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Sample records for serum n-linked glycome

  1. Glycomic Approach for Potential Biomarkers on Prostate Cancer: Profiling of N-Linked Glycans in Human Sera and pRNS Cell Lines

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    Maria Lorna A. de Leoz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men. Currently available screening test measures prostate-specific antigen (PSA to detect prostate cancer. However, this test produces false positive values that often lead to negative biopsies. Therefore, a more reliable diagnostic tool is needed. Glycans in serum are of particular interest as around half of all proteins are glycosylated. In this study, N-linked glycans were enzymatically released by PNGase F from prostate epithelial cell lines (pRNS expressing wild type or mutant androgen receptors and a small set of human serum samples. Released glycans were purified and partitioned into neutral and acidic components by solid phase extraction (SPE using graphitized carbon cartridges. The SPE fractions were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI FT-ICR MS. Significant changes in some high-mannose and fucosylated biantennary complex N-linked glycans were observed in the serum of prostate cancer patients.

  2. Glycomic and glycoproteomic analysis of serum from patients with stomach cancer reveals potential markers arising from host defense response mechanisms.

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    Bones, Jonathan; Byrne, Jennifer C; O'Donoghue, Niaobh; McManus, Ciara; Scaife, Caitriona; Boissin, Herve; Nastase, Anca; Rudd, Pauline M

    2011-03-04

    Despite the reduced incidence of gastric cancer in the developed world, a diagnosis of stomach carcinoma still carries a poor prognosis due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease in the early stages, subsequent advanced stage diagnosis, and a low 5 year survival rate. Endoscopy remains the primary standard for diagnosis of stomach carcinoma and the current marker, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) lacks the levels of sensitivity and specificity required in order to make it clinically useful for diagnostic monitoring. Therefore, there is a current need for additional markers to improve the diagnostic accuracy for the early stages of stomach cancer. Together, glycomic, proteomic, and glycoproteomic analyses of serum have the potential to identify such probable markers. A discovery study is reported here using preoperative serum from 80 stomach cancer patients, 10 patients bearing benign stomach disease, and 20 matched controls. Glycomic analysis of the total and immunoaffinity depleted serum revealed statistically significant increases in the levels of sialyl Lewis X epitopes (SLe(X)) present on triantennary glycans accompanied by increased levels of core fucosylated agalactosyl biantennary glycans present on IgG (referred to as the IgG G0 glycoform) which are associated with increasing disease pathogenesis. Protein expression analysis using 2D-DiGE returned a number of differentially expressed protein candidates in the depleted serum, many of which were shown to carry triantennary SLe(X) during subsequent glycomic investigations. Biological pathway analysis of the experimental data returned complement activation and acute phase response signaling as the most significantly altered pathways in the stomach cancer patient serum. Upon the basis of these findings, it is suggested that increased expression of IgG G0 and complement activation are a host response to the presence of the stomach tumor while the increased expression of SLe(X) and acute phase response

  3. Serum N-glycome characterization and anti-carbohydrate antibody profiling in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

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    Shih-Yun Guu

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is a protein post translational modification which plays important role in protein function, stabilization, trafficking, and turnover. Alteration of protein glycosylation is a common phenomenon during tumor progression, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, as well as metastasis. Hence, aberrant glycan structures and the induced corresponding anti-carbohydrate antibodies are potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. In this study, serum N-glycomes and anti-carbohydrate antibodies from normal populations and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC patients were investigated. Total serum proteins were lyophilized and subjected to chemical reduction, alkylation and trypsin digestion. The N-glycans were released, purified, permethylated, and analyzed using MALDI-TOF-Mass spectrometry. In addition, the serum anti-carbohydrate antibody profiles were also investigated by carbohydrate microarray. We found that the relative abundances of seven N-glycans were decreased or increased in serum of OSCC with diagnostic accuracy greater than 75%. The relative abundances of total tri-antennary and tetra-antennary glycans with varying degrees of fucosylation and sialylation were also increased in serum N-glycomes of OSCC. In an independent validation group of forty-eight OCCC patients, most of the high-molecular weight serum N-glycans showed significantly high sensitivity and specificity according to the identified cutoff values. Furthermore, the serum levels of two IgM antibodies were elevated accompanied with the decreased levels of nine IgG antibodies in patient serum. Taken together, these serum N-glycans and antibodies identified in this study should be considered as the candidates of potential biomarkers for OSCC diagnosis.

  4. Large-Scale Glycomics of Livestock: Discovery of Highly Sensitive Serum Biomarkers Indicating an Environmental Stress Affecting Immune Responses and Productivity of Holstein Dairy Cows.

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    Rehan, Ibrahim F; Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Amano, Maho; Hinou, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Tetsu; Kondo, Seiji; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-12-09

    Because various stresses strongly influence the food productivity of livestock, biomarkers to indicate unmeasurable environmental stress in domestic animals are of increasing importance. Thermal comfort is one of the basic principles of dairy cow welfare that enhances productivity. To discover sensitive biomarkers that monitor such environmental stresses in dairy cows, we herein performed, for the first time, large-scale glycomics on 336 lactating Holstein cow serum samples over 9 months between February and October. Glycoblotting combined with MALDI-TOF/MS and DMB/HPLC allowed for comprehensive glycomics of whole serum glycoproteins. The results obtained revealed seasonal alterations in serum N-glycan levels and their structural characteristics, such as an increase in high-mannose type N-glycans in spring, the occurrence of di/triantennary complex type N-glycans terminating with two or three Neu5Gc residues in summer and autumn, and N-glycans in winter dominantly displaying Neu5Ac. A multivariate analysis revealed a correlation between the serum expression levels of these season-specific glycoforms and productivity.

  5. Delineation of disease phenotypes associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma by MALDI-IMS-MS analysis of serum N-linked glycans.

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    Gaye, M M; Ding, T; Shion, H; Hussein, A; Hu, Y; Zhou, S; Hammoud, Z T; Lavine, B K; Mechref, Y; Gebler, J C; Clemmer, D E

    2017-05-02

    N-Linked glycans, extracted from patient sera and healthy control individuals, are analyzed by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) in combination with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), mass spectrometry (MS) and pattern recognition methods. MALDI-IMS-MS data were collected in duplicate for 58 serum samples obtained from individuals diagnosed with Barrett's esophagus (BE, 14 patients), high-grade dysplasia (HGD, 7 patients), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC, 20 patients) and disease-free control (NC, 17 individuals). A combined mobility distribution of 9 N-linked glycans is established for 90 MALDI-IMS-MS spectra (training set) and analyzed using a genetic algorithm for feature selection and classification. Two models for phenotype delineation are subsequently developed and as a result, the four phenotypes (BE, HGD, EAC and NC) are unequivocally differentiated. Next, the two models are tested against 26 blind measurements. Interestingly, these models allowed for the correct phenotype prediction of as many as 20 blinds. Although applied to a limited number of blind samples, this methodology appears promising as a means of discovering molecules from serum that may have capabilities as markers of disease.

  6. A comprehensive glycome profiling of Huntington's disease transgenic mice.

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    Gizaw, Solomon T; Koda, Toshiaki; Amano, Maho; Kamimura, Keiko; Ohashi, Tetsu; Hinou, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal, dominantly inherited and progressive neurodegenerative disease, nosologically classified as the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies and the loss of GABA-containing neurons in the neostriatum and subsequently in the cerebellar cortex. Abnormal processing of neuronal proteins can result in the misfolding of proteins and altered post-translational modification of newly synthesized proteins. Total glycomics, namely, N-glycomics, O-glycomics, and glycosphingolipidomics (GSL-omics) of HD transgenic mice would be a hallmark for central nervous system disorders in order to discover disease specific biomarkers. Glycoblotting method, a high throughput glycomic protocol, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) were used to study the total glycome expression levels in the brain tissue (3 mice of each sex) and sera (5 mice of each sex) of HD transgenic and control mice. All experiments were performed twice and differences in the expression levels of major glycoforms were compared between HD transgenic and control mice. We estimated the structure and expression levels of 87 and 58N-glycans in brain tissue and sera, respectively, of HD transgenic and control mice. The present results clearly indicated that the brain glycome and their expression levels are significantly gender specific when compared with those of other tissues and serum. Core-fucosylated and bisecting-GlcNAc types of N-glycans were found in increased levels in the brain tissue HD transgenic mice. Accordingly, core-fucosylated and sialic acid (particularly N-glycolylneuraminic acid, NeuGc) for biantennary type glycans were found in increased amounts in the sera of HD transgenic mice compared to that of control mice. Core 3 type O-glycans were found in increased levels in male and in decreased levels in both the striatum and cortexes of female HD transgenic mice. Furthermore, serum levels of core 1 type O

  7. Glycomic Approaches for the Discovery of Targets in Gastrointestinal Cancer

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    Stefan eMereiter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI cancer is the most common group of malignancies and many of its types are among the most deadly. Various glycoconjugates have been used in clinical practice as serum biomarker for several GI tumors, however with limited diagnose application. Despite the good accessibility by endoscopy of many GI organs, the lack of reliable serum biomarkers often leads to late diagnosis of malignancy and consequently low 5-year survival rates. Recent advances in analytical techniques have provided novel glycoproteomic and glycomic data and generated functional information and putative biomarker targets in oncology. Glycosylation alterations have been demonstrated in a series of glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycosphingolipids that are involved in cancer cell adhesion, signaling, invasion and metastasis formation. In this review, we present an overview on the major glycosylation alterations in GI cancer and the current serological biomarkers used in the clinical oncology setting. We further describe recent glycomic studies in GI cancer, namely gastric, colorectal and pancreatic cancer. Moreover, we discuss the role of glycosylation as a modulator of the function of several key players in cancer cell biology. Finally, we address several state-of-the-art techniques currently applied in this field, such as glycomic and glycoproteomic analyses, the application of glycoengineered cell line models, microarray and proximity ligation assay, as well as imaging mass spectrometry and provide an outlook to future perspectives and clinical applications.

  8. Recent advances in cellular glycomic analyses.

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    Furukawa, Jun-Ichi; Fujitani, Naoki; Shinohara, Yasuro

    2013-02-21

    A large variety of glycans is intricately located on the cell surface, and the overall profile (the glycome, given the entire repertoire of glycoconjugate-associated sugars in cells and tissues) is believed to be crucial for the diverse roles of glycans, which are mediated by specific interactions that control cell-cell adhesion, immune response, microbial pathogenesis and other cellular events. The glycomic profile also reflects cellular alterations, such as development, differentiation and cancerous change. A glycoconjugate-based approach would therefore be expected to streamline discovery of novel cellular biomarkers. Development of such an approach has proven challenging, due to the technical difficulties associated with the analysis of various types of cellular glycomes; however, recent progress in the development of analytical methodologies and strategies has begun to clarify the cellular glycomics of various classes of glycoconjugates. This review focuses on recent advances in the technical aspects of cellular glycomic analyses of major classes of glycoconjugates, including N- and O-linked glycans, derived from glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycosphingolipids. Articles that unveil the glycomics of various biologically important cells, including embryonic and somatic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and cancer cells, are discussed.

  9. Designed synthesis of MOF-derived magnetic nanoporous carbon materials for selective enrichment of glycans for glycomics analysis.

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    Sun, Nianrong; Zhang, Xiangmin; Deng, Chunhui

    2015-04-21

    In this work, magnetic nanoporous carbon (NPC) materials were synthesized by choosing a MOF as a sacrificial template and a carbon precursor. The obtained Co-ZIF-67 materials showed strong magnetic response, high surface area, a uniform size of mesopores and high carbon content. The Co-ZIF-67 materials were successfully applied to glycomics analysis by enriching N-linked glycans in bio-samples with high selectivity and efficiency.

  10. Genomics and epigenomics of the human glycome.

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    Zoldoš, Vlatka; Novokmet, Mislav; Bečeheli, Ivona; Lauc, Gordan

    2013-01-01

    The majority of all proteins are glycosylated and glycans have numerous important structural, functional and regulatory roles in various physiological processes. While structure of the polypeptide part of a glycoprotein is defined by the sequence of nucleotides in the corresponding gene, structure of a glycan part results from dynamic interactions between hundreds of genes, their protein products and environmental factors. The composition of the glycome attached to an individual protein, or to a complex mixture of proteins, like human plasma, is stable within an individual, but very variable between individuals. This variability stems from numerous common genetic polymorphisms reflecting in changes in the complex biosynthetic pathway of glycans, but also from the interaction with the environment. Environment can affect glycan biosynthesis at the level of substrate availability, regulation of enzyme activity and/or hormonal signals, but also through gene-environment interactions. Epigenetics provides a molecular basis how the environment can modify phenotype of an individual. The epigenetic information (DNA methylation pattern and histone code) is especially vulnerable to environmental effects in the early intrauterine and neo-natal development and many common late-onset diseases take root already at that time. The evidences showing the link between epigenetics and glycosylation are accumulating. Recent progress in high-throughput glycomics, genomics and epigenomics enabled first epidemiological and genome-wide association studies of the glycome, which are presented in this mini-review.

