduction. Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine FSH, LH, estradiol (E, progesterone (P, and histamine (Hi concentrations in serum, peritoneal fluid and follicular fluid of women with and without endometriosis. METHODS: the extent of the disease

  13. 4-Aminopyridine Decreases Progesterone Production by Porcine Granulosa Cells

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    Mitchell Brianna M

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ion channels occur as large families of related genes with cell-specific expression patterns. Granulosa cells have been shown to express voltage-gated potassium channels from more than one family. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, an antagonist of KCNA but not KCNQ channels. Methods Granulosa cells were isolated from pig follicles and cultured with 4-AP, alone or in combination with FSH, 8-CPT-cAMP, estradiol 17β, and DIDS. Complimentary experiments determined the effects of 4-AP on the spontaneously established pig granulosa cell line PGC-2. Granulosa cell or PGC-2 function was assessed by radio-immunoassay of media progesterone accumulation. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Drug-induced changes in cell membrane potential and intracellular potassium concentration were documented by spectrophotometric determination of DiBAC4(3 and PBFI fluorescence, respectively. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR was assessed by immunoblotting. Flow cytometry was also used to examine granulosa cell viability and size. Results 4-AP (2 mM decreased progesterone accumulation in the media of serum-supplemented and serum-free granulosa cultures, but inhibited cell proliferation only under serum-free conditions. 4-AP decreased the expression of StAR, the production of cAMP and the synthesis of estradiol by PGC-2. Addition of either 8-CPT-cAMP or estradiol 17β to serum-supplemented primary cultures reduced the inhibitory effects of 4-AP. 4-AP treatment was also associated with increased cell size, increased intracellular potassium concentration, and hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential. The drug-induced hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential was prevented either by decreasing extracellular chloride or by adding DIDS to the media. DIDS also prevented 4-AP inhibition of progesterone production

  14. Binding of (/sup 3/H) progesterone to normal and neoplastic tissue samples from tumour bearing breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollow, K; Sinnecker, R; Schmidt-Gollwitzer, M; Boquoi, E; Pollow, B [Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Biochemie, Frauenklinik Charlottenburg der Freien Universitat, Berlin (G.F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    Macromolecular components of normal human mammary cytosol (obtained from 'non-malignant tissue samples' from cancer bearing breasts) which bind (/sup 3/H)progesterone in vitro were characterized by sucrose gradient centrifugation, gel filtration on Agarose, ion exchange chromatography, isoelectric focusing, competition studies and kinetic parameters. The size of the cytoplasmic binding components vary with the concentration of KCl. In the absence of KCl, the major components are characterized by sedimentation coefficients of about 4 S and 8 S. In solutions containing 0.3M KCl, the cytoplasmic components sediment at 4 S in sucrose gradient. The corticosteroid-binding component of normal human mammary cytosol both sediment at about the same rate in the presence of 0.3M KCl and chromatograph as a single component on Agarose. The isoelectric point of the progesterone-binding component of normal human mammary cytosol was located around pH 5.0. The progesterone-binding component was more thermo-labile than serum CBG. CBG was inactivated at temperatures above 45 deg C but temperature above 20 deg C destroyed specific progesterone receptor binding. Progesterone receptor concentrations in normal mammary cytosol of premenopausal women depended on the menstrual cycle. The binding of progesterone was highest around the time of ovulation. In breast tumor tissue samples the progesterone receptor concentration was lower than in the normal mammary cytosol (obtained in each case from the same tumor-bearing breast). In 5 out of 37 breast tumor samples progesterone binding activity could not be detected.

  15. Comparative evaluation of efficiency of serum IGF-1, hand-wrist radiographs, and cervical vertebrae as skeletal maturity indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Phogat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accurate determination of skeletal maturity and remaining growth is crucial to identify optimal timing for the treatment of a series of dentoskeletal disharmonies in all three planes of space. Currently, cervical vertebral stages and hand-wrist radiographs are used to identify peak mandibular bone growth. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to compare and correlate insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 levels to skeletal maturation stages obtained by the cervical vertebral maturation method and skeletal maturational indicators obtained by the hand-wrist maturation method. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, serum IGF-1 level was measured for 53 healthy, North Indian subjects (26 female, 27 male, who were either about to begin orthodontic treatment, were undergoing treatment, or were in posttreatment follow-up between the ages of 9 and 20 years. For each subject, hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalograms were also obtained and staged. Results: The mean serum IGF-1 levels were the highest at the skeletal stages that were previously associated with the greatest amount of mandibular growth. Serum IGF-1 levels were low in the prepubertal skeletal stages, rise sharply to their peak in late puberty, and decline to approach prepubertal levels after puberty. Conclusion: Serum IGF-1 could be used as a skeletal maturity indicator and might be useful in detecting residual mandibular growth in young adults.

  16. Increasing synthetic serum substitute (SSS) concentrations in P1 glucose/phosphate-free medium improves implantation rate: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, D; Yovel, I; Schwartz, T; Azem, F; Lessing, J B; Amit, A

    2001-11-01

    To assess the comparative efficacy of IVF medium (MediCult, with 5.2 mM glucose) and a glucose/phosphate-free medium, P1 (Irvine Scientific), and to investigate the influence of increasing the serum supplementation (synthetic serum substitute; SSS; Irvine Scientific) to P1 on embryo development and implantation. Patients were randomly assigned to IVF medium (Group 1, cycles n = 172) or P1 supplemented with 10% SSS (Group 2, cycles n = 229) according to the medium scheduled for use on the day of oocyte retrieval. Another 555 IVF consequent cycles (Group 3) were performed using increased SSS concentrations (20%) in P1 medium. In this large series of IVF cycles, we herein demonstrate that significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates were found when embryos were cultured in glucose/phosphate-free medium P1 supplemented with 20% SSS compared to supplementation with the lower SSS concentration and with IVF medium.

  17. Progesterone as a bone-trophic hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, J C

    1990-05-01

    Experimental, epidemiological, and clinical data indicate that progesterone is active in bone metabolism. Progesterone appears to act directly on bone by engaging an osteoblast receptor or indirectly through competition for a glucocorticoid osteoblast receptor. Progesterone seems to promote bone formation and/or increase bone turnover. It is possible, through estrogen-stimulated increased progesterone binding to the osteoblast receptor, that progesterone plays a role in the coupling of bone resorption with bone formation. A model of the interdependent actions of progesterone and estrogen on appropriately-"ready" cells in each bone multicellular unit can be tied into the integrated secretions of these hormones within the ovulatory cycle. Figure 5 is an illustration of this concept. It shows the phases of the bone remodeling cycle in parallel with temporal changes in gonadal steroids across a stylized ovulatory cycle. Increasing estrogen production before ovulation may reverse the resorption occurring in a "sensitive" bone multicellular unit while gonadal steroid levels are low at the time of menstrual flow. The bone remodeling unit would then be ready to begin a phase of formation as progesterone levels peaked in the midluteal phase. From this perspective, the normal ovulatory cycle looks like a natural bone-activating, coherence cycle. Critical analysis of the reviewed data indicate that progesterone meets the necessary criteria to play a causal role in mineral metabolism. This review provides the preliminary basis for further molecular, genetic, experimental, and clinical investigation of the role(s) of progesterone in bone remodeling. Much further data are needed about the interrelationships between gonadal steroids and the "life cycle" of bone. Feldman et al., however, may have been prophetic when he commented; "If this anti-glucocorticoid effect of progesterone also holds true in bone, then postmenopausal osteoporosis may be, in part, a progesterone deficiency

  18. Comparison between two forms of vaginally administered progesterone for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Moreira, Ana Carolina Ferreira; de Paula, Sálua Oliveira Calil; Sampaio, Marcos

    2007-02-01

    The use of progesterone for luteal phase support has been demonstrated to be beneficial in assisted reproduction cycles using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa). Two micronized progesterone preparations are available for vaginal administration: capsules and gel. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of these two forms for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles. A total of 244 couples undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were included in the study and were randomly allocated (sealed envelopes) into two groups: group 1 (122) received vaginal capsules of 200 mg of micronized progesterone (Utrogestan), 3 times daily, and group 2 (122) received micronized progesterone in gel (Crinone 8%), once daily. Both groups received progesterone for 13 days beginning day 1 after oocyte retrieval, continuing until the pregnancy test was performed and until 12 weeks of pregnancy. Groups were compared by clinical data and assisted reproduction results and had similar ages and causes of infertility. Although the pregnancy rate was higher for those receiving progesterone gel than capsules (44.26 and 36.06% respectively), this difference was not statistically significant. The study showed that vaginal progesterone gel and capsules used for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles with long protocol GnRHa result in similar pregnancy rates.

  19. Radioimmunological determination of plasma progesterone. Methods - Results - Indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonon-Estrangin, Chantal.

    1978-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the radioimmunological determination of plasma progesterone carried out at the hormonology Laboratory of the Grenoble University Hospital Centre (Professor E. Chambaz), to compare our results with those of the literature and to present the main clinical indications of this analysis. The measurement method has proved reproducible, specific (the steroid purification stage is unnecessary) and sensitive (detection: 10 picograms of progesterone per tube). In seven normally menstruating women our results agree with published values: (in nanograms per millilitre: ng/ml) 0.07 ng/ml to 0.9 ng/ml in the follicular phase, from the start of menstruation until ovulation, then rapid increase at ovulation with a maximum in the middle of the luteal phase (our values for this maximum range from 7.9 ng/ml to 21.7 ng/ml) and gradual drop in progesterone secretion until the next menstrual period. In gynecology the radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone is valuable for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes: - to diagnosis the absence of corpus luteum, - to judge the effectiveness of an ovulation induction treatment [fr

  20. Progesterone Enhanced Remyelination in the Mouse Corpus Callosum After Cuprizone Induced Demyelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Ragerdi Kashani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progesterone as a sex steroid hormone is thought to affect and prevent demyelination, but its role in promoting myelin repair is far less investigated. In this study, remyelinating potential of progesterone in corpus callosum was evaluated on an experimental model of MS. Methods: In this experimental study, adult male C57BL/6 mice were fed with 0.2% (w/w cuprizone in ground breeder chow ad libitum for 6 weeks. At day zero, after cuprizone removal, mice were divided randomly into two groups: (a placebo group, which received saline pellet implant, (b progesterone group, which received progesterone pellet implant. Some mice of the same age were fed with their normal diet to serve as the healthy control group. Two weeks after progesterone administration, Myelin content was assessed by Luxol-fast blue staining. The myelin basic protein (MBP and proteolipid protein (PLP expression were assessed using Western blot analysis and the changes in the number of oligodendrocytes and oligodendroglial progenitor cells were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC and flow cytometry. Results: Luxol-fast blue staining revealed enhanced remyelination in the progesterone group when compared with the placebo group. Densitometry measurements of immunoblots demonstrated that MBP and PLP proteins contents were significantly increased in the progesterone group compared with the placebo group. Flow cytometry and IHC analysis showed increases in Olig2 and O4 cells in the progesterone group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion: Overall, our results indicate that progesterone treatment can stimulate myelin production and that it may provide a feasible and practical way for remyelination in diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  1. Comparative toxicity of low dose tributyltin chloride on serum, liver, lung and kidney following subchronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumonto; Gera, Ruchi; Singh, Vikas; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2014-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) pollution is rampant worldwide and is a growing threat due to its bio-accumulative property. Isolated studies of TBT toxicity on different organs are available but consolidated information is greatly lacking. We planned this study to delineate the effect of subchronic (1 month) exposure to low dose TBT-chloride (TBTC) (1 and 5 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats. Total tin concentration was found to be significantly increased in liver, kidney and blood, and marginally in lungs. Organo-somatic indices were seen to be altered with little effect on serum biochemical markers (liver and kidney function, and general parameters). Reactive oxygen species but not lipid peroxidation content was observed to be significantly elevated both in the tissues and serum. TBTC was found to act as a hyperlipidemic agent and it also affected heme biosynthetic pathway. Hematological analysis showed that TBTC exposure resulted in minor alterations in RBC parameters. Histological studies demonstrated marked tissue damage in all the 3 organs. Calcium inhibitors (BAPTA-AM, EGTA) and antioxidants (NAC, C-PC) significantly restored TBTC induced loss in cell viability, under ex-vivo conditions. Antioxidants were evidently more efficient in comparison to the calcium inhibitors, implying major role of oxidative stress pathways in TBTC toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Loss of Progesterone Receptor-Mediated Actions Induce Preterm Cellular and Structural Remodeling of the Cervix and Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellon, Steven M.; Dobyns, Abigail E.; Beck, Hailey L.; Kurtzman, James T.; Garfield, Robert E.; Kirby, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    A decline in serum progesterone or antagonism of progesterone receptor function results in preterm labor and birth. Whether characteristics of premature remodeling of the cervix after antiprogestins or ovariectomy are similar to that at term was the focus of the present study. Groups of pregnant rats were treated with vehicle, a progesterone receptor antagonist (onapristone or mifepristone), or ovariectomized on day 17 postbreeding. As expected, controls given vehicle delivered at term while rats delivered preterm after progesterone receptor antagonist treatment or ovariectomy. Similar to the cervix before term, the preterm cervix of progesterone receptor antagonist-treated rats was characterized by reduced cell nuclei density, decreased collagen content and structure, as well as a greater presence of macrophages per unit area. Thus, loss of nuclear progesterone receptor-mediated actions promoted structural remodeling of the cervix, increased census of resident macrophages, and preterm birth much like that found in the cervix at term. In contrast to the progesterone receptor antagonist-induced advance in characteristics associated with remodeling, ovariectomy-induced loss of systemic progesterone did not affect hypertrophy, extracellular collagen, or macrophage numbers in the cervix. Thus, the structure and macrophage census in the cervix appear sufficient for premature ripening and birth to occur well before term. With progesterone receptors predominantly localized on cells other than macrophages, the findings suggest that interactions between cells may facilitate the loss of progesterone receptor-mediated actions as part of a final common mechanism that remodels the cervix in certain etiologies of preterm and with parturition at term. PMID:24339918

  3. Serum magnesium and calcium in preeclampsia: a comparative study at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owusu Darkwa E

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ebenezer Owusu Darkwa,1 Charles Antwi-Boasiako,2 Robert Djagbletey,1 Christian Owoo,1 Samuel Obed,3,† Daniel Sottie4 1Department of Anaesthesia, University of Ghana School of Medicine and Dentistry, 2Department of Physiology, University of Ghana School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Ghana School of Medicine and Dentistry, College of Health Sciences, 4Department of Anaesthesia, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana †Samuel Obed passed away on May 12, 2017 Background: A large percentage (16% of maternal mortality in developed countries, compared to 9% in developing countries, is due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The etiology of preeclampsia remains unknown, with poorly understood pathophysiology. Magnesium and calcium play an important role in vascular smooth muscle function and therefore a possible role in the development of preeclampsia.Aim: We aimed to compare serum magnesium and total calcium levels of preeclamptic and normal pregnant women at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana.Patients and methods: A comparative cross-sectional study involving 30 normal pregnant and 30 preeclamptic women with >30 weeks gestation and aged 18–35 years, was conducted at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Magnesium and calcium were determined using a flame atomic absorption spectrometer.Results: Mean serum magnesium and total calcium levels in preeclamptic women were 0.70±0.15 and 2.13±0.30 mmol/L, respectively. Mean serum magnesium and total calcium levels in normal pregnant women were 0.76±0.14 and 2.13±0.35 mmol/L, respectively. There was a statistically nonsignificant difference in serum magnesium and total calcium in preeclamptic women compared to normal pregnant women, with p-values of 0.092 and 0.972, respectively.Conclusion: Serum magnesium and total calcium, therefore, seem not to differ in preeclamptic women compared to normal pregnant women in Ghana

  4. Overview of progesterone profiles in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blavy, P.; Derks, M.; Martin, O.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the variability in shape and features of all progesterone profiles during oestrus cycles in cows, and to create templates for cycle shapes and features as a base for further research. Milk progesterone data from 1418 oestrus cycles, coming...

  5. Role of 11. beta. -hydroxyprogesterone in biosynthesis of corticosterone from progesterone in guinea pig adrenals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudaev, N A; Afinogenova, S A [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology and Hormone Chemistry, Moscow (USSR)

    1975-06-01

    Slices of male guinea pig adrenals were incubated with a trace amount of /sup 3/H-7..cap alpha..-progesterone and the proportion of /sup 3/H incorporation various steroids at various intervals was measured. It was found that /sup 3/H accumulated predominantly in 11..beta..-hydroxyprogesterone as compared to DOC. This indicated that in guinea pig adrenals 11..beta..-hydroxyprogesterone plays a predominant role in the formation of corticosterone from progesterone. The observed sequence of changes in progesterone label accumulation in 17-hydroxycompounds indicated the pathway of cortisol synthesis through the intermediate formation of 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 11-deoxycortisol.

  6. Comparing identified and statistically significant lipids and polar metabolites in 15-year old serum and dried blood spot samples for longitudinal studies: Comparing lipids and metabolites in serum and DBS samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Casey, Cameron P. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Stratton, Kelly G. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zink, Erika M. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zheng, Xueyun [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Monroe, Matthew E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Weitz, Karl K. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bloodsworth, Kent J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Orton, Daniel J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ibrahim, Yehia M. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Moore, Ronald J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Lee, Christine G. [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Research Service, Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland OR USA; Pedersen, Catherine [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Orwoll, Eric [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Smith, Richard D. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Baker, Erin S. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-02-05

    The use of dried blood spots (DBS) has many advantages over traditional plasma and serum samples such as smaller blood volume required, storage at room temperature, and ability for sampling in remote locations. However, understanding the robustness of different analytes in DBS samples is essential, especially in older samples collected for longitudinal studies. Here we analyzed DBS samples collected in 2000-2001 and stored at room temperature and compared them to matched serum samples stored at -80°C to determine if they could be effectively used as specific time points in a longitudinal study following metabolic disease. Four hundred small molecules were identified in both the serum and DBS samples using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) and LC-ion mobility spectrometry-MS (LC-IMS-MS). The identified polar metabolites overlapped well between the sample types, though only one statistically significant polar metabolite in a case-control study was conserved, indicating degradation occurs in the DBS samples affecting quantitation. Differences in the lipid identifications indicated that some oxidation occurs in the DBS samples. However, thirty-six statistically significant lipids correlated in both sample types indicating that lipid quantitation was more stable across the sample types.

  7. Physiology, production and action of progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraborrelli, Stefania

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this article is to review the physiology of progesterone and focus on its physiological actions on tissues such as endometrium, uterus, mammary gland, cardiovascular system, central nervous system and bones. In the last decades, the interest of researchers has focused on the role of progesterone in genomic and non-genomic receptor mechanisms. We searched PubMed up to December 2014 for publications on progesterone/steroidogenesis. A better understanding of the biological genomic and non-genomic receptor mechanisms could enable us in the near future to obtain a more comprehensive knowledge of the safety and efficacy of this agent during hormone replacement therapy (natural progesterone), in vitro fertilization (water-soluble subcutaneous progesterone), in traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease and diabetic neuropathy, even though further clinical studies are needed to prove its usefulness. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Low Cotinine Glucuronidation Results in Higher Serum and Saliva Cotinine in African American Compared to White Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sharon E; Sipe, Christopher J; Choi, Kwangsoo; Raddatz, Leah M; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Donny, Eric C; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2017-07-01

    Background: Tobacco exposure is often quantified by serum or saliva concentrations of the primary nicotine metabolite, cotinine. However, average cotinine concentrations are higher in African Americans (AA) compared with Whites with similar smoking levels. Cotinine is metabolized by UGT2B10 and CYP2A6, and low UGT2B10 activity is common in AA, due to the prevalence of a UGT2B10 splice variant. Methods: UGT2B10 activity was phenotyped in 1,446 smokers (34% AA) by measuring the percentage of cotinine excreted as a glucuronide. Urinary total nicotine equivalents (TNE), the sum of nicotine and 6 metabolites, were determined to quantify smoking dose, and cotinine and 3'-hydroxycotinine were quantified in saliva (study 1) or serum (study 2). Results: Ninety-seven smokers (78% AA) were null for UGT2B10 activity, and the saliva and serum cotinine levels, after adjustment for TNE and cigarettes per day (CPD), were 68% and 48% higher in these smokers compared with nonnull smokers ( P smokers, but with additional adjustment for UGT2B10 activity, there were no significant differences in saliva and serum cotinine concentrations between these two groups. Conclusions: UGT2B10 activity significantly influences plasma cotinine levels, and higher cotinine concentrations in AA versus White smokers (after adjustment for smoking dose) result from lower levels of UGT2B10-catalyzed cotinine glucuronidation by AA. Impact: UGT2B10 activity or genotype should be considered when using cotinine as a tobacco exposure biomarker, particularly in populations such as AA with high frequencies of UGT2B10 nonfunctional variants. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1093-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Intestinal tumorigenesis is not affected by progesterone signaling in rodent models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarom Heijmans

    Full Text Available Clinical data suggest that progestins have chemopreventive properties in the development of colorectal cancer. We set out to examine a potential protective effect of progestins and progesterone signaling on colon cancer development. In normal and neoplastic intestinal tissue, we found that the progesterone receptor (PR is not expressed. Expression was confined to sporadic mesenchymal cells. To analyze the influence of systemic progesterone receptor signaling, we crossed mice that lacked the progesterone receptor (PRKO to the Apc(Min/+ mouse, a model for spontaneous intestinal polyposis. PRKO-Apc(Min/+ mice exhibited no change in polyp number, size or localization compared to Apc(Min/+. To examine effects of progestins on the intestinal epithelium that are independent of the PR, we treated mice with MPA. We found no effects of either progesterone or MPA on gross intestinal morphology or epithelial proliferation. Also, in rats treated with MPA, injection with the carcinogen azoxymethane did not result in a difference in the number or size of aberrant crypt foci, a surrogate end-point for adenoma development. We conclude that expression of the progesterone receptor is limited to cells in the intestinal mesenchyme. We did not observe any effect of progesterone receptor signaling or of progestin treatment in rodent models of intestinal tumorigenesis.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Serum (Antioxidative Status Parаmeters in Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Ruskovska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Five antioxidant and two oxidative stress assays were applied to serum samples of 43 healthy males. The antioxidant tests showed different inter-assay correlations. A very good correlation of 0.807 was observed between the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and total antioxidant status (TAS assay and also a fair correlation of 0.501 between the biological antioxidant potential (BAP and TAS assay. There was no statistically significant correlation between the BAP and FRAP assay. The anti-oxidant assays have a high correlation with uric acid, especially the TAS (0.922 and FRAP assay (0.869. The BAP assay has a much lower and no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.302, which makes BAP more suitable for the antioxidant status. The total thiol assay showed no statistically significant correlation with uric acid (0.114. The total thiol assay, which is based on a completely different principle, showed a good and statistically significant correlation with the BAP assay (0.510 and also to the TAS assay, but to a lower and not significant extent (0.279 and not with the FRAP assay (−0.008. The oxy-adsorbent test (OXY assay has no correlation with any of the other assays tested. The oxidative stress assays, reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM and total oxidant status (TOS, based on a different principle, do not show a statistically significant correlation with the serum samples in this study. Both assays showed a negative, but not significant, correlation with the antioxidant assays. In conclusion, the ROM, TOS, BAP and TTP assays are based on different principles and will have an additional value when a combination of these assays will be applied in large-scale population studies.

  11. Effect of progesterone supplementation in the first week post conception on embryo survival in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Lonergan, P; Diskin, M G; Roche, J F; Crowe, M A

    2009-04-15

    Progesterone is essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of elevating progesterone during the different physiological stages of early embryo development on embryo survival. Estrus was synchronized in cross-bred beef heifers (n=197, approximately 2-years old) and they were inseminated 12-18h after estrus onset (=Day 0). Inseminated heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) Control, n=69; (2) progesterone supplementation using a Controlled Internal Drug Release Device (CIDR) from Day 3 to 6.5, n=64; or (3) progesterone supplementation using a CIDR from Day 4.5 to 8, n=64. Body condition (BCS) and locomotion scores (scale of 1-5) were recorded for all animals. Animals with a locomotion score >/=4 (very lame) were excluded. Embryo survival rate was determined at slaughter on Day 25. Conceptus length and weight were recorded and the corpus luteum (CL) of all pregnant animals was dissected and weighed. Supplementation with exogenous progesterone increased (Prate compared with controls. Mean CL weight, conceptus length and conceptus weight were not different between treatments. There was a positive relationship (Prate in treated heifers and a similar trend existed between the increase from Days 4.5 to 8 (Prate in treated heifers. A direct correlation was seen between locomotion score and embryo survival rate, with higher (Prates in heifers with a lower locomotion score. In conclusion, supplementation with progesterone at different stages of early embryo development increased peripheral progesterone concentration and resulted in a positive association between changes in progesterone concentration during the early luteal phase and embryo survival rate. Supplementation with progesterone had no effect on either CL weight or conceptus size in pregnant animals. Lameness had a significant negative effect on early embryo survival.

  12. Ultratrace element contents in rat tissues: Comparative analysis of serum and hair as indicative matrices of the total body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalny Anatoly V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of ultratrace elements in rat tissues and to perform a comparative analysis of hair and serum as potential bioindicators of the total ultratrace element content. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow containing 0.006±0.000, 0.001±0.000, 0.017±0.002, 0.382±0.031, 0.168±0.014, 3.211±0.134, 0.095±0.006, 0.000±0.000, 6.675±0.336, 15.327±0.564, 0.002±0.000, and 1.185±0.202 μg/g of silver (Ag, gold (Au, cesium (Cs, gallium (Ga, germanium (Ge, lanthanum (La, niobium (Nb, platinum (Pt, rubidium (Rb, titanium (Ti, thallium (Tland zirconium (Zr, respectively, from weaning to 3 months old. The ultratrace element content in the liver, kidney, muscle, heart, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data indicate that the highest concentrations of most of the studied elements (Ti, Zr, Ge, Nb, tungsten (W, La, uranium (U, Ag, Au, Pt are in hair, whereas the lowest were observed in the serum. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between concentrations in the hair and other tissues for Cs, Ti, Nb, Tl, La, U and Au. At the same time, serum Cs, Rb, Ti, Ge, Nb, W, Ga, Tl and La concentrations significantly correlated with the tissue content of the respective ultratrace elements. It can be concluded that hair may be used as a potential bioindicator for certain ultratrace element content in the mammalian organism.

  13. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between serum sexual hormone levels and internal derangement of temporomandibular joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, A S; Shamsian, A A; Hedayati-Moghaddam, M R; Fathi-Moghadam, F; Sabooni, M R; Mirmortazavi, A; Golmohamadi, M

    2013-08-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are defined as clinical conditions that involve the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or both. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum 17β-oestradiol and progesterone levels in menstruating women affected by internal derangement of the TMJ. A total of 142 women (mean age 30·2 ± 6·7) who referred to medical diagnostic laboratory of Iranian Academic Centre for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, were enrolled during 2007 and 2008. Forty-seven individuals had disc displacement with reduction (Group IIa) according to Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC)/TMD Axis I diagnosis. Radioimmunoassay was used for the detection of serum 17β-oestradiol and progesterone levels in all 142 subjects. The mean progesterone level was significantly higher in control group (11·6 ± 10·4 ng mL(-1) ) compared to women with TMD (8·4 ± 6·8 ng mL(-1) , P = 0·03). No significant difference was found in two groups regarding 17β-oestradiol level. Lower progesterone level in women with TMD can suggest the more important role of this hormone in the development of the disorder. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparative Studies on the Interaction of Cochinchinenin A and Loureirin B with Bovine Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianming Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the simple, sensitive, and effective spectrophotometric methods based on ultraviolet, fluorescence and circular dichroism for revealing the interactional mechanism of Cochinchinenin A (CA and Loureirin B (LB with bovine serum albumin (BSA. Under simulated physiological conditions, it was demonstrated that the fluorescence quenching mechanisms between CA (or LB and BSA as a static quenching mode, or a combined quenching (dynamic and static quenching mode were related to concentration level of CA (or LB. The binding distance (rCA, rLB and the quenching efficiency (KSV, especially for the binding constants value of ligands to BSA, were affected by the methoxyl group at position 4 at different temperatures. The corresponding thermodynamic parameters were also obtained and indicated that electrostatic forces play a major role in the formation of the LB-BSA complex, but probably a combined force for CA-BSA complex. Furthermore, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectra demonstrated that the secondary structures of BSA were changed to varying degrees by the binding of CA (or LB.

  15. Sustained-release progesterone nanosuspension following intramuscular injection in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba F Salem

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Heba F SalemFaculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, EgyptAbstract: The production of an intramuscular (IM injection of natural progesterone would provide a safer solution than using semi synthetic progesterone. However, disadvantages such as low solubility and a short half life prevent the use of natural progesterone. In this study, we formulated a sustained release form of natural progesterone to be given as IM injection. A progesterone nanosuspension (PNS was first developed and then dispersed in a thermosensitive gel matrix. The selected nanoparticles showed an average particle size of 267 nm and a zeta potential approaching-41 mV. The in vitro release profile of PNS from the F127 plus methyl cellulose gel followed zero order kinetics and correlated linearly with the weight percentage of gel dissolved, demonstrating that the overall rate of release of PNS is controlled by dissolution of the pluronic F127/methyl cellulose (MC gel (r2 > 0.99. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the PNS (6 mg/mL in pluronic F127/MC gel were evaluated in comparison with the control progesterone suspension. After the administration of PNS in F127/MC gel into the rats, a maximum serum concentration of 22.1 ± 1.9 ng/mL was reached at a Tmax of 4.05 ± 0.1 h. The terminal half life was 12.7 ± 0.8 h. The area under the curve AUC0-∞ of the injected formula was 452.75 ± 42.8 ng•h/mL and the total mean residence time was 18.57 ± 1.44 h. The PNS in gel was significantly different from the control in rate and extent at P < 0.001. The natural progesterone which was nanosized and formulated in a thermosensitive gel significantly sustained the action of natural progesterone so that it could be injected every 36 h instead of every day. Moreover, this formula is expected to provide a much safer choice than the use of semi-synthetic progesterone.Keywords: progesterone, nanosuspension, thermosensitive gel, ovariectomized female rats

  16. Serum Ferritin Levels Are Lower in Children With Tic Disorders Compared with Children Without Tics: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrahami, Matan; Barzilay, Ran; HarGil, Miki; Weizman, Abraham; Watemberg, Nathan

    2017-03-01

    Alteration in peripheral iron indices has been reported in a number of movement disorders, particularly Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that iron stores may be diminished in children at an early stage of tic disorder. Using data retrieved from electronic medical records, we compared serum ferritin levels, an indicator of body iron store balance, in drug-naive children diagnosed for the first time with tic disorder (study group; N = 47, 32 boys/15 girls, aged 8.66 ± 3.17 years) compared to age- and sex-matched children with headaches (comparison group, n = 100, 62 boys/38 girls, aged 9.51 ± 3.15 years) treated in the same pediatric neurological clinic. Mean serum ferritin levels were significantly lower (-32%, p = 0.01) in the tic disorder group compared to the headache group. No significant differences were detected in circulatory hemoglobin, iron, transferrin, and platelet count between the two groups. Our findings suggest that body iron stores may be reduced in children with recent-onset tic disorder.

  17. [Effects of Gushen Antai pills combined with progestin on serum β-HCG, P, E2 and CA125 in patients with threatened abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chun-Man; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of Gushen Antai pills and progesterone in the treatment of threatened abortion, in order to provide references for early clinical intervention with threatened abortion. The 112 cases of patients with threatened abortion were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group. 56 cases in each group. Patients in the control group was injected with progesterone, the observation group was treated with Gushen Antai pills in addition to the therapy of the control group. Both groups were treated by drugs for two weeks. Their venous bloods (5 mL) were collected before treatment and in 1, 2 weeks after treatment to determine serum levels of β-HCG, P, E2 and CA125. The differences between the two groups after treatment were compared. The total effective rate of the control group and the observation group were 79% and 91.9% respectively, with a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). Two weeks after the treatment, the serum levels of P and E2 in the observation group were significantly higher than before treatment, but the serum CA125 levels decreased significantly after treatment (Ppills and progesterone had a better clinical curative effect in treatment threatened abortion, which could significantly raise serum β-HCG, P and E2, reduce serum CA125 and increase the tocolysis efficiency, and so it was worth promoted in clinic. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Sex-related differences in effects of progesterone following neonatal hypoxic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bethany L; Won, Soonmi; Geddes, Rastafa I; Sayeed, Iqbal; Stein, Donald G

    2015-06-01

    There is no satisfactory therapeutic intervention for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy. Progesterone is known to be effective in treating traumatic brain injury in adult animals but its effects in neonatal brains have not been reported. Brain injuries were induced by a unilateral common carotid artery ligation plus hypoxia exposure. Progesterone was administered immediately after hypoxia and daily for 5 days at 8 mg/kg, followed by a tapered dose for two days. At six weeks post-injury, lesion size and inflammatory factors were evaluated. Progesterone-treated, HI-injured male animals, but not females, showed significant long-term tissue protection compared to vehicle, suggesting an important sex difference in neuroprotection. Progesterone-treated, HI-injured male rats had fewer activated microglia in the cortex and hippocampus compared to controls. The rats were tested for neurological reflexes, motor asymmetry, and cognitive performance at multiple time points. The injured animals exhibited few detectable motor deficits, suggesting a high level of age- and injury-related neuroplasticity. There were substantial sex differences on several behavioral tests, indicating that immature males and females should be analyzed separately. Progesterone-treated animals showed modest beneficial effects in both sexes compared to vehicle-treated injured animals. Sham animals given progesterone did not behave differently from vehicle-treated sham animals on any measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Arsenic induced progesterone production in a caspase-3-dependent manner and changed redox status in preovulatory granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Cai-Ling; Yao, Nan; An, Li-Sha; Yang, Bai-Qing; Zhang, Chuan-Ling; Ma, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic contamination is a principal environmental health threat throughout the world. However, little is known about the effect of arsenic on steroidogenesis in granulosa cells (GCs). We found that the treatment of preovulatory GCs with arsenite stimulated progesterone production. A significant increase in serum level of progesterone was observed in female Sprague-Dawley rats following arsenite treatment at a dose of 10 mg/L/rat/day for 7 days. Further experiments demonstrated that arsenite treatment did not change the level of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) or phosphorylated ERK1/2 in preovulatory GCs; however, progesterone production was significantly decreased when cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) or ERK1/2 pathway was inhibited. This implied that the effect of arsenite on progesterone production may require cAMP/PKA and ERK1/2 signaling but not depend on them. Furthermore, we found that arsenite decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) but increased the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in parallel to the changes in progesterone production. Progesterone antagonist blocked the arsenic-stimulated increase of GSH levels. Arsenite treatment induced caspase-3 activation, although no apoptosis was observed. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity significantly decreased progesterone production stimulated by arsenite or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). GSH depletion with buthionine sulfoximine led to cell apoptosis in response to arsenite treatment. Collectively, this study demonstrated for the first time that arsenite stimulates progesterone production through cleaved/active caspase-3-dependent pathway, and the increase of GSH level promoted by progesterone production may protect GCs against apoptosis and maintain the steroidogenesis of GCs in response to arsenite treatment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Inhibition of Progesterone Metabolism Mimics the Effect of Progesterone Withdrawal on Forced Swim Test Immobility

    OpenAIRE

    Beckley, Ethan H.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Withdrawal from high levels of progesterone in rodents has been proposed as a model for premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. Forced swim test (FST) immobility, used to model depression, was assessed in intact female DBA/2J mice following progesterone withdrawal (PWD) or treatment with the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Following 5 daily progesterone injections (5 mg/kg IP) FST immobility increased only in mice withdrawn for 3 days (p < .05). In another experiment, 3 days of PW...

  1. Comparative evaluation of urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2: ERG scores and serum PHI in predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, Lucile; Luangphakdy, Devillier; Ruffion, Alain; Colombel, Marc; Devonec, Marian; Champetier, Denis; Paparel, Philippe; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Perrin, Paul; Vlaeminck-Guillem, Virginie

    2014-07-30

    It has been suggested that urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion tests and serum PHI correlate to cancer aggressiveness-related pathological criteria at prostatectomy. To evaluate and compare their ability in predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness, PHI and urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG (T2) scores were assessed in 154 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression and decision curve analyses were performed. All three markers were predictors of a tumor volume≥0.5 mL. Only PHI predicted Gleason score≥7. T2 score and PHI were both independent predictors of extracapsular extension(≥pT3), while multifocality was only predicted by PCA3 score. Moreover, when compared to a base model (age, digital rectal examination, serum PSA, and Gleason sum at biopsy), the addition of both PCA3 score and PHI to the base model induced a significant increase (+12%) when predicting tumor volume>0.5 mL. PHI and urinary PCA3 and T2 scores can be considered as complementary predictors of cancer aggressiveness at prostatectomy.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2: ERG Scores and Serum PHI in Predicting Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tallon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion tests and serum PHI correlate to cancer aggressiveness-related pathological criteria at prostatectomy. To evaluate and compare their ability in predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness, PHI and urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG (T2 scores were assessed in 154 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression and decision curve analyses were performed. All three markers were predictors of a tumor volume ≥0.5 mL. Only PHI predicted Gleason score ≥7. T2 score and PHI were both independent predictors of extracapsular extension (≥pT3, while multifocality was only predicted by PCA3 score. Moreover, when compared to a base model (age, digital rectal examination, serum PSA, and Gleason sum at biopsy, the addition of both PCA3 score and PHI to the base model induced a significant increase (+12% when predicting tumor volume >0.5 mL. PHI and urinary PCA3 and T2 scores can be considered as complementary predictors of cancer aggressiveness at prostatectomy.

  3. Progesterone-induced stimulation of mammary tumorigenesis is due to the progesterone metabolite, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP) and can be suppressed by the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, John P; Rivas, Martin A; Mercogliano, Maria F; Elizalde, Patricia V; Schillaci, Roxana

    2015-05-01

    Progesterone has long been linked to breast cancer but its actual role as a cancer promoter has remained in dispute. Previous in vitro studies have shown that progesterone is converted to 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP) in breast tissue and human breast cell lines by the action of 5α-reductase, and that 5αP acts as a cancer-promoter hormone. Also studies with human breast cell lines in which the conversion of progesterone to 5αP is blocked by a 5α-reductase inhibitor, have shown that the in vitro stimulation in cell proliferation with progesterone treatments are not due to progesterone itself but to the metabolite 5αP. No similar in vivo study has been previously reported. The objective of the current studies was to determine in an in vivo mouse model if the presumptive progesterone-induced mammary tumorigenesis is due to the progesterone metabolite, 5αP. BALB/c mice were challenged with C4HD murine mammary cells, which have been shown to form tumors when treated with progesterone or the progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate. Cells and mice were treated with various doses and combinations of progesterone, 5αP and/or the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, and the effects on cell proliferation and induction and growth of tumors were monitored. Hormone levels in serum and tumors were measured by specific RIA and ELISA tests. Proliferation of C4HD cells and induction and growth of tumors was stimulated by treatment with either progesterone or 5αP. The progesterone-induced stimulation was blocked by finasteride and reinstated by concomitant treatment with 5αP. The 5αP-induced tumors expressed high levels of ER, PR and ErbB-2. Hormone measurements showed significantly higher levels of 5αP in serum from mice with tumors than from mice without tumors, regardless of treatments, and 5αP levels were significantly higher (about 4-fold) in tumors than in respective sera, while progesterone levels did not differ between the compartments. The results indicate that

  4. Sensor and instrumentation for progesterone detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2012-05-01

    The reported research work uses a real time and noninvasive method to detect progesterone hormone concentration in purified water using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (E.I.S.) technique. Planar capacitive sensor, consisting of inter-digitated microelectrodes, is designed and fabricated on silicon substrate using thin-film Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based semiconductor device fabrication technology. The sensor in conjunction with EIS is used to evaluate conductivity, permeability and dielectric properties of reproductive hormone progesterone and its concentration quantification in purified water. Impedance spectrums are obtained with various concentrations of the hormone in purified water by using an electric circuit in order to extract sample conductance. Relationship of sample conductance with progesterone concentration level is studied in this research work. The ability of E.I.S. to detect progesterone concentration is aimed to be used in dairy farming industry in order to obtain better reproductive performance of the dairy cattle. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. PLASMA PROGESTERONE LEVELS TN LACTATING EWES AFTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oestrus, ovulation and perrpheral plasma progesterone concentrations were recorded in ... progestagen and PMS were srmilar to those reported for spontaneous oesttous cycles in ..... involved could perhaps cast some light on the problem.

