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Sample records for serum osmolal gap

  1. Analysis of serum anion gap and osmolal gap in diagnosis and prognosis of acute methanol poisoning: clinical study in 86 patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zakharov, S.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Pelclová, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 5 (2015), s. 787-794 ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : serum anion gap * osmolal gap * acute methanol poisoning Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.131, year: 2015

  2. Changes in plasma osmolality and anion gap: potential predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in plasma osmolality and anion gap: potential predictors of ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Objective: To determine the relationship of mortality to plasma osmolality and anion gap inpatients on haemodialysis.

  3. A retrospective analysis of glycol and toxic alcohol ingestion: utility of anion and osmolal gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasowski Matthew D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients ingesting ethylene glycol, isopropanol, methanol, and propylene glycol ('toxic alcohols' often present with non-specific signs and symptoms. Definitive diagnosis of toxic alcohols has traditionally been by gas chromatography (GC, a technique not commonly performed on-site in hospital clinical laboratories. The objectives of this retrospective study were: 1 to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the osmolal gap in screening for toxic alcohol ingestion and 2 to determine the common reasons other than toxic alcohol ingestion for elevated osmolal gaps. Methods Electronic medical records from an academic tertiary care medical center were searched to identify all patients in the time period from January 1, 1996 to September 1, 2010 who had serum/plasma ethanol, glucose, sodium, blood urea nitrogen, and osmolality measured simultaneously, and also all patients who had GC analysis for toxic alcohols. Detailed chart review was performed on all patients with osmolal gap of 9 or greater. Results In the study period, 20,669 patients had determination of serum/plasma ethanol and osmolal gap upon presentation to the hospitals. There were 341 patients with an osmolal gap greater than 14 (including correction for estimated contribution of ethanol on initial presentation to the medical center. Seventy-seven patients tested positive by GC for one or more toxic alcohols; all had elevated anion gap or osmolal gap or both. Other than toxic alcohols, the most common causes for an elevated osmolal gap were recent heavy ethanol consumption with suspected alcoholic ketoacidosis, renal failure, shock, and recent administration of mannitol. Only 9 patients with osmolal gap greater than 50 and no patients with osmolal gap greater than 100 were found to be negative for toxic alcohols. Conclusions Our study concurs with other investigations that show that osmolal gap can be a useful diagnostic test in conjunction with clinical history and physical

  4. The influence of storage time and temperature on the measurement of serum, plasma and urine osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, Karla; Rensburg, Megan A; Hudson, Careen L; Essack, Younus; Davids, M Razeen

    2016-07-01

    Many clinical laboratories require that specimens for serum and urine osmolality determination be processed within 3 h of sampling or need to arrive at the laboratory on ice. This protocol is based on the World Health Organization report on sample storage and stability, but the recommendation lacks good supporting data. We studied the effect of storage temperature and time on osmolality measurements. Blood and urine samples were obtained from 16 patients and 25 healthy volunteers. Baseline serum, plasma and urine osmolality measurements were performed within 30 min. Measurements were then made at 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 h on samples stored at 4-8℃ and room temperature. We compared baseline values with subsequent measurements and used difference plots to illustrate changes in osmolality. At 4-8℃, serum and plasma osmolality were stable for up to 36 h. At room temperature, serum and plasma osmolality were very stable for up to 12 h. At 24 and 36 h, changes from baseline osmolality were statistically significant and exceeded the total allowable error of 1.5% but not the reference change value of 4.1%. Urine osmolality was extremely stable at room temperature with a mean change of less than 1 mosmol/kg at 36 h. Serum and plasma samples can be stored at room temperature for up to 36 h before measuring osmolality. Cooling samples to 4-8℃ may be useful when delays in measurement beyond 12 h are anticipated. Urine osmolality is extremely stable for up to 36 h at room temperature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The use of the osmole gap as a screening test for the presence of exogenous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purssell, Roy A; Lynd, Larry D; Koga, Yoshikata

    2004-01-01

    The rapid and accurate diagnosis of toxic alcohol poisoning due to methanol (methyl alcohol) [MeOH] and ethylene glycol (EG), is paramount in preventing serious adverse outcomes. The quantitative measurement of specific serum levels of these substances using gas chromatography is expensive, time consuming and generally only available at major tertiary-care facilities. Therefore, because these toxic substances are osmotically active and the measurement of serum osmolality is easily performed and more readily available, the presence of an osmole gap (OG) has been adopted as an alternative screening test. By definition, the OG is the difference between the measured serum osmolality determined using the freezing point depression (Osm(m)) and the calculated serum molarity (Mc), which is estimated from the known and readily measurable osmotically active substances in the serum, in particular sodium, urea, glucose, and potassium and ethanol (alcohol). Thus, the OG=Osm(m)-Mc, and an OG above a specific threshold (the threshold of positivity) suggests the presence of unmeasured osmotically active substances, which could be indicative of a toxic exposure. The objectives of this study were to review the principles of evaluating screening tests, the theory behind the OG as a screening test and the literature upon which the adoption of the OG as a screening test has been based. This review revealed that there have been numerous equations derived and proposed for the estimation of the Mc, with the objective of developing empirical evidence of the best equation for the determination of the OG and ultimately the utility of OG as a screening test. However, the methods and statistical analysis employed have generally been inconsistent with recommended guidelines for screening test evaluation and although many equations have been derived, they have not been appropriately validated. Specific evidence of the clinical utility of the OG requires that a threshold of positivity be

  6. Stability of serum, plasma and urine osmolality in different storage conditions: Relevance of temperature and centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda-Vives, Macià; Morell-Garcia, Daniel; Rubio-Alaejos, Ana; Valiña, Laura; Robles, Juan; Bauça, Josep Miquel

    2017-09-01

    Osmolality reflects the concentration of all dissolved particles in a body fluid, and its measurement is routinely performed in clinical laboratories for the differential diagnosis of disorders related with the hydrolytic balance regulation, the renal function and in small-molecule poisonings. The aim of the study was to assess the stability of serum, plasma and urine osmolality through time and under different common storage conditions, including delayed centrifugation. Blood and urine samples were collected, and classified into different groups according to several preanalytical variables: serum or plasma lithium-heparin tubes; spun or unspun; stored at room temperature (RT), at 4°C or frozen at -21°C. Aliquots from each group were assayed over time, for up to 14days. Statistical differences were based on three different international performance criteria. Whole blood stability was higher in the presence of anticoagulant. Serum osmolality was stable for 2days at RT and 8days at 4°C, while plasma was less stable when refrigerated. Urine stability was 5days at RT, 4days at 4°C and >14days when frozen. Osmolality may be of great interest for the management of several conditions, such as in case of a delay in the clinical suspicion, or in case of problems in sample collection or processing. The ability to obtain reliable results for samples kept up to 14days also offers the possibility to retrospectively assess baseline values for patients which may require it. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Dose related anxiolytic effects of diazepam: relation with serum electrolytes, plasma osmolality and systolic blood pressure (sbp) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, R.; Haleem, D.J.; Haleem, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Diazepam is an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drug that also induces hypnosis. Changes in serum electrolyte balance, plasma osmolality and systolic blood pressure (SBP) are often associated with stress-induced anxiety. Administration of diazepam has been show to decrease stress-induced enhancement of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal cortical (HPA) axis. The present is designed to monitor the anxiolytic effects of different doses of diazepam (1 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) and its association with changes of serum electrolyte balance, plasma osmolality and SBP in rats. Administration of diazepam at doses of 1 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg elicited anxiolytic effects monitored in light-dark transition test and increased serum concentration of electrolytes and plasma osmolality. Serum levels of magnesium as well as SBP decreased. The results are discussed in context of anxiolytic effects of diazepam to be mediated via a modulation of stress-induced increase in the activity of HPA-axis arid electrolytes balance. (author)

  8. Two different serum-free media and osmolality effect upon human 293 cell growth and adenovirus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tiago B; Ferreira, Ana L; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2005-11-01

    Adenoviruses are promising vectors for gene therapy and vaccination protocols. Consequently, the market demands for adenovirus are increasing, driving the search for new methodologies for large-scale production of concentrated vectors with warranted purity and efficacy, in a cost-effective way. Nevertheless, the production of adenovirus is currently limited by the so-called 'cell density effect', i.e. a drop in cell specific productivity concomitant with increased cell concentration at infection. Of two different serum-free culture media (CD293 and EX-Cell), evaluated for their effect on human 293 cells growth and adenovirus production at cell densities higher than 1x10(6) cells/ml, EX-Cell proved the better medium for cell growth. Although adenovirus production was equivalent in both media when the infection was performed at 1x10(6) cells/ml, at 3x10(6) cells/ml CD293 was the better. This result related to the high ammonia content in EX-Cell medium at the highest cell concentration at infection. Besides this, the large-scale production of these vectors at high cell densities often requires re-feed strategies, which increase medium osmolality. While a negative effect on cell growth was observed with increasing osmolalities, adenovirus productivity was only affected for osmolalities higher than 430 mOsm.

  9. Serum osmolality and ions, and gill Na+/K+-ATPase of spottedtail goby Synechogobius ommaturus (R. in response to acute salinity changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Shui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of abrupt salinity change on osmoregulatory ability of the spottedtail goby Synechogobius ommaturus. 720 juvenile fish (65.3 ± 11.8 g were transferred to 200 L tanks (with 40 juveniles in each tank, in which salinities were abruptly changed from 10 to 20, 30, 40, 50 and freshwater. Survival rate, serum osmolality, electrolytes (Na+, Cl−, and K+ and gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA activity were assessed successively in 528 h. Results showed serum osmolality, ion concentrations and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased significantly when fish were transferred to salinity 40 and 50 and all fish in these groups died by the end of the experiment. Serum osmolality, Na+, Cl− and K+ in fish transferred to a salinity of 20, 30 and freshwater were not affected and no mortality was detected. Compared with the control group, a significantly decrease of NKA activity happened in the freshwater group, but the activity in 20 and 30 groups was not affected significantly. The results indicated that S. ommaturus could adapt rapidly and maintain homeostasis in a wide range of salinities (from freshwater to salinity 30 and this species may be suitable for aquaculture in estuarine and coastal areas where rapid salinity fluctuations commonly occur. Keywords: Osmolality, Gill, Na+/K+-ATPase, Synechogobius ommaturus

  10. Elevated Serum Osmolality and Total Water Deficit Indicate Impaired Hydration Status in Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities Regardless of Low or High Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Melissa Ventura; Simmons, Sandra F; Shotwell, Matthew S; Hudson, Abbie; Hollingsworth, Emily K; Long, Emily; Kuertz, Brittany; Silver, Heidi J

    2016-05-01

    Dehydration is typically associated with underweight and malnutrition in long-term care (LTC) settings. Evidence is lacking regarding the influence of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on risk factors, prevalence, and presentation of dehydration. The aim of this study was to objectively assess hydration status and the adequacy of total water intake, and determine relationships between hydration status, total water intake, and body mass index (BMI) in LTC residents. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was performed. Baseline data from 247 subjects recruited from eight community-based LTC facilities participating in two randomized trials comparing nutrient and cost-efficacy of between-meal snacks vs oral nutrition supplements (ONS). Hydration status was assessed by serum osmolality concentration and total water intakes were quantified by weighed food, beverage, water, and ONS intake. Simple and multiple linear regression methods were applied. Forty-nine (38.3%) subjects were dehydrated (>300 mOsm/kg) and another 39 (30.5%) had impending dehydration (295 to 300 mOsm/kg). The variance in serum osmolality was significantly accounted for by blood urea nitrogen level, mental status score, and having diabetes (R(2)=0.46; PTotal water intake averaged 1,147.2±433.1 mL/day. Thus, 96% to 100% of subjects did not meet estimated requirements, with a deficit range of 700 to 1,800 mL/day. The variance in total water intake was significantly accounted for by type of liquid beverages (thin vs thick), type of ONS, total energy intake, total activities of daily living dependence, sex, and BMI (R(2)=0.56; Ptotal water intake is prevalent in LTC residents across all BMI categories. Type of liquid beverages, type of ONS, and type of between-meal snacks are factors that could be targeted for nutrition interventions designed to prevent or reverse dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Urine Osmolality in Treatment-naïve HIV-positive Subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-01

    Mar 1, 2017 ... a significant association between urine osmolality and body mass index (BMI), creatinine clearance, as well as serum .... approved by the Ethics Research Committee of the hospital. With the help of a questionnaire, .... SD=standard deviation, SUOsm=spot urine osmolality,. 24UOsm=24-h urine osmolality, ...

  12. Observations on saliva osmolality during progressive dehydration and partial rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Kerry, Pete; McGhee, Sheena; Peoples, Gregory E; Brown, Marc A; Patterson, Mark J

    2012-09-01

    A need exists to identify dehydrated individuals under stressful settings beyond the laboratory. A predictive index based on changes in saliva osmolality has been proposed, and its efficacy and sensitivity was appraised across mass (water) losses from 1 to 7%. Twelve euhydrated males [serum osmolality: 286.1 mOsm kg(-1) H(2)O (SD 4.3)] completed three exercise- and heat-induced dehydration trials (35.6°C, 56% relative humidity): 7% dehydration (6.15 h), 3% dehydration (with 60% fluid replacement: 2.37 h), repeat 7% dehydration (5.27 h). Expectorated saliva osmolality, measured at baseline and at each 1% mass change, was used to predict instantaneous hydration state relative to mass losses of 3 and 6%. Saliva osmolality increased linearly with dehydration, although its basal osmolality and its rate of change varied among and within subjects across trials. Receiver operating characteristic curves indicated a good predictive power for saliva osmolality when used with two, single-threshold cutoffs to differentiate between hydrated and dehydrated individuals (area under curve: 3% cutoff = 0.868, 6% cutoff = 0.831). However, when analysed using a double-threshold detection technique (3 and 6%), as might be used in a field-based monitor, <50% of the osmolality data could correctly identify individuals who exceeded 3% dehydration. Indeed, within the 3-6% dehydration range, its sensitivity was 64%, while beyond 6% dehydration, this fell to 42%. Therefore, while expectorated saliva osmolality tracked mass losses within individuals, its large intra- and inter-individual variability limited its predictive power and sensitivity, rendering its utility questionable within a universal dehydration monitor.

  13. The effect of lactase and formula reconstitution on milk osmolality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, A J

    2012-02-03

    These experiments investigated the reaction rate of lactase on milk lactose by measuring milk osmolality; and explored the effect of formula reconstitution on milk osmolality. The investigations measured milk osmolality with the Fiske Os, freezing-point osmometer. Lactase (Lactaid) incubated with pure lactose solutions established the validity of the method. Lactase was incubated for 24 hours with four reconstituted milk formulas (Milumil, and Cow and Gate Nutrilon Plus, Farley\\'s First Milk, SMA Gold). Milk osmolality increased most rapidly in the first 4 hours after the addition of lactase. The lactase enzyme completed over 90% of the reaction within 12 hours. The milk osmolalities ranged from 487 to 591 mosm\\/kg after 24 hours with 2-4 drops of lactase in 240 ml of formula. A clinical guideline osmolality of 400 mosm\\/kg was reached in 240 ml of formula at 1 to 12 hours depending on the dose of lactase. High milk osmolalities due to prolonged enzyme incubation, or high lactase doses could be reduced to around 400 mosm\\/kg by dilution of 240 ml of formula with an extra 60 ml of water. The initial osmolality of formula after reconstitution by paediatric nurses varied widely and usually exceeded the manufacturer\\'s quoted osmolality. This initial osmolality was a further influence on the final osmolality reached after the addition of lactase. It is concluded that the recommended incubation time for Lactaid of 24 hours is unnecessary as lactase exerts the majority of its effect in less than 12 hours. Adjustment of Lactaid dose and incubation times will maintain milk formula osmolality within standard guidelines. Dilution with extra water will correct inadvertent high enzyme doses and prolonged incubation times. The normal method of reconstituting milk formulas from powder may be unreliable as the manufacturer\\'s quoted osmolality was not reproduced when milk formulas were reconstituted by paediatric nurses.

  14. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals

  15. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  16. Gingivitis and salivary osmolality in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Ferreira, Maria Cristina Duarte; Guaré, Renata Oliveira; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Duarte, Danilo Antonio

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A total of 82 children with spastic CP were included in this cross-sectional study. Oral motor performance and gingival conditions were evaluated. Unstimulated saliva was collected using cotton swabs, and salivary osmolality was measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. Spearman's coefficient, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Strong correlation (r > 0.7) was determined among salivary osmolality, salivary flow rate, visible plaque, dental calculus, and the occurrence of gingivitis. The area under the ROC to predict the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis was 0.88 (95% CI 0.81-0.96; P gingivitis was 22.5%, whereas for the group presenting osmolality >84.5 mOsm/kgH 2 O, the proportion of children with gingivitis was 77.5%. Salivary osmolality above 84.5 increased the likelihood of gingivitis fivefold, whereas each additional 0.1 mL of salivary flow reduced the likelihood of gingivitis by 97%. Gingivitis occurs more frequently in children with CP showing increased values of salivary osmolality. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Is specific gravity a good estimate of urine osmolality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Sethi; Eva, Goldwater; Christopher, Shutty; Flynn, Ethan; Henner, David

    2010-01-01

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is often used by clinicians to estimate urine osmolality. USG is measured either by refractometry or by reagent strip. We studied the correlation of USG obtained by either method with a concurrently obtained osmolality. Using our laboratory's records, we retrospectively gathered data on 504 urine specimens on patients on whom a simultaneously drawn USG and an osmolality were available. Out of these, 253 USG's were measured by automated refractometry and 251 USG's were measured by reagent strip. Urinalysis data on these subjects were used to determine the correlation between USG and osmolality, adjusting for other variables that may impact the relationship. The other variables considered were pH, protein, glucose, ketones, nitrates, bilirubin, urobilinogen, hemoglobin, and leukocyte esterase. The relationships were analyzed by linear regression. This study demonstrated that USG obtained by both reagent strip and refractometry had a correlation of approximately 0.75 with urine osmolality. The variables affecting the correlation included pH, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, glucose, and protein for the reagent strip and ketones, bilirubin, and hemoglobin for the refractometry method. At a pH of 7 and with an USG of 1.010 predicted osmolality is approximately 300  mosm/kg/H(2)O for either method. For an increase in SG of 0.010, predicted osmolality increases by 182  mosm/kg/H(2) O for the reagent strip and 203  mosm/kg/H(2)O for refractometry. Pathological urines had significantly poorer correlation between USG and osmolality than "clean" urines. In pathological urines, direct measurement of urine osmolality should be used. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Assessment of extracellular dehydration using saliva osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Brett R; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Spitz, Marissa G; Heavens, Kristen R; Walsh, Neil P; Sawka, Michael N

    2014-01-01

    When substantial solute losses accompany body water an isotonic hypovolemia (extracellular dehydration) results. The potential for using blood or urine to assess extracellular dehydration is generally poor, but saliva is not a simple ultra-filtrate of plasma and the autonomic regulation of salivary gland function suggests the possibility that saliva osmolality (Sosm) may afford detection of extracellular dehydration via the influence of volume-mediated factors. This study aimed to evaluate the assessment of extracellular dehydration using Sosm. In addition, two common saliva collection methods and their effects on Sosm were compared. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected in 24 healthy volunteers during paired euhydration and dehydration trials. Furosemide administration and 12 h fluid restriction were used to produce extracellular dehydration. Expectoration and salivette collection methods were compared in a separate group of eight euhydrated volunteers. All comparisons were made using paired t-tests. The diagnostic potential of body fluids was additionally evaluated. Dehydration (3.1 ± 0.5% loss of body mass) decreased PV (-0.49 ± 0.12 L; -15.12 ± 3.94% change), but Sosm changes were marginal ( 0.05). Extracelluar dehydration was not detectable using plasma, urine, or saliva measures. Salivette and expectoration sampling methods produced similar, consistent results for Sosm, suggesting no methodological influence on Sosm.

  19. Contrast media osmolality and plasma volume changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, A.L.; Lui, D.; Dawson, P.; Middlesex Hospital, London

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the plasma volume expansion consequent on the hyperosmolality of contrast media is presented. In the case of the ratio 1.5 media theory and experiment coincide closely but in the case of the ratio 3 media the observed changes exceed the predicted. It is proposed that this is due partly to the slower diffusion of the ratio 3 media out of the intravascular space and partly due to the fact that the osmotic load presented by these media is greater than would be expected from a study of their commercial solutions in which osmolality is reduced by molecular aggregation. The implications for the relative haemodynamic effects of different contrast media are discussed. The osmotic effects of contrast media also play a part in determining the image quality achievable in intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA). It is predicted that ratio 3 contrast media will give better quality images in IV-DSA than ratio 1.5 media. (orig.)

  20. Contrast Media Viscosity versus Osmolality in Kidney Injury: Lessons from Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeliger, Erdmann; Lenhard, Diana C.; Persson, Pontus B.

    2014-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) can induce acute kidney injury (AKI). CM share common iodine-related cytotoxic features but differ considerably with regard to osmolality and viscosity. Meta-analyses of clinical trials generally failed to reveal renal safety differences of modern CM with regard to these physicochemical properties. While most trials' reliance on serum creatinine as outcome measure contributes to this lack of clinical evidence, it largely relies on the nature of prospective clinical trials: effective prophylaxis by ample hydration must be employed. In everyday life, patients are often not well hydrated; here we lack clinical data. However, preclinical studies that directly measured glomerular filtration rate, intrarenal perfusion and oxygenation, and various markers of AKI have shown that the viscosity of CM is of vast importance. In the renal tubules, CM become enriched, as water is reabsorbed, but CM are not. In consequence, tubular fluid viscosity increases exponentially. This hinders glomerular filtration and tubular flow and, thereby, prolongs intrarenal retention of cytotoxic CM. Renal cells become injured, which triggers hypoperfusion and hypoxia, finally leading to AKI. Comparisons between modern CM reveal that moderately elevated osmolality has a renoprotective effect, in particular, in the dehydrated state, because it prevents excessive tubular fluid viscosity. PMID:24707482

  1. Urine osmolality in treatment-naïve HIV-positive subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urine osmolality is not commonly evaluated in routine clinical practice and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subjects. The factors that influence urine osmolality have not been completely identified. The aim of this study was to evaluate urine osmolality in treatment‑naïve HIV subjects and to identify the factors that may ...

  2. The serum anion gap in the evaluation of acid-base disorders: what are its limitations and can its effectiveness be improved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Jeffrey A; Nagami, Glenn T

    2013-11-01

    The serum anion gap has been utilized to identify errors in the measurement of electrolytes, to detect paraproteins, and, most relevant to the nephrologist, to evaluate patients with suspected acid-base disorders. In regard to the latter purpose, traditionally an increased anion gap is identified when it exceeds the upper limit of normal for a particular clinical laboratory measurement. However, because there is a wide range of normal values (often 8-10 mEq/L), an increase in anion concentration can be present in the absence of an increased anion gap. In addition, the type of retained anion can affect the magnitude of the increase in anion gap relative to change in serum [HCO3(-)] being greater with lactic acidosis compared with ketoacidosis. This review examines the methods of calculation of the serum anion gap in textbooks and published literature, the effect of perturbations other than changes in acid-base balance, and its effectiveness in identifying mild and more severe disturbances in acid-base balance. Limitations of the present methods of determining the normal anion gap and change in the anion gap are highlighted. The possibility of identifying the baseline value for individuals to optimize the use of the calculation in the detection of metabolic acidosis is suggested.

  3. The Serum Anion Gap in the Evaluation of Acid-Base Disorders: What Are Its Limitations and Can Its Effectiveness Be Improved?

    OpenAIRE

    Kraut, Jeffrey A.; Nagami, Glenn T.

    2013-01-01

    The serum anion gap has been utilized to identify errors in the measurement of electrolytes, to detect paraproteins, and, most relevant to the nephrologist, to evaluate patients with suspected acid-base disorders. In regard to the latter purpose, traditionally an increased anion gap is identified when it exceeds the upper limit of normal for a particular clinical laboratory measurement. However, because there is a wide range of normal values (often 8–10 mEq/L), an increase in anion concentrat...

  4. Diagnostic Challenge in a Patient with Severe Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene M. Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach to the patient with acute renal failure and elevated anion and osmolal gap is difficult. Differential diagnoses include toxic alcohol ingestion, diabetic or starvation ketoacidosis, or 5-oxoproline acidosis. We present a 76-year-old female with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who was found at home in a confused state. Laboratory analysis revealed serum pH 6.84, bicarbonate 5.8 mmol/L, pCO2 29 mmHg, anion gap 22.2 mmol/L, osmolal gap 17.4 mOsm/kg, elevated beta-hydroxybutyrate (4.2 mmol/L, random blood sugar 213 mg/dL, creatinine 2.1 mg/dL, and potassium 7.5 mmol/L with no electrocardiogram (EKG changes. Fomepizole and hemodialysis were initiated for presumed ethylene glycol or methanol ingestion. Drug screens returned negative for ethylene glycol, alcohols, and acetaminophen, but there were elevated urine levels of acetone (11 mg/dL. The acetaminophen level was negative, and 5-oxoproline was not analyzed. After 5 days in the intensive care unit (ICU, her mental status improved with supportive care. She was discharged to a nursing facility. Though a diagnosis was not established, our patient’s presentation was likely due to starvation ketosis combined with chronic acetaminophen ingestion. Acetone ingestion is less likely. Overall, our case illustrates the importance of systematically approaching an elevated osmolal and anion gap metabolic acidosis.

  5. Dynamic control of osmolality and ionic composition of the xylem sap in two mangrove species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Portillo, Jorge; Ewers, Frank W; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paredes López, Claudia L; Angeles, Guillermo; Alarcón Jiménez, Ana Luisa; Lara-Domínguez, Ana Laura; Torres Barrera, María Del Carmen

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Xylem sap osmolality and salinity is a critical unresolved issue in plant function with impacts on transport efficiency, pressure gradients, and living cell turgor pressure, especially for halophytes such as mangrove trees.• Methods: We collected successive xylem vessel sap samples from stems and shoots of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa using vacuum and pressure extraction and measured their osmolality. Following a series of extractions with the pressure chamber, we depressurized the shoot and pressurized again after various equilibration periods (minutes to hours) to test for dynamic control of osmolality. Transpiration and final sap osmolality were measured in shoots perfused with deionized water or different seawater dilutions.• Key results: For both species, the sap osmolality values of consecutive samples collected by vacuum extraction were stable and matched those of the initial samples extracted with the pressure chamber. Further extraction of samples with the pressure chamber decreased sap osmolality, suggesting reverse osmosis occurred. However, sap osmolalities increased when longer equilibration periods after sap extraction were allowed. Analysis of expressed sap with HPLC indicated a 1:1 relation between measured osmolality and the osmolality of the inorganic ions in the sap (mainly Na + , K + , and Cl - ), suggesting no contamination by organic compounds. In stems perfused with deionized water, the sap osmolality increased to mimic the native sap osmolality.• Conclusions: Xylem sap osmolality and ionic contents are dynamically adjusted by mangroves and may help modulate turgor pressure, hydraulic conductivity, and water potential, thus being important for mangrove physiology, survival, and distribution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  6. Microdrop preparation factors influence culture-media osmolality, which can impair mouse embryo preimplantation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, J E; Cabrera, L; Xu, X; Smith, G D

    2012-02-01

    Because media osmolality can impact embryo development, the effect of conditions during microdrop preparation on osmolality was examined. Various sizes of microdrops were prepared under different laboratory conditions. Drops were pipetted directly onto a dish and covered by oil (standard method) or pipetted on the dish, overlaid with oil before removing the underlying media and replaced with fresh media (wash-drop method). Drops were made at 23°C or on a heated stage (37°C) and with or without airflow. Osmolality was assessed at 5 min and 24h. The biological impact of osmolality change was demonstrated by culturing 1-cell mouse embryos in media with varying osmolality. Reduced drop volume, increased temperature and standard method were associated with a significant increase in osmolality at both 5 min and 24h (P-values media with elevated osmolality (>310mOsm/kg; P<0.05). Procedures in the IVF laboratory can alter osmolality and impact embryo development. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of osmolality and refractometric readings of Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, A Paige; Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L; Fry, Michael M; Hall, James S; Bartges, Joseph W

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between osmolality and specific gravity of urine samples from clinically normal adult parrots and to determine a formula to convert urine specific gravity (USG) measured on a reference scale to a more accurate USG value for an avian species, urine samples were collected opportunistically from a colony of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Samples were analyzed by using a veterinary refractometer, and specific gravity was measured on both canine and feline scales. Osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometry. Specific gravity and osmolality measurements were highly correlated (r = 0.96). The linear relationship between refractivity measurements on a reference scale and osmolality was determined. An equation was calculated to allow specific gravity results from a medical refractometer to be converted to specific gravity values of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots: USGHAp = 0.201 +0.798(USGref). Use of the reference-canine scale to approximate the osmolality of parrot urine leads to an overestimation of the true osmolality of the sample. In addition, this error increases as the concentration of urine increases. Compared with the human-canine scale, the feline scale provides a closer approximation to urine osmolality of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots but still results in overestimation of osmolality.

  8. Urine Osmolality in Treatment-naïve HIV-positive Subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-01

    Mar 1, 2017 ... commonly evaluated in routine clinical practice and in human ... the variables and urine osmolality and the strength of variables to ... function, and weight were common in treatment-naïve HIV subjects who had ... Nigeria, underweight and obesity, urine osmolality ..... associated with a salt-losing syndrome.

  9. Oligonol supplementation modulates plasma volume and osmolality and sweating after heat load in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JeongBeom; Shin, YoungOh; Murota, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-01

    Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight polyphenol that possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the effects of Oligonol supplementation on sweating response, plasma volume (PV), and osmolality (Osm) after heat load in human volunteers. We conducted a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants took a daily dose of 200 mg Oligonol or placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. As a heat load, half-body immersion into hot water (42°C±0.5°C for 30 min) was performed in an automated climate chamber. Tympanic and mean body temperature (Tty, mTb) and whole-body sweat loss volume (WBSLV) were measured. Changes in PV, Osm, and serum levels of aldosterone and sodium were analyzed. Oligonol intake attenuated increases in Tty, mTb, and WBSLV after heat load compared with the placebo (Pbody temperature and excessive sweating under heat load in healthy humans, but interpretation of the results requires caution due to the potent diuretic effect of Oligonol.

  10. Osmolality of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Wibroe

    Full Text Available Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is a disorder of increased intracranial fluid pressure (ICP of unknown etiology. This study aims to investigate osmolality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with IIH.We prospectively collected CSF from individuals referred on suspicion of IIH from 2011-2013. Subjects included as patients fulfilled Friedman and Jacobson's diagnostic criteria for IIH. Individuals in whom intracranial hypertension was refuted were included as controls. Lumbar puncture with ICP measurement was performed at inclusion and repeated for patients after three months of treatment. Osmolality was measured with a Vapor Pressure Osmometer.We collected 90 CSF samples from 38 newly diagnosed patients and 28 controls. At baseline 27 IIH-samples and at 3 months follow-up 35 IIH-samples were collected from patients. We found no significant differences in osmolality between 1 patients at baseline and controls (p = 0. 86, 2 patients at baseline and after 3 months treatment (p = 0.97, and 3 patients with normalized pressure after 3 months and their baseline values (p = 0.79. Osmolality in individuals with normal ICP from 6-25 cmH2O (n = 41 did not differ significantly from patients with moderately elevated ICP from 26-45 cmH2O (n = 21 (p = 0.86 and patients with high ICP from 46-70 cmH2O (n = 4 (p = 0.32, respectively. There was no correlation between osmolality and ICP, BMI, age and body height, respectively. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg (± 1 SE, 95% confidence interval 267-272 for both patients and controls.CSF osmolality was normal in patients with IIH, and there was no relation to treatment, ICP, BMI, age and body height. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg and constitutes a reference for future studies. Changes in CSF osmolality are not responsible for development of IIH. Other underlying pathophysiological mechanisms must be searched.

  11. Osmolality of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, Elisabeth A; Yri, Hanne M; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of increased intracranial fluid pressure (ICP) of unknown etiology. This study aims to investigate osmolality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with IIH. METHODS: We prospectively collected CSF from individuals referred...... significantly from patients with moderately elevated ICP from 26-45 cmH2O (n = 21) (p = 0.86) and patients with high ICP from 46-70 cmH2O (n = 4) (p = 0.32), respectively. There was no correlation between osmolality and ICP, BMI, age and body height, respectively. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg (± 1 SE, 95...

  12. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Keil, L. C.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of work intensity on plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin and renin activity and the interrelationships between these responses are investigated. Plasma volume, renin activity and osmotic, sodium and arginine vasopressin concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken from 15 healthy male subjects before and after six minutes of bicycle ergometer exercise at 100, 175 and 225 W. Plasma volume is found to decrease significantly with increasing work intensity, while increases in Na(+) concentration, osmolality and vasopressin are only observed to be significant when the work intensity exceeds 40% maximal aerobic capacity and plasma resin activity increased linearly at all work levels. In addition, significant correlations are observed between plasma volume and osmolality and sodium changes, and between vasopressin and osmolality and sodium content changes. Data thus support the hypotheses that (1) vasopressin may be the primary controlling endocrine for fluid and electrolyte levels following exercise; (2) an exercise intensity greater than 40% maximal aerobic capacity is required to stimulate vasopressin release through changes in plasma osmolality; and (3) the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system is a more general stress response.

  13. Optimized conditions for primary culture of pituitary cells from the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The importance of osmolality, pCO₂, and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodne, Kjetil; von Krogh, Kristine; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Sand, Olav; Haug, Trude M

    2012-09-01

    Protocols for primary cultures of teleost cells are commonly only moderately adjusted from similar protocols for mammalian cells, the main adjustment often being of temperature. Because aquatic habitats are in general colder than mammalian body temperatures and teleosts have gills in direct contact with water, pH and buffer capacity of blood and extracellular fluid are different in fish and mammals. Plasma osmolality is generally higher in marine teleosts than in mammals. Using Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) as a model, we have optimized these physiological parameters to maintain primary pituitary cells in culture for an extended period without loosing key properties. L-15 medium with adjusted osmolality, adapted to low pCO(2) (3.8mm Hg) and temperature (12°C), and with pH 7.85, maintained the cells in a physiologically sounder state than traditional culture medium, significantly improving cell viability compared to the initial protocol. In the optimized culture medium, resting membrane potential and response to releasing hormone were stable for at least two weeks, and the proportion of cells firing action potentials during spawning season was about seven times higher than in the original culture medium. The cells were moderately more viable when the modified medium was supplemented with newborn calf serum or artificial serum substitute. Compared to serum-free L-15 medium, expression of key genes (lhb, fshb, and gnrhr2a) was better maintained in medium containing SSR, whereas NCS tended to decrease the expression level. Although serum-free medium is adequate for many applications, serum supplement may be preferable for experiments dependent on membrane integrity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Limitations of Salivary Osmolality as a Marker of Hydration Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    volunteers were provided with a small, standardized meal (450 kcal; 57% CHO, 30% fat, 13% protein, 450 mg of Na+) and 200 mL of water or apple juice . No...TBW was calculated by dividing TBW by BM loss, with the assumption that corrected BM lost through sweating was entirely water. Body composition was... composition and cortisol in serum and saliva in man. J Dent Res. 1989;68(11):1495–7. 3. Cheuvront SN, Carter R III, Montain SJ, Sawka MN. Daily body mass

  15. Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; Arx, Von Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C.; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-Do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L.; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L.; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Juan, Sílvia Roig; Robert, Elisabeth M.R.; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied

  16. Hemolymph metabolites and osmolality are tightly linked to cold tolerance of Drosophila species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Trine; MacMillan, Heath A.; Nyberg, Nils

    2016-01-01

    osmolality was similar among all species despite chill-tolerant species having lower hemolymph [Na(+)]. Using NMR spectroscopy, we found that chill-tolerant species instead have higher levels of sugars and free amino acids in their hemolymph, including classical 'cryoprotectants' such as trehalose...

  17. The role of osmolality in saline fluid nebulization after tracheostomy: time for changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zunjia; Wu, Chao; Cui, Feifei; Zhang, Haiying; Mei, Binbin; Shen, Meifen

    2016-12-09

    Saline fluid nebulization is highly recommend to combat the complications following tracheostomy, yet the understandings on the role of osmolality in saline solution for nebulization remain unclear. To investigate the biological changes in the early stage after tracheostomy, to verify the efficacy of saline fluid nebulization and explore the potential role of osmolality of saline nebulization after tracheostomy. Sprague-Dawley rats undergone tracheostomy were taken for study model, the sputum viscosity was detected by rotational viscometer, the expressions of TNF-α, AQP4 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were assessed by western blot analysis, and the histological changes in endothelium were evaluated by HE staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Study results revealed that tracheostomy gave rise to the increase of sputum viscosity, TNF-α and AQP4 expression, mucosa and cilia damage, yet the saline fluid nebulization could significantly decrease the changes of those indicators, besides, the hypertonic, isotonic and hypertonic saline nebulization produced different efficacy. Osmolality plays an important role in the saline fluid nebulization after tracheostomy, and 3% saline fluid nebulization seems to be more beneficial, further studies on the role of osmolality in saline fluid nebulization are warranted.

  18. Compatibility and osmolality of inhaled N-acetylcysteine nebulizing solution with fenoterol and ipratropium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzung-Yi; Chen, Chi-Ming; Lee, Chun-Nin; Chiang, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hsiang-Yin

    2005-04-15

    The compatibility, pH, and osmolality of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) nebulizing solution in the presence of ipratropium bromide or fenoterol hydrobromide were studied. Portions (400 microL) of each mixture were sampled immediately upon mixing and one, two, three, four, five, six, and seven hours after mixing and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Osmolality was measured by sampling 100 microL from the filling cup at a five-minute interval during nebulization and by the freezing-point-depression method. Adding NAC solution to fenoterol solution raised the pH from 3.20 to 7.90 and the osmolality to a mean +/- S.D. of 1400.67 +/- 4.51 mOsm/kg. Fenoterol concentrations decreased to 93.71% and NAC concentrations to 92.54% of initial concentrations after seven hours. Mixing ipratropium with NAC solution raised the pH from 3.74 to 7.95 and the osmolality to a mean +/- S.D. of 1413 +/- 11.79 mOsm/kg. The initial ipratropium concentration declined 7.39% and 10.91% one and two hours after mixing with NAC solution, respectively. NAC and ipratropium were stable in nebulizing solution within one hour of mixing. NAC and fenoterol were compatible for at least seven hours.

  19. Osmolality and composition of the extender during the cold storage of Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana T. M. Viveiros

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of extender osmolality and composition on the cooling of Prochilodus lineatussperm. Sperm was diluted in six extenders: two compositions (powdered coconut water(tm = ACP; Beltsville Thawing Solution(tm = BTS x three osmolalities (285, 325, and 365 mOsm/kg plus an undiluted control, and stored at 6-8°C. Motility rate and velocities (curvilinear, straight line, and average path were determined every other day. Osmolality did not affect the quality of cooled sperm, thus data were pooled. Motility was higher on d 0 compared to the other days and diluted samples (85-90% yielded higher motility than control (75%. On d 2, motility was higher in BTS-diluted samples and control, but on d 4 and 6, control yielded the highest motility. Velocities decreased from d 0 to 6 in diluted samples, but not in control. On d 0, velocities were higher in BTS-diluted sperm, but, on d 2, 4, and 6, control yielded higher velocities despite of the large variation among males. Thus P. lineatussperm should be stored in BTS or without dilution, for a maximum of two days at 6-8°C. Extender osmolality between 285 and 365 mOsm/kg does not affect sperm quality during cold storage.

  20. Osmolality and pH in handmade enteral diets used in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Simeone HENRIQUES

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients who need prolonged domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy may benefit from handmade diets. However, the preparation of such diets might cause insecurity with regard to their nutritional composition and physical-chemical properties. Current study analyzes the osmolality and Hydrogen-Ion concentration (pH on handmade enteral diets. To this purpose, six formulas and two juices, prescribed on discharge from hospital, were analyzed physically and chemically. Osmolality and pH were respectively determined by cryoscopy and potentiometry. Most formulations were classified as isosmolar (with less than 400 mOsm/kg solvent, and only one was classified as slightly hyperosmolar, with rates ranging from 356.7 to 403.5 mOsm/kg solvent. On average, the standard formula presented higher osmolality than similar ones prepared for hyperglycemia. Among the juices, only one registered hyperosmolar concentration of 595.54 mOsm/kg solvent. All formulas presented pH rates classified as low acidity, ranging between 6.1 and 6.6, while the two juices had the lowest results, 4.73 and 4.66 each. The blend of ingredients used in handmade formulas and juices studied presented acceptable osmolality and pH rates for a safe administration and absence of gastrointestinal complications. Data showed here are consistent with an appropriate and healthy diet and contributed towards success in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy.