  11. An alpha-numeric code for representing N-linked glycan structures in secreted glycoproteins.

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    Yusufi, Faraaz Noor Khan; Park, Wonjun; Lee, May May; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2009-01-01

    Advances in high-throughput techniques have led to the creation of increasing amounts of glycome data. The storage and analysis of this data would benefit greatly from a compact notation for describing glycan structures that can be easily stored and interpreted by computers. Towards this end, we propose a fixed-length alpha-numeric code for representing N-linked glycan structures commonly found in secreted glycoproteins from mammalian cell cultures. This code, GlycoDigit, employs a pre-assigned alpha-numeric index to represent the monosaccharides attached in different branches to the core glycan structure. The present branch-centric representation allows us to visualize the structure while the numerical nature of the code makes it machine readable. In addition, a difference operator can be defined to quantitatively differentiate between glycan structures for further analysis. The usefulness and applicability of GlycoDigit were demonstrated by constructing and visualizing an N-linked glycosylation network.

  12. Isotopic labeling with cellular O-glycome reporter/amplification (ICORA) for comparative O-glycomics of cultured cells.

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    Kudelka, Matthew R; Nairn, Alison V; Sardar, Mohammed Y; Sun, Xiaodong; Chaikof, Elliot L; Ju, Tongzhong; Moremen, Kelley W; Cummings, Richard D

    2018-04-01

    Mucin-type O-glycans decorate >80% of secretory and cell surface proteins and contribute to health and disease. However, dynamic alterations in the O-glycome are poorly understood because current O-glycomic methodologies are not sufficiently sensitive nor quantitative. Here we describe a novel isotope labeling approach termed Isotope-Cellular O-glycome Reporter Amplification (ICORA) to amplify and analyze the O-glycome from cells. In this approach, cells are incubated with Ac3GalNAc-Bn (Ac3GalNAc-[1H7]Bn) or a heavy labeled Ac3GalNAc-BnD7 (Ac3GalNAc-[2D7]Bn) O-glycan precursor (7 Da mass difference), which enters cells and upon de-esterification is modified by Golgi enzymes to generate Bn-O-glycans secreted into the culture media. After recovery, heavy and light Bn-O-glycans from two separate conditions are mixed, analyzed by MS, and statistically interrogated for changes in O-glycan abundance using a semi-automated approach. ICORA enables ~100-1000-fold enhanced sensitivity and increased throughput compared to traditional O-glycomics. We validated ICORA with model cell lines and used it to define alterations in the O-glycome in colorectal cancer. ICORA is a useful tool to explore the dynamic regulation of the O-glycome in health and disease.

  13. The Glycome of Normal and Malignant Plasma Cells

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    Hose, Dirk; Andrulis, Mindaugas; Moreaux, Jèrôme; Hielscher, Thomas; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Merling, Anette; Bertsch, Uta; Jauch, Anna; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    The glycome, i.e. the cellular repertoire of glycan structures, contributes to important functions such as adhesion and intercellular communication. Enzymes regulating cellular glycosylation processes are related to the pathogenesis of cancer including multiple myeloma. Here we analyze the transcriptional differences in the glycome of normal (n = 10) and two cohorts of 332 and 345 malignant plasma-cell samples, association with known multiple myeloma subentities as defined by presence of chromosomal aberrations, potential therapeutic targets, and its prognostic impact. We found i) malignant vs. normal plasma cells to show a characteristic glycome-signature. They can ii) be delineated by a lasso-based predictor from normal plasma cells based on this signature. iii) Cytogenetic aberrations lead to distinct glycan-gene expression patterns for t(11;14), t(4;14), hyperdiploidy, 1q21-gain and deletion of 13q14. iv) A 38-gene glycome-signature significantly delineates patients with adverse survival in two independent cohorts of 545 patients treated with high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation. v) As single gene, expression of the phosphatidyl-inositol-glycan protein M as part of the targetable glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchor-biosynthesis pathway is associated with adverse survival. The prognostically relevant glycome deviation in malignant cells invites novel strategies of therapy for multiple myeloma. PMID:24386263

  14. The glycome of normal and malignant plasma cells.

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    Thomas M Moehler

    Full Text Available The glycome, i.e. the cellular repertoire of glycan structures, contributes to important functions such as adhesion and intercellular communication. Enzymes regulating cellular glycosylation processes are related to the pathogenesis of cancer including multiple myeloma. Here we analyze the transcriptional differences in the glycome of normal (n = 10 and two cohorts of 332 and 345 malignant plasma-cell samples, association with known multiple myeloma subentities as defined by presence of chromosomal aberrations, potential therapeutic targets, and its prognostic impact. We found i malignant vs. normal plasma cells to show a characteristic glycome-signature. They can ii be delineated by a lasso-based predictor from normal plasma cells based on this signature. iii Cytogenetic aberrations lead to distinct glycan-gene expression patterns for t(11;14, t(4;14, hyperdiploidy, 1q21-gain and deletion of 13q14. iv A 38-gene glycome-signature significantly delineates patients with adverse survival in two independent cohorts of 545 patients treated with high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation. v As single gene, expression of the phosphatidyl-inositol-glycan protein M as part of the targetable glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchor-biosynthesis pathway is associated with adverse survival. The prognostically relevant glycome deviation in malignant cells invites novel strategies of therapy for multiple myeloma.

  15. Mass Spectrometry-Based N-Glycomics of Colorectal Cancer

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    Manveen K. Sethi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. An increased molecular understanding of the CRC pathology is warranted to gain insights into the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of the disease. Altered protein glycosylation patterns are associated with most diseases including malignant transformation. Recent advances in mass spectrometry and bioinformatics have accelerated glycomics research and present a new paradigm for cancer biomarker discovery. Mass spectrometry (MS-based glycoproteomics and glycomics, therefore, hold considerable promise to improve the discovery of novel biomarkers with utility in disease diagnosis and therapy. This review focuses on the emerging field of glycomics to present a comprehensive review of advances in technologies and their application in studies aimed at discovering novel glycan-based biomarkers. We will also discuss some of the challenges associated with using glycans as biomarkers.

  16. Glycomic profiling of tissue sections by LC-MS.

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    Hu, Yunli; Zhou, Shiyue; Khalil, Sarah I; Renteria, Calvin L; Mechref, Yehia

    2013-04-16

    Because routine preparation of glycan samples involves multiple reaction and cleaning steps at which sample loss occurs, glycan analysis is typically performed using large tissue samples. This type of analysis yields no detailed molecular spatial information and requires special care to maintain proper storage and shipping conditions. We describe here a new glycan sample preparation protocol using minimized sample preparation steps and optimized procedures. Tissue sections and spotted samples first undergo on-surface enzymatic digestion to release N-glycans. The released glycans are then reduced and permethylated prior to online purification and LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS analysis. The efficiency of this protocol was initially evaluated using model glycoproteins and human blood serum (HBS) spotted on glass or Teflon slides. The new protocol permitted the detection of permethylated N-glycans derived from 10 ng RNase B. On the other hand, 66 N-glycans were identified when injecting the equivalent of permethylated glycans derived from a 0.1-μL aliquot of HBS. On-tissue enzymatic digestion of nude mouse brain tissue permitted the detection of 43 N-glycans. The relative peak areas of these 43 glycans were comparable to those from a C57BL/6 mouse reported by the Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG). However, the sample size analyzed in the protocol described here was substantially smaller than for the routine method (submicrogram vs mg). The on-tissue N-glycan profiling method permits high sensitivity and reproducibility and can be widely applied to assess the spatial distribution of glycans associated with tissue sections, and may be correlated with immunoflourescence imaging when adjacent tissue sections are analyzed.

  17. Immunologic mapping of glycomes: implications for cancer diagnosis and therapy

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    Zhou, Dapeng; Levery, Steven B; Hsu, Fong-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Cancer associated glycoconjugates are important biomarkers, as exemplified by globo-H, CA125, CA15.3 and CA27.29. However, the exact chemical structures of many such biomarkers remain unknown because of technological limitations. In this article, we propose the "immunologic mapping" of cancer...... glycomes based on specific immune recognition of glycan structures, which can be hypothesized theoretically, produced chemically, and examined biologically by immuno-assays. Immunologic mapping of glycans not only provides a unique perspective on cancer glycomes, but also may lead to the invention...

  18. The minimum information required for a glycomics experiment (MIRAGE) project: sample preparation guidelines for reliable reporting of glycomics datasets.

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    Struwe, Weston B; Agravat, Sanjay; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Campbell, Matthew P; Costello, Catherine E; Dell, Anne; Ten Feizi; Haslam, Stuart M; Karlsson, Niclas G; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Kolarich, Daniel; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Novotny, Milos V; Packer, Nicolle H; Paulson, James C; Rapp, Erdmann; Ranzinger, Rene; Rudd, Pauline M; Smith, David F; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wells, Lance; York, William S; Zaia, Joseph; Kettner, Carsten

    2016-09-01

    The minimum information required for a glycomics experiment (MIRAGE) project was established in 2011 to provide guidelines to aid in data reporting from all types of experiments in glycomics research including mass spectrometry (MS), liquid chromatography, glycan arrays, data handling and sample preparation. MIRAGE is a concerted effort of the wider glycomics community that considers the adaptation of reporting guidelines as an important step towards critical evaluation and dissemination of datasets as well as broadening of experimental techniques worldwide. The MIRAGE Commission published reporting guidelines for MS data and here we outline guidelines for sample preparation. The sample preparation guidelines include all aspects of sample generation, purification and modification from biological and/or synthetic carbohydrate material. The application of MIRAGE sample preparation guidelines will lead to improved recording of experimental protocols and reporting of understandable and reproducible glycomics datasets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Application of nano-LC-based glycomics towards biomarker discovery.

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    Hua, Serenus; Lebrilla, Carlito; An, Hyun Joo

    2011-11-01

    The glycome, that is, the glycan components of a biological source, has been widely reported to change with disease states. However, mining the glycome for biomarkers is complicated by glycan structural heterogeneity. Nanoflow LC, or nano-LC, significantly addresses the problem by providing a highly sensitive and quantitative method of separating and profiling glycans. This review summarizes recent advances in analytical technology and methodology that enhance and augment the advantages offered by nano-LC. (e.g., reversed phase, hydrophilic interaction and porous graphitized carbon chromatography, as well as associated derivatization strategies), detectors (e.g., fluorescence and MS), and technology platforms (particularly chip-based nano-LC) are examined in detail, along with their application to biomarker discovery. Particular emphasis is placed on methods and technologies that allow structure-specific glycan profiling.

  20. The underestimated N-glycomes of lepidopteran species.

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    Stanton, Rhiannon; Hykollari, Alba; Eckmair, Barbara; Malzl, Daniel; Dragosits, Martin; Palmberger, Dieter; Wang, Ping; Wilson, Iain B H; Paschinger, Katharina

    2017-04-01

    Insects are significant to the environment, agriculture, health and biotechnology. Many of these aspects display some relationship to glycosylation, e.g., in case of pathogen binding or production of humanised antibodies; for a long time, it has been considered that insect N-glycosylation potentials are rather similar and simple, but as more species are glycomically analysed in depth, it is becoming obvious that there is indeed a large structural diversity and interspecies variability. Using an off-line LC-MALDI-TOF MS approach, we have analysed the N-glycomes of two lepidopteran species (the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni and the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar) as well as of the commonly-used T. ni High Five cell line. We detected not only sulphated, glucuronylated, core difucosylated and Lewis-like antennal fucosylated structures, but also the zwitterion phosphorylcholine on antennal GlcNAc residues, a modification otherwise familiar from nematodes; in L. dispar, N-glycans with glycolipid-like antennae containing α-linked N-acetylgalactosamine were also revealed. The lepidopteran glycomes analysed not only display core α1,3-fucosylation, which is foreign to mammals, but also up to 5% anionic and/or zwitterionic glycans previously not found in these species. The occurrence of anionic and zwitterionic glycans in the Lepidoptera data is not only of glycoanalytical and evolutionary interest, but is of biotechnological relevance as lepidopteran cell lines are potential factories for recombinant glycoprotein production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Glycomic and sialoproteomic data of gastric carcinoma cells overexpressing ST3GAL4

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    Mereiter, Stefan; Magalhães, Ana; Adamczyk, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma MKN45 cells stably transfected with the full-length ST3GAL4 gene were characterised by glycomic and sialoproteomic analysis. Complementary strategies were applied to assess the glycomic alterations induced by ST3GAL4 overexpression. The N- and O-glycome data were generated in two...... parallel structural analyzes, based on PGC-ESI-MS/MS. Data on glycan structure identification and relative abundance in ST3GAL4 overexpressing cells and respective mock control are presented. The sialoproteomic analysis based on titanium-dioxide enrichment of sialopeptides with subsequent LC......-MS/MS identification was performed. This analysis identified 47 proteins with significantly increased sialylation. The data in this article is associated with the research article published in Biochim Biophys Acta "Glycomic analysis of gastric carcinoma cells discloses glycans as modulators of RON receptor tyrosine...