  6. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Miriam; Figueredo, Nancy; Castillo, Sonia; Pizarro

    2002-01-01

    A system for the measurement of progesterone in bovine milk by radioimmunoassay has been developed and validated. This assay includes an iodine tracer purified by HPLC, the standard prepared in fat-free milk and an antibody anti-progesterone combined with second antibody. The detection limit of the assay is at 0.2 nmol/L calculated from the maximum binding menus two standard deviations and the precision is satisfactory. In the recovery assay was used 4 milk different samples and the result was 98% of recuperation. The progesterone was determinate in milk samples from post-partum animals taking samples three times per week for 40 days. The assay is simple, rapid and possibility the progesterone measurement without sample dilution, distinguish the cyclic changes of this hormone that reflect the ovarian activity in the animals. (author)

  7. Sensor and instrumentation for progesterone detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.; Mohd. Syaifudin, A. R.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Yu, Paklam; Al-Bahadly, Ibrahim H.; Kosel, Jü rgen; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2012-01-01

    The reported research work uses a real time and noninvasive method to detect progesterone hormone concentration in purified water using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (E.I.S.) technique. Planar capacitive sensor, consisting of inter-digitated microelectrodes, is designed and fabricated on silicon substrate using thin-film Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based semiconductor device fabrication technology. The sensor in conjunction with EIS is used to evaluate conductivity, permeability and dielectric properties of reproductive hormone progesterone and its concentration quantification in purified water. Impedance spectrums are obtained with various concentrations of the hormone in purified water by using an electric circuit in order to extract sample conductance. Relationship of sample conductance with progesterone concentration level is studied in this research work. The ability of E.I.S. to detect progesterone concentration is aimed to be used in dairy farming industry in order to obtain better reproductive performance of the dairy cattle. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Regulation of uterine progesterone receptors by the nonsteroidal anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, Y.; Armstrong, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have recently reported that the anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide causes delayed implantation and exhibits antideciduogenic activity in the rat. The present experiments were conducted to examine whether hydroxyflutamide binds to the uterine progesterone receptors and/or alters the progesterone binding sites in the uterus. Cytosol and nuclear fractions from decidualized rat uterus were incubated with [3H]-R5020 without or with increasing concentrations of radioinert R5020, RU486, dihydrotestosterone, or hydroxyflutamide. From the log-dose inhibition curves, the relative binding affinity of both hydroxyflutamide and dihydrotestosterone was less than 0.1% and 2%, compared with R5020 (100%) for displacing [3H]-R5020 bound to uterine cytosol and nuclear fractions, respectively. Injection of estradiol-17 beta (1 microgram/rat) to ovariectomized prepubertal rats induced a 1.85-fold increase in uterine weight by 24 h. Hydroxyflutamide at 2.5 or 5.0 mg did not significantly alter the estrogen-induced increase in uterine weight. Compared to vehicle alone, estrogen induced an approximately 5-fold increase in uterine cytosolic progesterone binding sites. Hydroxyflutamide at both 2.5- and 5.0-mg doses significantly attenuated the estrogen-induced elevation in uterine progesterone binding sites. These studies demonstrate that hydroxyflutamide does not bind with high affinity to progesterone receptors, but suppresses the estrogen-induced elevation in progesterone receptor levels in the uterus

  9. Use of radioimmunoassay to measure progesterone levels during different reproductive stages in female Damascus goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Al-masri, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    Jugular serum progesterone concentrations were measured in female Damascus goats using radioimmunoassay (RIA) during prepubertal, puberty, pregnancy and parturition stages, to monitor the reproductive performance. Age at puberty ranged between 266 - 653 days with an average of 475 days, while average weight at puberty was 35.6 kg. Progesterone level rose from around zero ng/ml at prepubertal stage to 2.14 ng/ml at the onset of puberty ranging from 1.12 to 5.38 ng/ml. Average maximum progesterone concentration during pregnancy was 13.84 ng/ml, occurring on day 115 post-mating, and dropped sharply to 0.29 ng/ml soon after kidding. Average overall duration of pregnancy was 149 days. The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis on day 21 post-mating using RIA was 100%. The results also indicate that the breeding season of the experimental Damascus goats started in September. It could be concluded that the assessment of progesterone levels in serum is considered to be a vital tool in monitoring the reproductive performance in the indigenous Damascus goat breed. (author)

  10. Clinical usefulness of serum free light chains measurement in patients with multiple myeloma: comparative analysis of two different tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kubicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are two commercially available tests for measurement of serum free light chains (sFLC in multiple myeloma (MM patients – Freelite and N Latex FLC. The aim of this study was to perform an assessment and direct comparison of the usefulness of the methods in routine clinical practice.Methods: 40 refractory/relapsed MM patients underwent routine disease activity assessment studies, along with sFLC analysis using both assays. Correlation and concordance between the tests and sensitivity of studied methods of sFLC assessment were established. Special attention was focused on sFLC results in patients finally evaluated after completing the treatment. Results: A weak correlation for the measurement of both κ [Passing–Bablok slope (PB = 0.7681] and λ chains [(PB = 1.542] was found. Using Bland–Altman plots, a bias of 0.0467 (κ and -0.2133 (λ between the measurements was documented. The concordance coefficient equaled 0.87 for κ, 0.62 for λ and 0.52 for κ/λ ratio. Ten patients had an abnormal Freelite assay κ/λ ratio and normal N Latex FLC κ/λ ratio. Three of these patients had negative serum protein electrophoresis results and fulfilled diagnostic criteria of stringent complete remission (sCR according to N Latex FLC (but not according to Freelite. When the κ/λ ratio obtained by both methods was compared to patients’ serum/urine protein electrophoresis and immunofixation results, sensitivity of Freelite and N Latex FLC was established to be 62.5% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions: There was no strong correlation or concordance between the two assays, and the sensitivity in terms of sFLC detection was different. This may cause problems when diagnosis of sCR is considered.

  11. Long-term effects of prenatal progesterone exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, C.; Larsen, H.; Holmskov, Anni

    2016-01-01

    children from 498 twin pregnancies, were followed-up. PREDICT was a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial examining the effect of progesterone for prevention of preterm delivery in unselected twin pregnancies. Medical histories of the children were reviewed and neurophysiological development...... does not seem to have long-term harmful effects during childhood, but future studies should focus on cardiac disease in the child. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.......OBJECTIVES: To perform a neurophysiological follow-up at 48 or 60 months of age in children exposed prenatally to progesterone compared with a placebo and evaluate their medical histories up to 8 years of age. METHODS: In this study, Danish participants of the PREDICT study, including 989 surviving...

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, June M.; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A.

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males...... and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case–control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; MW: 314.46) and no other hormonal...... preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual...

  13. HIV Protease Inhibitor Use During Pregnancy Is Associated With Decreased Progesterone Levels, Suggesting a Potential Mechanism Contributing to Fetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona R.; Yudin, Mark H.; Murphy, Kellie E.; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Background. Protease inhibitor (PI)–based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels. Methods. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Results. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile. Conclusions. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. PMID:25030058

  14. HIV protease inhibitor use during pregnancy is associated with decreased progesterone levels, suggesting a potential mechanism contributing to fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona R; Yudin, Mark H; Murphy, Kellie E; Walmsley, Sharon L; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Protease inhibitor (PI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  15. Serum Adiponectin, Visfatin, and Omentin Compared between Non-pregnant and Pregnant Women in Overall, Non-obese, and Obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantacha Sitticharoon, M.D., Ph.D.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin between non-pregnant and pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese subjects. Methods: There were 40 pregnant and 33 non-pregnant women classified by body mass index (BMI into non-obese or obese subjects. Fasting blood samples were collected in the morning for the non-pregnant group and before delivery for the pregnant group. Results: Plasma glucose levels were significantly lower, but plasma insulin levels were significantly higher in pregnant when compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese women (p<0.05 all. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was significantly higher, but the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was significantly lower only in obese pregnant when compared to obese non-pregnant women (p<0.01 all. However, in non-obese women, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin were significantly lower in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese groups (p<0.05 all. In pregnant women, serum adiponectin and omentin levels were significantly lower in obese compared to non-obese pregnant women while serum visfatin levels were comparable in both groups. Serum adiponectin levels were highest followed by omentin and visfatin, respectively in both non-obese and obese pregnant groups. These results indicated that lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might contribute to higher insulin resistance in pregnancy. Furthermore, serum adiponectin and omentin were reduced in increasing adiposity similarly to non-pregnant women. Conclusion: Lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might lead to decreased insulin sensitivity in these women.

  16. Evaluation of Progesterone Utilization and Birth Outcomes in a State Medicaid Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydery, Tasmina; Price, Mylissa K; Greenwood, Bonnie C; Takeshita, Mito; Kunte, Parag S; Mauro, Rose P; Lenz, Kimberly; Jeffrey, Paul L

    2017-10-01

    Progesterone (hydroxyprogesterone caproate injection and vaginal progesterone) has been shown to reduce preterm birth (PTB) rates by a third among pregnant women at high risk. The purpose of this analysis is to report birth outcomes and medication adherence among Massachusetts Medicaid (MassHealth) members receiving progesterone, evaluate the association between member characteristics and birth outcomes and medication adherence, and compare cost of care with a prior preterm pregnancy. This retrospective cohort study used medical claims, pharmacy claims, and prior authorization (PA) request data for MassHealth members who had a PA submitted for progesterone between January 1, 2011, and March 31, 2015. Members were excluded due to breaks in coverage, progesterone was not indicated for prevention of PTB, and if current gestational week or date of delivery was unavailable. A total of 418 members were screened for inclusion of whom 190 met criteria and 169 filled progesterone. Mean age was 29.2 years (SD = 5.23), and clinical comorbidities were identified in 90.5% of members. Consistent with clinical trials on progesterone effectiveness, 62.1% of members had a term delivery (37 wks of gestation). Among members with prior gestational age at delivery available, the average difference in gestational age between pregnancies was 8.25 weeks (SD = 6.11). In addition, 66.3% of members were adherent to progesterone based on proportion of days covered (PDC) of 0.8 or higher. The overall mean PDC was 0.79 (SD = 0.26). Despite similar birth outcomes in clinical trials and national trends, medication adherence is low in this state Medicaid program. Therefore, members may benefit from adherence support. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  17. Sustained-release progesterone nanosuspension following intramuscular injection in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Heba F

    2010-11-10

    The production of an intramuscular (IM) injection of natural progesterone would provide a safer solution than using semi synthetic progesterone. However, disadvantages such as low solubility and a short half life prevent the use of natural progesterone. In this study, we formulated a sustained release form of natural progesterone to be given as IM injection. A progesterone nanosuspension (PNS) was first developed and then dispersed in a thermosensitive gel matrix. The selected nanoparticles showed an average particle size of 267 nm and a zeta potential approaching-41 mV. The in vitro release profile of PNS from the F127 plus methyl cellulose gel followed zero order kinetics and correlated linearly with the weight percentage of gel dissolved, demonstrating that the overall rate of release of PNS is controlled by dissolution of the pluronic F127/methyl cellulose (MC) gel (r² > 0.99). The pharmacokinetic parameters of the PNS (6 mg/mL) in pluronic F127/MC gel were evaluated in comparison with the control progesterone suspension. After the administration of PNS in F127/MC gel into the rats, a maximum serum concentration of 22.1 ± 1.9 ng/mL was reached at a T(max) of 4.05 ± 0.1 h. The terminal half life was 12.7 ± 0.8 h. The area under the curve AUC₀₋∞ of the injected formula was 452.75 ± 42.8 ng·h/mL and the total mean residence time was 18.57 ± 1.44 h. The PNS in gel was significantly different from the control in rate and extent at P < 0.001. The natural progesterone which was nanosized and formulated in a thermosensitive gel significantly sustained the action of natural progesterone so that it could be injected every 36 h instead of every day. Moreover, this formula is expected to provide a much safer choice than the use of semi-synthetic progesterone.

  18. Milk progesterone profiles and the effect of the buck during the anoestrous period in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dazhi; Liu Xianyi; Chen Faju; Song Xuehua; Wang Kairong; Liu Xiangmo; Xu Gongyi

    1991-01-01

    Milk progesterone profiles in Chengdu Mah (CM), Saanen (S) and crossbred (CM x S, F1) goats were determined using radioimmunoassay throughout the period from kidding to the beginning of the next breeding season. Different patterns of progesterone profiles were recorded in these does. When milk progesterone concentrations were elevated above 6 ng/mL for at least 6 days they were regarded as signs of ovarian activity. The frequencies of such rises during anoestrus were 4.0, 1.8 and 2.5 per animal in CM, S and F1 goats respectively. The frequencies of progesterone rise were higher than that of behavioural oestrus in the does. After exposing the does to the buck three times during the anoestrus period, no significant 'male effect' was observed on the milk progesterone level or behavioural oestrus during the first six months after kidding. The male effect on behavioural oestrus became apparent only in the seventh month after kidding, while milk progesterone levels did not change markedly compared with those of the control does. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  19. Progesterone Metabolites Produced by Cytochrome P450 3A Modulate Uterine Contractility in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Avinash S.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Murtha, Amy P.; Heine, R. Phillips; Zheng, Xiaomei; Grotegut, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to characterize the effect of progesterone metabolites on spontaneous and oxytocin-induced uterine contractility. Study Design: Spontaneous contractility was studied in mouse uterine horns after treatment with progesterone, 2α-hydroxyprogesterone, 6β-hydroxyprogesterone (6β-OHP), 16α-hydroxyprogesterone (16α-OHP), or 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) at 10−9 to 10−6 mol/L. Uterine horns were exposed to progestins (10−6 mol/L), followed by increasing concentrations of oxytocin (1-100 nmol/L) to study oxytocin-induced contractility. Contraction parameters were compared for each progestin and matched vehicle control using repeated measures 2-way analysis of variance. In vitro metabolism of progesterone by recombinant cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) microsomes (3A5, 3A5, and 3A7) identified major metabolites. Results: Oxytocin-induced contractile frequency was decreased by 16α-OHP (P = .03) and increased by 6β-OHP (P = .05). Progesterone and 17-OHPC decreased oxytocin-induced contractile force (P = .02 and P = .04, respectively) and frequency (P = .02 and P = .03, respectively). Only progesterone decreased spontaneous contractile force (P = .02). Production of 16α-OHP and 6β-OHP metabolites were confirmed in all CYP3A isoforms tested. Conclusion: Progesterone metabolites produced by maternal or fetal CYP3A enzymes influence uterine contractility. PMID:26037300

  20. Progesterone for Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Zeng

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy and safety of progesterone administrated in patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI.PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Clinicaltrials.gov, ISRCTN registry and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing progesterone and placebo administrated in acute TBI patients. The primary outcome was mortality and the secondary outcomes were unfavorable outcomes and adverse events. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of progesterone administrated in patients with acute TBI.A total of 6 studies met inclusion criteria, involving 2,476 patients. The risk of bias was considered to be low in 4 studies but high in the other 2 studies. The results of meta-analysis indicated progesterone did not reduce the mortality (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.57-1.20 or unfavorable outcomes (RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.78-1.02 of acute TBI patients in comparison with placebo. Sensitivity analysis yielded consistent results. Progesterone was basically safe and well tolerated in TBI patients with the exception of increased risk of phlebitis or thrombophlebitis (RR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.96-4.66.Despite some modest bias, present evidence demonstrated that progesterone was well tolerated but did not reduce the mortality or unfavorable outcomes of adult patients with acute TBI.

  1. Serum adipokines and adipose tissue distribution in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. A comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERIC eTOUSSIROT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and ankylosing spondylitis (AS are inflammatory rheumatic diseases that may modify body composition. Adipose tissue has the ability to release a wide range of products involved in physiologic functions, but also in various pathological processes, including the inflammatory/immune response. RA and AS are both associated with the development of cardiovascular complications. It is has been established that central/abdominal and particularly intra-abdominal or visceral adiposity is closely linked to cardiovascular events. Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the body composition of patients with RA or AS compared to healthy controls (HC with a special emphasis on the visceral region. In parallel, we measured adipose products or adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin and its high molecular weight (HMW isoform, resistin, and ghrelin, a gastric peptide that plays a role in energetic balance. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and atherogenic index were used to evaluate cardiovascular risk. One hundred and twelve subjects were enrolled (30 patients with RA, 31 with AS and 51 HC. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA to determine total fat mass and lean mass, adiposity, fat in the android and gynoid regions, and visceral fat. Patients and HC did not differ in terms of body mass index. On the contrary, adiposity was increased in RA (p= 0.01 while visceral fat was also increased, but only in women (p=0.01. Patients with AS tended to have lower total fat mass (p=0.07 and higher lean mass compared to HC (p = 0.07. Leptin and leptin/fat mass were decreased in male patients with AS (p

  2. Serum adipokines and adipose tissue distribution in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, Eric; Grandclément, Emilie; Gaugler, Béatrice; Michel, Fabrice; Wendling, Daniel; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are inflammatory rheumatic diseases that may modify body composition. Adipose tissue has the ability to release a wide range of products involved in physiologic functions, but also in various pathological processes, including the inflammatory/immune response. RA and AS are both associated with the development of cardiovascular complications. It is has been established that central/abdominal, and particularly intra-abdominal or visceral adiposity is closely linked to cardiovascular events. Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the body composition of patients with RA or AS compared to healthy controls (HC), with a special emphasis on the visceral region. In parallel, we measured adipose products or adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin and its high molecular weight (HMW) isoform, resistin, and ghrelin, a gastric peptide that plays a role in energetic balance. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and atherogenic index were used to evaluate cardiovascular risk. One hundred and twelve subjects were enrolled (30 patients with RA, 31 with AS, and 51 HC). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine total fat mass and lean mass, adiposity, fat in the android and gynoid regions, and visceral fat. Patients and HC did not differ in terms of body mass index. On the contrary, adiposity was increased in RA (p = 0.01) while visceral fat was also increased, but only in women (p = 0.01). Patients with AS tended to have lower total fat mass (p = 0.07) and higher lean mass compared to HC (p = 0.07). Leptin and leptin/fat mass were decreased in male patients with AS (p ghrelin in any group of patients. HOMA-IR and the atherogenic index were not modified in RA and AS. These results confirm that body composition was altered in RA and AS, affecting distinct soft tissue compartments. The effect of the increased visceral adipose tissue on

  3. Follicle vascularity coordinates corpus luteum blood flow and progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tarso, S G S; Gastal, G D A; Bashir, S T; Gastal, M O; Apgar, G A; Gastal, E L

    2017-03-01

    Colour Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare the ability of preovulatory follicle (POF) blood flow and its dimensions to predict the size, blood flow and progesterone production capability of the subsequent corpus luteum (CL). Cows (n=30) were submitted to a synchronisation protocol. Follicles ≥7mm were measured and follicular wall blood flow evaluated every 12h for approximately 3.5 days until ovulation. After ovulation, cows were scanned daily for 8 days and similar parameters were evaluated for the CL. Blood samples were collected and plasma progesterone concentrations quantified. All parameters were positively correlated. Correlation values ranged from 0.26 to 0.74 on data normalised to ovulation and from 0.31 to 0.74 on data normalised to maximum values. Correlations between calculated ratios of both POF and CL in data normalised to ovulation and to maximum values ranged from moderate (0.57) to strong (0.87). Significant (Pprogesterone concentrations of the resultant CL. These findings indicate that follicle vascularity coordinates CL blood flow and progesterone production in synchronised beef cows.

  4. Progesterone modulates the LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone-receptor independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Schander, Julieta Aylen; Bariani, María Victoria; Correa, Fernando; Franchi, Ana María

    2015-12-15

    Genital tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria induce miscarriage and are one of the most common complications of human pregnancy. LPS administration to 7-day pregnant mice induces embryo resorption after 24h, with nitric oxide playing a fundamental role in this process. We have previously shown that progesterone exerts protective effects on the embryo by modulating the inflammatory reaction triggered by LPS. Here we sought to investigate whether the in vivo administration of progesterone modulated the LPS-induced nitric oxide production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pregnant and non-pregnant mice. We found that progesterone downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone receptor-independent mechanism. Moreover, our results suggest a possible participation of glucocorticoid receptors in at least some of the anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ovarian responses and pregnancy rate with previously used intravaginal progesterone releasing devices for fixed-time artificial insemination in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilariño, M; Rubianes, E; Menchaca, A

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine serum progesterone concentrations, ovarian responses, and pregnancy rate in sheep inseminated following a short-term protocol (6 days of treatment) with a previously used controlled internal drug release-G (CIDR-G) device. In experiment 1, 30 ewes were put on a short-term protocol using a CIDR-G of first use (new devices, N = 10), second use (previously used for 6 days, N = 10), or third use (previously used twice for 6 days, N = 10). All ewes were given prostaglandin F(2α) (10 mg dinoprost) and eCG (300 IU) im at device withdrawal. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were greater for ewes treated with new versus reused devices (P synchronization and ovulation, with lower serum progesterone concentrations for reused devices. Three times used CIDR-G yielded a pregnancy rate >70%, which tended to be lower than that obtained with new devices, adding evidence of the detrimental effect of low serum progesterone concentrations on fertility in sheep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative analysis of some serum proteins and immunoglobulin G concentration in the blood of Yugoslav Trotter mares and newborn foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauš S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of some serum protein concentrations was performed on 12 Yugoslav Trotter mares and their newborn foals. The mares included in the evaluation were divided into two groups of 6 each. The mares in the first group were vaccinated against equine herpes virus 1 and 4, in the 5th, 7th and 9th month of pregnancy, while mares in the second group were not vaccinated at all. Pregnant mares were clinically observed during the last stage of pregnancy and blood for biochemical evaluations was sampled immediately after foaling. Foals were clinically observed for seven days after birth and blood samples were collected immediately after foaling (before nursing, and 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours after birth. Foals included in the evaluation were divided into two groups according to the group allocation of the respective mares. All mares gave birth to normal foals in expected terms. Biochemical examination revealed slightly lower total gammaglobulin and IgG values in tested mares compared to the values obtained in other horse breeds. The antibody titres against equine herpes virus-1 reached the level that provides sufficient protection in vaccinated mares. Gammaglobulin and traces of IgG were present in the blood serum of foals tested immediately after birth and before nursing. A significant increase of IgG and gammaglobulin concentration was revealed in all foals after the first 24 hours of life. The observed first day increase of concentration was followed by stagnation of gammaglobulin and IgG levels in all foals. Total protein values showed a significant increase 24 hours after the first intake of colostrum in all foals. Immunoglobulin G concentration established by semiquantitative test was considered low positive in 16.67% and in 33.34% of foals from vaccinated and unvaccinated mares, respectively. Turbidimetric analyses of the same samples revealed sufficient Ig transfer, i.e. Ig concentration over 8 g/L. Comparison of the results obtained by the

  7. Effects of progesterone stimulated allopregnanolone on craving and stress response in cocaine dependent men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milivojevic, Verica; Fox, Helen C; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Covault, Jonathan; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-03-01

    Fluctuations in progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle have been shown to affect physiological and subjective effects of cocaine. Furthermore, our laboratory has demonstrated that following drug-cue exposure, cocaine dependent women with high levels of circulating progesterone display lower diastolic and systolic blood pressure responses and report lower levels of anxiety and drug craving compared to cocaine dependent women with low levels of progesterone. In the current study we examined the role of the progesterone derived neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) on stress arousal, inhibitory control and drug craving in cocaine dependent subjects. Plasma levels of ALLO were measured using GC/MS in 46 treatment-seeking cocaine dependent men and women on day 5 of a 7-day treatment regimen of micronized progesterone (15M/8F) (400mg/day) or placebo (14M/9F) administered in a double blind, randomized manner. As a control, levels of the testosterone derived neurosteroid androstanediol (ADIOL) were also measured. All subjects participated in laboratory sessions on days 5-7 of progesterone/placebo administration in which they were exposed to a series of 5-min personalized guided imagery of either a stressful situation, cocaine use or of a neutral setting and dependent variables including subjective craving, mood, Stroop task as a measure of inhibitory control performance and plasma cortisol were assessed. Participants were grouped by high or low ALLO level and levels of dependent variables compared between ALLO groups. Progesterone relative to placebo significantly increased ALLO levels with no sex differences. There were no effects of micronized progesterone on the testosterone derived ADIOL. Individuals in the high versus the low ALLO group showed decreased levels of cortisol at baseline, and a higher cortisol response to stress; higher positive mood scores at baseline and improved Stroop performance in the drug-cue and stress conditions, and reduced cocaine

  8. Effect and mechanism of cadmium on the progesterone synthesis of ovaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenchang; Jia Haimei

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents results of the effect of cadmium on the progesterone synthesis of ovaries. In the current study, we investigated whether Cd also disrupts progesterone synthesis via steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc), which play important roles in progesterone synthesis. The Wistar rats were exposed to cadmium in vivo (at 2.5, 5, 7.5 mg/kg, as a single s.c. dose). We showed that the serum P 4 and granule cells P 4 of rats were significantly lower than control group. Ovaries granule cells were incubated in Dulbecco-modified Eagle medium +15% fetal bovine serum with 0, 10, 20, or 40 μM CdCl 2 in vitro, progesterone levels were declined in a dose-dependent manner. Our data showed that the expression of StAR and P450scc in vivo or in vitro were inhibited when treated with CdCl 2 (p 2 treatment; the expression of StAR mRNA and P450scc mRNA in 8-Br-cAMP + 40 μM CdCl 2 were significantly higher than 40 μM CdCl 2 , and were lower than control group. We concluded that StAR, which delivers cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, is one site at which Cd interferes with progesterone production in cultured rats ovarian granule cells; P450scc, which conveys cholesterol to pregnenolone, is anther site. The mechanisms were mainly controlled by the cAMP-dependent pathway

  9. The effects of intrahippocampus injection of progesterone on passive avoidance learning and memory in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmoores Shahrivar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progesterone as a reproductive hormone is studied in the brain structure. New studies are mainly about systemic injection and have shown that the progesterone has different effects on memory. But it is not clear if hippocampus is mediator of progesterone in reinforcement of memory and learning. So, the effects of intra-hippocampal injection of progesterone on passive avoidance memory and learning was studied in male Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Animals were divided in eightgroups as a control, saline, almond oil (as a vehicle and progesterone groups (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3µg/Kg. body weight. All groups except the control were cannulated in left CA1 area by stereotaxic device. One week after recovery, all groups were trained by shuttle box and immediately after training different doses of progesterone in the volume of 0.5μL were injected through the cannula in CA1 of hippocampus and control groups received saline and almond oil at the same volume and condition respectively. After 48 hours passive avoidance memory and learning was evaluated. Results: Statistical analysis showed that 0.5, 1.5, 2 µg/µl progesterone groups had significantly improved passive avoidance learning and memory compared with saline group (p <0.001, but 1 and 3 µg/µl progesterone groups did not show significant effect on passive avoidance learning and memory compared with saline group. Also almond oil increased passive avoidance learning and memory compared with saline group (p <0.001. Conclusion: It seems that effects of progesterone as a neurosteroid on memory and learning depend on its dose. Also almond oil contains vitamin E, omega 3 and oleic acid that has beneficial effects on learning and memory.

  10. Radioimmunological progesteron determination in peripheral bovine blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ender, M.

    1974-01-01

    A radioimmunological method of determination of the progesterone level in peripheral bovine blood is described which enables a monitoring of the corpus luteum function under varying conditions. There is no dependence of the corpus luteum function on the pituitary gland after endogenous prolactin inhibition with a synthetic prolactin inhibitor in the oestrus cycle and in the end-phase of gravidity. In hysterectomized animals, however, the inhibition of endogenous LH leads to luteolysis. The release of endogenous LH, induced by the administration of an LH release hormone, causes a short increase in progesterone production in the middle phase of the cycle only. The administration of exogenous glucocorticoids during the oestrus cycle did not influence the corpus luteum function. The method described is used in a field test to determine the right time for artificial insemination. There is a significant difference between the progesterone values of impregnated and non-pregnant animals at 16-18 days after insemination. (BSC/AK) [de

  11. Preliminary characterizations of a serum biomarker for sarcoidosis by comparative proteomic approach with tandem-mass spectrometry in ethnic Han Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yuan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of sarcoidosis is still a significant challenge in China because of the need to exclude other diseases including granulomatous infections and malignancies that may be clinically and radiographically similar. The specific aim of the study is to search for serum protein biomarkers of sarcoidosis and to validate their clinical usefulness in differential diagnosis. Methods Serum samples were collected from patients with sarcoidosis (n = 37, and compared to those from patients with tuberculosis (n = 20, other pulmonary diseases (n = 20, and healthy volunteers (n = 20 for determination of sarcoidosis-specific or -associated protein expression profiles. The first part of this study focused on proteomic analysis of serum from patients with sarcoidosis to identify a pattern of peptides capable of differentiating the studied populations using the ClinProt profiling technology based on mass spectrometry. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was then used to verify corresponding elevation of the serum protein concentration of the potential biomarkers in the same patients sets. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analyses was performed to determine the optimal cutoff value for diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to further confirm the protein expression patterns of the biomarkers in lung tissue. Results An unique protein peak of M/Z 3,210 Daltons (Da was found to be differentially expressed between the sarcoidosis and control groups and was identified as the N-terminal peptide of 29 amino acids (94-122 of serum amyloid A (SAA. ELISA confirmed that the serum SAA level was significantly higher in the sarcoidosis group than that of the other 3 control groups (p p  Conclusion This is the first study to investigate serum protein markers in Chinese subjects with sarcoidosis. This study shows that the serum SAA expression profiles were different between the sarcoidosis and non

  12. Neuroprotection by Progesterone Through Simulation of Mitochondrial Gene Expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiskum, Gary

    2002-01-01

    .... The most important experimental results were as follows: I Determined that low, physiological levels of plasma progesterone inhibited seizures produced by kainic acid while high levels of progesterone had no effect. 2...

  13. Elevated progesterone during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azemi, M; Kyrou, D; Kolibianakis, E M

    2012-01-01

    of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of the follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials should document the cause and origin...... phase in ovarian stimulation. The databases of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials...

  14. Serum Vitamin B12 Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Patients on Metformin Compared to those Never on Metformin: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizada, Nishant; Jyotsna, Viveka P; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Tandon, Nikhil

    2017-01-01

    There are limited data about the effect of metformin use on serum Vitamin B12 levels in type 2 diabetes patients from India. We studied serum Vitamin B12 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were receiving metformin and compared them to those never treated with metformin. A total of 183 patients ("metformin" group 121, "no metformin" group 63) of type 2 diabetes from the endocrinology clinic of a tertiary care center in North India were studied. Serum Vitamin B12 levels were measured in all patients. Diabetic neuropathy symptom score (DNS) and diabetic neuropathy examination score (DNE) were used to assess peripheral neuropathy while hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were used to assess anemia. The serum Vitamin B12 levels were 267.7 ± 194.4 pmol/l in metformin group and 275.1 ± 197.2 pmol/l in the no metformin group ( P = 0.78). When adjusted for duration of diabetes, metformin use was associated with a 87.7 ± 37.7 pmol/l (95% confidence interval [CI], -162.1--3.3, P = 0.02) lower serum Vitamin B12 levels. No significant increase in the prevalence of neuropathy (DNS and DNE scores), anemia, or MCV was found in the Vitamin B12 deficient patients (levels <150 pmol/l) as compared to patients with normal Vitamin B12. However, serum Vitamin B12 levels for the entire cohort were higher by 12.2 ± 3.0 pmol/l (95% CI 6.4-18.0, P < 0.001) for every 1 year increase in the duration of diabetes. Metformin use was associated with a lower serum Vitamin B12 levels when adjusted for duration of diabetes. Increasing duration of diabetes was associated with higher serum Vitamin B12 levels.

  15. Plasma progesterone levels and corpus luteum morphology in the female prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, D; Garris, D

    1984-08-01

    Plasma progesterone levels in female prairie dogs were determined by a radioimmunoassay specific for progesterone. Plasma progesterone levels were determined in samples taken before estrus, at estrus, during the luteal phase, and during anestrus from females maintained all year in the laboratory. Progesterone levels were also determined in plasma samples taken in the laboratory from two pregnant and three postparturient females captured in the field. Progesterone levels were low before estrus and continued low during estrus. They rose on the first week after estrus to 0.8 ng/ml or above and continued at or above this level for 9-14 weeks following estrus. Gestation in prairie dogs is 35 days in this species. Progesterone levels of three postparturient females were above 1.0 ng/ml for 7 weeks after their arrival in the laboratory. These females all had uterine scars showing that they had delivered their litters before they were captured. Two females were determined to be pregnant at the time of their capture. These females later reabsorbed their fetuses (determined by laparotomy). Progesterone values of samples from these females were all above 1.0 ng/ml except for one low value in one female which occurred 3 weeks after her capture and after reabsorption of her fetuses was in progress. The cells of the corpus lutea (CL) of nonpregnant, pregnant, and postparturient females had well-developed rings of cytoplasmic basophilia but as the CL regressed this pattern became disorganized and disappeared. The function of this basophilia is not known. The long luteal phase found in female prairie dogs is compared to those found in other species of mammals. This is the first annually breeding rodent reported to have a longer luteal phase that the period of gestation.

  16. Progesterone promotes maternal–fetal tolerance by reducing human maternal T‐cell polyfunctionality and inducing a specific cytokine profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldershaw, Suzy A.; Inman, Charlotte F.; Coomarasamy, Aravinthan; Moss, Paul A. H.; Kilby, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone is a steroid hormone essential for the maintenance of human pregnancy, and its actions are thought to include promoting maternal immune tolerance of the semiallogenic fetus. We report that exposure of maternal T cells to progesterone at physiological doses induced a unique skewing of the cytokine production profile of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, with reductions not only in potentially deleterious IFN‐γ and TNF‐α production but also in IL‐10 and IL‐5. Conversely, production of IL‐4 was increased. Maternal T cells also became less polyfunctional, focussing cytokine production toward profiles including IL‐4. This was accompanied by reduced T‐cell proliferation. Using fetal and viral antigen‐specific CD8+ T‐cell clones, we confirmed that this as a direct, nonantigen‐specific effect. Yet human T cells lacked conventional nuclear progesterone receptors, implicating a membrane progesterone receptor. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells responded to progesterone in a dose‐dependent manner, with subtle effects at concentrations comparable to those in maternal blood, but profound effects at concentrations similar to those at the maternal–fetal interface. This characterization of how progesterone modulates T‐cell function is important in understanding the normal biology of pregnancy and informing the rational use of progesterone therapy in pregnancies at risk of fetal loss. PMID:26249148

  17. Progesterone promotes maternal-fetal tolerance by reducing human maternal T-cell polyfunctionality and inducing a specific cytokine profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, David; Eldershaw, Suzy A; Inman, Charlotte F; Coomarasamy, Aravinthan; Moss, Paul A H; Kilby, Mark D

    2015-10-01

    Progesterone is a steroid hormone essential for the maintenance of human pregnancy, and its actions are thought to include promoting maternal immune tolerance of the semiallogenic fetus. We report that exposure of maternal T cells to progesterone at physiological doses induced a unique skewing of the cytokine production profile of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, with reductions not only in potentially deleterious IFN-γ and TNF-α production but also in IL-10 and IL-5. Conversely, production of IL-4 was increased. Maternal T cells also became less polyfunctional, focussing cytokine production toward profiles including IL-4. This was accompanied by reduced T-cell proliferation. Using fetal and viral antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell clones, we confirmed that this as a direct, nonantigen-specific effect. Yet human T cells lacked conventional nuclear progesterone receptors, implicating a membrane progesterone receptor. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells responded to progesterone in a dose-dependent manner, with subtle effects at concentrations comparable to those in maternal blood, but profound effects at concentrations similar to those at the maternal-fetal interface. This characterization of how progesterone modulates T-cell function is important in understanding the normal biology of pregnancy and informing the rational use of progesterone therapy in pregnancies at risk of fetal loss. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Comparative examinations of serum pepsinogen I, II and gastric area using computed radiography in the atrophic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsu, Yoshimitsu; Ogura, Yasuharu; Yamazaki, Kouichi [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The relationship between serum PG I, PG II levels and extent of atrophic gastritis was examined. The subjects were 64 patients (male: 32, female: 32, 51.9 years old on average) with established diagnosis of either atrophic gastritis or normal. In the X-ray gastric examination, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) was used to obtain clear-cut images of the gastric area. Concerning the serum PG I level, patients in the group with atrophic gastritis showed lower levels than those of the people in the group with no atrophic change, but the variation was wide, and no definite tendency was seen in the relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG I levels. Concerning the serum PG II level, as the atrophic change progresses, the serum PG II level tended to increase gradually. A significant reduction in the PG I/II ratio was seen in the group with atrophic changes (p<0.01) in comparison with the group with no atrophic changes, and the PG I/II value tended to decrease. In conclusion, as a relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG levels had a wide variation, we considered it to be difficult to understand the presence and extent of the atrophic gastritis by measuring serum PG levels. (author).

  19. Comparative examinations of serum pepsinogen I, II and gastric area using computed radiography in the atrophic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsu, Yoshimitsu; Ogura, Yasuharu; Yamazaki, Kouichi

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between serum PG I, PG II levels and extent of atrophic gastritis was examined. The subjects were 64 patients (male: 32, female: 32, 51.9 years old on average) with established diagnosis of either atrophic gastritis or normal. In the X-ray gastric examination, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) was used to obtain clear-cut images of the gastric area. Concerning the serum PG I level, patients in the group with atrophic gastritis showed lower levels than those of the people in the group with no atrophic change, but the variation was wide, and no definite tendency was seen in the relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG I levels. Concerning the serum PG II level, as the atrophic change progresses, the serum PG II level tended to increase gradually. A significant reduction in the PG I/II ratio was seen in the group with atrophic changes (p<0.01) in comparison with the group with no atrophic changes, and the PG I/II value tended to decrease. In conclusion, as a relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG levels had a wide variation, we considered it to be difficult to understand the presence and extent of the atrophic gastritis by measuring serum PG levels. (author)

  20. Effect of exogenous progesterone on oestrus response of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four (24) healthy, parous West African dwarf (WAD) does aged 2 – 3 years were used to study the effects of varying doses of progesterone on oestrus synchronization and plasma progesterone levels. The does were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups consisting of 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 mg progesterone ...