  1. Do Acartia tonsa (Dana) eggs regulate their volume and osmolality as salinity changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2012-01-01

    Subitaneous eggs from an euryhaline calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were challenged by changes in salinity within the range from full strength salinity, down to zero and up to >70 psu. Egg volume changed immediately, increasing from 2.8 × 105 μm3 at full strength salinity (35 psu) to 3.8 × 105 μm3...... at 0 psu and back to its initial volume when gradually being returned to full strength salinity. Egg osmolality followed the molality of the surrounding water when challenged within a salinity range from 2 to 50 psu. Egg respiration was not affected when eggs kept at 35 psu was exposed to low salinity...... (2 psu). These results suggest that eggs are unable to regulate their volume or osmolality when challenged with changes in salinity. Gradual changes in salinity from 35 to 2 psu and back did not harm the eggs (embryos), since the hatching success remained unaffected by such changes in salinity...

  2. Do intravenous N-acetylcysteine and sodium bicarbonate prevent high osmolal contrast-induced acute kidney injury? A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jose Inda-Filho

    Full Text Available N-acetylcysteine (NAC or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, singly or combined, inconsistently prevent patients exposed to radiographic contrast media from developing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI.We asked whether intravenous isotonic saline and either NaHCO3 in 5% dextrose or else a high dose of NAC in 5% dextrose prevent CI-AKI in outpatients exposed to high-osmolal iodinated contrast medium more than does saline alone.This completed prospective, parallel, superiority, open-label, controlled, computer-randomized, single-center, Brazilian trial (NCT01612013 hydrated 500 adult outpatients (214 at high risk of developing CI-AKI exposed to ioxitalamate during elective coronary angiography and ventriculography. From 1 hour before through 6 hours after exposure, 126 patients (group 1 received a high dose of NAC and saline, 125 (group 2 received NaHCO3 and saline, 124 (group 3 received both treatments, and 125 (group 4 received only saline.Groups were similar with respect to age, gender, weight, pre-existing renal dysfunction, hypertension, medication, and baseline serum creatinine and serum cystatin C, but diabetes mellitus was significantly less prevalent in group 1. CI-AKI incidence 72 hours after exposure to contrast medium was 51.4% (257/500, measured as serum creatinine > (baseline+0.3 mg/dL and/or serum cystatin C > (1.1 · baseline, and 7.6% (38/500, measured as both serum creatinine and serum cystatin C > (baseline+0.3 mg/dL or > (1.25 · baseline. CI-AKI incidence measured less sensitively was similar among groups. Measured more sensitively, incidence in group 1 was significantly (p<0.05 lower than in groups 2 and 3 but not group 4; adjustment for confounding by infused volume equalized incidence in groups 1 and 3.We found no evidence that intravenous isotonic saline and either NaHCO3 or else a high dose of NAC prevent CI-AKI in outpatients exposed to high osmolal iodinated contrast medium more than does saline alone

  3. Gastric emptying of hexose sugars: role of osmolality, molecular structure and the CCK₁ receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, T J; Gopinath, A; Patel, E; McGlone, A; Lassman, D J; D'Amato, M; McLaughlin, J T; Thompson, D G

    2010-11-01

    It is widely reported that hexose sugars slow gastric emptying (GE) via osmoreceptor stimulation but this remains uncertain. We evaluated the effects of a panel of hexoses of differing molecular structure, assessing the effects of osmolality, intra-individual reproducibility and the role of the CCK(1) receptor, in the regulation of GE by hexoses. Thirty one healthy non-obese male and female subjects were studied in a series of protocols, using a (13) C-acetate breath test to evaluate GE of varying concentrations of glucose, galactose, fructose and tagatose, with water, NaCl and lactulose as controls. GE was further evaluated following the administration of a CCK(1) receptor antagonist. Three subjects underwent repeated studies to evaluate intra-individual reproducibility. At 250 mOsmol, a hexose-specific effect was apparent: tagatose slowed GE more potently than water, glucose and fructose (P effects of hexose sugars on GE appear related to their molecular structure rather than osmolality per se, and are, at least in part, CCK(1) receptor-dependent. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Effect of storage in media with different ion strengths and osmolalities on human periodontal ligament cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomloef, L.; Otteskog, P.; Hammarstroem, L.

    1981-01-01

    The viability of the periodontal ligament (PDL) cells is critical for a successful healing of replanted exarticulated teeth. It is mainly dependent on the duration of the extra-alveolar time and the storage medium. Saliva has usually been recommended as the most suitable storage medium, but recent experimental studies indicate that milk is preferable. In the present study the effect on cultured PDL cells of saliva and milk has been compared with some reference media such as tap water or saline by means of a 3 H-uridine leakage test. Storage in milk or saline was found to cause much less 3 H-uridine leakage than storage in saliva or tap water. Cells stored in milk for 60-180 min showed about the same leakage as cells stored in saline or Hanks' balanced salt solution. Osmolality measurements showed that saliva was hypotonic, while the osmolality of milk ranged within physiological limits. When the osmolality of saliva was increased by addition of NaCl the leakage of the stored cells decreased to the level of cells stored in 0.9% NaCl or milk. (author)

  5. Salinity effects on plasma ion levels, cortisol, and osmolality in Chinook salmon following lethal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Heather A; Noakes, David L G; Cogliati, Karen M; Peterson, James T; Iversen, Martin H; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-02-01

    Studies on hydromineral balance in fishes frequently employ measurements of electrolytes following euthanasia. We tested the effects of fresh- or salt-water euthanasia baths of tricaine mesylate (MS-222) on plasma magnesium (Mg(2+)) and sodium (Na(+)) ions, cortisol and osmolality in fish exposed to saltwater challenges, and the ion and steroid hormone fluctuations over time following euthanasia in juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Salinity of the euthanasia bath affected plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) concentrations as well as osmolality, with higher concentrations in fish euthanized in saltwater. Time spent in the bath positively affected plasma Mg(2+) and osmolality, negatively affected cortisol, and had no effect on Na(+) concentrations. The difference of temporal trends in plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) suggests that Mg(2+) may be more sensitive to physiological changes and responds more rapidly than Na(+). When electrolytes and cortisol are measured as endpoints after euthanasia, care needs to be taken relative to time after death and the salinity of the euthanasia bath. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinination of plasma osmolality and agreement between measured and calculated values in healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Freeman, Diana M; Schuster, Patricia J; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-09-01

    To determine plasma osmolality in healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and validate osmolality equations in these parrots. 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A blood sample (0.5 mL) was collected from the right jugular vein of each parrot and placed into a lithium heparin microtainer tube. Samples were centrifuged, and plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Samples were thawed, and plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing-point depression osmometer. The mean value was calculated for the 2 osmolality measurements. Plasma osmolality values were normally distributed, with a mean +/- SD of 326.0 +/- 6.878 mOsm/kg. The equations (2 x [Na(+) + K(+)]) + (glucose/18), which resulted in bias of 2.3333 mOsm/kg and limits of agreement of -7.0940 to 11.7606 mOsm/kg, and (2 x [Na(+) + K(+)]) + (uric acid concentration/16.8) + (glucose concentration/18), which resulted in bias of 5.8117 mOsm/kg and limits of agreement of -14.6640 to 3.0406 mOsm/kg, yielded calculated values that were in good agreement with the measured osmolality. IV administration of large amounts of hypotonic fluids can have catastrophic consequences. Osmolality of the plasma from parrots in this study was significantly higher than that of commercially available prepackaged fluids. Therefore, such fluids should be used with caution in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots as well as other psittacines. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the estimation of osmolality has the same clinical value in psittacines as it does in other animals.

  7. Osmolality - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water loss Poisoning from harmful substances such as ethanol , methanol , or ethylene glycol Problems producing urine In ... may be due to: Diabetes insipidus High blood sugar level ( hyperglycemia ) High level of nitrogen waste products ...

  8. Osmolality Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea ... have an osmotically active substance, such as a commercial laxative, that is inhibiting the reabsorption of water ...

  9. Plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of perch Perca fluviatilis in response to different salinities and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    with salinity at 10 and 20° C. Maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and aerobic scope was lowest at salinity of 15 at 5° C, yet at 20° C, they were lowest at a salinity of 0. A cost of osmoregulation (SMR at a salinity of 0 and 15 compared with SMR at a salinity of 10) could only be detected at a salinity of 15 at 20...... of osmoregulation (28%) at a salinity of 15 at 20° C indicates that the cost of osmoregulation in P. fluviatilis increases with temperature under hyperosmotic conditions and a power analysis showed that the cost of osmoregulation could be lower than 12·5% under other environmental conditions. The effect of salinity......The present study determined the blood plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of the perch Perca fluviatilis at different salinities (0, 10 and 15) and temperatures (5, 10 and 20° C). Blood plasma osmolality increased with salinity at all temperatures. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) increased...

  10. GAP Analysis Program (GAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas. The database was generated using a two-stage hybrid classification...

  11. Analytical validation and reference intervals for freezing point depression osmometer measurements of urine osmolality in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Samantha; Pastor, Josep; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José Joaquín; Balestra, Graziano; Caldin, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Urine osmolality (UOsm) is considered the most accurate measure of urine concentration and is used to assess body fluid homeostasis and renal function. We performed analytical validation of freezing point depression measurement of canine UOsm, to establish reference intervals (RIs) and to determine the effect of age, sex, and reproductive status on UOsm in dogs. Clinically healthy dogs ( n = 1,991) were retrospectively selected and stratified in groups by age (young [0-12 mo], adults [13-84 mo], and seniors [>84 mo]), sex (females and males), and reproductive status (intact and neutered). RIs were calculated for each age group. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were dogs, and 366-2,178 mOsm/kg in seniors. Senior dogs had a significantly lower UOsm than young and adult dogs ( p dogs ( p dogs.

  12. Hexabrix (ioxaglate), a new low osmolality contrast agent for lumbar epidural double-catheter venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijenhorst, G.C.H.; Bruin, J.N.T. de

    1980-01-01

    Hexabrix (ioxaglate), a new low osmolality contrast agent, has been compared with Telebrix (ioxitalamate) in a series of 50 lumbar epidural venograms. The intensity of the pain and heat sensation experienced by the patient was significantly lower following the injection of Hexabrix. For this reason Hexabrix may be considered the contrast medium of choice for epidural venography. In 15 additional cases Hexabrix was compared with Amipaque (metrizamide) in the same iodine concentration (320 mg/ml). In these patients hardly any difference in pain and heat sensation was observed after the injection of both contrast agents. Frequently only a slight feeling of warmth was noticed. A minimal sensation of pain was occasionally observed to the same degree with both contrast agents. (orig.)

  13. Sperm motility in fishes. (II) Effects of ions and osmolality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Cosson, Jacky

    2006-01-01

    The spermatozoa of most fish species are immotile in the testis and seminal plasma. Therefore, motility is induced after the spermatozoa are released into the aqueous environment during natural reproduction or into the diluent during artificial reproduction. There are clear relationships between seminal plasma composition and osmolality and the duration of fish sperm motility. Various parameters such as ion concentrations (K+, Na+, and Ca2+), osmotic pressure, pH, temperature and dilution rate affect motility. In the present paper, we review the roles of these ions on sperm motility in Salmonidae, Cyprinidae, Acipenseridae and marine fishes, and their relationship with seminal plasma composition. Results in the literature show that: 1. K+ is a key ion controlling sperm motility in Salmonidae and Acipenseridae in combination with osmotic pressure; this control is more simple in other fish species: sperm motility is prevented when the osmotic pressure is high (Cyprinidae) or low (marine fishes) compared to that of the seminal fluid. 2. Cations (mostly divalent, such as Ca2+) are antagonistic with the inhibitory effect of K+ on sperm motility. 3. In many species, Ca2+ influx and K+ or Na+ efflux through specific ionic channels change the membrane potential and eventually lead to an increase in cAMP concentration in the cell, which constitutes the initiation signal for sperm motility in Salmonidae. 4. Media that are hyper- and hypo-osmotic relative to seminal fluid trigger sperm motility in marine and freshwater fishes, respectively. 5. The motility of fish spermatozoa is controlled through their sensitivity to osmolality and ion concentrations. This phenomenon is related to ionic channel activities in the membrane and governs the motility mechanisms of axonemes.

  14. Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLintunen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% towards northern Europe and 38% towards southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased towards north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e. glucose and fructose high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased towards the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble

  15. Hematocrit and plasma osmolality values of young-of-year shortnose sturgeon following acute exposures to combinations of salinity and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegeweid, J.R.; Black, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological capabilities of young-of-year (YOY) shortnose sturgeon. In this study, plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were measured for YOY shortnose sturgeon following 48-h exposures to 12 different combinations of salinity and temperature. Hematocrit levels varied significantly with temperature and age, and plasma osmolalities varied significantly with salinity and age. Plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were similar to previously published values for other sturgeons of similar age and size in similar treatment conditions. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. Taking alcohol with a (large pinch of salt: Understanding the osmoles in "beer potomania" and "starvation potomania"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T H Imam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a major problem globally and beer drinking is on the rise. Many of the alcoholics sustain only on beer for days and do not get adequate solutes in the form of food. Similar situation can arise in cases of decreased food intake due to severe deliberate restriction or other factors like decreased appetite from cocaine. In these cases, salt free liquid intake may still be adequate. Such situations are conducive to the development of hyponatremia. Some of the solutes in diet, such as salt and protein, act as osmoles in urine. In these conditions, understanding the role played by solutes in diet and osmoles in urine is of vital importance for appropriate treatment of hyponatremia.

  17. Renal streaky artifact during contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic CT: Comparison of high versus low osmolality contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Hong; Kim, Jong Chul; Lee, Chung Keun; Shin, Kyoung Suk

    1994-01-01

    Introduction of low osmolality contrast agent(LOCA) has allowed safer, more comfortable contrast-enhanced CT examination, but there has been significant increase in image degradation when evaluating the kidneys due to streaky artifact. The authors reviewed findings of contrast- enhanced abdominal and pelvic computed tomography(CT) to know the difference of renal streaky artifact between a high osmolality contrast agent (HOCA) and LOCA. This study included two hundred contrast-enhanced CT in 200 patients, 100 performed with HOCA(meglumine ioglicate, 150 ml) and 100 performed with LOCA (iopromide,150 ml). The severity of renal streaky artifact was compared between HOCA and LOCA groups. Of the scans performed with HOCA, 40 had no artifact, 52 had grade I artifact, 6 had grade II artifact, and 2 had grade III artifact. Of the scans preformed with LOCA, 23 had no artifact, 44 had grade I artifact, 29 had grade II artifact, and 4 had grade III artifact. There was significant difference in the degree of the streaky artifact depending upon the osmolality of the contrast media used(by χ 2 -test, P=.0001). The results of this study revealed a statistically significant increased incidence of artifacts and distortions of renal image with LOCA when compared with HOCA

  18. Osmolality and respiratory regulation in humans: respiratory compensation for hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is absent after infusion of hypertonic saline in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Vibeke; Brudin, Lars; Rundgren, Mats; Irestedt, Lars

    2014-10-01

    Several animal studies show that changes in plasma osmolality may influence ventilation. Respiratory depression caused by increased plasma osmolality is interpreted as inhibition of water-dependent thermoregulation because conservation of body fluid predominates at the cost of increased core temperature. Respiratory alkalosis, on the other hand, is associated with a decrease in plasma osmolality and strong ion difference (SID) during human pregnancy. We investigated the hypothesis that osmolality would influence ventilation, so that increased osmolality will decrease ventilation and decreased osmolality will stimulate ventilation in both men and women. Our study participants were healthy volunteers of both sexes (ASA physical status I). Ten men (mean 28 years; range 20-40) and 9 women (mean 33 years; range 22-43) were included. All women participated in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Hyperosmolality was induced by IV infusion of hypertonic saline 3%, and hypoosmolality by drinking tap water. Arterial blood samples were collected for analysis of electrolytes, osmolality, and blood gases. Sensitivity to CO2 was determined by rebreathing tests performed before and after the fluid-loading procedures. Infusion of hypertonic saline caused hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with decreased SID in all subjects. Analysis of pooled data showed absence of respiratory compensation. Baseline arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) mean (SD) 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg remained unaltered, with lowest PaCO2 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg after 100 minutes, P = 0.70, causing a decrease in pH from mean (SD) 7.42 (0.02) to 7.38 (0.02), P acidosis was also observed during water loading. Pooled results show that PaCO2 decreased from 38.2 (3.3) mm Hg at baseline to 35.7 (2.8) mm Hg after 80 minutes of drinking water, P = 0.002, and pH remained unaltered: pH 7.43 (0.02) at baseline to pH 7.42 (0.02), P = 0.14, mean difference (confidence interval) = pH -0.007 (-0.017 to 0.003). Our results indicate

  19. Effect of Rehydration Fluid Osmolality on Plasma Volume and Vasopressin in Resting Dehydrated Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Ghislaine; Greenleaf, J. E.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Elevated plasma vasopressin concentration [PVP], which may act as a dipsogen, decreases promptly following the ingestion of fluids in many mammals including humans. The purpose for this study was to determine whether fluids of varied electrolyte and carbohydrate composition and osmolality (Osm] would modify post-drinking decreases in [PVP] which could be attributed to interaction with plasma volume (PV)- or fluid-electrolyte interactive hormones. Five men (23-41 yr, 78.0 +/- SD 8.2 kg), water deprived for 24 h, drank six fluids (12 ml/kg, at 16.5C in 4.0-6.2 min): water (30 m0sm/kg), NaCl (70 mOsm/kg), NaCl + NaCitrate (270 mOsm/kg), NaCl + 9.7% glucose (650 mOsm/kg), and two commercial drinks containing various ionic and carbohydrate contents (380 and 390 mOsm/kg). Blood (20 ml/sample) was drawn at -5 min before and at +3, +9, +15, +30, and +70 min after drinking. Heart rate, blood pressures, and plasma renin activity, {Na+], [K+], [Osm], aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, and epinephrine concentrations were unchanged after drinking. Post-drinking [PVP] decreased from 1.7 - 3.7 pg/ml within 3 min with all fluids independently of their composition, [Osm], or delta PV; with maximal depression to 0.1-0.7 pg/ml (p<0.05) by 15 min. The continued [PVP] depression with all fluids from 15 to 70 min was accompanied by unchanged plasma (Osm] but 1.8-7.6% increases (p<0.05) in PV with 3) fluids (2 commercial and NaCitrate) and no change with the others. Percent changes in mean [PVP] and plasma norepinephrine concentrations [PNE] at 15 min correlated -0.70 (P<0.10) suggesting that about half the variability in [PVP I I depression was associated with [PNE]. Thus, part of the mechanism for post-drinking [PVP] depression may involve a drinking stimulated norepinephrine (neural) factor.

  20. Isolated effects of external bath osmolality, solute concentration, and electrical charge on solute transport across articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouran, Behdad; Arbabi, Vahid; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic function of cartilage primarily depends on transport of solutes through diffusion mechanism. In the current study, we use contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography to determine equilibrium concentration of solutes through different cartilage zones and solute flux in the cartilage, using osteochondral plugs from equine femoral condyles. Diffusion experiments were performed with two solutes of different charge and approximately equal molecular weight, namely iodixanol (neutral) and ioxaglate (charge=-1) in order to isolate the effects of solute's charge on diffusion. Furthermore, solute concentrations as well as bath osmolality were changed to isolate the effects of steric hindrance on diffusion. Bath concentration and bath osmolality only had minor effects on the diffusion of the neutral solute through cartilage at the surface, middle and deep zones, indicating that the diffusion of the neutral solute was mainly Fickian. The negatively charged solute diffused considerably slower through cartilage than the neutral solute, indicating a large non-Fickian contribution in the diffusion of charged molecules. The numerical models determined maximum solute flux in the superficial zone up to a factor of 2.5 lower for the negatively charged solutes (charge=-1) as compared to the neutral solutes confirming the importance of charge-matrix interaction in diffusion of molecules across cartilage. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in plasma osmolality, cortisol and amino acid levels of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) at different salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Xu, Kefeng; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Fang, Ziheng

    2015-10-01

    A serial of salinity transferring treatments were performed to investigate the osmoregulation of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis). Juvenile tongue sole were directly transferred from a salinity of 30 to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. Blood sampling was performed for each treatment after 0, 1, 6 and 12 h, as well as after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 d. The plasma osmolality, cortisol and free amino acids were assessed. Under the experimental conditions, no fish died after acute salinity transfer. The plasma cortisol level increased 1 h after the abrupt transfer from a salinity of 30 to that of 0, 40 and 50, and decreased from 6 h to 8 d after transfer. Similar trends were observed in the changes of plasma osmolality. The plasma free amino acids concentration showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity after being transferred to different salinities for 4 days. More obvious changes of plasma free amino acid concentration occurred under hyper-osmotic conditions than under hypo-osmotic conditions. The concentrations of valine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and taurine increased with rising salinity. The plasma levels of threonine, leucine, arginine, serine, and alanine showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity. The results of this study suggested that free amino acids might have important effects on osmotic acclimation in tongue sole.

  2. Outcome Differences between Intra-Arterial Iso- and Low-Osmolality Iodinated Radiographic Contrast Media in the Interventional Management of Stroke III Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsick, T A; Foster, L D; Liebeskind, D S; Hill, M D; Carrozella, J; Goyal, M; von Kummer, R; Demchuk, A M; Dzialowski, I; Puetz, V; Jovin, T; Morales, H; Palesch, Y Y; Broderick, J; Khatri, P; Yeatts, S D

    2015-11-01

    Intracarotid arterial infusion of nonionic, low-osmolal iohexol contrast medium has been associated with increased intracranial hemorrhage in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model compared with saline infusion. Iso-osmolal iodixanol (290 mOsm/kg H2O) infusion demonstrated smaller infarcts and less intracranial hemorrhage compared with low-osmolal iopamidol and saline. No studies comparing iodinated radiographic contrast media in human stroke have been performed, to our knowledge. We hypothesized that low-osmolal contrast media may be associated with worse outcomes compared with iodixanol in the Interventional Management of Stroke III Trial (IMS III). We reviewed prospective iodinated radiographic contrast media data for 133 M1 occlusions treated with endovascular therapy. We compared 5 prespecified efficacy and safety end points (mRS 0-2 outcome, modified TICI 2b-3 reperfusion, asymptomatic and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and mortality) between those receiving iodixanol (n = 31) or low-osmolal contrast media (n = 102). Variables imbalanced between iodinated radiographic contrast media types or associated with outcome were considered potential covariates for the adjusted models. In addition to the iodinated radiographic contrast media type, final covariates were those selected by using the stepwise method in a logistic regression model. Adjusted relative risks were then estimated by using a log-link regression model. Of baseline or endovascular therapy variables potentially linked to outcome, prior antiplatelet agent use was more common and microcatheter iodinated radiographic contrast media injections were fewer with iodixanol. Relative risk point estimates are in favor of iodixanol for the 5 prespecified end points with M1 occlusion. The percentage of risk differences are numerically greater for microcatheter injections with iodixanol. While data favoring the use of iso-osmolal iodixanol for reperfusion of M1 occlusion following IV rtPA are

  3. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  4. Gap Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  5. Mythic gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of omissions sometimes occur, or are perceived to occur, in traditional narratives and in tradition-inspired literature. A familiar instance is when a narrator realizes that he or she does not fully remember the story that he or she has begun to tell, and so leaves out part of it, which for listeners may possibly result in an unintelligible narrative. But many instances of narrative gap are not so obvious. From straightforward, objective gaps one can distinguish less-obvious subjective gaps: in many cases narrators do not leave out anything crucial or truly relevant from their exposition, and yet readers perceive gaps and take steps to fill them. The present paper considers four examples of subjective gaps drawn from ancient Greek literature (the Pandora myth, ancient Roman literature (the Pygmalion legend, ancient Hebrew literature (the Joseph legend, and early Christian literature (the Jesus legend. I consider the quite varied ways in which interpreters expand the inherited texts of these stories, such as by devising names, manufacturing motives, creating backstories, and in general filling in biographical ellipses. Finally, I suggest an explanation for the phenomenon of subjective gaps, arguing that, despite their variety, they have a single cause.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of calculated serum osmolarity to predict dehydration in older people: adding value to pathology laboratory reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Ali, Adam; Bunn, Diane K; Jennings, Amy; John, W Garry; Kerry, Susan; Lindner, Gregor; Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Sjöstrand, Fredrik; Walsh, Neil P; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Potter, John F; Hunter, Paul R; Shepstone, Lee

    2015-10-21

    To assess which osmolarity equation best predicts directly measured serum/plasma osmolality and whether its use could add value to routine blood test results through screening for dehydration in older people. Diagnostic accuracy study. Older people (≥65 years) in 5 cohorts: Dietary Strategies for Healthy Ageing in Europe (NU-AGE, living in the community), Dehydration Recognition In our Elders (DRIE, living in residential care), Fortes (admitted to acute medical care), Sjöstrand (emergency room) or Pfortmueller cohorts (hospitalised with liver cirrhosis). Directly measured serum/plasma osmolality: current dehydration (serum osmolality>300 mOsm/kg), impending/current dehydration (≥295 mOsm/kg). 39 osmolarity equations calculated using serum indices from the same blood draw as directly measured osmolality. Across 5 cohorts 595 older people were included, of whom 19% were dehydrated (directly measured osmolality>300 mOsm/kg). Of 39 osmolarity equations, 5 showed reasonable agreement with directly measured osmolality and 3 had good predictive accuracy in subgroups with diabetes and poor renal function. Two equations were characterised by narrower limits of agreement, low levels of differential bias and good diagnostic accuracy in receiver operating characteristic plots (areas under the curve>0.8). The best equation was osmolarity=1.86×(Na++K+)+1.15×glucose+urea+14 (all measured in mmol/L). It appeared useful in people aged ≥65 years with and without diabetes, poor renal function, dehydration, in men and women, with a range of ages, health, cognitive and functional status. Some commonly used osmolarity equations work poorly, and should not be used. Given costs and prevalence of dehydration in older people we suggest use of the best formula by pathology laboratories using a cutpoint of 295 mOsm/L (sensitivity 85%, specificity 59%), to report dehydration risk opportunistically when serum glucose, urea and electrolytes are measured for other reasons in

  7. Plasma osmolality reference values in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Acierno, Mark; Mitchell, Mark; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bryant, Heather; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-06-01

    Birds are routinely presented to veterinarians for dehydration. Success with these cases ultimately depends on providing replacement fluids and re-establishing fluid homeostasis. Few studies have been done to determine reference ranges for plasma osmolality in birds. The goals of this study were to determine reference values for plasma osmolality in 3 species of parrots and to provide recommendations on fluid selection for replacement therapy in these species. Blood samples were collected from 21 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 21 Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), and 9 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and were placed into lithium heparin containers. Plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing point depression osmometer. Summary statistics were computed from the average values. Reference ranges, calculated by using the robust method, were 288-324, 308-345, and 223-369 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. The mean +/- SD values were 306 +/- 7, 327 +/- 7, and 304 +/- 18 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. Comparisons with osmolality values in mammals and values previously reported for psittacine bird species suggest that plasma osmolality is slightly higher in parrots than in mammals, species-specific differences exist, and differences between reported values occur. Overall, fluids with an osmolarity close to 300-320 mOsm/L, such as Normosol-R, Plasmalyte-R, Plasmalyte-A, and NaCl 0.9%, can be recommended in parrots for fluid replacement therapy when isotonic fluids are required.

  8. Radioimmunoassay for arginine-vasotocin (AVT) in serum of Pekin ducks: AVT concentrations after adaptation to fresh water and salt water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehring, J.; Schoun, J.; Simon-Oppermann, C.; Simon, E.

    1980-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for arginine-vasotocin (AVT), the antidiuretic principle in birds, was developed using the high cross-reactivity of AVT with an AVP antiserum raised in rabbits. This assay is specific for the measurement of AVT in serum of birds. The sensitivity and precision is such that serum AVT concentrations above 0.5 fmol/ml can be measured quantitatively. A serum AVT concentration of 5.1 +- 1.4 fmol/ml was found in normally hydrated, fresh water adapted ducks with a serum osmolality of 293.7 +- 2.2 mosmol/kg. When the same animals were acutely hydrated, no or [de

  9. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    The study explores what factors influence the reduction of managers' perceivedknowledge gaps in the context of the environments of foreign markets. Potentialdeterminants are derived from traditional internationalization theory as well asorganizational learning theory, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building onthese literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primarydata of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggeststhat the factors that pertain to the absorptive capacity concept - capabilities ofrecognizing......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words...

  10. A prospective randomized trial of two solutions for intrapartum amnioinfusion: effects on fetal electrolytes, osmolality, and acid-base status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, E K; Blakemore, K J

    1996-10-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effects of intrapartum amnioinfusion with normal saline solution versus lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose on neonatal electrolytes and acid-base balance. Patients undergoing amnioinfusion for obstetric indications were randomized to receive normal saline solution or lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose at standardized amnioinfusion rates. Data were collected prospectively on maternal demographics, course of labor, and maternal and neonatal outcome. Arterial cord blood was obtained for analysis of electrolytes, glucose, osmolality, lactic acid, and blood gases. Control subjects with normal fetal heart rate patterns, and clear amniotic fluid not receiving amnioinfusion were studied concurrently. Data were collected on 59 patients (21 normal saline solution, 18 lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose, and 20 controls). Maternal demographics, course of labor, and neonatal outcome were similar in all three groups. Cesarean sections were performed more often in the amnioinfusion groups (33.3% for normal saline solution, 38.9% for lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose) than in the control group (5.0%), p amnioinfusion with either solution. Intrapartum amnioinfusion with normal saline solution or lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose has no effect on neonatal electrolytes or acid-base balance.

  11. Prolactin 177, prolactin 188, and extracellular osmolality independently regulate the gene expression of ion transport effectors in gill of Mozambique tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Mayu; Breves, Jason P; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Soichi; Kaneko, Toyoji; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon; Seale, Andre P

    2015-11-15

    This study characterized the local effects of extracellular osmolality and prolactin (PRL) on branchial ionoregulatory function of a euryhaline teleost, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). First, gill filaments were dissected from freshwater (FW)-acclimated tilapia and incubated in four different osmolalities, 280, 330, 380, and 450 mosmol/kg H2O. The mRNA expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α1a (NKA α1a) and Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) showed higher expression with decreasing media osmolalities, while Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1a (NKCC1a) and PRL receptor 2 (PRLR2) mRNA levels were upregulated by increases in media osmolality. We then incubated gill filaments in media containing ovine PRL (oPRL) and native tilapia PRLs (tPRL177 and tPRL188). oPRL and the two native tPRLs showed concentration-dependent effects on NCC, NKAα1a, and PRLR1 expression; Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) expression was increased by 24 h of incubation with tPRLs. Immunohistochemical observation showed that oPRL and both tPRLs maintained a high density of NCC- and NKA-immunoreactive ionocytes in cultured filaments. Furthermore, we found that tPRL177 and tPRL188 differentially induce expression of these ion transporters, according to incubation time. Together, these results provide evidence that ionocytes of Mozambique tilapia may function as osmoreceptors, as well as directly respond to PRL to modulate branchial ionoregulatory functions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  13. Polysorbate 80 and low-osmolality water-soluble contrast medium enema in diagnosis and treatment of faecal obstruction in malignant phaeochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Stercoral obstruction in a young woman with disseminated phaeochromocytoma was diagnosed and treated successfully using an enema of isosmolar iohexol (Omnipaque) and 1% polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) without complication. Surgical intervention was thus avoided. A low osmolality water-soluble contrast medium (iohexol 150 mg I/ml) with a wetting agent (1% Tween 80) was used because a barium suspension would have inspissated, exacerbating the constipation and a hyperosmolar contrast medium might have precipitated a hypertensive crisis and destablished her critical salt and water balance. (orig.)

  14. Isosorbide-Induced Decompression Effect on the Scala Media: Participation of Plasma Osmolality and Plasma Arginine Vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Taizo; Takeda, Setsuko; Uehara, Natsumi; Yanagisawa, Shungaku; Furukawa, Tatsuya; Nibu, Ken-Ichi; Kakigi, Akinobu

    2017-04-01

    The correlation between the isosorbide-induced decompression effect on the endolymphatic space and plasma osmolality (p-OSM) or plasma arginine vasopressin (p-AVP) was investigated on comparing two different dosages of isosorbide (2.8 and 1.4 g/kg) to elucidate why the decompression effect is delayed with a large dose of isosorbide. Two experiments were performed using 80 guinea pigs. Experiment 1 was designed to morphologically investigate the sequential influence of the oral intake of 1.4- and 2.8-g/kg doses of isosorbide on the endolymphatic volume. The animals used were 50 guinea pigs (control: 10, experimental: 40). All animals underwent surgical obliteration of the endolymphatic sac of the left ear. One month after the surgery, control animals were sacrificed 3 hours after the intake of distilled water, and experimental animals were sacrificed 3 and 6 hours after the isosorbide intake. All of the left temporal bone served for the quantitative assessment of changes in the endolymphatic space, and the cross-sectional area of the scala media was measured from the mid-modiolar sections of the cochlea.Experiment 2 was designed to investigate changes in p-OSM and p-AVP levels 3 hours after the oral intake of isosorbide. Animals used were 15 guinea pigs (control: 5, experimental: 10). The control group received the oral administration of distilled water (4 ml/kg), and the experimental animals were subdivided into two groups consisting of 10 animals each by the dosage of isosorbide (1.4 or 2.8 g/kg). All animals were sacrificed for the measurement of p-OSM and p-AVP concentrations 3 hours after the intake of water or 70% isosorbide solution. Morphologically, an isosorbide-induced decompression effect was noted in animals with both 1.4- and 2.8-g/kg doses of isosorbide. According to the regression analysis, however, the volumetric decrease of the endolymphatic space was more evident in cases with the small dose (1.4 g/kg) 3 hours after the intake

  15. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochna Viola, E.M.; Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A.

    1981-01-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author) [es

  16. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mognet, S.A.I., E-mail: mognet@astro.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aramaki, T. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bando, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Boggs, S.E.; Doetinchem, P. von [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fuke, H. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Gahbauer, F.H.; Hailey, C.J.; Koglin, J.E.; Madden, N. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Mori, K.; Okazaki, S. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ong, R.A. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Perez, K.M.; Tajiri, G. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Yoshida, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Zweerink, J. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (∼33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded.

  17. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mognet, S.A.I.; Aramaki, T.; Bando, N.; Boggs, S.E.; Doetinchem, P. von; Fuke, H.; Gahbauer, F.H.; Hailey, C.J.; Koglin, J.E.; Madden, N.; Mori, K.; Okazaki, S.; Ong, R.A.; Perez, K.M.; Tajiri, G.; Yoshida, T.; Zweerink, J.

    2014-01-01

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (∼33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded

  18. Evaluation of Serum for Pathophysiological Effects of Prolonged Low Salinity Water Exposure in Displaced Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Y. Ewing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective study of serum biochemistry and hematologic findings from displaced, out-of-habitat bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus exposed to various low salinity environments in waters along the southern United States including southeastern Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico. Serum sodium, chloride, and calculated osmolality were significantly lower and below reference ranges in displaced animals compared to free-ranging case control animals. This suggests clinical hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypo-osmolality due to an uptake of low saline water from the environment. In addition, significant differences were found in other serum chemistry variables, although none were outside of normal reference ranges for non-controlled free-ranging animals. Multiple linear regressions demonstrated the degree of salinity had a greater pathophysiologic response than the duration of fresh water exposure. The Na/Cl ratio and bicarbonate were the only variables that were significantly modulated by exposure duration. These findings suggest that the degree of salinity is a critical factor when assessing and managing care for dolphins chronically exposed to low salinity water. Results from this study indicate that changes in various biochemical parameters can be used to determine fresh water exposure and aid in determining the treatment for animals recovered from low salinity waters.

  19. Behind the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  20. The Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN properties of 2-methyltetrols and C3-C6 polyols from osmolality and surface tension measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ekström

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant fraction of the organic material in aerosols is made of highly soluble compounds such as sugars (mono- and polysaccharides and polyols such as the 2-methyltetrols, methylerythritol and methyltreitol. Because of their high solubility these compounds are considered as potentially efficient CCN material. For the 2-methyltetrols, this would have important implications for cloud formation at global scale because they are thought to be produced by the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene. To investigate this question, the complete Köhler curves for C3-C6 polyols and the 2-methyltetrols have been determined experimentally from osmolality and surface tension measurements. Contrary to what was expected, none of these compounds displayed a higher CCN efficiency than organic acids. Their Raoult terms show that this limited CCN efficiency is due to their absence of dissociation in water, this in spite of slight surface-tension effects for the 2-methyltetrols. Thus, compounds such as saccharides and polyols would not contribute more to cloud formation than other organic compounds studied so far. In particular, the presence of 2-methyltetrols in aerosols would not particularly enhance cloud formation in the atmosphere, in contrary to recently suggested.

  1. Gap and density theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, N

    1940-01-01

    A typical gap theorem of the type discussed in the book deals with a set of exponential functions { \\{e^{{{i\\lambda}_n} x}\\} } on an interval of the real line and explores the conditions under which this set generates the entire L_2 space on this interval. A typical gap theorem deals with functions f on the real line such that many Fourier coefficients of f vanish. The main goal of this book is to investigate relations between density and gap theorems and to study various cases where these theorems hold. The author also shows that density- and gap-type theorems are related to various propertie

  2. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  3. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German...

  4. Bridging a Cultural Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-01-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…

  5. Understanding the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Claudia

    1985-01-01

    Despite the great influx of women into the labor market, the gap between men's and women's wages has remained stable at 40 percent since 1950. Analysis of labor data suggests that this has occurred because women's educational attainment compared to men has declined. Recently, however, the wage gap has begun to narrow, and this will probably become…

  6. Bridging the Transition Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    period and provide recommendations to guide future research and policy development. 4 DEFINING THE TRANSITIONAL SECURITY GAP There have been...BRIDGING THE TRANSITION GAP A Monograph by MAJ J.D. Hansen United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army...suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704

  7. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  8. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  9. 'Mind the Gap!'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar

    This paper challenges the widely held view that sharply falling real transport costs closed the transatlantic gap in grain prices in the second half of the 19th century. Several new results emerge from an analysis of a new data set of weekly wheat prices and freight costs from New York to UK...... markets. Firstly, there was a decline in the transatlantic price gap but it was not sharp and the gap remained substantial. Secondly, the fall in the transatlantic price differential had more to do with improved market and marketing efficiency than with falling transport costs. Thirdly, spurious price...

  10. CIEEM Skills Gap Project

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the research conducted for the Chartered Institute for Ecology and Environmental Management to identify skills gaps within the profession. It involved surveys of professionals, conference workshops and an investigation into the views of employers regarding graduate recruitment.

  11. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  12. Gender-Pay-Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Eicker, Jannis

    2017-01-01

    Der Gender-Pay-Gap ist eine statistische Kennzahl zur Messung der Ungleichheit zwischen Männern* und Frauen* beim Verdienst. Es gibt zwei Versionen: einen "unbereinigten" und einen "bereinigten". Der "unbereinigte" Gender-Pay-Gap berechnet den geschlechtsspezifischen Verdienstunterschied auf Basis der Bruttostundenlöhne aller Männer* und Frauen* der Grundgesamtheit. Beim "bereinigten" Wert hingegen werden je nach Studie verschiedene Faktoren wie Branche, Position und Berufserfahrung herausger...

  13. The Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Manning

    2006-01-01

    Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment ...