  2. Immunological approaches to plant cell wall and biomass characterization: Glycome Profiling.

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    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Avci, Utku; Miller, Jeffrey S; Hahn, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    The native complexity of plant cell walls makes research on them challenging. Hence, it is advantageous to have a diversity of tools that can be used to analyze and characterize plant cell walls. In this chapter, we describe one of two immunological approaches that can be employed for screening of plant cell wall/biomass materials from diverse plants and tissues. This approach, Glycome Profiling, lends itself well to moderate to high-throughput screening of plant cell wall/biomass samples. Glycome Profiling is being further optimized to reduce the amount of sample required for the analysis, and to improve the sensitivity and throughput of the assay. We are optimistic that Glycome Profiling will prove to be a broadly applicable experimental approach that will find increasing application to a wide variety of studies on plant cell wall/biomass samples.

  3. N-Linked Deglycosylated Melanopsin Retains Its Responsiveness to Light

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    Fahrenkrug, J.; Falktoft, B.; Georg, B.

    2009-01-01

    Melanopsin is an opsin expressed in the plasma membrane of retinal ganglion cells that mainly project to the circadian clock and thus is important for nonvisual responses to light. Rat melanopsin contains two potential sites (Asn31 and Asn35) for N-linked glycosylation in the N-terminal extracell......Melanopsin is an opsin expressed in the plasma membrane of retinal ganglion cells that mainly project to the circadian clock and thus is important for nonvisual responses to light. Rat melanopsin contains two potential sites (Asn31 and Asn35) for N-linked glycosylation in the N......-terminal extracellular part. To investigate if melanopsin is N-linked glycosylated and whether N-bound glycans influence the response of melanopsin to light as evidenced by Fos mRNA induction, we transfected PC12 cells to stably express rat wildtype melanopsin or mutant melanopsin lacking both N-linked glycosylation...... sites. Immunoblotting for membrane-bound melanopsin from the PC12 cells transfected to express wild-type melanopsin disclosed two immunoreactive bands of 62 and 49 kDa. Removal of N-linked glycosylation by tunicamycin or PNGase F changed the 62 kDa band to a 55 kDa band, while the 49 kDa band...

  4. N-Linked Deglycosylated Melanopsin Retains Its Responsiveness to Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, J.; Falktoft, B.; Georg, B.

    2009-01-01

    -terminal extracellular part. To investigate if melanopsin is N-linked glycosylated and whether N-bound glycans influence the response of melanopsin to light as evidenced by Fos mRNA induction, we transfected PC12 cells to stably express rat wildtype melanopsin or mutant melanopsin lacking both N-linked glycosylation...... sites. Immunoblotting for membrane-bound melanopsin from the PC12 cells transfected to express wild-type melanopsin disclosed two immunoreactive bands of 62 and 49 kDa. Removal of N-linked glycosylation by tunicamycin or PNGase F changed the 62 kDa band to a 55 kDa band, while the 49 kDa band......Melanopsin is an opsin expressed in the plasma membrane of retinal ganglion cells that mainly project to the circadian clock and thus is important for nonvisual responses to light. Rat melanopsin contains two potential sites (Asn31 and Asn35) for N-linked glycosylation in the N...

  5. The RINGS resource for glycome informatics analysis and data mining on the Web.

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    Akune, Yukie; Hosoda, Masae; Kaiya, Sakiko; Shinmachi, Daisuke; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F

    2010-08-01

    In the bioinformatics field, many computer algorithmic and data mining technologies have been developed for gene prediction, protein-protein interaction analysis, sequence analysis, and protein folding predictions, to name a few. This kind of research has branched off from the genomics field, creating the transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and glycomics research areas in the postgenomic age. In the glycomics field, given the complexity of glycan structures with their branches of monosaccharides in various conformations, new data mining and algorithmic methods have been developed in an attempt to gain a better understanding of glycans. However, these methods have not all been implemented as tools such that the glycobiology community may utilize them in their research. Thus, we have developed RINGS (Resource for INformatics of Glycomes at Soka) as a freely available Web resource for glycobiologists to analyze their data using the latest data mining and algorithmic techniques. It provides a number of tools including a 2D glycan drawing and querying interface called DrawRINGS, a Glycan Pathway Predictor (GPP) tool for dynamically computing the N-glycan biosynthesis pathway from a given glycan structure, and data mining tools Glycan Miner Tool and Profile PSTMM. These tools and other utilities provided by RINGS will be described. The URL for RINGS is http://rings.t.soka.ac.jp/.

  6. Integrated Microfluidic Lectin Barcode Platform for High-Performance Focused Glycomic Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuqin; Zeng, Yun; Zeng, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the key processes that play essential roles in biological functions and dysfunctions. However, progress in glycomics has considerably lagged behind genomics and proteomics, due in part to the enormous challenges in analysis of glycans. Here we present a new integrated and automated microfluidic lectin barcode platform to substantially improve the performance of lectin array for focused glycomic profiling. The chip design and flow control were optimized to promote the lectin-glycan binding kinetics and speed of lectin microarray. Moreover, we established an on-chip lectin assay which employs a very simple blocking method to effectively suppress the undesired background due to lectin binding of antibodies. Using this technology, we demonstrated focused differential profiling of tissue-specific glycosylation changes of a biomarker, CA125 protein purified from ovarian cancer cell line and different tissues from ovarian cancer patients in a fast, reproducible, and high-throughput fashion. Highly sensitive CA125 detection was also demonstrated with a detection limit much lower than the clinical cutoff value for cancer diagnosis. This microfluidic platform holds the potential to integrate with sample preparation functions to construct a fully integrated “sample-to-answer” microsystem for focused differential glycomic analysis. Thus, our technology should present a powerful tool in support of rapid advance in glycobiology and glyco-biomarker development.

  7. Exploring the Unique N-Glycome of the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Acanthamoeba*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Birgit; Makrypidi, Georgia; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Paschinger, Katharina; Walochnik, Julia; Wilson, Iain B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Glycans play key roles in host-pathogen interactions; thus, knowing the N-glycomic repertoire of a pathogen can be helpful in deciphering its methods of establishing and sustaining a disease. Therefore, we sought to elucidate the glycomic potential of the facultative amoebal parasite Acanthamoeba. This is the first study of its asparagine-linked glycans, for which we applied biochemical tools and various approaches of mass spectrometry. An initial glycomic screen of eight strains from five genotypes of this human pathogen suggested, in addition to the common eukaryotic oligomannose structures, the presence of pentose and deoxyhexose residues on their N-glycans. A more detailed analysis was performed on the N-glycans of a genotype T11 strain (4RE); fractionation by HPLC and tandem mass spectrometric analyses indicated the presence of a novel mannosylfucosyl modification of the reducing terminal core as well as phosphorylation of mannose residues, methylation of hexose and various forms of pentosylation. The largest N-glycan in the 4RE strain contained two N-acetylhexosamine, thirteen hexose, one fucose, one methyl, and two pentose residues; however, in this and most other strains analyzed, glycans with compositions of Hex8–9HexNAc2Pnt0–1 tended to dominate in terms of abundance. Although no correlation between pathogenicity and N-glycan structure can be proposed, highly unusual structures in this facultative parasite can be found which are potential virulence factors or therapeutic targets. PMID:23139421

  8. A novel N-linked flagellar glycan from Methanococcus maripaludis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John; Logan, Susan M; Jarrell, Ken F; VanDyke, David J; Vinogradov, Evgeny

    2009-03-31

    The archaea Methanococcus maripaludis strain Mm900 produces flagella that are glycosylated with an N-linked tetrasaccharide. Mass spectrometric analysis of flagellar tryptic peptides identified a number of tryptic glycopeptides carrying a glycan of mass 1036.4Da, and fragmentation of the glycan oxonium ion indicated that the glycan was a tetrasaccharide. The glycan was purified, following extensive pronase digestion of flagellar filaments, by size-exclusion and anion-exchange chromatography. NMR spectroscopy revealed that the glycan had the following structure: Sug-4-beta-ManNAc3NAmA6Thr-4-beta-GlcNAc3NAcA-3-beta-GalNAc-Asn where Sug is a novel monosaccharide unit, (5S)-2-acetamido-2,4-dideoxy-5-O-methyl-alpha-l-erythro-hexos-5-ulo-1,5-pyranose. This oligosaccharide has significant similarity to the oligosaccharide that was found previously in Methanococcus voltae.

  9. Effects of N-linked glycosylation on the creatine transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Nadine; Wind, Alexandra; Leuenberger, Tina; Wallimann, Theo

    2005-01-01

    The CRT (creatine transporter) is a member of the Na+- and Cl−-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family and is responsible for the import of creatine into cells, and thus is important for cellular energy metabolism. We established for CRT an expression system in HEK-293 cells that allowed biochemical, immunological and functional analysis of CRT wild-type and glycosylation-deficient mutants. Analysis of HA (haemagglutinin)-tagged CRT-NN (wild-type rat CRT with an HA-tag at the C-terminus) revealed several monomeric immunoreactive species with apparent molecular masses of 58, 48 and 43 kDa. The 58 kDa species was shown to be plasma-membrane-resident by EndoHf (endoglycosidase Hf) and PNGase F (peptide N-glycosidase F) treatments and represents fully glycosylated CRT, whereas the 48 kDa and 43 kDa species were glycosylation intermediates and non-glycosylated CRT respectively. Glycosylation-deficient mutants (Asn192Asp, Asn197Asp and Asn192Asp/Asn197Asp) showed altered electrophoretic mobility, indicating that CRT is indeed N-glycosylated. In addition, a prominent CRT band in the range of 75–91 kDa was also detected. Pharmacological inhibition of N-linked glycosylation by tunicamycin in CRT-NN-expressing cells gave a similar reduction in molecular mass, corroborating the finding that Asn192 and Asn197 are major N-glycosylation sites in CRT. Although the apparent Km was not significantly affected in glycosylation-deficient mutants compared with CRT-NN, we measured reduced Vmax values for all mutants (21–28% residual activity), and 51% residual activity after enzymatic deglycosylation of surface proteins in intact CRT-NN cells by PNGase F. Moreover, immunocytochemical analysis of CRT-NN- and CRT-DD-expressing cells (where CRT-DD represents a non-glycosylated double mutant of CRT, i.e. Asn192Asp/Asn197Asp) showed a lower abundance of CRT-DD in the plasma membrane. Taken together, our results suggest that plasma-membrane CRT is glycosylated and has an

  10. Prostate Cancer Progression and Serum Sibling (Small Integrin Binding N-Linked Glycoprotein) Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Vidaurri-de la Cruz H, Tamayo-Sanchez L, Duran-McKinster C, de la Luz Orozco-Covarrubias M, Ruiz- Maldonado R. Epidermal nevus syndromes: clinical findings...activity of MMP-2 with cells transfected with the BSP adenovirus in the collagen sandwich system visibly reduced the level of cell elongation and

  11. Inverse dynamic analysis of general n-link robot manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yih, T.C.; Wang, T.Y.; Burks, B.L.; Babcock, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized matrix approach is derived to analyze the dynamic forces and moments (torques) required by the joint actuators. This method is general enough to solve the problems of any n-link open-chain robot manipulators with joint combinations of R(revolute), P(prismatic), and S(spherical). On the other hand, the proposed matrix solution is applicable to both nonredundant and redundant robotic systems. The matrix notation is formulated based on the Newton-Euler equations under the condition of quasi-static equilibrium. The 4 x 4 homogeneous cylindrical coordinates-Bryant angles (C-B) notation is applied to model the robotic systems. Displacements, velocities, and accelerations of each joint and link center of gravity (CG) are calculated through kinematic analysis. The resultant external forces and moments exerted on the CG of each link are considered as known inputs. Subsequently, a 6n x 6n displacement coefficient matrix and a 6n x 1 external force/moment vector can be established. At last, the joint forces and moments needed for the joint actuators to control the robotic system are determined through matrix inversion. Numerical examples will be illustrated for the nonredundant industrial robots: Bendix AA/CNC (RRP/RRR) and Unimate 2000 spherical (SP/RRR) robots; and the redundant light duty utility arm (LDUA), modified LDUA, and tank waste retrieval manipulator system

  12. Genomics meets glycomics-the first GWAS study of human N-Glycome identifies HNF1α as a master regulator of plasma protein fucosylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Lauc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Over half of all proteins are glycosylated, and alterations in glycosylation have been observed in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Attached glycans significantly affect protein function; but, contrary to polypeptides, they are not directly encoded by genes, and the complex processes that regulate their assembly are poorly understood. A novel approach combining genome-wide association and high-throughput glycomics analysis of 2,705 individuals in three population cohorts showed that common variants in the Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1α (HNF1α and fucosyltransferase genes FUT6 and FUT8 influence N-glycan levels in human plasma. We show that HNF1α and its downstream target HNF4α regulate the expression of key fucosyltransferase and fucose biosynthesis genes. Moreover, we show that HNF1α is both necessary and sufficient to drive the expression of these genes in hepatic cells. These results reveal a new role for HNF1α as a master transcriptional regulator of multiple stages in the fucosylation process. This mechanism has implications for the regulation of immunity, embryonic development, and protein folding, as well as for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer, coronary heart disease, and metabolic and inflammatory disorders.