  1. The effect of metformin treatment in vivo on acute and long-term energy metabolism and progesterone production in vitro by granulosa cells from women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthini, D; Harris, S E; Barth, J H; Balen, A H; Campbell, B K; Picton, H M

    2014-10-10

    What are the consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) pathology and metformin-pretreatment in vivo in women with PCOS on the metabolism and steroid production of follicular phenotype- and long-term cultured-granulosa cells (GC)? PCOS pathology significantly compromised glucose metabolism and the progesterone synthetic capacity of follicular- and long-term cultured-GCs and the metabolic impact of PCOS on GC function was alleviated by metformin-pretreatment in vivo. Granulosa cells from women with PCOS have been shown to have an impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and lactate production in vitro. However, these results were obtained by placing GCs in unphysiological conditions in culture medium containing high glucose and insulin concentrations. Moreover, existing data on insulin-responsive steroid production in vitro by PCOS GCs vary. Case-control experimental research comparing glucose uptake, pyruvate and lactate production and progesterone production in vitro by GCs from three aetiological groups, all undergoing IVF; healthy control women (Control, n = 12), women with PCOS treated with metformin in vivo (Metformin, n = 8) and women with PCOS not exposed to metformin (PCOS, n = 8). The study was conducted over a period of 3 years between 2007 and 2010. Rotterdam criteria were used for the diagnosis of PCOS; all subjects were matched for age, BMI and baseline FSH. Individual patient cultures were undertaken with cells incubated in a validated, physiological, serum-free culture medium containing doses of 0-6 mM glucose and 0-100 ng/ml insulin for 6 h and 144 h to quantify the impact of treatments on acute and long-term metabolism, respectively, and progesterone production. The metabolite content of spent media was measured using spectrophotometric plate reader assay. The progesterone content of spent media was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Viable GC number was quantified after 144 h of culture by the vital dye Neutral Red uptake assay

  2. Molecular binding of toxic phenothiazinium derivatives, azures to bovine serum albumin: A comparative spectroscopic, calorimetric, and in silico study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Somnath; Islam, Md Maidul; Jana, Gopal Chandra; Patra, Anirudha; Jha, Pradeep K; Hossain, Maidul

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the comparative binding behavior of antimalarial drug azure A, azure B and azure C with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied. The interaction has been confirmed by multispectroscopic (UV, fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and circular dichroism) and molecular docking techniques. The experimental results show that azure B has the highest BSA binding affinity followed by azure A and azure C. The experimental evidence of binding showed a static quenching mechanism in the interaction azures with BSA. The isothermal titration calorimetry result reveals that the binding was exothermic with positive entropy contribution in each case. The thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS at 25°C were calculated, which indicates that the weak van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding rather than the hydrophobic effect played an important role in the interaction. According to the theory of Förster nonradiative energy transfer, the distance (r) between the donor (BSA) and acceptor azures found to be albumins. We hope, the outcome of this work will be most helpful for synthesizing a new type of phenothiazinium derivatives of the better therapeutic application. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Comparing Levels of Serum IgA, IgG, IgM and Cortisol in the Professional Bodybuilding Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hadi Naghib

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bodybuilding athlete's bodies are placed under much pressure in during the exercise, which is causing changes in the immune and hormone system in the long term. The purpose of this study was to compare levels of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, immunoglobulin M (IgM and cortisol in the professional bodybuilding athletes (BA and the non-athletes (NA male. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytic and 29 volunteer subjects in the professional BA and NA men participated. Levels of serum IgA, IgG, IgM using Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID and levels of serum cortisol using Radioimmunoassay (RIA were measured with blood sampling from brachial vein at rest and fasting. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test (p0.05, while, the levels of serum cortisol (22.10±2.60 vs. 15.41±3.44 μg/dl, U=0.001, p=0.001 significantly greater in the BA than the NA.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that participation in training and competitions bodybuilding has no effect on serum levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, but increased levels of serum cortisol.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Serum IgG4 Levels in Patients With IgG4-Related Disease and Other Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chu, Xinmin; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xue; Jin, Li; Tan, Zhen; Li, Xiangpei; Li, Xiaomei

    2017-09-01

    Elevated serum IgG4 levels are an important hallmark for diagnosing IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) but can also be found and reported in other diseases. The present study intended to compare the serum IgG4 levels in both IgG4-RD and non-IgG4-RD and determine the serum IgG4 levels in patients with IgG4-RD before and after glucocorticoid therapy. The study included 323 patients from Anhui Medical University Affiliated Provincial Hospital (China) and was conducted from July 2014-January 2016. A total of 25 patients were eventually diagnosed as having IgG4-RD, according to the IgG4-RD diagnostic criteria. Our study also included 108 patients with connective tissue disease, 94 patients with pancreatic lesions, 66 patients with bile duct lesions, 13 patients with carcinoma of the duodenal papilla and 20 control participants. The assay for serum IgG4 detection was peformed using the nephelometric method. Elevated levels of serum IgG4 (>1.35g/L) were detected in all patients with IgG4-RD, and reduced levels of serum IgG4 (IgG4-RD. The serum IgG4 level in patients with IgG4-RD after glucocorticoid therapy was significantly lower than that before glucocorticoid therapy (t = 2.426, P = 0.04). High levels of IgG4 were observed in IgG4-RD. However, a diagnosis of IgG4 disease can not only be dependent on the detection of elevated serum IgG4 levels but also may need clinical manifestations, serology, histopathology and other comprehensive information for verification. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of Progesterone and Androgen Receptors in the Breast of Premenopausal Women, Considering Menstrual Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlén, Mia; Zhang, Hua; Löfgren, Lars; Masironi, Britt; VON Schoultz, Eva; VON Schoultz, B O; Sahlin, Lena

    2018-03-01

    Progesterone and androgens are important for normal development and tumorigenesis of the breast. Breast tissue samples from 49 premenopausal women were obtained. The progesterone receptors (PRA, PRB, PGRMC1 and PGRMC2) and the androgen receptor (AR) were determined in malignant and benign breast tumors and control tissues. The PRB and AR mRNA levels were highest in tumors. PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA levels were higher in malignant tumors compared to their paired normal tissues. PRA protein showed most immunostaining in benign tumors. PRB immunostaining varied according to menstrual phase. AR immunostaining was highest in the glands of malignant tumors. Progesterone and androgen receptors are differently regulated in tumors compared to normal breast tissues. A malignant breast tumor could appear PR-negative if collected in the luteal phase, but positive in the follicular phase. This finding may have clinical implications. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of serum PSA after cyproterone compound treatment compared with oral contraceptive pill in hirsute polycystic ovary syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taheripanah

    2010-07-01

    Conclusion: Serum free PSA and free testosterone and FG score were decreased after treatment with OCP and cyproterone compound but there was no preference between the two groups of anti-androgen treatment.

  7. Alveolar bone mass in pre- and postmenopausal women with serum calcium as a marker: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitha Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Postmenopausal women exhibit a reduced alveolar bone mass and lowered levels of serum total calcium with the increasing age. These changes may be useful indicators for low skeletal bone mineral density or osteoporosis.

  8. Progesterone Receptor Scaffolding Function in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    leiomyoma cells in response to RU486 revealed little overlap [101]. PR-A and PR-B are most often co-expressed in the same tissues, and cells that... leiomyoma cells. PLoS One 7 (2012) e29021. [102]P.A. Mote, S. Bartow, N. Tran, C.L. Clarke, Loss of co-ordinate expression of progesterone receptors

  9. Expression of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study design: This is a descriptive study to detect the level of Estrogen (ER) and Progesterone (PR) receptors in a sample of biopsies from Sudanese women with breast cancer presented at Khartoum teaching Hospital Material and Methods: Forty biopsies from breast cancer patients were examined with immunostaining

  10. Pregnancy Loss in Dairy Cattle: Relationship of Ultrasound, Blood Pregnancy-Specific Protein B, Progesterone and Production Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor, G; Kastelic, J P; Abonyi-Tóth, Z; Gábor, P; Endrődi, T; Balogh, O G

    2016-08-01

    Objectives were to determine associations between percentage pregnancy loss (PPL) in dairy cattle and: (i) pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasonography; (ii) pregnancy diagnosis by serum pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) concentrations, with or without serum progesterone concentrations; and (iii) production and environmental factors. This study included 149 822 pregnancy diagnoses conducted over 13 years in Holstein-Friesian cows in Hungarian dairy herds. The following were determined: PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by transrectal ultrasonography 29-42 days after artificial insemination (AI; n = 11 457); PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by serum PSPB 29-35 days after AI (n = 138 365); and PPL and its association with serum progesterone concentrations, PSPB and production/environmental variables. The definition of PPL was percentage of cows initially diagnosed pregnant based on ultrasonography or PSPB, but not pregnant when examined by transrectal palpation 60 -70 days after AI. The PPL was lower (p 1.1 ng/ml) was lowest (15.0%), whereas cows with low concentrations of both PSPB and progesterone (0.6-1.1 and production, when ambient temperatures were high, although body condition score (BCS) had no effect on PPL. Finally, there were no significant associations between serum PSPB and environmental temperatures or number of post-partum uterine treatments. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Comparing serum basal and follicular fluid levels of anti-Mullerian hormone as a predictor of in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayeh Arabzadeh; Ghamartaj Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes by anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) measurement is getting increasing attention from clinicians. This study compares the relationship between serum or intrafollicular AMH levels and IVF outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).This prospective study was carried out in two university-based fertility clinics. Serum samples were collected on cycle day 3 and follicular fluid (FF) was collected on the day of oocyte retrieval from 26 women with PCOS and 42 normo-ovulatory controls. AMH levels were measured in the samples using immunoenzymatic assay. The relationship between serum or FF AMH levels and IVF outcomes, including number of oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturation rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, high quality grade embryo rate, and biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates were further assessed.Median serum basal AMH and FF AMH levels were significantly higher in the PCOS group as compared to controls, the values being 14.2 ng/mL vs. 3.2 ng/mL (P<.001) and 8.2 ng/g protein vs. 4.7 ng/g protein (P<.01), respectively. In both groups, serum basal AMH levels showed a positive correlation with number of oocytes retrieved (r=0.323; P=.037 in control vs. r=0.529; P=.005 in PCOS). In the control group, there was a positive relationship between serum basal AMH levels and percentage of matured oocytes (r = 0.331; P=.032) and implantation rate (r=0.305; P=.05).Serum basal, and not intrafollicular, AMH levels may be a good predictive factor for quantitative and qualitative IVF outcomes in normo-ovulatory, but not in PCOS patients (Author).

  12. The use of the milk progesterone assay in cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg, E.; Choi, H.S.; Moestl, E.

    1981-01-01

    The progesterone concentration in milk-fat was determined in samples from 167 cows in 51 herds taken on day 0, 6 and 20 after artificial insemination. The rectal palpation verified pregnancy in 85% of the cows classified on their milk-progesterone concentration as ''probably pregnant''. According to the milk progesterone concentration it was possible already three weeks after artificial insemination to classify 25% of all examined cows as ''non pregnant''. Seven cows were inseminated at an inappropriate time as revealed by a high progesterone concentration in milk-fat on the day of insemination. The relevance of milk progesterone determinations as an aid for veterinary surgeons is briefly discussed. (author)

  13. Progesterone treatment shows benefit in a pediatric model of moderate to severe bilateral brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastafa I Geddes

    Full Text Available Controlled cortical impact (CCI models in adult and aged Sprague-Dawley (SD rats have been used extensively to study medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC injury and the effects of post-injury progesterone treatment, but the hormone's effects after traumatic brain injury (TBI in juvenile animals have not been determined. In the present proof-of-concept study we investigated whether progesterone had neuroprotective effects in a pediatric model of moderate to severe bilateral brain injury.Twenty-eight-day old (PND 28 male Sprague Dawley rats received sham (n = 24 or CCI (n = 47 injury and were given progesterone (4, 8, or 16 mg/kg per 100 g body weight or vehicle injections on post-injury days (PID 1-7, subjected to behavioral testing from PID 9-27, and analyzed for lesion size at PID 28.The 8 and 16 mg/kg doses of progesterone were observed to be most beneficial in reducing the effect of CCI on lesion size and behavior in PND 28 male SD rats.Our findings suggest that a midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex will reliably produce a moderate TBI comparable to what is seen in the adult male rat and that progesterone can ameliorate the injury-induced deficits.

  14. The effect of elevated progesterone levels before HCG triggering in modified natural cycle frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenewoud, Eva R; Macklon, Nick S; Cohlen, Ben J

    2017-01-01

    follicular phase progesterone levels may occur in unstimulated cycles before frozen-thawed embryo transfer, or what affect they may have on outcomes. In this cohort study, 271 patients randomized to the modified natural cycle arm of a randomized controlled trial comparing two endometrial preparation regimens....... Whether monitoring of progesterone and LH in natural cycle frozen-thawed embryo transfer has added clinical value should studied further....

  15. Progesterone levels and days to luteolysis in mares treated with intrauterine fractionated coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel de Amorim, Mariana; Nielsen, Kayla; Cruz, Raissa Karolliny Salgueiro; Card, Claire

    2016-07-15

    Intrauterine plant oil infusion, including fractionated coconut oil, has been previously found to be a safe, inexpensive, and reversible method of prolonging the luteal phase in mares when administered on Day 10 of the estrous cycle. Our objective was to understand the uteroovarian response to the administration of fractionated coconut oil infusion in the uterus of diestrous mares. We hypothesized that intrauterine coconut oil administration on Day 10 would prolong luteal life span in a dose-dependent fashion and would result in higher serum progesterone levels than untreated mares at the expected time of luteolysis. Light-horse mares (n = 18) were examined using transrectal palpation and ultrasonography to determine if they had a normal interovulatory interval and were then examined daily in estrus until the day of ovulation (Day 0) and then every other day during an estrous cycle. Jugular blood was drawn on Day 11, Day 13, Day 15, and Day 17, centrifuged, and serum stored until assayed for progesterone (P4; Siemens Coat-a-Count Progesterone RIA, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Mares were randomly assigned to treatment and studied over one to two estrous cycles with a rest cycle after each treatment cycle. Groups were: control (n = 5), fractionated coconut oil 1.0 mL (Miglyol 810; Sasol Oil, Witten, Germany) infused in the uterus with an artificial insemination pipette on Day 10 (Group 1; n = 5) and fractionated coconut oil 0.5 mL infused in the uterus with an embryo transfer gun, on Day 10 (Group 2; n = 5). All statistical analyses were performed using analytical software (Stata SE, version 13.1, College Station, TX, USA) at P < 0.05. Data were first evaluated using the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality. Differences between groups in days to luteolysis (DTL) were examined using analysis of variance and Bonferroni, and the effect of day and treatment on P4 levels were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's all pairwise test. There was a significant

  16. Comparative Study of Continuous Pralidoxime Infusion versus Intermittent Dosing: Application of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method on Serum of Organophosphate Poisoned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Thunga

    2013-09-01

    How to cite this article: Thunga G, Pandey S, Nair S, Mylapuri R, Vidyasagar S, Kunhikatta V, et al. Comparative Study of Continuous Pralidoxime Infusion versus Intermittent Dosing: Application of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method on Serum of Organophosphate Poisoned Patients. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:105-10.

  17. Variation of calcium, copper and iron levels in serum, bile and stone samples of patients having different types of gallstone: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mustafa; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Sirajuddin; Bilal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Asma; Khan, Sabir; Kadar, Salma

    2017-08-01

    Epidemiological data among the human population has shown a significantly increased incidence of gallstone (GS) disease worldwide. It was studied that some essential (calcium) and transition elements (iron and copper) in bile play an important role in the development of GS. The estimation of calcium, copper and iron were carried out in the serum, gall bladder bile and different types of GS (cholesterol, mixed and pigmented) of 172 patients, age ranged 20-55years. For comparative purpose age matched referents not suffering from GS diseases were also selected. Biliary concentrations of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) were correlated with their concentrations in serum and different types of GS samples. The ratio of Ca, Fe and Cu in bile with serum was also calculated. Understudy metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy after acid decomposition of matrices of selected samples. The Ca concentrations in serum samples were significantly higher in patients with pigmented GS as compared to controls (p0.001). The contents of Cu and Fe in serum and bile of all patients (except female cholesterol GS patient have low serum iron concentration) were found to be higher than control, but difference was significant in those patients who have pigmented GS. The concentration of Ca, Fe and Cu in different types GS were found in the order, Pigmented>mixed>cholesterol. The bile/serum ratio for Ca, Cu and Fe was found to be significantly higher in pigmented GS patients. Gall bladder bile was slightly alkaline in patients as compared to referents. The density of bile was found to be higher in patients as compared to the referents. Various functional groups present in different types of GS samples were confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The higher density and pH of bile, elevated concentrations of transition elements in all types of biological samples (serum, bile and GS), could be an important factor for the formation of different types of

  18. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Kim, Hyung Hoi

    2017-03-01

    ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to the laboratory protocol. The AutoVue system confirmed ABO blood typing of 12,816 samples (97.7%), and these results were concordant with those of the manual method. The remaining 297 samples (2.3%) showed discrepant results in the AutoVue system and were confirmed by the manual method. The discrepant results involved weak serum reactions (serum reactions, samples from patients who had received stem cell transplants, ABO subgroups, and specific system error messages. Among the 98 samples showing ≤1+ reaction grade in the AutoVue system, 70 samples (71.4%) showed a normal serum reaction (≥2+ reaction grade) with the manual method, and 28 samples (28.6%) showed weak serum reaction in both methods. ABO blood tying of 97.7% samples could be confirmed by the AutoVue system and a small proportion (2.3%) needed to be re-evaluated by the manual method. Samples with a 2+ reaction grade in serum typing do not need to be evaluated manually, while those with ≤1+ reaction grade do.

  19. A Prospective Study to Compare the Diagnostic Value of Serum Procalcitonin and Crp in Early Onset Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Verma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is the most common cause of death in newborns in developing countries. Prompt diagnosis is the critical determinant in its outcome. As manifestations are often vague, clinically it is difficult to differentiate sepsis from non-infective conditions. Timely diagnosis is important as delay in initiation of antimicrobials can prove fatal. On the other hand empirical use of antibiotics not only increases the risk of antibiotic resistance but also delays the diagnosis of true condition. Procalcitonin (PCT has been well evaluated in late onset sepsis but data pertaining to Early Onset Sepsis (EOS are still lacking. We compared the diagnostic value of PCT and CRP (C-Reactive Protein in EOS. Aim: To compare the diagnostic value of serum PCT and CRP in early onset sepsis. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective observational study conducted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Department of Paediatrics, Dr.S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur, India. All neonates delivered in hospitals attached to this medical college or referred here within 7 days of life and having ≥2 perinatal risk factors for sepsis or displaying clinical sepsis were included in the study. All enrolled neonates were subjected to sepsis screen, PCT levels and blood culture at birth or admission which ever was the earliest. PCT levels ≥ 0.5 ng/ml and CRP levels above 8mg/l were considered positive for EOS. Results: Sensitivity and negative predictive value of PCT were higher than CRP (90.12% vs. 50.62% and 93.33% vs. 79.06% respectively. Also it had a higher positive predictive value of 40.56% than CRP where it was 37.61%. CRP was more specific (68.95% vs. 51.4% with overall higher diagnostic accuracy (0.64 vs. 0.61 in comparison to PCT. Conclusion: PCT is more sensitive and has a higher negative predictive value than CRP in early onset sepsis. Higher positive predictive value and specificity of CRP suggest that, PCT should not be used alone rather

  20. Comparative study between 99Tcm-MDP renal dynamic imaging and measurement of serum cystatin C in evaluation of glomerular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zeqiang; Miao Weibing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the difference between 99 Tcm-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ( 99 Tc m -DTPA) renal dynamic imaging and measurement of serum cystatin C in evaluation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods: One hundred patients were selected at random, 38 cases with hypertension, 35 with nephrosis, 10 with arteriosclerosis obliterans, 9 with diabetes and 8 with other diseases. Evaluation of patients' GFR was made separately by 99 Tc m -DTPA renal dynamic imaging and measurement of serum cystatin C. Results: No significant difference of GFR was found between the two methods (t=1.591, P>0.05 ), and linear correlation was showed as well (r=0.809, P 99 Tc m -DTPA renal dynamic imaging could reveal the individual renal function and provide a more comprehensive evaluation of renal function while the measurement of serum cystatin C was simple and convenient, timesaving, economic, and more suit-able for screening patients' renal function clinically. (authors)

  1. Effects of cholesterol on progesterone production by goat luteal cell subpopulations at two different stages of the luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Ş; Kalender, H; Simsek, O

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on progesterone production during long-term culturing of luteal cell subpopulations at early and late luteal stages of the goat corpora lutea. Corpora lutea were collected from Angora goats on days 5 and 15 of the oestrous cycle. Luteal cells were isolated by collagenase digestion. The cells were separated into two distinct subpopulations by Percoll density-gradient centrifugation. Both subpopulations of luteal cells staining positively for 3β-HSD activities (5 × 10(4)  cell/well) were cultured with or without 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC) in serum-free culture medium for periods of up to 7 days. Cells were incubated with serum (10%) for the first 18 h of incubation followed by serum-free medium. Cell treatment (10 and 20 μg/ml) was performed on days 1, 3 and 5. Treatment of cells with both concentrations of 22R-HC resulted in significant (p  0.05) on progesterone production in both fractions of cells throughout 7 days of incubation. Treatment of the cells with cholesterol resulted in 2.5- and 9.0-fold increases in progesterone accumulation on day 3 of incubation. Steroid production was maintained throughout the incubations when cells are incubated in serum-free media treated with cholesterol and ITS premix. Cells collected from higher density of percoll layers produced 2.82 and 2.32 times more progesterone, in comparison to the lover density percoll layer, on days 5 and 15 of the oestrous cycle in untreated cell groups, respectively. Progesterone accumulation was decreased as incubation time advanced in all groups of untreated cells. These results demonstrated that goat luteal cell subpopulations secrete substantial amounts of progesterone in response to cholesterol treatment at least for 7 days, and cholesterol is required as progesterone precursor for maintaining a high-level steroidogenesis during long-life culturing of both cell subpopulations. © 2010 Blackwell

  2. Progesterone-associated proteins PP12 and PP14 in the human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutanen, E M; Koistinen, R; Seppälä, M; Julkunen, M; Suikkari, A M; Huhtala, M L

    1987-01-01

    Two proteins, designated as PP12 and PP14 were originally isolated from soluble extracts of the human placenta and its adjacent membranes. We have shown that they are synthesized by decidualized/secretory endometrium and not by placenta. Both proteins occur at high concentrations in human amniotic fluid, which is therefore an excellent source for purification. PP12 is a 34-kDa glycoprotein, which has an N-terminal amino acid sequence of Ala-Pro-Trp-Gln-Cys-Ala-Pro-Cys-Ser-Ala. This is identical with that of somatomedin-binding protein purified from the amniotic fluid. PP12 too binds somatomedin-C, or IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I). Human secretory endometrium synthesizes and secretes PP12, and progesterone stimulates its secretion. PP14 is a 28-kDa glycoprotein. Its N-terminal sequence shows homology to that of beta-lactoglobulins from various species. We have found PP14 in the human endometrium, serum and milk. Immunologically, PP14 is related to progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PEP), alpha-2 pregnancy-associated endometrial protein (alpha-2, PEG), endometrial protein 15 (EP15), alpha-uterine protein (AUP) and chorionic alpha-2 microglobulin (CAG-2). In ovulatory menstrual cycles, the concentration of PP14 increases in endometrial tissue as the secretory changes advance. In serum, the PP14 concentration begins to rise later than the progesterone levels, and high serum PP14 levels are maintained for the first days of the next cycle. By contrast, no elevation of serum PP14 level is seen in anovulatory cycles. Our results show that progesterone-associated proteins are synthesized by the human endometrium and appear in the peripheral circulation, where they can be quantitatively measured using immunochemical techniques.

  3. Progesterone increases nitric oxide synthesis in human vascular endothelial cells through activation of membrane progesterone receptor-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing; Thomas, Peter

    2015-05-15

    Progesterone exerts beneficial effects on the human cardiovascular system by inducing rapid increases in nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelial cells, but the receptors mediating these nongenomic progesterone actions remain unclear. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model, we show that progesterone binds to plasma membranes of HUVECs with the characteristics of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs). The selective mPR agonist Org OD 02-0 had high binding affinity for the progesterone receptor on HUVEC membranes, whereas nuclear PR (nPR) agonists R5020 and medroxyprogesterone acetate displayed low binding affinities. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses confirmed that mPRs are expressed in HUVECs and are localized on their plasma membranes. NO levels increased rapidly after treatment with 20 nM progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and a progesterone-BSA conjugate but not with R5020, suggesting that this progesterone action is at the cell surface and initiated through mPRs. Progesterone and Org OD 02-0 (20 nM) also significantly increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and eNOS phosphorylation. Knockdown of mPRα expression by treatment with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked the stimulatory effects of 20 nM progesterone on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of nPR was ineffective. Treatment with PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase inhibitors blocked the stimulatory effects of progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and progesterone-BSA on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and also prevented progesterone- and Org OD 02-0-induced increases in Akt and ERK phosphorylation. The results suggest that progesterone stimulation of NO production in HUVECs is mediated by mPRα and involves signaling through PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. GATA4 and GATA6 Knockdown During Luteinization Inhibits Progesterone Production and Gonadotropin Responsiveness in the Corpus Luteum of Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convissar, Scott M; Bennett, Jill; Baumgarten, Sarah C; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco J; Stocco, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The surge of luteinizing hormone triggers the genomic reprogramming, cell differentiation, and tissue remodeling of the ovulated follicle, leading to the formation of the corpus luteum. During this process, called luteinization, follicular granulosa cells begin expressing a new set of genes that allow the resulting luteal cells to survive in a vastly different hormonal environment and to produce the extremely high amounts of progesterone (P4) needed to sustain pregnancy. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of luteal P4 production in vivo, the transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6 were knocked down in the corpus luteum by crossing mice carrying Gata4 and Gata6 floxed genes with mice carrying Cre recombinase fused to the progesterone receptor. This receptor is expressed exclusively in granulosa cells after the luteinizing hormone surge, leading to recombination of floxed genes during follicle luteinization. The findings demonstrated that GATA4 and GATA6 are essential for female fertility, whereas targeting either factor alone causes subfertility. When compared to control mice, serum P4 levels and luteal expression of key steroidogenic genes were significantly lower in conditional knockdown mice. The results also showed that GATA4 and GATA6 are required for the expression of the receptors for prolactin and luteinizing hormone, the main luteotropic hormones in mice. The findings demonstrate that GATA4 and GATA6 are crucial regulators of luteal steroidogenesis and are required for the normal response of luteal cells to luteotropins. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  5. Progesterone reduces erectile dysfunction in sleep-deprived spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufik Sergio

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD associated with cocaine has been shown to enhance genital reflexes (penile erection-PE and ejaculation-EJ in Wistar rats. Since hypertension predisposes males to erectile dysfunction, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PSD on genital reflexes in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR compared to the Wistar strain. We also extended our study to examine how PSD affect steroid hormone concentrations involved in genital events in both experimental models. Methods The first experiment investigated the effects of PSD on genital reflexes of Wistar and SHR rats challenged by saline and cocaine (n = 10/group. To further examine the impact of the PSD on concentrations of sexual hormones, we performed a hormonal analysis of testosterone and progesterone in the Wistar and in SHR strains. Since after PSD progesterone concentrations decreased in the SHR compared to the Wistar PSD group we extended our study by investigating whether progesterone (25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg or testosterone (0.5 mg/kg or 1.0 mg/kg administration during PSD would have a facilitator effect on the occurrence of genital reflexes in this hypertensive strain. Results A 4-day period of PSD induced PE in 50% of the Wistar rats against 10% for the SHR. These genital reflexes was potentiated by cocaine in Wistar rats whereas this scenario did not promote significant enhancement in PE and EJ in hypertensive rats, and the percentage of SHR displaying genital reflexes still figured significantly lower than that of the Wistar strain. As for hormone concentrations, both sleep-deprived Wistar and SHR showed lower testosterone concentrations than their respective controls. Sleep deprivation promoted an increase in concentrations of progesterone in Wistar rats, whereas no significant alterations were found after PSD in the SHR strain, which did not present enhancement in erectile responses. In order to explore the role

  6. 125I-labeled radioimmunoassay kits for progesterone evaluated for use in an in vitro fertilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blight, L.F.; White, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    We have evaluated two commercially available 125 I radioimmunoassay kits (Diagnostic Products Corp., DPC; and Radioassay Systems Laboratories, RSL) for measurement of serum or plasma progesterone, to determine their suitability for use in in vitro fertilization programs. Both kits were suitably rapid for program requirements. Results by both were linear with concentration up to 60 nmol/L, and both had acceptable lower detection limits of 0.3 nmol/L. Kit-determined progesterone concentrations (y) for 100 patients' samples correlated well with results by our existing 3H radioimmunoassay method (y . 1.11x + 0.2, r . 0.965 for the DPC kit; y . 1.01x + 1.4, r . 0.974 for the RSL kit). Mean analytical recovery for the RSL kit was 116%, that for the DPC kit, 202%. Within-batch precision, expressed as the mean CV for three concentrations of progesterone, was 6.5% for the RSL kit, and 16.4% for the DPC kit; between-day CV was 8.1% for the RSL kit, 17.7% for the DPC kit. We conclude that the RSL kit provides a rapid, precise, and accurate assay for serum progesterone, suitable for use in a fertilization program, but do not recommend the DPC kit for either this purpose or the more general purpose of tracking menstrual cycles

  7. Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: A round-robin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Peyton; Holiday, David B.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Doig, Mira V.; Feyerabend, Colin; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Sharifi, Mehran; Kellogg, Mark D.; Langman, Loralie J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Cotinine, the primary proximate metabolite of nicotine, is commonly measured as an index of exposure to tobacco in both active users of tobacco and nonsmokers with possible exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A number of laboratories have implemented analyses for measuring serum cotinine in recent years, but there have been few interlaboratory comparisons of the results. Among nonsmokers exposed to SHS, the concentration of cotinine in blood can be quite low, and extensive variability in these measurements has been reported in the past. Methods: In this study, a group of seven laboratories, all experienced in serum cotinine analysis, measured eight coded serum pools with concentrations ranging from background levels of about 0.05 ng/ml to relatively high concentrations in the active smokers range. All laboratories used either gas–liquid chromatography with nitrogen–phosphorus detection or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Results: All seven laboratories reliably measured the cotinine concentrations in samples that were within the range of their methods. In each case, the results for the pools were correctly ranked in order, and no significant interlaboratory bias was observed at the 5% level of significance for results from any of the pools. Discussion: We conclude that present methods of chromatographic analysis of serum cotinine, as used by these experienced laboratories, are capable of providing accurate and precise results in both the smoker and the nonsmoker concentration range. PMID:19933777

  8. Decreased mechanical properties of heart valve tissue constructs cultured in platelet lysate as compared to fetal bovine serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geemen, van D.; Riem Vis, P.W.; Soekhradj - Soechit, R.S.; Sluijter, J.P.G.; Liefde - van Beest, de M.; Kluin, J.; Bouten, C.V.C.

    2011-01-01

    In autologous heart valve tissue engineering, there is an ongoing search for alternatives of fetal bovine serum (FBS). Human platelet-lysate (PL) might be a promising substitute. In the present article, we aimed to examine the tissue formation, functionality, and mechanical properties of engineered

  9. Location and characterization of the warfarin binding site of human serum albumin A comparative study of two large fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, O.J.M.; Remijn, J.P.M.; Fischer, M.J.E.; Wilting, J.; Janssen, L.H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The warfarin binding behaviour of a large tryptic fragment (residues 198–585 which comprise domains two and three) and of a large peptic fragment (residues 1–387 which comprise domains one and two) of human serum albumin has been studied by circular dichroism and equilibrium dialysis in order to

  10. Progesterone and women's anxiety across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tania A; Makhanova, Anastasia; Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Jasienska, Grazyna; McNulty, James K; Eckel, Lisa A; Nikonova, Larissa; Maner, Jon K

    2018-04-24

    Animal models and a few human investigations suggest progesterone may be associated with anxiety. Progesterone naturally fluctuates across the menstrual cycle, offering an opportunity to understand how within-person increases in progesterone and average progesterone levels across the cycle correspond to women's anxiety. Across two longitudinal studies, we simultaneously modeled the between- and within-person associations between progesterone and anxiety using multilevel modeling. In Study 1, 100 Polish women provided saliva samples and reported their anxiety at three phases of the menstrual cycle: follicular, peri-ovulatory, and luteal. A significant between-person effect emerged, revealing that women with higher average progesterone levels across their cycles reported higher levels of anxiety than women with lower progesterone cycles. This effect held controlling for estradiol. In Study 2, 61 American women provided saliva samples and reported their attachment anxiety during laboratory sessions during the same three cycle phases. A significant between-person and within-person association emerged: women with higher average progesterone levels reported higher levels of attachment anxiety, and as women's progesterone levels increased across their cycles, so too did their attachment anxiety. These effects held controlling for cortisol. In sum, both studies provide support for a link between menstrual cycle progesterone levels and subjective anxiety. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Progesterone receptor modulators in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    WIEHLE, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has been treated successfully with selective estrogen receptor antagonists (SERMs) such as tamoxifen, receptor-depleting agents such as fulvestrant, and aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs or PRMs) have not been studied as much and are currently under investigation for inhibition of mammary carcinogenesis in animal models and breast cancer prevention trials in women. They might follow tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors in t...

  12. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.F. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Couto-Pereira, N.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Bioquímica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Freese, L.; Costa, P.A.; Caletti, G.; Bisognin, K.M. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nin, M.S. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Porto Alegre, Centro Metodista do Sul, Curso de Farmácia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Curso de Farmácia, Centro Metodista do Sul, Instituto Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gomez, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Farmacologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Barros, H.M.T. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse.

  13. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J.C.; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders. PMID:22110394

  14. Progesterone induces mucosal immunity in a rodent model of human taeniosis by Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J C; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders.

  15. Evaluation of oestrus observation and conception rates in suckling beef cows using whole milk progesterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Lourens

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2-sample regime was used to measure whole milk progesterone concentration on the day of oestrus and insemination (Day 0 and 6 days later (Day 6 in a sample of 50 primiparous and 100 multiparous suckling beef cows. Exposure to teaser bulls and observation by cattlemen identified the occurrence of oestrus. Three sets of criteria used to define ovulatory oestrus were compared : a milk progesterone concentration less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 ; b milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6; c milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6, or cow diagnosed pregnant to 1st insemination. Using only a single milk sample on Day 0 (criterion a would have resulted in the positive predictive value of heat detection being estimated at 98.7%. Using a paired measurement (criterion b resulted in a significantly lower estimate of 84.7%. The inclusion of cows that conceived despite not showing a marked rise in milk progesterone concentration (criterion c resulted in a more accurate estimate of 89.3%. Use of a 2-sample regime also allowed calculation of conception rates while eliminating the effect of heat detection errors. In the cows sampled, of those in ovulatory oestrus that were inseminated, 73.1% conceived to the 1st insemination. These results demonstrate that artificial insemination within a limited breeding season can be successful if nutrition is optimal and management is intensive. The use of a 2-sample milk progesterone test may be a valuable tool in investigating heat detection and conception problems in beef herds in which artificial insemination is used.

  16. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.F.; Couto-Pereira, N.S.; Freese, L.; Costa, P.A.; Caletti, G.; Bisognin, K.M.; Nin, M.S.; Gomez, R.; Barros, H.M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse

  17. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL, estradiol (0.05 mg/mL, progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse.

  18. Progesterone to prevent spontaneous preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the ‘great obstetrical syndromes’ and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can be manifested by a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45%, and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth birth in women with a short cervix both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687

  19. Estrogen, Progesterone and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Shuk-Mei

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian carcinoma (OCa continues to be the leading cause of death due to gynecologic malignancies and the vast majority of OCa is derived from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE and its cystic derivatives. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that steroid hormones, primarily estrogens and progesterone, are implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, it has proved difficult to fully understand their mechanisms of action on the tumorigenic process. New convincing data have indicated that estrogens favor neoplastic transformation of the OSE while progesterone offers protection against OCa development. Specifically, estrogens, particularly those present in ovulatory follicles, are both genotoxic and mitogenic to OSE cells. In contrast, pregnancy-equivalent levels progesterone are highly effective as apoptosis inducers for OSE and OCa cells. In this regard, high-dose progestin may exert an exfoliation effect and rid an aged OSE of pre-malignant cells. A limited number of clinical studies has demonstrated efficacies of antiestrogens, aromatase inhibitors, and progestins alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of OCa. As a result of increased life expectancy in most countries, the number of women taking hormone replacement therapies (HRT continues to grow. Thus, knowledge of the mechanism of action of steroid hormones on the OSE and OCa is of paramount significance to HRT risk assessment and to the development of novel therapies for the prevention and treatment of OCa.

  20. Preliminary characterizations of a serum biomarker for sarcoidosis by comparative proteomic approach with tandem-mass spectrometry in ethnic Han Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Xianqiu; Hu, Yang; Du, Shanshan; Shen, Li; He, Yifan; Zhang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Xia; Li, Huiping; Yung, Rex C

    2013-02-11

    The diagnosis of sarcoidosis is still a significant challenge in China because of the need to exclude other diseases including granulomatous infections and malignancies that may be clinically and radiographically similar. The specific aim of the study is to search for serum protein biomarkers of sarcoidosis and to validate their clinical usefulness in differential diagnosis. Serum samples were collected from patients with sarcoidosis (n = 37), and compared to those from patients with tuberculosis (n = 20), other pulmonary diseases (n = 20), and healthy volunteers (n = 20) for determination of sarcoidosis-specific or -associated protein expression profiles. The first part of this study focused on proteomic analysis of serum from patients with sarcoidosis to identify a pattern of peptides capable of differentiating the studied populations using the ClinProt profiling technology based on mass spectrometry. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was then used to verify corresponding elevation of the serum protein concentration of the potential biomarkers in the same patients sets. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses was performed to determine the optimal cutoff value for diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to further confirm the protein expression patterns of the biomarkers in lung tissue. An unique protein peak of M/Z 3,210 Daltons (Da) was found to be differentially expressed between the sarcoidosis and control groups and was identified as the N-terminal peptide of 29 amino acids (94-122) of serum amyloid A (SAA). ELISA confirmed that the serum SAA level was significantly higher in the sarcoidosis group than that of the other 3 control groups (p biomarker for ruling-out the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in Chinese subjects.

  1. Parturition induction in ewes by a progesterone receptor blocker, aglepristone, and subsequent neonatal survival: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özalp, R G; Yavuz, A; Orman, A; Seker, I; Udum Küçükşen, D; Rişvanlı, A; Demiral, Ö O; Wehrend, A

    2017-01-01

    The clinical effects of aglepristone treatment to induce parturition in ewes and their newborns were reported. Three experimental groups were defined: group AG5 (n = 5), group AG10 (n = 5), and group CG (n = 5) in which ewes were injected twice with 5, 10 mg/kg of aglepristone, and saline solution of ewes, respectively. Different parameters associated with parturition in ewes and their newborns were investigated. Serum progesterone, oxytocin, and free and conjugated total estrogens were measured after treatments until parturition. No statistical difference was found from first aglepristone administration to onset of lambing between AG5 and AG10 (23.90 ± 6.20, 40.00 ± 6.71 hours). Parturition induction in two groups shortened the gestational length significantly compared with the control group (P = 0.003). Dystocia was observed in two ewes in group AG10. The placental weight showed statistically significant difference only between the AG10 and CG (P = 0.039), but no difference was observed in the placental expulsion period between the groups. Decrease in food consumption 24 to 36 hours after parturition in all ewes and skin necrosis in an ewe in group AG5 were observed. Progesterone concentration was significantly lower in AG5 than that in ewes in group AG10 and CG (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in concentrations of free total estrogens and oxytocin between groups. The body temperature of lambs was significantly different between AG10 and CG groups both right after (P = 0.011) and 12 hours after parturition (P = 0.014). The lambs in CG had the highest mean birth weight (4.29 ± 0.28 kg), which was significantly different from the induced groups. No significant difference of blood pH and blood gases values between groups was identified both at birth and 12 hours after parturition for lambs. Significant differences could clearly be observed in total protein and blood urea nitrogen and total protein findings 12 hours after parturition

  2. The Effect of Progesterone on Lipid Peroxidation and in Rat Alzheimer Model by Local Injection of Streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mozafari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most prevalent brain neurodegenerative diseases and the most common cognitive deficits are memory dysfunction and spatial perception impairment. Progesterone has a neorostroid action in hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic stability and spatial learning and memory and has antioxidant effect. Since oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and conflicting results were reported about the effects of progesterone on therefore in Alzheimer’s, the present study investigated the effect of microinjection of three doses of progesterone on the process of spatial memory and lipid peroxidation and total peroxidation in the hippocampus in the experimental model of AD. Methods: 42 adult male Wistar rats weighting 250±50 g were randomly divided into six main groups (n=7: control group, sham group, Alzheimer’s model (intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin, Alzheimer model + progesterone (0.5, 1.5, 2µg/kg. 2 weeks after injection of streptozotocin (3 mg/kg, Alzheimer's was induced then progesterone injected in different doses. After termination of behavioral testing days, the hippocampus was removed to measure the levels of oxidative stress parameter to measure levels of oxidative stress parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Results showed that intraventricular injection of STZ decreased spatial memory in comparison to control group (P<0.001. Administration progesterone significantly improved spatial memory in experimental models of Alzheimer's rats (P<0.001. MDA and SOD in all doses of progesterone showed a significant reduction compared to the AD animals (P<0.001. Conclusion: Progesterone can prevent a decrease in spatial learning and memory by reducing oxidative stress in the hippocampus of rats with Alzheimer's.