  14. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  15. SRTC - Gap Analysis Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.L. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing SRTC design against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards and supplemental requirements can not fully meet these safety requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Site Rail Transfer Cart (SRTC) Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 14]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements are provided in the SRTC and associated rails gap analysis table in Appendix A. Because SRTCs are credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the SRTC and rail design perform required safety Functions and meet performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis table supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed

  16. Diagnosis of toxic alcohols: limitations of present methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and propylene glycol intoxications are associated with cellular dysfunction and an increased risk of death. Adverse effects can develop quickly; thus, there is a need for methods for rapidly detecting their presence. To examine the value and limitations of present methods to diagnose patients with possible toxic alcohol exposure. I searched MEDLINE for articles published between 1969 and 2014 using the terms: toxic alcohols, serum osmolality, serum osmol gap, serum anion gap, metabolic acidosis, methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and fomepizole. Each article was reviewed for additional references. The diagnosis of toxic alcohol exposure is often made on the basis of this history and physical findings along with an increase in the serum osmol and anion gaps. However, an increase in the osmol and/or anion gaps is not always present. Definitive detection in blood requires gas or liquid chromatography, laborious and expensive procedures which are not always available. Newer methods including a qualitative colorimetric test for detection of all alcohols or enzymatic tests for a specific alcohol might allow for more rapid diagnosis. Exposure to toxic alcohols is associated with cellular dysfunction and increased risk of death. Treatment, if initiated early, can markedly improve outcome, but present methods of diagnosis including changes in serum osmol and anion gap, and use of gas or liquid chromatography have important limitations. Development of more rapid and effective tests for detection of these intoxications is essential for optimal care of patients.

  17. Fecal osmotic gap and pH in experimental diarrhea of various causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eherer, A J; Fordtran, J S

    1992-08-01

    Although the osmotic gap of fecal fluid is often used to distinguish osmotic diarrhea from secretory diarrhea, there has never been a scientific evaluation of the validity of this concept. Similarly, although a low fecal fluid pH value is used to indicate that diarrhea is mediated by carbohydrate malabsorption, the validity of this method is unproven. Therefore, in the present study, diarrhea was induced in normal subjects by different mechanisms and fecal fluid osmotic gap (using an assumed fecal fluid osmolality of 290 mOsm/kg) and pH were measured. In secretory diarrhea caused by phenolphthalein, the osmotic gap was always less than 50 mOsm/kg, whereas in osmotic diarrhea caused by polyethylene glycol, magnesium hydroxide, lactulose, and sorbitol, the osmotic gap always exceeded 50 mOsm/kg. In osmotic diarrhea caused by sodium sulfate, the fecal fluid osmotic gap was less than 50 mOsm/kg, but phenolphthalein-induced secretory diarrhea could be distinguished from sodium sulfate-induced osmotic diarrhea by the fecal chloride concentration. When diarrhea was caused by carbohydrate malabsorption (lactulose or sorbitol), the fecal fluid pH was always less than 5.6 and usually less than 5.3; by contrast, other causes of diarrhea rarely caused a fecal pH as low as 5.6 and never caused a pH less than 5.3. It is concluded that measurement of fecal fluid osmotic gap and pH can distinguish various mechanisms of experimental diarrhea in normal subjects. The concepts on which these tests are based are therefore verified experimentally.

  18. The longevity gender gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aviv, Abraham; Shay, Jerry; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    In this Perspective, we focus on the greater longevity of women as compared with men. We propose that, like aging itself, the longevity gender gap is exceedingly complex and argue that it may arise from sex-related hormonal differences and from somatic cell selection that favors cells more...... resistant to the ravages of time. We discuss the interplay of these factors with telomere biology and oxidative stress and suggest that an explanation for the longevity gender gap may arise from a better understanding of the differences in telomere dynamics between men and women....

  19. Effects of fluoride on growth, body composition, and serum biochemical profile in a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjie; Cao, Jinling; Wang, Jundong; Jia, Ruhui; Xue, Wenjuan; Li, Yundong; Luo, Yongju; Xie, Lingtian

    2013-10-01

    Fluoride is ubiquitously distributed in natural waters. Elevated fluoride may cause histopathological changes and induce oxidative stress in the gills of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The present study further evaluates the effects of fluoride on growth performance, body composition, and biochemical measurements of C. carpio. The results showed that food intake, growth, serum osmolality, body composition, and biochemical measures in the blood were affected by fluoride. Weight gain rate and specific growth rate in the exposed fish decreased compared with those of the control fish. Levels of crude protein and crude lipids were reduced in the fluoride-exposed fish. The major ion levels in the sera of fluoride-exposed fish were severely disturbed, resulting in a lower osmolality. All the biochemical parameters measured in the blood were affected by the exposure to fluoride. Total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose in fish exposed to 63.6 mg/L, 77.7 mg/L, and 124.4 mg/L were lower than those in the control fish. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were markedly increased in exposed fish compared with control. Taken together, the data showed that exposure to fluoride caused a suite of detrimental effects in C. carpio, which might lead to a decrease in growth and food utilization efficiency. The results of the present study indicated that high levels of fluoride could pose a threat to carp in the field. © 2013 SETAC.

  20. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

  1. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  2. Determining the ’Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Army training doctrine, and by adjusting the curriculum of the officer core in order to close the knowledge gap . The author closes by concluding...fight. The research to find these gaps begins with a process trace of doctrine from 1976 to the present, starting with the advent of Active Defense...discovering the one gap , three were found. Upon further examination below, even these initially perceived gaps dissipate under close scrutiny. Gap

  3. Mind the Gap!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld; Simone, Carla

    2000-01-01

    CSCW at large seems to be pursuing two diverging strategies: on one hand a strategy aiming at coordination technologies that reduce the complexity of coordinating cooperative activities by regulating the coordinative interactions, and on the other hand a strategy that aims at radically flexible m...... and blended in the course of real world cooperative activities. On the basis of this discussion the paper outlines an approach which may help CSCW research to bridge this gap....... means of interaction which do not regulate interaction but rather leave it to the users to cope with the complexity of coordinating their activities. As both strategies reflect genuine requirements, we need to address the issue of how the gap can be bridged, that is, how the two strategies can...

  4. Closing the gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fish going through turbines at hydroelectric power plants and the growing concern over the survival rate of salmon at the US Army Corps operated Bonneville lock and dam on the Columbia river in the Pacific Northwest is discussed. The protection of the fish, the assessment of the hazards facing fish passing through turbines, the development of a new turbine, and improved turbine efficiency that reduces cavitation, turbulence and shear flow are examined. The closing of the gap between the turbine blades, hub and discharge ring to increase efficiency and reduce the risk to fish, and the development of the minimum gap runner (MGR) are described, and the lower maximum permitted power output of MGR is noted. (UK)

  5. Minding the Gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Millicent Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Neutron & X-ray scattering provides nano- to meso-scale details of complex fluid structure; 1D electronic density maps dervied from SAXS yield molecular level insights; Neutron reflectivity provides substructure details of substrate supported complex fluids; Complex fluids composition can be optimized to support a wide variety of both soluble and membrane proteins; The water gap dimensions can be finely tuned through polymer component.

  6. Gender gap in entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Startienė, Gražina; Remeikienė, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The article considers a significant global issue - gender gap starting and developing own business. The field of business was for a long time reserved to men, thus, despite of an increasing number of female entrepreneurs during last decade, the number of female entrepreneurs in Europe, including Lithuania, remains lower than the one of male entrepreneurs. According to the data of various statistical sources, an average ratio of enterprises newly established by men and women in EU countries is...

  7. Mind the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Terry; Savage, Erica; Adams, Katie; Wittie, Michael; Boone, Edna; Hayden, Andrew; Barnes, Janey; Hettinger, Zach; Gettinger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Decisions made during electronic health record (EHR) implementations profoundly affect usability and safety. This study aims to identify gaps between the current literature and key stakeholders’ perceptions of usability and safety practices and the challenges encountered during the implementation of EHRs. Materials and Methods Two approaches were used: a literature review and interviews with key stakeholders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify usability and safety challenges and best practices during implementation. A total of 55 articles were reviewed through searches of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. We used a qualitative approach to identify key stakeholders’ perceptions; semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse set of health IT stakeholders to understand their current practices and challenges related to usability during implementation. We used a grounded theory approach: data were coded, sorted, and emerging themes were identified. Conclusions from both sources of data were compared to identify areas of misalignment. Results We identified six emerging themes from the literature and stakeholder interviews: cost and resources, risk assessment, governance and consensus building, customization, clinical work-flow and usability testing, and training. Across these themes, there were misalignments between the literature and stakeholder perspectives, indicating major gaps. Discussion Major gaps identified from each of six emerging themes are discussed as critical areas for future research, opportunities for new stakeholder initiatives, and opportunities to better disseminate resources to improve the implementation of EHRs. Conclusion Our analysis identified practices and challenges across six different emerging themes, illustrated important gaps, and results suggest critical areas for future research and dissemination to improve EHR implementation. PMID:27847961

  8. MV controlled spark gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimovich, V.M.; Evlampiev, S.B.; Korshunov, G.S.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Sviridov, Yu.F.; Khmyrov, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    A megavolt gas-filled trigatron gap with a sectional gas-discharge chamber having a more than three-fold range of operating voltages is described. The discharge chamber consists of ten sections, each 70 mm thick, made of organic glass. The sections are separated one from another by aluminium gradient rings to which ohmic voltage divider is connected. Insulational sections and gradient rings are braced between themselves by means of metal flanges through gaskets made of oil-resistant rubber with the help of fiberglass-laminate pins. The gap has two electrodes 110 mm in diameter. The trigatron ignition assembly uses a dielectric bushing projecting over the main electrode plane. Use has been made of a gas mixture containing 10% of SF 6 and 90% of air making possible to ensure stable gap operation without readjusting in the voltage range from 0.4 to 1.35 MV. The operation time lag in this range is equal to 10 μs at a spread of [ru

  9. GapBlaster-A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo H C G de Sá

    Full Text Available The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer.

  10. Gap Analysis Bulletin No. 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    we would like to web developer; gather comments from GAP researchers and data users. We are * facilitate collaboration among GAP projects by...N.Y. Research Grant #012/01 A. 42 Gap Analysis Bulletin No. 13, December 2005 Ga pAnalysis Smith, S. D., W. A. Brown, C. R. Smith, and M. E. Richmond... GAP will be focusing activities have greatly reduced the habitat available to support on the enduring features of the Great Lakes basin. Influences

  11. The homeownership gap

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew F. Haughwout; Richard Peach; Joseph Tracy

    2009-01-01

    After rising for a decade, the U.S. homeownership rate peaked at 69 percent in the third quarter of 2006. Over the next two and a half years, as home prices fell in many parts of the country and the unemployment rate rose sharply, the homeownership rate declined by 1.7 percentage points. An important question is, how much more will this rate decline over the current economic downturn? To address this question, we propose the concept of the 'homeownership gap' as a gauge of downward pressure o...

  12. Gaps in nonsymmetric numerical semigroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fel, Leonid G.; Aicardi, Francesca

    2006-12-01

    There exist two different types of gaps in the nonsymmetric numerical semigroups S(d 1 , . . . , d m ) finitely generated by a minimal set of positive integers {d 1 , . . . , d m }. We give the generating functions for the corresponding sets of gaps. Detailed description of both gap types is given for the 1st nontrivial case m = 3. (author)

  13. The Politics of Achievement Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valant, J.; Newark, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    on achievement gaps have received little attention from researchers, despite playing an important role in shaping policymakers’ behaviors. Drawing on randomized experiments with a nationally representative sample of adults, we explore the public’s beliefs about test score gaps and its support for gap...

  14. GAP-REACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Raggio, Greer A.; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Duan, Naihua; Marcus, Sue; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Humensky, Jennifer; Becker, Anne E.; Alarcón, Renato D.; Oquendo, María A.; Hansen, Helena; Like, Robert C.; Weiss, Mitchell; Desai, Prakash N.; Jacobsen, Frederick M.; Foulks, Edward F.; Primm, Annelle; Lu, Francis; Kopelowicz, Alex; Hinton, Ladson; Hinton, Devon E.

    2015-01-01

    Growing awareness of health and health care disparities highlights the importance of including information about race, ethnicity, and culture (REC) in health research. Reporting of REC factors in research publications, however, is notoriously imprecise and unsystematic. This article describes the development of a checklist to assess the comprehensiveness and the applicability of REC factor reporting in psychiatric research publications. The 16-itemGAP-REACH© checklist was developed through a rigorous process of expert consensus, empirical content analysis in a sample of publications (N = 1205), and interrater reliability (IRR) assessment (N = 30). The items assess each section in the conventional structure of a health research article. Data from the assessment may be considered on an item-by-item basis or as a total score ranging from 0% to 100%. The final checklist has excellent IRR (κ = 0.91). The GAP-REACH may be used by multiple research stakeholders to assess the scope of REC reporting in a research article. PMID:24080673

  15. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  16. Closing the value gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    It's a predicament. For the most part, investor-owned electric utilities trade at a deep discount to the actual (that is, replacement-cost) value to their assets. That's because most utilities fail to earn real returns large enough to justify raising and investing capital. The result is a value gap, where overall market value is significantly lower than the replacement costs of the assets. This gap is wider for utilities than for virtually any other industry in our economy. In addition to providing education and awareness, senior management must determine which businesses and activities create value and which diminish it. Then, management must allocate capital and human resources appropriately, holding down investments in value-diminishing areas until they can improve their profitability, and aggressively investing in value-enhancing businesses while preserving their profitability. But value management must not stop with resource-allocation decisions. To create a lasting transition to a value management philosophy, the utility's compensation system must also change: executives will have motivation to create value when compensation stems from this goal, not from such misleading accounting measures as earnings-per-share growth or ROE. That requires clear value-creation goals, and the organization must continuously evaluate top management's performance in light of the progress made toward those goals

  17. Board affiliation and pay gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglan Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of board affiliation on the corporate pay gap. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2005 to 2011, we find that boards with a greater presence of directors appointed by block shareholders have lower pay gaps. Furthermore, the governance effects of board affiliation with and without pay are distinguished. The empirical results show that board affiliation without pay is negatively related to the pay gap, while board affiliation with pay is positively related to the pay gap. Overall, the results shed light on how block shareholders affect their companies’ pay gaps through board affiliation.

  18. Minding the gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Carlberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The plan for the Round table session was to focus on organizational and social/cultural differences between librarians and faculty with the aim to increase our awareness of the differences when we try to find ways to cooperate within the academy or school. This may help us to sort things out, experience acceptance and take adequate actions, saving energy and perhaps be less frustrated.  The questions that the workshop addressed were: What is in the gap between librarians and faculty when dealing with information literacy? How can we fill the gap? Participants discussed this in detail with the aim of together finding ways to understand it better and make it possible to find ways to fill this gap. By defining it and thereby making it easier to work out a strategy for future action to improve the teaching of information literacy, including listing possible, impossible or nearly impossible ways. The springboard to the discussion was extracted from some projects that the workshop leader has been engaged in since 2009. The first example is a research circle where Uppsala University Library used action research to observe and understand the process when we had the opportunity to implement information literacy classes with progression in an undergraduate program. What worked well? What did not? Why? This work was described together with other examples from Uppsala University to an international panel working with quality issues. What did they think of our work? May this change the ways we are working? How? Another example is an ongoing joint project where librarians and faculty members are trying to define ways to increase the cooperation between the library and faculty and make this cooperation sustainable. Recent experience from this was brought to the discussion.   There are an overwhelming number of papers written in this field. A few papers have inspired these ideas. One article in particular: Christiansen, L., Stombler, M. & Thaxton, L. (2004. A

  19. Bridging the Evaluation Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wouters

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul Wouters’ essay is concerned with bridging the gap between what we value in our academic work and how we are assessed in formal evaluation exercises. He reflects on the recent evaluation of his own center, and reminds us that it is productive to see evaluations not as the (obviously impossible attempt to produce a true representation of past work, but rather as the exploration and performance of “who one wants to be.” Reflecting on why STS should do more than just play along to survive in the indicator game, he suggests that our field should contribute to changing its very rules. In this endeavor, the attitude and sensibilities developed in our field may be more important than any specific theoretical concepts or methodologies.

  20. The GAP-TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, B.; Anastasio, A.; Boiano, A.; Cocco, A.G.; Meo, P. Di; Vanzanella, A.; Catalanotti, S.; Covone, G.; Longo, G.; Walker, S.; Fiorillo, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Several experiments have been conducted worldwide, with the goal of observing low-energy nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs scattering off target nuclei in ultra-sensitive, low-background detectors. In the last few decades noble liquid detectors designed to search for dark matter in the form of WIMPs have been extremely successful in improving their sensitivities and setting the best limits. One of the crucial problems to be faced for the development of large size (multi ton-scale) liquid argon experiments is the lack of reliable and low background cryogenic PMTs: their intrinsic radioactivity, cost, and borderline performance at 87 K rule them out as a possible candidate for photosensors. We propose a brand new concept of liquid argon-based detector for direct dark matter search: the Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Time Projection Chamber (GAP-TPC) optimized in terms of residual radioactivity of the photosensors, energy and spatial resolution, light and charge collection efficiency

  1. Finding the gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, A. M.

    Much of the pioneering work on radiation damage was based on very simple potentials. Potentials are now much more sophisticated and accurate. Self-consistent molecular dynamics is routine for adiabatic energy surfaces, at least for modest numbers of atoms and modest timescales. This means that non-equilibrium nuclear processes can be followed dynamically. It might also give the illusion that any damage process can be modelled with success. Sadly, this is not yet so. This paper discusses where the gaps lie, and specifically three groups of challenges. The first challenge concerns electronic excited states. The second challenge concerns timescales, from femtoseconds to tens of years. The third challenge concerns length scales, and the link between microscopic (atomistic) and mesoscopic (microstructural) scales. The context of these challenges is materials modification by excitation: the removal of material, the modification of bulk or surface material, the altering of rates of processes or changing of branching ratios, and damage, good or bad.

  2. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...... sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  3. [The National Serum Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos-López, C; Sánchez-Villarreal, F; Gutiérrez, G; Tapia-Conyer, R

    1992-01-01

    A National Serum Bank was established to store sera obtained during the National Seroepidemiological Survey performed in Mexico in 1987. More than 70,000 serum samples were obtained from subjects of either sex 1-99 years of age in each of the 32 states of the country. The current collection of sera includes 28,704 male samples and 40,629 female samples. This paper describes the procedures for handling serum samples, including reception registry, storage and distribution to several laboratories for detection of measles, rubella, poliomyelitis, AIDS, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, brucella, salmonella, amoeba, toxoplasma, American trypanosomiasis and cysticercus. Determinations of total cholesterol were also made in order to describe its distribution and to identify the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia.

  4. Technique for estimating relocated gap width for gap conductance calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klink, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Thermally induced fuel fragmentation and relocation has been demonstrated to influence the thermal behavior of a fuel rod in two ways. The effective fuel pellet conductivity is decreased and pellet-to-cladding heat transfer is improved. This paper presents a correlation between as-built and relocated gap width which, used with the Ross and Stoute Gap Conductance Correlation and an appropriate fuel thermal expansion model, closely predicts the measured gap conductances

  5. Radioimmunoassay of haloperidol in human serum: correlation of serum haloperidol with serum prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland, R.E.; Rubin, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of serum haloperidol is described. Compared to gaschromatography (GC), RIA vaues average 40% higher. However, a simple organic extraction of serum yields statistically equivalent RIA and GC haloperidol determinations. For both men and women combined, there was a positive correlation between dose (mg/kg/day) and steady-state serum haloperidol level (r = +0.86) and between steady-state serum haloperidol and serum prolactin (PRL) concentration

  6. The Adaptation Finance Gap Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    UNEP’s Adaptation Gap Report series focuses on Finance, Technology and Knowledge gaps in climate change adaptation. It compliments the Emissions Gap Report series, and explores the implications of failing to close the emissions gap. The report builds on a 2014 assessment by the United Nations...... Environment Programme (UNEP), which laid out the concept of ‘adaptation gaps’ and outlined three such gaps: technology, finance and knowledge. The 2016 Adaptation Gap Report assesses the difference between the financial costs of adapting to climate change in developing countries and the amount of money...... actually available to meet these costs – a difference known as the “adaptation finance gap”. Like the 2014 report, the 2016 report focuses on developing countries, where adaptation capacity is often the lowest and needs the highest, and concentrates on the period up to 2050. The report identifies trends...

  7. Serum YKL-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylin, Anne K; Abildgaard, Niels; Johansen, Julia S

    2015-01-01

    to clinical progression, i.e. skeletal-related events (SREs), in 230 newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma receiving intravenous bisphosphonates. Serum concentrations of YKL-40 and biochemical bone markers (CTX-MMP, CTX-I, PINP) were measured at diagnosis. Patients were evaluated every third month...

  8. 79 - 81_Wali - Serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... SERUM ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE. CELL ANAEMIA IN ... play a role in the development of sickle cell anaemic complications. In the current study, ... vaso-occlusive episodes, acute chest syndrome and impaired ... frequency of sickling crises accompanied by tissue or.

  9. Gender Pay Gap in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Oczki, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate the actual and explained gender pay gaps in Poland in comparison with selected highly developed countries, and to discuss the factors determining wage disparities between men and women. Data from Eurostat EU-SILC and the International Labour Organization were used. The article concludes that the gender pay gap in Poland is relatively small and decreasing, and that estimates of the explained gender pay gap published by the Internationa...

  10. Gap junctions and motor behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The production of any motor behavior requires coordinated activity in motor neurons and premotor networks. In vertebrates, this coordination is often assumed to take place through chemical synapses. Here we review recent data suggesting that electrical gap-junction coupling plays an important role...... in coordinating and generating motor outputs in embryonic and early postnatal life. Considering the recent demonstration of a prevalent expression of gap-junction proteins and gap-junction structures in the adult mammalian spinal cord, we suggest that neuronal gap-junction coupling might also contribute...... to the production of motor behavior in adult mammals....

  11. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  12. Radiating gap filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In May, corrosion on the outside wall of the over 50 year old Canadian Chalk River reactor vessel caused a heavy water leak and the reactor was shut down triggering worldwide a nuclear medicine shortage. The reactor is also a major supplier of the isotope molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), a precursor of the medically widely used technetium-99 m . To fill the gap in demand, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has now arranged with US company Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc., a world leader in medical imaging, to supply Mo-99. Subject to pending Australian regulatory processes, the deal is expected to assist in alleviating the world's current nuclear medicine shortage. As ANSTO is currently also the only global commercial supplier that produces Mo-99 from low enriched uranium (LEU) targets, Lantheus will be the first company bringing LEU derived Tc-99 m to the US market. To date, over 95% of Mo-99 is derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. However, there are concerns regarding proliferation risks associated with HEU targets and for commercial uses production from LEU targets would be desirable. ANSTO says that global Mo-99 supply chain is fragile and limited and it is working closely with nuclear safety and healthy regulators, both domestically and overseas, to expedite all necessary approvals to allow long-term production and export of medical isotopes.

  13. Mind the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Astronomers have been able to study planet-forming discs around young Sun-like stars in unsurpassed detail, clearly revealing the motion and distribution of the gas in the inner parts of the disc. This result, which possibly implies the presence of giant planets, was made possible by the combination of a very clever method enabled by ESO's Very Large Telescope. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 27a/08 Planet-forming Disc Planets could be home to other forms of life, so the study of exoplanets ranks very high in contemporary astronomy. More than 300 planets are already known to orbit stars other than the Sun, and these new worlds show an amazing diversity in their characteristics. But astronomers don't just look at systems where planets have already formed - they can also get great insights by studying the discs around young stars where planets may currently be forming. "This is like going 4.6 billion years back in time to watch how the planets of our own Solar System formed," says Klaus Pontoppidan from Caltech, who led the research. Pontoppidan and colleagues have analysed three young analogues of our Sun that are each surrounded by a disc of gas and dust from which planets could form. These three discs are just a few million years old and were known to have gaps or holes in them, indicating regions where the dust has been cleared and the possible presence of young planets. The new results not only confirm that gas is present in the gaps in the dust, but also enable astronomers to measure how the gas is distributed in the disc and how the disc is oriented. In regions where the dust appears to have been cleared out, molecular gas is still highly abundant. This can either mean that the dust has clumped together to form planetary embryos, or that a planet has already formed and is in the process of clearing the gas in the disc. For one of the stars, SR 21, a likely explanation is the presence of a massive giant planet orbiting at less than 3.5 times the distance

  14. PhoneGap for enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Shotts, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who wish to use PhoneGap to develop useful, rich, secure mobile applications for their enterprise environment. The book assumes you have working knowledge of PhoneGap, HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript, and a reasonable understanding of networking and n-tier architectures.

  15. Serum Creatinine: Not So Simple!

    OpenAIRE

    DELANAYE, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Measuring serum creatinine is cheap and commonly done in daily practice. However, interpretation of serum creatinine results is not always easy. In this review, we will briefly remind the physiological limitations of serum creatinine due notably to its tubular secretion and the influence of muscular mass or protein intake on its concentration. We mainly focus on the analytical limitations of serum creatinine, insisting on important concept such as reference intervals, standardization (and IDM...

  16. The Human Serum Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215

  17. The fluctuating gap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-15

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T{sub c} in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the

  18. The fluctuating gap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-01

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T c in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the quasi

  19. Bridging the terahertz gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Giles; Linfield, Edmund

    2004-01-01

    Over the last century or so, physicists and engineers have progressively explored and conquered the electromagnetic spectrum. Starting with visible light, we have encroached outwards, developing techniques for generating and detecting radiation at both higher and lower frequencies. And as each successive region of the spectrum has been colonized, we have developed technology to exploit the radiation found there. X-rays, for example, are routinely used to image hidden objects. Near-infrared radiation is used in fibre-optic communications and in compact-disc players, while microwaves are used to transmit signals from your mobile phone. But there is one part of the electromagnetic spectrum that has steadfastly resisted our advances. This is the terahertz region, which ranges from frequencies of about 300 GHz to 10 THz (10 x 10 sup 1 sup 2 Hz). This corresponds to wavelengths of between about 1 and 0.03 mm, and lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the spectrum. However, the difficulties involved in making suitably compact terahertz sources and detectors has meant that this region of the spectrum has only begun to be explored thoroughly over the last decade. A particularly intriguing feature of terahertz radiation is that the semiconductor devices that generate radiation at frequencies above and below this range operate in completely different ways. At lower frequencies, microwaves and millimetre- waves can be generated by 'electronic' devices such as those found in mobile phones. At higher frequencies, near-infrared and visible light are generated by 'optical' devices such as semiconductor laser diodes, in which electrons emit light when they jump across the semiconductor band gap. Unfortunately, neither electronic nor optical devices can conveniently be made to work in the terahertz region because the terahertz frequency range sits between the electronic and optical regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Developing a terahertz source is therefore a

  20. The generaltion gap in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G.P. van Niekerk

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Generation gap is one of those catch phrases that we so often use, and misuse, to excuse ourselves or to cover up for our shortcomings. It is like the shortage of nurses behind which we hide from all our nursing problems. Although it is such a commonly used phrase, do we really know what it means? When you consult the Oxford Dictionary, you will find that it defines generation gap as: differences of opinion between those of different generations. It will surprise most people that the generation gap becomes a problem only when there are differences of opinion.

  1. Wide gap semiconductor microwave devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, V V; Aroutiounian, V M

    2007-01-01

    A review of properties of wide gap semiconductor materials such as diamond, diamond-like carbon films, SiC, GaP, GaN and AlGaN/GaN that are relevant to electronic, optoelectronic and microwave applications is presented. We discuss the latest situation and perspectives based on experimental and theoretical results obtained for wide gap semiconductor devices. Parameters are taken from the literature and from some of our theoretical works. The correspondence between theoretical results and parameters of devices is critically analysed. (review article)

  2. Free serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, O.J.; Altschuler, Noe; Cabrejas, M.L. de; Pinkas, Mirta; Garcia del Rio, Hernan

    1982-01-01

    The use of radiommunoassay (RIA) tehcniques has increased the diagnosis of thyroid functional alterations. A solid phase RIA method for free thyroxine (FT4) measurement was tested. Serum FT4, Total T4, T3 and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay in 179 subjects. One hundred twenty two patients were normal (8 to 75 years old); FT4 was 1.42 +- 0.03 ng/100 ml (avg. value and std. error). In 27 cases of thyrotoxicosis the values were 4.66 +- 0.48 ng/100 ml and in 15 cases of hypothyroidism 0.50 +- 0.06 ng/100 ml (statistics probability [es

  3. Closing the Cybersecurity Skills Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Vogel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current consensus is that there is a worldwide gap in skills needed for a competent cybersecurity workforce. This skills gap has implications for the national security sector, both public and private. Although the view is that this will take a concerted effort to rectify, it presents an opportunity for IT professionals, university students, and aspirants to take-up jobs in national security national intelligence as well military and law enforcement intelligence. This paper examines context of the issue, the nature of the cybersecurity skills gap, and some key responses by governments to address the problem. The paper also examines the emerging employment trends, some of the employment challenges, and what these might mean for practice. The paper argues that the imperative is to close the cyber skills gap by taking advantage of the window of opportunity, allowing individuals interested in moving into the cybersecurity field to do so via education and training.

  4. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously...

  5. Understanding the carbon dioxide gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Thomas W L; Wicke, Jannis N; Teboul, Jean-Louis

    2018-06-01

    The current review attempts to demonstrate the value of several forms of carbon dioxide (CO2) gaps in resuscitation of the critically ill patient as monitor for the adequacy of the circulation, as target for fluid resuscitation and also as predictor for outcome. Fluid resuscitation is one of the key treatments in many intensive care patients. It remains a challenge in daily practice as both a shortage and an overload in intravascular volume are potentially harmful. Many different approaches have been developed for use as target of fluid resuscitation. CO2 gaps can be used as surrogate for the adequacy of cardiac output (CO) and as marker for tissue perfusion and are therefore a potential target for resuscitation. CO2 gaps are easily measured via point-of-care analysers. We shed light on its potential use as nowadays it is not widely used in clinical practice despite its potential. Many studies were conducted on partial CO2 pressure differences or CO2 content (cCO2) differences either alone, or in combination with other markers for outcome or resuscitation adequacy. Furthermore, some studies deal with CO2 gap to O2 gap ratios as target for goal-directed fluid therapy or as marker for outcome. CO2 gap is a sensitive marker of tissue hypoperfusion, with added value over traditional markers of tissue hypoxia in situations in which an oxygen diffusion barrier exists such as in tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation. Venous-to-arterial cCO2 or partial pressure gaps can be used to evaluate whether attempts to increase CO should be made. Considering the potential of the several forms of CO2 measurements and its ease of use via point-of-care analysers, it is recommendable to implement CO2 gaps in standard clinical practice.

  6. Colour reconnections and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennblad, Leif

    1996-01-01

    I argue that the success of recently proposed models describing events with large rapidity gaps in DIS at HERA in terms of non-perturbative colour exchange is heavily reliant on suppression of perturbative gluon emission in the proton direction. There is little or no physical motivation for such suppression and I show that a model without this suppression cannot describe the rapidity gap events at HERA. (author)

  7. Bridging the Gap (BRIEFING CHARTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-05

    1 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency “Bridging the Gap ” Dr. Robert F. Leheny Deputy Director Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bridging the Gap 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  8. Is there a gap in the gap? Regional differences in the gender pay gap

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Boris; König, Marion; Möller, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate regional differences in the gender pay gap both theoretically and empirically. Within a spatial oligopsony model, we show that more densely populated labour markets are more competitive and constrain employers' ability to discriminate against women. Utilising a large administrative data set for western Germany and a flexible semi-parametric propensity score matching approach, we find that the unexplained gender pay gap for young workers is substantially lower in ...

  9. Serum Creatinine: Not So Simple!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Measuring serum creatinine is cheap and commonly done in daily practice. However, interpretation of serum creatinine results is not always easy. In this review, we will briefly remind the physiological limitations of serum creatinine due notably to its tubular secretion and the influence of muscular mass or protein intake on its concentration. We mainly focus on the analytical limitations of serum creatinine, insisting on important concept such as reference intervals, standardization (and IDMS traceability), analytical interferences, analytical coefficient of variation (CV), biological CV and critical difference. Because the relationship between serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate is hyperbolic, all these CVs will impact not only the precision of serum creatinine but still more the precision of different creatinine-based equations, especially in low or normal-low creatinine levels (or high or normal-high glomerular filtration rate range). © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Radioimmunoassay of cholylglycine in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakushima, Tadashi; Yamanishi, Yasuhito; Hirayama, Chisato

    1979-01-01

    Serum levels of cholylglycines (CG) were determined by radioimmunoassay and that of total bile acids (TBA) by enzymatic method. In normal subjects, serum levels of CG, TBA and CG/TBA ratio were 0.6 +- 0.4 μM, 7 +- 2 μM, and 0.08 +- 0.06, respectively. They were increased markedly in acute hepatitis and moderately in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Thus, measurement of serum CG as compared with serum TBA appears to be a sensitive liver test. (author)

  11. Explaining the Gender Wealth Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess and explain the United States’ gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family’s best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth accumulation. The status-attainment model shows the most power in explaining gender wealth gaps between these groups explaining about one-third to one-half of the gap, followed by the human-capital explanation. In other words, a lifetime of lower earnings for women translates into greatly reduced wealth accumulation. A gender wealth gap remains between married men and women after controlling for the full model that we speculate may be related to gender differences in investment strategies and selection effects. PMID:23264038

  12. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium in emergency surgical patients in a tertiary hospital in Ghana. Robert Djagbletey, Brenda Phillips, Frank Boni, Christian Owoo, Ebenezer Owusu-Darkwa, Papa Kobina Gyakye deGraft-Johnson, Alfred E. Yawson ...

  13. Influence of the fetal bovine serum proteins on the growth of human osteoblast cells on graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalbáčová, M.; Brož, A.; Kalbáč, Martin

    100A, č. 11 (2012), s. 3001-3007 ISSN 1549-3296 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400911; GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA ČR GAP204/10/1677; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1062; GA MŠk ME09060 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : human osteoblast * graphene * fetal bovine serum Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.834, year: 2012

  14. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  15. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    1995-09-01

    The field of hard diffraction, which studies events with a rapidity gap and a hard scattering, has expanded dramatically recently. A review of new results from CDF, D OE, H1 and ZEUS will be given. These results include diffractive jet production, deep-inelastic scattering in large rapidity gap events, rapidity gaps between high transverse energy jets, and a search for diffractive W-boson production. The combination of these results gives new insight into the exchanged object, believed to be the pomeron. The results axe consistent with factorization and with a hard pomeron that contains both quarks and gluons. There is also evidence for the exchange of a strongly interacting color singlet in high momentum transfer (36 2 ) events

  16. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DREES, A.; AHRENS, L.; III FLILLER, R.; GASSNER, D.; MCINTYRE, G.T.; MICHNOFF, R.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance

  17. The Gamma Gap and All-Cause Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Juraschek

    Full Text Available The difference between total serum protein and albumin, i.e. the gamma gap, is a frequently used clinical screening measure for both latent infection and malignancy. However, there are no studies defining a positive gamma gap. Further, whether it is an independent risk factor of mortality is unknown.This study examined the association between gamma gap, all-cause mortality, and specific causes of death (cardiovascular, cancer, pulmonary, or other in 12,260 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 1999-2004. Participants had a comprehensive metabolic panel measured, which was linked with vital status data from the National Death Index. Cause of death was based on ICD10 codes from death certificates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for mortality risk factors. The mean (SE age was 46 (0.3 years and the mean gamma gap was 3.0 (0.01 g/dl. The population was 52% women and 10% black. During a median follow-up period of 4.8 years (IQR: 3.3 to 6.2 years, there were 723 deaths. The unadjusted 5-year cumulative incidences across quartiles of the gamma gap (1.7-2.7, 2.8-3.0, 3.1-3.2, and 3.3-7.9 g/dl were 5.7%, 4.2%, 5.5%, and 7.8%. After adjustment for risk factors, participants with a gamma gap of ≥3.1 g/dl had a 30% higher risk of death compared to participants with a gamma gap <3.1 g/dl (HR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.08, 1.55; P = 0.006. Gamma gap (per 1.0 g/dl was most strongly associated with death from pulmonary causes (HR 2.22; 95%CI: 1.19, 4.17; P = 0.01.The gamma gap is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality at values as low as 3.1 g/dl (in contrast to the traditional definition of 4.0 g/dl, and is strongly associated with death from pulmonary causes. Future studies should examine the biologic pathways underlying these associations.

  18. The Gamma Gap and All-Cause Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraschek, Stephen P.; Moliterno, Alison R.; Checkley, William; Miller, Edgar R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The difference between total serum protein and albumin, i.e. the gamma gap, is a frequently used clinical screening measure for both latent infection and malignancy. However, there are no studies defining a positive gamma gap. Further, whether it is an independent risk factor of mortality is unknown. Methods and Findings This study examined the association between gamma gap, all-cause mortality, and specific causes of death (cardiovascular, cancer, pulmonary, or other) in 12,260 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2004. Participants had a comprehensive metabolic panel measured, which was linked with vital status data from the National Death Index. Cause of death was based on ICD10 codes from death certificates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for mortality risk factors. The mean (SE) age was 46 (0.3) years and the mean gamma gap was 3.0 (0.01) g/dl. The population was 52% women and 10% black. During a median follow-up period of 4.8 years (IQR: 3.3 to 6.2 years), there were 723 deaths. The unadjusted 5-year cumulative incidences across quartiles of the gamma gap (1.7–2.7, 2.8–3.0, 3.1–3.2, and 3.3–7.9 g/dl) were 5.7%, 4.2%, 5.5%, and 7.8%. After adjustment for risk factors, participants with a gamma gap of ≥3.1 g/dl had a 30% higher risk of death compared to participants with a gamma gap gap (per 1.0 g/dl) was most strongly associated with death from pulmonary causes (HR 2.22; 95%CI: 1.19, 4.17; P = 0.01). Conclusions The gamma gap is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality at values as low as 3.1 g/dl (in contrast to the traditional definition of 4.0 g/dl), and is strongly associated with death from pulmonary causes. Future studies should examine the biologic pathways underlying these associations. PMID:26629820

  19. The Emissions Gap Report 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Timothy Clifford

    This fifth Emissions Gap report has a different focus from previous years. While it updates the 2020 emissions gap analysis, it gives particular attention to the implications of the global carbon dioxide emissions budget for staying within the 2 °C limit beyond 2020. It does so because countries...... are giving increasing attention to where they need to be in 2025, 2030 and beyond. Furthermore, this year’s update of the report benefits from the findings on the emissions budget from the latest series of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports...

  20. DETERMINATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of tribromoarsenazo(TB-ASA) with serum albumin in the presence of emulgent OP was studied by spectrophotometry. In a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 2.9, tribromoarsenazo and bovine serum albumin can immediately form a red compound in the presence of emulgent OP with a maximum absorption ...

  1. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  2. Hemograma, sódio, potássio, cálcio, osmolalidade e viscosidade durante angiocardiografia pediátrica com ioxaglato Blood cell count, sodium, potassium, calcium, osmolality and viscosity, during pediatric angiocardiography with ioxaglate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Regis Silva Moura

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os meios de contraste (MC introduzem alterações em alguns parâmetros sangüíneos, adquirindo, assim, mais importância na angiocardiografia pediátrica. MÉTODOS: Estudamos a presença e a severidade das mudanças no hematócrito, hemoglobina, leucócitos, sódio, potássio, cálcio, osmolalidade e viscosidade, em 35 crianças submetidas a angiocardiografia com ioxaglato, identificando, também, as variáveis independentes responsáveis por essas alterações. As amostras sangüíneas foram colhidas no início do procedimento (S1, no fim (S2 e 2h após (S3. RESULTADOS: Hematócrito: S1= 47,3±6,9%; S2= 40,7±7,4% (pPURPOSE: Children's blood changes during angiocardiography may not be only due to the contrast media (CM. METHODS: We studied the presence and severity of changes in those parameters in 35 pediatric patients undergoing angiocardiography with ioxaglate aiming to identify independent variables responsible for those changes. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the procedure (S1, at the end (S2 and two hours later (S3. RESULTS: Hematocrit: S1= 47.3±6.9%; S2= 40.7± 7.4% (p<0.001, (related to the CM volume r=0.37, p<0.05. Hemoglobin: S1= 15±2.1g%; S2= 13.2±2.4g% (p<0.001, and S3= 12.7±2.5g% (NS. White blood cell count: S1= 7940±3040 leukocytes/mm³; S2= 6950± 2700/mm³ (NS; S3= 10830±4690 leukocytes/mm³, (p<0.001. Procedure duration (r=0.38, p<0.05 and 5% glucose fluid given between S2 and S3 (r=0.49, p<0.05 were isolated. Sodium: S1= 134.5±0.4mEq/L; S2= 130.7±0.4mEq/L (p<0.001 (due to 5% glucose fluid injected, r=0.61, p<0.01. Potassium: S1= 4.22±0.45mEq/L, S2= 3.83±0.4mEq/L (p<0.001. Calcium: S1= 9.13± 1.03mg%; S2= 8.4±0.91mg/dL. (related to the CM, r=0.43, p<0.01. Osmolality: S1= 293.3±12.5mOsm/kg; S2= 300.6±13.3mOsm/kg (p<0.001. Viscosity: S1= 3.36±0.81; S2= 3.09±0.74 (p<0.01; S3= 3.87±0.89, p<0.001. There was an indirect linear regression with the CM. CONCLUSION: There were profound

  3. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  4. Closing the Gaps. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Achievement gaps between groups of students (minority and white, rich and poor, English speakers and English language learners) are complex and intractable. Increasingly, they are being seen as a result of disparities between opportunities for learning available to different groups. By changing the opportunity structures of schools and…

  5. The Emissions Gap Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Following the historic signing of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, this sixth edition of the UNEP Emissions Gap Report comes as world leaders start gathering in Paris to establish a new agreement on climate change. The report offers an independent assessment of the mitigation...