  13. Quantitative glycomics monitoring of induced pluripotent- and embryonic stem cells during neuronal differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiyo Terashima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the structure of cell surface glycoforms occurring during the stages of stem cell differentiation remain unclear. We describe a rapid glycoblotting-based cellular glycomics method for quantitatively evaluating changes in glycoform expression and structure during neuronal differentiation of murine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs. Our results show that changes in the expression of cellular N-glycans are comparable during the differentiation of iPSCs and ESCs. The expression of bisect-type N-glycans was significantly up-regulated in neurons that differentiated from both iPSCs and ESCs. From a glycobiological standpoint, iPSCs are an alternative neural cell source in addition to ESCs.

  14. Nanotechnology in Glycomics: Applications in Diagnostics, Therapy, Imaging, and Separation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosekova, Erika; Filip, Jaroslav; Bertok, Tomas; Both, Peter; Kasak, Peter; Tkac, Jan

    2017-05-01

    This review comprehensively covers the most recent achievements (from 2013) in the successful integration of nanomaterials in the field of glycomics. The first part of the paper addresses the beneficial properties of nanomaterials for the construction of biosensors, bioanalytical devices, and protocols for the detection of various analytes, including viruses and whole cells, together with their key characteristics. The second part of the review focuses on the application of nanomaterials integrated with glycans for various biomedical applications, that is, vaccines against viral and bacterial infections and cancer cells, as therapeutic agents, for in vivo imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, and for selective drug delivery. The final part of the review describes various ways in which glycan enrichment can be effectively done using nanomaterials, molecularly imprinted polymers with polymer thickness controlled at the nanoscale, with a subsequent analysis of glycans by mass spectrometry. A short section describing an active glycoprofiling by microengines (microrockets) is covered as well. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Studying the Effects of Reproductive Hormones and Bacterial Vaginosis on the Glycome of Lavage Samples from the Cervicovaginal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Koppolu, Sujeethraj; Chappell, Catherine; Moncla, Bernard J.; Hillier, Sharon L.; Mahal, Lara K.

    2015-01-01

    The cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) coating the vaginal epithelium is an important immunological mediator, providing a barrier to infection. Glycosylation of CVF proteins, such as mucins, IgG and S-IgA, plays a critical role in their immunological functions. Although multiple factors, such as hormones and microflora, may influence glycosylation of the CVF, few studies have examined their impact on this important immunological fluid. Herein we analyzed the glycosylation of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples collected from 165 women under different hormonal conditions including: (1) no contraceptive, post-menopausal, (2) no contraceptive, days 1-14 of the menstrual cycle, (3) no contraceptive, days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle, (4) combined-oral contraceptive pills for at least 6 months, (5) depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) injections for at least 6 months, (6) levonorgestrel IUD for at least 1 month. Glycomic profiling was obtained using our lectin microarray system, a rapid method to analyze carbohydrate composition. Although some small effects were observed due to hormone levels, the major influence on the glycome was the presence of an altered bacterial cohort due to bacterial vaginosis (BV). Compared to normal women, samples from women with BV contained lower levels of sialic acid and high-mannose glycans in their CVL. The change in high mannose levels was unexpected and may be related to the increased risk of HIV-infection observed in women with BV, as high mannose receptors are a viral entry pathway. Changes in the glycome were also observed with hormonal contraceptive use, in a contraceptive-dependent manner. Overall, microflora had a greater impact on the glycome than hormonal levels, and both of these effects should be more closely examined in future studies given the importance of glycans in the innate immune system. PMID:25993513

  16. Identification of genes involved in the biosynthesis and attachment of Methanococcus voltae N-linked glycans: insight into N-linked glycosylation pathways in Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Bonnie; Voisin, Sebastien; Kelly, John; Logan, Susan M; Jarrell, Ken F

    2006-07-01

    N-linked glycosylation is recognized as an important post-translational modification across all three domains of life. However, the understanding of the genetic pathways for the assembly and attachment of N-linked glycans in eukaryotic and bacterial systems far outweighs the knowledge of comparable processes in Archaea. The recent characterization of a novel trisaccharide [beta-ManpNAcA6Thr-(1-4)-beta-GlcpNAc3NAcA-(1-3)-beta-GlcpNAc]N-linked to asparagine residues in Methanococcus voltae flagellin and S-layer proteins affords new opportunities to investigate N-linked glycosylation pathways in Archaea. In this contribution, the insertional inactivation of several candidate genes within the M. voltae genome and their resulting effects on flagellin and S-layer glycosylation are reported. Two of the candidate genes were shown to have effects on flagellin and S-layer protein molecular mass and N-linked glycan structure. Further examination revealed inactivation of either of these two genes also had effects on flagella assembly. These genes, designated agl (archaeal glycosylation) genes, include a glycosyl transferase (aglA) involved in the attachment of the terminal sugar to the glycan and an STT3 oligosaccharyl transferase homologue (aglB) involved in the transfer of the complete glycan to the flagellin and S-layer proteins. These findings document the first experimental evidence for genes involved in any glycosylation process within the domain Archaea.

  17. N-linked glycans are required on epithelial Na+ channel subunits for maturation and surface expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashlan, Ossama B; Kinlough, Carol L; Myerburg, Michael M; Shi, Shujie; Chen, Jingxin; Blobner, Brandon M; Buck, Teresa M; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Hughey, Rebecca P; Kleyman, Thomas R

    2018-03-01

    Epithelial Na + channel (ENaC) subunits undergo N-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum where they assemble into an αβγ complex. Six, 13, and 5 consensus sites (Asn-X-Ser/Thr) for N-glycosylation reside in the extracellular domains of the mouse α-, β-, and γ-subunits, respectively. Because the importance of ENaC N-linked glycans has not been fully addressed, we examined the effect of preventing N-glycosylation of specific subunits on channel function, expression, maturation, and folding. Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes or Fischer rat thyroid cells with αβγ-ENaC lacking N-linked glycans on a single subunit reduced ENaC activity as well as the inhibitory response to extracellular Na + . The lack of N-linked glycans on the β-subunit also precluded channel activation by trypsin. However, channel activation by shear stress was N-linked glycan independent, regardless of which subunit was modified. We also discovered that the lack of N-linked glycans on any one subunit reduced the total and surface levels of cognate subunits. The lack of N-linked glycans on the β-subunit had the largest effect on total levels, with the lack of N-linked glycans on the γ- and α-subunits having intermediate and modest effects, respectively. Finally, channels with wild-type β-subunits were more sensitive to limited trypsin proteolysis than channels lacking N-linked glycans on the β-subunit. Our results indicate that N-linked glycans on each subunit are required for proper folding, maturation, surface expression, and function of the channel.

  18. Removal of N-Linked Glycosylations at Acidic pH by PNGase A Facilitates Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Analysis of N-Linked Glycoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Comamala Grau, Gerard; Trelle, Morten Beck

    2016-01-01

    and their glycans challenging for most analytical techniques. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry is a sensitive technique for investigation of protein conformational dynamics of complex heterogeneous proteins in solution. N-linked glycoproteins however pose a challenge for HDX-MS. HDX...

  19. Carbohydrate Structure Database: tools for statistical analysis of bacterial, plant and fungal glycomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, K.S.; Kondakova, A.N.; Toukach, Ph.V.

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates are biological blocks participating in diverse and crucial processes both at cellular and organism levels. They protect individual cells, establish intracellular interactions, take part in the immune reaction and participate in many other processes. Glycosylation is considered as one of the most important modifications of proteins and other biologically active molecules. Still, the data on the enzymatic machinery involved in the carbohydrate synthesis and processing are scattered, and the advance on its study is hindered by the vast bulk of accumulated genetic information not supported by any experimental evidences for functions of proteins that are encoded by these genes. In this article, we present novel instruments for statistical analysis of glycomes in taxa. These tools may be helpful for investigating carbohydrate-related enzymatic activities in various groups of organisms and for comparison of their carbohydrate content. The instruments are developed on the Carbohydrate Structure Database (CSDB) platform and are available freely on the CSDB web-site at http://csdb.glycoscience.ru. Database URL: http://csdb.glycoscience.ru PMID:26337239

  20. Glycomic analysis of human respiratory tract tissues and correlation with influenza virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevenan Walther

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in influenza infection of the human respiratory tract is binding of the virus to sialic (Sia acid terminated receptors. The binding of different strains of virus for the receptor is determined by the α linkage of the sialic acid to galactose and the adjacent glycan structure. In this study the N- and O-glycan composition of the human lung, bronchus and nasopharynx was characterized by mass spectrometry. Analysis showed that there was a wide spectrum of both Sia α2-3 and α2-6 glycans in the lung and bronchus. This glycan structural data was then utilized in combination with binding data from 4 of the published glycan arrays to assess whether these current glycan arrays were able to predict replication of human, avian and swine viruses in human ex vivo respiratory tract tissues. The most comprehensive array from the Consortium for Functional Glycomics contained the greatest diversity of sialylated glycans, but was not predictive of productive replication in the bronchus and lung. Our findings indicate that more comprehensive but focused arrays need to be developed to investigate influenza virus binding in an assessment of newly emerging influenza viruses.

  1. Shotgun glycomics of pig lung identifies natural endogenous receptors for influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Leotis, Lauren; Liu, Renpeng; Bradley, Konrad C; Lasanajak, Yi; Cummings, Sandra F; Song, Xuezheng; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Galloway, Summer E; Culhane, Marie R; Smith, David F; Steinhauer, David A; Cummings, Richard D

    2014-06-03

    Influenza viruses bind to host cell surface glycans containing terminal sialic acids, but as studies on influenza binding become more sophisticated, it is becoming evident that although sialic acid may be necessary, it is not sufficient for productive binding. To better define endogenous glycans that serve as viral receptors, we have explored glycan recognition in the pig lung, because influenza is broadly disseminated in swine, and swine have been postulated as an intermediary host for the emergence of pandemic strains. For these studies, we used the technology of "shotgun glycomics" to identify natural receptor glycans. The total released N- and O-glycans from pig lung glycoproteins and glycolipid-derived glycans were fluorescently tagged and separated by multidimensional HPLC, and individual glycans were covalently printed to generate pig lung shotgun glycan microarrays. All viruses tested interacted with one or more sialylated N-glycans but not O-glycans or glycolipid-derived glycans, and each virus demonstrated novel and unexpected differences in endogenous N-glycan recognition. The results illustrate the repertoire of specific, endogenous N-glycans of pig lung glycoproteins for virus recognition and offer a new direction for studying endogenous glycan functions in viral pathogenesis.