  3. New RIA kit for determination of progesterone in cow milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byszewska-Szpocinska, E.; Markiewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The determination of progesterone concentration in whole and fat-free milk 19-24 days after conception enables to distinguish fertile and non-fertile insemination, which is important in cattle breeding. The aim of this work was to develop a simple and quick radioimmunoassay test for the determination of progesterone in cow milk. Two types of solid-phase tubes coated with specific polyclonal anti-progesterone antibody from ORION Diagnostica and BIOSOURCE International, two different progesterone derivatives viz. progesterone-3- carboxymethyl oxime (CMO) and progesterone-11α-hemisuccinate (HS) conjugated to 125 I-histamine and the HPLC system with Lichrospher RP-18 column along with 65% acetonitrile/water as eluent to purify the tracers were used to carry out this work. Progesterone-3CMO- 125 I-histamine had a retention time of 13.2 min and progesterone-11α-hemisuccinate- 125 I-histamine had a retention time of 7.8 min. Two kinds of kits (kit I and kit II) were prepared, first with progesterone-3CMO- 125 I-histamine as the tracer and coated tubes from Progesterone Veterinary RIA kit of ORION Diagnostica and the second with progesterone-11αHS- 125 I-histamine as the tracer and coated tubes from Progesterone Veterinary RIA kit from BIOSOURCE International. Progesterone from Sigma and selected fat-free cow's milk without progesterone as zero progesterone milk matrix were used for standard preparation. The optimal assay procedure was as follows: 50μL standards, controls and fat-free milk samples were pipetted into coated tubes followed by addition of 500μL of diluted tracer. The tubes were incubated for 2h in case of kit I and 3h for kit II at RT. After the incubation, the tubes were decanted and counted. The assay range was 0 to 270 nmol/L for kit I and 0 to 300 nmol/L for kit II. The sensitivity of the kit with ORION coated tubes was better (0.8 nmol/L) than that of BIOSOURCE tubes which was 1.5 nmol/L. Validation of these assays in terms of specificity, accuracy

  4. Inhibition of progesterone metabolism mimics the effect of progesterone withdrawal on forced swim test immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Ethan H; Finn, Deborah A

    2007-10-01

    Withdrawal from high levels of progesterone in rodents has been proposed as a model for premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. Forced swim test (FST) immobility, used to model depression, was assessed in intact female DBA/2J mice following progesterone withdrawal (PWD) or treatment with the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Following 5 daily progesterone injections (5 mg/kg IP) FST immobility increased only in mice withdrawn for 3 days (pimmobility. PWD and finasteride treatment, both of which reduce allopregnanolone levels, were associated with increased FST immobility in female DBA/2J mice. These findings suggest that decreased levels of the GABAergic neurosteroid allopregnanolone contribute to symptoms of PWD. Future studies of PWD may provide information about human conditions that are associated with hormone changes such as premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression.

  5. Comparative study on 3 imaging techniques and serum marker CA15-3 in diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahng Shiqin; Hu Xin; Li Hong'e; Yan Huaixin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of detecting breast cancer with 3 imaging techniques(Ultrasound, Full-field digital mammography, Magnetic resonance imagery) and serum marker CA15-3. Methods: Sixty-six pathologically proven patients with breast cancer were examined with Ultrasound before operation, 58 cases were examined with Full-field digital mammography, 30 cases were examined by Magnetic resonance imagery, the serum marker CA15-3 was detected with CLIA in 58 cases. Results: The accurate rates of US, MO and MRI for diagnosis of breast cancer were respectively significantly higher than that of CA15-3(P 0.05) (the accuracy of US was 86.4%, the accuracy of MO was 93.2%, the accuracy of MRI was 96.7%). Conclusion: Ultrasonography,due to its reasonably good accuracy with very low cost, might be selected as the first choice of non-invasive diagnosis of breast cancer. (authors)

  6. Childhood conditions influence adult progesterone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Núñez-de la Mora

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Average profiles of salivary progesterone in women vary significantly at the inter- and intrapopulation level as a function of age and acute energetic conditions related to energy intake, energy expenditure, or a combination of both. In addition to acute stressors, baseline progesterone levels differ among populations. The causes of such chronic differences are not well understood, but it has been hypothesised that they may result from varying tempos of growth and maturation and, by implication, from diverse environmental conditions encountered during childhood and adolescence.To test this hypothesis, we conducted a migrant study among first- and second-generation Bangladeshi women aged 19-39 who migrated to London, UK at different points in the life-course, women still resident in Bangladesh, and women of European descent living in neighbourhoods similar to those of the migrants in London (total n = 227. Data collected included saliva samples for radioimmunoassay of progesterone, anthropometrics, and information from questionnaires on diet, lifestyle, and health. Results from multiple linear regression, controlled for anthropometric and reproductive variables, show that women who spend their childhood in conditions of low energy expenditure, stable energy intake, good sanitation, low immune challenges, and good health care in the UK have up to 103% higher levels of salivary progesterone and an earlier maturation than women who develop in less optimal conditions in Sylhet, Bangladesh (F9,178 = 5.05, p < 0.001, standard error of the mean = 0.32; adjusted R(2 = 0.16. Our results point to the period prior to puberty as a sensitive phase when changes in environmental conditions positively impact developmental tempos such as menarcheal age (F2,81 = 3.21, p = 0.03 and patterns of ovarian function as measured using salivary progesterone (F2,81 = 3.14, p = 0.04.This research demonstrates that human females use an extended period of the life cycle prior

  7. The PROGINS polymorphism of the human progesterone receptor diminishes the response to progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Andrea; Delvoux, Bert; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Groothuis, Patrick

    2007-02-01

    The human progesterone receptor (PR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor and two isoforms, (PRA and PRB), can be distinguished. PROGINS, a PR polymorphic variant, affects PRA and PRB and acts as a risk-modulating factor in several gynaecological disorders. Little is known about the functional consequences of this variant. Here, we characterise the properties of PROGINS with respect to transcription, mRNA maturation, protein activity and proliferation. PROGINS is characterised by a 320 bp PV/HS-1 Alu insertion in intron G and two point mutations, V660L in exon 4 and H770H (silent substitution) in exon 5. The Alu element contains a half oestrogen-response element/Sp1-binding site (Alu-ERE/Sp1), which acts as an in-cis intronic enhancer leading to increased transcription of the PROGINS allele in response to 17beta-oestradiol. Moreover, Alu insertions in the human genome are frequently methylated. Our data indicate that the PROGINS-Alu does not affect gene transcription due to DNA methylation. However, the Alu element reduced the stability of the PROGINS transcript compared with the CP allele and does not generate splice variants. The amino acid substitution (V600L) in exon 4 leads to differences in PR phosphorylation and degradation in the two PR variants upon ligand binding, most likely as a result of differences in the three-dimensional structures of the two PR variants. As a consequence, the PR-L660 (PROGINS) variant (1) displays decreased transactivation activity in a luciferase reporter system and (2) is less efficient in opposing cell proliferation in hamster ovarian cells expressing human PRA, when compared with the PR-V660 (most common variant). Taken together, our results indicate that the PROGINS variant of PR is less responsive to progestin compared with the most common PR because of (i) reduced amounts of gene transcript and (ii) decreased protein activity.

  8. Comparative kinetics of serum and vitreous humor digoxin concentrations in a guinea pig model. Part I: Intravenous administration of digoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, B.; Balkon, J.; Bidanset, J.H.; Belmonte, A.; Barletta, M.; Manning, T. (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, St. John' s University, Jamaica, NY (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous dose of digoxin in the guinea pig was investigated with emphasis on the penetration of digoxin into the vitreous humor. A controlled study was undertaken and data was collected which indicated that digoxin follows an open, two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with a terminal half-life of 318 minutes. The data indicated that the ratio of vitreous concentrations to serum concentrations were determined to be equal following an initial tissue distribution phase.

  9. Comparative kinetics of serum and vitreous humor digoxin concentrations in a guinea pig model. Part I: Intravenous administration of digoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, B.; Balkon, J.; Bidanset, J.H.; Belmonte, A.; Barletta, M.; Manning, T.

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous dose of digoxin in the guinea pig was investigated with emphasis on the penetration of digoxin into the vitreous humor. A controlled study was undertaken and data was collected which indicated that digoxin follows an open, two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with a terminal half-life of 318 minutes. The data indicated that the ratio of vitreous concentrations to serum concentrations were determined to be equal following an initial tissue distribution phase

  10. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Kim, Hyung-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Background ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. Methods In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to...

  11. Autoimmune Progesterone Dermatitis Presenting as Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayer, Sara M; Laufer, Larry R; Farrell, Maureen E

    2017-10-01

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis is an uncommon disease presenting with cyclical skin eruptions corresponding with the menstrual cycle luteal phase. Because symptoms are precipitated by rising progesterone levels, treatment relies on hormone suppression. A 22-year-old nulligravid woman presented with symptoms mistaken for Stevens-Johnson syndrome. A cyclic recurrence of her symptoms was noted, and the diagnosis of autoimmune progesterone dermatitis was made by an intradermal progesterone challenge. After 48 months, she remained refractory to medical management and definitive surgical treatment with bilateral oophorectomy was performed. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis is a challenging diagnosis owing to its rarity and variety of clinical presentations. Treatment centers on suppression of endogenous progesterone and avoidance of exogenous triggers. When these modalities fail, surgical management must be undertaken.

  12. Effect of Oestrogen on Altering the Serum and Urinary Levels of Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium in Hysterectomised Women Compared to Natural Menopausal South Indian Women: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonu, Yeldose; Avinash, S S; Sreekantha; Arun Kumar, K; Malathi, M; Shivashankara, A R

    2016-07-01

    Given the paucity of studies conducted to know the effect of suddenness and earlier onset of endocrinological changes associated with hysterectomy, on the serum and urinary levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate the present study was conducted to compare the levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate in serum and urine of hysterectomised and natural menopausal south Indian women. This is a cross-sectional observational study. The study included three groups of 30 healthy premenopausal, 30 early surgical menopausal and 30 natural post menopausal women. Women suffering from any endocrine disease were excluded. Analysis was performed in serum and urine sample. The levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate in serum and calcium/creatinine, magnesium/creatinine and phosphate/creatinine ratio were estimated in urine by spectrophotometric method. Hysterectomised women (serum calcium: 8.7 ± 0.09 mg/dl; urine calcium/creatinine: 0.16 ± 0.02) have significantly low serum calcium (p women (serum magnesium: 2.1 ± 0.03; serum phosphate: 4.4 ± 0.16; urinary calcium/creatinine: 0.17 ± 0.02; urinary magnesium/creatinine: 0.09 ± 0.01) have significantly high serum magnesium (p = 0.016), serum phosphate (p = 0.043) and high urinary calcium/creatinine (p = 0.002), magnesium/creatinine ratio (p = 0.025) compared to healthy pre menopausal women. Post menopausal women (serum calcium: 9.1 ± 0.08) have significantly high serum calcium and phosphate compared to hysterectomised women (serum phosphate: 3.93 ± 0.11). Hysterectomised women have significantly low serum calcium, oestrogen and high urinary calcium/creatinine ratio compared to healthy premenopausal women and low serum calcium and low serum phosphate compared to natural postmenopausal women. Natural postmenopausal women had low serum oestrogen and high serum magnesium, serum phosphate, urinary calcium creatinine ratio and urinary magnesium creatinine ratio compared to healthy premenopausal

  13. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis: origins, consequences and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bansari G; Rudnicki, Martin; Yu, Jie; Shu, Yimin; Taylor, Robert N

    2017-06-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Aberrant progesterone signaling in the endometrium plays a significant role in impaired decidualization and establishment of ectopic endometrial implants. Eutopic endometrial cells from women with endometriosis fail to downregulate genes needed for decidualization, such as those involved in cell cycle regulation, leading to unbridled proliferation. Several causes of progesterone resistance in the endometrium have been postulated, including congenital "preconditioning", whereby the in utero environment renders infants susceptible to neonatal uterine bleeding and endometriosis. Progesterone action is crucial to decreasing inflammation in the endometrium, and deviant progesterone signaling results in a proinflammatory phenotype. Conversely, chronic inflammation can induce a progesterone-resistant state. Repetitive retrograde endometrial shedding begets chronic peritoneal inflammation, which further exacerbates progesterone resistance. Genetic causes of progesterone resistance include progesterone receptor gene polymorphisms, altered microRNA expression, and epigenetic modifications to progesterone receptors and their targets. Environmental toxins such as dioxin play a possible role in the genesis of endometriosis by permitting an inflammatory milieu. A consequence of impaired progesterone action is that hormonal therapy is rendered ineffective for a subset of women with endometriosis. Synthetic progestins, such as dienogest, may overcome this phenomenon by increasing progesterone receptor expression and decreasing proinflammatory cytokines. Other modalities include high dose depot formulations of progestins, medicated intrauterine devices and the likely advent of oral GnRH antagonists. Unearthing root causes of progesterone inaction in endometriosis will aid in the development of novel therapeutics geared toward prevention and treatment. © 2017 Nordic Federation of

  14. Relationship of oestrus synchronization method, circulating hormones, luteinizing hormone and prostaglandin F-2 alpha receptors and luteal progesterone concentration to premature luteal regression in superovulated sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiewe, M C; Fitz, T A; Brown, J L; Stuart, L D; Wildt, D E

    1991-09-01

    Ewes were treated with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and oestrus was synchronized using either a dual prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF-2 alpha) injection regimen or pessaries impregnated with medroxy progesterone acetate (MAP). Natural cycling ewes served as controls. After oestrus or AI (Day 0), corpora lutea (CL) were enucleated surgically from the left and right ovaries on Days 3 and 6, respectively. The incidence of premature luteolysis was related (P less than 0.05) to PGF-2 alpha treatment and occurred in 7 of 8 ewes compared with 0 of 4 controls and 1 of 8 MAP-exposed females. Sheep with regressing CL had lower circulating and intraluteal progesterone concentrations and fewer total and small dissociated luteal cells on Day 3 than gonadotrophin-treated counterparts with normal CL. Progesterone concentration in the serum and luteal tissue was higher (P less than 0.05) in gonadotrophin-treated ewes with normal CL than in the controls; but luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors/cell were not different on Days 3 and 6. There were no apparent differences in the temporal patterns of circulating oestradiol-17 beta, FSH and LH. High progesterone in gonadotrophin-treated ewes with normal CL coincided with an increase in total luteal mass and numbers of cells, which were primarily reflected in more small luteal cells than in control ewes. Gonadotrophin-treated ewes with regressing CL on Day 3 tended (P less than 0.10) to have fewer small luteal cells and fewer (P less than 0.05) low-affinity PGF-2 alpha binding sites than sheep with normal CL. By Day 6, luteal integrity and cell viability was absent in ewes with prematurely regressed CL. These data demonstrate that (i) the incidence of premature luteal regression is highly correlated with the use of PGF-2 alpha; (ii) this abnormal luteal tissue is functionally competent for 2-3 days after ovulation, but deteriorates rapidly thereafter and (iii) luteal-dysfunctioning ewes experience a reduction in numbers of

  15. Increased Circulating Level of the Survival Factor GP88 (Progranulin in the Serum of Breast Cancer Patients When Compared to Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rak Tkaczuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction GP88 (PC-Cell Derived Growth Factor, progranulin is a glycoprotein overexpressed in breast tumors and involved in their proliferation and survival. Since GP88 is secreted, an exploratory study was established to compare serum GP88 level between breast cancer patients (BC and healthy volunteers (HV. Methods An IRB approved prospective study enrolled 189 stage 1–4 BC patients and 18 HV. GP88 serum concentration was determined by immunoassay. Results Serum GP88 level was 28.7+ 5.8 ng/ml in HV and increased to 40.7+ 16.0 ng/ml ( P = 0.007 for stage 1-3 and 45.3 +23.3 ng/ml ( P = 0.0007 for stage 4 BC patients. There was no correlation between the GP88 level and BC characteristics such as age, race, tumor grade, ER, PR and HER-2 expression. Conclusion These data suggest that serial testing of serum GP88 levels may have value as a circulating biomarker for detection, monitoring and follow up of BC.

  16. Plasma levels of progesterone in cycling and pregnant ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.P.; Rao, P.N.; Reddy, B.B.; Murthy, A.S.N.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma progesterone profile of six cycling and three pregnant Nellore ewes was estimated by radioimmunoassay. The progesterone level of cycling ewes started rising from undetectable level on the day of oestrus to a mean peak value of 0.41 ± 0.09ng/ml during post oestrus day 10 to 14 and then declined to undetectable levels 1 to 2 days before subsequent oestrus. But the progesterone levels of pregnant ewes exhibited further raise from the post oestrus day 14 to the day 40. However, no correlation between oestrous cycle length and the total progesterone produced during the oestrous cycle was observed. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs

  17. Effects of progesterone and its metabolites on human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowski, D; Gong, Y; Mairhofer, M; Gessele, R; Sator, M

    2014-02-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is under control of gonadotrophic hormones and produces progesterone, which is necessary for endometrial receptivity. Recent studies have shown that progesterone and its metabolites are involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells. Here weanalyzed the role of progesterone and its meta-bolites on luteinized granulosa cells (LGC) by FACS analysis and quantitative Real-Time PCR. We detected the mRNA of the progesterone metabolizing genes SRD5A1, AKR1C1, and AKR1C2 in LGC. The stimulation of LGC with progesterone or progesterone metabolites did not show any effect on the mRNA expression of these genes. However, a downregulation of Fas expression was found to be accomplished by progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin. Our findings do not support the concept of an effect of progesterone metabolites on LGCs. However, it suggests an antiapoptotic effect of hCG and progesterone during corpus luteum development by downregulation of Fas. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Comparative study of the second antibody for radioimmunoassay totally produced in the country to a similar imported one (sheep serum anti-rabbit IgG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.R. da; Borghi, V.C.; Wajchenberg, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    This work compares a second antibody for radioimmunoassay (RIA) produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP with a commercial one of known quality, produced by Radioassay Systems Laboratories, U.S.A.. This antiserum, sheep serum anti-rabbit IgG produced in its totality in the country, presented title and precipitation characteristics similar to those exhibited by the commercial product, being as suitable for the RIA separation as its imported similar. (author)

  19. Preparation and characterization of 125I labeled progesterone derivatives for the development of a radioimmunoassay for progesterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, K.; Pillai, M.R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Preparation and purification of radioiodinated progesterone derivatives for the development of a radioimmunoassay of progesterone is described. Two procedures have been standardized for preparing radioiodinated progesterone conjugate. In the first procedure 125 I labeled histamine was conjugated to progesterone 11 α hemisuccinate by the mixed anhydride method. In the second procedure, tyrosyl methyl ester was conjugated to progesterone 11 α hemisuccinate and iodination of the conjugate was carried out. Purification of the iodinated products was carried out by solvent extraction and thin layer chromatography techniques. The radiochemical purity of the tracers prepared by both methods were more than 95%. Labeled progesterone derivatives prepared were used for developing a radioimmunoassay procedure. The non-specific binding of the tracer was about 2-3%, while up to 80% binding could be obtained in the presence of excess antibody. The radioiodinated tracer could be used up to four months in the assay. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. Progesterone impairs antigen-non-specific immune protection by CD8 T memory cells via interferon-γ gene hypermethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yushi; Li, Hui; Ding, Jie; Xia, Yixin; Wang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Pregnant women and animals have increased susceptibility to a variety of intracellular pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes (LM), which has been associated with significantly increased level of sex hormones such as progesterone. CD8 T memory(Tm) cell-mediated antigen-non-specific IFN-γ responses are critically required in the host defense against LM. However, whether and how increased progesterone during pregnancy modulates CD8 Tm cell-mediated antigen-non-specific IFN-γ production and immune protection against LM remain poorly understood. Here we show in pregnant women that increased serum progesterone levels are associated with DNA hypermethylation of IFN-γ gene promoter region and decreased IFN-γ production in CD8 Tm cells upon antigen-non-specific stimulation ex vivo. Moreover, IFN-γ gene hypermethylation and significantly reduced IFN-γ production post LM infection in antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells are also observed in pregnant mice or progesterone treated non-pregnant female mice, which is a reversible phenotype following demethylation treatment. Importantly, antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells from progesterone treated mice have impaired anti-LM protection when adoptive transferred in either pregnant wild type mice or IFN-γ-deficient mice, and demethylation treatment rescues the adoptive protection of such CD8 Tm cells. These data demonstrate that increased progesterone impairs immune protective functions of antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells via inducing IFN-γ gene hypermethylation. Our findings thus provide insights into a new mechanism through which increased female sex hormone regulate CD8 Tm cell functions during pregnancy.

  1. Progesterone impairs antigen-non-specific immune protection by CD8 T memory cells via interferon-γ gene hypermethylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi Yao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women and animals have increased susceptibility to a variety of intracellular pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes (LM, which has been associated with significantly increased level of sex hormones such as progesterone. CD8 T memory(Tm cell-mediated antigen-non-specific IFN-γ responses are critically required in the host defense against LM. However, whether and how increased progesterone during pregnancy modulates CD8 Tm cell-mediated antigen-non-specific IFN-γ production and immune protection against LM remain poorly understood. Here we show in pregnant women that increased serum progesterone levels are associated with DNA hypermethylation of IFN-γ gene promoter region and decreased IFN-γ production in CD8 Tm cells upon antigen-non-specific stimulation ex vivo. Moreover, IFN-γ gene hypermethylation and significantly reduced IFN-γ production post LM infection in antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells are also observed in pregnant mice or progesterone treated non-pregnant female mice, which is a reversible phenotype following demethylation treatment. Importantly, antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells from progesterone treated mice have impaired anti-LM protection when adoptive transferred in either pregnant wild type mice or IFN-γ-deficient mice, and demethylation treatment rescues the adoptive protection of such CD8 Tm cells. These data demonstrate that increased progesterone impairs immune protective functions of antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells via inducing IFN-γ gene hypermethylation. Our findings thus provide insights into a new mechanism through which increased female sex hormone regulate CD8 Tm cell functions during pregnancy.

  2. Measurement of alpha-fetoprotein in maternal serum: three commercial radioimmunoassay kits and two non-commercial radioimmunoassays compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.C.; Verreault, F.; Pouliot, M.

    1982-01-01

    We evaluated three commercial radioimmunoassay kits (Amersham, Dainabot, Clinical Assays) and two non-commercial methods for determining alpha-fetoprotein in maternal serum during pregnancy. All five procedures were found to be acceptable with respect to practicability, sensitivity, linearity, and precision. Similar results were obtained with Dainabot, Clinical Assays, and the two non-commercial methods, but the Amersham method revealed a proportional error, results being about 20% lower than those by the other methods. Use of the international unit system is suggested for reporting results for AFP, to facilitate comparison between methods and laboratories

  3. Serum Leptin Measured in Early Pregnancy Is Higher in Women With Preeclampsia Compared With Normotensive Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Brandie; Ness, Roberta B; Olsen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, plays an important role in reproduction and angiogenesis. Studies examining leptin in preeclampsia are inconsistent, possibly because of small sample sizes and variability in sampling and outcome. We conducted a nested case-control study to examine associations...... between serum leptin (measured: 9-26 weeks gestation) and preeclampsia among 430 primiparous preeclamptic women and 316 primiparous normotensive controls from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Median (interquartile range) leptin concentrations were calculated. Associations between leptin and preeclampsia...... (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg), term preeclampsia (preeclampsia and delivery ≥37 weeks gestation), or preterm preeclampsia (preeclampsia and delivery

  4. Successful treatment of low-grade endometrial cancer in premenopausal women with an aromatase inhibitor after failure with oral or intrauterine progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Straubhar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young women with endometrial intraepithelial hyperplasia or low-grade endometrial carcinoma are potential candidates for conservative fertility sparing therapy utilizing progesterone rather than hysterectomy. High-dose progesterone treatment is associated with 55–80% initial response but high relapse rates. Using aromatase inhibitors in conjunction with high-dose progesterone has largely been unstudied. Case descriptions: Three obese premenopausal women with endometrial cancer failed to respond to oral or intrauterine progesterone as first line therapy. Due to their desire to continue to pursue fertility sparing treatment options, an aromatase inhibitor was added to their treatment regimen. This resulted in resolution of their malignancy in each case. Discussion: In obese premenopausal women, the mechanism of malignant transformation in endometrial carcinoma is considered to be an association with relatively high levels of serum estrogen from peripheral conversion of androgens to estrone in adipose tissue with a deficiency in progesterone exposure due to chronic anovulation. Using aromatase inhibitors seems reasonable as an adjunct to progesterone given the high likelihood that this population has a significant proportion of their estrogen production coming from peripheral conversion in adipose tissue. This case series is unique in that each woman initially failed to respond to progesterone but had resolution when an aromatase inhibitor was added to their treatment regimen. This would suggest that obese women with low grade malignancy or hyperplasia who have no radiographic evidence of deep myometrial invasion, ovarian or retroperitoneal metastases and who wish to retain their fertility may be treated with intrauterine progesterone and an aromatase inhibitor.

  5. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops stimulates scarless regeneration compared to autologous serum in the ocular surface stromal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; de la Fuente, M; Muruzabal, F; Riestra, A; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2015-06-01

    Autologous serum (AS) eye drops was the first blood-derived product used for the treatment of corneal pathologies but nowadays PRGF arises as a novel interesting alternative to this type of diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the biological outcomes of autologous serum eye drops or Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops on corneal stromal keratocytes (HK) and conjunctival fibroblasts (HConF). To address this, blood from healthy donors was collected and processed to obtain autologous serum (AS) eye drops and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops. Blood-derivates were aliquoted and stored at -80°C until use. PDGF-AB, VEGF, EGF, FGFb and TGF-β1 were quantified. The potential of PRGF and AS in promoting wound healing was evaluated by means of proliferation and migration assays in HK and HConF. Fibroblast cells were induced to myofibroblast differentiation after treatment with 2.5ng/mL of TGF-β1. The capability of PRGF and AS to prevent and inhibit TGF-β1-induced differentiation was evaluated. Results showed significant higher levels of all growth factors analyzed in PRGF eye drops compared to AS. Moreover, PRGF eye drops enhanced significantly the biological outcomes of both HK and HConF, and reduced TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation in contrast to autologous serum eye drops (AS). In summary, these results suggest that PRGF exerts enhanced biological outcomes than AS. PRGF may improve the treatment of ocular surface wound healing minimizing the scar formation compared to AS. Results obtained herein suggest that PRGF protects and reverses the myofibroblast phenotype while promotes cell proliferation and migration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Progesterone metabolism by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of the rat during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrone, B.L.; Karavolas, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Metabolites of [ 3 H]progesterone were quantitated from incubations of hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of rats during different stages of pregnancy. The hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and a section of uterus from five rats on Days 1, 8, 15, and 21 of pregnancy were incubated individually with [3H]progesterone and analyzed for metabolite formation by reverse isotopic dilution analysis. The radioactive metabolites present were 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (5 alpha-DHP), 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one, 20 alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 20 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3-one, and 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol. The major metabolite formed by the hypothalamus and pituitary was 5 alpha-DHP. In the pituitary samples, formation of 5 alpha-DHP was decreased on Days 15 and 21 of pregnancy compared to Day 1, and formation of 20 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3-one was decreased on Day 21 compared to Day 1. In the uterine samples, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one was the major metabolite formed at all stages of pregnancy. The formation of all metabolic products of progesterone by the uterus was increased on Day 21 compared to Days 1, 8, and 15 of pregnancy. No changes in the formation of progesterone metabolites were observed in the hypothalamic samples during pregnancy. It is concluded that there are different profiles in the in vitro metabolism of [3H]progesterone by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of the rat during the course of pregnancy

  7. Comparative studies on testicular and epididymal morphology, and serum hormone concentrations in foxes and the hybrids during the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T A; Yang, Y H; Peng, Y H; Cong, B; Diao, Y F; Bao, K; Hu, P F; Song, X C; Liu, L L; Yang, Y F; Xing, X M; Yang, F H

    2016-05-01

    The silver fox and the blue fox belong to different genera, and the hybrid males are fully or partially sterile. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the causes of hybrid male sterility, and therefore analyze the differences in testicular, and epididymal morphology and serum hormone concentrations among silver foxes, blue foxes, and the hybrids during the breeding season. Samples were collected from 20 male silver foxes, 20 male blue foxes, 15 male HSBs (silver fox female × blue fox male hybrids) and 14 male HBSs (blue fox male × silver fox female hybrids), respectively. Seminal evaluation showed large numbers of sperm present in the semen of blue foxes and silver foxes, but no sperm present in the hybrids. Mean testicular volume and the diameter of seminiferous tubules in silver foxes and blue foxes were greater than in the hybrids; and there were many Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells, and sperm in silver foxes and blue foxes, while spermatogenic cells decreased with no sperm in the hybrids. Mean serum LH and prolactin concentrations in silver foxes and blue foxes were less and testosterone was greater than in the hybrids (P<0.05). The results indicate that germ cell meioses in the hybrids were arrested at the prophase stage of meiosis, and that lesser concentrations of testosterone and greater concentrations of LH and prolactin can inhibit the completion of spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum Neuropeptide Y and Leptin Levels compared between Non-pregnant and Pregnant Women in Overall, Non-obese, and Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantacha Sitticharoon, M.D., Ph.D.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of this study was to compare serum NPY and leptin levels between non-pregnant and pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese subjects. The secondary objective was to compare these peptides between non-obese and obese pregnant women. Methods: Fasting venous blood was collected from non-pregnant women before open abdominal surgery and from pregnant women when admitted to the delivery room during the latent phase of labor. Results: There were 12 non-obese and 14 obese subjects in the non-pregnant group and 9 non-obese and 30 obese subjects in the pregnant group. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was comparable, but heart rate (HR was higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women. Mean±S.E.M serum NPY levels were lower in the pregnant than in the non-pregnant group in overall (0.54±0.02 and 1.34±0.08, respectively, non-obese (0.53±0.05 and 1.23±0.14, respectively, and obese (0.54±0.03 and 1.43±0.09, respectively subjects (p<0.01 for all, but these were comparable between obese and non- obese pregnant subjects. Serum NPY was positively correlated with SBP (R=0.281, p<0.05, but negatively correlated with HR (R=-0.324, p<0.01. Serum leptin levels were not different between pregnant and non-pregnant groups, but were significantly higher in obese than non-obese pregnant subjects (p<0.001. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumferences in overall and pregnant subjects (p<0.001 all. Conclusion: In pregnancy, decreased NPY levels might be associated with inhibition of SBP rising as well as increased HR. Leptin levels might not be associated with pregnancy, but associated mainly with obesity.

  9. PROGESTERONE AND ESTRADIOL PROFILES DURING ESTROUS CYCLE AND GESTATION IN DWARF GOATS (CAPRA HIRCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. KHANUM, M. HUSSAIN AND R. KAUSAR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum progesterone and estradiol profiles during estrous cycle, gestation and parturition in four Dwarf goat females (Capra hircus were monitored. Blood sampling was carried out daily during estrous cycle and on alternate days during gestation till parturition. Observations regarding length of estrous cycle, gestation length, litter size and birth weight of kids were recorded. With the initiation of cyclicity, estradiol attained higher levels (7.7 ± 1.7 pg/ml at estrus phase and dropped down to the lower levels within 3 to 4 days post-estrus. Concomitantly, progesterone started to increase from the mean basal value of 0.1 ± 0.03 ng/ml on day-0 to 3.0 ± 0.9 ng/ml on day-6 of estrous cycle and reached the peak value of 7.7 ± 0.6 ng/ml on day-12. From day-15, a decline was observed in progesterone values till the end of the cycle. A second estradiol rise of 14.0 ± 1.2pg/ml was observed on day-18 of the cycle. The mean estrous cycle length was 18.2 ± 2.1 days. During gestation, higher progesterone levels were maintained in the range of 4.3–11.0 ng/ml. Estradiol remained at lower concentrations for 30-50 days of gestation, then gradually increased and reached 270 ± 13.0 pg/ml a few days before parturition. It dropped again to basal values within 1-2 days postpartum. The mean gestation length in Dwarf goats was 144.8 ± 3.9 days and the litter size was 1.8 ± 0.5. It was concluded that Dwarf goat is a prolific breed, having a short gestation length with multiple births being common.

  10. Precision, accuracy, cross reactivity and comparability of serum indices measurement on Abbott Architect c8000, Beckman Coulter AU5800 and Roche Cobas 6000 c501 clinical chemistry analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolac Gabaj, Nora; Miler, Marijana; Vrtarić, Alen; Hemar, Marina; Filipi, Petra; Kocijančić, Marija; Šupak Smolčić, Vesna; Ćelap, Ivana; Šimundić, Ana-Maria

    2018-04-25

    The aim of our study was to perform verification of serum indices on three clinical chemistry platforms. This study was done on three analyzers: Abbott Architect c8000, Beckman Coulter AU5800 (BC) and Roche Cobas 6000 c501. The following analytical specifications were verified: precision (two patient samples), accuracy (sample with the highest concentration of interferent was serially diluted and measured values compared to theoretical values), comparability (120 patients samples) and cross reactivity (samples with increasing concentrations of interferent were divided in two aliquots and remaining interferents were added in each aliquot. Measurements were done before and after adding interferents). Best results for precision were obtained for the H index (0.72%-2.08%). Accuracy for the H index was acceptable for Cobas and BC, while on Architect, deviations in the high concentration range were observed (y=0.02 [0.01-0.07]+1.07 [1.06-1.08]x). All three analyzers showed acceptable results in evaluating accuracy of L index and unacceptable results for I index. The H index was comparable between BC and both, Architect (Cohen's κ [95% CI]=0.795 [0.692-0.898]) and Roche (Cohen's κ [95% CI]=0.825 [0.729-0.922]), while Roche and Architect were not comparable. The I index was not comparable between all analyzer combinations, while the L index was only comparable between Abbott and BC. Cross reactivity analysis mostly showed that serum indices measurement is affected when a combination of interferences is present. There is heterogeneity between analyzers in the hemolysis, icteria, lipemia (HIL) quality performance. Verification of serum indices in routine work is necessary to establish analytical specifications.

  11. Reproductive responses and progesterone levels of postpartum oestrus synchronization in goats with different body reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana V. Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty adult goats were classified at parturition into two body condition score (BCS groups: BCI (n=16 with a score of 2.7 and BCII (n=14 with a score of 2.0. On the fiftieth day postpartum, oestrus was synchronized by CIDR for 5 days. Upon CIDR removal (Day 0, they received 1 mL of PGF2α IM and mated for 72 hours. Kids were kept with does and weaned at 40 days of age. Blood samples were taken at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 21 days after CIDR removal for progesterone assay. The BCI group showed a greater weight loss compared to the BCII group, and BCS before synchronization was 1.9±0.08 and 1.6±0.07 for the BCI and BCII groups, respectively (Pvs 36%; Pvs 1.25; Pvs 0.25; P<0.05. Progesterone concentration was higher in pregnant does in BCI. A positive relationship was found between progesterone level at CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.57; P<0.01, also between progesterone level at 21 days after CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.47; P<0.05, or BCS before synchronization (0.51; P<0.05. We conclude that oestrus response to postpartum CIDR synchronization appeared to be slightly dependent on BCS. However, goats with low BCS at oestrus synchronization exhibited a reduction in pregnancy rate.

  12. Endocrine effects of adjuvant letrozole + triptorelin compared with tamoxifen + triptorelin in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Emanuela; Morabito, Alessandro; De Maio, Ermelinda; Di Rella, Francesca; Esposito, Giuseppe; Gravina, Adriano; Labonia, Vincenzo; Landi, Gabriella; Nuzzo, Francesco; Pacilio, Carmen; Piccirillo, Maria Carmela; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Botti, Gerardo; Gallo, Ciro; Perrone, Francesco; de Matteis, Andrea

    2008-01-10

    To compare the endocrine effects of 6 months of adjuvant treatment with letrozole + triptorelin or tamoxifen + triptorelin in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer within an ongoing phase 3 trial (Hormonal Adjuvant Treatment Bone Effects study). Prospectively collected hormonal data were available for 81 premenopausal women, of whom 30 were assigned to receive tamoxifen + triptorelin and 51 were assigned letrozole + triptorelin +/- zoledronate. Serum 17-beta-estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), Delta4-androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, progesterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol were measured at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. For each hormone, 6-month values were compared between treatment groups by the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney exact test. Median age was 44 years for both groups of patients. Letrozole + triptorelin (+/- zoledronate) induced a stronger suppression of median E2 serum levels (P = .0008), LH levels (P = .0005), and cortisol serum levels (P < .0001) compared with tamoxifen + triptorelin. Median FSH serum levels were suppressed in both groups, but such suppression was lower among patients receiving letrozole, who showed significantly higher median FSH serum levels (P < .0001). No significant differences were observed for testosterone, progesterone, ACTH, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone between the two groups of patients. Letrozole in combination with triptorelin induces a more intense estrogen suppression than tamoxifen + triptorelin in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer.

  13. Comparative radioprotective studies of chlorpromazine and cysteamine on rat bone development; Effect on serum and bone proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdeen, A M; Ibrahim, H A; Badawy, M; Elkholy, W M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were planned to study the radioprotective effect of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and Cysteamine (Cys), when injected separately or combined before irradiation, on some factors affecting the development of rat bone. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: (1) The body weight decreased due to gamma-irradiation. (2) The mortality rate increased after irradiation, but diminished by single or double chemical injection before irradiation. (3) The serum total protein; albumin, globulin contents and A/G ratio were significantly increased, 6 hrs. After irradiation, then declined afterwards. (4) Histochemically, a decrease in bone protein content was demonstrates after irradiation. The above irradiation effects were suppressed by injection of the radioprotective substances. Their effect seems to be cumulative. 4 fig.,3 tab.

  14. Neuroendocrine circuitry and endometriosis: progesterone derivative dampens corticotropin-releasing hormone-induced inflammation by peritoneal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariverdian, Nadja; Rücke, Mirjam; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Blois, Sandra M; Karpf, Eva F; Sedlmayr, Peter; Klapp, Burghard F; Kentenich, Heribert; Siedentopf, Friederike; Arck, Petra C

    2010-03-01

    Clinical symptoms of endometriosis, such as pain and infertility, can be described as persistent stressors. Such continuous exposure to stress may severely affect the equilibrium and bidirectional communication of the endocrine and immune system, hereby further aggravating the progression of endometriosis. In the present study, we aimed to tease apart mediators that are involved in the stress response as well as in the progression of endometriosis. Women undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy due to infertility were recruited (n = 69). Within this cohort, early stage of endometriosis were diagnosed in n = 30 and advanced stage of endometriosis in n = 8. Levels of progesterone in serum were determined. Frequency of progesterone receptor (PR) expression on CD56(+) and CD8(+) peritoneal lymphocytes was analysed by flow cytometry. The production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-10 by peritoneal leukocytes upon stimulation with the potent stress mediator corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and the progesterone derivative dydrogesterone, or both, were evaluated. Furthermore, the production of progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) by peritoneal leukocytes and the expression of PR in endometriotic tissue were investigated. Levels of progesterone in serum were decreased in women with endometriosis and inversely correlated to pain scores. Furthermore, an increased frequency of CD56(+)PR(+) and CD8(+)PR(+) peritoneal lymphocytes was present in advanced endometriosis. The TNF/IL-10 ratio, reflecting cytokine secretion by peritoneal cells, was higher in cells derived from endometriosis patients and could be further heightened by CRH stimulation, whereas stimulation with dydrogesterone abrogated the CRH-mediated inflammation. Finally, the expression of PIBF by peritoneal leukocytes was increased in endometriosis. Low levels of progesterone in the follicular phase could be responsible for the progression of endometriosis and related pain. Peripheral CRH

  15. Effect Of Exogenous Progesterone On Blood Chemistry Of Large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exogenous hormones are major economic factors in swine production. This study evaluate the effects of exogenous administration of progesterone on the blood chemistry of pigs.Experiment involved weekly injections of progesterone to 24 pigs (12 males and 12 females)from day old to 24 weeks and only corn oil to another ...

  16. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis: Case report with history of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) is a rare autoimmune response to raised endogenous progesterone levels that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Cutaneous, mucosal lesions and other systemic manifestations develop cyclically during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when ...

  17. The history of natural progesterone, the never-ending story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, P

    2018-05-28

    The term progesterone should only be used for the natural hormone produced by the ovaries or included in a registered drug. The modern history of progesterone begins with the first book-length description of the female reproductive system including the corpus luteum and later with the Nobel Prize winner, Adolf Butenandt who took a crucial step when he succeeded in converting pregnanediol into a chemically pure form of progesterone, the corpus luteum hormone. The deficient production of progesterone was shown first to be the cause of the luteal-phase deficiency responsible for infertility and early pregnancy loss due to inadequate secretory transformation of the endometrium. Later, progesterone was confirmed to be the best and safest method of providing luteal-phase support in assisted reproductive technology. Progesterone provides adequate endometrial protection and is suggested to be the optimal progestagen in menopausal hormone therapy in terms of cardiovascular effects, venous thromboembolism, probably stroke and even breast cancer risk. Neuroprotective effects of progesterone have also been demonstrated in several of experimental models including cerebral ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Vaginal progesterone was shown to decrease the risk of preterm birth in women with a mid-trimester sonographic short cervix and to improve perinatal outcomes in singleton and twin gestations.