  6. Project LOCAL - Bridging The Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haven, Robert N.

    1975-01-01

    Project LOCAL, a not-for-profit regional consortium, offers a broad spectrum of in-service training courses tailored to meet the needs of educators in various disciplines and levels of experience. The purpose of these offerings is to bridge the communication gap between innovative centers in computer-oriented education and staff members in Boston…

  7. Gender Wealth Gap in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Trommlerová (Sofia Karina)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractNo data on wealth has been available in Slovakia prior to Household Finance and Consumption Survey. Therefore, only studies on labor market participation and wage gender gaps are available to date. These studies indicate that Slovak women earn on average 25% less than men.

  8. Investigations of Pulsed Vacuum Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-10

    Violet Spectra of Hot Sparks in Hh’Iacua, ’ ?hys. Rev., Vol. 12, p. 167, (1913). 31A Maitland , "Spark CondiiIoning Equation for Olane ElectrodesI-in...Appl. Phys., Vol. 1, 1291 G. Thecohilus, K. Srivastava, and R. ’ ian Heeswi.k, ’tn-situ Observation of !Microparticles in a Vacuum-Tnsulated Gap Using

  9. Featured Image: Simulating Planetary Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-03-01

    The authors model of howthe above disk would look as we observe it in a scattered-light image. The morphology of the gap can be used to estimate the mass of the planet that caused it. [Dong Fung 2017]The above image from a computer simulation reveals the dust structure of a protoplanetary disk (with the star obscured in the center) as a newly formed planet orbits within it. A recent study by Ruobing Dong (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona) and Jeffrey Fung (University of California, Berkeley) examines how we can determine mass of such a planet based on our observations of the gap that the planet opens in the disk as it orbits. The authors models help us to better understand how our observations of gaps might change if the disk is inclined relative to our line of sight, and how we can still constrain the mass of the gap-opening planet and the viscosity of the disk from the scattered-light images we have recently begun to obtain of distant protoplanetary disks. For more information, check out the paper below!CitationRuobing Dong () and Jeffrey Fung () 2017 ApJ 835 146. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/146

  10. Globalization and the Gender Gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostendorp, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    There are several theoretical reasons why globalization will have a narrowing as well as a widening effect on the gender wage gap, but little is known about the actual impact, except for some country studies. This study contributes to the literature in three respects. First, it is a large

  11. PSS: beyond the implementation gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertman, S.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the last couple of decades, a large number of papers on planning support systems (PSS) have been published in national and international, scientific and professional journals. What is remarkable about PSS is that for quite some time their history has been dominated by an implementation gap, that

  12. Denmark and the gap year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Noemi; Juul, Tilde Mette

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes three different educational offers to young people: “The Folk High School”, “The ‘After-school’” and 10th class. All can be considered optional Gap Years. The following diagram shows how the Danish education system is structured. The Folk High School is a training course...

  13. Effects of magnetic treated water on serum concentration parameters and fat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Balieiro Neto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of magnetic water on blood cells counts, biochemical profile, blood gas level and subcutaneous fat thickness of Jersey cows. This research was carried out at Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios - APTA, SP. Twenty six Jersey cows from the APTA were allotted into two groups: control (n=13, drinking regular water and the group consuming magnetic water (n=13. The animals were lactating around 150 days and pregnant around 60 days. Blood samples were collected from caudal auricular artery and jugular vein. The water treatment had no effect on hemogram (p>0.05. Higher pH (7.448 vs 7.407 mmHg, p<0.05 and lower PaCO2 (37.97 vs 42.47 mmHg, p<0.05 levels were detected in arterial blood of the group drinking magnetic water. The concentration of Na ion (138.8 vs 145.5 mmol/l, p<0.05 and serum triglycerides (10.4 vs 22.6 mg/dL, p<0.05 were significantly lower, resulting in smaller osmolality (273.30 vs 280.99 mOsm/kg, p<0.05 and subcutaneous fat thickness (0.2 vs 1.3 mm, p<0.05. In summary, the water treatment, evaluated in this study, may have decreased the risk of some metabolic disorders, such as acidosis and high serum concentration of Na and carbon dioxide.

  14. Emplacement Gantry Gap Analysis Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, R.

    2005-01-01

    To date, the project has established important to safety (ITS) performance requirements for structures, systems, and components (SSCs) based on the identification and categorization of event sequences that may result in a radiological release. These performance requirements are defined within the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171512], Table A-11). Further, SSCs credited with performing safety functions are classified as ITS. In turn, assurance that these SSCs will perform as required is sought through the use of consensus codes and standards. This gap analysis is based on the design completed for license application only. Accordingly, identification of ITS SSCs beyond those defined within the NSDB are based on designs that may be subject to further development during detail design. Furthermore, several design alternatives may still be under consideration to satisfy certain safety functions, and final selection will not be determined until further design development has occurred. Therefore, for completeness, alternative designs currently under consideration will be discussed throughout this study. This gap analysis will evaluate each code and standard identified within the ''Emplacement Gantry ITS Standards Identification Study'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173586]) to ensure each ITS performance requirement is fully satisfied. When a performance requirement is not fully satisfied, a gap is highlighted. This study will identify requirements to supplement or augment the code or standard to meet performance requirements. Further, this gap analysis will identify nonstandard areas of the design that will be subject to a design development plan. Nonstandard components and nonstandard design configurations are defined as areas of the design that do not follow standard industry practices or codes and standards. Whereby, assurance that an SSC will perform as required may not be readily sought though the use of consensus standards. This

  15. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  16. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...... perspectives on European foreign policy research and advice and serves as an invaluable resource for students of EU foreign policy and, more broadly, European Studies....

  17. GAP Analysis. Bulletin Number 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    dynamics into ecotoxicology . Pages 281-317 in O.E. Rhodes, Jr., R.K. Chesser, and M.H. Smith, editors. Population dynamics in ecological space and time...current stewardship chapter of the GAP handbook states that ... human-induced barren, cultivated exotic-dominated, or ar- "...the process of categorizing...least some level of protection, very sible. The initial data used in developing the map was remotely little of our scrub/shrub, grassland, or cultivated

  18. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, L. N.; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  19. Hyper-active gap filling

    OpenAIRE

    Omaki, Akira; Lau, Ellen F.; Davidson White, Imogen; Dakan, Myles L.; Apple, Aaron; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Much work has demonstrated that speakers of verb-final languages are able to construct rich syntactic representations in advance of verb information. This may reflect general architectural properties of the language processor, or it may only reflect a language-specific adaptation to the demands of verb-finality. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether speakers of a verb-medial language (English) wait to consult verb transitivity information before constructing filler-gap d...

  20. Hyper-active gap filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaki, Akira; Lau, Ellen F; Davidson White, Imogen; Dakan, Myles L; Apple, Aaron; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Much work has demonstrated that speakers of verb-final languages are able to construct rich syntactic representations in advance of verb information. This may reflect general architectural properties of the language processor, or it may only reflect a language-specific adaptation to the demands of verb-finality. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether speakers of a verb-medial language (English) wait to consult verb transitivity information before constructing filler-gap dependencies, where internal arguments are fronted and hence precede the verb. This configuration makes it possible to investigate whether the parser actively makes representational commitments on the gap position before verb transitivity information becomes available. A key prediction of the view that rich pre-verbal structure building is a general architectural property is that speakers of verb-medial languages should predictively construct dependencies in advance of verb transitivity information, and therefore that disruption should be observed when the verb has intransitive subcategorization frames that are incompatible with the predicted structure. In three reading experiments (self-paced and eye-tracking) that manipulated verb transitivity, we found evidence for reading disruption when the verb was intransitive, although no such reading difficulty was observed when the critical verb was embedded inside a syntactic island structure, which blocks filler-gap dependency completion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in English, as in verb-final languages, information from preverbal noun phrases is sufficient to trigger active dependency completion without having access to verb transitivity information.

  1. [Research progress of larger flexion gap than extension gap in total knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weisong; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-05-01

    To summarize the progress of larger flexion gap than extension gap in total knee arthro-plasty (TKA). The domestic and foreign related literature about larger flexion gap than extension gap in TKA, and its impact factors, biomechanical and kinematic features, and clinical results were summarized. During TKA, to adjust the relations of flexion gap and extension gap is one of the key factors of successful operation. The biomechanical, kinematic, and clinical researches show that properly larger flexion gap than extension gap can improve both the postoperative knee range of motion and the satisfaction of patients, but does not affect the stability of the knee joint. However, there are also contrary findings. So adjustment of flexion gap and extension gap during TKA is still in dispute. Larger flexion gap than extension gap in TKA is a new joint space theory, and long-term clinical efficacy, operation skills, and related complications still need further study.

  2. Experimental study of a spark-gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, H.; Moreno, C.; Vieytes, R.

    1990-01-01

    Some experimental results concerning to the resistance of an atmospheric pressure spark-gap, operating in the self breakdown regime are presented. The influence of the energy discharging through the gap on this resistance is discussed. (Author)

  3. Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Roy H.M. Sembel

    2015-01-01

    Some concerns in the field of Business Management regarding the gap between theory and practice have been raised by practitioners and academicians. This keynote speech describes some lessons learned from the academic literature regarding this gap (whether the gap really exists, and if it exists, whether it needs to be bridged or closed, and how to bridge or close this gap), and shares the author's personal and professional experiences of living as both an academician and a practitioner. The m...

  4. Gap Year: Time off, with a Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    A gap year allows people to step off the usual educational or career path and reassess their future. According to people who have taken a gap year, the time away can be well worth it. This article can help a person decide whether to take a gap year and how to make the most of his time off. It describes what a gap year is, including its pros and…

  5. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Georgia"

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Khitarishvili

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  6. Gap Analysis: Rethinking the Conceptual Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    there could exist a basis for gap in capability and, therefore, a desire to close the capability gap . What one desires versus what one has is, in...Analysis is not intended to close the space between the most distant extremes or the rarest occurrences. Rather, Gap Analysis is centered on the larger...åÖÉ=======- 13 - = = Research Objectives The process of identifying needs and unsatisfied desires, or gaps in capability—in essence, the goal—is

  7. Hyper-active gap filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eOmaki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Much work has demonstrated that speakers of verb-final languages are able to construct rich syntactic representations in advance of verb information. This may reflect general architectural properties of the language processor, or it may only reflect a language-specific adaptation to the demands of verb-finality. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether speakers of a verb-medial language (English wait to consult verb transitivity information before constructing filler-gap dependencies, where internal arguments are fronted and hence precede the verb. This configuration makes it possible to investigate whether the parser actively makes representational commitments on the gap position before verb transitivity information becomes available. A key prediction of the view that rich pre-verbal structure-building is a general architectural property is that speakers of verb-medial languages should predictively construct dependencies in advance of verb transitivity information, and therefore that disruption should be observed when the verb has intransitive subcategorization frames that are incompatible with the predicted structure. In three reading experiments (self-paced and eye-tracking that manipulated verb transitivity, we found evidence for reading disruption when the verb was intransitive, although no such reading difficulty was observed when the critical verb was embedded inside a syntactic island structure, which blocks filler-gap dependency completion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in English, as in verb-final languages, information from preverbal NPs is sufficient to trigger active dependency completion without having access to verb transitivity information.

  8. Bridging the Vector Calculus Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne

    2003-05-01

    As with Britain and America, mathematicians and physicists are separated from each other by a common language. In a nutshell, mathematics is about functions, but physics is about things. For the last several years, we have led an NSF-supported effort to "bridge the vector calculus gap" between mathematics and physics. The unifying theme we have discovered is to emphasize geometric reasoning, not (just) algebraic computation. In this talk, we will illustrate the language differences between mathematicians and physicists, and how we are trying reconcile them in the classroom. For further information about the project go to: http://www.physics.orst.edu/bridge

  9. The Generation Gap: Age or Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Kenneth

    1971-01-01

    The author examines the breakdown in family communication, the parent youth ideological gap, and the issues affecting family polarization. He suggests that the generation gap may be an issues gap and briefly explores the possible role of the social worker in dealing with such differences. (Author)

  10. Superconducting gap anomaly in heavy fermion systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a pseudo-gap due to superconductivity and the signature of a hybridization gap at the. Fermi level. For the choice of the model parameters, the DOS shows that the HFS is a metal and undergoes a transition to the gap-less superconducting state. Keywords. Heavy fermion superconductor; Narrow band system; Valence ...

  11. Closing the gap between research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Marcia Patton-Mallory

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the reasons for gaps in communication between researchers and natural resource managers and identify methods to close these gaps. Gaps originate from differing patterns of language use, disparities in organizational culture and values, generation of knowledge that is too narrowly-focused to solve complex problems, failure by managers to relay...

  12. Closing the mycetoma knowledge gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Wendy; Fahal, Ahmed; Ahmed, Sarah Abdalla; Serrano, Julian Alberto; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Zijlstra, Ed

    2018-04-01

    On 28th May 2016, mycetoma was recognized as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. This was the result of a 4-year journey starting in February 2013 with a meeting of global mycetoma experts. Knowledge gaps were identified and included the incidence, prevalence, and mapping of mycetoma; the mode of transmission; the development of methods for early diagnosis; and better treatment. In this review, we review the road to recognition, the ISHAM working group meeting in Argentina, and we address the progress made in closing the knowledge gaps since 2013. Progress included adding another 9000 patients to the literature, which allowed us to update the prevalence map on mycetoma. Furthermore, based on molecular phylogeny, species names were corrected and four novel mycetoma causative agents were identified. By mapping mycetoma causative agents an association with Acacia trees was found. For early diagnosis, three different isothermal amplification techniques were developed, and novel antigens were discovered. To develop better treatment strategies for mycetoma patients, in vitro susceptibility tests for the coelomycete agents of black grain mycetoma were developed, and the first randomized clinical trial for eumycetoma started early 2017.

  13. Tunable transport gap in phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Zhang, Wei; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoffmann, Axel; Dubey, Madan; Roelofs, Andreas

    2014-10-08

    In this article, we experimentally demonstrate that the transport gap of phosphorene can be tuned monotonically from ∼0.3 to ∼1.0 eV when the flake thickness is scaled down from bulk to a single layer. As a consequence, the ON current, the OFF current, and the current ON/OFF ratios of phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) were found to be significantly impacted by the layer thickness. The transport gap was determined from the transfer characteristics of phosphorene FETs using a robust technique that has not been reported before. The detailed mathematical model is also provided. By scaling the thickness of the gate oxide, we were also able to demonstrate enhanced ambipolar conduction in monolayer and few layer phosphorene FETs. The asymmetry of the electron and the hole current was found to be dependent on the layer thickness that can be explained by dynamic changes of the metal Fermi level with the energy band of phosphorene depending on the layer number. We also extracted the Schottky barrier heights for both the electron and the hole injection as a function of the layer thickness. Finally, we discuss the dependence of field effect hole mobility of phosphorene on temperature and carrier concentration.

  14. Spark gap produced plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.Y.

    1990-01-01

    A Spark Gap (Applied voltage : 2-8KV, Capacitor : 4 Micro F. Dia of the tube : 1 inch, Electrode distance : .3 ∼.5 inch) was made to generate a small size dynamic plasma. To measure the plasma density and temperature as a function of time and position, we installed and have been installing four detection systems - Mach-Zehnder type Interferometer for the plasma refractivity, Expansion speed detector using two He-Ne laser beams, Image Processing using Lens and A Optical-Fiber Array for Pointwise Radiation Sensing, Faraday Rotation of a Optical Fiber to measure the azimuthal component of B-field generated by the plasma drift. These systems was used for the wire explosion diagnostics, and can be used for the Laser driven plasma also

  15. Photonic band gap structure simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiping; Shapiro, Michael A.; Smirnova, Evgenya I.; Temkin, Richard J.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.

    2006-10-03

    A system and method for designing photonic band gap structures. The system and method provide a user with the capability to produce a model of a two-dimensional array of conductors corresponding to a unit cell. The model involves a linear equation. Boundary conditions representative of conditions at the boundary of the unit cell are applied to a solution of the Helmholtz equation defined for the unit cell. The linear equation can be approximated by a Hermitian matrix. An eigenvalue of the Helmholtz equation is calculated. One computation approach involves calculating finite differences. The model can include a symmetry element, such as a center of inversion, a rotation axis, and a mirror plane. A graphical user interface is provided for the user's convenience. A display is provided to display to a user the calculated eigenvalue, corresponding to a photonic energy level in the Brilloin zone of the unit cell.

  16. Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage V{sub rf}=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density n{sub e0} is depressed below the density n{sub esh} at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at V{sub rf}=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

  17. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    To find out whether the consumption of lecithin has a more beneficial effect on serum cholesterol than does the consumption of equivalent amounts of polyunsaturated oils, we scrutinized 24 studies on the effect of supplementary lecithin intakes ranging from 1 to 54 mg/d. Most of the studies lacked

  18. Serum transferrin receptor in polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteiga, R; Remacha, A F; Sardà, M P; Ubeda, J

    1998-10-01

    We measured serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels in 22 patients with polycythemia vera and in 26 cases of secondary polycythemia. In our study, raised sTfR levels in both polycythemia groups were related to iron deficiency.

  19. Serum zinc level in thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keikhaei, B.; Badavi, M.; Pedram, M.; Zandian, K.

    2010-01-01

    To compare serum zinc level between Thalassemia Major (TM) patients and normal population at Shafa Hospital in South West of Iran. A total of 25 male and 36 female of TM patients were enrolled in this study. Out of 61 patients thirty were treated by deferroxamine (DFO) and 31 were on the combination of DFO and deferiprone (DEF) protocol therapy. Sixty normal subjects of the matching age and gender were recruited as controls. From each patient and control group 2 ml of blood was taken in fasting condition. Cell blood count and serum zinc were carried out for both thalassemia patients and normal subjects. The mean age of patients and control group was 15+- 5 years. Mean serum zinc level was 68.97+- 21.12 mu g/dl, 78.10-28.50 mu g/dl, and 80.16+- 26.54 mu g/dl in the TM with DFO, TM with DFO + DEF combination protocol and control group respectively. There was no significant correlation between patients and control group. However 50 percent of TM with DFO, 38.7 percent of TM with DFO + DEF and 32.8 percent of control group had hypozincemia. Nearly 40 to 50 percent of TM patients and one third of normal subjects are suffering from hypozincemia. This study shows that low level of serum zinc is a health problem in both thalassemia patients and normal population in South West of Iran. (author)

  20. [Recombinant human gapM1 expressed in Pichia pastoris and its anti-diabetic effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xiang; Du, Renqian; Li, Xi; Huang, Haiyan; Yu, Min; Tang, Qiqun

    2009-08-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine predominantly synthesized and secreted by adipocytes in the white adipose tissue, and it can lower the blood glucose level and increase free fatty acid oxidation. In the current study, we developed the globular domain of adiponectin (gapM1) to treat type II diabetes. In both flask and fermentor, we cultivated Pichia pastoris expressing recombinant gapM1 and established the purification procedure by using gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. To evaluate the biological activity of recombinant gapM1, we used rat type II diabetes model fed high-fat diet in combination with low-dose STZ (Streptozocin) induction. We purified 200 mg gapM1 with purity of 96% from 10 liters of supernatant. The recombinant gapM1 significantly lowered blood glucose (34.2%), serum triglyceride (79.6%) and total cholesterol (62.1%) in type II diabetes induced rat. Therefore, the recombinant human gapM1 is successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and effectively treated type II diabetes in rat models.

  1. The gender wage gap in developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increased attachment of women to the labour force in nearly all developed countries, a stubborn gender pay gap remains. This chapter provides a review of the economics literature on the gender wage gap, with an emphasis on developed countries. We begin with an overview of the trends in the gender differences in wages and employment rates. We then review methods used to decompose the gender wage gap and the results from such decompositions. We discuss how trends and differences in ...

  2. The early career gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Napari

    2006-01-01

    In Finland the gender wage gap increases significantly during the first 10 years after labor market entry accounting most of the life-time increase in the gender wage gap. This paper focuses on the early career gender wage differences among university graduates and considers several explanations for the gender wage gap based on the human capital theory, job mobility and labor market segregation. Gender differences in the accumulation of experience and in the type of education explain about 16...

  3. Wage compression and the gender pay gap

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence M. Kahn

    2015-01-01

    There are large international differences in the gender pay gap. In some developed countries in 2010–2012, women were close to earnings parity with men, while in others large gaps remained. Since women and men have different average levels of education and experience and commonly work in different industries and occupations, multiple factors can influence the gender pay gap. Among them are skill supply and demand, unions, and minimum wages, which influence the economywide wage returns to educ...

  4. New evidence on the motherhood wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Kimmel, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we assess the role of employment-based health insurance offers in explaining the motherhood wage gap. Researchers have been aware of the existence of a motherhood gap for many years; yet, the literature has failed to address the role of non-wage compensation in explaining the motherhood wage gap despite the increasing importance of non-wage benefits in total compensation packages. As hedonic wage theory suggests, mothers might vi...

  5. Constellations of gaps in Eratosthenes sieve

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Fred B.

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago we identified a recursion that works directly with the gaps among the generators in each stage of Eratosthenes sieve. This recursion provides explicit enumerations of sequences of gaps among the generators, which sequences are known as constellations. Over the last year we identified a discrete linear system that exactly models the population of any gap across all stages of the sieve. In August 2014 we summarized our results from analyzing this discrete model on populations of...

  6. Redefining yield gaps at various spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, K.; Fishman, R.; Norstrom, A. V.; Diekert, F. K.; Engstrom, G.; Gars, J.; McCarney, G. R.; Sjostedt, M.

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has highlighted the prevalence of 'yield gaps' around the world and the importance of closing them for global food security. However, the traditional concept of yield gap -defined as the difference between observed and optimal yield under biophysical conditions - omit relevant socio-economic and ecological constraints and thus offer limited guidance on potential policy interventions. This paper proposes alternative definitions of yield gaps by incorporating rich, high resolution, national and sub-national agricultural datasets. We examine feasible efforts to 'close yield gaps' at various spatial scales and across different socio-economic and ecological domains.

  7. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Maria O.; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012) at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8 %) as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0 %). On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1). Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10 % of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6 % at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality) and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13 % and 10 %, respectively). At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal (23 % versus 6 %) within gaps. Both sites demonstrate limited gap contagiousness defined by an

  8. The Los Alamos Gap Stick Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel; Hill, Larry; Johnson, Carl

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we describe a novel shock sensitivity test, the Gap Stick Test, which is a generalized variant of the ubiquitous Gap Test. Despite the popularity of the Gap Test, it has some disadvantages: multiple tests must be fired to obtain a single metric, and many tests must be fired to obtain its value to high precision and confidence. Our solution is a test wherein multiple gap tests are joined in series to form a rate stick. The complex re-initiation character of the traditional gap test is thereby retained, but the propagation speed is steady when measured at periodic intervals, and initiation delay in individual segments acts to decrement the average speed. We measure the shock arrival time before and after each inert gap, and compute the average detonation speed through the HE alone (discounting the gap thicknesses). We perform tests for a range of gap thicknesses. We then plot the aforementioned propagation speed as a function of gap thickness. The resulting curve has the same basic structure as a Diameter Effect (DE) curve, and (like the DE curve) terminates at a failure point. Comparison between experiment and hydrocode calculations using ALE3D and the Ignition and Growth reactive burn model calibrated for short duration shock inputs in PBX 9501 is discussed.

  9. NEN Division Funding Gap Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, Ernst I.; Goettee, Jeffrey D.; Desimone, David J.; Lakis, Rollin E.; Miko, David K.

    2012-01-01

    The work in NEN Division revolves around proliferation detection. The sponsor funding model seems to have shifted over the last decades. For the past three lustra, sponsors are mainly interested in funding ideas and detection systems that are already at a technical readiness level 6 (TRL 6 -- one step below an industrial prototype) or higher. Once this level is reached, the sponsoring agency is willing to fund the commercialization, implementation, and training for the systems (TRL 8, 9). These sponsors are looking for a fast turnaround (1-2 years) technology development efforts to implement technology. To support the critical national and international needs for nonprolifertion solutions, we have to maintain a fluent stream of subject matter expertise from the fundamental principals of radiation detection through prototype development all the way to the implementation and training of others. NEN Division has large funding gaps in the Valley of Death region. In the current competitive climate for nuclear nonproliferation projects, it is imminent to increase our lead in this field.

  10. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  11. Demographic characteristics in patients with short-gap and long-gap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further analysis of this topic is warranted ... Keywords: demographic characteristics, long-gap esophageal atresia, short-gap ... Thus, we conducted the present study to analyze the character- ..... this issue, providing fundamental information.

  12. The gamma gap predicts 4-year all-cause mortality among nonagenarians and centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Xie, Linlin; Liu, Xiu; Hao, Qiukui; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Dong, Birong

    2018-01-18

    Recent studies have revealed the prognostic role of the gamma gap, the total serum proteins concentration minus the albumin concentration, for predicting all-cause mortality among adults. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the gamma gap and all-cause mortality among nonagenarians and centenarians via a secondary data analysis of a prospective observational study. The analysis included 801 participants (260 men and 541 women, mean age: 93.7 ± 3.5 years), 46 of which were lost at the 4-year follow-up. The mean gamma gap was 2.7 ± 0.5 g/dl. After adjusting for relevant confounders, the gamma gap was significantly associated with 4-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD = 1.22, 95% confidential interval [CI]: 1.12-1.78). Using different cut-off points, the elevated gamma gap could be defined as ≥2.9, 3.0, 3.1, or 3.2 g/dl. The relevant HRs and 95% CIs of the elevated gamma gap for predicting mortality were 1.27 (1.12-1.90), 1.29 (1.03-1.78), 1.21 (1.23-1.66), and 1.26 (1.09-1.69), respectively. In conclusion, the gamma gap is an independent prognostic factor for long-term mortality in nonagenarians and centenarians. A value greater than or equal to 3.1 g/dl may define an elevated gamma gap, but further studies are required.

  13. Evolution of shell gaps with neutron richness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Moumita Ray; Ray, I.; Kshetri, Ritesh; Saha Sarkar, M.; Sarkar, S.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to coordinate the recent data available over the periodic table, specially near the shell gaps and studied the evolution of the shell gaps as function of neutron numbers and/or other related quantities

  14. The Wage Gap and Administrative Salaries Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirk D.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of national data on college administrator salaries by gender, minority/nonminority status, years of service, and institution type found that wage gaps related to gender and minority status persisted in 1991-92 but that interaction of length of service with other study variables explained a significant amount of this gap. (MSE)

  15. PhoneGap 3 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Natili, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, example-driven Beginner's Guide format, there are plenty of step-by-step instructions to help you get started with PhoneGap.If you are a web developer or mobile application developer interested in an examples-based approach to learning mobile application development basics with PhoneGap, then this book is for you.

  16. Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy H.M. Sembel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Some concerns in the field of Business Management regarding the gap between theory and practice have been raised by practitioners and academicians. This keynote speech describes some lessons learned from the academic literature regarding this gap (whether the gap really exists, and if it exists, whether it needs to be bridged or closed, and how to bridge or close this gap, and shares the author's personal and professional experiences of living as both an academician and a practitioner. The main findings of this article are: (1 Yes the gap exists, however, it has to be viewed in a wider perspective to really understand the situation; (2 The gap in a specific area is bad and should become our concern, but in other areas it should not; (3 There are some ways to bridge or close the negative gap; (4 There exists hybrid career opportunities to become professionals that work both as an academician and a practitioner; (5 This new breed of hybrid professionals has a huge potential to bridge the bad theory-practice gap.

  17. School Choice and the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility is examined that school choice programs could be a means to reducing the achievement gap. Data based on meta-analytic research and the examination of nationwide data sets suggest that school choice programs that include private schools could reduce the achievement gap by 25%. The propounding of this possibility is based on research…

  18. Delaying the Academy: A Gap Year Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This investigation serves as one of the first empirical analyses to examine the international volunteering gap year from an educational perspective, concluding an in-depth case study of a prominent gap year organisation in the UK. Contrary to widespread industry promotion of international development, the findings suggest that the experience can…

  19. Optical response and excitons in gapped graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Pedersen, K.

    2009-01-01

    Graphene can be rendered semiconducting via energy gaps introduced in a variety of ways, e.g., coupling to substrates, electrical biasing, or nanostructuring. To describe and compare different realizations of gapped graphene we propose a simple two-band model in which a "mass" term is responsible...

  20. Public Perceptions of the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Women have made gains toward closing the gender pay gap during the past two decades. Much of the progress occurred during the 1980s, with smaller gains in the 1990s (Institute for Women's Policy Research 2004). Women's achievements in higher education are partly responsible for narrowing the pay gap in the 1980s and 1990s. As more women earned…

  1. Intersectionopoly: A Simulation of the Wage Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paino, Maria; May, Matthew; Burrington, Lori A.; Becker, Jacob H.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a simulation activity designed to teach students about the wage gap. The wage gap is an important topic in many sociology classrooms, but it can be difficult to convey the accumulated disadvantage experienced by women and racial/ethnic minorities to students using in-class discussions, lectures, or assigned readings alone.…

  2. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps: A Data Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In the authors' 2011 "JEE" article, "Estimating Gender Wage Gaps," they described an interesting class project that allowed students to estimate the current gender earnings gap for recent college graduates using data from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE). Unfortunately, since 2012, NACE no longer…

  3. Low band gap polymers for organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    Low band gap polymer materials and their application in organic photovoltaics (OPV) are reviewed. We detail the synthetic approaches to low band gap polymer materials starting from the early methodologies employing quinoid homopolymer structures to the current state of the art that relies...

  4. Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Gender gaps are pervasive in all walks of economic life and imply large losses in terms of foregone productivity and living standards to the individuals concerned and the economy. This new OECD report focuses on how best to close these gender gaps under four broad headings: (1) Gender equality, social norms and public policies; and gender equality…

  5. Broadband for all closing the infrastructure gap

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available than just addressing the infrastructure issue. The CSIR is mapping the country’s broadband infrastructure to understand where the largest gaps are, is developing models for how those gaps in broadband infrastructure can be closed. In this presentation...

  6. Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N G

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein phosphatases and protein kinases, of which c-Src is the

  7. Spectral Gaps in Graphene Antidot Lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbaroux, Jean-Marie; Cornean, Decebal Horia; Stockmeyer, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    We consider the gap creation problem in an antidot graphene lattice, i.e. a sheet of graphene with periodically distributed obstacles. We prove several spectral results concerning the size of the gap and its dependence on different natural parameters related to the antidot lattice....

  8. impairs gap junction function causing congenital cataract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... experiment showed a lower dye diffusion distance of Cx46 V44M cells, ... Studies of connexins show that channel gating and permeability .... have found that connexin assembled into gap junction plaques is not soluble in 1% ..... high glucose reduces gap junction activity in microvascular endothelial cells.

  9. impairs gap junction function causing congenital cataract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIJUAN CHEN

    2017-12-20

    Dec 20, 2017 ... showed a lower dye diffusion distance of Cx46 V44M cells, which indicates that the gap junction intercellular ... permeability could be affected by alterations of charged residues of .... bled into gap junction plaques is not soluble in 1% Triton ..... regulation of connexin 43 expression by high glucose reduces.

  10. Gender Pay Gap, Productivity Gap and Discrimination in Canadian Clothing Manufacturing in 1870

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine L McDevitt; James R Irwin; Kris Inwood

    2009-01-01

    Women's earnings were less than men's in Canadian clothing factories in 1870. Orthodox neoclassical theory would explain that gender pay gap as a reflection of a gender productivity gap. Using classical hypothesis testing we reject that view, based on a large cross-section of 1870 census data. We find the gender pay gap was significantly larger than the gender productivity gap, much as Hellerstein et al. [1999] found for US manufacturing circa 1990. Our results are clear and compell...

  11. Closing the condom KAP gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, E L

    1977-01-01

    A number of program strategies have been suggested to close the gap between knowledge and awareness of family planning, and its practice. Most focus on the interim between awareness and usage. This article presents data to support the argument that the problem lies in the awareness stage. Its assumption is that the quality of the awareness is important. As opposed to the survey method of determining awareness, the author proposes the "Focus Group Discussion." As illustration, he presents results of a study using this method, on awareness about condoms, undertaken as part of a Population Center Foundation Condom Distribution Project, in 1975. Its purpose was to identify the more important attitudes toward condoms among married couples, the factors which motivate the couples to use or reject them, and the meanings associated with condoms and how these influence the time, manner, and reasons for rejecting or accepting them. 4 group discussions were carried out, with 8 or 10 married male and female respondents, age 18-35, with at least 2 children, of middle and lower class, and all having at least heard of condoms. Discussions were taped and subjected to content analysis. The 7 major findings are: 1) Quality of awareness depends on experience with use. 2) Experience with use does not guarantee positive quality awareness -- some regular users were still ignorant of some aspects of condom use. 3) Respondents perceive positive aspects of condoms, which should be reinforced. 4) Most of the negative qualities perceived by respondents were imaginary, but can be combatted by the positive statements of users. 5) Filipino men respond to their wives' reactions and project an image of sexual prowess, both possibly damaging to the reputation of condoms; communicators and educators must address the wives equally with their husbands. 6) Buying condoms is embarrassing: studies are needed on how this can be overcome at the places of purchase. 7) Brand awareness is low: only 3 or 4 out

  12. Spin Orbit Coupling Gap and Indirect Gap in Strain-Tuned Topological Insulator-Antimonene

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Chi-Ho; Fuh, Huei-Ru; Hsu, Ming-Chien; Lin, Yeu-Chung; Chang, Ching-Ray

    2016-01-01

    Recently, searching large-bulk band gap topological insulator (TI) is under intensive study. Through k?P theory and first-principles calculations analysis on antimonene, we find that ?-phase antimonene can be tuned to a 2D TI under an in-plane anisotropic strain and the magnitude of direct bulk band gap (SOC gap) depends on the strength of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) which is strain-dependent. As the band inversion of this TI accompanies with an indirect band gap, the TI bulk band gap is the in...

  13. A comparison of the wide gap and narrow gap resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerron Zeballos, E.; Crotty, I.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Valverde, J.L.; Neupane, S.; Peskov, V.; Singh, S.; Williams, M.C.S.; Zichichi, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the performance of a wide gap RPC and compare it with that of a narrow gap RPC, both operated in avalanche mode. We have studied the total charge produced in the avalanche. We have measured the dependence of the performance with rate. In addition we have considered the effect of the tolerance of gas gap and calculated the power dissipated in these two types of RPC. We find that the narrow gap RPC has better timing ability; however the wide gap has superior rate capability, lower power dissipation in the gas volume and can be constructed with less stringent mechanical tolerances. (orig.)

  14. A comparison of the wide gap and narrow gap resistive plate chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Cerron-Zeballos, E; Hatzifotiadou, D; Lamas-Valverde, J; Neupane, S; Peskov, Vladimir; Singh, S; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, Antonino

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the performance of a wide gap RPC and compare it with that of a narrow gap RPC, both operated in avalanche mode. We have studied the total charge produced in the avalanche. We have measured the dependence of the performance with rate. In addition we have considered the effect of the tolerance of gas gap and calculated the power dissipated in these two types of RPC. We find that the narrow gap RPC has better timing ability; however the wide gap has superior rate capability, lower power dissipation in the gas volume and can be constructed with less stringent mechanical tolerances.

  15. Serum Antibody Biomarkers for ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    typically developing control. US, unaffected sibling control. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...typically developing (TD) children (e.g., Warren et al., 1990; Singh, 2009). The goal of this study is to identify a serum antibody biomarker for ASD using...50% less IgG1 antibody in ASD boys vs . TD boys (p=0.0096). The level of ASD1 binding to the AM group was the same as to the ASD boys. These data

  16. The Knowledge Gap Versus the Belief Gap and Abstinence-Only Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Douglas Blanks; Yan, Changmin

    2015-08-01

    The knowledge gap hypothesis predicts widening disparities in knowledge of heavily publicized public affairs issues among socioeconomic status groups. The belief gap hypothesis extends the knowledge gap hypothesis to account for knowledge and beliefs about politically contested issues based on empirically verifiable information. This analysis of 3 national surveys shows belief gaps developed between liberals and conservatives regarding abstinence-only sex education; socioeconomic status-based knowledge gaps did not widen. The findings partially support both belief gap and knowledge gap hypotheses. In addition, the unique contributions of exposure to Fox News, CNN, and MSNBC in this process were investigated. Only exposure to Fox News was linked to beliefs about abstinence-only sex education directly and indirectly through the cultivation of conservative ideology.

  17. Infectious Disease Practice Gaps in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Shelby; Quest, Tyler L; Wanat, Karolyn A

    2016-07-01

    The article highlights different educational and practice gaps in infectious diseases as they pertain to dermatology. These gaps include the use of antibiotics in relation to atopic dermatitis and acne vulgaris, treatment of skin and soft tissue infection, and diagnosis and treatment of onychomycosis. In addition, practice gaps related to use of imiquimod for molluscum contagiosum, risk of infections related to immunosuppressive medications and rates of vaccination, and the use of bedside diagnostics for diagnosing common infections were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Method for Bubbledeck Concrete Slab with Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Călin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite slabs are made of BubbleDeck type slab elements with spherical gaps, poured in place on transversal and longitudinal directions. By introducing the gaps leads to a 30...50\\% lighter slab which reduces the loads on the columns, walls and foundations, and of course of the entire building. BubbleDeck slab elements are plates with ribs on two directions made of reinforced concrete or precast concrete with spherical shaped bubbles. These slab elements have a bottom and an upper concrete part connected with vertical ribs that go around the gaps.

  19. Gender wage gap in Vietnam 1993 - 98

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Y.C. Liu

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys 1992–93 and 1997–98 to examine changes in the gender wage gap. The intertemporal decomposition of Juhn et al. (1991) indicates that changes in observed variables, skill prices and wage inequality have tended to narrow the gap, but the gap effect has tended to widen it, with the net effect being one of little change. This finding is in contrast with that for the EEC but in line with the experience of China. Improving education about equity p...

  20. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uythoven, Jan [CERN; Boccardi, Andrea [CERN; Bravin, Enrico [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Jacquet, Delphine [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Mazzoni, Stefano [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  1. THE GENDER WAGE GAP IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAŞ, Arda; UYSAL, Gokce

    2016-01-01

    The most prominent form of gender discrimination in the labor market is the gender gap in wages.Using the Wage Structure Survey, a firm-level data set, we study the gender wage gap in Turkey. Weconcentrate on formal employment as this is the jurisdiction of the Labor Code in Turkey. Althoughwomen earn 3% less than men on average, a wider look reveals important differences along the entirewage distribution. There is virtually no gender gap at the lower end of the wage distribution. Moresurpris...

  2. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  3. Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    1999-01-01

    . In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....