  2. SWEET SECRETS OF A THERAPEUTIC WORM: MASS SPECTROMETRIC N-GLYCOMIC ANALYSIS OF TRICHURIS SUIS

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Iain B. H.; Paschinger, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Trichuris suis, a nematode parasite of pigs, has attracted attention as its eggs have been administered to human patients as a potential therapy for inflammatory diseases. However, the immunomodulatory factors remain molecularly uncharacterised, but in vitro studies suggest that glycans on the parasite excretory/secretory proteins may have a role. Using an off-line LC-MS approach in combination with chemical and enzymatic treatments, we have examined the N-linked oligosaccharides of T. suis. ...

  3. A MALDI-MS-based quantitative targeted glycomics (MALDI-QTaG) for total N-glycan analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Yoon-Woo; Hwang, Cheol-Hwan; Park, Han-Gyu; Yang, Yung-Hun; Koo, Miyoung; Kim, Yun-Gon

    2015-10-01

    To develop a sensitive and quantitative method for monitoring the abnormal glycosylation of clinical and biopharmaceutical products. MALDI-MS-based quantitative targeted glycomics (MALDI-QTaG) was proposed for sensitive and quantitative analysis of total N-glycans. The derivatization reactions (i.e., amidation of sialic acid and incorporation of a positive charge moiety into the reducing end) dramatically increased the linearity (R(2) > 0.99) and sensitivity (limit of detection is 0.5 pmol/glycoprotein) relative to underivatized glycans. In addition, the analytical strategy was chromatographic purification-free and non-laborious process accessible to the high-throughput analyses. We used MALDI-QTaG to analyze the N-glycans of α-fetoprotein (AFP) purified from normal cord blood and HCC cell line (Huh7 cells). The total percentages of core-fucosylated AFP N-glycans from Huh7 cells and normal cord blood were 98 and 18%, respectively. This MALDI-MS-based glycomics technology has wide applications in many clinical and bioengineering fields requiring sensitive, quantitative and fast N-glycosylation validation.

  4. The Cell-Surface N-Glycome of Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Differentiated Hepatic Cells thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montacir, Houda; Freyer, Nora; Knöspel, Fanny; Urbaniak, Thomas; Dedova, Tereza; Berger, Markus; Damm, Georg; Tauber, Rudolf; Zeilinger, Katrin; Blanchard, Véronique

    2017-07-04

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent stem cells that offer a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine. In addition, they have been proposed as an appropriate alternative source of hepatocytes. In this work, hESCs were differentiated into definitive endodermal cells (DECs), followed by maturation into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Their cell-surface N-glycome was profiled and also compared with that of primary human hepatocytes (PHHs). Undifferentiated hESCs contained large amounts of high-mannose N-glycans. In contrast, complex-type N-glycans such as asialylated or monosialylated biantennary and triantennary N-glycans were dominant in HLCs, and fully galactosylated structures were significantly more abundant than in undifferentiated hESCs. The cell-surface N-glycosylation of PHHs was more biologically processed than that of HLCs, with bisialylated biantennary and trisialylated triantennary structures predominant. This is the first report of the cell surface N-glycome of PHHs and of HLCs being directly generated from hESCs without embryoid body formation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The influence of N-linked glycosylation on the function of platelet glycoprotein VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunicki, Thomas J; Cheli, Yann; Moroi, Masaaki; Furihata, Kenichi

    2005-10-15

    Using recombinant human glycoprotein VI (GPVI), we evaluated the effect of N-linked glycosylation at the consensus site Asparagine92-Glycine-Serine94 (N92GS94) on binding of this platelet-specific receptor to its ligands, human type I collagen, collagen-related peptide (CRP), and the snake venom C-type lectin convulxin (CVX). In COS-7 cells transiently transfected with GPVI, deglycosylation with peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F; specific for complex N-linked glycans) or tunicamycin decreases the molecular weight of GPVI and reduces transfected COS-7 cell binding to both CRP and CVX. In stably transfected Dami cells, the substitutions N92A or S94A, but not L95H, resulted in a 30% to 40% decrease in adhesion to CVX, but a 90% or greater decrease in adhesion to CRP and a 65% to 70% decrease in adhesion to type I collagen. Treatment with PNGase F, but not Endoglycosidase H (Endo H) (specific for high-mannose N-linked glycans), produced an equivalent decrease in molecular weight. Neither N92A nor S94A affected the expression of GPVI, based on the direct binding of murine anti-human GPVI monoclonal antibody 204-11 to transfected Dami cells. These findings indicate that N-linked glycosylation at N92 in human GPVI is not required for surface expression, but contributes to maximal adhesion to type I collagen, CRP and, to a lesser extent, CVX.

  6. Glycomic analysis of gastric carcinoma cells discloses glycans as modulators of RON receptor tyrosine kinase activation in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mereiter, Stefan; Magalhães, Ana; Adamczyk, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Terminal α2-3 and α2-6 sialylation of glycans precludes further chain elongation, leading to the biosynthesis of cancer relevant epitopes such as sialyl-Lewis X (SLe(X)). SLe(X) overexpression is associated with tumor aggressive phenotype and patients' poor prognosis. METHODS: MKN45...... gastric carcinoma cells transfected with the sialyltransferase ST3GAL4 were established as a model overexpressing sialylated terminal glycans. We have evaluated at the structural level the glycome and the sialoproteome of this gastric cancer cell line applying liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry...... known to be key players in malignancy. Further analysis of RON confirmed its modification with SLe(X) and the concomitant activation. SLe(X) and RON co-expression was validated in gastric tumors. CONCLUSION: The overexpression of ST3GAL4 interferes with the overall glycophenotype of cancer cells...

  7. Facile synthesis of thiol-polyethylene glycol functionalized magnetic titania nanomaterials for highly efficient enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawen; Yao, Jizong; Sun, Nianrong; Deng, Chunhui

    2017-08-25

    As protein N-glycosylation involved in generation and development of various cancers and diseases, it is vital to capture glycopeptides from complex biological samples for biomarker discovery. In this work, by taking advantages of the interaction between titania and thiol groups, thiol-polyethylene glycol functionalized magnetic titania nanomaterials (denoted as Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 @PEG) were firstly fabricated as an excellent hydrophilic adsorbent of N-linked glycopeptides. On one hand, the special interaction of titanium-thiol makes the synthetic manipulation simple and provides a new idea for design and synthesis of novel nanomaterials; on the other hand, strong magnetic response could realize rapid separation and the outstanding hydrophilicity of polyethylene glycol makes Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 @PEG nanomaterials show superior performance for glycopeptides enrichment with ultralow limit of detection (0.1mol/μL) and high selectivity (1:100). As a result, 24 and 33 glycopeptides enriched from HRP and IgG digests were identified respectively by MALDI-TOF MS, and 300 glycopeptides corresponding to 106 glycoproteins were recognized from merely 2μL human serum, indicating a great potential of Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 @PEG nanomaterials for glycoproteomic research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Conserved N-Linked Glycans on Ebola Virus Glycoprotein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennemann, Nicholas J; Walkner, Madeline; Berkebile, Abigail R; Patel, Neil; Maury, Wendy

    2015-10-01

    N-linked glycosylation is a common posttranslational modification found on viral glycoproteins (GPs) and involved in promoting expression, cellular attachment, protection from proteases, and antibody evasion. The GP subunit GP2 of filoviruses contains 2 completely conserved N-linked glycosylation sites (NGSs) at N563 and N618, suggesting that they have been maintained through selective pressures. We assessed mutants lacking these glycans for expression and function to understand the role of these sites during Ebola virus entry. Elimination of either GP2 glycan individually had a modest effect on GP expression and no impact on antibody neutralization of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped with Ebola virus GP. However, loss of the N563 glycan enhanced entry by 2-fold and eliminated GP detection by a well-characterized monoclonal antibody KZ52. Loss of both sites dramatically decreased GP expression and abolished entry. Surprisingly, a GP that retained a single NGS at N563, eliminating the remaining 16 NGSs from GP1 and GP2, had detectable expression, a modest increase in entry, and pronounced sensitivity to antibody neutralization. Our findings support the importance of the GP2 glycans in GP expression/structure, transduction efficiency, and antibody neutralization, particularly when N-linked glycans are also removed from GP1. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Structure and function of the N-linked glycans of HBP/CAP37/azurocidin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, L F; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm Jensen; Bjørn, S E

    1999-01-01

    refined to an R-factor of 18.4% (R(free) 27.7%). The ng-HBP structure reveals that neither the secondary nor tertiary structure have changed due to the removal of the glycosylation, as compared to the previously determined glycosylated HBP structure. Although the primary events in N-linked glycosylation......), and only minor local structural differences are observed. Also, the overall stability of the protein seems to be unaffected by glycosylation, as judged by the B-factors derived from the two X-ray structures. The flexibility of a glycan site may be determined by the local polypeptide sequence and structure...

  10. Rapid release of N-linked glycans from glycoproteins by pressure-cycling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Guttman, András; Karger, Barry L

    2010-03-15

    The standard, well-established sample preparation protocol to release N-linked glycans from glycoproteins for downstream analysis requires relatively long deglycosylation times (from several hours to overnight) and relatively high endoglycosidase concentration (from 1:250 to 1:500 enzyme:substrate molar ratio). In this paper, we significantly improve this standard protocol by the use of pressure-cycling technology (PCT) to increase the speed and decrease the relative amount of PNGase F during the release of N-linked glycans from denatured glycoproteins. With the application of pressure cycling from atmospheric to as high as 30 kpsi, >95% release of the asparagine-linked glycans from bovine ribonuclease B, human transferrin, and polyclonal human immunoglobulin was rapidly achieved in a few minutes using as low as 1:2500 enzyme:substrate molar ratio. The deglycosylation rate was first examined by SDS-PAGE at the protein level. The released glycans were then quantitated by capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). This new sample preparation protocol readily supports large-scale glycan analysis of biopharmaceuticals with rapid deglycosylation times.

  11. Glycomics and glycoproteomics focused on aging and age-related diseases--Glycans as a potential biomarker for physiological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yuri; Endo, Tamao

    2016-08-01

    Since glycosylation depends on glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, and sugar nucleotide donors, it is susceptible to the changes associated with physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, alterations in glycan structures may be good targets and biomarkers for monitoring health conditions. Since human aging and longevity are affected by genetic and environmental factors such as diseases, lifestyle, and social factors, a scale that reflects various environmental factors is required in the study of human aging and longevity. We herein focus on glycosylation changes elucidated by glycomic and glycoproteomic studies on aging, longevity, and age-related diseases including cognitive impairment, diabetes mellitus, and frailty. We also consider the potential of glycan structures as biomarkers and/or targets for monitoring physiological and pathophysiological changes. Glycan structures are altered in age-related diseases. These glycans and glycoproteins may be involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases and, thus, be useful diagnostic markers. Age-dependent changes in N-glycans have been reported previously in cohort studies, and characteristic N-glycans in extreme longevity have been proposed. These findings may lead to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying aging as well as the factors influencing longevity. Alterations in glycosylation may be good targets and biomarkers for monitoring health conditions, and be applicable to studies on age-related diseases and healthy aging. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Glycans in personalised medicine" Guest Editor: Professor Gordan Lauc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Oligosaccharide substrate preferences of human extracellular sulfatase Sulf2 using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based glycomics approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Huang

    Full Text Available Sulfs are extracellular endosulfatases that selectively remove the 6-O-sulfate groups from cell surface heparan sulfate (HS chain. By altering the sulfation at these particular sites, Sulfs function to remodel HS chains. As a result of the remodeling activity, HSulf2 regulates a multitude of cell-signaling events that depend on interactions between proteins and HS. Previous efforts to characterize the substrate specificity of human Sulfs (HSulfs focused on the analysis of HS disaccharides and synthetic repeating units. In this study, we characterized the substrate preferences of human HSulf2 using HS oligosaccharides with various lengths and sulfation degrees from several naturally occurring HS sources by applying liquid chromatography mass spectrometry based glycomics methods. The results showed that HSulf2 preferentially digests highly sulfated HS oligosaccharides with zero acetyl groups and this preference is length dependent. In terms of length of oligosaccharides, HSulf2 digestion induced more sulfation decrease on DP6 (DP: degree of polymerization compared to DP2, DP4 and DP8. In addition, the HSulf2 preferentially digests the oligosaccharide domain located at the non-reducing end (NRE of the HS and heparin chain. In addition, the HSulf2 digestion products were altered only for specific isomers. HSulf2 treated NRE oligosaccharides also showed greater decrease in cell proliferation than those from internal domains of the HS chain. After further chromatographic separation, we identified the three most preferred unsaturated hexasaccharide for HSulf2.