  18. Hair progesterone contents during oestrus cycle and pregnancy in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xianyin; Guo Dazhi; Liu Xianyi

    1991-01-01

    Hair progesterone contents during gestasion and milk progesterone levels during oestrus cycle in Saanen(S), crosses F 1 (SXChengdu Mah) and F 2 (SX(SXChengdu Mah)) goats were determined using the RIA kit. The results showed that progesterone in goats hair could be detected using the RIA kit. In pregnant goats, hair progesterone contents was correlated with the milk progesterone profile during 1-28 days after oestrus (r=0.5458, p<0.01). In non-pregnant goats, similar correlation was observed (r=7832, p<0.01). After milk samples were collected 22 days, 3.9ng/ml of progesterone was taken as the discriminatory level, and precision of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis were 82.4% and 100% respectively. After hair samples were collected 22 days, 3.7ng/50mg of progesterone was taken as discriminatory level, and precision of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis were 77.8% and 100% respectively. During gestation, hair progesterone content increased gradually from day 30(5.67±0.98ng/50mg hair)to day 120 (9.85±1.20ng/50mg) and decreased rapidly from -8(before parturition, 7.73±1.91ng/50mg) to day 0(parturition, 4.93±0.25ng/50mg)

  19. Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone content of milk. Part 1. ... best overall classification of dairy cows into pregnant and non-pregnant groups (confirmed by rectal palpation). Progesterone levels ... Teen 'n diskriminante progesteroonwaarde van 5 ng/ml melk het hierdie funksie 98,0% van alle ...

  20. Decidual tissue growth and regression in the guinea pig: regulation by uterine blood flow and relation to circulating progesterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, D R

    1984-05-01

    The role of uterine blood flow (UBF) in the modulation of experimentally induced decidua formation was assessed in mature guinea pigs. The response to endometrial trauma, as indexed by uterine weight changes, was dependent upon the type of stimulus used, with deciduogenic effectiveness as follows: saline = oil = knife scratch less than scissor cut. Both the knife scratch and scissor cut techniques induced elevations in UBF compared with control values. Neither uterine weight nor UBF increased when trauma was applied to unresponsive uteri, indicating that inflammation was not the cause of uterine hyperemia. Uterine weight increased from basal levels on the day of trauma (i.e. day 5 of the estrous cycle) to a maximal weight between days 10 and 12 posttrauma. Maximal growth of the induced decidua occurred under conditions of elevated UBF. Subsequently, UBF declined between days 10 and 15 posttrauma, preceding the associate resorption of the induced decidua. During the period of decidua growth, serum progesterone levels were elevated compared with those in control animals. These data indicate that experimentally induced decidua formation in the guinea pig is associated with uterine hyperemia and increased corpus luteum activity, both of which are necessary for proper endometrial differentiation. It is hypothesized that these events mimic the uterine hyperemia associated with blastocyst implanplantation and early placentation in this species.

  1. Dioxin, furan and PCB serum levels in a South African Tswana population: comparing the polluting effects of using different cooking and heating fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Rialet; Focant, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    In South Africa, 26-50% of households use solid fuel for cooking food and heating houses. When used as fuel, wood and chlorinated waste are known sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we compare PCDD/F, dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB), and non-DL-PCB (NDL-PCB) levels in serum of 693 Tswana individuals in the North West province, who either burn solid biofuels or have access to electricity, gas, and paraffin. This is the first South African study on dioxin levels in humans with more than 100 participants. Serum was pooled according to fuel use, as well as to confounding factors such as gender and age. Solid-phase extraction was used to remove the target analytes from serum, after which the extracts were further refined automatically using a combination of multilayer sorbents. Compound concentrations were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry after high-resolution gas chromatography. Mean serum lipid content was determined enzymatically to be 5.91 ± 0.42 g/L. The PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels were similar to global concentrations reported for non-exposed adults. The mean of the total Toxic Equivalencies (ΣTEQ) was 6.9 ± 3.3 pg/g lipid and the mean NDL-PCB was 70.1 ± 42.8 ng/g lipid. The mean concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs and the corresponding World Health Organization-TEQ (WHO-TEQ) of the population using electricity, gas, and paraffin were greater than of those reliant on solid biomass (p = 0), whereas the DL-PCBs, their corresponding WHO-TEQ, and NDL-PCBs were greater for the population who use biofuels but not significantly so. The females had higher serum levels of the PCDDs (p = 0) and PCDFs (not significant) whereas the PCBs were higher for the males (p = 0). Breastfeeding women presented lower levels of all compound classes than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p=0) and older subjects manifested greater pollutant loads than the younger generation (p = 0

  2. Plasma progesterone levels following breeding in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, G.C.; Arora, R.C.; Pahwa, G.S.; Batra, S.K.; Pandey, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Progesterone concentration in the peripheral blood plasma of ten lactating goats of mixed breeds following breeding were determined by radioimmunoassay to diagnose early pregnancy. The mean concentration was very low (0.25 +- 0.15 ng/ml) on the day of oestrus and reached at peak level on day 13 (1.30 +- 0.07 ng/ml) and on day 19 (2.77 +- 1.18 ng/ml) in non-pregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The level sharply declined on day 19 (0.40 +- 0.07 ng/ml) of oestrous cycle in non-pregnant goats. However, the level remained below 1.5 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15 and 17 and 3 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21 and 23 in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The progesterone concentration continued to increase to 2.94 +- 0.70, 4.42 +- 0.92 and 6.2 +- 0.61 ng/ml on day 45, 60 and 75 of gestation, respectively. (auth.)

  3. Study of progesterone mechanisms in radio-induced apoptosis prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vares, G.

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the modulation of radiation-induced cell death of human mammary tumoral cells by progesterone. On the one hand, we observed that progesterone protects cells against radiation-induced apoptosis and increases the proportion of surviving and proliferating damaged cells. On the other hand, a transcriptome analysis was undertaken in irradiated cells treated by progesterone, using DNA micro-arrays. This let us highlight several transcriptional dis-regulations that are likely to explain the protective effect of the hormone; in particular, we showed that progesterone regulates the expression of genes implicated in apoptosis signaling by death receptors. Knowing the crucial role of hormonal control and of apoptosis regulation in breast cancer initiation, our results may help to achieve a better understanding of the implication of progesterone in mammary carcinogenesis. (author)

  4. Comparing the Effect of Fasting and Physical Activity on Active and Non-active Males’ Body Composition, Serum Osmolarity Levels and Some Parameters of Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nematy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ever since there is insufficient and incoherent information about the effect of the Ramadan Fasting together with regular exercise on levels of serum osmolarity, and electrolytes concentration. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of fasting and physical activity on active and non-active males’ body composition, serum osmolarity levels and some parameters of electrolytes. Methods: Twenty six healthy males, who were selected by convenience sampling method, were divided into two (active and non-active groups. The Active group participated in football training for three sessions per week during the fasting month. All measurements were repeated on the first and last day of fasting month and were used to analyze the test results. Results: The average differences were significantly decreased in weight, BMI, WHR, mineral, total water in two groups (P≤0.05. There was a significant difference in average of BMI, WHR, body fat, mineral and total water between two groups (P≤0.05. Within-group mean differences in glucose, potassium, urine and albumin in both groups were significant (P≤0.05. Differences of serum osmolarity in between- and within-groups were not significant in both groups. While, glucose decreased significantly, the levels of the protein decreased, and urea increased significantly only in non active fasting group. Conclusion: According to these results, regular exercise together with the Ramadan fasting result in change in some serum osmolarity index, electrolytes and water. Therefore, it is necessary to protect the athletics against the malnutrition in Ramadan fasting by using the diet schedule and enough water.

  5. Rapidly disintegrating vagina retentive cream suppositories of progesterone: development, patient satisfaction and in vitro/in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendas, Ehab Rasmy; Basalious, Emad B

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to develop novel vagina retentive cream suppositories (VRCS) of progesterone having rapid disintegration and good vaginal retention. VRCS of progesterone were prepared using oil in water (o/w) emulsion of mineral oil or theobroma oil in hard fat and compared with conventional vaginal suppositories (CVS) prepared by hard fat. VRCS formulations were tested for content uniformity, disintegration, melting range, in vitro release and stability studies. The most stable formulation (VRCS I) was subjected to scaling-up manufacturing and patients' satisfaction test. The rapid disintegration, good retentive properties are applicable through the inclusion of emulsified theobroma oil rather than hydrophilic surfactant into the hard fat bases. The release profile of progesterone from VRCS I showed a biphasic pattern due to the formation of progesterone reservoir in the emulsified theobroma oil. All volunteers involved in patients' satisfaction test showed high satisfactory response to the tested formulation (VRCS). The in vivo pharmacokinetic study suggests that VRCS of progesterone provided higher rate and extent of absorption compared to hard fat based suppositories. Our results proposed that emulsified theobroma oil could be promising to solve the problems of poor patients' satisfaction and variability of drug absorption associated with hard fat suppositories.

  6. Correlation among foetal number, corpora lutea and plasma progesterone in rockland-swiss mice. [Progesterone determination by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N G; Bridges, R S; Gandelmann, R [Rutgers - the State Univ., New Brunswick. NJ (USA). Dept. of Psychology; Rutgers - the State Univ., Newark, NJ (USA). Inst. of Animal Behavior)

    1978-01-01

    The relationship among plasma progesterone, number of corpora lutea, and foetal number was assessed in Rockland-Swiss albino mice. While number of corpora lutea and foetal number were significantly correlated, neither was related to plasma progesterone level. This finding in the mouse is similar to results reported in the rabbit.

  7. Enhanced proliferation and progesterone production by porcine granulosa cells cultured with pseudorabies virus growth factor (PRGF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekło, R; Gregoraszczuk, E L; Lesko, J; Golais, F; Stokłosowa, S

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this research was to study possible interactions of pseudorabies virus growth factor (PRGF) with ovarian tissue. Granulosa cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured as monolayers for 6 days in a control medium without PRGF and in medium supplemented with different doses of this agent. Increased population density and change towards more fibroblastic-like shape of cells cultured with 10(9) I.U PRGF was observed when compared with control culture. The cells divided significantly faster during 6 days of culture under the influence of 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8) and 10(9) I.U./ml of PRGF at a dose dependent manner. PRGF in a dose 10(9) I.U. added to cultured cells isolated from small and medium follicles did not influence progesterone secretion . An increase of progesterone secretion under the influence of PRGF in all investigated days of cultures was observed in cells isolated from large preovulatory follicles. The marked increase in progesterone content in PRGF treated culture in doses of 0.5x10(7), 0.5x10(8), 0.5x10(9) I.U. was observed during 4 and 6 days of culture. The rise of progesterone content was not connected with increased number of secretory cells, but with a stimulation of production per cell. PRGF exerted no visible effect on progesterone secretion by granulosa cells from small and medium follicles cultured for 6 days. The presented in vitro data provide evidence for a local action of PRGF in the follicle depending on the stage of follicular development and duration of exposure. Precise relevance of the interaction of PRGF with follicular development requires further study.

  8. Progesterone signaling mediated through progesterone receptor membrane component-1 in ovarian cells with special emphasis on ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, John J

    2011-08-01

    Various ovarian cell types including granulosa cells and ovarian surface epithelial cells express the progesterone (P4) binding protein, progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1). PGRMC1 is also expressed in ovarian tumors. PGRMC1 plays an essential role in promoting the survival of both normal and cancerous ovarian cell in vitro. Given the clinical significance of factors that regulate the viability of ovarian cancer, this review will focus on the role of PGRMC1 in ovarian cancer, while drawing insights into the mechanism of PGRMC1's action from cell lines derived from healthy ovaries as well as ovarian tumors. Studies using PGRMC1siRNA demonstrated that P4's ability to inhibit ovarian cells from undergoing apoptosis in vitro is dependent on PGRMC1. To confirm the importance of PGRMC1, the ability of PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cell lines to form tumors in intact nude mice was assessed. Compared to PGRMC1-expressing ovarian cancer cells, PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cells formed tumors in fewer mice (80% compared to 100% for controls). Moreover, the number of tumors derived from PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cells was 50% of that observed in controls. Finally, the tumors that formed from PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cells were about a fourth the size of tumors derived from ovarian cancer cells with normal levels of PGRMC1. One reason for PGRMC1-deplete tumors being smaller is that they had a poorly developed microvasculature system. How PGRMC1 regulates cell viability and in turn tumor growth is not known but part of the mechanism likely involves the regulation of genes that promote cell survival and inhibit apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative study on serum levels of macro and trace elements in schizophrenia based on supervised learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tong; Liu, Tiebing; Lin, Yucheng; Yan, Lailai; Chen, Zhongxue; Wang, Jingyu

    2017-09-01

    The etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) remain obscure. This study explored the associations between SCZ risk and serum levels of 39 macro and trace elements (MTE). A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted among 114 schizophrenia patients and 114 healthy controls matched by age, sex and region. Blood samples were collected to determine the concentrations of 39 MTE by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Both supervised learning methods and classical statistical testing were used to uncover the difference of MTE levels between cases and controls. The best prediction accuracies were 99.21% achieved by support vector machines in the original feature space (without dimensionality reduction), and 98.82% achieved by Naive Bayes with dimensionality reduction. More than half of MTE were found to be significantly different between SCZ patients and the controls. The presented investigation showed that there existed remarkable differences in concentrations of MTE between SCZ patients and healthy controls. The results of this study might be useful to diagnosis and prognosis of SCZ; they also indicated other promising applications in pharmacy and nutrition. However, the results should be interpreted with caution due to limited sample size and the lack of potential confounding factors, such as alcohol, smoking, body mass index (BMI), use of antipsychotics and dietary intakes. In the future the application of the analyses will be useful in designs that have larger sample sizes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. CDB-4124, a progesterone receptor modulator, inhibits mammary carcinogenesis by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiehle, Ronald; Lantvit, Daniel; Yamada, Tohru; Christov, Konstantin

    2011-03-01

    CDB-4124 (Proellex or telapristone acetate) is a modulator of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling, which is currently employed in preclinical studies for prevention and treatment of breast cancer and has been used in clinical studies for treatment of uterine fibroids and endometriosis. Here we provide evidence for its action on steroid hormone-signaling, cell cycle-regulated genes and in vivo on mammary carcinogenesis. When CDB-4124 is given to rats at 200 mg/kg for 24 months, it prevents the development of spontaneous mammary hyperplastic and premalignant lesions. Also, CDB-4124 given as subcutaneous pellets at two different doses suppressed, dose dependently, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary carcinogenesis. The high dose (30 mg, over 84 days) increased tumor latency from 66 ± 24 days to 87 ± 20 days (P CDB-4124 inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in MNU-induced mammary tumors, which correlated with a decreased proportion of PR(+) tumor cells and with decreased serum progesterone. CDB-4124 did not affect serum estradiol. In a mechanistic study employing T47D cells we found that CDB-4124 suppressed G(1)/G(0)-S transition by inhibiting CDK2 and CDK4 expressions, which correlated with inhibition of estrogen receptor (ER) expression. Taken together, these data indicate that CDB-4124 can suppress the development of precancerous lesions and carcinogen-induced ER(+) mammary tumors in rats, and may have implications for prevention and treatment of human breast cancer.

  11. Raman spectroscopy in comparative investigations of mechanisms of binding of three molecular probes - fluorescein, eosin, and erythrosin - to human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, I. M.; Saletsky, A. M.

    2008-11-01

    The comparative analysis of binding of three molecular fluorescent probes (fluorescein, eosin, and erythrosin), belonging to one homologous family, to human serum albumin (HSA) is made by Raman spectroscopy method. The binding of all three probes to binding Center I of HSA is registered. The character of binding of initial probe of the given homologous family - fluorescein - to protein differs from character of binding of its halogen-derivatives (eosin and erythrosin) to protein. The differences in binding of these three probes to HSA are determined by value of electronegativity of atoms of lateral radicals in structural formulas of probes and, therefore, by value of pK of their ionized groups.

  12. Effects of various forms of mastitis, in the progesterone concentrations of cow milk and milk fat, as determined by RIA and EIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedemaker, M.

    1982-01-01

    The progesterone concentration in milk fat was determined in milk samples taken from 39 cows with a corpus luteum and an average blood plasma progesterone concentration of 15.35 ± 6.26 nmole/l. The samples were collected mornings and evenings from each of the four quarters at the end of milking. 29 animals had healthy as well as diseased udder quarters. In 10 animals all four quarters were affected. There was no statistically significant difference in the progesterone concentration in the milk and in the milk fat, between the normal and affected secretion. There was also no correlation between the various forms of mastitis, causative agent, secretion findings or leucocyte content and the clinical finding in the udder quarter. Of a total of 156 samples investigated with the milk progesterone test (normal as well as affected secretion), 9 samples contained less than 5 ng progesterone/ml milk, which was set as the lower limit for evidence of the presence of an active corpus luteum. Using this lower limit, 5.8% were false negative results when compared with the actual status of the ovary. Eight of the nine secretion samples with less than 5 ng progesterone/ml milk from cows with an active corpus luteum, were from udder quarters affected with mastitis. It is probable that there is a causal relationship between the mastitis and the low progesterone content in the milk. The milk fat progesterone determination was carried out by means of the RIA and EIA. A comparison of the progesterone concentration in the milk fat and in the milk from the milk samples taken in the morning and evening demonstrated no statistically significant differences. (orig.) [de

  13. Reduced Luteinizing Hormone Induction Following Estrogen and Progesterone Priming in Female-to-Male Transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Funabashi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies have suggested that one of the brain structures involved in gender identity is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, though this brain structure is probably not the only one to control gender identity. We hypothesized that, if this brain area also affected gonadotropin secretion in humans, transsexual individuals might produce different gonadotropin levels in response to exogenous stimulation. In the present study, we examined whether estrogen combined with progesterone might lead to a change in luteinizing hormone (LH secretion in female-to-male (FTM transsexual individuals. We studied female control subjects (n = 9, FTM transsexual subjects (n = 12, and male-to-female (MTF transsexual subjects (n = 8. Ethinyl estradiol (50 μg/tablet was administered orally, twice a day, for five consecutive days. After the first blood sampling, progesterone (12.5 mg was injected intramuscularly. Plasma LH was measured with an immunoradiometric assay. The combination of estrogen and progesterone resulted in increased LH secretion in female control subjects and in MTF subjects, but this increase appeared to be attenuated in FTM transsexual subjects. In fact, the %LH response was significantly reduced in FTM subjects (P < 0.05, but not in MTF subjects (P > 0.5, compared to female control subjects. In addition, the peak time after progesterone injection was significantly delayed in FTM subjects (P < 0.05, but not in MTF subjects (P > 0.5, compared to female control subjects. We then compared subjects according to whether the combination of estrogen and progesterone had a positive (more than 200% increase or negative (less than 200% increase effect on LH secretion. A χ2 analysis revealed significantly different (P < 0.05 effects on LH secretion between female controls (positive n = 7, negative n = 2 and FTM transsexual subjects (positive n = 4, negative n = 8, but not between female

  14. Effects of antenatal corticosteroids on maternal serum indicators of infection in women at risk for preterm delivery: A randomized trial comparing betamethasone and dexamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Danesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effect of betamethasone and dexamethasone on maternal white blood cell (WBC and differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, Apgar score, maternal and fetal plasma glucose and length of admission to delivery, gestational age at delivery in women at risk of preterm labor (PTL. Study Design: Two hundred and forty pregnant women at risk for PTL with intact membranes or preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM were randomly allocated to receive either two intramuscular injections of 12 mg betamethasone at 24-h intervals or 4 injections of 6 mg dexamethasone at 12-h intervals. Blood tests for WBC and differential count, ESR and fasting plasma glucose were drawn before betamethasone or dexamethasone injection and after injection every 24 h for two days. Pregnancy outcome was assessed as Apgar score, fetal plasma glucose and length of gestation. Result : In the preterm delivery group with intact membranes, no significant differences were found between the two groups in the maternal serum indicators of infection. The mean gestational age at delivery, 1- and 5-min Apgar score were higher in the dexamethasone group than in the betamethasone group. In the PPROM group, a significant rise in WBC count was occurred (12.4 cells/mm 3 vs. 10.5 cells/mm 3 , P < 0.001, none of the other maternal serum indicators of infection and outcome variables showed significant differences between the dexamethasone and betamethasone groups. Conclusions : Dexamethasone compared to betamethasone significantly increased WBC count in women with PPROM, but in women at risk of PTL with intact membranes none of the maternal serum indicators of infection showed significant differences.

  15. Progesterone lipid nanoparticles: Scaling up and in vivo human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Sguizzato, Maddalena; Drechsler, Markus; Mariani, Paolo; Carducci, Federica; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Cortesi, Rita

    2017-10-01

    This investigation describes a scaling up study aimed at producing progesterone containing nanoparticles in a pilot scale. Particularly hot homogenization techniques based on ultrasound homogenization or high pressure homogenization have been employed to produce lipid nanoparticles constituted of tristearin or tristearin in association with caprylic-capric triglyceride. It was found that the high pressure homogenization method enabled to obtain nanoparticles without agglomerates and smaller mean diameters with respect to ultrasound homogenization method. X-ray characterization suggested a lamellar structural organization of both type of nanoparticles. Progesterone encapsulation efficiency was almost 100% in the case of high pressure homogenization method. Shelf life study indicated a double fold stability of progesterone when encapsulated in nanoparticles produced by the high pressure homogenization method. Dialysis and Franz cell methods were performed to mimic subcutaneous and skin administration. Nanoparticles constituted of tristearin in mixture with caprylic/capric triglyceride display a slower release of progesterone with respect to nanoparticles constituted of pure tristearin. Franz cell evidenced a higher progesterone skin uptake in the case of pure tristearin nanoparticles. A human in vivo study, based on tape stripping, was conducted to investigate the performance of nanoparticles as progesterone skin delivery systems. Tape stripping results indicated a decrease of progesterone concentration in stratum corneum within six hours, suggesting an interaction between nanoparticle material and skin lipids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in human saliva during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luisi, M.; Franchi, F.; Kicovic, P.M.; Silvestri, D.; Cossu, G.; Catarsi, A.L.; Barletta, D.; Gasperi, M. (Pisa Univ. (Italy))

    1981-10-01

    A sensitive, specific and accurate radioimmunoassay of progesterone in human saliva is described, using /sup 3/H. The assay had a sensitivity of 8 pg/tube and blanks were negligible. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5.2 and 9.4%, respectively. The mean recovery from 60 samples was 93.2 +- 6.3%. Results obtained from nine healthy, normally menstruating women showed that salivary progesterone rose from the 4th day before ovulation to a mean peak (+- SD) of 1.14 +- 0.17 ng/ml on the 8th day after ovulation, followed by a gradual decline. Correlation of salivary and simultaneously obtained plasma progesterone levels was good (r = 0.47; P < 0.001), although the maximum percent increase in salivary progesterone was more than 10 times greater than that of plasma progesterone. Salivary progesterone is thought to reflect the unbound fraction of plasma progesterone and this non-invasive technique can be used for serial investigations in which frequent samplings are required.

  17. Contraceptive applications of progesterone receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Ouzounian, Sophie; Kairis, Axelle Pintiaux; Bouchard, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    Currently developed progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs) are steroid-derived compounds with mild or potent antiprogestin activity. PRMs may exert a contraceptive activity by different mechanisms such as blockade of ovulation and endometrial desynchronization. Their potential clinical applications are manifold and are very promising in major public health areas, including emergency contraception, long term oestrogen-free contraception (administered alone, or in association with a progestin-only pill to improve bleeding patterns), endometriosis and myoma treatment. The mechanisms of their anti-ovulatory effects and of the endometrial modifications elicited during long term PRM treatment are still not fully elucidated. In future clinical applications, PRMs will be administered orally, via intrauterine systems or vaginal rings.

  18. Efficacy and Safety Profile of Diclofenac/Cyclodextrin and Progesterone/Cyclodextrin Formulations: A Review of the Literature Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavone, Cristina; Bonagura, Angela Colomba; Fiorentino, Sonia; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Cenami, Rosina; Torella, Marco; Fossati, Tiziano; Rossi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    According to health technology assessment, patients deserve the best medicine. The development of drugs associated with solubility enhancers, such as cyclodextrins, represents a measure taken in order to improve the management of patients. Different drugs, such as estradiol, testosterone, dexamethasone, opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs; i.e. diclofenac), and progesterone are associated with cyclodextrins. Products containing the association of diclofenac/cyclodextrins are available for subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous administration in doses that range from 25 to 75 mg. Medicinal products containing the association of progesterone/cyclodextrins are indicated for intramuscular and subcutaneous injection at a dose equal to 25 mg. The effects of cyclodextrins have been discussed in the solubility profile and permeability through biological membranes of drug molecules. A literature search was performed in order to give an overview of the pharmacokinetic characteristics, and efficacy and safety profiles of diclofenac/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and progesterone/HPβCD associations. The results of more than 20 clinical studies were reviewed. It was suggested that the new diclofenac/HPβCD formulation gives a rapid and effective response to acute pain and, furthermore, has pharmacokinetic and efficacy/safety profiles comparable to other medicinal products not containing cyclodextrins. One of the principal aspects of these new diclofenac formulations is that in lowering the dose (lower than 50 mg) the drugs could be more tolerable, especially in patients with comorbid conditions. Moreover, results of studies investigating the characteristics of progesterone and cyclodextrins showed that the new formulation (progesterone/HPβCD 25 mg solution) has the same bioavailability as other products containing progesterone. It is more rapidly absorbed and allows the achievement of peak plasma concentrations in a shorter time. Finally, the

  19. To Evaluate and Compare Periodontal Disease and Smoking as a Parallel Risk Factor for Systemic Health by Gauging the Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Ruchi Dinesh; Sharma, Payal; Chandran, Sarath; Vasavada, Dharmesh; Nadig, Priyadarshini; Bakutra, Gaurav

    2017-03-01

    Physiologic and metabolic changes that occur immediately after a damage or disease are known as Acute Phase Reaction (APR). Acute Phase Proteins (APP) are blood proteins secreted by hepatocytes during APR C-Reactive Protein (CRP) being the important one. Present study was designed to estimate and compare the levels of the serum CRP in current smokers, former smokers and non-smokers, with and without periodontitis. An experimental study was planned on 165 subjects who were divided into four groups. Group 1- nonsmokers with periodontitis. Group 2- smokers without periodontitis. Group 3- smokers with periodontitis. Group 4- former smokers without periodontitis. Healthy controls were not included in the study as the normal range of CRP in health is already established. Periodontal examination was done and serum CRP was measured. After getting the acceptance to be a part of the study, written informed consent was taken from each participant. Data analysis was done by ANOVA and post-hoc tests. Highest level of CRP was found in smokers with periodontitis followed by non-smokers with periodontitis and smokers without periodontitis. Former smokers had minimum CRP compared to the other groups (p-value=0.03). Periodontitis alone and in combination with smoking increases the systemic inflammatory burden and associated cardiovascular risk. This fact should be communicated thoroughly to the general population, general dentist, physicians and cardiovascular specialist to enhance early screening and multidisciplinary treatment.

  20. [The comparative study of specificity of test-systems in diagnostic of HIV-infection on categories of samples of blood serum of pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipova, I N; Khodak, N M; Puzirev, V F; Burkov, A N; Ulanova, T I

    2015-03-01

    The detection of false positive serological reactions (FPSR) on HIV-infection under screening examination of pregnant women is an actual problem of practical health care. The original observations testify that under analysis of the same samples of blood serum of pregnant women using screening immune enzyme test-systems of various manufacturers the unmatched data concerning FPSR can be obtained. The purpose of this study was to implement comparative evaluation of specificity of immune enzyme test-systems of three different manufacturers: "DS-IFA-HIV-AGAT-SCREEN" ("Diagnostic Systems"), "Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab" "Bio Rad" France) and "The CombiBest HIV-1,2 AG/AT" ("Vector-Best" Novosibirsk). The sampling of 440 samples of blood serums of pregnant women from various medical institutions of Nizhnii Novgorod was analyzed. The results of the study demonstrated that FPSR were detected in all test-systems and at that spectrum of samples differed. The identical specificity of compared test-systems amounted to 98.64%. The alternative approach to FPSR to HIV issue under screening examinations of pregnant women was proposed. The proposed mode consisted of consistent application of two test-systems of fourth generation with different format of setup of reaction.

  1. Start of puberty on heifers of Ecuadorian highlands by determination of progesterone hormone by radio-immuno analysis (RIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, Patricio; Alarcon, Mariana; Utreras, Gina; Vazconez, L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the beginning of the puberty in Heifers of two Ecuadorian highland farms, observing the weight, age and height in which appeared levels of progesterone hormone that were significant, the samples were analyzed throughout the radioimmunoassay technique (RIA). The experiment was performed with twenty-eight Heifers Holstein Friesan half-breed of 6 to 9 months old, fourteen each farm. The blood samples were collected each eight days, additional data as weight and height were compiled each fifteen days and fecal samples were taken each thirty days. The Heifers were separate the trial when showed levels of progesterone equal or superior 0,5 ng/ml blood serum as an indicative that the ovarian physiology has begun. The age was highly significant in the groups, showing the puberty the Heifers of the farm ''A'' 5.47 months before that the farm B, for the parameters weight and height that was not significant

  2. Association of human interleukin-35 level in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in periodontal health, disease, and after nonsurgical therapy: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Chandra Raj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Innovating newer methods to diagnose a multifactorial disease such as periodontitis is always challenging for a clinician. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF which is closely associated with the periodontal tissue environment has been used a viable alternative to saliva for the diagnosis of periodontitis. Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate and compare the interleukin-35 (IL-35 levels in GCF and serum among healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP individuals as well as to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT on IL-35 level among patients with CP. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the Department of Periodontics, Srirama Chandra Bhanja Dental College and Hospital, Cuttack, Odisha, India. It is a comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 participants were divided into healthy (Group I; n = 20, gingivitis (Group II; n = 20, and CP (Group IIIA; n = 20. GCF samples collected from each individual at baseline and 6 weeks after NSPT for Group III individuals (Group IIIB; n = 20 were quantified for IL-35 levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical Analysis: All analyses were performed using Shapiro–Wilk test, analysis of variance, Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc test, and multiple regression analysis. Results: The mean IL-35 concentration in GCF was significantly high (P < 0.05 for Group IIIA (70.26 ± 4.0 pg/ml, as compared to Group I (54.81 ± 22.3 pg/ml and Group IIIB (55.72 ± 10.2 pg/ml. Conclusion: In the present study, GCF and serum IL-35 concentration among CP individuals was highest among all the groups. Individuals receiving NSPT showed a significant reduction in IL-35 levels as compared to CP individuals.

  3. Monitoring the reproductive performance in awassi ewes using progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Jugular serum progesterone (P-4) concentrations were assessed using radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits for about 1 year in 16 local Awassi ewes aged about 1 year and weighing on average 37.4 ±4.9 (range 29.5-44.0 kg). Average pre-mating live weight of animals was different (P 0.05) between animals in average basal pre-mating P-4 concentration, maximum P-4 concentration during the luteal phase in non-pregnant ewes and in the length of the gestation period average basal pre-mating P-4 concentration was 0.62±0.44 (range 0-1.7 nmol l -1 ). Average maximum P-4 concentration during the luteal phase in non-pregnant ewes was 11.0±3.3 (range 5.8-18 nmol l -1 ). Length of gestation period varied from 149 to 155 days with an average of 152±2.3 days. Maximum P-4 concentration during gestation was different (P -1 ). The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis at around 21 days pot-mating using RIA was 100%. It was concluded that Awassi sheep in Syria have a long breeding season that could start as early as April and last through September. Therefore, ewes might be included in oestrous synchronisation programmes to give three lambs in 2 years. It was also concluded that P-4 concentration under 3.18 nmol l -1 is indicative of either anoestrous or follicular and early luteal phase of the oestrous cycle in Awassi ewes kept in Syria and that RIA could be used for P-4 determination and successful early diagnosis of pregnancy in Awassi sheep. (author)

  4. Sustained-release progesterone nanosuspension following intramuscular injection in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kharshoum, rasha

    2010-01-01

    Heba F SalemFaculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, EgyptAbstract: The production of an intramuscular (IM) injection of natural progesterone would provide a safer solution than using semi synthetic progesterone. However, disadvantages such as low solubility and a short half life prevent the use of natural progesterone. In this study, we formulated a sustained release form of natural progesterone to be given as IM injection. A progesterone nanosuspension (PNS) was first developed...

  5. Comparative evaluation of hmopolesis and serum proteins from dogs with transmissible venereal tumor by natural ocorrence and induced by alogenic transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aptekmann, K.P.; Costa, M.T.; Fabeni, R. de C.; Santana, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the haemopoiesis and total serum proteins of dogs with canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour (TVT) (naturally occurring or induced by allogenic transplant). Complete haemogram, bone marrow evaluation, total serum protein, albumin determination and electrophoretic fractionation of serum proteins were performed. Results revealed normocytic normochromic anaemia and thrombocytopenia in dogs with naturally occurring TVT

  6. Simulated conditions of microgravity suppress progesterone production by luteal cells of the pregnant rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, G. K.; Yang, H.; Sridaran, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether simulated conditions of microgravity induce changes in the production of progesterone by luteal cells of the pregnant rat ovary using an in vitro model system. The microgravity environment was simulated using either a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor with free fall or a clinostat without free fall of cells. A mixed population of luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of day 8 pregnant rats was attached to cytodex microcarrier beads (cytodex 3). These anchorage dependent cells were placed in equal numbers in the HARV or a spinner flask control vessel in culture conditions. It was found that HARV significantly reduced the daily production of progesterone from day 1 through day 8 compared to controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cells attached to the microcarrier beads throughout the duration of the experiment in both types of culture vessels. Cells cultured in chamber slide flasks and placed in a clinostat yielded similar results when compared to those in the HARV. Also, when they were stained by Oil Red-O for lipid droplets, the clinostat flasks showed a larger number of stained cells compared to control flasks at 48 h. Further, the relative amount of Oil Red-O staining per milligram of protein was found to be higher in the clinostat than in the control cells at 48 h. It is speculated that the increase in the level of lipid content in cells subjected to simulated conditions of microgravity may be due to a disruption in cholesterol transport and/or lesions in the steroidogenic pathway leading to a fall in the synthesis of progesterone. Additionally, the fall in progesterone in simulated conditions of microgravity could be due to apoptosis of luteal cells.

  7. Development of a homologous iodine-125 labelled progesterone radioimmunoassay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbanna, I.M.; El-Asrag, H.A.; Gado, M.S.; Gamal, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed procedure description of an iodinated progesterone radioimmunoassay system development is reported. Immunization regime with progesterone 11 α-hemisuccinate: BSA gave 1:6000 antibody titre within a period of 6 months. Minimal amount of the immunogen was spent to obtain a stock of the antiserum. Conjugation of progesterone 11 α-hemisuccinate to tyrosine methyl ester using the isobutyl-chloroformate reaction gave a product with less patch to patch variations in tracer characteristics. At home radioiodination with 125 I reduced the expenses drastically and resulted in extended tracer shelf life (up to 3 months). The use of the second antibody method of separating bound from free hormone proved to be more convenient and brought the progesterone radioimmunoassay system to routine work

  8. Abnormal pathways in endometriosis in relation to progesterone resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lode, Lise; Sveen, Magnhild Often; Rudnicki, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disorder, and recent studies suggest that progesterone resistance may contribute to the development and pathophysiology of the disorder. Based on this, identification of genetic and molecular perturbations in the endometrium of women...

  9. Selective suppression of endothelial cytokine production by progesterone receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, Lauren M.; Ton, Amy N.; Org, Tõnis; Mikkola, Hanna K.A.; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones are well-recognized suppressors of the inflammatory response, however, their cell- and tissue-specific effects in the regulation of inflammation are far less understood, particularly for the sex-related steroids. To determine the contribution of progesterone in the endothelium, we have characterized and validated an in vitro culture system in which human umbilical vein endothelial cells constitutively express human progesterone receptor (PR). Using next generation RNA-sequenc...

  10. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment on the altered progesterone and bile acid homeostasis in the mother-placenta-foetus trio during cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiú, Maria C; Monte, Maria J; Rivas, Laura; Moirón, Maria; Gomez-Rodriguez, Laura; Rodriguez-Bravo, Tomas; Marin, Jose J G; Macias, Rocio I R

    2015-02-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is characterized by pruritus and elevated bile acid concentrations in maternal serum. This is accompanied by an enhanced risk of intra-uterine and perinatal complications. High concentrations of sulphated progesterone metabolites (PMS) have been suggested to be involved in the multifactorial aetiopathogenesis of ICP. The aim of this study was to investigate further the mechanism accounting for the beneficial effect of oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), which is the standard treatment, regarding bile acid and PMS homeostasis in the mother-placenta-foetus trio. Using HPLC-MS/MS bile acids and PMS were determined in maternal and foetal serum and placenta. The expression of ABC proteins in placenta was determined by real time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) and immunofluorescence. In ICP, markedly increased concentrations of bile acids (tauroconjugates > glycoconjugates > unconjugated), progesterone and PMS in placenta and maternal serum were accompanied by enhanced concentrations in foetal serum of bile acids, but not of PMS. UDCA treatment reduced bile acid accumulation in the mother-placenta-foetus trio, but had no significant effect on progesterone and PMS concentrations. ABCG2 mRNA abundance was increased in placentas from ICP patients vs. controls and remained stable following UDCA treatment, despite an apparent further increase in ABCG2. UDCA administration partially reduces ICP-induced bile acid accumulation in mothers and foetuses despite the lack of effect on concentrations of progesterone and PMS in maternal serum. Up-regulation of placental ABCG2 may play an important role in protecting the foetus from high concentrations of bile acids and PMS during ICP. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. The methoxychlor metabolite, HPTE, inhibits rat luteal cell progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Yucel; Derk, Raymond C; Meighan, Terence; Rao, K Murali Krishna; Murono, Eisuke P

    2011-07-01

    The methoxychlor metabolite, HPTE, was shown to inhibit P450-cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) activity resulting in decreased progesterone production by cultured ovarian follicular cells in previous studies. It is not known whether HPTE has any effect on progesterone formation by the corpus luteum. Exposure to 100 nM HPTE reduced progesterone production by luteal cells with progressive declines to progesterone formation and P450scc catalytic activity of hCG- or 8 Br-cAMP-stimulated luteal cells. However, HPTE did not alter mRNA and protein levels of P450scc. Compounds acting as estrogen (17 β-estradiol, bisphenol-A or octylphenol), antiestrogen (ICI) or antiandrogen (monobutyl phthalate, flutamide or M-2) added alone to luteal cells did not mimic the action of HPTE on progesterone and P450scc activity. These results suggest that HPTE directly inhibits P450scc catalytic activity resulting in reduced progesterone formation, and this action was not mediated through estrogen or androgen receptors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The role of progesterone in prevention of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie M Dodd

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Jodie M Dodd, Caroline A CrowtherDiscipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Preterm birth continues to provide an enormous challenge in the delivery of perinatal health care, and is associated with considerable short and long-term health consequences for surviving infants. Progesterone has a role in maintaining pregnancy, by suppression of the calcium–calmodulin–myosin light chain kinase system. Additionally, progesterone has recognized anti-inflammatory properties, raising a possible link between inflammatory processes, alterations in progesterone receptor expression and the onset of preterm labor. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of intramuscular and vaginal progesterone in women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth have been published, with primary outcomes of perinatal death, preterm birth <34 weeks, and neurodevelopmental handicap in childhood. Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic review, involving 2714 women and 3452 infants, with results presented according to the reason women were considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth. While there is a potential beneficial effect in the use of progesterone for some women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth, primarily in the reduction in the risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks gestation, it remains unclear if the observed prolongation of pregnancy translates into improved health outcomes for the infant.Keywords: progesterone, preterm birth, systematic review, randomized trial

  13. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Santin Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P<0.0001; 2.39 times, P=0.01; 1.58 times, P=0.0003; and 1.87 times, P<0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P<0.0001; 1.75 times, P=0.037; and 1.95 times, P<0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P=0.069. These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth.