  4. Expedient Gap Definition Using 3D LADAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Research and Development Center (ERDC), ASI has developed an algorithm to reduce the 3D point cloud acquired with the LADAR system into sets of 2D...ATO IV.GC.2004.02. The GAP Program is conducted by the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) in conjunction with the U.S. Army...Introduction 1 1 Introduction Background The Battlespace Gap Definition and Defeat ( GAP ) Program is conducted by the U.S. Army Engineer Research and

  5. Strategies for Closing the ITRS Funding Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The semiconductor industry needs to find creative ways to close the $1.1 – 1.5B research gap , first noted in 2003, between the funding being...2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Strategies for Closing the ITRS Funding Gap 5a. CONTRACT...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 STRATEGIES FOR CLOSING THE ITRS FUNDING GAP # Yaw S. Obeng, Stephen Knight, and Joaquin V. Martinez de

  6. The Expanded Large Scale Gap Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    NSWC TR 86-32 DTIC THE EXPANDED LARGE SCALE GAP TEST BY T. P. LIDDIARD D. PRICE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT ’ ~MARCH 1987 Ap~proved for public...arises, to reduce the spread in the LSGT 50% gap value.) The worst charges, such as those with the highest or lowest densities, the largest re-pressed...Arlington, VA 22217 PE 62314N INS3A 1 RJ14E31 7R4TBK 11 TITLE (Include Security CIlmsilficatiorn The Expanded Large Scale Gap Test . 12. PEIRSONAL AUTHOR() T

  7. Kalman filter-based gap conductance modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Geometric and thermal property uncertainties contribute greatly to the problem of determining conductance within the fuel-clad gas gap of a nuclear fuel pin. Accurate conductance values are needed for power plant licensing transient analysis and for test analyses at research facilities. Recent work by Meek, Doerner, and Adams has shown that use of Kalman filters to estimate gap conductance is a promising approach. A Kalman filter is simply a mathematical algorithm that employs available system measurements and assumed dynamic models to generate optimal system state vector estimates. This summary addresses another Kalman filter approach to gap conductance estimation and subsequent identification of an empirical conductance model

  8. LHC Abort Gap Monitoring and Cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    Meddahi, M; Boccardi, A; Butterworth, A; Fisher, A S; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, G H; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Jaussi, M; Kain, V; Lefevre, T; Shaposhnikova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D

    2010-01-01

    Unbunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC as it may quench the superconducting magnets during a beam abort. Unbunched particles, either not captured by the RF system at injection or leaking out of the RF bucket, will be removed by using the existing damper kickers to excite resonantly the particles in the abort gap. Following beam simulations, a strategy for cleaning the abort gap at different energies was proposed. The plans for the commissioning of the beam abort gap cleaning are described and first results from the beam commissioning are presented.

  9. Metabolic Acidosis and Strong Ion Gap in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Mei Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the influence of physicochemical parameters on survival in metabolic acidosis (MA and acute kidney injury (AKI patients. Materials and Methods. Seventy-eight MA patients were collected and assigned to AKI or non-AKI group. We analyzed the physiochemical parameters on survival at 24 h, 72 h, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after AKI. Results. Mortality rate was higher in the AKI group. AKI group had higher anion gap (AG, strong ion gap (SIG, and apparent strong ion difference (SIDa values than non-AKI group. SIG value was higher in the AKI survivors than nonsurvivors and this value was correlated serum creatinine, phosphate, albumin, and chloride levels. SIG and serum albumin are negatively correlated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV scores. AG was associated with mortality at 1 and 3 months post-AKI, whereas SIG value was associated with mortality at 24 h, 72 h, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months post-AKI. Conclusions. Whether high or low SIG values correlate with mortality in MA patients with AKI depends on its correlation with serum creatinine, chloride, albumin, and phosphate (P levels. AG predicts short-term mortality and SIG value predicts both short- and long-term mortality among MA patients with AKI.

  10. Device Physics of Narrow Gap Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Junhao

    2010-01-01

    Narrow gap semiconductors obey the general rules of semiconductor science, but often exhibit extreme features of these rules because of the same properties that produce their narrow gaps. Consequently these materials provide sensitive tests of theory, and the opportunity for the design of innovative devices. Narrow gap semiconductors are the most important materials for the preparation of advanced modern infrared systems. Device Physics of Narrow Gap Semiconductors offers descriptions of the materials science and device physics of these unique materials. Topics covered include impurities and defects, recombination mechanisms, surface and interface properties, and the properties of low dimensional systems for infrared applications. This book will help readers to understand not only the semiconductor physics and materials science, but also how they relate to advanced opto-electronic devices. The last chapter applies the understanding of device physics to photoconductive detectors, photovoltaic infrared detector...

  11. AUDIT EXPECTATION GAP: AUDITORS IN UNENDING ROLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    Key Words: Expectation gap, Auditors, Shareholders, Self-regulation, Audit ... of auditing has changed from fraud detection to ‗verification of financial .... According to the role theory, the role of the auditors can be viewed in terms of the.

  12. Energy gap of ferromagnet-superconductor bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halterman, Klaus; Valls, Oriol T

    2003-10-15

    The excitation spectrum of clean ferromagnet-superconductor bilayers is calculated within the framework of the self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. Because of the proximity effect, the superconductor induces a gap in the ferromagnet spectrum, for thin ferromagnetic layers. The effect depends strongly on the exchange field in the ferromagnet. We find that as the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer increases, the gap disappears, and that its destruction arises from those quasiparticle excitations with wave vectors mainly along the interface. We discuss the influence that the interface quality and Fermi energy mismatch between the ferromagnet and superconductor have on the calculated energy gap. We also evaluate the density of states in the ferromagnet, and we find it in all cases consistent with the gap results.

  13. Fermi-Dirac function and energy gap

    OpenAIRE

    Bondarev, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Medium field method is applied for studying valence electron behavior in metals. When different wave-vector electrons are attracted at low temperatures, distribution function gets discontinued. As a result, a specific energy gap occurs.

  14. practice gap in critical care nursing students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guided reflection as a tool to deal with the theory– practice gap in critical care ... was used during semi-structured interviews during the data collection process. ... a description of incidents experienced, critical analysis of knowledge, critical ...

  15. School Segregation and Racial Academic Achievement Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean F. Reardon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is clear that racial segregation is linked to academic achievement gaps, the mechanisms underlying this link have been debated since James Coleman published his eponymous 1966 report. In this paper, I examine sixteen distinct measures of segregation to determine which is most strongly associated with academic achievement gaps. I find clear evidence that one aspect of segregation in particular—the disparity in average school poverty rates between white and black students’ schools—is consistently the single most powerful correlate of achievement gaps, a pattern that holds in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. This implies that high-poverty schools are, on average, much less effective than lower-poverty schools and suggests that strategies that reduce the differential exposure of black, Hispanic, and white students to poor schoolmates may lead to meaningful reductions in academic achievement gaps.

  16. Regression analysis for bivariate gap time with missing first gap time data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chia-Hui; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2017-01-01

    We consider ordered bivariate gap time while data on the first gap time are unobservable. This study is motivated by the HIV infection and AIDS study, where the initial HIV contracting time is unavailable, but the diagnosis times for HIV and AIDS are available. We are interested in studying the risk factors for the gap time between initial HIV contraction and HIV diagnosis, and gap time between HIV and AIDS diagnoses. Besides, the association between the two gap times is also of interest. Accordingly, in the data analysis we are faced with two-fold complexity, namely data on the first gap time is completely missing, and the second gap time is subject to induced informative censoring due to dependence between the two gap times. We propose a modeling framework for regression analysis of bivariate gap time under the complexity of the data. The estimating equations for the covariate effects on, as well as the association between, the two gap times are derived through maximum likelihood and suitable counting processes. Large sample properties of the resulting estimators are developed by martingale theory. Simulations are performed to examine the performance of the proposed analysis procedure. An application of data from the HIV and AIDS study mentioned above is reported for illustration.

  17. Modification in band gap of zirconium complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mayank, E-mail: mayank30134@gmail.com; Singh, J.; Chouhan, S. [Department of Physics, ISLE, IPS Academy, Indore (M.P.) (India); Mishra, A. [School of Physics, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (M.P.) (India); Shrivastava, B. D. [Govt. P. G. College, Biora (M.P.) (India)

    2016-05-06

    The optical properties of zirconium complexes with amino acid based Schiff bases are reported here. The zirconium complexes show interesting stereo chemical features, which are applicable in organometallic and organic synthesis as well as in catalysis. The band gaps of both Schiff bases and zirconium complexes were obtained by UV-Visible spectroscopy. It was found that the band gap of zirconium complexes has been modified after adding zirconium compound to the Schiff bases.

  18. Gender pay gap varies greatly by occupation

    OpenAIRE

    Wrohlich, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    The German labor market is characterized by marked occupational segregation between women and men. The median earnings in female dominated occupations are lower than those in male dominated professions. This is one of the reasons for the gender pay gap. However, there are also large differences in earnings between men and women within occupations. These profession-specific gender pay gaps are smaller in professions with a high proportion of employees in the public sector. This finding indicat...

  19. Gap analysis: rethinking the conceptual foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, Gary O.; Franck, Raymond; Huynh, Tom; Lewis, Ira A.

    2007-01-01

    Acquisition research (Graduate School of Business & Public Policy) Gap Analysis is widely regarded as a useful tool to facilitate commercial and defense system acquisitions. This paper is a rethinking of the theoretical foundations and systematics of Gap Analysis with practical extensions to illustrate its utility and limitations. It also provides a new perspective on those theoretical foundations from the perspectives of systems and value engineering. The growing sophistication and comple...

  20. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1995-06-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). (orig.)

  1. Spinal Gap Junction Channels in Neuropathic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Young Hoon; Youn, Dong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Damage to peripheral nerves or the spinal cord is often accompanied by neuropathic pain, which is a complex, chronic pain state. Increasing evidence indicates that alterations in the expression and activity of gap junction channels in the spinal cord are involved in the development of neuropathic pain. Thus, this review briefly summarizes evidence that regulation of the expression, coupling, and activity of spinal gap junction channels modulates pain signals in neuropathic pain states induced...

  2. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1996-01-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. The micro-gap resistive plate chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Cerron-Zeballos, E; Lamas-Valverde, J; Platner, E D; Roberts, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    1999-01-01

    Previously we have found that the freon C/sub 2/F/sub 5/H has very good properties when used in a resistive plate chamber (RPC) with a single gap of 2 mm. In this paper we report on the performance of a multigap RPC consisting of 4 gaps of 0.8 mm filled with a gas mixture containing this freon. (7 refs).

  4. The Gender Earnings Gap: Some International Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

    1992-01-01

    This paper uses micro-data to analyze international differences in the gender pay gap among a sample of ten industrialized nations. We particularly focus on explaining the surprisingly low ranking of the U.S. in comparison to other industrialized countries. Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female worke...

  5. Columbia River Component Data Gap Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2007-10-23

    This Data Gap Analysis report documents the results of a study conducted by Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) to compile and reivew the currently available surface water and sediment data for the Columbia River near and downstream of the Hanford Site. This Data Gap Analysis study was conducted to review the adequacy of the existing surface water and sediment data set from the Columbia River, with specific reference to the use of the data in future site characterization and screening level risk assessments.

  6. Vortex induced vibrations in gapped restrainted pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, P. de A.A.; Loula, A.F.D.

    1984-01-01

    The vortex induced vibration problem of gapped restrained piping is solved numerically. The model proposed by Skop-Griffin is used to describe the pipe-fluid interaction. The variational formulation is obtained modeling the gapped restraints as non-linear elastic springs. The regularized problem is solved using a finite element discretization for the spatial domain. In the time domain a finite difference discretization is used for the lift coefficient equatin and a Newmark discretization for the equation of motion. (Author) [pt

  7. Gap between jets at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royon, Christophe [CEA/IRFU/Service de physique des particules, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2013-04-15

    We describe a NLL BFKL calculation implemented in the HERWIG MC of the gap between jets cross section, that represent a test of BFKL dynamics. We compare the predictions with recent measurements at the Tevatron and present predictions for the LHC. We also discuss the interesting process of looking for gap between jets in diffractive events when protons are detected in the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) detectors.

  8. Gap between jets at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royon, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    We describe a NLL BFKL calculation implemented in the HERWIG MC of the gap between jets cross section, that represent a test of BFKL dynamics. We compare the predictions with recent measurements at the Tevatron and present predictions for the LHC. We also discuss the interesting process of looking for gap between jets in diffractive events when protons are detected in the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) detectors.

  9. Serum lysozyme determinations, April-June 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S C; Lamphere, J P; Jablon, S

    1963-04-18

    Serum lysozyme levels were determined on 670 consecutive subjects seen for regularly scheduled clinic examinations of the Adult Health Study in Hiroshima. Serum lysozyme levels were found to vary significantly with the absolute peripheral granulocyte count, age, sex, and month of study. A high level of correlation also was noted between serum lysozyme and diabetes mellitus. This was at least in part attributable to greater average age in patients with diabetes. Suggestive relationship was established between serum lysozyme levels, respiratory diseases, and tuberculosis. These changes are believed to reflect active inflammation with excessive destruction of granulocytes and parenchymal tissues in those patients with the more acute processes. No relationship was found between serum lysozyme and previous exposure to ionizing radiation. These studies indicate that the serum lysozyme level may be useful in the study of the kinetics of leukopoiesis, the aging process, and in the detection of subtle inflammatory processes. 21 references, 5 tables.

  10. 125I Radioimmunoassay of serum ursodeoxycholyl conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, A.; Ross, P.E.; Bouchier, I.A.D.

    1983-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for serum ursodeoxycholic conjugates using an iodine-125 ligand has been developed. The bile acid was present in normal fasting serum (0.19 +- SD 0.19 μmol/l, n=24) and 2-hour post-prandial serum (0.8 +- SD 0.8 μmol/l, n=16). Gallstone patients undergoing oral ursodeoxycholic acid therapy had significantly higher post-prandial serum levels (21.5 +- SD 14.0 μmol/l, n=15) by radioimmunoassay. Gas liquid chromatography analysis indicated that in normal serum ursodeoxycholic acid was totally conjugated, whereas sera from gallstone patients contained a proportion as the free bile acid (10.2 +- SD 8.1 μmol/l, n=15). Following an oral dose of ursodeoxycholic acid, both unconjugated and conjugated forms of the bile acid appeared in the serum of healthy individuals. (Auth.)

  11. Beam energy reduction in an acceleration gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of high-current accelerators has recently attracted considerable attention. The high-current beam accompanies a substantial amount of field energy in the space between the beam and the drift tube wall, as it propagates through a conducting drift tube of accelerator system. While such a beam is being accelerated in a gap, this field energy is subject to leak through the opening of the gap. The amount of energy lost in the gap is replenished by the beam at the expense of its kinetic energy. In this paper, the authors present a simple analysis of field energy loss in an acceleration gap for a relativistic beam for which beam particle velocity equals to c. It is found that the energy loss, which in turn reduces the beam kinetic energy, is ΔV = IZ 0 : the beam current times the characteristic impedance of the acceleration gap. As a result, the apparent acceleration voltage of the gap is reduced from the applied voltage by ΔV. This effect, especially for generation of high-current beam accelerated by a multigap accelerator, appears to be an important design consideration. The energy reduction mechanism and a few examples are presented

  12. Experience with small-gap undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefan, P.; Krinsky, S.

    1996-01-01

    Small-gap undulators offer enhanced performance as synchrotron radiation sources, by providing extended tuning range and the possibility of higher photon energies via short-period, small-gap devices. Challenges associated with the operation of small-gap undulators arise from their requirement for small beam apertures and the resulting possibility of lifetime degradation, beam instabilities, and radiation hazards. To investigate these fundamental limitations, we have constructed an R ampersand D small-gap undulator for the X13 straight section of the NSLS 2.584 GeV X-ray Ring and have tested it during studies shifts and normal user shifts during the last year. This device, the NSLS prototype small-gap undulator (PSGU), consists of a variable-aperture vacuum chamber and a 16-mm-period pure-permanent-magnet undulator, both mounted to a common elevator base stage. The design output spectrum of 2.5 keV in the fundamental (and 7.5 keV in the third harmonic) was obtained with a magnet gap of 5.6 mm and an electron beam aperture of 2.5 mm. The partial lifetime contribution for these parameters was observed to be about 40 hr. Details of the synchrotron radiation output spectrum, lifetime dependence on aperture, and bremsstrahlung radiation production will be presented. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. Water limits to closing yield gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Garrassino, Francesco; Chiarelli, Davide; Seveso, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is often seen as a suitable approach to meet the growing demand for agricultural products and improve food security. It typically entails the use of fertilizers, new cultivars, irrigation, and other modern technology. In regions of the world affected by seasonal or chronic water scarcity, yield gap closure is strongly dependent on irrigation (blue water). Global yield gap assessments have often ignored whether the water required to close the yield gap is locally available. Here we perform a gridded global analysis (10 km resolution) of the blue water consumption that is needed annually to close the yield gap worldwide and evaluate the associated pressure on renewable freshwater resources. We find that, to close the yield gap, human appropriation of freshwater resources for irrigation would have to increase at least by 146%. Most study countries would experience at least a doubling in blue water requirement, with 71% of the additional blue water being required by only four crops - maize, rice, soybeans, and wheat. Further, in some countries (e.g., Algeria, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen) the total volume of blue water required for yield gap closure would exceed sustainable levels of freshwater consumption (i.e., 40% of total renewable surface and groundwater resources).

  14. THE PAL 5 STAR STREAM GAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Hetherington, Nathan; Grillmair, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Pal 5 is a low-mass, low-velocity-dispersion, globular cluster with spectacular tidal tails. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 data to extend the density measurements of the trailing star stream to 23 deg distance from the cluster, at which point the stream runs off the edge of the available sky coverage. The size and the number of gaps in the stream are measured using a filter which approximates the structure of the gaps found in stream simulations. We find 5 gaps that are at least 99% confidence detections with about a dozen gaps at 90% confidence. The statistical significance of a gap is estimated using bootstrap resampling of the control regions on either side of the stream. The density minimum closest to the cluster is likely the result of the epicyclic orbits of the tidal outflow and has been discounted. To create the number of 99% confidence gaps per unit length at the mean age of the stream requires a halo population of nearly a thousand dark matter sub-halos with peak circular velocities above 1 km s –1 within 30 kpc of the galactic center. These numbers are a factor of about three below cold stream simulation at this sub-halo mass or velocity but, given the uncertainties in both measurement and more realistic warm stream modeling, are in substantial agreement with the LCDM prediction.

  15. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin concentrated from serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisula, B.C.; Louvet, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method for concentrating human TSH (hTSH) from serum for use in RIAs is described. The method takes advantage of the affinity of the plant lectin, concanavalin A, for the carbohydrate portion of the hTSH molecule. The hTSH from 2.5 ml serum was adsorbed to concanavalin A covalently linked to sepharose and then radioimmunoassayed using the hTSH antiserum and hTSH for iodination distributed by the National Pituitary Agency. For the RIA standard curve, the hTSH reference preparation was concentrated from a serum wwith undetectable hTSH in order to correct for recovery and to control for nonspecific effects. The percentage of serum hTSH extracted from 2.5 ml serum with the concentration procedure was 76.6 +- 3.4% (mean +- SD). The coefficient of correlation between serum hTSH, determined with the concentration procedure, and serum hTSH determined without was 0.979 (P < 0.001). Over 95% of normal adult men and women had detectable levels of serum hTSH, ranging from < 0.56 to 4.0 μU/ml. The mean of detectable serum hTSH levels in normal adult women (n = 11) was 1.54 +- 1.03 μU/ml (mean +- SD) and in normal men (n = 9) was 2.02 +- 1.15 μU/ml (mean +- SD). Clinically hyperthyroid patients with diffuse and nodular toxic goiters (n = 8) and patients with hypothyroidism secondary to pituitary disease (n = 6), four of whom were taking replacement doses of thyroid hormone, had undetectable serum hTSH levels. Serum hTSH in patients with primary hypothyroidism uniformly exceeded the normal range. This hTSH concentrating procedure enhances the effective sensitivity and, therefore, the clinical utility of the RIA for hTSH in serum

  16. Serum lipids in hypothyroidism: Our experience

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Archana; Lal, Ashok Kumar

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine whether the screening of lipid profile is justified in patients with hypothyroidism we estimated serum lipids in cases having different levels of serum TSH. 60 patients of hypothyroidism in the age group of 20 to 60 yrs were studied for thyroid profile over a period of one year. On the basis of serum TSH level the cases were divided into three groups: In the first group TSH concentration was 8.8±2.99 μlU/ml, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 8.8±1.07, whereas serum total chol...

  17. Acetaminophen overdose associated with double serum concentration peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Papazoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic–antipyretic medication in the United States. Acetaminophen overdose, a frequent cause of drug toxicity, has been recognized as the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis. N-Acetylcysteine is the recommended antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Despite evidence on the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of hepatic injury, controversy persists about the optimal duration of the therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 65-year-old male with acetaminophen overdose and opioid co-ingestion who developed a second peak in acetaminophen serum levels after completing the recommended 21-hour intravenous N-acetylcysteine protocol and when the standard criteria for monitoring drug levels was achieved. Prolongation of N-acetylcysteine infusion beyond the standard protocol, despite a significant gap in treatment, was critical for successful avoidance of hepatotoxicity. Delay in acetaminophen absorption may be associated with a second peak in serum concentration following an initial declining trend, especially in cases of concomitant ingestion of opioids. In patients with acetaminophen toxicity who co-ingest other medications that may potentially delay gastric emptying or in those with risk factors for delayed absorption of acetaminophen, we recommend close monitoring of aminotransferase enzyme levels, as well as trending acetaminophen concentrations until undetectable before discontinuing the antidote therapy.

  18. Anion Gap Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/aniongapbloodtest.html Anion Gap Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Anion Gap Blood Test? An anion gap blood test is a way ...

  19. Determination of strong ion gap in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Pamela K; Bailey, Dennis B; Gannon, Kristi M

    2012-08-01

    To determine and compare reference intervals of the strong ion gap (SIG) in a group of healthy dogs determined with 2 different equations. Prospective observational study. Tertiary referral and teaching hospital. Fifty-four healthy dogs. None. Serum biochemistry and blood gas analyses were performed for each dog. From these values, SIG was calculated using 2 different equations: SIG(1) = SID(a) {[Na (+)] + [K(+)] - [Cl(-)]+ [2 × Ca(2+)] + [2 × Mg(2+)] - [L-lactate]}- SID(e) {TCO(2) + A(-)} and SIG(2) = [albumin] × 4.9-anion gap. Reference intervals were established for each SIG equation using the mean ± 1.96 × standard deviation (SD). For SIG(1), the median was 7.13 mEq/L (range, 1.05-11.30 mEq/L) and the derived reference interval was 1.85-10.61 mEq/L. Median SIG(2) was -0.22 mEq/L (range, -5.34-6.61 mEq/L) and the mean SIG(2) was -0.09 mEq/L (95% confidence interval for the mean, -0.82-0.65 mEq/L). The derived reference interval was -5.36-5.18 mEq/L. The results of the SIG calculations were significantly different (P SIG yielded significantly different results and cannot be used interchangeably. The authors believe SIG(2) to be a more accurate reflection of acid-base status in healthy dogs, and recommend that this calculation be used for future studies. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  20. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of fatty liver and relations with body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Young Deog; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kwon, K. H.; Kim, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic fatty infiltration appears as an area of increased echogenicity. And many factors concerned to fatty infiltration. With 65 cases of fatty liver and 42 cases of normal group, we analyzed fatty liver with grading and attempt to find relations between grade of fatty liver and levels of body index, serum triglyceride, and serum lipid. And compared fatty liver with normal control group. Patients with fatty liver are higher percentage of supra-normal value in body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride than normal control group. As fatty infiltration progressed, serum lipid, serum trig-lyceride and body index are also increased. Conclusively ultrasonographic examination of liver with serum triglyceride, serum lipid, and body index are simple method, useful follow-up examination of fatty liver, and preventive routine check-up of chronic liver disease

  1. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, Birgit; Petersen, S

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between bone mineral content...... content was measured at term (mean gestational age 41 weeks) by dual energy x ray absorptiometry and corrected for body size. RESULTS: Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly negatively associated with serum phosphate (p mineral content was not associated with mean serum alkaline...... and serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate were measured at weekly intervals during admission in 108 premature infants of gestational age below 32 weeks (mean (SD) gestational age 29 (2) weeks; mean (SD) birth weight 1129 (279) g). Bone mineral...

  2. Development of Multidimensional Gap Conductance model using Virtual Link Gap Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Chan; Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Dae Ho; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Sun Ki; Koo, Yang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The gap conductance that determines temperature gradient between pellet and cladding can be quite sensitive to gap thickness. For instance, once the gap size increases up to several micrometers in certain region, difference of pellet surface temperatures increases up to 100 Kelvin. Therefore, iterative thermo-mechanical coupled analysis is required to solve temperature distribution throughout pellet and cladding. Recently, multidimensional fuel performance codes have been being developed in the advanced countries to evaluate thermal behavior of fuel for off normal conditions and DBA(design based accident) conditions using the Finite Element Method (FEM). FRAPCON-FRAPTRAN code system, which is well known as the verified and reliable code, incorporates 1D thermal module and multidimensional mechanical module. In this code, multidimensional gap conductance model is not applied. ALCYONE developed by CEA introduces equivalent heat convection coefficient that represents multidimensional gap conductance as a function of gap thickness. BISON, which is multidimensional fuel performance code developed by INL, owns multidimensional gap conductance model using projected thermal contact. In general, thermal contact algorithm is nonlinear calculation which is expensive approach numerically. The gap conductance model for multi-dimension is difficult issue in terms of convergence and nonlinearity because gap conductance is function of gap thickness which depends on mechanical analysis at each iteration step. In this paper, virtual link gap (VLG) element has been proposed to resolve convergence issue and nonlinear characteristic of multidimensional gap conductance. In terms of calculation accuracy and convergence efficiency, the proposed VLG model was evaluated. LWR fuel performance codes should incorporate thermo-mechanical loop to solve gap conductance problem, iteratively. However, gap conductance in multidimensional model is difficult issue owing to its nonlinearity and

  3. Geology of the Wallula Gap Area, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.N.; Snow, M.G.; Fecht, K.R.

    1981-12-01

    This study focuses on the structure and stratigraphy of an 80-km 2 area at the southern margin of the Pasco Basin in Wallula Gap. Field stratigraphy, petrography, natural remanent magnetism, and major-element chemistry indicate that the tholeiitic basalt flows of the Wallula Gap area correlate with units of the Grande Ronde, Wanapum, and Saddle Mountains Formations of the Yakima Subgroup of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Flows of the Frenchman Springs, Umatilla, Pomona, Elephant Mountain, and Ice Harbor Mmebers are present in the area. The Frenchman Springs Member exposed in the Wallula Gap is more than 185 m thick and consists of eight to nine flows. Its thickness and possible contemporaneous structural deformation apparently prevented emplacement of both the Roza and Priest Rapids Members at this locality. Structural uplift of the Horse Heaven Hills began prior to extrusion of the Pomona flow. Both the Pomona and Elephant Mountain Members thin and pinch out over the crest of the uplift near Mound Pond. The Ice Harbor flow was apparently confined to the basin north of the Horse Heaven uplift, but an exposure at Mound Pond suggests it flowed through Wallula Gap as an intracanyon flow. The Wallula Gap fault zone trends N65 0 W and can be traced for at least 11 km along the north flank of the Horse Heaven Hills uplift. Where the fault intersects the Olympic-Wallowa Lineament at Van Sycle Canyon 8 km east of Wallula Gap, it is a broad zone of normal faulting, 300 m wide, with as much as 310 m of displacement of the basalt stratigraphy. Two faults occur in the northern portion of Van Sycle Canyon and define a graben trending N45 0 W. A third fault, roughly parallel to the Wallula Gap fault, transects the The Nub and offsets 14 m of Ice Harbor basalt

  4. Enhanced Andreev reflection in gapped graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Leyla; Zareyan, Malek

    2012-08-01

    We theoretically demonstrate unusual features of superconducting proximity effect in gapped graphene that presents a pseudospin symmetry-broken ferromagnet with a net pseudomagnetization. We find that the presence of a band gap makes the Andreev conductance of graphene superconductor/pseudoferromagnet (S/PF) junction to behave similar to that of a graphene ferromagnet-superconductor junction. The energy gap ΔN can enhance the pseudospin inverted Andreev conductance of S/PF junction to reach a limiting maximum value for ΔN≫μ, which depending on the bias voltage can be larger than the value for the corresponding junction with no energy gap. We further demonstrate a damped-oscillatory behavior for the local density of states of the PF region of S/PF junction and a long-range crossed Andreev reflection process in PF/S/PF structure with antiparallel alignment of pseudomagnetizations of PFs, which confirm that, in this respect, the gapped normal graphene behaves like a ferromagnetic graphene.

  5. Treefall Gap Mapping Using Sentinel-2 Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Barton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Proper knowledge about resources in forest management is fundamental. One of the most important parameters of forests is their size or spatial extension. By determining the area of treefall gaps inside the compartments, a more accurate yield can be calculated and the scheduling of forestry operations could be planned better. Several field- and remote sensing-based approaches are in use for mapping but they provide only static measurements at high cost. The Earth Observation satellite mission Sentinel-2 was put in orbit as part of the Copernicus programme. With the 10-m resolution bands, it is possible to observe small-scale forestry operations like treefall gaps. The spatial extension of these gaps is often less than 200 m2, thus their detection can only be done on sub-pixel level. Due to the higher temporal resolution of Sentinel-2, multiple observations are available in a year; therefore, a time series evaluation is possible. The modelling of illumination can increase the accuracy of classification in mountainous areas. The method was tested on three deciduous forest sites in the Börzsöny Mountains in Hungary. The area evaluation produced less than 10% overestimation with the best possible solutions on the sites. The presented work shows a low-cost method for mapping treefall gaps which delivers annual information about the gap area in a deciduous forest.

  6. Trunnion Collar Removal Machine - Gap Analysis Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing the trunnion collar removal machine against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards can not fully meet these requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Trunnion Collar Removal Machine Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 15]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements for the trunnion collar removal machine are provided in the gap analysis table (Appendix A, Table 1). Because the trunnion collar removal machine is credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the trunnion collar removal machine performs required safety functions and meets performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis tables supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed

  7. Joint diseases: from connexins to gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Henry J; Qu, Roy W; Genetos, Damian C

    2017-12-19

    Connexons form the basis of hemichannels and gap junctions. They are composed of six tetraspan proteins called connexins. Connexons can function as individual hemichannels, releasing cytosolic factors (such as ATP) into the pericellular environment. Alternatively, two hemichannel connexons from neighbouring cells can come together to form gap junctions, membrane-spanning channels that facilitate cell-cell communication by enabling signalling molecules of approximately 1 kDa to pass from one cell to an adjacent cell. Connexins are expressed in joint tissues including bone, cartilage, skeletal muscle and the synovium. Indicative of their importance as gap junction components, connexins are also known as gap junction proteins, but individual connexin proteins are gaining recognition for their channel-independent roles, which include scaffolding and signalling functions. Considerable evidence indicates that connexons contribute to the function of bone and muscle, but less is known about the function of connexons in other joint tissues. However, the implication that connexins and gap junctional channels might be involved in joint disease, including age-related bone loss, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, emphasizes the need for further research into these areas and highlights the therapeutic potential of connexins.

  8. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  9. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Gabriele; Giordano, Alessia; Pezzia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs.......Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs....

  10. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan

  11. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone ... chloroquine are probably mediated via the generation of free radicals. ... Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Groups.

  12. Serum bicarbonate and dehydration severity in gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Narchi, H.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of bicarbonate was measured in serum samples from 106 children with gastroenteritis and dehydration. A concentration less than 22 mmol/l was more common in children with severe dehydration, but the magnitude of bicarbonate reduction was not significantly different with increasing degrees of dehydration. Doctors should not rely on the serum bicarbonate concentration when assessing fluid deficit.



  13. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l [fr

  14. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l.

  15. On the Feasibility of Gap Detection of Power Transformer Partial Discharge UHF Signals: Gap Propagation Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxing Zhang; Guozhi Zhang; Yalong Li; Jian Zhang; Rui Huang

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the transformer electromagnetic gap propagation characteristics. The influence of gap size is also analyzed, and the results experimentally verified. The obtained results indicated that the gap propagation characteristics of electromagnetic wave signals radiated by the partial discharge (PD) source in different directions are substantially different. The intensity of the electromagnetic wave in the gap reaches a maximum at a gap height of 1 cm; and inside the gap, the inte...

  16. Blood Transfusion, Serum Ferritin, and Iron in Hemodialysis Patients in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouegnigan Rerambiah, Leonard; Essola Rerambiah, Laurence; Mbourou Etomba, Armel; Mouguiama, Rose Marlène; Issanga, Phanie Brunelle; Biyoghe, Axel Sydney; Batchilili, Batchelili; Akone Assembe, Sylvestre; Djoba Siawaya, Joel Fleury

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. There is no data analyzing the outcome of blood transfusions and oral iron therapy in patients with kidneys failure in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aimed to fill that gap and assess the value of ferritin in the diagnosis of iron overload and deficiency. Design. From January to February 2012, we prospectively studied 85 hemodialysis patients (78% of males and 22% of females aged 20 to 79 years) attending the Gabonese National Hemodialysis Centre. Results. Correlation studies showed (a) a strong positive linear relationship between the number of blood transfusions and high serum ferritin in hemodialysis patient (Spearman r : 0.74; P value: 0.0001); (b) a weak association between the number of blood transfusions and serum iron concentrations (Spearman r : 0.32; P value: 0.04); (c) a weak association between serum ferritin and serum iron (Spearman r : 0.32; P value: 0.003). Also, the strength of agreement beyond chance between the levels of ferritin and iron in the serum was poor (κ = 0.14). The prevalence of iron overload was 10.6%, whereas the prevalence of iron deficiency was 2.3%, comparing (1) patients with a maximum of one transfusion not on iron therapy; (2) patients with a maximum of one transfusion on iron therapy; (3) polytransfused patients not on iron therapy; and (4) polytransfused patients on oral iron therapy. The “Kruskal-Wallis test” showed that ferritin levels varied significantly between the groups (P value: 0.0001). Conclusion. Serum ferritin is not reliable as a marker of iron overload. For patients undergoing regular transfusion we recommend routine serum ferritin measurement and yearly measurement of LIC. PMID:25685597

  17. Effects of serum phosphorus on vascular calcification in a healthy, adult population: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Kristin; Logomarsino, John V

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease has been associated with elevated serum phosphorus levels, which have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. This is commonly seen in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population where studies have shown that high phosphorus levels cause coronary artery calcification. Although studies have independently associated vascular stiffness and serum phosphorus in those with and without CKD, there are fewer data in individuals without CKD. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to analyze whether serum phosphorus levels are associated with cardiovascular calcification in healthy individuals. A systematic review of the literature that was conducted revealed 10 articles, all cross-sectional studies, that met eligibility criteria. These criteria were peer-reviewed studies on a healthy, adult population written in the English language. Studies lacking data on serum phosphorus and measured to assess its association with vascular calcification were excluded. Studies on subjects with CKD, other chronic diseases, or on children were also excluded. Of the 10 studies located, 8 indicated an association between serum phosphorus and vascular calcification. One study did not indicate an association. One study indicated a statistically significant association between serum phosphorus and vascular calcification prevalence, but not incidence. Studies were limited since no randomized controlled trials were available. This systematic review generates gaps in research. Due to considerable amounts of phosphorus additives in the food supply, there may be a connection to dietary phosphorus and vascular calcification. Additionally, phosphorus binders may assist in the prevention of vascular calcification but have not been studied in a healthy population. Further study on both dietary phosphorus restriction and phosphorus binders is needed. While 8 out of 10 cross-sectional studies found an association in this systematic review, the topic of vascular

  18. Serum lipids in hypothyroidism: Our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Archana; Lal, Ashok Kumar

    2006-09-01

    In order to determine whether the screening of lipid profile is justified in patients with hypothyroidism we estimated serum lipids in cases having different levels of serum TSH. 60 patients of hypothyroidism in the age group of 20 to 60 yrs were studied for thyroid profile over a period of one year. On the basis of serum TSH level the cases were divided into three groups: In the first group TSH concentration was 8.8±2.99 μlU/ml, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 8.8±1.07, whereas serum total cholesterol and LDL-chol levels were 196±37.22 and 126±29.17 mg/dl respectively. The statistical analysis of these two groups showed a significant correlation between raised TSH levels and serum total cholesterol and LDL-chol (Phypothyrodism is associated with changes in lipid profile.

  19. Non-metallic gage for gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, Hideo.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a non-metallic gage for detecting a gap which can not be seen from the out side such as a gap between a water pipe and fuel rods without damaging an objective material as to whether the gap is formed within a standard value or not. The gage is made of a synthetic resin, for example, polyacetal having such a hardness as not damaging the objective material and endurable to repeating flexure upon use. The gage comprises a short gage portion having a predetermined standard thickness and an flexible extended connection portion reduced in the thickness. Provision of the extended connection portion enables wide range flexure thereof such as ±60deg relative to insertion direction during insertion operation upon testing to solve a drawback in the prior art such as worry of breakage of the gage, thereby enabling to conduct inspection rapidly at high reliability. (N.H.)

  20. Uncertainty, probability and information-gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Haim, Yakov

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses two main ideas. First, we focus on info-gap uncertainty, as distinct from probability. Info-gap theory is especially suited for modelling and managing uncertainty in system models: we invest all our knowledge in formulating the best possible model; this leaves the modeller with very faulty and fragmentary information about the variation of reality around that optimal model. Second, we examine the interdependence between uncertainty modelling and decision-making. Good uncertainty modelling requires contact with the end-use, namely, with the decision-making application of the uncertainty model. The most important avenue of uncertainty-propagation is from initial data- and model-uncertainties into uncertainty in the decision-domain. Two questions arise. Is the decision robust to the initial uncertainties? Is the decision prone to opportune windfall success? We apply info-gap robustness and opportunity functions to the analysis of representation and propagation of uncertainty in several of the Sandia Challenge Problems

  1. Note on Hartman effect in gapped graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahani, D.

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript the effect of an opening gap on the dwell time corresponding to the electronic tunneling in graphene is explored. It is shown that tunneling time of quasiparticles in passing through junctions of gapped graphene as well as pure flakes is not independent of the barrier thickness and therefore Hartman effect is not observed due to tunneling of relativistic electrons with a finite effective mass in graphene. The numerical results also reveal that the traversal time in gapped graphene is equal to the traversal time in absence of the barrier for a broad range of incident energy. It is also found that the origin of the problem of Hartman effect could be explained in terms of an average-constant behavior of the probability density of the electronic wave under the barrier

  2. Rapidity gap survival in enhanced Pomeron scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostapchenko, Sergey [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Moscow State University, D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe-Universitat, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    We apply the phenomenological Reggeon field theory framework to investigate rapidity gap survival (RGS) probability for diffractive dijet production in proton-proton collisions. In particular, we study in some detail rapidity gap suppression due to elastic rescatterings of intermediate partons in the underlying parton cascades, described by enhanced (Pomeron-Pomeron interaction) diagrams. We demonstrate that such contributions play a subdominant role, compared to the usual, so-called ''eikonal'', rapidity gap suppression due to elastic rescatterings of constituent partons of the colliding protons. On the other hand, the overall RGS factor proves to be sensitive to color fluctuations in the proton. Hence, experimental data on diffractive dijet production can be used to constrain the respective model approaches. (orig.)

  3. Photonic band gaps of porous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, R.; Sigalas, M. M.; Subramania, G.; Soukoulis, C. M.; Ho, K.-M.

    2000-01-01

    Colloidal inverse photonic crystals composed of ordered lattices of air spheres in a high dielectric background are found to have three-dimensional photonic gaps for face-centered cubic, hexgaonal close-packed, and double hexagonal close-packed stacking sequences. Conditions for the occurrence of the complete gap are a sufficient dielectric contrast and a geometry near close packed. Although the lower pseudogaps of these stacking sequences differ, the lowest stop band in the stacking direction is insensitive to the stacking sequence; hence their experimental reflection should be similar. Transmission calculations with structural disorder show the lower pseudogap is relatively unaffected but the higher gap is very difficult to observe with moderate disorder. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  4. Sustainability Tools Inventory - Initial Gaps Analysis | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report identifies a suite of tools that address a comprehensive set of community sustainability concerns. The objective is to discover whether "gaps" exist in the tool suite’s analytic capabilities. These tools address activities that significantly influence resource consumption, waste generation, and hazard generation including air pollution and greenhouse gases. In addition, the tools have been evaluated using four screening criteria: relevance to community decision making, tools in an appropriate developmental stage, tools that may be transferrable to situations useful for communities, and tools with requiring skill levels appropriate to communities. This document provides an initial gap analysis in the area of community sustainability decision support tools. It provides a reference to communities for existing decision support tools, and a set of gaps for those wishing to develop additional needed tools to help communities to achieve sustainability. It contributes to SHC 1.61.4

  5. LHC Abort Gap Filling by Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, Stéphane David; Shaposhnikova, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Safe operation of the LHC beam dump relies on the possibility of firing the abort kicker at any moment during beam operation. One of the necessary conditions for this is that the number of particles in the abort gap should be below some critical level defined by quench limits. Various scenarios can lead to particles filling the abort gap. Time scales associated with these scenarios are estimated for injection energy and also coast where synchrotron radiation losses are not negligible for uncaptured particle motion. Two cases are considered, with RF on and RF off. The equilibrium distribution of lost particles in the abort gap defines the requirements for maximum tolerable relative loss rate and as a consequence the minimum acceptable longitudinal lifetime of the proton beam in collision.