  13. Contribution of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Sukun; Hu, Kai; He, Siyi; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Mudan; Huang, Xin; Du, Tao; Zheng, Chunfu; Liu, Yalan; Hu, Qinxue

    2015-01-01

    HSV-2 is the major cause of genital herpes and its infection increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. HSV-2 glycoprotein B together with glycoproteins D, H and L are indispensable for viral entry, of which gB, as a class III fusogen, plays an essential role. HSV-2 gB has seven potential N-linked glycosylation (N-CHO) sites, but their significance has yet to be determined. For the first time, we systematically analyzed the contributions of N-linked glycans on gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry. Our results demonstrated that, of the seven potential N-CHO sites on gB, mutation at N390, N483 or N668 decreased cell–cell fusion and viral entry, while mutation at N133 mainly affected protein expression and the production of infectious virus particles by blocking the transport of gB from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi. Our findings highlight the significance of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB expression and function. - Highlights: • N-linked glycan at N133 is important for gB intracellular trafficking and maturation. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal cell–cell fusion. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal viral entry

  14. Contribution of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Sukun [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); He, Siyi; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Mudan; Huang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Du, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zheng, Chunfu [Soochow University, Institutes of Biology and Medical Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yalan [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hu, Qinxue, E-mail: qhu@wh.iov.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George' s University of London, London SW17 0RE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    HSV-2 is the major cause of genital herpes and its infection increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. HSV-2 glycoprotein B together with glycoproteins D, H and L are indispensable for viral entry, of which gB, as a class III fusogen, plays an essential role. HSV-2 gB has seven potential N-linked glycosylation (N-CHO) sites, but their significance has yet to be determined. For the first time, we systematically analyzed the contributions of N-linked glycans on gB to cell–cell fusion and viral entry. Our results demonstrated that, of the seven potential N-CHO sites on gB, mutation at N390, N483 or N668 decreased cell–cell fusion and viral entry, while mutation at N133 mainly affected protein expression and the production of infectious virus particles by blocking the transport of gB from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi. Our findings highlight the significance of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB expression and function. - Highlights: • N-linked glycan at N133 is important for gB intracellular trafficking and maturation. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal cell–cell fusion. • N-linked glycans at N390, N483 and N668 on gB are necessary for optimal viral entry.

  15. Functional Role of N-Linked Glycosylation in Pseudorabies Virus Glycoprotein gH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallbracht, Melina; Rehwaldt, Sascha; Klupp, Barbara G; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2018-05-01

    Many viral envelope proteins are modified by asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation, which can influence their structure, physicochemical properties, intracellular transport, and function. Here, we systematically analyzed the functional relevance of N-linked glycans in the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PrV) glycoprotein H (gH), which is an essential component of the conserved core herpesvirus fusion machinery. Upon gD-mediated receptor binding, the heterodimeric complex of gH and gL activates gB to mediate fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane for viral entry. gH contains five potential N-linked glycosylation sites at positions 77, 162, 542, 604, and 627, which were inactivated by conservative mutations (asparagine to glutamine) singly or in combination. The mutated proteins were tested for correct expression and fusion activity. Additionally, the mutated gH genes were inserted into the PrV genome for analysis of function during virus infection. Our results demonstrate that all five sites are glycosylated. Inactivation of the PrV-specific N77 or the conserved N627 resulted in significantly reduced in vitro fusion activity, delayed penetration kinetics, and smaller virus plaques. Moreover, substitution of N627 greatly affected transport of gH in transfected cells, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention and reduced surface expression. In contrast, mutation of N604, which is conserved in the Varicellovirus genus, resulted in enhanced in vitro fusion activity and viral cell-to-cell spread. These results demonstrate a role of the N-glycans in proper localization and function of PrV gH. However, even simultaneous inactivation of all five N-glycosylation sites of gH did not severely inhibit formation of infectious virus particles. IMPORTANCE Herpesvirus infection requires fusion of the viral envelope with cellular membranes, which involves the conserved fusion machinery consisting of gB and the heterodimeric gH/gL complex. The bona fide

  16. Functional characterization of Sporothrix schenckii glycosidases involved in the N-linked glycosylation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Lozoya-Pérez, Nancy E; López-Ramírez, Luz A; Martínez-Álvarez, José A; Teixeira, Marcus M; Felipe, Maria S S; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2015-01-01

    Protein glycosylation pathways are conserved metabolic processes in eukaryotic organisms and are required for cell fitness. In fungal pathogens, the N-linked glycosylation pathway is indispensable for proper cell wall composition and virulence. In Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, little is known about this glycosylation pathway. Here, using a genome-wide screening for putative members of the glycosyl hydrolase (CAZy - GH) families 47 and 63, which group enzymes involved in the processing step during N-linked glycan maturation, we found seven homologue genes belonging to family 47 and one to family 63. The eight genes were individually expressed in C. albicans null mutants lacking either MNS1 (for members of family 47) or CWH41 (for the member of family 63). Our results indicate that SsCWH41 is the functional ortholog of CaCWH41, whereas SsMNS1 is the functional ortholog of CaMNS1. The remaining genes of family 47 encode Golgi mannosidases and endoplasmic reticulum degradation-enhancing alpha-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs). Since these GH families gather proteins used as target for drugs to control cell growth, identification of these genes could help in the design of antifungals that could be used to treat sporotrichosis and other fungal diseases. In addition, to our knowledge, we are the first to report that Golgi mannosidases and EDEMs are expressed and characterized in yeast cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A novel function of N-linked glycoproteins, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein and hemopexin: Implications for small molecule compound-mediated neuroprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Kanno

    Full Text Available Therapeutic agents to the central nervous system (CNS need to be efficiently delivered to the target site of action at appropriate therapeutic levels. However, a limited number of effective drugs for the treatment of neurological diseases has been developed thus far. Further, the pharmacological mechanisms by which such therapeutic agents can protect neurons from cell death have not been fully understood. We have previously reported the novel small-molecule compound, 2-[mesityl(methylamino]-N-[4-(pyridin-2-yl-1H-imidazol-2-yl] acetamide trihydrochloride (WN1316, as a unique neuroprotectant against oxidative injury and a highly promising remedy for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. One of the remarkable characteristics of WN1316 is that its efficacious doses in ALS mouse models are much less than those against oxidative injury in cultured human neuronal cells. It is also noted that the WN1316 cytoprotective activity observed in cultured cells is totally dependent upon the addition of fetal bovine serum in culture medium. These findings led us to postulate some serum factors being tightly linked to the WN1316 efficacy. In this study, we sieved through fetal bovine serum proteins and identified two N-linked glycoproteins, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG and hemopexin (HPX, requisites to exert the WN1316 cytoprotective activity against oxidative injury in neuronal cells in vitro. Notably, the removal of glycan chains from these molecules did not affect the WN1316 cytoprotective activity. Thus, two glycoproteins, AHSG and HPX, represent a pivotal glycoprotein of the cytoprotective activity for WN1316, showing a concrete evidence for the novel glycan-independent function of serum glycoproteins in neuroprotective drug efficacy.

  18. Insights into plant cell wall structure, architecture, and integrity using glycome profiling of native and AFEXTM-pre-treated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Dale, Bruce E.; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls, which constitute the bulk of plant biomass, vary considerably in their structure, composition, and architecture. Studies on plant cell walls can be conducted on both native and pre-treated plant biomass samples, allowing an enhanced understanding of these structural and compositional variations. Here glycome profiling was employed to determine the relative abundance of matrix polysaccharides in several phylogenetically distinct native and pre-treated plant biomasses. Eight distinct biomass types belonging to four different subgroups (i.e. monocot grasses, woody dicots, herbaceous dicots, and softwoods) were subjected to various regimes of AFEX™ (ammonia fiber expansion) pre-treatment [AFEX is a trademark of MBI, Lansing (http://www.mbi.org]. This approach allowed detailed analysis of close to 200 cell wall glycan epitopes and their relative extractability using a high-throughput platform. In general, irrespective of the phylogenetic origin, AFEX™ pre-treatment appeared to cause loosening and improved accessibility of various xylan epitope subclasses in most plant biomass materials studied. For most biomass types analysed, such loosening was also evident for other major non-cellulosic components including subclasses of pectin and xyloglucan epitopes. The studies also demonstrate that AFEX™ pre-treatment significantly reduced cell wall recalcitrance among diverse phylogenies (except softwoods) by inducing structural modifications to polysaccharides that were not detectable by conventional gross composition analyses. It was found that monitoring changes in cell wall glycan compositions and their relative extractability for untreated and pre-treated plant biomass can provide an improved understanding of variations in structure and composition of plant cell walls and delineate the role(s) of matrix polysaccharides in cell wall recalcitrance. PMID:25911738

  19. Insights into plant cell wall structure, architecture, and integrity using glycome profiling of native and AFEXTM-pre-treated biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir P S

    2015-07-01

    Cell walls, which constitute the bulk of plant biomass, vary considerably in their structure, composition, and architecture. Studies on plant cell walls can be conducted on both native and pre-treated plant biomass samples, allowing an enhanced understanding of these structural and compositional variations. Here glycome profiling was employed to determine the relative abundance of matrix polysaccharides in several phylogenetically distinct native and pre-treated plant biomasses. Eight distinct biomass types belonging to four different subgroups (i.e. monocot grasses, woody dicots, herbaceous dicots, and softwoods) were subjected to various regimes of AFEX™ (ammonia fiber expansion) pre-treatment [AFEX is a trademark of MBI, Lansing (http://www.mbi.org]. This approach allowed detailed analysis of close to 200 cell wall glycan epitopes and their relative extractability using a high-throughput platform. In general, irrespective of the phylogenetic origin, AFEX™ pre-treatment appeared to cause loosening and improved accessibility of various xylan epitope subclasses in most plant biomass materials studied. For most biomass types analysed, such loosening was also evident for other major non-cellulosic components including subclasses of pectin and xyloglucan epitopes. The studies also demonstrate that AFEX™ pre-treatment significantly reduced cell wall recalcitrance among diverse phylogenies (except softwoods) by inducing structural modifications to polysaccharides that were not detectable by conventional gross composition analyses. It was found that monitoring changes in cell wall glycan compositions and their relative extractability for untreated and pre-treated plant biomass can provide an improved understanding of variations in structure and composition of plant cell walls and delineate the role(s) of matrix polysaccharides in cell wall recalcitrance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Quantitative N-linked Glycoproteomics of Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury Reveals Early Remodeling in the Extracellular Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Benjamin L; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Edwards, Alistair V G

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular and cell surface proteins are generally modified with N-linked glycans and glycopeptide enrichment is an attractive tool to analyze these proteins. The role of N-linked glycoproteins in cardiovascular disease, particularly ischemia and reperfusion injury, is poorly understood...... quantitation (iTRAQ) and validation with dimethyl labeling to analyze changes in glycoproteins from tissue following prolonged ischemia and reperfusion (40 mins ischemia and 20 mins reperfusion) indicative of myocardial infarction. The iTRAQ approach revealed 80 of 437 glycopeptides with altered abundance......-associated proteins. The data suggest that cardiac remodeling is initiated earlier during reperfusion than previously hypothesized....

  1. Prediction of N-linked glycosylation sites using position relative features and statistical moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmal, Muhammad Aizaz; Rasool, Nouman; Khan, Yaser Daanial

    2017-01-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most complex post translation modification in eukaryotic cells. Almost 50% of the human proteome is glycosylated as glycosylation plays a vital role in various biological functions such as antigen's recognition, cell-cell communication, expression of genes and protein folding. It is a significant challenge to identify glycosylation sites in protein sequences as experimental methods are time taking and expensive. A reliable computational method is desirable for the identification of glycosylation sites. In this study, a comprehensive technique for the identification of N-linked glycosylation sites has been proposed using machine learning. The proposed predictor was trained using an up-to-date dataset through back propagation algorithm for multilayer neural network. The results of ten-fold cross-validation and other performance measures such as accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Mathew's correlation coefficient inferred that the accuracy of proposed tool is far better than the existing systems such as Glyomine, GlycoEP, Ensemble SVM and GPP.

  2. Prediction of N-linked glycosylation sites using position relative features and statistical moments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aizaz Akmal

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is one of the most complex post translation modification in eukaryotic cells. Almost 50% of the human proteome is glycosylated as glycosylation plays a vital role in various biological functions such as antigen's recognition, cell-cell communication, expression of genes and protein folding. It is a significant challenge to identify glycosylation sites in protein sequences as experimental methods are time taking and expensive. A reliable computational method is desirable for the identification of glycosylation sites. In this study, a comprehensive technique for the identification of N-linked glycosylation sites has been proposed using machine learning. The proposed predictor was trained using an up-to-date dataset through back propagation algorithm for multilayer neural network. The results of ten-fold cross-validation and other performance measures such as accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Mathew's correlation coefficient inferred that the accuracy of proposed tool is far better than the existing systems such as Glyomine, GlycoEP, Ensemble SVM and GPP.