  14. Effects of policosanol on borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol levels: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Castaño, PhD

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Clinical studies have shown that lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, is beneficial for patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol (TC levels (5.0–6.0 mmol/L. Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug made from purified sugar cane wax. The therapeutic range of policosanol is 5 to 20 mg/d. Objective: This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol 5 mg/d in patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum TC levels. Methods: This 14-week, single-center, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study was conducted in men and women aged 25 to 75 years with a serum TC level ≥4.8 to <6.0 mmol/L. After a 6-week run-in period in which patients were placed on therapeutic lifestyle changes, in particular a cholesterol-lowering diet, patients were randomly assigned to receive policosanol 5-mg tablets or placebo tablets once daily with the evening meal for 8 weeks, and the diet was continued throughout the study. Lipid profile variables, safety indicators, adverse events (AEs, and compliance with study medications were assessed. Results: One hundred patients (71 women, 29 men; mean [SD] age, 52 [10] years entered the study after the dietary run-in period. After 8 weeks of treatment, the mean (SD serum LDL-C level decreased significantly in the policosanol group (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo from 3.57 (0.30 mmol/L to 2.86 (0.41 mmol/L (change, −19.9%. Significantly more patients in the policosanol group (42 patients [84%] achieved a ≥15% decrease in serum LDL-C than in the placebo group (2 patients [4%] (P<0.001. Also in the policosanol group, the mean (SD serum TC level decreased significantly, from 5.20 (0.22 mmol/L to 4.56 (0.44 mmol/L (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo (change, −12.3%; the mean (SD triglyceride (TG

  15. Progesterone supplementation postinsemination improves fertility of cooled dairy cows during the summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E; Roth, Z; Voet, H; Lavon, Y; Wolfenson, D

    2012-06-01

    Reduced fertility of dairy cows during periods of elevated temperature, humidity, or both might be associated with low plasma progesterone concentration. Alleviation of thermal stress by efficient cooling is a prerequisite for improving fertility by hormonal treatment. We examined whether insertion of a controlled intravaginal drug-releasing (CIDR) insert containing progesterone following artificial insemination (AI) would improve summer conception rate. Control (n = 195) and treated (CIDR; n=165) cows, yielding on average 42.3 kg milk/d, were inseminated following estrus detection during the summer (July to October) in 2 commercial dairy herds in Israel. Mean maximal air temperature and relative humidity during the study were 30.2°C and 86%, respectively. All experimental cows were efficiently cooled throughout the study, as confirmed by measuring the body temperature of random cows. Treated cows received a CIDR insert on d 5 ± 1 post-AI for 13 d and pregnancy was confirmed by palpation 45 d post-AI. Plasma progesterone concentration in treated cows was elevated by approximately 1.5 ng/mL. Multiple logistic regressions were used to analyze conception rate. Treatment did not alter the overall conception rate; however, probability of conception increased in CIDR-treated cows with low body condition score (BCS) compared with their control counterparts (53 vs. 27%, respectively). A pronounced increase in probability of conception was recorded in CIDR-treated cows exhibiting both low BCS and postpartum reproductive disorders, compared with their control counterparts (58 vs. 14%, respectively). Exogenous progesterone supplementation on d 5 post-AI for 13 d improves summer fertility of subpopulations of cows exhibiting low BCS and postpartum reproductive disorders. Reproductive management based on specific hormonal treatment of designated subgroups of cows known to derive beneficial effects from it might improve treatment efficiency and reduce expenses. Copyright

  16. Effect of Progesterone on Latent Phase Prolongation in Patients With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abdali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM is a condition leading to an increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in pregnant women. To prevent this complication, some studies have proposed using prophylactic progesterone. However, due to lack of sufficient relevant data, there is still need for further studies in this regard. This study was performed to determine the effect of rectal progesterone on the latent phase and maternal and neonatal outcome variables in females with PPROM. During the present randomized clinical trial study (IRCT201512077676N4, a total of 120 patients with PPROM at pregnancy ages between 26 and 32 weeks were randomly assigned to 2 equal intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, progesterone suppositories (400 mg per night were administered until delivery or completion of the 34th gestational week and was compared with placebo effect in control group. The latent phase and maternal and neonatal outcome variables were compared between the two groups. The mean age of patients was 29.56±5.66 (19-42 and 29.88±5.57 (17-40 years in the intervention and control group, respectively. The two groups were almost identical in the confounding factors. The median latent phase was 8.5 days in the intervention group vs. 5 days in the control group in the 28th-30th weeks of gestation, which was significantly higher in the intervention group (P=0.001. Among maternal and neonatal outcome variables, only the mean birth-weight was significantly higher in the intervention group than that in the controls (1609.92±417.28 gr vs. 1452.03±342.35 gr, P=0.03. Administration of progesterone suppository in patients with PPROM at gestational ages of 28 to 30 weeks is effective in elongating the latent phase and increasing birth-weight with no significant complications.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of haloperidol in human serum: correlation of serum haloperidol with serum prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland, R.E.; Rubin, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of serum haloperidol is described. Compared to gaschromatography (GC), RIA vaues average 40% higher. However, a simple organic extraction of serum yields statistically equivalent RIA and GC haloperidol determinations. For both men and women combined, there was a positive correlation between dose (mg/kg/day) and steady-state serum haloperidol level (r = +0.86) and between steady-state serum haloperidol and serum prolactin (PRL) concentration

  18. Evaluation of Serum Specific Antibody against Recombinant ESAT-6 Antigen in Patients with Tuberculosis and Comparing to Normal Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homeira Izadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Tuberculosis (TB is a zoonotic disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Because of common structural and secretory antigens between pathogen and nonpathogenic mycobacterium, the specific diagnosis of TB is difficult. Therefore, it is very important to find a new method with high specificity and sensitivity for accurate and rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. In this study, the serodiagnostic potential of Mycobacterium tuberculosis recombinant ESAT-6 in TB infected patients was evaluated by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Materials & Methods: 55 TB patients with active disease and 28 healthy controls have been collected and evaluated in different dilutions in ELISA methods for the presence of specific anti-ESAT-6 antibody. The specificity and the sensitivity of this method was compared with the culture test. Results: TB patients have high levels of specific antibody against ESAT-6 antigens. The specificity and the sensitivity of this method was calculated as 80.90% and 85.45%, respectively. Conclusion: These findings provide useful information on the importance of ESAT-6 protein and suggested this serologic test as a good alternative method for rapid and prefect diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  19. Comparative characteristics of spermatozoa harvested and cryopreserved in culture and cryoprotectant media with or without donor serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata'Allah, Ghofraan A; Adenan, Noor Azmi Mat; Razali, Nuguelis; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Saad, Rosliza; Idris, Siti Khadijah; Kanniah, Krishnan; Ali, Jaffar

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of protein-free media in the preparation, holding and crypreservation of spermatazoa for use in ART. Normozoospermic semen samples (N=71) were used to compare the effects of media on the survival and quality of spermatozoa when washed and cultured with different media with and without added proteins at 4°C, 15°C, 22°C and 37°C for 0, 4-7 and 24h. Survival and quality of spermatozoa were assessed after freeze-thaw with synthetic cryoprotectant with and without proteins. Ethics/IRB approval was obtained (Ref. 1073.52). Spermatozoa parameters were similar in all media after washing and culture for 24h. Post-thaw survival and quality of spermatozoa was not significantly different 24h after thawing of samples frozen in all cryoprotectant medium. In conclusion synthetic protein-free culture and cryoprotectant media are equal in efficacy to protein-containing media in culture and cryopreservation of spermatozoa . Use of these synthetic media are anticipated to significantly reduce the risk, potentially associated with conventional protein-containing media, of transmission of disease and possibly harmful undeclared proteins to the patient, baby and the healtcare worker. Synthetic media also ensure consistency of quality between batches of media. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  20. Does the conceptus of the viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata participates in the regulation of progesterone production and the control of luteolysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, Martín; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Carmen; Cárdenas-León, Mario; Luis, Juana; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2014-08-01

    It is generally accepted that progesterone is necessary to maintain gestation; however, the mechanisms that control the production of this steroid remain unknown. The corpus luteum has been assigned a central role in the maintenance of gestation based on its capacity to produce progesterone. A pseudopregnancy model was performed in a viviparous lizard, Barisia imbricata imbricata, to determine whether the absence of embryos would affect the pattern of progesterone production or the corpus luteum histology. Blood samples were obtained prior to ovulation and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant and pregnant lizards), as well as one day after parturition (pregnant lizards) or 32 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant lizards). The corpus luteum was surgically removed one day after blood samples were obtained. Blood aliquots from nongravid females were obtained at similar timepoints. We found a significant reduction in plasma progesterone concentrations at 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation in pseudopregnant lizards compared with those observed at similar times in intact pregnant lizards, whereas the progesterone levels in non-gestant lizards remained significantly lower than in either pseudopregnant or pregnant lizards. Moreover, we observed that the histological appearance of the corpus luteum from pseudogestational females (obtained 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation) differed from the corpora lutea from lizards in late gestation and intact parturient lizards. These observations suggest that the conceptus participates in the regulation of progesterone production in late gestation and also in luteolysis control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Vaginal progesterone combined with cervical pessary: A chance for pregnancies at risk for preterm birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Nathanael; Timmesfeld, Nina; Kyvernitakis, Ioannis; Goerges, Janina; Arabin, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Precocious cervical ripening, as defined by cervical shortening on transvaginal sonography, has prompted a broad evaluation of secondary strategies (such as cerclage, vaginal progesterone, or a cervical pessary) to prevent preterm delivery. However, there is still a lack of direct comparisons between individual treatments or their combinations. We sought to compare at-risk patients and screening patients who had been treated with cervical pessary alone with patients who had been treated with pessary plus vaginal progesterone. This is a pre- and postintervention cohort study from a preterm labor clinic where placement of a cervical pessary has been the standard treatment since 2008 for at-risk women defined by (1) a history of spontaneous preterm birth at suppositories) was prescribed in addition to the pessary. Both at-risk patients (n = 55) and screening patients (n = 51) were treated at the time of diagnosis. The primary outcome was the rate of preterm deliveries at <34 weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes included deliveries at <28, <32, and <37 weeks of gestation, the days from start of therapy until delivery, a composite index of neonatal outcome, and the number of days in the neonatal intensive care unit. Primary and secondary outcomes were compared between groups with the use of multivariable models to adjust for possible confounders. Delivery at <34 weeks of gestation occurred in 17 of 53 patients (32.1%) who were treated with pessary plus progesterone, compared with 13 of 53 patients (24.5%) who were treated with pessary alone (P = .57). Similarly, there was no difference in the rate of preterm delivery at <28, <32, or <37 weeks of gestation. The composite poor neonatal outcome was 15.1% in the pessary group vs 18.9% in the combined group (P = .96). The mean duration of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit was 46.5 days (range, 9-130 days) in the combined vs 52.0 days (range, 3-151 days) in the pessary group (P < .001). In this cohort study

  2. [EEG alpha indices in dependence on the menstrual cycle phase and salivary progesterone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Kondratenko, A V; Kuz'minova, O I; Muravleva, K B; Petrova, S E

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the neurohumoral status on the EEG alpha - activity indices were studied in a within-subject design with 78 women aged 18-27 years during 1-2 menstrual cycle. Psychometric and EEG indices of alpha waves basal body temperature, saliva progesterone and cortisol level were monitored every 2-3 days. Menstrual and follicular recording sessions occurred before the ovulatory temperature rise, luteal recording session--after increasing progesterone level more than 20% respect to previous day and premenstrual sessions after decreasing progesterone level more that 20% respect to previous day. The design consisted of rest and task periods EEG, EMG and ECG recordings. Half the subjects began during their menstrual phase and half began during their luteal phase. All 5 phases were compared for differences between psychometric features EEG alpha activity, EMG and ECG baseline resting levels, as well as for reactivity to cognitive task. The results showed menstrual phase differences in all psychometric and alpha EEG indices. The cognitive fluency, alpha peak frequency, alpha band width, power in alpha-2 frequency range are maximal at luteal, alpha visual activation and reactivity to cognitive task performance--at follicular phase. The hypothesis that the EEG alpha activity depends on the hormonal status supported by the positive association salivary progesterone level with the alpha peak frequency, power in the alpha-2 band and negative--with the power of the alpha-1 band. According these results, we conclude that psycho-physiological recording sessions with women might be provided with a glance to phase of menstrual cycle.

  3. Progesterone improves the maturation of male-induced preovulatory follicles in anoestrous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Achraf; Freret, Sandrine; Touze, Jean-Luc; Lomet, Didier; Lardic, Lionel; Chesneau, Didier; Estienne, Anthony; Papillier, Pascal; Monniaux, Danielle; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa

    2014-10-01

    The first ovulation induced by male effect in sheep during seasonal anoestrus usually results in the development of a short cycle that can be avoided by progesterone priming before ram introduction. In elucidating the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the occurrence of short cycles, the effects of progesterone and the time of anoestrus on the development of male-induced preovulatory follicles were investigated in anoestrous ewes using morphological, endocrine and molecular approaches. Ewes were primed with progesterone for 2 (CIDR2) or 12 days (CIDR12) and untreated ewes used as controls during early (April) and late (June) anoestrus. The duration of follicular growth and the lifespan of the male-induced preovulatory follicles were prolonged by ∼1.6 days in CIDR12 ewes compared with the controls. These changes were accompanied by a delay in the preovulatory LH and FSH surges and ovulation. Intra-follicular oestradiol concentration and mRNA levels of LHCGR and STAR in the granulosa and theca cells of the preovulatory follicles were higher in CIDR12 ewes than the control ewes. The expression of mRNA levels of CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 also increased in theca cells of CIDR12 ewes. CIDR2 ewes gave intermediate results. Moreover, ewes ovulated earlier in June than in April, without changes in the duration of follicular growth, but these effects were unrelated to the lifespan of corpus luteum. Our results give the first evidence supporting the positive effect of progesterone priming on the completion of growth and maturation of preovulatory follicles induced by male effect in seasonal anoestrous ewes, thereby preventing short cycles. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  4. Combined treatment with progesterone and magnesium sulfate positively affects traumatic brain injury in immature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Nazan; Baykara, Basak; Kiray, Muge; Cetin, Ferihan; Aksu, Ilkay; Dayi, Ayfer; Gurpinar, Tugba; Ozdemir, Durgul; Arda, M Nuri

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that head trauma results in damage in hippocampal and cortical areas of the brain and impairs cognitive functions. The aim of this study is to explore the neuroprotective effect of combination therapy with magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) and progesterone in the 7-days-old rat pups subjected to contusion injury. Progesterone (8 mg/kg) and MgSO4 (150 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally immediately after induction of traumatic brain injury. Half of groups were evaluated 24 hours later, the remaining animals 3 weeks after trauma or sham surgery. Anxiety levels were assessed with open field activity and elevated plus maze; learning and memory performance were evaluated with Morris Water maze in postnatal 27 days. Combined therapy with progesterone and magnesium sulfate significantly attenuated trauma-induced neuronal death, increased brain VEGF levels and improved spatial memory deficits that appear later in life. Brain VEGF levels were higher in rats that received combined therapy compared to rats that received either medication alone. Moreover, rats that received combined therapy had reduced hipocampus and prefrontal cortex apoptosis in the acute period. These results demonstrate that combination of drugs with different mechanisms of action may be preferred in the treatment of head trauma.

  5. Autoimmune Progesterone Dermatitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Fatma Çetinözman Aksoy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune progesteron dermatitis (AIPD is a rare disorder which is characterized by cyclical premenstrual flares of cutaneous or mucocutaneous manifestations. We present a 36-year-old woman with a 2-year history of oral ulcers and a rash which presents a week before every menstruation. She also had a history of recurrent herpes labialis infection; however herpes simplex virus could not be detected by PCR in oral lesions. Routine laboratory investigations, as well as serum complement levels were normal, except for elevated ANA titer (1/160. Histopathological examination of one of the papules was consistent with erythema multiforme and immunobullous diseases were ruled out by negative immunofluorescence studies. Based on the history and the clinical features, AIPD was suspected and the diagnosis was confirmed by flare of the lesions after progesterone challenge test. Subsequently, oral tamoxifen was started which controlled her flares significantly and no major side effects except amenorrhea was observed during treatment. Next she was given spironolactone which did not control her symptoms, therefore oral prednisolone had to be introduced. Due to its rare occurence, clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnostic and treatment alternatives of AIPD are discussed in this study based on the review of the medical literature.

  6. Microsatellite instability typing in serum and tissue of patients with colorectal cancer: comparing real time PCR with hybridization probe and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarram, P; Rismanchi, M; Alizadeh Naeeni, M; Mirab Samiee, S; Paryan, M; Alipour, A; Honardar, Z; Kavousipour, S; Naghibalhossaini, F; Mostafavi-Pour, Z; Monabati, A; Hosseni, S V; Shamsdin, S A

    2014-05-01

    Allelic variation of BAT-25 (a 25-repeat quasimonomorphic poly T) and BAT-26 (a 26-repeat quasimonomorphic polyA) loci as two mononucleotide microsatellite markers, were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) compared with Real-Time PCR using hybridization probes. BAT-26 and BAT-25 markers were used to determine an appropriate screening technique with high sensitivity and specificity to diagnose microsatellite instability (MSI) status in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). One of the pathways in colorectal tumor genesis is microsatellite instability (MSI+). MSI is detected in about 15% of all CRCs; 3% are of these are associated with Lynch syndrome and the other 12% are caused by sporadic. Colorectal tumors with MSI have distinctive features compared with microsatellite stable tumors. Due to the high percentage of MSI+ CRC in Iran, screening of this type of CRC is imperative. Two markers were analyzed in tissues and sera of 44 normal volunteers and tumor and matched normal mucosal tissues as well as sera of 44 patients with sporadic CRC. The sensitivity and specificity of BAT-26 with real time PCR method (Hybridization probe) were 100% in comparison with sequencing method as the gold standard, while HPLC had a lower sensitivity and specificity. According to HPLC data, BAT-26 was more sensitive than BAT-25 in identifying MSI tumors. Therefore, MSI typing using the BAT-26 hybridization probe method compared to HPLC could be considered as an accurate method for diagnosing MSI in CRC tumors but not in serum circulating DNAs.

  7. High serum testosterone levels during postpartum period are associated with postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathi, A; Rajendiren, Soundravally; Nimesh, Archana; Philip, R Ravi; Kattimani, Shivanand; Jayalakshmi, D; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Dhiman, Pooja

    2015-10-01

    In view of the reported cases of mood disorders that occur in mothers following childbirth and believing that sex steroid hormones contribute to mood and behavioral changes, this study has been aimed to explore the role of sex steroid hormones as an etiological factor for postpartum depression (PPD). This study was conducted at JIPMER, Puducherry, India between January 2010 and 2011. 103 women were recruited in the study after childbirth, out of which 62 women who were believed to be suffering from PPD were categorized as cases and the remaining 41 with no mood changes as controls, using Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) (cases had EPDS score ≥10 at 24-28h, controls had score postpartum). The hormones estimated in these two groups included estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, and their levels were compared between these two groups. A significantly high testosterone levels were observed in cases with PPD at 24-28h when compared to controls. Estradiol and progesterone levels did not show significant difference between cases and controls. ROC analysis done at 24-28h showed that testosterone levels beyond 42.71ng/mL predict the development of PPD with 79% sensitivity, 63% specificity, 68% positive predictive value, 74% negative predictive value with AUC being 0.708. This study shows that there is an association between persistent high serum testosterone level in women following childbirth and PPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of metformin compared with hypocaloric diet on serum C-reactive protein level and insulin resistance in obese and overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahanian, Fatemeh; Zamani, Mohammad Mahdi; Heshmat, Ramin; Moini nia, Fatemeh

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of Metformin compared with a hypocaloric diet on C-reactive protein (CRP) level and markers of insulin resistance in obese and overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Forty women with body mass index ≥ 27 and PCOS were randomly allocated to receive either Metformin or hypocaloric diet and were assessed before and after a treatment period of 12 weeks. High-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and markers of insulin resistance (IR), homeostasis model assessment-IR, quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index and fasting glucose to insulin ratio were evaluated in each patient. A total of 10 subjects did not complete the trial (three patients in the Metformin group and seven patients in the diet group) and a total of 30 subjects completed the trial (17 subjects in the Metformin group and 13 subjects in the diet group). Serum concentration of hs-CRP significantly decreased in both the Metformin (5.29 ± 2.50 vs 3.81 ± 1.99, P = 0.008) and diet groups (6.08 ± 2.14 vs 4.27 ± 1.60, P = 0.004). There were no significant differences in mean hs-CRP decrement between the two groups. Decrease in hs-CRP levels was significantly correlated with waist circumference in the diet group (r = 0.8, P hypocaloric diet with 5-10% weight reduction on markers of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment-IR, fasting glucose to insulin ratio, quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index) was better than Metformin therapy (P = 0.001). Although weight reduction has equal efficacy with Metformin in decreasing serum hs-CRP levels, it was significantly more effective in improving insulin resistance in obese and overweight PCOS women. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT® analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Stricker, Reto; Eberhart, Raphael; Chevailler, Marie-Christine; Quinn, Frank A.; Bischof, Paul; Stricker, René

    2017-01-01

    During a normal menstrual cycle, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and progesterone can vary widely between cycles for the same woman, as well as between different woman. Reliable reference values based on the local population are important for correct interpretation of laboratory results. The purpose of our study was to determine detailed reference values for these hormones throughout the menstrual cycle using the Abbott ARCHITECT system...

  10. Validation of kinetic modeling of progesterone release from polymeric membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Irma Romero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling in drug release systems is fundamental in development and optimization of these systems, since it allows to predict drug release rates and to elucidate the physical transport mechanisms involved. In this paper we validate a novel mathematical model that describes progesterone (Prg controlled release from poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB membranes. A statistical analysis was conducted to compare the fitting of our model with six different models and the Akaike information criterion (AIC was used to find the equation with best-fit. A simple relation between mass and drug released rate was found, which allows predicting the effect of Prg loads on the release behavior. Our proposed model was the one with minimum AIC value, and therefore it was the one that statistically fitted better the experimental data obtained for all the Prg loads tested. Furthermore, the initial release rate was calculated and therefore, the interface mass transfer coefficient estimated and the equilibrium distribution constant of Prg between the PHB and the release medium was also determined. The results lead us to conclude that our proposed model is the one which best fits the experimental data and can be successfully used to describe Prg drug release in PHB membranes.

  11. Immunohistochemical Expression of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Epulis Fissuratum

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    Maryam Seyedmajidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epulis Fissuratum (Epulis Fissuratum (EF or Denture Epulis or inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia is a common hyperplastic tumor-like lesion with reactive nature, related to loose and ill-fitting, full or partial removable dentures and it is more common in women than men. For this reason, hormonal influences may also play role in its creation. The effect of steroid hormones especially sex hormones (Estrogen and progesterone on oral mucosa is identified in some studies. In the present study, the distribution pattern and presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in epithelial, stromal, endothelial and inflammatory cells in Epulis Fissuratum was investigated. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 samples of paraffin blocks with Epulis Fissuratum diagnosis and 30 samples of normal mucosal tissues as a control group who have had surgery as a margin beside the above lesions and had been obtained from the oral and maxillofacial pathology departement of Babol Dental School since 2003 up to 2010. Intensity of staining and immunoreactivity were evaluated using subjective index and considering the positive control group (breast carcinoma.Results: Epithelial, stromal, endothelial and inflammatory cells didn’t show reaction with monoclonal antibodies against estrogen and progesterone in none of the samples. Conclusion: It seems that the hypothesis of the existence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in epulis fissuratum and normal oral mucosa is ruled out. The possibility of direct effect of estrogen and progesterone in occurring of epulis fissuratum is rejected.

  12. Selective suppression of endothelial cytokine production by progesterone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Lauren M; Ton, Amy N; Org, Tõnis; Mikkola, Hanna K A; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones are well-recognized suppressors of the inflammatory response, however, their cell- and tissue-specific effects in the regulation of inflammation are far less understood, particularly for the sex-related steroids. To determine the contribution of progesterone in the endothelium, we have characterized and validated an in vitro culture system in which human umbilical vein endothelial cells constitutively express human progesterone receptor (PR). Using next generation RNA-sequencing, we identified a selective group of cytokines that are suppressed by progesterone both under physiological conditions and during pathological activation by lipopolysaccharide. In particular, IL-6, IL-8, CXCL2/3, and CXCL1 were found to be direct targets of PR, as determined by ChIP-sequencing. Regulation of these cytokines by progesterone was also confirmed by bead-based multiplex cytokine assays and quantitative PCR. These findings provide a novel role for PR in the direct regulation of cytokine levels secreted by the endothelium. They also suggest that progesterone-PR signaling in the endothelium directly impacts leukocyte trafficking in PR-expressing tissues. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative evaluation of serum C-reactive protein levels in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients and association with periodontal disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Lata; Bey, Afshan; Gupta, N D; Sharma, Vivek Kumar

    2014-10-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant and has been proved to be a significant predictor of future cardiovascular events. Recent studies have demonstrated a correlation between periodontitis and elevated CRP levels. However, most of the studies have focused on chronic periodontitis and very few studies are done in patients with aggressive periodontitis. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the relative levels of serum CRP in aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients. A total of 75 systemically healthy subjects were divided into three groups: Group I, nonperiodontitis subjects; group II, chronic generalized periodontitis patients and group III, generalized aggressive periodontitis patients. All participants were subjected to quantitative CRP analysis using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mean CRP levels were significantly greater in both group II and III as compared to group I and group III having greater level than group II. Furthermore, CRP levels positively correlated with the amount of periodontal destruction as measured by probing depth and clinical attachment loss. The present study indicates a positive correlation between CRP and periodontal disease severity with particular concern in younger individuals that could be a possible underlying pathway in the association between periodontal disease and the observed higher risk for cardiovascular disease in periodontitis patients.

  14. Comparative studies on drug binding to the purified and pharmaceutical-grade human serum albumins: Bridging between basic research and clinical applications of albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi-Kooshk, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahimi, Farangis; Ranjbar, Samira; Ghobadi, Sirous; Moradi, Nastaran; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2015-09-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in blood plasma, is a monomeric multidomain protein that possesses an extraordinary capacity for binding, so that serves as a circulating depot for endogenous and exogenous compounds. During the heat sterilization process, the structure of pharmaceutical-grade HSA may change and some of its activities may be lost. In this study, to provide deeper insight on this issue, we investigated drug-binding and some physicochemical properties of purified albumin (PA) and pharmaceutical-grade albumin (PGA) using two known drugs (indomethacin and ibuprofen). PGA displayed significantly lower drug binding capacity compared to PA. Analysis of the quenching and thermodynamic parameters indicated that intermolecular interactions between the drugs and the proteins are different from each other. Surface hydrophobicity as well as the stability of PGA decreased compared to PA, also surface hydrophobicity of PA and PGA increased upon drugs binding. Also, kinetic analysis of pseudo-esterase activities indicated that Km and Vmax parameters for PGA enzymatic activity are more and less than those of PA, respectively. This in vitro study demonstrates that the specific drug binding of PGA is significantly reduced. Such studies can act as connecting bridge between basic research discoveries and clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of performance of a PCR-based assay to detect DNA of Aspergillus fumigatus in whole blood and serum: a comparative study with clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Martínez, Leticia; Gago, Sara; Buitrago, María J; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    The performance of a real-time PCR-based assay was retrospectively analyzed (according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group criteria) in the samples of patients with invasive aspergillosis. A total of 711 serial samples (356 whole-blood and 355 serum samples) from 38 adult patients were analyzed. The Aspergillus fumigatus PCR assay results were positive for 89 of 356 (25%) whole-blood samples and 90 of 355 (25.35%) serum samples. Positive PCR results were seen in 29 of 31 (93.5%) patients for which serum was analyzed and in 31 of 33 (93.9%) cases with whole-blood specimens. Both blood and serum samples were available in 26 cases, and significant differences were not observed in this subgroup of cases. The average number of threshold cycles (C(T)) for positive blood samples was 37.6, and the average C(T) for serum was 37.4. The DNA concentration ranged between 2 and 50 fg per μl of sample, with average DNA concentrations of 10.2 and 11.7 fg in positive blood and serum samples, respectively (P > 0.01). The performance of this PCR-based quantitative assay was similar for both serum and blood samples. We recommend serum samples as the most convenient hematological sample to use for Aspergillus DNA quantification when serial determinations are done.

  16. Study on the relationship between serum sex hormones levels and essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qingzhang; Yang Xiuhong; Di Fang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible relationship existing between serum sex hormones levels and development of essential hypertension. Methods: Serum sex hormones (LH, FSH, E 2 , P, T) levels were determined with RIA in 87 males and 81 post-menopausal women with essential hypertension as well as in 44 normotensive males and 40 normotensive post-menopausal women serving as controls. Results: The serum E 2 , progesterone and testosterone levels in the hypertensives were significantly higher than those in the respective controls (P 0.05). Sex hormones levels were not much different among hypertensives of various stages (I , II, III). The serum E 2 levels in male hypertensives and progesterone levels in female hypertensives were not correlated with the respective FSH and LH levels. Conclusion: The authors suggested that the changes of serum sex hormones levels might be a risk factor rather than a consequence of the development of essential hypertension. (authors)

  17. Elevated basal progesterone levels are associated with increased preovulatory progesterone rise but not with higher pregnancy rates in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Erdem, Mehmet; Mutlu, Ilknur; Bulut, Berk; Erdem, Ahmet

    2017-09-01

    To ascertain the association between basal progesterone (P) levels and the occurrence of preovulatory progesterone rise (PPR) and clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists. Serum P levels of 464 patients were measured on day 2 and day of hCG of cycles. Cycles with basal P levels>1.6ng/mL were cancelled. All embryos were cryopreserved in cycles with P levels≥2ng/mL on the day of hCG. The primary outcome measures were the incidence of PPR (P>1.5ng/mL) and CPR with regard to basal P. Basal P levels were significantly higher in cycles with PPR than in those without PPR (0.63±0.31 vs. 0.48±0.28ng/mL). Area under the curve for basal P according to ROC analysis to discriminate between elevated and normal P levels on the day of hCG was 0.65 (0.58-0.71 95% CI, pcycles with and without PPR was 0.65ng/mL. Cycles with basal P levels above 0.65ng/mL had a significantly higher incidence of PPR (30.9% vs. 13.5%) but similar clinical and cumulative pregnancy rates (38.8% vs. 31.1% and 41.7% vs. 32.6%, respectively) in comparison to cycles with basal P levels below 0.65ng/mL. In multivariate regression analysis, basal P levels, LH level on the first day of antagonist administration, and estradiol levels on the day of hCG trigger were the variables that predicted PPR. Basal P levels were associated with increased incidence of PPR but not with CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Differences in serum IgA responses to HIV-1 gp41 in elite controllers compared to viral suppressors on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq Nabi

    Full Text Available Mechanisms responsible for natural control of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV replication in elite controllers (EC remain incompletely defined. To determine if EC generate high quality HIV-specific IgA responses, we used Western blotting to compare the specificities and frequencies of IgA to HIV antigens in serum of gender-, age- and race-matched EC and aviremic controllers (HC and viremic noncontrollers (HN on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Concentrations and avidity of IgA to HIV antigens were measured using ELISA or multiplex assays. Measurements for IgG were performed in parallel. EC were found to have stronger p24- and V1V2-specific IgG responses than HN, but there were no IgG differences for EC and HC. In contrast, IgA in EC serum bound more frequently to gp160 and gag proteins than IgA in HC or HN. The avidity of anti-gp41 IgA was also greater in EC, and these subjects had stronger IgA responses to the gp41 heptad repeat region 1 (HR1, a reported target of anti-bacterial RNA polymerase antibodies that cross react with gp41. However, EC did not demonstrate greater IgA responses to E. coli RNA polymerase or to peptides containing the shared LRAI sequence, suggesting that most of their HR1-specific IgA antibodies were not induced by intestinal microbiota. In both EC and HAART recipients, the concentrations of HIV-specific IgG were greater than HIV-specific IgA, but their avidities were comparable, implying that they could compete for antigen. Exceptions were C1 peptides and V1V2 loops. IgG and IgA responses to these antigens were discordant, with IgG reacting to V1V2, and IgA reacting to C1, especially in EC. Interestingly, EC with IgG hypergammaglobulinemia had greater HIV-specific IgA and IgG responses than EC with normal total IgG levels. Heterogeneity in EC antibody responses may therefore be due to a more focused HIV-specific B cell response in some of these individuals. Overall, these data suggest that development of

  19. Changes in serum lipids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with a combination of tocilizumab and methotrexate compared with methotrexate alone for 24 weeks of observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Udachkina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to the some studies tocilizumab therapy (TCZ in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA is accompanied by deterioration of blood lipid profile. Aim. To study changes in serum lipid parameters in patients with RA treated with a combination of tocilizumab and methotrexate compared with methotrexate alone for 24 weeks of observation. Material and methods. Patients (n=72 with RA were included into the pilot non-randomized 24-week study and divided in two groups: 1 TCZ+MTX group (n=39; women 30; median age 51 [43-55] years; 6 i.v. infusions of TCZ 8 mg/kg + МТX 10-20 mg/week; 2 MTX group (n=33; women 23; mеdian age 56 [48-63] years; MTX 7.5-20 mg/week. Results. At the baseline, similar proatherogenic blood profile was observed in both groups. The patients of MTX group more frequently took statins (n=19; 57.6% compared with the group TCZ+MTX (n=7; 18%, (p<0.05. The lipid levels correlated positively with traditional risk factors (p<0.05. RA activity and duration correlated negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, (p<0.05. Good/satisfactory anti-inflammatory effect was achieved in both groups after 24 weeks of treatment. Patients of TCZ+MTX group showed an increase in total cholesterol and HDL-C levels by 11% and 110%, respectively and decrease in plasma atherogenic index (PAI by 47%, (p<0.05. HDL-C level increased by 22% and PAI decreased by 16% in patients of MTX group (p<0.05. Among patients of MTX group without statin therapy HDL-C as well as non-HDL-C levels were increased by 24% and 27%, respectively (p<0.05; PAI did not change significantly in this subgroup. Among patients of MTX group treated with statins isolated increase in HDL-C level by 22% and decrease in PAI by 37.3% (p<0.05 were observed. A number of patients with achieved target levels of all studied lipid parameters did not change significantly in both groups. Conclusions. TCZ+MTX combined therapy as well as MTX monotherapy are associated

  20. Changes in uptake of 3H-progesterone by female rat brain and pituitary from birth to sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presl, J.; Figarova, V.; Herzmann, J.; Roehling, S.

    1975-01-01

    3 H-progesterone uptake by various parts of the brain, pituitary and skeletal muscle was compared in newborn, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25-and 50-day-old female rats at 1 hr after a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 μCi/100 g body weight. High uptake values in newborn animals and in those aged 5 days were found in all tissues investigated. A sharp decrease in accumulation was observed from birth and/or 5th day of life. The uptake by the pituitary was higher than those by other tissues investigated. The ratio of radioactivity concentration between the tissues and the cerebellar cortex increased significantly only in the posterior hypothalamus of adult females (at the age of 50 days). In the pituitary the ratio tissue/cortex was already significantly higher in newborns. The high level of brain radioactivity in the youngest animals probably was a manifestation of high plasma concentrations of the tritiated progesterone. The striking decrease in the uptake of radioactivity by the brain and pituitary during the first two weeks of life most likely reflected a decreased level of plasma radioactivity, as shown indirectly by the concomitant decrease in the labelled progesterone uptake by the skeletal muscle. The increase in the tissue/cortex ratio in the posterior hypothalamus with the attainment of sexual maturity suggested the first appearance of a specific binding capacity for the progesterone which is present in the pituitary since birth. (author) assumed to be

  1. Effects of endogenous and exogenous progesterone on emotional intelligence in cocaine-dependent men and women who also abuse alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milivojevic, Verica; Sinha, Rajita; Morgan, Peter T; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Fox, Helen C

    2014-11-01

    As sex differences in substance dependence may impinge upon the perception and regulation of emotion, we assess emotional intelligence (EI) as a function of gender, menstrual cycle (MC) phase and hormonal changes in early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals who abuse alcohol (CDA). Study 1: The Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was administered to 98 CDA (55 M/43 F) and 56 healthy (28 M/28 F) individuals. Performance in women was also assessed by MC phase. Study 2: The MSCEIT was administered to 28 CDA (19 M/9 F) who received exogenous progesterone (400 mg/day) versus placebo for 7 days (study 2). Study 1: Healthy females were better than healthy males at facilitating thought and managing emotions. This gender discrepancy was not observed in the CDA group. Additionally, all women in the high compared with the low progesterone phase of their MC were better at managing their emotions. Study 2: Exogenous progesterone improved ability to facilitate thought in both males and females. CDA women may be vulnerable to difficulties managing and regulating emotions. Gonadal hormones may contribute to this gender effect, as increases in both endogenous and exogenous progesterone improved selective aspects of EI. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Biotransformation of Progesterone by the Ascomycete Aspergillus niger N402.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinova, O S; Solyev, P N; Vasina, D V; Tyazhelova, T V; Fedorova, T V; Savinova, T S

    2018-01-01

    The ability of the ascomycete Aspergillus niger N402 to transform exogenous progesterone was investigated. We found that this strain has steroid-hydroxylating activity and can introduce a hydroxyl group into the progesterone molecule mainly at positions C11(α) and C21 with predominant formation of 21-hydroxyprogesterone (deoxycortone). In addition, formation of 6β,11α-dihydroxyprogesterone was also observed. Studying the effects of the growth medium composition and temperature on progesterone conversion by A. niger N402 showed that the most intense accumulation of 21-hydroxyprogesterone occurred in minimal synthetic medium at 28°C. Increasing the cultivation temperature to 37°C resulted in almost complete inhibition of the hydroxylase activity in the minimal medium. In the complete medium, a similar increase in temperature inhibited 11α-hydroxylase activity and completely suppressed 6β-hydroxylase activity, but it produced no effect on 21-hydroxylating activity.

  3. Evaluation of reproductive performance using milk progesterone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimers, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Dairy herds (472) in the northeastern United States of America were surveyed to evaluate reproductive performance. Error of oestrus detection (>> 1 ng/mL of milk progesterone) on the day of insemination was 5.1% for 4558 cows. 'Standing' and 'riding other cows' were the most accurate signs of oestrus. Of cows in or near oestrus when inseminated, 28.1% were open three weeks later, 12.9% were probably open, and 59% were probably pregnant according to milk progesterone analysis. Post-partum days to first insemination and conception rates showed positive correlation. Concentrations of progesterone in milk samples collected 21 to 24 days after service allowed prediction with 88.6% accuracy that a cow was pregnant and with 93.9% accuracy that she was not. By rectal palpation, veterinarians predicted with 92.5% accuracy that a cow was pregnant. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs

  4. Milk samples collected with filter paper for progesterone radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiahua, Zhang; Guoxia, Geng; Huaiyu, Zhang

    1985-09-01

    The cow milk was collected with filter paper treated with ethanol during eastrus-day (0 day) and 22th and 24th day after mating. Then it was dried and stored in room temprature until analysis for progesterone by means of radioimmunoassay. The sensitivity is 13.62 pg/bule (n = 4), the coefficients of variation within a group and between groups are 8.8% (n = 10) and 16.65% (n = 8) respectively, and the recovery is 91.23% (n = 4). The average progesterone level for 22th and 24th day in the pregnant cows (6.28 +- 1.28 ng/ml) was much higher than that in the non-pregnant cow (2.00 +- 1.18 ng/ml), the difference being significant (P < 0.001). The judgement based on progesterone level (5 pregnant and 5 non-pregnant cows) faily agreed with the clinical diagnosis.

  5. A comparative study of some physico-chemical properties of human serum albumin samples from different sources--I : Some physico-chemical properties of isoionic human serum albumin solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröge, J.H.M.; Janssen, L.H.M.; Wilting, J.