  6. Widening the Gap: Pre-University Gap Years and the "Economy of Experience"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Embarking upon a pre-university gap year is an increasingly popular option among British students. Drawing on Brown et al.'s work on positional conflict theory and the increased importance of the "economy of experience", this paper seeks to explore this growing popularity and argues that the gap year's enhanced profile raises important…

  7. Canopy gap edge determination and the importance of gap edges for plant diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Salvador-Van Eysenrode

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Canopy gaps, i.e. openings in the forest cover caused by the fall of structural elements, are considered to be important for the maintenance of diversity and for the forest cycle. A gap can be considered as a young forest patch in the forest matrix, composed of interior surrounded by an edge, both enclosed by a perimeter. Much of the attention has been focused on the gap interior. However, at gap edges the spectrum of regeneration opportunities for plants may be larger than in the interior. Although definitions of gap are still discussed, any definition can describe it in an acceptable way, if justified, but defining edges is complicated and appropriate descriptors should be used. A method to determine gap interior and edge, using light as a descriptor, is presented with an example of gaps from a beech forest (Fagus sylvatica in Belgium. Also, the relevance and implications of gap edges for plant diversity and calculation of forest turnover is discussed.

  8. Superconducting gap anomaly in heavy fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, G.C.; Ojha, M.S.; Behera, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    The heavy fermion system (HFS) is described by the periodic Anderson model (PAM), treating the Coulomb correlation between the f-electrons in the mean-field Hartree-Fock approximation. Superconductivity is introduced by a BCS-type pairing term among the conduction electrons. Within this approximation the equation for the superconducting gap is derived, which depends on the effective position of the energy level of the f-electrons relative to the Fermi level. The latter in turn depends on the occupation probability n f of the f-electrons. The gap equation is solved self-consistently with the equation for n f ; and their temperature dependences are studied for different positions of the bare f-electron energy level, with respect to the Fermi level. The dependence of the superconducting gap on the hybridization leads to a re-entrant behaviour with increasing strength. The induced pairing between the f-electrons and the pairing of mixed conduction and f-electrons due to hybridization are also determined. The temperature dependence of the hybridization parameter, which characterizes the number of electrons with mixed character and represents the number of heavy electrons is studied. This number is shown to be small. The quasi-particle density of states (DOS) shows the existence of a pseudo-gap due to superconductivity and the signature of a hybridization gap at the Fermi level. For the choice of the model parameters, the DOS shows that the HFS is a metal and undergoes a transition to the gap-less superconducting state. (author)

  9. Housing Instability and Children's Health Insurance Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Anne; Corman, Hope; Curtis, Marah A; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    To assess the extent to which housing instability is associated with gaps in health insurance coverage of preschool-age children. Secondary analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative study of children born in the United States in 2001, was conducted to investigate associations between unstable housing-homelessness, multiple moves, or living with others and not paying rent-and children's subsequent health insurance gaps. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potentially confounding factors. Ten percent of children were unstably housed at age 2, and 11% had a gap in health insurance between ages 2 and 4. Unstably housed children were more likely to have gaps in insurance compared to stably housed children (16% vs 10%). Controlling for potentially confounding factors, the odds of a child insurance gap were significantly higher in unstably housed families than in stably housed families (adjusted odds ratio 1.27; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.61). The association was similar in alternative model specifications. In a US nationally representative birth cohort, children who were unstably housed at age 2 were at higher risk, compared to their stably housed counterparts, of experiencing health insurance gaps between ages 2 and 4 years. The findings from this study suggest that policy efforts to delink health insurance renewal processes from mailing addresses, and potentially routine screenings for housing instability as well as referrals to appropriate resources by pediatricians, would help unstably housed children maintain health insurance. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The gender pay gap in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Debra Leaker

    2008-01-01

    Measuring differences between mens' and womens' earnings, presents estimates from ASHE, the LFS and the NES panel data setThe gender pay gap is a measure of the difference between the earnings of men and women. This article presents estimates of the gender pay gap from the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, the Labour Force Survey and the New Earnings Survey panel data set. It examines how different personal and labour market characteristics influence the earnings of men and women.The resul...

  11. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... theoretically and experimentally and the issue of finite size effects is addressed....

  12. Gendered Justice Gaps in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Mannergren Selimovic, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    , and reparations gaps-this article examines structural constraints for women to engage in shaping and implementing transitional justice, and unmasks transitional justice as a site for the long-term construction of the gendered post-conflict order. Thus, the gendered dynamics of peacebuilding and transitional...... justice have produced a post-conflict order characterized by gendered peace and justice gaps. Yet, we conclude that women are doing justice within the Bosnian-Herzegovina transitional justice project, and that their presence and participation is complex, multilayered, and constrained yet critical....

  13. Gribov gap equation at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Pais, Pablo; Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the Gribov gap equation at finite temperature is analyzed. The solutions of the gap equation (which depend explicitly on the temperature) determine the structure of the gluon propagator within the semi-classical Gribov approach. The present analysis is consistent with the standard confinement scenario for low temperatures, while for high enough temperatures, deconfinement takes place and a free gluon propagator is obtained. An intermediate regime in between the confined and free phases can be read off from the resulting gluon propagator, which appears to be closely related to partial deconfinement. (orig.)

  14. Gap states of charged soliton in polyacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Dingwei; Liu Jie; Fu Rouli

    1988-10-01

    By considering the electron interaction in polyacetylene, it is found that two gap states in charged solitons of trans-polyacetylene exist: one is deep level, another is shallow level. The deep one shifts 0.23 ev down (for positive soliton) or up (for negative soliton) from the center of the gap; while the shallow one is 0.06 ev under the bottom of conduction band (positive soliton) or above the top of valence band (negative soliton). These results agree with the absorption spectra of trans-polyacetylene. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  15. Gribov gap equation at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Pais, Pablo [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Valdivia (Chile); Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile); Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Insitutes, Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper the Gribov gap equation at finite temperature is analyzed. The solutions of the gap equation (which depend explicitly on the temperature) determine the structure of the gluon propagator within the semi-classical Gribov approach. The present analysis is consistent with the standard confinement scenario for low temperatures, while for high enough temperatures, deconfinement takes place and a free gluon propagator is obtained. An intermediate regime in between the confined and free phases can be read off from the resulting gluon propagator, which appears to be closely related to partial deconfinement. (orig.)

  16. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  17. Gas Flow Across Gaps in Protoplanetary Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Lubow, Steve H.; D'Angelo, Gennaro

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the gas accretion flow through a planet-produced gap in a protoplanetary disk. We adopt the alpha disk model and ignore effects of planetary migration. We develop a semi-analytic, one-dimensional model that accounts for the effects of the planet as a mass sink and also carry out two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of a planet embedded in a disk. The predictions of the mass flow rate through the gap based on the semi-analytic model generally agree with the hydrodynamical simu...

  18. Security Gaps In Authentication Factor Credentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj A. Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Authentication factors refer to user login credentials that a user supplies to an authentication process for it to decide whether to grant or deny access. While two-factor and three-factor authentication generally provides better security than one-factor authentication the aim of this paper is to review security in individual authentication factor credentials that are in use nowadays. These credentials will be discussed in factor categories knowledge factor possession factor and inherence factor. The paper details current security gaps and some novel approaches to diminish the gaps in these authentication factors. We believe that our recommendations will inspire development of better authentication credentials and systems.

  19. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence.

  20. The public sector pay gap in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Raffaela

    2010-01-01

    I investigate the public-private pay gap using Italian microdata covering the period 1980-2006. Even after controlling for observable characteristics of the labour force, I find a positive wage premium for the public sector, almost negligible during the eighties and averaging at about 12 percent in the period 1993-2006. While the pay gap for women and workers in southern regions turns out to be higher than the average in the whole sample period, the greater advantage from working in the publi...

  1. Closing the gap between formalism and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole Ravn

    2008-01-01

    A common problem in learning mathematics concerns the gap between, on the one hand, doing the formalisms and calculations of abstract mathematics and, on the other hand, applying these in a specific contextualized setting for example the engineering world. The skills acquired through problem......-based learning (PBL), in the special model used at Aalborg University, Denmark, may give us some idea of how to bridge this gap. Through an investigation of a series of examples of student projects concerning the application of mathematical subjects-such as matrices, differential equations, cluster analysis...

  2. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  3. Serum gonadotropins levels in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertogh, R. De; Vankrieken, L.; Wolter, R.; Vliet, G. Van

    1989-01-01

    The complex changes in serum LH and FSH levels from infancy to adulthood are diversely evaluated by radioimmunoassays or bioassays. The relative lack of sensitivity and specificity of radioimmunoassay, using polyclonal antibodies, could possibly be overcome by new immunoradiometric assays, using specific antibodies to LH and FSH. Significant differences were indeed observed between radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. During the prepubertal period, LH levels, measured by the immunoradiometric assays, were below the sensitivity of the method in the majority of the samples. LH levels were, however, well detectable when measured with radioimmunoassay, showing the heterogeneity of circulating LH structures. At the onset of puberty, LH levels increased at least 3 to 4 times in both sexes, when measured with immunoradiometric assays, whereas their increase was only 20 to 60% with the radioimmunoassays. FSH levels remained well detectable in the prepubertal period whether measured by immunoradiometric or radioimmunoassays. At pubertal onset, FSH increase in both sexes was more important in the immunoradiometric assays. The results obtained with immunoradiometric assays give a better insight into the quantitative and qualitative function of the gonadotropes during childhood. The almost complete absence of LH during the prepubertal period and the steep increase at the onset of puberty better reflects the reported data obtained with bioassays. The persistance of significant levels of FSH in the prepubertal ages, and the lesser increase at the onset of puberty, when compared with LH, illustrates that the individual regulation of LH and FSH secretion vary over time and is influenced by developmental factors. (author)

  4. Increasing gap junctional coupling: a tool for dissecting the role of gap junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Haugan, Ketil; Stahlhut, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Much of our current knowledge about the physiological and pathophysiological role of gap junctions is based on experiments where coupling has been reduced by either chemical agents or genetic modification. This has brought evidence that gap junctions are important in many physiological processes....... In a number of cases, gap junctions have been implicated in the initiation and progress of disease, and experimental uncoupling has been used to investigate the exact role of coupling. The inverse approach, i.e., to increase coupling, has become possible in recent years and represents a new way of testing...... the role of gap junctions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge obtained with agents that selectively increase gap junctional intercellular coupling. Two approaches will be reviewed: increasing coupling by the use of antiarrhythmic peptide and its synthetic analogs...

  5. Correlation of Serum Magnesium with Serum Parathormone Levels in Patients on Regular Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradaran Azar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT is a common, important, and treatable complication of end-stage renal disease. This study was conducted to investigate the role of serum magnesium (Mg in regulating the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH by the parathyroid gland in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Pre-dialysis serum levels of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, Mg, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, intact serum PTH (iPTH, serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25-OH Vit D and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3 were measured. The Urea Reduction Rate as well as duration and dosage of HD treatment were noted. Our study did not show any significant correlation between serum Mg levels and duration of HD treatment, levels of serum ALP, and plasma HCO3, Ca and P. An inverse correlation, albeit insignificant, was found between the serum Mg levels and iPTH (r=-0.30 p=0.079; also, a significant positive correlation was found between serum Mg levels and serum 25-OH Vit D levels (r= 0.40 p= 0.009. Our findings are in agreement with previous data, which suggest that factors other than serum Mg are more important in the regulation of PTH secretion in HD patients. A positive and strong association between serum Mg with 25-OH Vit D needs to be studied in greater detail.

  6. Mechanics of Fluid-Filled Interstitial Gaps. II. Gap Characteristics in Xenopus Embryonic Ectoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Debanjan; Parent, Serge E; Winklbauer, Rudolf

    2017-08-22

    The ectoderm of the Xenopus embryo is permeated by a network of channels that appear in histological sections as interstitial gaps. We characterized this interstitial space by measuring gap sizes, angles formed between adjacent cells, and curvatures of cell surfaces at gaps. From these parameters, and from surface-tension values measured previously, we estimated the values of critical mechanical variables that determine gap sizes and shapes in the ectoderm, using a general model of interstitial gap mechanics. We concluded that gaps of 1-4 μm side length can be formed by the insertion of extracellular matrix fluid at three-cell junctions such that cell adhesion is locally disrupted and a tension difference between cell-cell contacts and the free cell surface at gaps of 0.003 mJ/m 2 is generated. Furthermore, a cell hydrostatic pressure of 16.8 ± 1.7 Pa and an interstitial pressure of 3.9 ± 3.6 Pa, relative to the central blastocoel cavity of the embryo, was found to be consistent with the observed gap size and shape distribution. Reduction of cell adhesion by the knockdown of C-cadherin increased gap volume while leaving intracellular and interstitial pressures essentially unchanged. In both normal and adhesion-reduced ectoderm, cortical tension of the free cell surfaces at gaps does not return to the high values characteristic of the free surface of the whole tissue. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wurtzite gallium phosphide has a direct-band gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assali, S.; Zardo, I.; Plissard, S.; Verheijen, M.A.; Haverkort, J.E.M.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Gallium Phosphide (GaP) with the normal cubic crystal structure has an indirect band gap, which severely limits the emission efficiency. We report the fabrication of GaP nanowires with pure hexagonal crystal structure and demonstrate the direct nature of the band gap. We observe strong

  8. SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saritha Gadicherla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Serum paraoxonase is an enzyme synthesised in the liver. It is known to prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting oxidation of lowdensity lipoprotein. Renal transplant recipients have increased tendency for developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Reduced activity of serum paraoxonase contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular complications in these patients. The aim of this study was to estimate serum paraoxonase activity in renal transplant recipients and compare it with healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 renal transplant recipients and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were taken for the study. Serum paraoxonase activity, blood urea, serum creatinine and uric acid were estimated in these groups. The serum paraoxonase activity was correlated with urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. RESULTS Serum paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to healthy controls. There was a negative correlation between paraoxonase activity and the levels of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. CONCLUSION In this study, the paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to controls. The increased cardiovascular disease in these patients could be due to reduced paraoxonase activity.

  9. Serum homocystein level in patients with scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarinia, Mohammadali; Shams, Mesbah; Kamali Sarvestani, Eskandar; Shenavande, Saeede; Khademalhosseini, Maryam; Khademalhosseini, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic connective tissue disease. In this study, we compared the serum Homocystein (Hcy) level between patients with SSc and normal control group. The current study was conducted to determine whether serum Hcy levels are elevated in SSc patients and whether there is any correlation between Hcy levels and RP, Gastro intestinal and lung involvement. Forty one patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SSc (39 females and 5 males) and Forty four community-based healthy individuals (sex and age matched) were enrolled in to the study. Serum Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate levels were determined. Thirty three patients (70.45%) had GI involvement, twenty two patients (50%) had lung involvement and twenty seven patients (61.36%) had Raynaud's phenomena. Mean serum Hcy level in control group was 22.78 ± 6.018 μmol/L and in case group was 19.43 ± 7.205 μmol/L, shows that the serum Hcy level in control group was significantly higher than patients (P = 0.020). Serum Hcy level is significantly lower in SSc patients than in control group. There is no statistically significant correlation between serum Hcy level and organ involvements.

  10. [Serum glycosaminoglycans in Graves' disease patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsz-Szczotka, Katarzyna B; Olczyk, Krystyna Z; Koźma, Ewa M; Komosińska-Vassev, Katarzyna B; Wisowski, Grzegorz R; Marcisz, Czesław

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the blood serum sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and hyaluronic acid (HA) concentration of Graves' disease patients before treatment and after attainment of the euthyroid state. The study was carried out on the blood serum obtained from 17 patients with newly recognised Graves' disease and from the same patients after attainment of the euthyroid state. Graves' patients had not any clinical symptoms neither of ophthalmopathy nor pretibial myxedema. GAGs were isolated from the blood serum by the multistage extraction and purification using papaine hydrolysis, alkali elimination, as well as cetylpyridium chloride binding. Total amount of GAGs was quantified by the hexuronic acids assay. HA content in obtained GAGs sample was evaluated by the ELISA method. Increased serum concentration of sulfated GAGs in non-treated Graves' disease patients was found. Similarly, serum HA level in untreated patients was significantly elevated. The attainment of euthyroid state was accompanied by the decreased serum sulfated GAGs level and by normalization of serum HA concentration. In conclusion, the results obtained demonstrate that the alterations of GAGs metabolism connected with Graves' disease can lead to systemic changes of the extracellular matrix properties.

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Asian and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Gains in math tended to be larger than in reading. Trends in closing achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were available from 2007 through 2009. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  12. Closing the Wage Gap. An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    This document comprises a report on international progress to close the "wage gap", the differential between the earnings of women and men. Information was gathered on pay equity activities from a survey of government agencies, trade unions, women's organizations, and international bodies. Almost all of the jurisdictions surveyed have…

  13. Quantifying the Gender Gap in Science Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Yarden, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 5,000 self-generated science-related K-12 students' questions, classified into seven science subjects, were used to quantitatively measure the gender gap in science interests and its change with age. In this data set, a difference between boys' and girls' science interests did not exist during early childhood, but increased over 20-fold by…

  14. Ethnicity and Gender Gaps in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirstine; Jones, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in academic performance and achievement have been of policy concern for decades--both interest in lower performance by girls in the areas of mathematics and science and, more recently, in boys' underperformance in most other academic areas. Much previous research has focused on gender gaps, while overlooking other factors that…

  15. EurepGAP certification for small producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der O.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of agriculture practitioners worldwide are smallholders. Compliance with market related standards, such as set by EurepGAP, is crucial for obtaining and maintaining international market access, particularly to the European Union. Private standards must allow for innovative and cost

  16. Benard convection in gaps and cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.

    1981-04-01

    The article contains two parts. In the first part a condensed review of the most striking phenomena in Benard convection in laterally confined fluid layers is given. In the second part recent experimental and theoretical work on Benard convection in gaps is presented an analysed. (orig.) [de

  17. Learning from Schools That Close Opportunity Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCour, Sarah E.; York, Adam; Welner, Kevin; Valladares, Michelle Renée; Kelley, Linda Molner

    2017-01-01

    The Schools of Opportunity Project recognizes public high schools that employ research-based practices to close opportunity gaps. The commended schools illustrate how school quality can and should be measured by far more than just test scores. In doing so, they offer exemplars and a path forward for the nation's schools. The selection criteria for…

  18. Measurement of plasma flows into tile gaps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dejarnac, Renaud; Komm, Michael; Stöckel, Jan; Pánek, Radomír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 382, č. 1 (2008), s. 31-34 ISSN 0022-3115 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100430602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak diagnostic * Gaps * Ion saturation current * Edge modeling * Sheaths Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.501, year: 2008

  19. Disentangling agronomic and economic yield gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Michiel; Morley, Tomas; Jongeneel, Roel; Ittersum, van Martin; Reidsma, Pytrik; Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    Despite its frequent use in policy discussions on future agricultural production, both the concept of the yield gap and its determinants are understood differently by economists and agronomists. This study provides a micro-level framework that disentangles and integrates agronomic and economic

  20. Gap junction diseases of the skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensel, M.A.M. van

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions are intercellular channels that allow the passage of water, ions, and small molecules. They are involved in quick, short-range messaging between cells and are found in skin, nervous tissue, heart, and muscle. An increasing number of hereditary skin disorders appear to be caused by

  1. The Earnings Gap between Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The size of the earnings gap between men and women has not changed substantially in recent years. The sustained earnings differential contrasts significantly with recent gains women have made in the job market. Several factors contribute to the wage differences: (1) The majority of women are in lower-paying occupations and lower-status jobs even…

  2. Enterprise Bargaining and the Gender Earnings Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Examination of the widening gender earnings gap in Australia indicates that women's wages continue to lag behind those of men. The main factor appears to be women's concentration in part-time work in enterprises where bargaining is less likely to occur. (JOW)

  3. Innovation gaps in Scandinavian rural tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette; Kwiatkowski, Grzegorz; Østervig Larsen, Martin

    2018-01-01

    © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group Drawing on primary data from a consumer survey (N = 2000), this study demonstrates a clear growth potential in rural tourism in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, which is, however, hampered by innovation gaps. At the conceptual level...

  4. The Racial School-Climate Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Education inequity is a persistent reality of American culture. As early as kindergarten, there are marked differences in academic performance between racial minority students and their peers. These differences are sustained as students progress through school. One aspect of students' social experience that may help to explain the gap is school…

  5. Bridging the Gap: Pracademics in Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ann Marie; Fulda, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In his seminal work "Bridging the Gap: Theory and Practice in Foreign Policy", Alexander George (1993) lamented the great divide between academia and the foreign policymaking community, arguing that greater interaction between scholars and policymakers would produce better policy. We share George's belief that scholars and practitioners each have…

  6. Bridging the semantic gap in sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoxin; Errico, James; Pan, Hao; Sezan, M. Ibrahim

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing current media management systems and the related applications is the so-called "semantic gap" between the rich meaning that a user desires and the shallowness of the content descriptions that are automatically extracted from the media. In this paper, we address the problem of bridging this gap in the sports domain. We propose a general framework for indexing and summarizing sports broadcast programs. The framework is based on a high-level model of sports broadcast video using the concept of an event, defined according to domain-specific knowledge for different types of sports. Within this general framework, we develop automatic event detection algorithms that are based on automatic analysis of the visual and aural signals in the media. We have successfully applied the event detection algorithms to different types of sports including American football, baseball, Japanese sumo wrestling, and soccer. Event modeling and detection contribute to the reduction of the semantic gap by providing rudimentary semantic information obtained through media analysis. We further propose a novel approach, which makes use of independently generated rich textual metadata, to fill the gap completely through synchronization of the information-laden textual data with the basic event segments. An MPEG-7 compliant prototype browsing system has been implemented to demonstrate semantic retrieval and summarization of sports video.

  7. The Wage Gap: Briefing Paper #1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    Women have made slow, steady progress in the labor market since 1979, but the wage gap has not narrowed significantly. This briefing paper updates a September 1987 paper based on "Male-Female Differences in Work Experience, Occupations, and Earnings: 1984" (Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, Series P-70, No. 10, issued in…

  8. A Theory of Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed; Nordman, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce uncertainty of the labour productivity of women in a competitive model of wage determination. We demonstrate that more qualified women are then offered much lower wages than men at the equilibrium. This result is consistent with the glass ceiling hypothesis according to which there exist larger gender wage gaps at the upper tail of the wage distribution.

  9. AIR GAP CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HYDROGENERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zaitsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report of the solving the actual problem of control the air gap in the hydrogenerators. The aim of the study was development of a computerized information-measuring system for measuring the air gap in the hydrogenator, which used two capacitive sensors with parallel coplanar electrodes, and the method of determining the shape of the envelope parameters hydrogenerator rotor poles relative to the center axis of rotation, using the measurement results of the air gap.In practical studies of the sensor circuit it has been shown that its use allows for the informative value of the sensor capacitance conversion function to obtain a high accuracy and resolution measurement with digital linearization of converting function of the sensor with use program utility. To determine the form deviations of the envelope line of the rotor pole from the ideal cylinder, which is one of the main structural defects of the technological errors as results the distortion of the shape of the air gap in the hydrogenator, when the machine was manufacture and assembly. It is proposed to describe the shape of the envelope to use a Fourier transform. Calculation of the coefficients of the Fourier series is performed using the method of least squares as the regression coefficients.Application of this method in processing the measuring data in a computerized information-measuring system the developed with the primary converter with coplanar parallel electrodes allowed attaining the high measurement accuracy and resolution informative in magnitude of the capacity.

  10. Yield gaps in Dutch arable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Vieira da Silva, Joao; Reidsma, Pytrik; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Arable farming systems in the Netherlands are characterized by crop rotations in which potato, sugar beet, spring onion, winter wheat and spring barley are the most important crops. The objectives of this study were to decompose crop yield gaps within such rotations into efficiency, resource and

  11. The deposit financing gap: Another Dutch disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, H.H.M.; Muysken, J.; Sleijpen, O.C.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades the Netherlands have experienced an increase in real-estate prices, accompanied by an increase in mortgages and a marked decline in household savings. As a consequence banks are faced with a large retail funding gap: outstanding mortgage debt is insufficiently matched by

  12. The deposit financing gap: another Dutch disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, H.H.M.; Muysken, J.; Sleijpen, O.C.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the last 2 decades, the Netherlands has experienced an increase in real-estate prices, accompanied by an increase in mortgages and a marked decline in household savings. As a consequence, banks are faced with a large retail funding gap: outstanding mortgage debt is insufficiently matched by

  13. Globalization and the gender wage gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostendorp, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    There are several theoretical reasons why globalization will have a narrowing as well as a widening effect on the gender wage gap, but little is known about the actual impact, except for some country studies. This study contributes to the literature in three respects. First, it is a large

  14. Bilayer graphene: gap tunability and edge properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Eduardo V; Santos, J M B Lopes dos; Peres, N M R; Guinea, F; Castro Neto, A H

    2008-01-01

    Bilayer graphene - two coupled single graphene layers stacked as in graphite - provides the only known semiconductor with a gap that can be tuned externally through electric field effect. Here we use a tight binding approach to study how the gap changes with the applied electric field. Within a parallel plate capacitor model and taking into account screening of the external field, we describe real back gated and/or chemically doped bilayer devices. We show that a gap between zero and midinfrared energies can be induced and externally tuned in these devices, making bilayer graphene very appealing from the point of view of applications. However, applications to nanotechnology require careful treatment of the effect of sample boundaries. This being particularly true in graphene, where the presence of edge states at zero energy - the Fermi level of the undoped system - has been extensively reported. Here we show that also bilayer graphene supports surface states localized at zigzag edges. The presence of two layers, however, allows for a new type of edge state which shows an enhanced penetration into the bulk and gives rise to band crossing phenomenon inside the gap of the biased bilayer system.

  15. The Reed Elsevier stock price gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, B.

    1995-01-01

    This is the report of a limited study on the structural stock price differences between Reed and Elsevier. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the problem area and to formulate and discuss several hypotheses regarding the causes of this gap. The research was performed by

  16. Phononic band gap structures as optimal designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use topology optimization to design phononic band gap structures. We consider 2D structures subjected to periodic loading and obtain the distribution of two materials with high contrast in material properties that gives the minimal vibrational response of the structure. Both in...

  17. Dispersion of coupled mode-gap cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lian, Jin; Sokolov, Sergei; Yuce, E.; Combrie, S.; de Rossi, A.; Mosk, Allard

    2015-01-01

    The dispersion of a coupled resonator optical waveguide made of photonic crystal mode-gap cavities is pronouncedly asymmetric. This asymmetry cannot be explained by the standard tight binding model. We show that the fundamental cause of the asymmetric dispersion is the inherent dispersive cavity

  18. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi

  19. Bots mind the social-technical gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.; Frank, L.E.; Beute, F.; de Kort, Y.A.W.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    Mobile workers experience the social-technical gap when moral dilemmas occur on communication platforms, and technology cannot adapt to social contexts on ethical matters. On messaging applications, bots are non-human team members and/or assistants that can aid mobile workers manage ethical

  20. Sustainability Tools Inventory Initial Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report identifies a suite of tools that address a comprehensive set of community sustainability concerns. The objective is to discover whether "gaps" exist in the tool suite’s analytic capabilities. These tools address activities that significantly influence resource consu...

  1. Soluble serum Klotho levels in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise Mariager; Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Brasen, Claus Lohman

    2013-01-01

    Klotho concentrations were determined in 120 healthy adults aged 19-66years. Blood samples were collected, and stored sera were assayed for Klotho according to age and gender. In addition several other clinical and laboratory characteristics were determined in the cohort and compared to the levels...... genders. Concentrations of serum Klotho were independently associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and body weight using TRF whereas serum Klotho concentrations were associated with age using the ELISA. CONCLUSION: Comparison of two different immunoassays for serum Klotho indicate...

  2. Modeling Serum Creatinine in Septic ICU Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Cortese, Giuliana; Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2004-01-01

    Serum creatinine is a metabolite assumed to be constantly produced by the normally functioning muscle mass and is a good measure for monitoring daily renal function in the intensive care unit (ICU). High serum creatinine levels or an abnormal departure from normal pre-disease basal levels....... The present work details the structure of a model describing observed creatinine serum concentration (CSC) variations, depending on the time-varying septic insult to renal function in ICU patients, as well as the estimation of its parameters. CSC determinations were routinely obtained from 12 patients...

  3. Leptin in first trimester pregnancy serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula; Pihl, Kasper; Krebs, Lone

    2009-01-01

    and its relation to fetal growth disturbances were examined in this study. The study is a case-control study with 36 small-for-gestational-age (SGA) (pregnancies and 108 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) (> or =5th percentile) pregnancies. The groups were matched by maternal age...... maternal BMI. There was no significant difference in maternal serum leptin concentrations between SGA and AGA pregnancies. In conclusion, SGA pregnancies are not associated with a lower maternal serum leptin concentration in first trimester. The maternal serum leptin concentration is largely determined...

  4. Motivation, expectations and the gender pay gap for UK graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud Chevalier

    2004-01-01

    Focussing on recent UK graduates, a wage gap of 12% is found. The unexplained component of the gap is small and a large fraction of the gap can be explained by subject choice, job characteristics, motivation and expectation variables. Motivation and expectations account for 44% of the explained gap, thus most studies over-estimate the unexplained component of the gender wage gap. Following stereotypes, women tend to be more altruistic and less career oriented than men, character traits that a...

  5. Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women who have had pre-eclampsia have a greater risk of developing hypertension, stroke and ischemic heart disease in later life. The etiology of pre-eclampsia remains unclear. Placental insufficiency plays a key role in the progression of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri.   Methods A case control study involving 200 primigravida (100 preeclamptic and 100 apparently healthy between the ages of 20 and 32 years attending General Hospital Owerri. Fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of serum selenium and serum calcium while membrane potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. The serum calcium was estimated using Randox Kit and serum selenium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Independent Student t test was used for statistical analysis.   Results The results revealed that membrane potential and serum selenium as well as serum calcium were significantly decreased in preeclampsia when compared with the controls, at p<0.05.   Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the decrease in membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. There may be a need for increasing the dietary intake of these essential trace metals during pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia in Owerri.

  6. Analytical isotachophoresis of lactate in human serum using dry film photoresist microfluidic chips compatible with a commercially available field-deployable instrument platform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smejkal, P.; Breadmore, M. C.; Guijt, R. M.; Foret, František; Bek, F.; Macka, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 803, NOV (2013), s. 135-142 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : isotachophoresis * microfluidics * fluorescence * indirect detection * serum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.517, year: 2013

  7. Harmonising Reference Intervals for Three Calculated Parameters used in Clinical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David; Koerbin, Gus; Potter, Julia M; Glasgow, Nicholas; West, Nic; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Cavanaugh, Juleen; Armbruster, David; Hickman, Peter E

    2016-08-01

    For more than a decade there has been a global effort to harmonise all phases of the testing process, with particular emphasis on the most frequently utilised measurands. In addition, it is recognised that calculated parameters derived from these measurands should also be a target for harmonisation. Using data from the Aussie Normals study we report reference intervals for three calculated parameters: serum osmolality, serum anion gap and albumin-adjusted serum calcium. The Aussie Normals study was an a priori study that analysed samples from 1856 healthy volunteers. The nine analytes used for the calculations in this study were measured on Abbott Architect analysers. The data demonstrated normal (Gaussian) distributions for the albumin-adjusted serum calcium, the anion gap (using potassium in the calculation) and the calculated serum osmolality (using both the Bhagat et al. and Smithline and Gardner formulae). To assess the suitability of these reference intervals for use as harmonised reference intervals, we reviewed data from the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia/Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (RCPA/AACB) bias survey. We conclude that the reference intervals for the calculated serum osmolality (using the Smithline and Gardner formulae) may be suitable for use as a common reference interval. Although a common reference interval for albumin-adjusted serum calcium may be possible, further investigations (including a greater range of albumin concentrations) are needed. This is due to the bias between the Bromocresol Green (BCG) and Bromocresol Purple (BCP) methods at lower serum albumin concentrations. Problems with the measurement of Total CO 2 in the bias survey meant that we could not use the data for assessing the suitability of a common reference interval for the anion gap. Further study is required.

  8. Maternal serum leptin concentration in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Soheilykhah

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Our data showed that serum leptin level was higher in GDM and had a positive correlation with insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that high leptin levels might be a risk factor for GDM and IGT in pregnant women.

  9. Autologous serum therapy in chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous serum therapy is a promising therapy for treatment resistant urticaria. This is useful in developing countries as this is economical option. Minimum instruments like centrifuge, syringe and needles are required for the procedure.

  10. METABOLITE CHARACTERIZATION IN SERUM SAMPLES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Metabonomics offers a distinct advantage over other tests as it can be ... Metabolic profiling in heart disease has also been successfully ... resonances of the small metabolites showing fingerprints of serum metabolomic profile (Figure. 3).

  11. Relationship between some serum electrolytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-02-03

    Feb 3, 2014 ... The effect of Trypanosoma brucei infection on changes in concentration of some serum electrolytes and the ... the modulatory responses of the autonomic nervous system ..... Concurrent hyponatremia and hypocalcemia have.

  12. Serum Prolactin in Diagnosis of Epileptic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies in databases and references concerning serum prolactin levels (PRL in patients with suspected seizures were rated for quality and analyzed by members of the Therapeutics Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Alteration of serum adropin level in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Gao, Bo; Wu, Zaigui; Wang, Hanzhi; Dong, Minyue

    2017-04-01

    To clarify the alterations in serum adropin and preptin concentrations in preeclampsia, we determined serum adropin and preptin levels in 29 women with normal pregnancy and 32 women with preeclampsia. We found that maternal age, body mass index and fetal gender were not significantly different between two groups; however, blood pressure, gestational age and neonatal birth weight were significantly different. Serum adropin levels were significantly increased in women with preeclampsia compared with those with normal pregnancy but there were no significant differences in preptin levels. An increase in maternal serum adropin level was found in preeclampsia, and this may be a compensation for pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum homocysteine levels in cerebrovascular accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Zongte, Zolianthanga; Shaini, L.; Debbarma, Asis; Singh, Th Bhimo; Devi, S. Bilasini; Singh, W. Gyaneshwar

    2008-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered an independent risk factor in the development of stroke. The present study was undertaken to evaluate serum homocysteine levels in patients with cerebrovascular accidents among the Manipuri population and to compare with the normal cases. Ninety-three cerebrovascular accident cases admitted in the hospital were enrolled for the study and twenty-seven age and sex matched individuals free from cerebrovascular diseases were taken as control group. Serum h...

  15. Serum Soluble Corin is Decreased in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Song, Yulin; Hu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Soluble corin was decreased in coronary heart disease. Given the connections between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, circulating corin might be a candidate marker of stroke risk. However, the association between circulating corin and stroke has not yet been studied in humans. Here, we aimed to examine the association in patients wtith stroke and community-based healthy controls. Four hundred eighty-one patients with ischemic stroke, 116 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 2498 healthy controls were studied. Serum soluble corin and some conventional risk factors of stroke were examined. Because circulating corin was reported to be varied between men and women, the association between serum soluble corin and stroke was evaluated in men and women, respectively. Patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had a significantly lower level of serum soluble corin than healthy controls in men and women (all P values, stroke than men in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin were also more likely to have ischemic (OR, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-5.44) and hemorrhagic (OR, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-31.02) stroke than women in the highest quartile. ORs of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly increased with the decreasing levels of serum soluble corin in men and women (all P values for trend, stroke compared with healthy controls. Our findings raise the possibility that serum soluble corin may have a pathogenic role in stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Equity gap? - Which equity gap? On the financing structure of Germany's Mittelstand

    OpenAIRE

    Bannier, Christina E.; Grote, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the financing structure of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Germany and questions whether an equity gap - or, more generally, a financing gap -exists. Reviewing the literature and available data sources, we find that financing constraints seem to affect, if at all, only a very small subgroup among highly growth-oriented firms. We do not detect any structural problems in average SME's capital structure. Rather, German Mittelstand firms appear to be non-growth or...

  17. The Gender Wage Gap: Does a Gender Gap in Reservation Wages Play a Part?

    OpenAIRE

    Caliendo, Marco; Lee, Wang-Sheng; Mahlstedt, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on re-examining the gender wage gap and the potential role that reservation wages play. Based on two waves of rich data from the IZA Evaluation Dataset Survey we examine the importance of gender differences in reservation wages to explain the gender gap in realized wages for a sample of newly unemployed individuals actively searching for a full-time job in Germany. The dataset includes measures for education, socio-demographics, labor market history, psychological factors a...

  18. Technetium-99m-Labeled Autologous Serum Albumin: A Personal-Exclusive Source of Serum Component

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuh-Feng; Chen, Yi-Chun; Li, Dian-Kun; Chuang, Mei-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Technetium-99m human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) is an important radiopharmaceutical required in nuclear medicine studies. However, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection remains a major safety concern. Autopreparation of serum component acquired from patient provides a “personal-exclusive” source for radiolabeling. This paper is to evaluate the practicality of on-site elusion and subsequent radiolabeling efficacy for serum albumin. Results showed that the autologous elute contained more...

  19. Flow Mode Magnetorheological Dampers with an Eccentric Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Tai Choi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes flow mode magnetorheological (MR dampers with an eccentric annular gap (i.e., a nonuniform annular gap. To this end, an MR damper analysis for an eccentric annular gap is constructed based on approximating the eccentric annular gap using a rectangular duct with a variable gap, as well as a Bingham-plastic constitutive model of the MR fluid. Performance of flow mode MR dampers with an eccentric gap was assessed analytically using both field-dependent damping force and damping coefficient, which is the ratio of equivalent viscous field-on damping to field-off damping. In addition, damper capabilities of flow mode MR dampers with an eccentric gap were compared to a concentric gap (i.e., uniform annular gap.

  20. Thermo-Structural Response Caused by Structure Gap and Gap Design for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermo-structural response of solid rocket motor nozzles is widely investigated in the design of modern rockets, and many factors related to the material properties have been considered. However, little work has been done to evaluate the effects of structure gaps on the generation of flame leaks. In this paper, a numerical simulation was performed by the finite element method to study the thermo-structural response of a typical nozzle with consideration of the structure gap. Initial boundary conditions for thermo-structural simulation were defined by a quasi-1D model, and then coupled simulations of different gap size matching modes were conducted. It was found that frictional interface treatment could efficiently reduce the stress level. Based on the defined flame leak criteria, gap size optimization was carried out, and the best gap matching mode was determined for designing the nozzle. Testing experiment indicated that the simulation results from the proposed method agreed well with the experimental results. It is believed that the simulation method is effective for investigating thermo-structural responses, as well as designing proper gaps for solid rocket motor nozzles.