  3. Peptide secondary structures in the gas phase: consensus motif of N-linked glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocinero, Emilio J; Stanca-Kaposta, E Cristina; Gamblin, David P; Davis, Benjamin G; Simons, John P

    2009-01-28

    The possibility of secondary structure acting as a primary determinant in nature's choice of the consensus sequon, NXS/T in all N-linked glycoproteins, has been addressed by determining the intrinsic secondary structures of the capped oligopeptide, Ac-NGS-NHBn, and two "mutants", Ac-QGS-NHBn and Ac-NPS-NHBn, by use of infrared laser ion dip spectroscopy in the gas phase coupled with ab initio and density functional theory calculation. Their global minimum energy conformations, exclusively or preferentially populated in all three peptides, display marked differences. NGS adopts an open, S-shaped backbone conformation rather than the C(10) "Asx" turn structure that all previous measurements have identified in solution; the difference can be related to the high dipole moment of the "Asx" conformation and structural selection in a polar environment. QGS adopts a similar but more rigid backbone structure, supported by markedly stronger hydrogen bonds. NPS adopts an Asx turn coupled with a C(10) beta-turn backbone conformation, a structure also adopted in a crystal environment. These and other more subtle structural differences, particularly those involving interactions with the carboxamide side chain, provide strong evidence for the operation of structural constraints, and a potential insight into the unique reactivity of the asparagine side chain toward enzymatic glycosylation.

  4. Studies on N-linked glycoprotein synthesis in differentiating muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    All N-linked glycoproteins share a common pathway with respect to the acquisition of their oligosaccharide chains. Isolated membranes from undifferentiated (UND) and differentiated (DIF) C 2 cells, which have the capability of differentiating from mononucleated myoblasts to contracting myotubes, were utilized to examine dolichol-linked oligosaccharide synthesis. A characterization of the glycosyltransferases involved in the early stages of lipid-linked oligosaccaride synthesis revealed that while UND cells demonstrated a greater ability to synthesize Dol-PP-GN/sub (1-2), Dol-P-Man, and Dol-P-Glc than did DIF cells, the presence of exogenous Dol-P plus detergent either reversed or equalized product formation. The ability to synthesize the larger dolichol-oligosaccharides was demonstrated both in whole cells and in isolated membranes from UND and DIF cells. Pulse-chase experiments, using [ 3 H]-glucosamine to metabolically label the N-acetylglucosamine residues demonstrated the precursor-product relationship between the dolichol-oligosaccharide intermediates in whole cell studies. DIF cells appear to be more efficient than UND cells for extending the smaller oligosaccharide intermediates to the tetradecasaccharide which would be transferred to protein. Membranes isolated from cells metabolically labeled with [ 3 H]-mannose were subject to pronase digestion, and the resulting glycopeptide analyzed by serial lectin affinity chromatography

  5. Quantitative Profiling of N-linked Glycosylation Machinery in YeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Kristina; Selevsek, Nathalie; Ngwa, Elsy; Grossmann, Jonas; Losfeld, Marie Estelle; Aebi, Markus

    2018-01-01

    Asparagine-linked glycosylation is a common posttranslational protein modification regulating the structure, stability and function of many proteins. The N -linked glycosylation machinery involves enzymes responsible for the assembly of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO), which is then transferred to the asparagine residues on the polypeptides by the enzyme oligosaccharyltransferase (OST). A major goal in the study of protein glycosylation is to establish quantitative methods for the analysis of site-specific extent of glycosylation. We developed a sensitive approach to examine glycosylation site occupancy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by coupling stable isotope labeling (SILAC) approach to parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) mass spectrometry (MS). We combined the method with genetic tools and validated the approach with the identification of novel glycosylation sites dependent on the Ost3p and Ost6p regulatory subunits of OST. Based on the observations that alternations in LLO substrate structure and OST subunits activity differentially alter the systemic output of OST, we conclude that sequon recognition is a direct property of the catalytic subunit Stt3p, auxiliary subunits such as Ost3p and Ost6p extend the OST substrate range by modulating interfering pathways such as protein folding. In addition, our proteomics approach revealed a novel regulatory network that connects isoprenoid lipid biosynthesis and LLO substrate assembly. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Adaptive antibody diversification through N-linked glycosylation of the immunoglobulin variable region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bovenkamp, Fleur S; Derksen, Ninotska I L; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni; van Schie, Karin A; Kruithof, Simone; Berkowska, Magdalena A; van der Schoot, C Ellen; IJspeert, Hanna; van der Burg, Mirjam; Gils, Ann; Hafkenscheid, Lise; Toes, René E M; Rombouts, Yoann; Plomp, Rosina; Wuhrer, Manfred; van Ham, S Marieke; Vidarsson, Gestur; Rispens, Theo

    2018-02-20

    A hallmark of B-cell immunity is the generation of a diverse repertoire of antibodies from a limited set of germline V(D)J genes. This repertoire is usually defined in terms of amino acid composition. However, variable domains may also acquire N -linked glycans, a process conditional on the introduction of consensus amino acid motifs ( N -glycosylation sites) during somatic hypermutation. High levels of variable domain glycans have been associated with autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis, as well as certain follicular lymphomas. However, the role of these glycans in the humoral immune response remains poorly understood. Interestingly, studies have reported both positive and negative effects on antibody affinity. Our aim was to elucidate the role of variable domain glycans during antigen-specific antibody responses. By analyzing B-cell repertoires by next-generation sequencing, we demonstrate that N -glycosylation sites are introduced at positions in which glycans can affect antigen binding as a result of a specific clustering of progenitor glycosylation sites in the germline sequences of variable domain genes. By analyzing multiple human monoclonal and polyclonal (auto)antibody responses, we subsequently show that this process is subject to selection during antigen-specific antibody responses, skewed toward IgG4, and positively contributes to antigen binding. Together, these results highlight a physiological role for variable domain glycosylation as an additional layer of antibody diversification that modulates antigen binding.

  7. N-Linked Glycosylation in the Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Il

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1918 influenza A virus (IAV) pandemic, H1N1 viruses have circulated in human populations. The hemagglutinin (HA) of IAV determines viral antigenicity and often undergoes N-linked glycosylation (NLG) at several sites. Interestingly, structural analysis of the 1918 and 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses revealed antigenic similarities attributable to the conserved epitopes and the NLG statuses of their HA proteins. NLG of the globular head of HA is known to modulate the antigenicity, fusion activity, virulence, receptor-binding specificity, and immune evasion of IAV. In addition, the HA of IAV often retains additional mutations. These supplemental mutations compensate for the attenuation of viral properties resulting from the introduced NLG. In human H1N1 viruses, the number and location of NLG sites has been regulated in accordance with the antigenic variability of the NLG-targeted antibody-binding site. The relationship between the NLG and the antigenic variance in HA appears to be stably controlled in the viral context. PMID:22869469

  8. N-linked glycosylation in the hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Il; Park, Man-Seong

    2012-09-01

    Since the 1918 influenza A virus (IAV) pandemic, H1N1 viruses have circulated in human populations. The hemagglutinin (HA) of IAV determines viral antigenicity and often undergoes N-linked glycosylation (NLG) at several sites. Interestingly, structural analysis of the 1918 and 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses revealed antigenic similarities attributable to the conserved epitopes and the NLG statuses of their HA proteins. NLG of the globular head of HA is known to modulate the antigenicity, fusion activity, virulence, receptor-binding specificity, and immune evasion of IAV. In addition, the HA of IAV often retains additional mutations. These supplemental mutations compensate for the attenuation of viral properties resulting from the introduced NLG. In human H1N1 viruses, the number and location of NLG sites has been regulated in accordance with the antigenic variability of the NLG-targeted antibody-binding site. The relationship between the NLG and the antigenic variance in HA appears to be stably controlled in the viral context.

  9. Mapping N-linked Glycosylation Sites in the Secretome and Whole Cells of Aspergillus niger Using Hydrazide Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Aryal, Uma K.; Dai, Ziyu; Mason, Alisa C.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Tian, Zhixin; Zhou, Jianying; Su, Dian; Weitz, Karl K.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Scott E.; Qian, Weijun

    2012-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is known to play an essential role in both cellular functions and the secretory pathways; however, little information is available on the dynamics of glycosylated N-linked glycosites of fungi. Herein we present the first extensive mapping of glycosylated N-linked glycosites in industrial strain Aspergillus niger by applying an optimized solid phase enrichment of glycopeptide protocol using hydrazide modified magnetic beads. The enrichment protocol was initially optimized using mouse plasma and A. niger secretome samples, which was then applied to profile N-linked glycosites from both the secretome and whole cell lysates of A. niger. A total of 847 unique N-linked glycosites and 330 N-linked glycoproteins were confidently identified by LC-MS/MS. Based on gene ontology analysis, the identified N-linked glycoproteins in the whole cell lysate were primarily localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosome, and storage vacuoles. The identified N-linked glycoproteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes including gene regulation and signal transduction, protein folding and assembly, protein modification and carbohydrate metabolism. The extensive coverage of glycosylated N-linked glycosites along with identification of partial N-linked glycosylation in those enzymes involving in different biochemical pathways provide useful information for functional studies of N-linked glycosylation and their biotechnological applications in A. niger.

  10. Chemical deamidation: a common pitfall in large-scale N-linked glycoproteomic mass spectrometry-based analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Melo-Braga, Marcella Nunes; Engholm-Keller, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    N-linked glycoproteins are involved in several diseases and are important as potential diagnostic molecules for biomarker discovery. Therefore, it is important to provide sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify not only the glycoproteins but also the sites of glycosylation. Recently...

  11. Structure Activity Relationships of N-linked and Diglycosylated Glucosamine-Based Antitumor Glycerolipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makanjuola Ogunsina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-3-O-(2'-amino-2'-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (1 was previously reported to show potent in vitro antitumor activity on a range of cancer cell lines derived from breast, pancreas and prostate cancer. This compound was not toxic to mice and was inactive against breast tumor xenografts in mice. This inactivity was attributed to hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage by glycosidases. Here three N-linked (glycosylamide analogs 2–4, one triazole-linked analog 5 of 1 as well as two diglycosylated analogs 6 and 7 with different stereochemistry at the C2-position of the glycerol moiety were synthesized and their antitumor activity against breast (JIMT-1, BT-474, MDA-MB-231, pancreas (MiaPaCa2 and prostrate (DU145, PC3 cancer cell lines was determined. The diglycosylated analogs 1-O-hexadecyl-2(R-, 3-O-di-(2'-amino-2'-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (7 and the 1:1 diastereomeric mixture of 1-O-hexadecyl-2(R/S, 3-O-di-(2'-amino-2'-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (6 showed the most potent cytotoxic activity at CC50 values of 17.5 µM against PC3 cell lines. The replacement of the O-glycosidic linkage by a glycosylamide or a glycosyltriazole linkage showed little or no activity at highest concentration tested (30 µM, whereas the replacement of the glycerol moiety by triazole resulted in CC50 values in the range of 20 to 30 µM. In conclusion, the replacement of the O-glycosidic linkage by an N-glycosidic linkage or triazole-linkage resulted in about a two to three fold loss in activity, whereas the replacement of the methoxy group on the glycerol backbone by a second glucosamine moiety did not improve the activity. The stereochemistry at the C2-position of the glycero backbone has minimal effect on the anticancer activities of these diglycosylated analogs.