    1982-01-01

    Human serum albumin samples from different sources were investigated. The fatty acid content of the albumin before and after deionization on a mixed bed ion-exchange column varied from sample to sample. When an albumin sample from one source was deionized under standard conditions the amount of

  6. Comparison of Risk of Preterm Labor between Vaginal Progesterone and17-Alpha-Hydroxy-Progesterone Caproate in Women with Threatened Abortion: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beigi Abootaleb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Threatened miscarriage is a common complication in pregnancy that leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm labor. This study aimed to compare the vaginal progesterone (Cyclogest versus 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (Proluton on preventing preterm labor in pregnant women with threatened abortion at less than 34 weeks’ gestational age. Materials and methods This balanced randomized, double-blind, single-center controlled clinical trial included 190 women with threatened abortion. They were then randomly allocated into Cyclogest (n=95 and 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (Proluton, n=95 groups. Interested outcome was preterm labor less than 34 weeks. The Pearson chi-square and Student’s t test were used to compare two groups. The data were analyzed by Stata software version 13. Results The risks of preterm labor less than 34 weeks in Proluton and Cyclogest groups were 8.6 and 6.52%, respectively. There was no significant difference for risk of preterm labor less than 34 weeks [relative ratio (RR: 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.47- 3.66, P=0.59] between two groups. Conclusion Risk of preterm labor in the vaginal progesterone group and 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate group in pregnant women with threatened abortion is the same (Registration Number: IRCT2014123120504N1.

  7. Circadian profiling reveals higher histamine plasma levels and lower diamine oxidase serum activities in 24% of patients with suspected histamine intolerance compared to food allergy and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzer, T C; Tietz, E; Waldmann, E; Schink, M; Neurath, M F; Zopf, Y

    2018-04-01

    Histamine intolerance is thought to trigger manifold clinical symptoms after ingesting histamine-rich food due to reduced activity of diamine oxidase (DAO). No study has hitherto systematically assessed daily fluctuations of histamine levels and DAO activities in symptomatic patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of histamine intolerance, to therefore establish day profiles of histamine levels and DAO activities, and to compare the results between patients with suspected histamine intolerance, food allergy and healthy controls. We determined day profiles of histamine plasma levels and DAO serum activities in 33 patients with suspected histamine intolerance, in 21 patients with proven food allergy and in 10 healthy control patients. Clinical symptoms, food intolerances and further clinical and laboratory chemical parameters were evaluated. Twenty-four percent (8 of 33) suspected histamine-intolerant patients showed elevated histamine levels during the day. That might be caused by constantly and significantly reduced DAO activities in these patients compared to food-allergic and control patients. The remaining 25 patients presented normal histamine levels and DAO activities, but an increased prevalence of multiple food intolerances compared to the other subgroup of suspected histamine-intolerants. There was no correlation between subjective complaints and serological histamine parameters in patients with suspected histamine intolerance. We determined by daily profiling that decreased DAO activities correlated with elevated histamine levels in a subgroup of suspected histamine-intolerants. This finding discriminates these patients from food intolerant individuals with similar clinical symptoms and strongly suggests the presence of histamine intolerance. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  8. Comparative analysis the binding affinity of mycophenolic sodium and meprednisone with human serum albumin: Insight by NMR relaxation data and docking simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoli; He, Jiawei; Yan, Jin; Wang, Qing; Li, Hui

    2016-03-25

    Mycophenolic sodium is an immunosuppressive agent that is always combined administration with corticosteroid in clinical practice. Considering the distribution and side-effect of the drug may change when co-administrated drug exist, this paper comparatively analyzed the binding ability of mycophenolic sodium and meprednisone toward human serum albumin by nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation data and docking simulation. The nuclear magnetic resonance approach was based on the analysis of proton selective and non-selective relaxation rate enhancement of the ligand in the absence and presence of macromolecules. The contribution of the bound ligand fraction to the observed relaxation rate in relation to protein concentration allowed the calculation of the affinity index. This approach allowed the comparison of the binding affinity of mycophenolic sodium and meprednisone. Molecular modeling was operated to simulate the binding model of ligand and albumin through Autodock 4.2.5. Competitive binding of mycophenolic sodium and meprednisone was further conducted through fluorescence spectroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibin secretion in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome before and after treatment with progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anifandis George

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives It has been suggested that inhibin secretion is altered in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. However, the contribution of a preceding luteal phase has not been taken into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether progesterone in the context of a simulated luteal phase affects basal and FSH-induced inhibin secretion in women with PCOS and elevated LH. Methods Ten women with PCOS and 8 normally cycling women participated in an experimental procedure (Exp involving the administration of a single injection of recombinant FSH (450 IU sc. In the women with PCOS, the procedure was performed before (Exp 1 and after a 20-day treatment with progesterone (Exp 2, while in the normal women on day 2 of the cycle (Exp 3. Inhibin A and B levels were measured in blood samples taken before and 24 hours after the FSH injection. Results Basal LH levels were significantly higher and inhibin A levels were significantly lower in the PCOS group compared to the control group, while inhibin B levels were comparable in the two groups. In the PCOS group, after treatment with progesterone inhibin A and LH but not inhibin B levels decreased significantly (p Conclusions In women with PCOS, as compared to control women, the dissimilar pattern of inhibin A and inhibin B secretion in response to FSH appears to be independent of a preceding simulated luteal phase. It is possible that compared to normal ovaries, the PCOS ovaries are less sensitive to endogenous LH regarding inhibin A secretion and more sensitive to exogenous FSH stimulation in terms of inhibin A and inhibin B secretion.

  10. Growth differentiation factor 9 reverses activin A suppression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression and progesterone production in human granulosa-lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng-Tao; Cheung, Anthony P; Klausen, Christian; Huang, He-Feng; Leung, Peter C K

    2010-10-01

    We have reported that growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) can enhance activin A (β(A)β(A))-induced inhibin B (αβ(B)) secretion in human granulosa-lutein (hGL) cells, but its effects on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), ovarian steroidogenic enzymes, and progesterone production are unknown. We undertook this study to further evaluate GDF9 in this regard. hGL cells from women undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment were cultured with and without small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection targeted at inhibin α-subunit or GDF9 before treatment with GDF9, activin A, FSH, or combinations. We compared StAR, P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in hGL cells and progesterone levels in culture media after these treatments. mRNA, protein, and hormone levels were assessed with real-time RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and ELISA, respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Activin A alone reduced basal and FSH-induced progesterone production by decreasing the expression of StAR protein, which regulates the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis but not P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. GDF9 attenuated these activin A effects on StAR and progesterone. After transfection of α-subunit siRNA, activin A level increased (P progesterone production were attenuated (P progesterone secretion than those observed with activin A treatment alone. GDF9 attenuates the suppressive effects of activin A on StAR expression and progesterone production by increasing the expression of inhibin B, which acts as an activin A competitor.

  11. Sera of patients with recurrent miscarriages containing anti-trophoblast antibodies (ATAB) reduce hCG and progesterone production in trophoblast cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schönfeldt, Viktoria; Rogenhofer, Nina; Ruf, Katharina; Thaler, Christian J; Jeschke, Udo

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive failure including RM has been suggested to correlate with antibodies that cross react with HLA-negative syncytiotrophoblasts and we have reported that 17% of women with 2 or more miscarriages and 34% of women with 3 or more miscarriages express anti-trophoblast antibodies (ATAB). Until now, the mechanism, how ATAB interfere with pregnancy success is not known. HCG and progesterone both play fundamental roles in supporting human pregnancy. Therefore we investigated the effects of sera of RM patients containing ATAB on the hCG and progesterone production of cells of the choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. In vitro study to investigate effects of patient sera with and without ATAB on hCG and progesterone secretion of JEG-3 cells. The presence of ATAB was detected as described earlier. Effects of sera from ATAB positive and ATAB negative RM patients on hCG and progesterone secretion by JEG-3 cells were analysed 12 and 24h after plating. Sera of women without pregnancy pathologies served as controls. Sera of ATAB-positive RM patients significantly inhibit hCG secretion of JEG-3 cells for 12h after plating compared to sera of healthy controls (p=0.019) and significantly reduce progesterone production for 12h (p=0.046) and 24h (p=0.027) of co-culture. Sera of ATAB-negative RM patient show no significant effect on progesterone secretion. Inhibition of hCG and progesterone production might point to a mechanism, how ATAB interfere with early pregnancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of Progesterone Treatment for the Prevention of Recurrent Preterm Birth: Identification of Obstacles to Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Arianne C.; Goossens, Astrid; Ravelli, Anita C. J.; Boer, Kees; Bruinse, Hein W.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2010-01-01

    Progesterone treatment has proven to be effective in preventing recurrent preterm birth. The use of progesterone varies widely between different obstetric clinics in the Netherlands. The study aimed to identify factors that hamper or facilitate the use of progesterone to create an implementation

  13. Implications of progesterone metabolism in MA-10 cells for accurate measurement of the rate of steroidogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.F.G. Rommerts (Focko); S.R. King (Steven); P.N. Span (Paul)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn virtually all studies with MA-10 cells, progesterone RIAs have been used to measure steroid synthesis. To test whether progesterone is a stable end product, we investigated the metabolism of added tritiated progesterone and pregnenolone in MA-10 cells over a period

  14. A functional polymorphism in the promoter of the progesterone receptor gene associated with endometrial cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vivo, Immaculata; Huggins, Gordon S; Hankinson, Susan E; Lescault, Pamela J; Boezen, Hendrika; Colditz, Graham A; Hunter, David J

    2002-01-01

    Excessive estrogen stimulation unopposed by progesterone strongly predisposes to endometrial cancer. Because the antiproliferative effect of progesterone requires the progesterone receptor (PR), which exists in two isoforms, PR-A and -B, we reasoned that variants in the PR gene may predispose to

  15. Implications of progesterone metabolism in MA-10 cells for accurate measurement of the rate of steroidogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommerts, F.F.; King, S.R.; Span, P.N.

    2001-01-01

    In virtually all studies with MA-10 cells, progesterone RIAs have been used to measure steroid synthesis. To test whether progesterone is a stable end product, we investigated the metabolism of added tritiated progesterone and pregnenolone in MA-10 cells over a period of 3 h. Steroids were then

  16. Determination of progesterone for reproduction control in cows using a 3H radioimmunoassay. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubert, H.; Barth, T.; Hempel, G.; Graeser, K.

    1984-01-01

    For verification of cow fertility a 3 H radioimmunoassay of progesterone in milk and blood plasma was developed. It is of high specificity and accuracy as well. Extraction of progesterone from milk was facilitated by application of alcohol. Suggested differences in milk and plasma progesterone levels between pregnant and nonpregnant cows could be revealed

  17. Milk progesterone on day 5 following insemination in the dairy cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the importance of progesterone on the fertility of lactating dairy cows, the factors that affect post ovulatory progesterone concentration are still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the post ovulatory progesterone rise following 1st insemination in lactating dairy cows.

  18. Vaginal progesterone to prevent preterm birth in pregnant women with a sonographic short cervix: clinical and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Romero, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Vaginal progesterone administration to women with a sonographic short cervix is an efficacious and safe intervention used to prevent preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The clinical and public health implications of this approach in the United States have been critically appraised and compared to other therapeutic interventions in obstetrics. Vaginal progesterone administration to women with a transvaginal sonographic cervical length (CL) ≤25 mm before 25 weeks of gestation is associated with a significant and substantial reduction of the risk for preterm birth from effects have been achieved in women with a singleton gestation, with or without a history of spontaneous preterm birth, and did not differ significantly as a function of CL (effectiveness and decision analyses have shown that the combination of universal transvaginal CL screening and vaginal progesterone administration to women with a short cervix is a cost-effective intervention that prevents preterm birth and associated perinatal morbidity and mortality. Universal assessment of CL and treatment with vaginal progesterone for singleton gestations in the United States would result in an annual reduction of approximately 30,000 preterm births before 34 weeks of gestation and of 17,500 cases of major neonatal morbidity or neonatal mortality. In summary, there is compelling evidence to recommend universal transvaginal CL screening at 18-24 weeks of gestation in women with a singleton gestation and to offer vaginal progesterone to those with a CL ≤25 mm, regardless of the history of spontaneous preterm birth, with the goal of preventing preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Estrogen and progesterone receptor testing in breast carcinoma: concordance of results between local and reference laboratories in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cristina Lordelo Wludarski

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer accounts for approximately one quarter of all cancers in females. Estrogen and progesterone receptor testing has become an essential part of the clinical evaluation of breast carcinoma patients, and accurate results are critical in identifying patients who may benefit from hormone therapy. The present study had the aim of investigating the concordance of the results from hormone receptor tests between a reference laboratory and local (or community laboratories in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at a reference pathology laboratory. METHODS: The concordance in the results from hormone receptor tests between a reference laboratory and 146 local laboratories in Brazil was compared in relation to 500 invasive breast carcinoma cases, using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: There was concordance in 89.4% (447/500 cases and 85.0% (425/500 cases of the results from estrogen (κ = 0.744, P < 0.001 and progesterone (κ = 0.688, P < 0.001 receptor tests, respectively, between local and reference laboratories. This was similar to findings in other countries. The false negative rates from estrogen and progesterone receptor tests in local laboratories were 8.7% and 14.4%, respectively. The false positive rates from estrogen and progesterone receptor tests in local laboratories were 15.5% and 16.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Technical and result interpretation issues may explain most of the discordances in hormone receptor testing in local laboratories. Validation of estrogen and progesterone receptor tests at local laboratories, with rigorous quality control measures, is strongly recommended in order to avoid erroneous treatment of breast cancer patients.

  20. Activin A, B and AB decrease progesterone production by down-regulating StAR in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Shi, Feng-Tao; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-09-05

    Activins are homo- or heterodimers of inhibin β subunits that play important roles in the reproductive system. Our previous work has shown that activins A (βAβA), B (βBβB) and AB (βAβB) induce aromatase/estradiol, but suppress StAR/progesterone production in human granulosa-lutein cells. However, the underlying molecular determinants of these effects have not been examined. In this continuing study, we used immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG) to investigate the effects of activins in regulating StAR/progesterone and the potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, activins A, B and AB produced comparable down-regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. In addition, all three activin isoforms induced equivalent phosphorylation of both SMAD2 and SMAD3. Importantly, the activin-induced down-regulation of StAR, increase in SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, and decrease in progesterone were abolished by the TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor SB431542. Interestingly, the small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ALK4 but not ALK5 reversed the activin-induced suppression of StAR. Furthermore, the knockdown of SMAD4 or SMAD2 but not SMAD3 abolished the inhibitory effects of all three activin isoforms on StAR expression. These results provide evidence that activins A, B and AB down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via an ALK4-mediated SMAD2/SMAD4-dependent pathway. Our findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effects of activins on human granulosa cell steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum levels of pregnenolone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus: relation to other adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Daniela; Falk, Werner; Dorner, Monika; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Straub, Rainer H

    2003-02-01

    In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), low levels of adrenal steroids have been repeatedly demonstrated, but the site of alteration has not been exactly described because measurements of serum pregnenolone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone (17OHPreg) together with other adrenal steroids have never been performed. We measured serum levels of adrenal hormones such as pregnenolone, 17OHPreg, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), progesterone (P), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), androstenedione (ASD), and cortisol in 24 healthy controls, 24 patients with RA, and 24 patients with SLE. Serum levels of pregnenolone were similar in RA and SLE patients as compared to healthy controls irrespective of prior prednisolone therapy. In all RA and SLE patients (including those with prior prednisolone treatment), serum levels of all measured hormones except pregnenolone were significantly lower as compared to controls. In RA patients without prior prednisolone treatment, serum levels of 17OHPreg, DHEA, cortisol, and ASD were similar to controls, and serum levels of P, 17OHP, and DHEAS were significantly lower as compared to controls. In SLE patients without prior prednisolone treatment, serum levels of 17OHPreg and cortisol were similar, and serum levels of P, 17OHP, ASD, DHEA, and DHEAS were significantly lower as compared to controls. The primary hormone of the adrenal steroid cascade, pregnenolone, is almost normal in RA and SLE irrespective of corticosteroid treatment. In patients with RA, we believe that there is a near normal P450scc reaction and a normal double step P450c17 reaction. In SLE patients, the P450scc reaction also seems normal but the second step of the P450c17 reaction seems to be inhibited. In both diseases, cortisol levels remain relatively stable at the expense of other adrenal hormones. This study revealed distinct changes of steroid pathways that are related to the disease entities.

  2. Comparative effects of using black seed (Nigella sativa), cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum), probiotic or prebiotic on growth performance, blood haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohamadi, K; Taherpour, K; Ghasemi, H A; Fatahnia, F

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day trial was conducted to compare the effects of the following seven experimental diets, which varied in black seed, cumin seed, probiotic or prebiotic concentrations, on the broiler chicks: control (no additives), diet BS1 (4 g/kg black seed), diet BS2 (8 g/kg black seed), diet CS1 (4 g/kg cumin seed), diet CS2 (8 g/kg cumin seed), diet Pro (1 g/kg probiotic Primalac(®)) and diet Pre (2 g/kg prebiotic Fermacto(®)). A total of 420 1-day-old male broiler chicks, initially weighing an average of 43 g, were distributed into 28 floor pens at a stocking density of 15 birds per pen. At 28 day of age, the body weight in the birds fed diets BS2, CS2 and Pro was significantly higher than in the control group, but final body weight was not affected. Additionally, the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre exhibited better feed conversion ratio than control birds from 0 to 42 day of age. Diets BS2, CS2 and Pro also statistically increased the relative weight of thymus and bursa of Fabricius, whereas only diet Pro decreased the abdominal fat percentage compared with control diet. Regarding the haematological parameters, feeding diet BS2 yielded a significant increase in red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit percentage compared with control diet. Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre were also significantly lower than in the birds fed the control diet. Without exception, no diets affected feed intake, internal organs weights, carcass characteristics, antibody titres against Newcastle and influenza viruses and leucocyte subsets. In general, current study showed promising results regarding the use of spice additives as growth and health promoters, especially at higher levels of their incorporation in the diets, which were comparable to the probiotic- or prebiotic-containing diets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Low Prolactin and High 20-α-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Levels Contribute to Lower Progesterone Levels in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Exposed to Protease Inhibitor-Based Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter; Balogun, Kayode; Banko, Nicole; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona; Yudin, Mark H; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Murphy, Kellie E; Walmsley, Sharon L; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2016-05-15

    It has been reported that pregnant women receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have lower levels of progesterone, which put them at risk of adverse birth outcomes, such as low birth weight. We sought to understand the mechanisms involved in this decline in progesterone level. We assessed plasma levels of progesterone, prolactin, and lipids and placental expression of genes involved in progesterone metabolism in 42 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and 31 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. In vitro studies and a mouse pregnancy model were used to delineate the effect of HIV from that of PI-based cART on progesterone metabolism. HIV-infected pregnant women receiving PI-based cART showed a reduction in plasma progesterone levels (P= .026) and an elevation in placental expression of the progesterone inactivating enzyme 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD; median, 2.5 arbitrary units [AU]; interquartile range [IQR], 1.00-4.10 AU), compared with controls (median, 0.89 AU; IQR, 0.66-1.26 AU;P= .002). Prolactin, a key regulator of 20α-HSD, was lower (P= .012) in HIV-infected pregnant women. We observed similar data in pregnant mice exposed to PI-based cART. In vitro inhibition of 20α-HSD activity in trophoblast cells reversed PI-based cART-induced decreases in progesterone levels. Our data suggest that the decrease in progesterone levels observed in HIV-infected pregnant women exposed to PI-based cART is caused, at least in part, by an increase in placental expression of 20α-HSD, which may be due to lower prolactin levels observed in these women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Multiple sclerosis: Neuroprotective alliance of estrogen-progesterone and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kipp, M.; Amor, S.; Kraut, R.; Beyer, C.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of 17β-estradiol and progesterone as neuroprotective factors is well-recognized. Persuasive data comes from in vitro and animal models reflecting a wide range of CNS disorders. These studies have endeavored to translate findings into human therapies. Nonetheless, few human studies show

  5. Rodent Models of Non-classical Progesterone Action Regulating Ovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda A. Mittelman-Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming clear that steroid hormones act not only by binding to nuclear receptors that associate with specific response elements in the nucleus but also by binding to receptors on the cell membrane. In this newly discovered manner, steroid hormones can initiate intracellular signaling cascades which elicit rapid effects such as release of internal calcium stores and activation of kinases. We have learned much about the translocation and signaling of steroid hormone receptors from investigations into estrogen receptor α, which can be trafficked to, and signal from, the cell membrane. It is now clear that progesterone (P4 can also elicit effects that cannot be exclusively explained by transcriptional changes. Similar to E2 and its receptors, P4 can initiate signaling at the cell membrane, both through progesterone receptor and via a host of newly discovered membrane receptors (e.g., membrane progesterone receptors, progesterone receptor membrane components. This review discusses the parallels between neurotransmitter-like E2 action and the more recently investigated non-classical P4 signaling, in the context of reproductive behaviors in the rodent.

  6. Astragalin, a Flavonoid from Morus alba (Mulberry Increases Endogenous Estrogen and Progesterone by Inhibiting Ovarian Granulosa Cell Apoptosis in an Aged Rat Model of Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the mechanism by which the flavonoid glycoside astragalin (AST reduces ovarian failure in an aged rat model of menopause. Methods: The in vivo effect of AST on granulosa cell (GC apoptosis in aged female rats was determined using flow cytometry. In vitro, the effects of AST on cultured GCs were investigated using the MTT proliferation assay and western blot assays. Results: Aged rats had significantly higher GC apoptosis as compared with young female rats. Treatment of aged rats with AST (all three doses; p < 0.01 or Progynova (p < 0.01 significantly reduced GC apoptosis as compared with the aged controls. The proportions of total apoptotic GCs was 25.70%, 86.65%, 47.04%, 27.02%, 42.09% and 56.42% in the normal, aged, 17β-estradiol (E2, high dose AST, medium dose AST, and low dose AST-treated groups, respectively. Significant increases of serum E2 and P4 levels, as well as altered levels of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH levels. In cultured rat GCs, AST stimulated GC proliferation, E2 and progesterone (P4 secretion, reduced apoptosis, reduced the level of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (p < 0.01, but had no effect on BAX. Conclusions: AST enhanced ovarian function in aged female rats by increasing E2 and P4 levels, and reducing ovarian GC apoptosis via a mechanism involving Bcl-2. These data demonstrate a new pharmacological activity for AST, as well as a novel mechanism of action, and further suggest that AST may be a new therapeutic agent for the management of menopausal symptoms.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses and Autologous Serum for Management of Sjögren Syndrome-Associated Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyang; Zhang, Xiahua; Zheng, Qinxiang; Zhu, Yirui; Wang, Hui; Ma, Huixiang; Jhanji, Vishal; Chen, Wei

    2015-09-01

    To comparatively evaluate the efficacy of a bandage contact lens (BCL) and autologous serum (AS) eye drops in the management of severe dry eye caused by Sjögren syndrome (SS). In this prospective randomized study, 40 patients with SS were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 treatment groups: BCL and AS. A total of 37 patients were included, 18 patients (35 eyes) in the AS group and 19 patients (36 eyes) in the BCL group. At the end of 6 weeks, the best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly in the BCL group (0.5 ± 0.3 vs. 0.3 ± 0.2, P = 0.003) but not in the AS group (0.4 ± 0.3 vs. 0.3 ± 0.3, P = 0.11). The best-corrected visual acuity remained stable up to 6 weeks after discontinuation of the BCL (0.5 ± 0.3 vs. 0.4 ± 0.2, P = 0.03). Although the Ocular Surface Disease Index scores decreased significantly after treatment in both groups, patients in the BCL group had lower Ocular Surface Disease Index scores than those in the AS group (53.4 vs. 41.8 at week 3, 47.1 vs. 31.0 at week 6, 52.7 vs. 32.0 at week 12; P = 0.014, dry eye. Clinical Trial Registration—URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02147509.

  8. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of milk progesterone to monitor reproductive performance in smallholder dairy herds in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaputra, L.; Hariadi, M.; Hardjopranjoto, S.

    1990-01-01

    Studies involving 260 Friesian cows from three different locations were conducted to monitor the reproductive performance in small dairy herds in Indonesia by using milk progesterone RIA. In the first study 90 post-partum cows at three locations (Surabaya, Grati and Puspo) were used to investigate post-partum ovarian function. The highest incidence of cows not showing oestrus up to 80 days post-partum, with progesterone profiles less than 0.75 ng/mL, was found in Puspo (63.3%), compared with 10% in Surabaya and 20% in Grati. The incidence of cows with silent heat and oestrus without ovulation was 13.3 and 3.3% in Surabaya, 16.7 and 6.7% in Grati, and 23.3 and 0% in Puspo. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the lengths of oestrous cycles at the three different locations. In the second study, using 120 cows for investigating confirmation of oestrus at AI, 69.7% of cows inseminated during the follicular phase had become pregnant, compared with 16.1% of cows inseminated during the luteal phase. The incidence of long luteal phases which included embryonic death was 13.4%. The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis based on progesterone concentrations at day 22 was 77% and was lower than that at day 29 (88%). In the third study, cows in Subgroups 3A and 3B had cystic ovaries and were treated with prostaglandin F 2α by either intramuscular (3A) or intrauterine (3B) routes. Pregnancy rates were 50 and 40%, respectively. Cows in Subgroups 3C, 3D and 3E had inactive ovaries and were treated with intravaginal application of MPA sponges (3C), PRID (3D) or PRID followed by LH injection (3E). The pregnancy rates were 30, 40 and 60%, respectively. (author). 10 refs, 6 tabs

  10. The relationship of maternal characteristics and circulating progesterone concentrations with reproductive outcome in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) after artificial insemination, with and without ovulation induction, and natural breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Robeck, T R

    2012-08-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) undergoing natural breeding and artificial insemination (AI) were examined to characterize serum progesterone concentrations and determine relationships among age, parity, and reproductive outcome. Progesterone profiles of five cycle types (n = 119 total cycles from 54 animals) were characterized as follows: (i) conception and production of a live term calf (conceptive-term, n = 73); (ii) conception and abortion after Day 60 (conceptive-abortion, n = 12); (iii) unknown conception status with prolonged, elevated progesterone and absence of a fetus (conceptive-unknown, n = 14); (iv) conception failure with normal luteal phase progesterone concentrations (non-conceptive, n = 14, AI cycles only); and (v) conception failure with progesterone insufficiency occuring after spontaneous ovulation or owing to premature ovulation induction using GnRH (non-conceptive-PI, n = 6, AI cycles only). By Day 21 post-insemination (PI), progesterone concentrations were similar (P > 0.05) among conceptive-term, conceptive-abortion and conceptive-unknown, and higher (P 0.05) progesterone concentrations than conceptive-abortion and unknown conception status cycles. Parity was not associated with reproductive outcome based on cycle type (P > 0.05). Age of females in conceptive-unknown (26.5 ± 10.1 yrs) and conceptive-abortion (22.1 ± 9.4 yrs) groups was higher (P < 0.05) than in conceptive-term (15.7 ± 7.2 yrs). The conceptive-unknown cycle type possibly represents undetected early embryonic loss occurring before Day 60 PI. Length of gestation using known conception dates was 376.1 ± 11.0 days and the range of this parameter (355-395 days) has implications for peri-parturient management procedures for the species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vaginal progesterone decreases preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality in women with a twin gestation and a short cervix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, R.; Conde-Agudelo, A.; El-Refaie, W.

    2017-01-01

    review and meta-analysis of individual patient data (IPD) from randomized controlled trials comparing vaginal progesterone with placebo/no treatment in women with a twin gestation and a mid-trimester sonographic cervical length ≤ 25 mm. MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, CINAHL and LILACS (all from inception...... six randomized controlled trials. One study, which included women with a cervical length between 20 and 25 mm, provided 74% of the total sample size of the IPD meta-analysis. Vaginal progesterone, compared with placebo/no treatment, was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk......-trimester reduces the risk of preterm birth occurring at Government work and is in the public domain...

  12. Progesterone and progesterone receptor modulators in the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaulikar, Vikram Sinai; Manyonda, Isaac

    2012-12-01

    The majority of symptomatic uterine fibroids are currently treated by surgical interventions (myomectomy or hysterectomy) or radiological treatments (uterine artery embolisation or focussed ultrasound surgery). None of these treatments is a panacea, and what is conspicuous is the lack of an effective long-term medical therapy for a disorder so common among women of reproductive age. It has been known for some time that progesterone and its receptors enhance proliferative activity in fibroids and this has raised the possibility that anti-progestins and (PRMs) could be useful in the medical management of fibroids. Some of the compounds which have produced promising results in recent clinical trials or research studies include mifepristone, CDB-4124 (telapristone), CP-8947, J-867 (asoprisnil) and CDB-2914 (ulipristal acetate or UA). UA has recently completed Phase III clinical trials with very encouraging results, and has now acquired a licence for clinical use in Europe. While considerable research has yet to be done on the long-term safety and efficacy of UA there is nevertheless good reason for optimism on the emergence of effective medical therapy in the form of UA and possibly other PRMs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative evaluation of serum, FTA filter-dried blood and oral fluid as sample material for PRRSV diagnostics by RT-qPCR in a small-scale experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinrigl, Adolf; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Wodak, Eveline; Schmoll, Friedrich; Sattler, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Recently, research into alternative sample materials, such as oral fluid or filter-dried blood has been intensified, in order to facilitate cost-effective and animal-friendly sampling of individuals or groups of pigs for diagnostic purposes. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-RNA detection by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in serum, FTA filter-dried blood and oral fluid sampled from individual pigs. Ten PRRSV negative pigs were injected with an EU-type PRRSV live vaccine. Blood and oral fluid samples were taken from each pig before, and 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after vaccination. All samples were then analyzed by PRRSV RT-qPCR. In serum, eight often pigs tested RT-qPCR positive at different time points post infection. Absolute quantification showed low serum PRRSV-RNA loads in most samples. In comparison to serum, sensitivity of PRRSV-RNA detection was strongly reduced in matched FTA filter-dried blood and in oral fluid from the same pigs. These results indicate that with low PRRSV-RNA loads the diagnostic sensitivity of PRRSV-RNA detection by RT-qPCR achieved with serum is currently unmatched by either FTA filter-dried blood or oral fluid.

  14. Abundance and Localization of Progesterone Receptor Isoforms in Endometrium in Women With and Without Endometriosis and in Peritoneal and Ovarian Endometriotic Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaiwy, Mohamed A; Dahoud, Wissam; Skomorovska-Prokvolit, Yelena; Yi, Lijuan; Liu, James H; Falcone, Tommaso; Hurd, William W; Mesiano, Sam

    2015-09-01

    Several studies suggest that resistance to progesterone may contribute to the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Progesterone mediates its biological activity via the 2 progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms (PR-A and PR-B). Effects of progesterone are determined by the PR-A:PR-B ratio such that a PR-B-dominant state promotes progesterone signaling, whereas a PR-A-dominant state decreases progesterone responsiveness. Our objective was to compare the abundance and cellular localization of the PR isoforms in endometrium and endometriotic lesions from women with and without peritoneal and ovarian endometriosis. This in vitro study was conducted in a tertiary care facility. Reproductive-age women with surgically diagnosed endometriosis (n = 18) and asymptomatic control individuals (n = 20) were prospectively recruited at the late proliferative and the early secretory phases. At laparoscopy, samples of eutopic endometrium, peritoneal and ovarian endometriosis, and disease-free peritoneum were obtained for subsequent immunohistochemical and immunoblot analysis of PR-B and total PR localization and PR-A and PR-B abundance, respectively. The PR-A and PR-B were detected in eutopic endometrium and in peritoneal and ovarian endometriosis but not in disease-free peritoneum from patients with and without endometriosis. In peritoneal endometriosis, PR-A was the predominant isoform detected, whereas both receptors were detected in ovarian endometriosis and eutopic endometrium. In eutopic endometrium, levels of PR-A were significantly elevated in women with endometriosis compared with women without disease, regardless of menstrual phase. The PR-A levels were significantly elevated in ovarian endometriosis compared with peritoneal endometriosis. Endometriotic lesions and eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis are uniform in a PR-A-dominant state. The data suggest that menstrual efflux of a PR-A-dominant endometrial tissue into the peritoneal cavity may play a role in the

  15. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  16. Short communication: Evaluation of vaginal discharge following treatment with a progesterone insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Tenhagen, C; von Krueger, X; Heuwieser, W

    2012-08-01

    Yellowish discharge after application of intravaginal progesterone releasing inserts is frequently observed in cows. The objective of this study was to compare the bacteriological contamination of the vagina and uterus before and after a treatment with a progesterone insert in heifers. Forty-two Holstein heifers received a progesterone releasing insert [Eazi-Breed controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert; Pfizer Animal Health, Berlin, Germany] for 7d. The protruding tail had been removed from half of the inserts (no tail group: n=21; tail group: n=21). Nine heifers from the tail group lost the insert within the 7-d treatment interval and were excluded. Heifers identified in estrus were artificially inseminated on d 9 or 10. Vaginal discharge was scored on a 4-point scale [vaginal discharge score (VDS) 0 to 3] and vaginal swabs were taken for bacteriological examination on d 0 and 7 and the day of artificial insemination (AI). Furthermore, cytological and bacteriological samples were obtained from the uterus on d 7 and the day of AI. On d 0, coliforms and Streptococcus spp. were found in vaginal swabs of 21 heifers (64%). On d 7, all heifers showed purulent vaginal discharge (VDS 2 to 3). The VDS was higher in the tail group compared with the no tail group. Arcanobacterium pyogenes, coliforms, and Streptococcus spp. were isolated from the vaginal swabs in 32 of 33 (96%) heifers on d 7. On the day of AI, VDS had improved to 0 or 1 in 96% of the heifers. However, A. pyogenes, coliforms, and Streptococcus spp. were still isolated in 17 of 33 (53%) heifers from the vagina and in 32 of 33 (96%) heifers from the endometrium. Endometrial cytology revealed polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in 11 heifers (6 to 32% PMN). Five samples exceeded the threshold of 5% PMN, and 2 samples exceeded the 10% PMN threshold, indicative of subclinical endometritis. In conclusion, pyogenic bacteria were found in the vagina and uterus on d 7 and the day of AI after intravaginal

  17. Effects of concanavalin A on the progesterone production by bovine steroidogenic luteal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro, F C; Martin, I; Landim-Alvarenga, Fdc; Ferreira, Jcp; Pate, J L

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of concanavalin A (CONA) on the progesterone (P4) production by bovine steroidogenic luteal cells (LCs) in vitro. Luteal cells were collected during the mid-luteal stage (at 10-12 days following ovulation) and processed in the laboratory. Luteal cells were grown for 7 days in a humid atmosphere with 5% CO2 , with or without 10% foetal bovine serum, and were subjected to the following treatments: control: no treatment; CONA (10 μg/ml); LH (100 μg/ml); CONA + LH; LH (100 μg/ml) + prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) (10 ng/ml); CONA + LH + PGF2α. Samples of the culture media were collected on days 1 (D1) and 7 (D7) for P4 quantification. The cells were counted on D7 of culture. Differences between treatments were considered statistically significant at p < .05. Culture in the presence of CONA decreased the P4-secreting capacity of LCs on D7 of culture, particularly in the absence of serum. The cell numbers did not change between treatments. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Daily low-dose hCG stimulation during the luteal phase combined with GnRHa triggered IVF cycles without exogenous progesterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Elbaek, Helle Olesen; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    antagonist protocol. Two study arms were included both having 125 IU hCG daily for luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone after using a GnRHa trigger for ovulation induction. In both study arms exogenous FSH was stopped on stimulation day 6 and replaced by exogenous hCG that was initiated...... on either stimulation day 2 or day 6. Blood samples were obtained on the day of ovulation induction, on the day of oocyte pickup (OPU) and day OPU + 7. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The mean serum levels of hCG did not exceeded the normal physiological range of LH activity in any samples. Mid...... were seen between groups. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The number of patients included is limited and conclusions need to be verified in a larger RCT. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Endogenous production of progesterone may become more attractive as the luteal phase support with levels of LH...

  19. Trial protocol OPPTIMUM– Does progesterone prophylaxis for the prevention of preterm labour improve outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Jane E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is a global problem, with a prevalence of 8 to 12% depending on location. Several large trials and systematic reviews have shown progestogens to be effective in preventing or delaying preterm birth in selected high risk women with a singleton pregnancy (including those with a short cervix or previous preterm birth. Although an improvement in short term neonatal outcomes has been shown in some trials these have not consistently been confirmed in meta-analyses. Additionally data on longer term outcomes is limited to a single trial where no difference in outcomes was demonstrated at four years of age of the child, despite those in the “progesterone” group having a lower incidence of preterm birth. Methods/Design The OPPTIMUM study is a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial to determine whether progesterone prophylaxis to prevent preterm birth has long term neonatal or infant benefit. Specifically it will study whether, in women with singleton pregnancy and at high risk of preterm labour, prophylactic vaginal natural progesterone, 200 mg daily from 22 – 34 weeks gestation, compared to placebo, improves obstetric outcome by lengthening pregnancy thus reducing the incidence of preterm delivery (before 34 weeks, improves neonatal outcome by reducing a composite of death and major morbidity, and leads to improved childhood cognitive and neurosensory outcomes at two years of age. Recruitment began in 2009 and is scheduled to close in Spring 2013. As of May 2012, over 800 women had been randomized in 60 sites. Discussion OPPTIMUM will provide further evidence on the effectiveness of vaginal progesterone for prevention of preterm birth and improvement of neonatal outcomes in selected groups of women with singleton pregnancy at high risk of preterm birth. Additionally it will determine whether any reduction in the incidence of preterm birth is accompanied by improved childhood outcome. Trial

  20. Reduced hypoxic ventilatory response in newborn mice knocked-out for the progesterone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Catherine; Rossignol, Orlane; Uppari, NagaPraveena; Dallongeville, Arnaud; Bairam, Aida; Joseph, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies showed that progesterone stimulates the hypoxic ventilatory response and may reduce apnoea frequency in newborn rats, but so far we still do not know by what mechanisms and whether endogenous progesterone might contribute to respiratory control in neonates. We therefore determined the role of the nuclear progesterone receptor (PR; member of the steroid receptor superfamily) by using wild-type (WT) and PR knock-out (PRKO) mice at postnatal days (P) 1, 4 and 10. We measured the hypoxic ventilatory response (14 and 12% O2, 20 min each) and apnoea frequency in both male and female mice by using whole-body plethysmography. In response to hypoxia, WT male mice had a marked hypoxic ventilatory response at P1 and P10, but not at P4. At P1 and P10, PRKO male mice had a lower hypoxic ventilatory response than WT males. Wild-type female mice had a marked hypoxic ventilatory response at P10, but not at P1 and P4. At P1 and P10, PRKO female mice had a lower hypoxic ventilatory response than WT females. In basal conditions, apnoea frequency was similar in WT and PRKO mice at P1, P4 and P10. During hypoxia, apnoea frequency was higher in WT male mice compared with PRKO male mice and WT female mice at P1. We conclude that PR is a key contributor to the hypoxic ventilatory response in newborn mice, but PR deletion does not increase the frequency of apnoea during normoxia or hypoxia. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  1. MiRNA-513a-5p inhibits progesterone receptor expression and constitutes a risk factor for breast cancer: the hOrmone and Diet in the ETiology of breast cancer prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muti, Paola; Donzelli, Sara; Sacconi, Andrea; Hossain, Ahmed; Ganci, Federica; Frixa, Tania; Sieri, Sabina; Krogh, Vittorio; Berrino, Franco; Biagioni, Francesca; Strano, Sabrina; Beyene, Joseph; Yarden, Yosef; Blandino, Giovanni

    2018-02-09

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) might be considered both predictors and players of cancer development. The aim of the present report was to investigate whether many years before the diagnosis of breast cancer miRNA expression is already disregulated. In order to test this hypothesis, we compared miRNAs extracted from leukocytes in healthy women who later developed breast cancer and in women who remain healthy during the whole 15-year follow-up time. Accordantly, we used a case-control study design nested in the hOrmone and Diet in the ETiology of breast cancer (ORDET) prospective cohort study addressing the possibility that miRNAs can serve as both early biomarkers and components of the hormonal etiological pathways leading to breast cancer development in premenopausal women. We compared leukocyte miRNA profiles of 191 incident premenopausal breast cancer cases and profiles of 191 women who remained healthy over a follow-up period of 20 years. The analysis identified 20 differentially expressed miRNAs in women candidate to develop breast cancer versus control women. The upregulated miRNAs, miR-513-a-5p, miR-513b-5p and miR-513c-5p were among the most significantly deregulated miRNAs. In multivariate analysis, miR-513a-5p upregulation was directly and statistically significant associated with breast cancer risk (OR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.08-2.64; P = 0.0293). In addition, the upregulation of miR-513-a-5p displayed the strongest direct association with serum progesterone and testosterone levels. The experimental data corroborated the inhibitory function of miR-513a-5p on progesterone receptor expression confirming that progesterone receptor is a target of miR-513a-5p. The identification of upregulated miR-513a-5p with its oncogenic potential further validates the use of miRNAs as long-term biomarker of breast cancer risk. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Stability of epitheliotrophic factors in autologous serum eye drops from chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome dry eye compared to non-autoimmune dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasukkijwatana, Nopasak; Lertrit, Patcharee; Liammongkolkul, Sompong; Prabhasawat, Pinnita

    2011-09-01

    To compare the concentrations of epitheliotrophic factors in autologous serum eye drops (ASE) prepared from sera of chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) patients with dry eyes to those prepared from non-autoimmune dry eye controls and to study the stability of the epitheliotrophic factors in different storage conditions. Twenty-percent ASE were prepared from 10 chronic SJS patients with dry eyes and 10 age-matched non-autoimmune dry eye controls. The concentrations of major epitheliotrophic factors comprising epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2), and fibronectin in those ASE preparations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at baseline and after different storage conditions: at 4 °C for 1 week and 1 month; and at -20 °C for 1, 3 and 6 months. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of EGF, TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and fibronectin in 20% ASE between the SJS and control groups (EGF: 176.9 ± 40.9 vs. 185.5 ± 36.9 pg/mL, TGF-β1: 9.5 ± 2.1 vs. 9.5 ± 1.9 ng/mL, TGF-β2: 55.3 ± 30.0 vs. 63.91 ± 45.6 pg/mL and fibronectin: 70.5 ± 20.2 vs. 62.2 ± 21.3 µg/mL, respectively). These factors were stable at 4 °C for up to 1 month. Storage at -20 °C for up to 6 months resulted in a slight decrease in TGF-β1 (SJS: from 9.5-8.4 ng/mL, p dry eye patients, and that ASE should be sufficiently stable for up to 6 months, if stored properly at -20 °C.