  1. Comparison of GAP-3 and GAP-4 experiments with conduction freezing calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments GAP-3 and GAP-4 were performed at ANL to investigate the ability of molten fuel to penetrate downward through the narrow channels separating adjacent subassemblies during an LMFBR hypothetical core disruptive accident. Molten fuel-metal mixtures (81% UO 2 , 19% Mo) at an initial temperature of 3470 0 K generated by a thermite reaction were injected downward into 1 m long rectangular test sections (gap thickness = 0.43 cm, channel width = 20.3 cm) initially at 1170 0 K simulating the nominal Clinch River Breeder Reactor intersubassembly gap. In the GAP-3 test, a prolonged reaction time of approx. 15 s resulted in segregation of the metallic Mo and oxidic UO 2 constituents within the reaction vessel prior to injection. Consequently, Mo entered the test section first and froze, forming a complete plug at a penetration distance of 0.18 m. In GAP-4, the reaction time was reduced to approx. 3 s and the constituents remained well mixed upon injection with the result that the leading edge penetration distance increased to 0.35 m. Posttest examination of the cut-open test sections has revealed the existence of stable insulating crusts upon the underlying steel walls with melting and ablation of the walls only very localized

  2. Inception report and gap analysis. Boiler inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This inception and gap analysis report on boilers in Latvia, has been prepared in the framework of the 'Implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings: development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of building and inspection of boilers'. The report is the basis for the establishment of training of boiler inspectors; it develops a gap analysis for better understanding and estimating the number of installations in Latvia and develops suggestions for the institutional set up. In particular includes information on existing standard and regulation on boiler, suggestion for the content of the training material of experts for boiler inspections and a syllabus of the training course. A specific section is dedicated to the suggestion for certification system of trained boiler inspectors. (au)

  3. Gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Tatehiro; Murakami, Toshio; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Gunji, Shuichi; Kubo, Shin

    2013-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP: GAmma-ray burst Polarimeter), which had been almost handcrafted by scientists, has succeeded in working normally in interplanetary space, and in detecting the polarization of the gamma-ray from a mysterious astronomical object 'gamma-ray burst'. It is the first result of the detectors in the world exclusively aiming at detecting gamma-ray polarization. We mainly describe the hardware of our GAP equipment and show the method of preparing equipment to work in the cosmic space with a tight budget. The mechanical structure, the electronic circuits, the software on the equipment, the data analysis on the earth, and the scientific results gained by the observation just over one year, are presented after explaining the principle of gamma-ray polarization detection. Our design to protect equipment against mechanical shock and cosmic radiation may provide useful information for future preparation of compact satellite. (J.P.N.)

  4. Inception report and gap analysis. Boiler inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This inception and gap analysis report on boilers in Latvia, has been prepared in the framework of the 'Implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings: development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of building and inspection of boilers'. The report is the basis for the establishment of training of boiler inspectors; it develops a gap analysis for better understanding and estimating the number of installations in Latvia and develops suggestions for the institutional set up. In particular includes information on existing standard and regulation on boiler, suggestion for the content of the training material of experts for boiler inspections and a syllabus of the training course. A specific section is dedicated to the suggestion for certification system of trained boiler inspectors. (au)

  5. Bounded Gaps between Products of Special Primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ngai Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In their breakthrough paper in 2006, Goldston, Graham, Pintz and Yıldırım proved several results about bounded gaps between products of two distinct primes. Frank Thorne expanded on this result, proving bounded gaps in the set of square-free numbers with r prime factors for any r ≥ 2, all of which are in a given set of primes. His results yield applications to the divisibility of class numbers and the triviality of ranks of elliptic curves. In this paper, we relax the condition on the number of prime factors and prove an analogous result using a modified approach. We then revisit Thorne’s applications and give a better bound in each case.

  6. KNOWLEDGE GAPS IN ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österberg, Marie; Holmlund, Anders; Sunzel, Bo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate available knowledge and identify knowledge gaps within the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery, by systematically collecting and evaluating systematic reviews. Twelve specific domains were selected: surgical removal of teeth, antibiotic....... However, in all domains, the search revealed a large number of knowledge gaps. Also of concern was the lack of data regarding health economics and ethics. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, there is a need for well-conducted clinical research in the fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery........ RESULTS: In all, 1,778 abstracts were identified, of which 200 met the inclusion criteria. Forty-five systematic reviews were assessed as of high to moderate quality. The results disclosed some existing evidence in a few domains, such as surgical removal of teeth and implant survival after sinus lifts...

  7. Chemical potential and the gap equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huan; Yuan Wei; Chang Lei; Liu Yuxin; Klaehn, Thomas; Roberts, Craig D.

    2008-01-01

    In general, the kernel of QCD's gap equation possesses a domain of analyticity upon which the equation's solution at nonzero chemical potential is simply obtained from the in-vacuum result through analytic continuation. On this domain the single-quark number- and scalar-density distribution functions are μ independent. This is illustrated via two models for the gap equation's kernel. The models are alike in concentrating support in the infrared. They differ in the form of the vertex, but qualitatively the results are largely insensitive to the Ansatz. In vacuum both models realize chiral symmetry in the Nambu-Goldstone mode, and in the chiral limit, with increasing chemical potential, they exhibit a first-order chiral symmetry restoring transition at μ≅M(0), where M(p 2 ) is the dressed-quark mass function.

  8. Bridging the gap with flipped classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Topperzer, Martha

    the theoretical knowledge acquired during the course to their participation in the simulations. It is of pivotal importance that all students obtain hands-on experience during the sessions to reduce the theory-practice gap. The ongoing study has been pilot tested during three courses with participation of 90......Bridging the gap with flipped classroom Hanne Selberg, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Martha Topperzer, University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark Background and aims Consistent with the strategy of increasing digitization and learner-centred teaching models....... The debriefing allows for students to reflect on how they applied their knowledge in the concrete patient situation which in turn promotes a positive learning experience. The learning objectives encompass both hands-on technical skills and non-technical communication skills enabling students to apply...

  9. The Adaptation Gap Report. Towards Global Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement, adopted in 2015, established the global goal on adaptation of enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and reducing vulnerability to climate change, with a view to contributing to sustainable development and ensuring an adequate adaptation response in the context...... Change (UNFCCC) to prepare for the implementation of the Paris Agreement. In contrast to previous Adaptation Gap Reports, the 2017 report focuses on issues relating to frameworks, comprising concepts, methodologies and data, rather than on assessing a particular dimension of the adaptation gap. Future...... extensive external review. The Paris Agreement’s global goal on adaptation provides a new starting point and impetus for assessing progress on adaptation at the global level, but additional information is required for assessing such progress. The global goal on adaptation provides a collective vision...

  10. Boundary Hamiltonian Theory for Gapped Topological Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuting; Wan, Yidun; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2017-06-01

    We report our systematic construction of the lattice Hamiltonian model of topological orders on open surfaces, with explicit boundary terms. We do this mainly for the Levin-Wen string-net model. The full Hamiltonian in our approach yields a topologically protected, gapped energy spectrum, with the corresponding wave functions robust under topology-preserving transformations of the lattice of the system. We explicitly present the wavefunctions of the ground states and boundary elementary excitations. The creation and hopping operators of boundary quasi-particles are constructed. It is found that given a bulk topological order, the gapped boundary conditions are classified by Frobenius algebras in its input data. Emergent topological properties of the ground states and boundary excitations are characterized by (bi-) modules over Frobenius algebras.

  11. Gap Assessment in the Emergency Response Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Pike, William A.; Peddicord, Annie M Boe; Minsk, Brian S.

    2010-09-27

    This report describes a gap analysis of the emergency response and management (EM) community, performed during the fall of 2009. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook this effort to identify potential improvements to the functional domains in EM that could be provided by the application of current or future technology. To perform this domain-based gap analysis, PNNL personnel interviewed subject matter experts (SMEs) across the EM domain; to make certain that the analyses reflected a representative view of the community, the SMEs were from a variety of geographic areas and from various sized communities (urban, suburban, and rural). PNNL personnel also examined recent and relevant after-action reports and U.S. Government Accountability Office reports.

  12. Blood gas and serum biochemical RIs for healthy newborn Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, André M; Silva, Daniela G; Clemente, Virna; Pizauro, Lucas J L; Bernardes, Priscila A; Santana, Clarissa H; Eckersall, Peter D; Fagliari, José J

    2018-03-01

    There is a lack of published work on RIs for newborn buffaloes. Establishing blood gas and serum biochemical RIs for newborn buffaloes is important for monitoring health. This study establishes blood gas and serum biochemical RIs of newborn buffaloes. Twenty-eight newborn buffaloes, 10-30 days old, were selected. Thirty blood biochemical variables were analyzed. The Anderson-Darling test was used to assess the normality of the distribution. The Dixon test and the Tukey test were used to identify outliers. The RI and 90% CI were determined using standard and robust methods and the Box-Cox transformation. A total of 30 RIs for healthy buffalo calves have been reported in this study. RIs for blood gas variables were reported for pH, partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2 ), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO 2 ), saturation of O 2 (SO 2 ), bicarbonate (cHCO 3 - ), base excess (BE), total carbon dioxide (ctCO 2 ), and anion gap (AG). RIs for serum biochemical variables were reported for glucose (GLU), direct bilirubin (DB), total bilirubin (TB), AST, ALP, GGT, CK, LDH, creatinine (CREA), urea, cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TG), Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, iCa, Cl, iron, total protein (TP), and albumin (ALB). This is the first reported study covering complete serum chemistry and blood gas RIs for healthy 1-month-old Murrah buffaloes. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with abomasal ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Tajik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA in water buffaloes with abomasal ulcers, the abomasums of 100 randomly selected water buffaloes were examined after slaughter. Type I abomasal ulcers were found in 56 out of 100 buffaloes. Serum concentrations of Hp and SAA were measured. There was no significant difference between affected and non-affected buffaloes in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA. The serum concentrations of Hp and SAA had no significant correlation with age and the serum SAA revealed no significant correlation with the number of abomasal ulcers. A significant correlation was found between the serum Hp and the number of abomasal ulcers (r =0.29, p = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA between buffaloes with different ulcer locations in the abomasums. Although more work on a larger number of animals is required in this area, it seems that the measurement of the serum Hp can be used to predict the abundance of type I abomasal ulcers.

  14. Supersize me: Cronobacter sakazakii phage GAP32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasifar, Reza; Griffiths, Mansel W. [Canadian Research Institute for Food Safety, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Sabour, Parviz M. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Guelph Food Research Centre, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 5C9 (Canada); Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang [Department of Microbiology-Infectiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada); Vandersteegen, Katrien; Lavigne, Rob [Laboratory of Gene Technology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Noben, Jean-Paul [Biomedical Research Institute and Transnational University Limburg, School of Life Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Alanis Villa, Argentina; Abbasifar, Arash [Canadian Research Institute for Food Safety, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Nash, John H.E. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3W4 (Canada); Kropinski, Andrew M., E-mail: akropins@uoguelph.ca [Public Health Agency of Canada, Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3W4 (Canada); Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram-negative pathogen found in milk-based formulae that causes infant meningitis. Bacteriophages have been proposed to control bacterial pathogens; however, comprehensive knowledge about a phage is required to ensure its safety before clinical application. We have characterized C. sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 (GAP32), which possesses the second largest sequenced phage genome (358,663 bp). A total of 571 genes including 545 protein coding sequences and 26 tRNAs were identified, thus more genes than in the smallest bacterium, Mycoplasma genitalium G37. BLASTP and HHpred searches, together with proteomic analyses reveal that only 23.9% of the putative proteins have defined functions. Some of the unique features of this phage include: a chromosome condensation protein, two copies of the large subunit terminase, a predicted signal-arrest-release lysin; and an RpoD-like protein, which is possibly involved in the switch from immediate early to delayed early transcription. Its closest relatives are all extremely large myoviruses, namely coliphage PBECO4 and Klebsiella phage vB{sub K}leM-RaK2, with whom it shares approximately 44% homologous proteins. Since the homologs are not evenly distributed, we propose that these three phages belong to a new subfamily. - Highlights: • Cronobacter sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 has a genome of 358,663 bp. • It encodes 545 proteins which is more than Mycoplasma genitalium G37. • It is a member of the Myoviridae. • It is peripherally related to coliphage PBECO4 and Klebsiella phage vB{sub K}leM-RaK2. • GAP32 encodes a chromosome condensation protein.

  15. Closing the Knowledge Gap in Foreign Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie A.; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    The study explores how firms close their knowledge gaps in relation to business environments of foreign markets. Potential determinants are derived from traditional internationalization process theory as well as more recent literature on organizational learning processes, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building on these two literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primary data of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggests that factors considered essential in traditional internationalization process theory...

  16. Research, Research Gap and the Research Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dissanayake, D.M.N.S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Mainly, due to new scientific inquiries and technological advancements Knowledge becomes obsolete. So it creates a dilemma where the applicability of so called theories and models which we learnt in class can still be applied to solve problems? Thus, the scholars bring the notion of RESEARCH as a definite solution which enriches the existing understanding of a phenomenon. This can be either a theory testing or a theory extension (theory building) approach. In fact, gap identification and form...

  17. Clan structure analysis and rapidity gap probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupia, S.; Giovannini, A.; Ugoccioni, R.

    1995-01-01

    Clan structure analysis in rapidity intervals is generalized from negative binomial multiplicity distribution to the wide class of compound Poisson distributions. The link of generalized clan structure analysis with correlation functions is also established. These theoretical results are then applied to minimum bias events and evidentiate new interesting features, which can be inspiring and useful in order to discuss data on rapidity gap probability at TEVATRON and HERA. (orig.)

  18. Clan structure analysis and rapidity gap probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupia, S. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Giovannini, A. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Ugoccioni, R. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    Clan structure analysis in rapidity intervals is generalized from negative binomial multiplicity distribution to the wide class of compound Poisson distributions. The link of generalized clan structure analysis with correlation functions is also established. These theoretical results are then applied to minimum bias events and evidentiate new interesting features, which can be inspiring and useful in order to discuss data on rapidity gap probability at TEVATRON and HERA. (orig.)

  19. Gap Analysis: Application to Earned Value Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, Gary O.; Franck, Raymond (Chip)

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program) Earned Value is regarded as a useful tool to monitor commercial and defense system acquisitions. This paper applies the theoretical foundations and systematics of Gap Analysis to improve Earned Value Management. As currently implemented, Earned Value inaccurately provides a higher value for the work performed. This preliminary research indicates that Earned Value calculations can be corrected. Value Analysis, properly defined and enacted,...

  20. Level of evidence gap in orthopedic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Keith D; Bernstein, Joseph; Ahn, Jaimo; McKay, Scott D; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    2012-09-01

    Level of evidence is the most widely used metric for the quality of a publication, but instances exist in which a Level I study is neither feasible nor desirable. The goal of this study was to evaluate the level of evidence gap in current orthopedic research, which the authors defined as the disparity between the level of evidence that would be required to optimally answer the primary research question and the level of evidence that was actually used. Five orthopedic surgeons (K.D.B., J.B., J.A., S.D.M., W.N.S.) evaluated blinded articles from the first 6 months of 2010 in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American Volume) (JBJS-Am), classifying the study type and design and extracting a primary research question from each article. Each evaluator then defined the study type and method, along with the level of evidence that would ideally be used to address the primary research question. The level of evidence gap was then calculated by subtracting the actual level of evidence of the manuscript from the level of evidence of the idealized study. Of the 64 JBJS-Am manuscripts eligible for analysis, the average level of evidence was between Level II and III (mean, 2.73). The average level of evidence gap was 1.06 compared with the JBJS-Am-designated level of evidence and 1.28 compared with the evaluators' assessment. Because not all questions require Level I studies, level of evidence alone may not be the best metric for the quality of orthopedic surgery literature. Instead, the authors' concept of a level of evidence gap may be a better tool for assessing the state of orthopedic research publications. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Gender Culture and Gender Gap in Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Campa; Alessandra Casarico; Paola Profeta

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes to what extent gender culture affects gender gap in employment. Drawing on Italian data, we measure culture by building two indices: one based on individuals' attitudes, as done in the existing literature; one based on firms' attitudes. Firms' beliefs, which express their set of ideas, values and norms, though generally neglected, are as important as individuals' attitudes to explain female labor market outcomes. Using an instrumental variable analysis, we show that our ...

  2. Gaps between jets in hadronic collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kepka, Oldřich; Marquet, C.; Royon, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 3 (2011), 034036/1-034036/7 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : pp inclusive reaction * anti-p p annihilation * jet pair production * rapidity gap * quantum chromodynamics perturbation theory * color singlet Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.558, year: 2011

  3. Bridging the Gap: Linking Simulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, Paul E.; Carsley, John; Stoudt, Mark R.; Hovanski, Yuri

    2012-09-01

    The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) which is a key enabler for the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership, announced in 2011 by U.S. President Barack Obama, was established to accelerate the development and deployment of advanced materials. The MGI is driven by the need to "bridge the gap" between (I) experimental results and computational analysis to enable the rapid development and validation of new mateirals, and (II) the processes required to convert these materials into useable goods.

  4. A new gaseous gap conductance relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, D.A.; Yovanovich, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    A new relationship for predicting the gaseous gap conductance between the fuel and clad of a nuclear fuel rod is derived. This relationship is derived from purely analytical considerations and represents a departure from approaches taken in the past. A comparison between the predictions from this new relationship and experimental measurements is presented and the agreement is very good. Predictions can be generated relatively quickly with this relationship making it attractive for fuel pin analysis codes

  5. Early Gender Gaps among University Graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Francesconi, Marco; Parey, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    We use data from six cohorts of university graduates in Germany to assess the extent of gender gaps in college and labor market performance twelve to eighteen months after graduation. Men and women enter college in roughly equal numbers, but more women than men complete their degrees. Women enter college with slightly better high school grades, but women leave university with slightly lower marks. Immediately following university completion, male and female full-timers work very similar numbe...

  6. Gender wage gap studies : consistency and decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Astrid

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on the gender wage gap, with particular attention given to the identification of the key parameters in human capital wage regression models. This is of great importance in the literature for two main reasons. First, the main explanatory variables in the wage model, i.e., measures of work experience and the time-out-of-work, are endogenous. As a result, applying traditional estimators may lead to inconsistent parameter estimates. Secon...

  7. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.

    2015-09-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The workshop was organized by SEG, and its partner sponsors were Saudi Aramco (gold sponsor), ExxonMobil, and CGG. Read More: http://library.seg.org/doi/10.1190/tle34091106.1

  8. In-Situ Burn Gaps Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This Report) UNCLAS//Public 20. Security Class (This Page) UNCLAS//Public 21. No of Pages 76 22. Price UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | Merrick...surveillance and spotting techniques/equipment to keep responders in the heaviest oil concentrations where their operation to skim , burn, or disperse...Offshore Oil Skim And Burn System For Use With Vessels Of Opportunity. UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | Merrick, et al. Public | June 2015 In-Situ Burn Gaps

  9. Sexting: Current Research Gaps and Legislative Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Fawn; Jaishankar, K; Agustina, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    'Sexting, the portmanteau of Sex and Texting, has become a hot topic of debate between the legislators, researchers, educators, parents and teens' (Jaishankar, 2009, para 1). In spite of the considerable and growing body of literature on sexting, there are significant gaps in the current research. A review of research to date also reveals a dearth of cross-national and cross-cultural research on the topic of sexting. Notably, legal and ethical issues abound with the current method for punishi...

  10. Evaluating the gender wage gap in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg, Åsa

    2007-01-01

    Using mainly quantile regressions, this paper evaluates the gender wage gap throughout the conditional wage distribution in Sweden. The gender wage is found to increase at the upper tail of the wage distribution, indicating an enforcement of the glass ceiling effect recorded in earlier studies. The results also indicate that the earlier noted trend of diminishing wage differences at the bottom of the wage distribution now is turning. The increase of overall wage inequalities coincides with a ...

  11. Spirit of place: Bridging the 'epistemological gap'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nickola B. N.

    My work explores the psychological gap between humans and nature. Also how humanity is a parcel of nature and that the philosophy of spirit of place can create oneness through imagery, describing the landscape while also encompassing the 'larger frame' within the aesthetic. These transcendental moments connect with not only the landscape but to earth as a spiritual entity. My work is a response to the landscape and these moments.

  12. Characterizing the gender gap in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2009-06-01

    Previous research [S. J. Pollock , Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007)] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo , Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006)]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2) . The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression) to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.

  13. Impurity energy level in the Haldane gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Lu Yu

    1995-11-01

    An impurity bond J' in a periodic 1D antiferromagnetic spin 1 chain with exchange J is considered. Using the numerical density matrix renormalization group method, we find an impurity energy level in the Haldane gap, corresponding to a bound state near the impurity bond. When J' J. The impurity level appears only when the deviation dev = (J'- J)/J' is greater than B c , which is close to 0.3 in our calculation. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  14. Wage-productivity gap in OECD economies

    OpenAIRE

    Elgin, Ceyhun; Kuzubas, Tolga Umut

    2013-01-01

    The Walrasian theory of labor market equilibrium predicts that in the absence of any market frictions, workers earn a wage rate equal to their marginal productivity. However, this observation is not supported empirically for various economies. Based on the neoclassical tradition, the ratio of the marginal product of labor to real wages is generally defined as the Pigouvian exploitation rate. In this paper, the authors calculate this specific wage-productivity gap for the manufacturing sector ...

  15. Characterizing the gender gap in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Kost

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research [S. J. Pollock et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo et al., Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2. The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.

  16. Characterizing the gender gap in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Pollock

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research [S. J. Pollock et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo et al., Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2 . The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.

  17. [The gender gap in Italian medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Silvia; Podda, Daiana; Lampis, Jessica

    2015-01-28

    This study is collocated in the debate about the gender gap in Medicine giving voice to female physicians who have damaged the "glass ceiling". Our research offers a contribute to the exploration about the motivations of persistence of gender gap in Medicine despite current changes. This study is based on 21 biographical interviews to female physicians who are managers in Italian hospitals. The themes emerged by data analysis concerned the participants 'discrimination experiences in their hierarchical advancement, the evidences of a persistence of horizontal segregation in some medical specializations, the difficult to find a work-life balance and the effects of this difficult on the female physicians' health. Our research confirmed a persistence of gender gap in the medical world, which disadvantages women in their career choices and in their hierarchical advancement and which appears in the form of invisible barriers impregnated of stereotypes and prejudices that are taken for granted by many men and women, especially those who have the power; these barriers make the female doctors 'health more vulnerable to the event of work-related stress. By the dates emerged the necessity of cultural and institutional interventions, actions for deconstruction of gender stereotypes, and the necessity of intervention for a more flexible and functioning work organization that satisfies the female physicians' needs.

  18. Proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustakas, T.D.; Pankove, J.I.; Hamakawa, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors. Wide band gap semiconductors are under intense study because of their potential applications in photonic devices in the visible and ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and devices for high temperature, high frequency and high power electronics. Additionally, due to their unique mechanical, thermal, optical, chemical, and electronic properties many wide band gap semiconductors are anticipated to find applications in thermoelectric, electrooptic, piezoelectric and acoustooptic devices as well as protective coatings, hard coatings and heat sinks. Material systems covered in this symposium include diamond, II-VI compounds, III-V nitrides, silicon carbide, boron compounds, amorphous and microcrystalline semiconductors, chalcopyrites, oxides and halides. The various papers addressed recent experimental and theoretical developments. They covered issues related to crystal growth (bulk and thin films), structure and microstructure, defects, doping, optoelectronic properties and device applications. A theoretical session was dedicated to identifying common themes in the heteroepitaxy and the role of defects in doping, compensation and phase stability of this unique class of materials. Important experimental milestones included the demonstrations of bright blue injection luminescence at room temperatures from junctions based on III-V nitrides and a similar result from multiple quantum wells in a ZnSe double heterojunction at liquid nitrogen temperatures

  19. The band gap in silicon nanocrystallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, V.; Kapoor, Manish; Singh, Vijay A.

    2002-01-01

    The gap in semiconductor nanocrystallites has been extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally over the last two decades. We have compared a recent 'state-of-the-art' theoretical calculation with a recent 'state-of-the-art' experimental observation of the gap in Si nanocrystallite. We find that the two are in substantial disagreement, with the disagreement being more pronounced at smaller sizes. Theoretical calculations appear to overestimate the gap. To reconcile the two we present two scenarios. (i) Recognizing that the experimental observations are for a distribution of crystallite sizes, we proffer a phenomenological model to reconcile the theory with the experiment. We suggest that similar considerations must dictate comparisons between the theory and experiment vis-a-vis other properties such as radiative rate, decay constant, and absorption coefficient. (ii) Either surface passivation or surface orientation may also resolve the conflict between the theory and the experiment. We have carried out tight-binding calculations on silicon clusters to study the role of surface passivation and surface orientation. (author)

  20. Optical band gaps of organic semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, José C. S.; Taveira, Ricardo J. S.; Lima, Carlos F. R. A. C.; Mendes, Adélio; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.

    2016-08-01

    UV-Vis can be used as an easy and forthright technique to accurately estimate the band gap energy of organic π-conjugated materials, widely used as thin films/composites in organic and hybrid electronic devices such as OLEDs, OPVs and OFETs. The electronic and optical properties, including HOMO-LUMO energy gaps of π-conjugated systems were evaluated by UV-Vis spectroscopy in CHCl3 solution for a large number of relevant π-conjugated systems: tris-8-hydroxyquinolinatos (Alq3, Gaq3, Inq3, Al(qNO2)3, Al(qCl)3, Al(qBr)3, In(qNO2)3, In(qCl)3 and In(qBr)3); triphenylamine derivatives (DDP, p-TTP, TPB, TPD, TDAB, m-MTDAB, NPB, α-NPD); oligoacenes (naphthalene, anthracene, tetracene and rubrene); oligothiophenes (α-2T, β-2T, α-3T, β-3T, α-4T and α-5T). Additionally, some electronic properties were also explored by quantum chemical calculations. The experimental UV-Vis data are in accordance with the DFT predictions and indicate that the band gap energies of the OSCs dissolved in CHCl3 solution are consistent with the values presented for thin films.

  1. Presidential inability: Filling in the gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feerick, John D

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on potential gaps caused by the absence from the Twenty-Fifth Amendment of provisions to deal with the disability of a Vice President and the omission from the statutory line of succession law of provisions comparable to Sections 3 and 4 of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment for when there is an able Vice President. The analysis offers a critical review of the latent ambiguities in the succession provision to the United States Constitution, noting problems that have arisen from the time of the Constitutional Convention, to John Tyler's accession to office, to numerous disability crises that presented themselves throughout the twentieth century, to the present day. As the world becomes more complex and threats to the presidency more common, continued examination of our succession structure and its adequacy for establishing clear and effective presidential succession provisions under a broad range of circumstances is of paramount concern. This article embraces this robust discussion by offering some suggestions for improving the system in a way that does not require a constitutional amendment. The first part of the analysis traces the events that have driven the development of the nation's succession procedures. The second part examines the inadequacies, or "gaps," that remain in the area of presidential inability, and the third part sets forth recommendations for resolving these gaps.

  2. Examining the Gender Gap in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Lauren; Pollock, Steven; Finkelstein, Noah

    2009-05-01

    Our previous research[1] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques in the introductory physics course, the gap in performance between males and females on a mechanics conceptual learning survey persisted from pre- to post-test, at our institution. Such findings were counter to previously published work[2]. Follow-up studies[3] identified correlations between student performance on the conceptual learning survey and students' prior physics and math knowledge and their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics and learning physics. The results indicate that the gender gap at our institution is predominantly associated with differences in males' and females' previous physics and math knowledge, and attitudes and beliefs. Our current work extends these results in two ways: 1) we look at the gender gap in the second semester of the introductory sequence and find results similar to those in the first semester course and 2) we identify ways in which males and females differentially experience several aspects of the introductory course. [1] Pollock, et al, Phys Rev: ST: PER 3, 010107. [2] Lorenzo, et al, Am J Phys 74, 118. [3] Kost, et al, PERC Proceedings 2008.

  3. Flow Mode Magnetorheological Dampers with an Eccentric Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Tai Choi; Norman M. Wereley

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes flow mode magnetorheological (MR) dampers with an eccentric annular gap (i.e., a nonuniform annular gap). To this end, an MR damper analysis for an eccentric annular gap is constructed based on approximating the eccentric annular gap using a rectangular duct with a variable gap, as well as a Bingham-plastic constitutive model of the MR fluid. Performance of flow mode MR dampers with an eccentric gap was assessed analytically using both field-dependent damping force and dam...

  4. Experimental study on the boiling phenomena within a narrow gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Inoue, A.; Aritomi, M.; Sakamoto, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with annular narrow gaps having the gap widths 0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5,1.0 and 1.5 mm for the following two cases: (a) for the ''open bottom'' case, the heat transfer coefficient was improved as the gap width decreases, but it was not affected by gap lengths in the range 40 <= L <= 100 mm. (b) for the ''closed bottom'' case, the heat transfer coefficient was not affected by gap width or length. The transition heat flux could be correlated by the equivalent gap length defined in terms of the cross-sectional area of the open end. (author)

  5. Fluorimetric determination of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiaosen; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of people"s living standard and the changes of living form, the number of people who suffer from hypercholesterolemia is increasing. It is not only harmful to heart and blood vessel, but also leading to obstruction of cognition. The conventional blood detection technology has weakness such as complex operation, long detecting period, and bad visibility. In order to develop a new detection method that can checkout hypercholesterolemia conveniently, spectroscopy of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum is obtained by the multifunctional grating spectrograph. The experiment results indicate that, under the excitation of light-emitting diode (LED) with the wavelength at 407 nm, the serum from normal human and the hypercholesterolemia serum emit different fluorescence spectra. The former can emit one fluorescence region with the peak locating at 516 nm while the latter can emit two more regions with peaks locating at 560 nm and 588 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of serum is non-linear increasing with the concentration of cholesterol increases when the concentration of cholesterol is lower than 13.8 mmol/L, and then, with the concentration of cholesterol increase, the fluorescence intensity decreases. However, the fluorescence intensity is still much higher than that of serum from normal human. Conclusions can be educed from the experiments: the intensity and the shape of fluorescence spectra of hypercholesterolemia serum are different of those of normal serum, from which the cholesterol abnormal in blood can be judged. The consequences in this paper may offer an experimental reference for the diagnosis of the hypercholesterolemia.

  6. Serum prolactin level in patients taking olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diganta Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olanzapine is a commonly used antipsychotic. Prolactin elevation is a common adverse effect of anstipsychotics, and serum prolactin elevation is seen in about 30% patients treated with olanzapine. There are confounding results about dose dependency of olanzapine and prolactin elevation, and also the duration of treatment. Method: Fifty six patients, 36 male and 20 female, who were taking olanzapine for any condition for more than a month at a constant dose were enrolled in the study. Patients’ age, weight, body mass index (BMI, serum prolactin levels, and some biochemical values were recorded. Patients were taken from the review outpatient department (OPD after due consent. Results: Five each in male and female groups showed elevation of serum prolactin (estimated to be high if >20 ng/dl for males, and >25 ng/dl for females. In females, the elevation was found at lesser dose of olanzapine (13 mg/day, in males 18 mg/day and early in the treatment (2.4 months vs. 9.7 months in males. Males tended to show raised prolactin with higher doses of olanzapine (mean 18 mg/day. Females (26.31% also showed higher prevalence of prolactin elevation compared to males (13.51%. No other parameter was found to modify the prolactin levels. Conclusion: Olanzapine causes elevation of serum prolactin, though lesser degree than some other antipsychotics. Females are more prone to have raised serum prolactin with olanzapine compared to males. However, the elevation seems to be transient. Higher doses of olanzapine tend to cause elevation of serum prolactin. Serum prolactin estimation in patients taking olanzapine may be undertaken to maintain quality life, particularly in females.

  7. The CO₂ GAP Project--CO₂ GAP as a prognostic tool in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Amith L; Lai, Kevin H; Byth, Karen

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether CO₂ GAP [(a-ET) PCO₂] value differs consistently in patients presenting with shortness of breath to the ED requiring ventilatory support. To determine a cut-off value of CO₂ GAP, which is consistently associated with measured outcome and to compare its performance against other derived variables. This prospective observational study was conducted in ED on a convenience sample of 412 from 759 patients who underwent concurrent arterial blood gas and ETCO₂ (end-tidal CO₂) measurement. They were randomized to test sample of 312 patients and validation set of 100 patients. The primary outcome of interest was the need for ventilatory support and secondary outcomes were admission to high dependency unit or death during stay in ED. The randomly selected training set was used to select cut-points for the possible predictors; that is, CO₂ GAP, CO₂ gradient, physiologic dead space and A-a gradient. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of these predictors were validated in the test set of 100 patients.   Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curves revealed the CO₂ GAP performed significantly better than the arterial-alveolar gradient in patients requiring ventilator support (area under the curve 0.950 vs 0.726). A CO₂ GAP ≥10 was associated with assisted ventilation outcomes when applied to the validation test set (100% sensitivity 70% specificity). The CO₂ GAP [(a-ET) PCO₂] differs significantly in patients requiring assisted ventilation when presenting with shortness of breath to EDs and further research addressing the prognostic value of CO₂ GAP in this specific aspect is required. © 2010 The Authors. EMA © 2010 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  8. Effects of coverage gap reform on adherence to diabetes medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Feng; Patel, Bimal V; Brunetti, Louis

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the impact of Part D coverage gap reform on diabetes medication adherence. Retrospective data analysis based on pharmacy claims data from a national pharmacy benefit manager. We used a difference-in-difference-indifference method to evaluate the impact of coverage gap reform on adherence to diabetes medications. Two cohorts (2010 and 2011) were constructed to represent the last year before Affordable Care Act (ACA) reform and the first year after reform, respectively. Each patient had 2 observations: 1 before and 1 after entering the coverage gap. Patients in each cohort were divided into groups based on type of gap coverage: no coverage, partial coverage (generics only), and full coverage. Following ACA reform, patients with no gap coverage and patients with partial gap coverage experienced substantial drops in copayments in the coverage gap in 2011. Their adherence to diabetes medications in the gap, measured by percentage of days covered, improved correspondingly (2.99 percentage points, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-5.48, P = .019 for patients with no coverage; 6.46 percentage points, 95% CI 3.34-9.58, P gap in 2011. However, their adherence did not increase (-0.13 percentage point, P = .8011). In the first year of ACA coverage gap reform, copayments in the gap decreased substantially for all patients. Patients with no coverage and patients with partial coverage in the gap had better adherence in the gap in 2011.

  9. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugard, J; Kew, M C; Da Fonseca, M; Levin, J [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1982-08-21

    Having found raised serum calcitonin concentrations in 94% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma when using a dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay, we have now repeated the study, using a double-antibody radio-immunoassay, in 102 further patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 35 matched controls. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentrations (iCT) in the controls ranged from 10 to 310 pg/ml (mean 154,6 pg/ml). Values in the tumour patients ranged from 10 to 1,650 pg/ml (mean 302,6 pg/ml). The mean figures were significantly higher in the tumour patients (P smaller than 0,001), 35.5% of them having values above 310 pg/ml. In 65 of the patients serum iCT concentrations were also determined by dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay. Values ranged from 10 to 10780 pg/ml (mean 2,179 pg/ml). If 1,000 pg/ml is taken as the upper limit of normal, 69% of the patients had raised iCT concentrations. There was a good correlation (r=0,67; P smaller than 0,001) between serum iCT values measured with both methods in 50 patients. If measured by the double-antibody radio-immunoassay method, the serum calcitonin value is not useful as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugard, J.; Kew, M.C.; Da Fonseca, M.; Levin, J.

    1982-01-01

    Having found raised serum calcitonin concentrations is 94% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma when using a dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay, we have now repeated the study, using a double-antibody radio-immunoassay, in 102 further patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 35 matched controls. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentrations (iCT) in the controls ranged from 10 to 310 pg/ml (mean 154,6 pg/ml). Values in the tumour patients ranged from 10 to 1 650 pg/ml (mean 302,6 pg/ml). The mean figures were significantly higher in the tumour patients (P smaller than 0,001), 35,5% of them having values above 310 pg/ml. In 65 of the patients serum iCT concentrations were also determined by dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay. Values ranged from 10 to 10780 pg/ml (mean 2 179 pg/ml). If 1 000 pg/ml is taken as the upper limit of normal, 69% of the patients had raised iCT concentrations. There was a good correlation (r=0,67; P smaller than 0,001) between serum iCT values measured with both methods in 50 patients. If measured by the double-antibody radio-immunoassay method, the serum calcitonin value is not useful as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma

  11. Maternal serum levels of adiponectin in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosrowbeygi, A.; Ahmadvand, H.

    2009-01-01

    The results of the serum levels of adiponectin in pre eclamptic patients are conflicting. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess serum levels of adiponectin in women with pre eclampsia compared with healthy pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed. The case group consisted of women with pre eclampsia (n=30). The control group consisted of 30 matched normal pregnant women. Serum levels of adiponectin were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: Serum levels of adiponectin were significantly higher in the pre eclamptic group than those in the normal control group. In the pre eclamptic patients serum levels of adiponectin showed a significant negative correlation with body mass index while no correlation was found in the normal pregnant women. In women with pre eclampsia, levels of adiponectin were decreased significantly in the overweight women compared with normal weight women, while in the control group no significant difference was observed. Conclusion: In conclusion, elevation of adiponectin levels might be a physiological feedback response to minimize endothelial dysfunction in pre eclamptic patients. (author)

  12. Radioimmunoassay for erytropoetin serum level in polycythemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, K.; Vassileva, D.

    2003-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is the first well studied hemopoietic growth factor. The pathological levels of its serum concentration show deviations in the specific mechanisms for some diseases such as polycythemia. Objective of this work is the assessment of the diagnostic value of the Epo in the serum for the differentiation of the main form of polycythemia - true and symptomatic. Material and methods: 47 patients are studied (21 women and 26 men), 23 of them are with polycythemia vera and 24 with polycythemia symptomatica. The following has been determined: the serum level of Erythropoietin, hemoglobin, the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes, myelogram. The serum level of Epo is quantitatively determined b using of radioimmunological method, through Epo-Trac kit. Results: The diagnosis is also confirmed in all patients by other laboratory tests. The normal values of Epo in healthy persons are 17.0±7.0 mU/ml. The average Epo level in patients with polycythemia vera is 20.4±3.0 mU/ml. In one patient the Epo level is supposedly connected with an accompanying kidney disease. Conclusions: The obtained data show that the Epo serum level is an accurate criterion in the diagnosing of true and symptomatic polycythemia. The true polycythemia is connected with an independent erythrocyte production. In the symptomatic polycythemia the tissue hypoxia stimulated the Epo production

  13. Immunoradiometric assay for ferritin in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyland, M.J.; Ganguli, P.C.; Blower, D.; Delamore, I.W.

    1975-01-01

    A sensitiv specific and precise immunoradiometric assay for ferritin has been developed. Ferritin was measured in the serum of 160 hospital controls, 101 females (118 plus/minus 9 μg/l) and 59 males (189 plus/minus 16 μg/l). This difference was statistically significant. In 28 patients with untreated iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin concentration (6.1plus/minus 0.7 μg/l) was significantly lower than in the controls, but it was within the normal range in 14 cases of polycythaemia vera treated by repeated phlebotomy. In 4 patients with primary haemachromatosis (2884 plus/minus 56 μg/l), 25 with secondary iron overload states (5702 plus/minus 1235 μg/l) and 8 with haemolytic anaemia (1612 plus/minus 605 μg/l), serum ferritin levels were markedly elevated. In 14 cases of transfusional siderosis there was a highly significant correlation between serum ferritin concentration and units of blood transfused. A circadian rhythmin serum ferritin concentration was observed in 7 healthy subjects. (author)

  14. Serum zinc level in children with malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.M.; Mahmood, M.T.; Baluch, G.R.; Bhatti, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Serum zinc level amongst children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) was evaluated in a control study conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Twenty-five children with PEM and 25 healthy children as control from the community were screened. Mean serum zinc level was found to be 54.48 -+ 18.91 mg/dl in children with PEM while it was 72.72 -+ 8.21 mg/dl in control group (P < 0.001). No significant difference in zinc level was noted between both sexes in each group. Marasmic 16 children revealed mean serum zinc level of 57.55 -+ 18.16 mg/dl while in Kwashiorkor it was 44.57 -+ 13.66 mg/dl. Serum zinc was significantly low in Kwashiorkor than in marasmus (P < 0.001). It was also significantly low in children with acute or chronic diarrhea associated with malnutrition (44.66 -+ 16.0 mg/dl). Acute respiratory infections in these children were not associated with low serum zinc level (71.66 -+ 16.51 mg/dl). (author)

  15. Serum iron parameters in liver cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, G. A.; Maail, W.

    2018-03-01

    The liver plays a fundamental role in iron homeostasis. Iron parameters change, especially ferritin, need to be evaluated in patients with liver cirrhosis. Serum ferritin could predict the prognosis of patients with decompensated cirrhosis since it reflects immunemediated and infectious stimuli. Ferritin could express the severity of liver disease and possible subsequent complications. Finally, it might reflect an iron overload condition resulting in significant morbidity and early mortality. 70 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis divided into three Child-Pugh subgroups. Serum iron parameters include serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and ferritin was measured in these groups. From these 70 patients, 30 (42.9%) with HbsAg positive, 26 (37.1%) with anti-HCV positive and 14 (20%) with both HbsAg and anti-HCV positive. Of the 70 patients, 14 (20%) had CTP Class A cirrhosis, 17 (24.3%) had CTP Class B cirrhosis, and 39 (55.7%) had CTP C cirrhosis. The median (range) value of serum iron was 36 (10-345) μg/dl, TIBC was 160 (59-520) μg/dl, Ferritin was 253.5 (8-6078) ng/ml and the transferrin saturation was 22.9 (3.65-216.98) %.We found a significant difference in serum ferritin level with CTP score. Ferritin levels increased as Child-Pugh class progressed (p<0.001).