  3. Comparative solution equilibrium studies on pentamethylcyclopentadienyl rhodium complexes of 2,2'-bipyridine and ethylenediamine and their interaction with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyedy, Éva A; Mészáros, János P; Dömötör, Orsolya; Hackl, Carmen M; Roller, Alexander; Keppler, Bernhard K; Kandioller, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Complex formation equilibrium processes of the (N,N) donor containing 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) and ethylenediamine (en) with (η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)rhodium(III) were investigated in aqueous solution via pH-potentiometry, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometry in the absence and presence of chloride ions. The structure of [RhCp*(en)Cl]ClO4 (Cp*, pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) was also studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. pKa values of 8.56 and 9.58 were determined for [RhCp*(bpy)(H2O)](2+) and [RhCp*(en)(H2O)](2+), respectively resulting in the formation of negligible amount of mixed hydroxido complexes at pH 7.4. Stability and the H2O/Cl(-) co-ligand exchange constants of bpy and en complexes considerably exceed those of the bidentate O-donor deferiprone. The strong affinity of the bpy and en complexes to chloride ions most probably contributes to their low antiproliferative effect. Interactions between human serum albumin (HSA) and [RhCp*(H2O)3](2+), its complexes formed with deferiprone, bpy and en were also monitored by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, ultrafiltration/UV-vis and spectrofluorometry. Numerous binding sites (≥ 8) are available for [RhCp*(H2O)3](2+); and the interaction takes place most probably via covalent bonds through the imidazole nitrogen of His. According to the various fluorescence studies [RhCp*(H2O)3](2+) binds on sites I and II, and coordination of surface side chain donor atoms of the protein is also feasible. The binding of the bpy and en complex is weaker and slower compared to that of [RhCp*(H2O)3](2+), and formation of ternary HSA-RhCp*-ligand adducts was proved. In the case of the deferiprone complex, the RhCp* fragment is cleaved off when HSA is loaded with low equivalents of the compound.

  4. Progesterone pretreatment increases the stress response to social isolation in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Melo, Aline; Damián, Juan Pablo; Hötzel, Maria José; Banchero, Georgget; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, progesterone (P4) pretreatment increases anxiety and response to stressors. Social isolation is a stressor that generates physiological and behavioural stress responses in sheep. The aim of the study was to compare the stress response of anoestrous ewes previously treated or not with P4 to the social isolation test. Ten ewes received P4 treatment during 13 d (group P4-W) and another 10 remained untreated as controls (group Con). The ewes were individually isolated in a novel place during 10 min, 24 h after the end of P4 pretreatment and their behaviours were recorded. Cortisol and P4 concentrations as well as body surface temperature were recorded before and after the test. Ewes of the P4-W group presented higher cortisol levels 0, 10, 20 and 30 min after the social isolation and had greater area under the curve of cortisol compared to Con ewes (41,785%±4,156% vs. 25,682%±4,565% during 75 min). Progesterone and body surface temperature increased after social isolation, with no differences between P4-W and Con ewes. There were no differences in behavioural responses to social isolation. P4 pretreatment appears to augment the stress response to social isolation in anoestrous ewes.

  5. Remodeling of the Cervix and Parturition in Mice Lacking the Progesterone Receptor B Isoform1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellon, Steven M.; Oshiro, Bryan T.; Chhaya, Tejas Y.; Lechuga, Thomas J.; Dias, Rejane M.; Burns, Alexandra E.; Force, Lindsey; Apostolakis, Ede M.

    2011-01-01

    Withdrawal of progestational support for pregnancy is part of the final common pathways for parturition, but the role of nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR) isoforms in this process is not known. To determine if the PGR-B isoform participates in cervical remodeling at term, cervices were obtained from mice lacking PGR-B (PGR-BKO) and from wild-type (WT) controls before or after birth. PGR-BKO mice gave birth to viable pups at the same time as WT controls during the early morning of Day 19 postbreeding. Morphological analyses indicated that by the day before birth, cervices from PGR-BKO and WT mice had increased in size, with fewer cell nuclei/area as well as diminished collagen content and structure, as evidenced by optical density of picrosirius red-stained sections, compared to cervices from nonpregnant mice. Moreover, increased numbers of resident macrophages, but not neutrophils, were found in the prepartum cervix of PGR-BKO compared to nonpregnant mice, parallel to findings in WT mice. These results suggest that PGR-B does not contribute to the growth or degradation of the extracellular matrix or proinflammatory processes associated with recruitment of macrophages in the cervix leading up to birth. Rather, other receptors may contribute to the progesterone-dependent mechanism that promotes remodeling of the cervix during pregnancy and in the proinflammatory process associated with ripening before parturition. PMID:21613631

  6. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graceli, J.B.; Cicilini, M.A.; Bissoli, N.S.; Abreu, G.R.; Moysés, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of extracellular Na + and Cl - concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na + and Cl - reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX) rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 , sc) and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 , sc). We assessed Na + and Cl - fractional excretion (FE Na + and FE Cl - , respectively) and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FE Na + , FE Cl - , water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FE Na + , FE Cl - , water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g) and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g). Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4) decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen, and progesterone in the modulation of renal function

  7. Progesterone for Symptomatic Perimenopause Treatment - Progesterone politics, physiology and potential for perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, J C

    2011-01-01

    Perimenopause, women's normal midlife reproductive transition, is highly symptomatic for about 20% of women who are currently inaccurately counseled and inappropriately treated with oral contraceptives, menopausal hormone therapy or hysterectomy. About 80% of perimenopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms (VMS), 25% have menorrhagia, and about 10% experience mastalgia. The majority of women describe varying intensities of sleep, -coping or mood difficulties. Women are more symptomatic because common knowledge inaccurately says that estradiol (E2) levels are dropping/deficient. Evidence shows that with disturbed brain-ovary feedbacks, E2 levels average 26% higher and soar erratically - some women describe feeling pregnant! Also, ovulation and progesterone (P4) levels become insufficient or absent. The most symptomatic women have higher E2 and lower P4 levels. Because P4 and E2 complement/counterbalance each other's tissue effects, oral micronized P4 (OMP4 300 mg at -bedtime) is a physiological therapy for treatment-seeking, symptomatic perimenopausal women. Given cyclically (cycle d 14-27, or 14 on/off) in menstruating midlife women, OMP4 decreases cyclic VMS, improves sleep and premenstrual mastalgia. Menorrhagia is treated with ibuprofen 200mg/6h plus OMP4 cycle d 4-28. For insulin resistance, metformin plus cyclic or daily OMP4 decreases insulin resistance and weight gain. Non-responsive migraines need daily OMP4 plus usual therapies. VMS and insomnia in late perimenopause respond to daily OMP4. In summary, OMP4 is a physiology-based therapy that improves sleep, treats VMS, does not increase breast proliferation or cancer risk, increases bone formation and has beneficial cardiovascular effects. A controlled trial is testing OMP4 for perimenopausal VMS - more evidence-based data are needed.

  8. Use of a radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone for predicting litter size and subsequent adaptation of feeding level in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiel, D.F.M. van de; Visscher, A.H.; Dekker, T.P.

    1976-01-01

    Litter sizes in ewes were predicted using the plasma progesterone concentration at 80-110 days after mating, with or without multiplication by bodyweight, as well as a priori probabilities and expected economic losses caused by incorrect classifications. Progesterone was assayed using a fluorimetric method and radioimmunoassay, and the results of both methods were compared in the Texel breed. Ewes were allotted to three feeding classes, according to the predicted litter sizes of 0-1, 2-3 and >=4 lambs. Using these classes the fluorimetric method gave 82.9% correct classifications, and the radioimmunoassay 80.0% correct. When calculated on the total of 194 ewes of the Finnish Landrace, Ile de France and Texel breeds, the fluorimetric method showed an accuracy of 65.0% correct classifications. (author)

  9. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary

  10. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary.

  11. Change of progesterone level in the uterine venous plasma of pregnant guinea-pigs and progesterone biosynthesis by the placenta in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawasaki, Toru

    1977-01-01

    Placental tissue slices of guinea-pigs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing NAD and glucose using pregnenolone-4- 14 C as a substrate. The amount of progesterone converted from pregnenolone by the placenta at 50 days after mating was significantly larger than that of 64-65 days after mating (0.205 and 0.159 μg/100 mg/hr., P < 0.05). The 3 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity of the placenta seems to decrease at the last stage of pregnancy. Progesterone levels in the systemic and uterine venous plasma of the pregnant guinea-pigs were measured. There was no significant difference between them at the middle and later stages of pregnancy. This suggested that uterine venous plasma progesterone level was not affected by the placental progesterone. The progesterone levels in both systemic and uterine venous plasma were high in middle stage and low at the end of pregnancy, but rapid decrease of progesterone reflecting initiation of parturition, as seen in many other species, was not observed. In this species, the relationship between progesterone level and initiation of parturition is seemed to be specific, being complicated by the local effect of placental progesterone on the fetus or the uterus. (auth.)

  12. Androgen deficiency during mid- and late pregnancy alters progesterone production and metabolism in the porcine corpus luteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, Malgorzata; Knapczyk-Stwora, Katarzyna; Ciereszko, Renata E; Golas, Aniela; Wieciech, Iwona; Slomczynska, Maria

    2014-06-01

    We determined whether androgen deficiency induced by flutamide treatment during mid- and late pregnancy affects the functions of the porcine corpus luteum (CL). Pregnant gilts were injected with flutamide between days 43 and 49 (gestation day [GD] 50F), days 83 and 89 (GD90F), or days 101 and 107 (GD108F) of gestation. Antiandrogen treatment increased the luteal progesterone concentration in the GD50F group and decreased progesterone content in the GD90F and GD108F groups. Luteal levels of side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1) mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated in the GD90F and GD108F groups as compared with the respective controls. The 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (HSD3B) mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced only in the GD108F group as compared with the control. Decreased luteal 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C1) mRNA and protein levels were observed in the GD50F group. Thus, androgen deficiency during pregnancy in pigs led to CL dysfunction that is marked by decreased progesterone production. Furthermore, exposure to flutamide during late pregnancy downregulated steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1 and HSD3B) in pigs. We conclude that androgens are important regulators of CL function during pregnancy.

  13. Provision of a simplified methodology for determining estradiol and progesterone receptors in human breast tumours. Internal and external quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinate, Z.

    1990-10-01

    A simplified assay for the detection of progesterone receptors (PR) in human breast tissue is described. Tissue storage is at -20 deg. C rather than -70 deg. C and a centrifugation speed of 20,000 rpm avoids requirement of an ultracentrifuge. Cytosol preparations obtained from homogenized oestradiol benzoate primed wistar rat uteri performed satisfactorily as positive controls with stability of two months in liquid nitrogen. The use of iodinated tracer (progesterone 11 alpha glucuronide 125 I iodotyramine) proved disappointing in the progesterone receptor assay in contrast to 125 I oestradiol which worked well in a oestrogen receptor assay, previously developed. Hydroxyl-apatite was a better separating agent than dextran coated charcoal in both assays and yielded better sensitivity, particularly when protein concentrations were low. Five breast cancer specimens assayed yielded, by Scatchard analysis, Kd values between 12 to 22x10 -9 m|h, comparable to the positive controls. However, two of these had binding site capacity of less than 5 fmol/mg cytosol as compared to the three others and the positive controls where values ranged from 47-196 fmol/mg cytosol. 28 refs, 6 figs, 14 tabs

  14. Improving the developability profile of pyrrolidine progesterone receptor partial agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallander, Lara S.; Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Frazee, James S.; Stoy, Patrick; Johnson, Latisha; Lu, Qing; Hammond, Marlys; Barton, Linda S.; Patterson, Jaclyn R.; Azzarano, Leonard M.; Nagilla, Rakesh; Madauss, Kevin P.; Williams, Shawn P.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Xu, Xiaoping; Laping, Nicholas J.; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Scott K. (GSKPA)

    2010-09-17

    The previously reported pyrrolidine class of progesterone receptor partial agonists demonstrated excellent potency but suffered from serious liabilities including hERG blockade and high volume of distribution in the rat. The basic pyrrolidine amine was intentionally converted to a sulfonamide, carbamate, or amide to address these liabilities. The evaluation of the degree of partial agonism for these non-basic pyrrolidine derivatives and demonstration of their efficacy in an in vivo model of endometriosis is disclosed herein.

  15. Transcriptional regulation of genes related to progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Tetsuya; Ishikane, Shin; Kawabe, Shinya; Umezawa, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol in various tissues, mainly in the adrenal glands and gonads. Because these lipid-soluble steroid hormones immediately diffuse through the cells in which they are produced, their secretion directly reflects the activity of the genes related to their production. Progesterone is important not only for luteinization and maintenance of pregnancy, but also as a substrate for most other steroids. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerase (3β-HSD) are well-known proteins essential for progesterone production. In addition to them, glutathione S-transferase A1-1 and A3-3 are shown to exert Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerization activity to produce progesterone in a cooperative fashion with 3β-HSD. 5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase 1, ferredoxin 1, and ferredoxin reductase also play a role in steroidogenesis as accessory factors. Members of the nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) family (steroidogenic factor 1 and liver receptor homolog 1) play a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of these genes. The NR5A family activates these genes by binding to NR5A responsive elements present within their promoter regions, as well as to the elements far from their promoters. In addition, various NR5A-interacting proteins including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1 (DAX-1), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) are involved in the transcription of NR5A target genes and regulate the transcription either positively or negatively under both basal and tropic hormone-stimulated conditions. In this review, we describe the transcriptional regulation of genes related to progesterone production.

  16. Prevalence of elevated serum anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody titers in patients presenting exclusively with psychiatric symptoms: a comparative follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yoshihito; Shimazaki, Haruo; Shiota, Katsutoshi; Tetsuka, Syuichi; Nakao, Koichi; Shimada, Tatsuhiro; Kurata, Kazumi; Kuroda, Jinichi; Yamashita, Akihiro; Sato, Hayato; Sato, Mamoru; Eto, Shinkichi; Onishi, Yasunori; Tanaka, Keiko; Kato, Satoshi

    2016-07-08

    Increasing numbers of patients with elevated anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody titers presenting exclusively with psychiatric symptoms have been reported. The aim of the present study was to clarify the prevalence of elevated serum anti-NMDA receptor antibody titers in patients with new-onset or acute exacerbations of psychiatric symptoms. In addition, the present study aimed to investigate the association between elevated anti-NMDA receptor titers and psychiatric symptoms. The present collaborative study included 59 inpatients (23 male, 36 female) presenting with new-onset or exacerbations of schizophrenia-like symptoms at involved institutions from June 2012 to March 2014. Patient information was collected using questionnaires. Anti-NMDA receptor antibody titers were measured using NMDAR NR1 and NR2B co-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells as an antigen (cell-based assay). Statistical analyses were performed for each questionnaire item. The mean age of participants was 42.0 ± 13.7 years. Six cases had elevated serum anti-NMDA antibody titers (10.2 %), four cases were first onset, and two cases with disease duration >10 years presented with third and fifth recurrences. No statistically significant difference in vital signs or major symptoms was observed between antibody-positive and antibody-negative groups. However, a trend toward an increased frequency of schizophrenia-like symptoms was observed in the antibody-positive group. Serum anti-NMDA receptor antibody titers may be associated with psychiatric conditions. However, an association with specific psychiatric symptoms was not observed in the present study. Further studies are required to validate the utility of serum anti-NMDA receptor antibody titer measurements at the time of symptom onset.

  17. Study of progesterone mechanisms in radio-induced apoptosis prevention; Etude des mecanismes de prevention de l'apoptose radioinduite par la progesterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vares, G.

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this work was to study the modulation of radiation-induced cell death of human mammary tumoral cells by progesterone. On the one hand, we observed that progesterone protects cells against radiation-induced apoptosis and increases the proportion of surviving and proliferating damaged cells. On the other hand, a transcriptome analysis was undertaken in irradiated cells treated by progesterone, using DNA micro-arrays. This let us highlight several transcriptional dis-regulations that are likely to explain the protective effect of the hormone; in particular, we showed that progesterone regulates the expression of genes implicated in apoptosis signaling by death receptors. Knowing the crucial role of hormonal control and of apoptosis regulation in breast cancer initiation, our results may help to achieve a better understanding of the implication of progesterone in mammary carcinogenesis. (author)

  18. Progesterone receptor blockade in human breast cancer cells decreases cell cycle progression through G2/M by repressing G2/M genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Susan E; Gupta, Akash; Choi, MiRan; Ranjan, Manish; Lee, Oukseub; Wang, Jun; Ivancic, David Z; Kim, J Julie; Khan, Seema A

    2016-05-23

    The synthesis of specific, potent progesterone antagonists adds potential agents to the breast cancer prevention and treatment armamentarium. The identification of individuals who will benefit from these agents will be a critical factor for their clinical success. We utilized telapristone acetate (TPA; CDB-4124) to understand the effects of progesterone receptor (PR) blockade on proliferation, apoptosis, promoter binding, cell cycle progression, and gene expression. We then identified a set of genes that overlap with human breast luteal-phase expressed genes and signify progesterone activity in both normal breast cells and breast cancer cell lines. TPA administration to T47D cells results in a 30 % decrease in cell number at 24 h, which is maintained over 72 h only in the presence of estradiol. Blockade of progesterone signaling by TPA for 24 h results in fewer cells in G2/M, attributable to decreased expression of genes that facilitate the G2/M transition. Gene expression data suggest that TPA affects several mechanisms that progesterone utilizes to control gene expression, including specific post-translational modifications, and nucleosomal organization and higher order chromatin structure, which regulate access of PR to its DNA binding sites. By comparing genes induced by the progestin R5020 in T47D cells with those increased in the luteal-phase normal breast, we have identified a set of genes that predict functional progesterone signaling in tissue. These data will facilitate an understanding of the ways in which drugs such as TPA may be utilized for the prevention, and possibly the therapy, of human breast cancer.

  19. Progesterone receptor blockade in human breast cancer cells decreases cell cycle progression through G2/M by repressing G2/M genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clare, Susan E.; Gupta, Akash; Choi, MiRan; Ranjan, Manish; Lee, Oukseub; Wang, Jun; Ivancic, David Z.; Kim, J. Julie; Khan, Seema A.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of specific, potent progesterone antagonists adds potential agents to the breast cancer prevention and treatment armamentarium. The identification of individuals who will benefit from these agents will be a critical factor for their clinical success. We utilized telapristone acetate (TPA; CDB-4124) to understand the effects of progesterone receptor (PR) blockade on proliferation, apoptosis, promoter binding, cell cycle progression, and gene expression. We then identified a set of genes that overlap with human breast luteal-phase expressed genes and signify progesterone activity in both normal breast cells and breast cancer cell lines. TPA administration to T47D cells results in a 30 % decrease in cell number at 24 h, which is maintained over 72 h only in the presence of estradiol. Blockade of progesterone signaling by TPA for 24 h results in fewer cells in G2/M, attributable to decreased expression of genes that facilitate the G2/M transition. Gene expression data suggest that TPA affects several mechanisms that progesterone utilizes to control gene expression, including specific post-translational modifications, and nucleosomal organization and higher order chromatin structure, which regulate access of PR to its DNA binding sites. By comparing genes induced by the progestin R5020 in T47D cells with those increased in the luteal-phase normal breast, we have identified a set of genes that predict functional progesterone signaling in tissue. These data will facilitate an understanding of the ways in which drugs such as TPA may be utilized for the prevention, and possibly the therapy, of human breast cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2355-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  20. Progesterone transfer among cohabitating female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greville, Lucas J; Pollock, Tyler; Salter, Joseph C; Faure, Paul A; deCatanzaro, Denys

    2017-06-01

    Experiments using female mice and bats have demonstrated that tritium-labeled 17β-estradiol ( 3 H-E 2 ) can be absorbed via cutaneous and intranasal routes and distributed to reproductive and neural tissues. Radioactivity has also been measured in tissues of untreated females after 48h cohabitation with 3 H-E 2 injected males. The present study was designed to quantify steroid transfer among female bats. Radioactive quantification via liquid scintillation counting revealed absorption of tritium-labeled progesterone ( 3 H-P 4 ) in adult females 1h after cutaneous and intranasal application (10μCi). Subsequently, pairs of mature females were each housed for 48h with a single mature female that had been administered 3 H-P 4 (50μCi) via intraperitoneal injection. Radioactivity was observed in all collected tissues of all non-injected females at levels significantly greater than the control group. Following the same paradigm, radioactivity was not observed in the tissues of untreated female bats that were housed with stimulus females treated with 3 H-E 2 (50μCi). Enzyme immunoassays revealed measurable levels of unconjugated progesterone and estradiol in the urine of female bats, suggesting urine as a vector for steroid transfer. Given that bats of this species live in predominantly female roosts in very close contact, progesterone transfer among individuals is likely to occur in natural roosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High dose progesterone effects the growth of early chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.; Qamar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out the effect of high dose progesterone on the development of early chick embryo. Study Design: Lab based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of study: This study was carried out in Army Medical College and Post Graduate Institute of Poultry Sciences, Rawalpindi from June 2010 - December 2010. Material and Methods: Forty five specific pathogen free, fertile, eggs of Fyoumi species of chick were selected at zero hour of incubation. They were incubated at 37.5oC and 75% relative humidity for 26 hrs until the embryos reached stage 8 of the development. Then on stage 8 the eggs were divided into three groups consisting of 15 eggs per group. The first group (GI) was incubated without any operation. The second (G2) and third groups (G3) were injected with two and twenty times more than physiologic does of progesterone respectively. After 48 hours of incvbation, all embryos were examined for their development under light microscopy. Results: All the embryos of G1 and G2 showed normal development according to their stage of development, while 4 out of 11 embryos of G3 were under developed and their survival rate was also less. Conclusion: Exogenous progesterone at levels twenty times above its physiologic range effects the development of chick embryos. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of this effect. (author)

  2. Use of on-line supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to analyze disease biomarkers in dried serum spots compared with serum analysis using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Nishiumi, Shin; Kobayashi, Takashi; Sakai, Arata; Iwata, Yosuke; Uchikata, Takato; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Azuma, Takeshi; Bamba, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2017-05-30

    The analytical stability and throughput of biomarker assays based on dried serum spots (DSS) are strongly dependent on the extraction process and determination method. In the present study, an on-line system based on supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (SFE-SFC/MS/MS) was established for analyzing the levels of disease biomarkers in DSS. The chromatographic conditions were investigated using the ODS-EP, diol, and SIL-100A columns. Then, we optimized the SFE-SFC/MS/MS method using the diol column, focusing on candidate biomarkers of oral, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer that were identified using liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS. By using this system, four hydrophilic metabolites and 17 hydrophobic metabolites were simultaneously detected within 15 min. In an experiment involving clinical samples, PC 16:0-18:2/16:1-18:1 exhibited 93.8% sensitivity and 64.3% specificity, whereas PC 17:1-18:1/17:0-18:2 showed 81.3% sensitivity and 92.9% specificity for detecting oral cancer. In addition, assessments of the creatine levels demonstrated 92.3% sensitivity and 78.6% specificity for detecting colorectal cancer. The results of this study indicate that our method has great potential for clinical diagnosis and would be suitable for large-scale screening. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor based on imidazole-functionalized graphene oxide for progesterone detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaerd, Ava; Blaskievicz, Sirlon F; Zarbin, Aldo J G; Orth, Elisa S; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H

    2018-07-30

    The modification of electrode surfaces has been the target of study for many researchers in order to improve the analytical performance of electrochemical sensors. Herein, the use of an imidazole-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-IMZ) as an artificial enzymatic active site for voltammetric determination of progesterone (P4) is described for the first time. The morphology and electrochemical performance of electrode modified with GO-IMZ were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. Under optimized conditions, the proposed sensor showed a synergistic effect of the GO sheets and the imidazole groups anchored on its backbone, which promoted a significant enhancement on electrochemical reduction of P4. Figures of merits such as linear dynamic response for P4 concentration ranging from 0.22 to 14.0 μmol L -1 , limit of detection of 68 nmol L -1 and limit of quantification and 210 nmol L -1 were found. In addition, presented a higher sensitivity, 426 nA L µmol -1 , when compared to the unmodified electrode. Overall, the proposed device showed to be a promising platform for a simple, rapid, and direct analysis of progesterone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Oestradiol and progesterone differentially alter cytoskeletal protein expression and flame cell morphology in Taenia crassiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Javier R; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Sánchez-Orellana, Pedro L; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Martínez-Velázquez, Nancy; Escobedo, Galileo; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth G; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    We examined the effects of oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) on cytoskeletal protein expression in the helminth Taenia crassiceps - specifically actin, tubulin and myosin. These proteins assemble into flame cells, which constitute the parasite excretory system. Total protein extracts were obtained from E2- and P4-treated T. crassiceps cysticerci and untreated controls, and analysed by one- and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and videomicroscopy. Exposure of T. crassiceps cysticerci to E2 and P4 induced differential protein expression patterns compared with untreated controls. Changes in actin, tubulin and myosin expression were confirmed by flow cytometry of parasite cells and immunofluorescence. In addition, parasite morphology was altered in response to E2 and P4 versus controls. Flame cells were primarily affected at the level of the ciliary tuft, in association with the changes in actin, tubulin and myosin. We conclude that oestradiol and progesterone act directly on T. crassiceps cysticerci, altering actin, tubulin and myosin expression and thus affecting the assembly and function of flame cells. Our results increase our understanding of several aspects of the molecular crosstalk between host and parasite, which might be useful in designing anthelmintic drugs that exclusively impair parasitic proteins which mediate cell signaling and pathogenic reproduction and establishment. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Progesterone inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H van der Horst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Every year approximately 74,000 women die of endometrial cancer, mainly due to recurrent or metastatic disease. The presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs as well as progesterone receptor (PR positivity has been correlated with improved prognosis. This study describes two mechanisms by which progesterone inhibits metastatic spread of endometrial cancer: by stimulating T-cell infiltration and by inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Paraffin sections from patients with (n = 9 or without (n = 9 progressive endometrial cancer (recurrent or metastatic disease were assessed for the presence of CD4+ (helper, CD8+ (cytotoxic and Foxp3+ (regulatory T-lymphocytes and PR expression. Progressive disease was observed to be associated with significant loss of TILs and loss of PR expression. Frozen tumor samples, used for genome-wide expression analysis, showed significant regulation of pathways involved in immunesurveillance, EMT and metastasis. For a number of genes, such as CXCL14, DKK1, DKK4, PEG10 and WIF1, quantitive RT-PCR was performed to verify up- or downregulation in progressive disease. To corroborate the role of progesterone in regulating invasion, Ishikawa (IK endometrial cancer cell lines stably transfected with PRA (IKPRA, PRB (IKPRB and PRA+PRB (IKPRAB were cultured in presence/absence of progesterone (MPA and used for genome-wide expression analysis, Boyden- and wound healing migration assays, and IHC for known EMT markers. IKPRB and IKPRAB cell lines showed MPA induced inhibition of migration and loss of the mesenchymal marker vimentin at the invasive front of the wound healing assay. Furthermore, pathway analysis of significantly MPA regulated genes showed significant down regulation of important pathways involved in EMT, immunesuppression and metastasis: such as IL6-, TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. CONCLUSION: Intact progesterone signaling in non

  6. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late......-follicular-phase LH concentration also showed a significant positive association with progesterone concentration (P = 0.018). Administration of rLH during ovarian stimulation did not affect progesterone concentration. The present study does not support an association between progesterone concentration on the day...

  7. The Determinations of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor in Breast Cancer Cell by Radioimmunoassay Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chi Yeul

    1981-01-01

    The estrogen and progesterone receptors which are bound to the cytoplasmic protein of cancer cells were measured in 20 patients with the early breast cancer by means of radioimmunoassay using charcoal. 1) The patients with estrogen receptor positive were 13 (65%) of 20 cases and with progestrone receptor positive were 7 cases (35%) in the early breast cancer. 2) Coexistence of estrogen and progesterone receptor positive was noted in 7 cases (35%). The cases of estrogen receptor positive and progesterone receptor negative were 6 cases (33.3%), while there were no cases of estrogen receptor negative with progesterone receptor positive. 3) Coincidence of estrogen and progesterone negative was noticed in 7 cases (35%). Conclusively it is considered that the measurement of estrogen and progesterone receptors has relevance as predictive value, in the response to hormonal manipulations and chemotherapy for breast cancer patients.

  8. Local production of donkey anti-sheep serum and its use as a separation system in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Nagi Ibrahim

    2000-01-01

    In this experiment two local donkeys were immunized with sheep IgG in order to produce donkey anti-sheep serum. Blood was collected from the two donkeys, tested for the presence of antibodies. The serum of the two donkeys was pooled together in one pool. The produced donkey anti-sheep serum (DASS) has been successfully used as a second antibody separation agent in radioimmunoassay for the determination of thyroid hormones (Thyroxine and triiodothyronine) and progesterone. The titer was found to be 1/40, which was reasonably good, and consequently the six litres extracted from the two donkeys would be sufficient for more than ten years. In addition to this the locally produced antibody secures the continuous supply of the same quality of antibody for a long period of time. Speaking in financial terms, local production of antibodies reduces the cost of the immunoassay kit to one tenth of its original value if imported from outside. In addition to this it would save a lot of the limited foreign currency which other wise would be spend in order to obtain the antibody from abroad. Results of patient samples and quality control (Biorad) obtained by locally produced antibody when compared with those gained by commercial kits showed very good comparability with a correlation coefficient of 0.94 and P<0.05. (Author)

  9. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Three Forms of Vaginal Progesterone Administered in Either Single Or Multiple Dose Regimen in Healthy Post-menopausal Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Shentu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A generic vaginal progesterone gel has recently been developed in China. Little is known about its pharmacokinetic properties in Chinese subjects. The purpose of our study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of three forms of vaginal progesterone gel (test formulations at 4 and 8% strength vs. a reference formulation: Crinone 8% in Chinese healthy post-menopausal women.Methods: This study consisted of two parts study. The part 1 study was a single-center, open-label, 3-period study. Twelve healthy post-menopausal women were to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of 45 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 4% following single dose and multiple doses administered once every other day (q.o.d. for six times or once daily (q.d. for 6 days. The part 2 study was a randomized, open-label, 3-stage crossover study. Twelve post-menopausal women received 90 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 8% or 90 mg Crinone (Reference 8% following single dose and multiple doses (q.o.d. or q.d.. Plasma concentrations of progesterone were measured up to 72 h by using a validated liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0-t and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞ were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data.Results: Totally 24 subjects were enrolled in and completed the study. Following single dose, The geometric mean Cmax values for Test 4%, Test 8%, and Crinone 8% were 6.35, 10.34, 10.45 ng/mL, and their geometric mean AUC0-t (AUC0-∞ were 113.73 (118.00, 169.39 (173.98, and 190.07 (201.13 ng⋅h/mL, respectively. The mean T1/2 values of progesterone were 11.00, 10.92, and 11.40 h, respectively. For 8% test formulation vs. reference, the 90% CIs of the least squares mean test/reference ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 78.32–124

  10. Immunohistochemical assessment of oestrogen and progesterone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabau, D A; Thorpe, S M; Knoop, A

    2000-01-01

    Two different methods to determine steroid receptors were analysed with respect to their ability to estimate prognosis in primary breast cancer patients. The immunohistochemical assay (IHA) was compared with the dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) method of receptor determination. A random sample of 28...... distinction between benign and malignant tissue is possible using the IHAmethod. Thus, IHAresults appear to be more clinically relevant....

  11. Serum anti-Mullerian hormone levels after ovarian drilling for the second-line treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot-randomized study comparing laparoscopy and transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolino, Pierluigi; Morra, Ilaria; Della Corte, Luigi; Sparice, Stefania; Di Carlo, Costantino; Nappi, Carmine; Bifulco, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study was to asses and compare serum anti-Mullerian harmone (AMH) levels after laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) and transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (THL) ovarian drilling in clomifene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients; secondary outcome was to evaluate postoperative pain to estimate the acceptability of procedures. A total of 246 patients with CC-resistant PCOS were randomized into two groups: 123 underwent LOD and 123 underwent THL ovarian drilling. AMH serum levels were evaluated before and after the procedure; moreover, women were asked to rate pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 (no pain, perfectly acceptable) to 10 (unbearable pain, completely unacceptable). In both groups, postoperative serum AMH levels were significantly reduced compared to preoperative levels (6.06 ± 1.18 and 5.84 ± 1.16 versus 5.00 ± 1.29 and 4.83 ± 1.10; p ovarian drilling in comparison to THL (3.26 ± 1.1 versus 1.11 ± 0.5; p ovarian drilling is comparable to the LOD in terms of reduction in AMH, but it is preferred by patients in terms of acceptability. These results could support to use of THL ovarian drilling in the treatment of patients with CC- resistant PCOS.

  12. A word of caution: do not wake sleeping dogs; micrometastases of melanoma suddenly grew after progesterone treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordoh, Jose; Tapia, Ivana Jaqueline; Barrio, Maria Marcela

    2013-01-01

    Hormonal treatment might affect the immune response to tumor antigens induced in cancer patients who are being vaccinated. A 33 years-old woman was diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma in May 2009. Her melanoma was located in the intermammary sulcus, had a Breslow thickness of 4 mm, a Clark’s level IV, it was ulcerated and highly melanotic. The bilateral sentinel node biopsy was negative. She entered into a randomized Phase II/III clinical study comparing a vaccine composed of irradiated melanoma cells plus BCG plus GM-CSF versus IFN-alpha 2b and she was assigned to the vaccine arm. During the two years treatment she remained disease-free; the final CAT scan being performed in August 2011. Between November and December 2011, her gynecologist treated her with three cycles of 200 mg progesterone/day for ten days, every two weeks, for ovary dysfunction. In November 2011 the patient returned to the Hospital for clinical and imaging evaluation and no evidence of disease was found. At the next visit in March 2012 an ultrasound revealed multiple, large metastases in the liver. A CAT scan confirmed the presence of liver, adrenal glands and spleen metastases. A needle biopsy of a liver lesion revealed metastatic melanoma of similar characteristics to the original tumor. We suggest that progesterone treatment triggered proliferation of so far dormant micrometastases that were controlled during CSF470 vaccine treatment. The use of progesterone in patients with melanoma that are under immunological treatments should be carefully considered, since progesterone could modify the balance of pro-inflammatory and Th1 functions to a regulatory and anti-inflammatory profile of the immune system that could have an impact in tumor progression

  13. Loss of co-ordinate expression of progesterone receptors A and B is an early event in breast carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, P A; Bartow, S; Tran, N; Clarke, C L

    2002-03-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) mediates the effects of progesterone in mammary tissues and plays a crucial role in normal breast development and in breast cancer. PR proteins are expressed as two isoforms, PRA and PRB, that have different capacities to activate target genes, yet it is unknown whether progesterone action in normal and malignant breast is mediated by PRA and/or PRB. This study determines the relative expression of PRA and PRB in normal breast and in benign, premalignant and malignant archival breast lesions by dual immunofluorescent histochemistry. In normal breast and in proliferative disease without atypia (PDWA) PRA and PRB were co-expressed within the same cells in comparable amounts, implicating both isoforms in progesterone action. In atypical lesions, however, there was a significant increase in predominant expression of PRA or PRB, with lesion progression from the normal state to malignancy. PR isoform predominance, especially PRA predominance, was evident in a high proportion of ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast lesions. In the normal breast and in PDWA, the relative expression of PRA and PRB in adjacent cells was homogenous. There was a significant increase in cell-to-cell heterogeneity of PR isoform expression in ADH and DCIS lesions and in the majority of breast cancers. Heterogeneous cell-to-cell expression of PR isoforms occurred prior to overall predominant expression of one isoform in premalignant breast lesions, demonstrating that loss of control of relative PRA:PRB expression is an early event in the development of breast cancer. PRA:PRB ratios within a breast lesion are likely to be important as both markers and effectors of tumor growth and development, and progressively aberrant PR isoform expression may play a role in the etiology of breast cancer.

  14. A comparative study on the changes of serum fibrosis indicators after TACE with use of low-dose versus conventional-dose of anticancer drugs in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wei; Li Yanhao; He Xiaofeng; Chen Yong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum fibrosis indicators after transcatheter arterial chemo-embolization (TACE) with the use of low-dose vs conventional-dose of anticancer drugs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Forty patients with HCC were divided into two groups to receive superselective TACE. Patients in group A(n=20) received low-dose anticancer drug(s): 2-4 mg mitomycin C (MMC) with the tumor mass less than 5 cm in size; while MMC 4-6 mg and epirubicin (EPI) 10 mg were given with tumor size of 5-8 cm in diameter, and MMC 6-8 mg, EPI 10 mg, CBP 100 mg with tumors larger than 8 cm. Patients in group B (n=20) were given conventional-dose of anticancer drugs (MMC 10 mg, EPI 40 mg and CBP 300 mg). Lipiodol-anticancer drugs emulsion was injected into the feeding arteries of tumors and followed by gelatin sponge or PVA particles embolization participation. Four serum fibrosis indicators, including hyaluronate acid (HA), human procollagen type-III (hPC-III), laminin (LN), collagen type-IV (IV-C) were assessed before and 7 days after TACE. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups concerning the four indicators before TACE, but the concentrations of the four serum indicators were increased significantly in group B (P 0.05). Conclusions: The formation of liver fibrosis after TACE in HCC is related to the dosage of anticancer drugs employed for chemoembolization. Therefore, low-dose anticancer drugs should be advocated. (authors)

  15. Production of progesterone antibodies and their use in studying reproductive functions in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seren, E.; Bacci, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of antisera raised in six rabbits by immunization with progesterone-3-0-carboxymethyloxime-BSA are described. The performance of a progesterone RIA involving the use of the best antiserum is described. This progesterone RIA, carried out in sheep and goat plasma samples collected throughout the different stages of the reproductive life cycle turned out to be a reliable method to monitor ovarian activity. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. Immune Aspects and Myometrial Actions of Progesterone and CRH in Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Malamas, Fotodotis M.; Sifakis, Stavros; Tsikouras, Panayiotis; Iliodromiti, Zoe

    2011-01-01

    Progesterone and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) have a critical role in pregnancy and labor, as