  16. Elemental analysis of human serum and serum protein fractions by thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of thermal neutron activation for the determination of elemental contents in human serum and human serum protein fractions are presented. Firstly total serum is dealt with, secondly serum protein fractions obtained by gel filtration are described. A brief review on the role of (trace) elements in human health and disease and a compilation of literature data for elemental contents in human serum, as obtained by neutron activation techniques, are given. The most important sources of statistical and systematic errors are evaluated. Results for the contents of sodium, potassium, magnesium, bromine, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, cesium and antimony in serum are given, with emphasis on control of accuracy and precision. The possible relation between selenium in blood and cancer occurrence in humans is discussed. The results of elemental analyses from cancer patients and from a patient receiving a cytostatic treatment are presented. A survey of literature results for the determination of protein-bound elemental contents in serum is presented. Subsequently, results from a study on the behaviour of elements during gel filtration are discussed. Gel-element and protein-element interactions are studied. Finally the protein-bound occurrence of trace elements in human serum is determined by gel filtration and neutron activation analysis. Results for both desalting and fractionation are given, for the elements bromine, copper, manganese, vanadium, selenium, zinc, rubidium, iron and iodine. (Auth.)

  17. ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN FETAL SERUM, AMNIOTIC-FLUID, AND MATERNAL SERUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; VANLOON, AJ; MANTINGH, A; DEWOLF, BTHM; BREED, ASPM

    In order to gain more insight into the association between alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and fetal chromosomal disorders, especially Down's syndrome, we measured AFP in fetal serum, amniotic fluid, and maternal serum at cordocentesis. We compared the concentration and gradient of AFP in these three

  18. Serum proteinase inhibitors and other serum proteins in protein-energy malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelp, F.P.; Migasena, P.; Pongpaew, P.; SCHREURS W.H.P

    1977-01-01

    1. The concentrations of serum protein albumin, prealbumin and transferrin were determined in twenty-eight cases of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) with infection, together with the levels of serum proteinase inhibitors (PI), alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), alpha1-antichymotrypsin (Ach),

  19. Association between serum interleukin-6 and serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in nonthyroidal illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, A.; Platvoet-ter Schiphorst, M. C.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Increased serum concentrations of FFA, bilirubin, and carboxyl-methyl-propyl-furanpropionic acid, accumulating in chronic renal failure in direct relationship with serum creatinine, have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of the low T3 syndrome during illness. Cytokines may also be involved in

  20. Association of serum uric acid with blood urea and serum creatinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.U.; Ahmad, Z.; Rehman, J.U.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperuricemia can cause serious health problems including renal insufficiency. Hyperuricemia is associated with many diseases including Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertriglyceridemia and Obesity. Objective of the present study was to study the Association of Serum Uric Acid with Blood Urea and Serum Creatinine. Methods: Eighty subjects, aged above 40, having blood urea more than 40 mg/dl and serum Creatinine more than 1.3 mg/dl were selected. 52.5 % subjects were male. Eighty subjects were selected as control group matching the age and sex with study group with normal blood urea and serum Creatinine. Results: Serum Uric Acid was found to be raised in 33 patients. Mean Serum Uric Acid value was 6.98+-2.021 in males (p<0.05) and 5.054+-2.324 in females (p<0.05). Conclusion: Serum Uric Acid is raised in patients with impaired renal function (p<0.05). Levels of increased Serum Uric Acid were not significantly associated with the cause of renal disease. (author)

  1. Zinc in human serum. Biochemical and clinical aspects. Zink i humant serum. Biokemiske og kliniske aspekter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiilerich, S

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 percent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of protein binding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a ..cap alpha../sup 2/-macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 percent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 percent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 percent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 percent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin.

  2. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, E; Kæstel, Pernille

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folate and iron status and hemoglobin concentrations are important to maternal and infant health. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 1669 pregnant women (22-35 wk of gestation) in ...

  3. Serum cardiac troponin I in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol and TNF-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Christensen, Anders Fogh

    2004-01-01

    Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a specific marker of myocardial injury related to in-patient fatality and cardiac injury in acute stroke. We investigated whether cTnI in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol, acute inflammatory response, and insular damage. We also investigated whether c...

  4. GAP--a PIC-type fluid code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marder, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    GAP, a PIC-type fluid code for computing compressible flows, is described and demonstrated. While retaining some features of PIC, it is felt that the GAP approach is conceptually and operationally simpler. 9 figures

  5. Excitations and management of the nonlinear localized gap modes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Finally, we discuss about the theory of Feshbach resonance management and dispersion ... Gap soliton; gap compacton; soliton management. ... Introduction ..... BD would like to thank DST and BCUD-PU for financial support through research.

  6. Outcome of rail fixator system in reconstructing bone gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lakhani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: All patients well tolerated rail fixator with good functional results and gap reconstruction. Easy application of rail fixator and comfortable distraction procedure suggest rail fixator a good alternative for gap reconstruction of limbs.

  7. ROSS Skills, Knowledge, and Abilities Training Evaluation. Gaps and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala, Maureen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gruidl, Jeremiah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, Brooke [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This document describes the development of the ROSS SKAs, the cross-mapping of the SKAs to the available training, identifies gaps in the SKA and training, and provides recommendations to address those gaps.

  8. Extension Implications of Skill Gaps among Cassava Farmers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension Implications of Skill Gaps among Cassava Farmers in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Skill gap analysis indicated 16 areas including packaging of cassava products with ...

  9. Structure modeling and mutational analysis of gap junction beta 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... Three dimensional (3 D) structure is very useful for understanding biological functions. Gap junction beta 2 (GJB2), human gene encoding for gap junction beta 2 protein is involved in ... Research in deafness became real.

  10. Charge Distribution Dependency on Gap Thickness of CMS Endcap RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Sung K.; Lee, Kyongsei

    2016-01-01

    We report a systematic study of charge distribution dependency of CMS Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) on gap thickness. Prototypes of double-gap RPCs with six different gap thickness ranging from from 1.0 to 2.0 mm in 0.2-mm steps have been built with 2-mm-thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated plates. The efficiencies of the six gaps are measured as a function of the effective high voltages. We report that the strength of the electric fields of the gap is decreased as the gap thickness is increased. The distributions of charges in six gaps are measured. The space charge effect is seen in the charge distribution at the higher voltages. The logistic function is used to fit the charge distribution data. Smaller charges can be produced within smaller gas gap. But the digitization threshold should be also lowered to utilize these smaller charges.

  11. Vehicle Codes and Standards: Overview and Gap Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, C.; Buttner, W.; Rivkin, C.

    2010-02-01

    This report identifies gaps in vehicle codes and standards and recommends ways to fill the gaps, focusing on six alternative fuels: biodiesel, natural gas, electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, and propane.

  12. The Primary Solid Waste Storage Gaps Experienced By Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    This study identifies and analyses the solid waste management service gaps and situations in these different socio-economic ... identifying gaps existing at primary (household) SW ... internal structure is based on land uses and income levels.

  13. Ocean Mixed Layer Response to Gap Wind Scenarios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Konstantinou, Nikolaos

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding the oceanic response to gap outflow and the air-sea interaction processes during the gap wind event between 26 and 28 February 2004 over the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. The U.S...

  14. Gap characteristics of southeastern Ohio second-growth forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Hix; Katherine K. Helfrich

    2003-01-01

    Transect sampling was used to assess the features of 30 gaps encountered in upland oak stands on the Wayne National Forest. Tip-ups caused the most canopy gaps (52 percent), two-thirds of which were small (

  15. Automatic Gap Detection in Friction Stir Welding Processes (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Yu; Kalya, Prabhanjana; Landers, Robert G; Krishnamurthy, K

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper develops a monitoring algorithm to detect gaps in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processes. Experimental studies are conducted to determine how the process parameters and the gap width affect the welding process...

  16. Evidence of indirect gap in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting; Lu, Li-Syuan; Wang, Dean; Huang, Jing-Kai; Li, Ming-Yang; Chang, Tay-Rong; Chou, Yi-Chia; Juang, Zhen-Yu; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Li, Lain-Jong; Chang, Wen-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2 and WSe2, have been known as direct gap semiconductors and emerged as new optically active materials for novel device applications. Here we reexamine their direct gap properties

  17. Information Interaction as a Mechanism of Semantic Gap Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Y. Tsvetkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies semantic gap as an objective phenomenon, shows that semantic gap occurs both in parallel computing and in other areas. Semantic description of the content is revealed as a set of different descriptions. Causes of semantic gap are described. The content of information exchange is explained in the article. Information interaction in the semantic field is interpreted as a mechanism to lessen the gap

  18. Gap-minimal systems of notations and the constructible hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucian, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    If a constructibly countable ordinal alpha is a gap ordinal, then the order type of the set of index ordinals smaller than alpha is exactly alpha. The gap ordinals are the only points of discontinuity of a certain ordinal-valued function. The notion of gap minimality for well ordered systems of notations is defined, and the existence of gap-minimal systems of notations of arbitrarily large constructibly countable length is established.

  19. Selection into Labor Force and Gender Unemployment Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Alena Bicakova

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets the groundwork for analysis of the effect of selection into labor force on gender unemployment gaps. We derive the Manski bounds for gender unemployment gaps in 21 EU countries and show that in addition to the positive selection documented in the gender wage gap research, there is also evidence of negative selection into the labor force among women after childbirth. While positive selection of women into the labor force leads to downward bias in gender unemployment gaps, negat...

  20. Equal Opportunity? Gender Gaps in CEO Appointments and Executive Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Keloharju, Matti; Knüpfer, Samuli; Tåg, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses exceptionally rich data on Swedish corporate executives and their personal characteristics to study gender gaps in CEO appointments and pay. Both gaps are sizeable: 18% for CEO appointments and 27% for pay. At most one-eight of the gaps can be attributed to observable gender differences in executives' and their firms' characteristics. Further tests suggest that unobservable gender differences in characteristics are unlikely to account for the remaining gaps. Instead, our resul...

  1. The gap year for geographers:effects and paradoxes

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Alan; Clark, Gordon; Pilgrim, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines why the growing gap-year phenomenon is important for university geography departments in the context of education and employment. The research examines the scale and types of gap years, and their effects on students. The study uses a multi-actor approach comprising information from national statistical sources, university departments, students who have taken gap years and commercial gap-year providers. The paper draws some lessons for geography departments such as the need...

  2. Introduction to the special issue "The determinants of gender gaps"

    OpenAIRE

    Casarico, Alessandra; Profeta, Paola

    2015-01-01

    This volume contributes to advancing our knowledge on the determinants of gender gaps. It focuses on the role of historical factors in shaping persistent gender gaps and on how careful institutional design can allow different outcomes to reflect only differences in abilities rather than differences in gender. The contributions collected in this volume emphasize that there is no unique determinant of the gender gaps and that the gender gap itself is a multidimensional, complex indicator. They ...

  3. Gap sequence, Lipschitz equivalence and box dimension of fractal sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Hui; Yang Yamin; Ruan Huojun

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a notion of gap sequences for compact sets E subset of R d , which is a generalization of the gap sequences of compact sets on the real line. We show that if the gap sequences of two fractal sets are not equivalent, then these two sets cannot be Lipschitz equivalent, where the latter fact is usually very hard to verify. Finally, we show that for some typical fractal sets, the gap sequences characterize the upper box dimension

  4. Wage gap between men and women in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Jeddi, Hela; Malouche, Dhafer

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating wage differences between males and females in Tunisia by using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, a technical that isolates wage gap due to characteristics, from wage gap due to discrimination against women. The data used in the analysis is obtained from the Tunisian Population and Employment Survey 2005. It is estimated that, the gender wage gap is about 19% and the results ascertain that the gender wage gap is mostly attributed to discrimination, especially t...

  5. Bridging the Civil Military Gap Capitalizing on Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    solutions. Researchers identifying the sources of the gap discussed above, have also suggested some methods for reducing the gap . While some are policy...Strategy Research Project DATE: 09 April 2002 PAGES: 42 CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified Researchers have identified a "civil-military gap ," an observable...would indicate a desire by the civilian populous to draw closer to the military, creating an opportunity to close or at least narrow this gap . The media

  6. Gap Acceptance Behavior Model for Non-signalized

    OpenAIRE

    Fajaruddin Bin Mustakim

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes field studies that were performed to determine the critical gap on the multiple rural roadways Malaysia, at non-signalized T-intersection by using The Raff and Logic Method. Critical gap between passenger car and motorcycle have been determined.   There are quite number of studied doing gap acceptance behavior model for passenger car however still few research on gap acceptance behavior model for motorcycle. Thus in this paper, logistic regression models were developed to p...

  7. Mango: multiple alignment with N gapped oligos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zefeng; Lin, Hao; Li, Ming

    2008-06-01

    Multiple sequence alignment is a classical and challenging task. The problem is NP-hard. The full dynamic programming takes too much time. The progressive alignment heuristics adopted by most state-of-the-art works suffer from the "once a gap, always a gap" phenomenon. Is there a radically new way to do multiple sequence alignment? In this paper, we introduce a novel and orthogonal multiple sequence alignment method, using both multiple optimized spaced seeds and new algorithms to handle these seeds efficiently. Our new algorithm processes information of all sequences as a whole and tries to build the alignment vertically, avoiding problems caused by the popular progressive approaches. Because the optimized spaced seeds have proved significantly more sensitive than the consecutive k-mers, the new approach promises to be more accurate and reliable. To validate our new approach, we have implemented MANGO: Multiple Alignment with N Gapped Oligos. Experiments were carried out on large 16S RNA benchmarks, showing that MANGO compares favorably, in both accuracy and speed, against state-of-the-art multiple sequence alignment methods, including ClustalW 1.83, MUSCLE 3.6, MAFFT 5.861, ProbConsRNA 1.11, Dialign 2.2.1, DIALIGN-T 0.2.1, T-Coffee 4.85, POA 2.0, and Kalign 2.0. We have further demonstrated the scalability of MANGO on very large datasets of repeat elements. MANGO can be downloaded at http://www.bioinfo.org.cn/mango/ and is free for academic usage.

  8. The gender earnings gap among pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M; Deziel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A gender earnings gap exists across professions. Compared with men, women earn consistently lower income levels. The determinants of wages and salaries should be explored to assess whether a gender earnings gap exists in the pharmacy profession. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the responses of male and female pharmacists' earnings with human-capital stock, workers' preferences, and opinion variables and (2) assess whether the earnings determination models for male and female pharmacists yielded similar results in estimating the wage-and-salary gap through earnings projections, the influence of each explanatory variable, and gender differences in statistical significance. Data were collected through the use of a 37-question survey mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, United States. Earnings functions were formulated and tested separately for male and female pharmacists using unlogged and semilog equation forms. Number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables were hypothesized to explain wage-and-salary differentials. The empirical evidence led to 3 major conclusions: (1) men's and women's earnings sometimes were influenced by different stimuli, and when they responded to the same variables, the effect often was different; (2) although the influence of some explanatory variables on earnings differed in the unlogged and semilog equations, the earnings projections derived from both equation forms for male and female pharmacists were remarkably similar and yielded nearly identical male-female earnings ratios; and (3) controlling for number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables reduced the initial unadjusted male-female earnings ratios only slightly, which pointed toward the presence of gender bias. After controlling for human-capital stock, job-related characteristics, and opinion variables, male pharmacists continued to earn higher income levels than female

  9. Radioimmunological determination of digoxin in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.; Sorger, D.

    1979-01-01

    The tested quality signs of the digoxin-RIA (Medica) correspond to other RIA-test methods. The digoxin-RIA (Medica) is, therefore, well suited for clinical examinations. In the dilanacin-(digoxin-) long-term therapy with the maintenance dose of 0.5 mg digoxin a day 75.4% of the patients examined (n = 65) were within the therapeutic field. In each case 12.3% were underdigitalised or overdigitalised, respectively. In the 8 patients in the toxic region only the half showed signs of digoxin intoxication. It is referred to the importance of creatinine and potassium in the serum, to the digoxin creatinene and potassium in the serum, to the digoxin clearance depending on age, to the body weight and the body surface, respectively, in very obese patients for the height of the serum digoxin level and for the compatibility of this heart glycoside. (author)

  10. Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in unextracted serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, S.P.; Corcoran, J.M.; Eastman, C.J.; Doy, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid, precise radioimmunoassay for progesterone in 25 μL of unextracted serum is described. Progesterone is released from its binding protein by adding an optimal amount of cortisol, which binds to the same protein (cortisol binding globulin) as progesterone. The amount of cortisol required does not cross react with the specific progesterone antibody used. This approach considerably shortens assay time and removes a tedious and imprecise stage in the conventional assay of serum progesterone. Results correlated well (r = 0.97) with a method involving organic solvent extraction of progesterone from serum. During the two years we have used this mehod in a busy diagnostic endocrine laboratory, the between-assay precision (CV) for low-, medium-, and high-concentration quality control sera was 12, 7, and 9%, respectively. Data from participation in an independent external quality-control program verified the adequacies of the method

  11. Gap Nanoantennas toward Molecular Plasmonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude L. Lereu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently we have demonstrated that single fluorescent molecules can be used as non-perturbative vectorial probes of the local field. Here, we expand on such experiments exploiting fluorescence lifetime of single molecules to probe various types of gap nanoantennas. First, studies of the nanoantennas are carried out to evaluate the electric field. We then investigate hybrid systems composed by nanoantennas and randomly positioned fluorescent molecules. Finally, we present a fabrication scheme for the controlled placement of fluorescent molecules at welldefined positions with respect to the dimer nanoantenna, which is a more direct route to probe the local field in an a priori determined way.

  12. The Gender Gap in European Business Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roseberry, Lynn; Remke, Robyn; Klæsson, Johan

    "The Gender Gap in European Business Schools: A Leadership Perspective" is a research project initiated and funded by EFMD, EQUAL, and the business schools represented on the project’s Steering Committee with following motivations for the study: Numerous studies by policy makers and academics have...... (the highest positions in the academic hierarchy) in HEIs in the vast majority of EU member states. In thirteen EU countries, women represented less than 20% of grade A academic staff. Business schools are no exception to this pattern. The average proportion of all full-time female faculty – not just...

  13. Effect of disorder on photonic band gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigalas, M.M.; Soukoulis, C.M.; Chan, C.T.; Biswas, R.; Ho, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    We study the transmission of electromagnetic waves propagating in three-dimensional disordered photonic crystals that are periodic on the average with a diamond symmetry. The transmission has been calculated using the transfer matrix method. We study two different geometries for the scatterers: spheres and rods connecting nearest neighbors. We find that the gaps of the periodic structure survive to a higher amount of disorder in the rods close-quote case than in the spheres close-quote case. We argue that this is due to the connectivity of the rod structure that exists for any amount of disorder. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  14. The mass gap and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gogokhia, Vakhtang; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the most up-to-date theory of the strong interaction. Its predictions have been verified experimentally, and it is a cornerstone of the Standard Model of particle physics. However, standard perturbative procedures fail if applied to low-energy QCD. Even the discovery of the Higgs Boson will not solve the problem of masses originating from the non-perturbative behavior of QCD.This book presents a new method, the introduction of the 'mass gap', first suggested by Arthur Jaffe and Edward Witten at the turn of the millennium. It attempts to show that, to explain the

  15. Gap junctions-guards of excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroemlund, Line Waring; Jensen, Christa Funch; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes are connected by mechanical and electrical junctions located at the intercalated discs (IDs). Although these structures have long been known, it is becoming increasingly clear that their components interact. This review describes the involvement of the ID in electrical disturbances...... of the heart and focuses on the role of the gap junctional protein connexin 43 (Cx43). Current evidence shows that Cx43 plays a crucial role in organizing microtubules at the intercalated disc and thereby regulating the trafficking of the cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5 to the membrane....

  16. Gender wage gap in transistion in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Y.C. Liu

    2001-01-01

    The impact of sectoral location on the gender earnings gap is important in the context of Vietnam’s transition into a market-oriented economy. More and more women are seeking employment in the private sector either in response to retrenchment in the public sector or in response to increasing economic opportunities in the private sector. We apply the Appleton et al. (1999) decomposition technique to the Vietnam Living Standards Survey data collected in 1992- 93 and 1997-98, to decompose the ge...

  17. Directionally independent energy gap formation due to the hyperfine interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyashita, Seiji; Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel

    We study energy gap formation at the level-crossing point due to the hyperfine interaction. In contrast to the energy gap induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the gap induced by the hyperfine interaction is independent of the direction of the magnetic field. We also study the dynamics

  18. Closing the Knowledge Gap on Effective Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Achievement gaps concern educators at all levels today. Educators recognize the threats these gaps pose to education quality and equity, and they are working hard to close them--but an equally threatening gap in education with consequences just as serious is largely ignored. It influences every educational-improvement effort and seriously…

  19. Closing the Gaps: 2014 Progress Report. College for All Texans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Closing the Gaps: The Texas Higher Education Plan" was adopted in October 2000 by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB). The goal of the "Closing the Gaps" ("CTG") plan is to close educational gaps in participation, success, excellence, and research within Texas and between Texas and other states by…

  20. Plasmon band gap generated by intense ion acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, S.; Ku, S.

    2010-01-01

    In the presence of an intense ion acoustic wave, the energy-momentum dispersion relation of plasmons is strongly modified to exhibit a band gap structure. The intensity of an ion acoustic wave might be measured from the band gap width. The plasmon band gap can be used to block the nonlinear cascading channel of the Langmuir wave decay.

  1. Electron Elevator: Excitations across the Band Gap via a Dynamical Gap State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A; Foulkes, W M C; Horsfield, A P; Mason, D R; Schleife, A; Draeger, E W; Correa, A A

    2016-01-29

    We use time-dependent density functional theory to study self-irradiated Si. We calculate the electronic stopping power of Si in Si by evaluating the energy transferred to the electrons per unit path length by an ion of kinetic energy from 1 eV to 100 keV moving through the host. Electronic stopping is found to be significant below the threshold velocity normally identified with transitions across the band gap. A structured crossover at low velocity exists in place of a hard threshold. An analysis of the time dependence of the transition rates using coupled linear rate equations enables one of the excitation mechanisms to be clearly identified: a defect state induced in the gap by the moving ion acts like an elevator and carries electrons across the band gap.

  2. Gap deformation and classical wave localization in disordered two-dimensional photonic-band-gap materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidorikis, E.; Sigalas, M. M.; Economou, E. N.; Soukoulis, C. M.

    2000-01-01

    By using two ab initio numerical methods, we study the effects that disorder has on the spectral gaps and on wave localization in two-dimensional photonic-band-gap materials. We find that there are basically two different responses depending on the lattice realization (solid dielectric cylinders in air or vice versa), the wave polarization, and the particular form under which disorder is introduced. Two different pictures for the photonic states are employed, the ''nearly free'' photon and the ''strongly localized'' photon. These originate from the two different mechanisms responsible for the formation of the spectral gaps, i.e., multiple scattering and single scatterer resonances, and they qualitatively explain our results. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  3. Serum ferritin in recurrent oral ulceration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challacombe, S.J.; Scully, C.; Keevil, B.; Lehner, T.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radio-assay for ferritin was developed and used to examine serum ferritin levels in 105 patients with recurrent oral ulceration (ROU), 41 patients with Behcet's syndrome (BS), 42 with other ulcerative oral lesions, 35 patients with non-ulcerative oral lesions and in 78 controls. Ferritin levels increased with age and were significantly higher in males than females. The mean ferritin concentrations in male patients with ROU, BS or with other oral ulcers were significantly reduced in comparison with controls, and in female patients were significantly reduced in those with major aphthous ulcers. The prevalence of low serum ferritin levels was about 8% in patients with ROU, 15% in BS and 9.5% in patients with other ulcerative oral lesions, compared with less than 3% in patients with non-ulcerative oral disorders and in controls. Most of the iron-deficient patients were female. Serum ferritin levels did not directly correlate with serum iron levels and may be a more accurate indicator of iron deficiency. Furthermore, serum ferritin can distinguish between patients with true iron deficiency and those with secondary sideropenia. It is suggested that in a small number of patients, oral ulceration may be a presenting sign of iron deficiency, and that in a further small proportion of patients, ROU already present will be exacerbated by concurrent iron deficiency. Both groups will show a therapeutic response to correction of the iron deficiency. The results suggest that serum ferritin levels are a useful part of the haematological investigatons in patients with ROU. (author)

  4. Embryogenesis-promoting factors in rat serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, M; Kimura, R; Shoji, R

    1998-06-15

    Regarding whole rat embryo cultures in vitro, rat serum as a culture medium is known to support the normal growth of rat embryos in the organogenesis phase. The purpose of the present study was to isolate the embryogenesis-promoting factors from rat serum as a first step in the development of a defined serum-free medium for a whole embryo culture system. Pooled rat serum after heat inactivation was fractionated into three major peaks (frA, containing a region of void volume, frB, and frC) by gel filtration. The 9.5-day rat embryos that were cultivated for 48 hr in essential salt medium containing frB (with a molecular size range of 100-500 kDa) revealed normal growth. Three proteins (27 kDa, 76 kDa, and 190 kDa) that had the embryogenesis-promoting effects were isolated from 3-hr delayed centrifuged rat serum by the ion exchange chromatography. The 76-kDa protein was found to be rat transferrin by immunoblotting. The 27-kDa protein was identified as apo-AI (the major apoprotein of high-density lipoprotein) by immunoblotting. High-density lipoprotein obtained from pooled rat serum by a NaBr density gradient ultracentrifugation was found to have a positive effect on embryogenesis. The 10-kDa protein was also identified as alpha 1-inhibitor 3 by immunoblotting. In addition, the embryogenesis-promoting effect of the fraction containing 27-kDa and 190-kDa proteins declined within a short period of storage at -20 degrees C. This decrease was countered by supplementing its fraction (D-2) with albumin isolated from rat serum. These results in the present study suggest that transferrin, high-density lipoprotein, and alpha 1-inhibitor 3 in rat serum may be embryogenesis-promoting factors, and that albumin appeared to play a role in the embryogenesis of rat embryos in whole embryo cultures.

  5. Study of Serum Magnesium in Surgical Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip D. Lambe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A deficiency of magnesium is of clinical importance in hospitalized patients. The prevalence of hypomagnesaemia is high in critically ill patients. Knowing the important role of magnesium in surgical cases, it is necessary to anticipate and diagnose magnesium deficiency prior to surgery and in the immediate postoperative period to correct it. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse serum magnesium levels in patients undergoing emergency surgical procedures, planned surgical procedures and normal healthy matched controls and to compare the serum magnesium levels in all the three groups. Materials and Methods: The study participants were divided into three groups: i Group I: patients undergoing emergency major surgery ii Group II: patients undergoing planned major surgery iii Group III: normal healthy controls. Serum Magnesium investigation was done by Xylidyl Blue Method using UV-1800/Shimadzu UV-Spectrophotometer. Results: The mean serum Magnesium in control group was found to be 2.16 ± 0.30 mg/dl. In patients undergoing planned surgery, pre-operative serum magnesium was normal (2.16 ± 0.22 mg/dl but decreased significantly on postoperative day 3 (1.63 ± 0.27 mg/dl and day 6 (1.97 ± 0.12 mg/dl and returned to normal level by post-operative day 9 (2.14 ± 0.14 mg/dl compared to controls. In patients undergoing emergency surgery, serum magnesium was decreased pre-operatively (1.90 ± 0.48 mg/dl.Further significant reduction was found at post-operative day 3 (1.38 ± 0.28 mg/dl, day 6 (1.59 ± 0.30 mg/dl and day 9 (1.88 ± 0.46 mg/dl compared to controls. Mean serum Magnesium overall in emergency surgery patients was reduced significantly compared to planned surgery patients. Conclusion: A transient fall in the serum Magnesium as compared to its pre-operative level was seen in every patient undergoing surgical procedure due to surgical stress. In patients undergoing emergency surgical procedure, the decrease was

  6. Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, C; Johansen, J S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three......YKL-40 is a mammalian member of the chitinase protein family. Although the function of YKL-40 is unknown, the pattern of its expression suggests a function in remodelling or degradation of extracellular matrix. High serum YKL-40 has been found in patients with recurrent breast cancer and has been...

  7. Competitive radioimmunoassay of digoxin in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oslapas, Raymond; Herrin, T.R.

    1975-01-01

    The process described is for determining the digoxin level of a serum. To do so a mixture is made by adding to the serum sample an antidigoxin antibody and a suitable labelling quantity of O 3 -(hydroxy-4 phenethylcarbamoyl)digoxigenin for radioactive labelling. The mixture is allowed to incubate so that the digoxin of the sample and the radioactive labelling reagent joint to the antidigoxin antibody. A precipitating agent is added to the mixture to help the formation of a precipitate and thus separate the labelled digoxin taken up from the precipitate free digoxin. The liquid is separated from the precipitate formed and the residual radioactivity of the precipitate is measured [fr

  8. Radioimmunoassay of serum myoglobin in neuromuscular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askmark, H; Osterman, P O; Roxin, L E; Venge, P [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of serum myoglobin was performed in 85 patients with muscular symptoms. Elevated levels were found in 93% of patients with myogenic myopathy, in 54% with myasthenia gravis and in 50% with neurogenic myopathy. All 11 patients with polymyositis had elevated myoglobin concentrations. In six of seven patients with polymyositis, who were followed up with repeated determinations, a clear relationship between myoglobin levels and clinical course was found. In general serum myoglobin seemed to be a more sensitive indicator of muscle disease than creatine kinase.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of serum myoglobin in neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askmark, H.; Osterman, P.O.; Roxin, L.-E.; Venge, P.

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of serum myoglobin was performed in 85 patients with muscular symptoms. Elevated levels were found in 93% of patients with myogenic myopathy, in 54% with myasthenia gravis and in 50% with neurogenic myopathy. All 11 patients with polymyositis had elevated myoglobin concentrations. In six of seven patients with polymyositis, who were followed up with repeated determinations, a clear relationship between myoglobin levels and clinical course was found. In general serum myoglobin seemed to be a more sensitive indicator of muscle disease than creatine kinase. (author)

  10. HYPOLIPEMIC THERAPY AND LOW SERUM CHOLESTEROL CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladmila Bojanic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Low concentration of plasma lipoproteins (hypolipoproteinemia presents decreasing concentrations of all or particular lipids components. Classification of hypolipoproteinemia (hypoLP divides them into: primary (hereditary and secondary. Primary hipoLP are rare diseases and their main characteristic is disorder of apolipoproteins synthesis, which leads to low serum cholesterol concentration. Secondary hipoLP are presented in many diseases. They have diagnostic, prognostic significance and present good therapeutic marker. However, modern therapeutic approaches for aggressive lipid lowering pointed out many questions about physiological limits for cholesterol lowering. These approaches, also, open many questions about consequences of low serum concentration of total cholesterol and triglicerides.

  11. Analysis of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, B R

    2002-09-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels are influenced by genetic polymorphism. Interpretation of serum levels with the appropriate genotypic reference range improves the diagnostic sensitivity of the assay for sarcoidosis. SACE assays are performed by a large number of routine clinical laboratories. However, there is no external quality assessment (EQA) for SACE other than an informal regional scheme. This showed analytical performance of SACE assays to be poor, with a diversity of reference ranges, leading to widely disparate clinical classification of EQA samples. Genetic polymorphism combined with poor analytical performance suggest that perhaps SACE assays should revert to being the province of specialized laboratories.

  12. On the Feasibility of Gap Detection of Power Transformer Partial Discharge UHF Signals: Gap Propagation Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the transformer electromagnetic gap propagation characteristics. The influence of gap size is also analyzed, and the results experimentally verified. The obtained results indicated that the gap propagation characteristics of electromagnetic wave signals radiated by the partial discharge (PD source in different directions are substantially different. The intensity of the electromagnetic wave in the gap reaches a maximum at a gap height of 1 cm; and inside the gap, the intensity of the electromagnetic wave depicted an increasing trend at the tail area of the gap. Finally, from the obtained results, some suggestions on where to install sensors in practical systems for ultra high frequency (UHF PD signal detection in the transformer gap are provided. The obtained results confirmed the feasibility of using this approach. These results can be seen as a benchmark and a challenge for further research in this field.

  13. Energy and Climate. Bridging the Geopolitical Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slingerland, S.; Van den Heuvel, S.

    2009-07-01

    Climate change is a 'hot' subject as an international political topic, and finding more superlatives about climate change after last year' presentation of Al Gore's Inconvenient Truths is difficult. At the 2009 UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen a successor has to be found to the present Kyoto Protocol. It is now generally recognized that man-made greenhouse gas emissions have a detrimental effect on the global climate, and emissions seem to increase even more rapidly than when the most pessimistic climate change scenarios are taken into account.1 Fossil energy use is mainly responsible for these emissions. However, despite increasing worldwide recognition that climate change is indeed a serious global problem and mounting rhetoric from political leaders, there is still little evidence that the fundamental changes needed to prevent the potential dangers of climate change are being addressed. This chapter argues that there are at least three geopolitical gaps that need to be closed in order to reach an effective agreement in Copenhagen in 2009. The gaps are closely related to the global political and economic structure of energy supply and demand. They concern a divide, firstly between the United States and Europe, secondly between industrialised and developing countries, and thirdly between fossil fuel exporting and importing countries.

  14. Energy and Climate. Bridging the Geopolitical Gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slingerland, S.; Van den Heuvel, S.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is a 'hot' subject as an international political topic, and finding more superlatives about climate change after last year' presentation of Al Gore's Inconvenient Truths is difficult. At the 2009 UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen a successor has to be found to the present Kyoto Protocol. It is now generally recognized that man-made greenhouse gas emissions have a detrimental effect on the global climate, and emissions seem to increase even more rapidly than when the most pessimistic climate change scenarios are taken into account.1 Fossil energy use is mainly responsible for these emissions. However, despite increasing worldwide recognition that climate change is indeed a serious global problem and mounting rhetoric from political leaders, there is still little evidence that the fundamental changes needed to prevent the potential dangers of climate change are being addressed. This chapter argues that there are at least three geopolitical gaps that need to be closed in order to reach an effective agreement in Copenhagen in 2009. The gaps are closely related to the global political and economic structure of energy supply and demand. They concern a divide, firstly between the United States and Europe, secondly between industrialised and developing countries, and thirdly between fossil fuel exporting and importing countries.

  15. Breakdown localization in the fixed gap system

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamaki, Robin; Wuensch, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Accurate localization of breakdowns in vacuum could help shed light on breakdown related processes that are not yet fully understood. At the DC spark lab at CERN, an instrument called the Fixed Gap System (FGS) has been developed partially for this purpose. Among other things, the FGS has four built-in antennas, which are intended for breakdown localization. The capability of this aspect of the FGS was explored in this report. Specifically, the feasibility of using a method similar to that which is used in cavity Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) was investigated. The usable frequency range of the current experimental setup was also studied. Firstly, a modal analysis of the inner geometry of the FGS was done in HFSS. This showed that the two first modes to be expected in the spark gap quite differ from those of the ideal pillbox – both in field pattern and in frequency ( 4 and 6 GHz vs. 0.2 and 3 GHz). Secondly, S-parameters of the system were measured. These showed that the coupling between antennas is weak...

  16. GAP junctional communication in brain secondary organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosone, Camilla; Andreu, Abraham; Echevarria, Diego

    2016-06-01

    Gap junctions (GJs) are integral membrane proteins that enable the direct cytoplasmic exchange of ions and low molecular weight metabolites between adjacent cells. They are formed by the apposition of two connexons belonging to adjacent cells. Each connexon is formed by six proteins, named connexins (Cxs). Current evidence suggests that gap junctions play an important part in ensuring normal embryo development. Mutations in connexin genes have been linked to a variety of human diseases, although the precise role and the cell biological mechanisms of their action remain almost unknown. Among the big family of Cxs, several are expressed in nervous tissue but just a few are expressed in the anterior neural tube of vertebrates. Many efforts have been made to elucidate the molecular bases of Cxs cell biology and how they influence the morphogenetic signal activity produced by brain signaling centers. These centers, orchestrated by transcription factors and morphogenes determine the axial patterning of the mammalian brain during its specification and regionalization. The present review revisits the findings of GJ composed by Cx43 and Cx36 in neural tube patterning and discuss Cx43 putative enrollment in the control of Fgf8 signal activity coming from the well known secondary organizer, the isthmic organizer. © 2016 The Authors. Development, Growth & Differentiation published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  17. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.

  18. Gap timing and the spectral timing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, J W

    1999-04-01

    A hypothesized mechanism underlying gap timing was implemented in the Spectral Timing Model [Grossberg, S., Schmajuk, N., 1989. Neural dynamics of adaptive timing and temporal discrimination during associative learning. Neural Netw. 2, 79-102] , a neural network timing model. The activation of the network nodes was made to decay in the absence of the timed signal, causing the model to shift its peak response time in a fashion similar to that shown in animal subjects. The model was then able to accurately simulate a parametric study of gap timing [Cabeza de Vaca, S., Brown, B., Hemmes, N., 1994. Internal clock and memory processes in aminal timing. J. Exp. Psychol.: Anim. Behav. Process. 20 (2), 184-198]. The addition of a memory decay process appears to produce the correct pattern of results in both Scalar Expectancy Theory models and in the Spectral Timing Model, and the fact that the same process should be effective in two such disparate models argues strongly that process reflects a true aspect of animal cognition.

  19. Thermoelectricity in correlated narrow-gap semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Jan M.

    2018-05-01

    We review many-body effects, their microscopic origin, as well as their impact on thermoelectricity in correlated narrow-gap semiconductors. Members of this class—such as FeSi and FeSb2—display an unusual temperature dependence in various observables: insulating with large thermopowers at low temperatures, they turn bad metals at temperatures much smaller than the size of their gaps. This insulator-to-metal crossover is accompanied by spectral weight-transfers over large energies in the optical conductivity and by a gradual transition from activated to Curie–Weiss-like behaviour in the magnetic susceptibility. We show a retrospective of the understanding of these phenomena, discuss the relation to heavy-fermion Kondo insulators—such as Ce3Bi4Pt3 for which we present new results—and propose a general classification of paramagnetic insulators. From the latter, FeSi emerges as an orbital-selective Kondo insulator. Focussing on intermetallics such as silicides, antimonides, skutterudites, and Heusler compounds we showcase successes and challenges for the realistic simulation of transport properties in the presence of electronic correlations. Further, we explore new avenues in which electronic correlations may contribute to the improvement of thermoelectric performance.

  20. Terbinafine inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Yeun; Yoon, Sei Mee; Choi, Eun Ju; Lee, Jinu

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is an antifungal agent that selectively inhibits fungal sterol synthesis by blocking squalene epoxidase. We evaluated the effect of terbinafine on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and I-YFP GJIC assays revealed that terbinafine inhibits GJIC in a reversible and dose-dependent manner in FRT-Cx43 and LN215 cells. Treatment with terbinafine did not affect Cx43 phosphorylation status or intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, well-known action mechanisms of various GJIC blockers. While a structurally related chemical, naftifine, attenuated GJIC, epigallocatechin gallate, another potent squalene epoxidase inhibitor with a different structure, did not. These results suggest that terbinafine inhibits GJIC with a so far unknown mechanism of action. - Highlights: • In vitro pharmacological studies were performed on FRT-Cx43 and LN215 cells. • Terbinafine inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication in both cell lines. • The inhibitory effect of terbinafine is reversible and dose-dependent. • Treatment of terbinafine does not alter Cx43 phosphorylation or cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration. • Inhibition of squalene epoxidase is not involved in this new effect of terbinafine.