  12. Significant structural change in both O- and N-linked carbohydrate moieties of the antigenic galactomannan from Aspergillus fumigatus grown under different culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudoh, Atsushi; Okawa, Yoshio; Shibata, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Diagnosis of this infection frequently employs detection of the circulating galactomannan in the patient serum using enzyme immunoassay (EIA), a highly sensitive and specific system. Although there are many structural studies of the galactomannan of Aspergillus fumigatus, some inconsistencies are present in these results. In this study, to clarify the relationship between the growth conditions and structure of the galactomannans, we cultured A. fumigatus using two distinct yeast/fungal cultivation media, i.e. the yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) medium and yeast nitrogen base (YNB) medium. Galactomannans prepared from the resulting culture supernatants were structurally characterized by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, methylation analysis, acetolysis and α-mannosidase degradation. These assays revealed that the galactomannan from the YPD cultivation had short β-1,5-linked galactofuranose (Galf) oligosaccharide chains in both the O- and N-linked carbohydrate moieties, while the galactomannan from the YNB cultivation incorporated long Galf oligosaccharide chains. The galactomannans derived from the two culture conditions significantly differed in reactivity based on the EIA diagnostic system. We also demonstrated the presence of a novel Galf-containing branched oligosaccharide in the O-linked moiety. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Identification of N-linked glycoproteins in human milk by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Ferranti, Pasquale; Mamone, Gianfranco

    2008-01-01

    of glycoconjugates, also including glycoproteins. A number of approaches to describe the complexity of human milk proteome have provided only a partial characterization of restricted classes of N-linked glycoproteins. To achieve this objective, profiling N-linked glycoproteins of human milk was performed...... by Hydrophilic Interaction LC (HILIC) and MS analysis. Glycopeptides were selectively enriched from the protein tryptic digest of human milk samples. Oligosaccharide-free peptides obtained by peptide N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) treatment were characterized by a shotgun MS-based approach, allowing......Breastfeeding is now generally recognized as a critical factor in protecting newborns against infections. An important mechanism responsible for the antibacterial and antiviral effects of breast milk is the prevention of pathogen adhesion to host cell membranes mediated by a number...

  14. Variable Domain N-Linked Glycans Acquired During Antigen-Specific Immune Responses Can Contribute to Immunoglobulin G Antibody Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur S. van de Bovenkamp

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G (IgG can contain N-linked glycans in the variable domains, the so-called Fab glycans, in addition to the Fc glycans in the CH2 domains. These Fab glycans are acquired following introduction of N-glycosylation sites during somatic hypermutation and contribute to antibody diversification. We investigated whether Fab glycans may—in addition to affecting antigen binding—contribute to antibody stability. By analyzing thermal unfolding profiles of antibodies with or without Fab glycans, we demonstrate that introduction of Fab glycans can improve antibody stability. Strikingly, removal of Fab glycans naturally acquired during antigen-specific immune responses can deteriorate antibody stability, suggesting in vivo selection of stable, glycosylated antibodies. Collectively, our data show that variable domain N-linked glycans acquired during somatic hypermutation can contribute to IgG antibody stability. These findings indicate that introducing Fab glycans may represent a mechanism to improve therapeutic/diagnostic antibody stability.

  15. Altered N-Linked Glycosylation in Follicular Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Involvement in Pathogenesis and Potential Therapeutic Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, Nurit; Haimovich, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) expression is indispensable for survival of most B-cell malignancies. In follicular lymphoma (FL), N-linked glycosylation sites are introduced in the immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region genes. Oligosaccharides added to the acquired sites are unusually of the high-mannose type. These glycans interact with mannose-specific lectins, especially with dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN). Lectin binding to FL trigger...

  16. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Processing of N-linked carbohydrate is not required for surface expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Cowell, G M

    1986-01-01

    microvillar enzymes, it does not receive post-translational O-linked carbohydrate. Castanospermine suppressed the synthesis of the four enzymes, but did not block their transport to the microvillar membrane, showing that processing of N-linked carbohydrate is not required for microvillar expression....... The proteinase inhibitor leupeptin partially restored the suppressed synthesis, indicating that the majority of the wrongly processed enzymes, probably because of conformational instability, become degraded soon after synthesis rather than being transported to the microvillar membrane....

  17. The glycomic effect of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III overexpression in metastatic melanoma cells. GnT-III modifies highly branched N-glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link-Lenczowski, Paweł; Bubka, Monika; Balog, Crina I A; Koeleman, Carolien A M; Butters, Terry D; Wuhrer, Manfred; Lityńska, Anna

    2018-04-01

    N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III) is known to catalyze N-glycan "bisection" and thereby modulate the formation of highly branched complex structures within the Golgi apparatus. While active, it inhibits the action of other GlcNAc transferases such as GnT-IV and GnT-V. Moreover, GnT-III is considered as an inhibitor of the metastatic potential of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of GnT-III may be more diverse and depend on the cellular context. We describe the detailed glycomic analysis of the effect of GnT-III overexpression in WM266-4-GnT-III metastatic melanoma cells. We used MALDI-TOF and ESI-ion-trap-MS/MS together with HILIC-HPLC of 2-AA labeled N-glycans to study the N-glycome of membrane-attached and secreted proteins. We found that the overexpression of GnT-III in melanoma leads to the modification of a broad range of N-glycan types by the introduction of the "bisecting" GlcNAc residue with highly branched complex structures among them. The presence of these unusual complex N-glycans resulted in stronger interactions of cellular glycoproteins with the PHA-L. Based on the data presented here we conclude that elevated activity of GnT-III in cancer cells does not necessarily lead to a total abrogation of the formation of highly branched glycans. In addition, the modification of pre-existing N-glycans by the introduction of "bisecting" GlcNAc can modulate their capacity to interact with carbohydrate-binding proteins such as plant lectins. Our results suggest further studies on the biological function of "bisected" oligosaccharides in cancer cell biology and their interactions with carbohydrate-binding proteins.

  18. Online coupling of hydrophilic interaction/strong cation exchange/reversed-phase liquid chromatography with porous graphitic carbon liquid chromatography for simultaneous proteomics and N-glycomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Law, Henry C H; Zhang, Zaijun; Lam, Herman C; Quan, Quan; Li, Guohui; Chu, Ivan K

    2015-10-09

    In this study we developed a fully automated three-dimensional (3D) liquid chromatography methodology-comprising hydrophilic interaction separation as the first dimension, strong cation exchange fractionation as the second dimension, and low-pH reversed-phase (RP) separation as the third dimension-in conjunction downstream with additional complementary porous graphitic carbon separation, to capture non-retained hydrophilic analytes, for both shotgun proteomics and N-glycomics analyses. The performance of the 3D system alone was benchmarked through the analysis of the total lysate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, leading to improved hydrophilic peptide coverage, from which we identified 19% and 24% more proteins and peptides, respectively, relative to those identified from a two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and low-pH RP chromatography (HILIC-RP) system over the same mass spectrometric acquisition time; consequently, the 3D platform also provided enhanced proteome and protein coverage. When we applied the integrated technology to analyses of the total lysate of primary cerebellar granule neurons, we characterized a total of 2201 proteins and 16,937 unique peptides for this primary cell line, providing one of its most comprehensive datasets. Our new integrated technology also exhibited excellent performance in the first N-glycomics analysis of cynomolgus monkey plasma; we successfully identified 122 proposed N-glycans and 135 N-glycosylation sites from 122 N-glycoproteins, and confirmed the presence of 38 N-glycolylneuraminic acid-containing N-glycans, a rare occurrence in human plasma, through tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J Moncla

    Full Text Available In this study, we characterized the glycome of cervical-vaginal fluid, collected with a Catamenial cup. We quantified: glycosidase levels; sialic acid and high mannose specific lectin binding; mucins, MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC7; and albumin in the samples collected. These data were analyzed in the context of hormonal status (day of menstrual cycle, hormonal contraception use and role, if any, of the type of the vaginal microflora present. When the Nugent score was used to stratify the subjects by microflora as normal, intermediate, or bacterial vaginosis, several important differences were observed. The activities of four of six glycosidases in the samples from women with bacterial vaginosis were significantly increased when compared to normal or intermediate women: sialidase, P = <0.001; α-galactosidase, P = 0.006; β-galactosidase, P = 0.005; α-glucosidase, P = 0.056. Sialic acid binding sites as measured by two lectins, Maackia amurensis and Sambucus nigra binding, were significantly lower in women with BV compared to women with normal and intermediate scores (P = <0.0001 and 0.008 respectively. High mannose binding sites, a measure of innate immunity were also significantly lower in women with BV (P = <0.001. Additionally, we observed significant increases in MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC7 concentrations in women with BV (P = <0.001, 0.001, <0.001, 0.02 respectively. Among normal women we found that the membrane bound mucin MUC4 and the secreted MUC5AC were decreased in postmenopausal women (P = 0.02 and 0.07 respectively, while MUC7 (secreted was decreased in women using levonorgestrel-containing IUDs (P = 0.02. The number of sialic acid binding sites was lower in the postmenopausal group (P = 0.04, but the number of high mannose binding sites, measured with Griffithsin, was not significantly different among the 6 hormonal groups. The glycosidase levels in the cervical-vaginal mucus were rather low in the groups, with exception of

  20. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncla, Bernard J; Chappell, Catherine A; Debo, Brian M; Meyn, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the glycome of cervical-vaginal fluid, collected with a Catamenial cup. We quantified: glycosidase levels; sialic acid and high mannose specific lectin binding; mucins, MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC7; and albumin in the samples collected. These data were analyzed in the context of hormonal status (day of menstrual cycle, hormonal contraception use) and role, if any, of the type of the vaginal microflora present. When the Nugent score was used to stratify the subjects by microflora as normal, intermediate, or bacterial vaginosis, several important differences were observed. The activities of four of six glycosidases in the samples from women with bacterial vaginosis were significantly increased when compared to normal or intermediate women: sialidase, P = <0.001; α-galactosidase, P = 0.006; β-galactosidase, P = 0.005; α-glucosidase, P = 0.056. Sialic acid binding sites as measured by two lectins, Maackia amurensis and Sambucus nigra binding, were significantly lower in women with BV compared to women with normal and intermediate scores (P = <0.0001 and 0.008 respectively). High mannose binding sites, a measure of innate immunity were also significantly lower in women with BV (P = <0.001). Additionally, we observed significant increases in MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC7 concentrations in women with BV (P = <0.001, 0.001, <0.001, 0.02 respectively). Among normal women we found that the membrane bound mucin MUC4 and the secreted MUC5AC were decreased in postmenopausal women (P = 0.02 and 0.07 respectively), while MUC7 (secreted) was decreased in women using levonorgestrel-containing IUDs (P = 0.02). The number of sialic acid binding sites was lower in the postmenopausal group (P = 0.04), but the number of high mannose binding sites, measured with Griffithsin, was not significantly different among the 6 hormonal groups. The glycosidase levels in the cervical-vaginal mucus were rather low in the groups, with exception of α-glucosidase activity

  1. Glycomics meets artificial intelligence - Potential of glycan analysis for identification of seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis patients revealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocholova, Erika; Bertok, Tomas; Jane, Eduard; Lorencova, Lenka; Holazova, Alena; Belicka, Ludmila; Belicky, Stefan; Mislovicova, Danica; Vikartovska, Alica; Imrich, Richard; Kasak, Peter; Tkac, Jan

    2018-02-25

    In this study, one hundred serum samples from healthy people and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were analyzed. Standard immunoassays for detection of 10 different RA markers and analysis of glycan markers on antibodies in 10 different assay formats with several lectins were applied for each serum sample. A dataset containing 2000 data points was data mined using artificial neural networks (ANN). We identified key RA markers, which can discriminate between healthy people and seropositive RA patients (serum containing autoantibodies) with accuracy of 83.3%. Combination of RA markers with glycan analysis provided much better discrimination accuracy of 92.5%. Immunoassays completely failed to identify seronegative RA patients (serum not containing autoantibodies), while glycan analysis correctly identified 43.8% of these patients. Further, we revealed other critical parameters for successful glycan analysis such as type of a sample, format of analysis and orientation of captured antibodies for glycan analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Head-to-Head Comparison of Serum Fractionation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Zhang, Heidi; Eng, Jimmy K.; Fang, Ruihua; Piening, Brian D.; Feng, Li-Chia; lorentzen, Travis D.; Schoenherr, Regine M.; Keane, John F.; Holzman, Ted; Fitzgibbon, Matthew; Lin, Chen Wei; Zhang, Hui; Cooke, Kelly; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Anderson, Leigh N.; Watts, Julian; Smith, Richard D.; McIntosh, Martin; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2007-02-01

    Multiple approaches for simplifying the serum proteome have been described. These techniques are generally developed across different laboratories, samples, mass spectrometry platforms, and analysis tools. Hence, comparing the available schemes is impossible from the existing literature because of confounding variables. We describe a head-to-head comparison of several serum fractionation schemes, including N-linked glycopeptide enrichment, cysteinyl-peptide enrichment, magnetic bead separation (C3, C8, and WCX), size fractionation, Protein A/G depletion, and immunoaffinity column depletion of abundant serum proteins. Each technique was compared to results obtained from unfractionated human serum. The results show immunoaffinity subtraction is the most effective means for simplifying the serum proteome and maintaining reasonable sample throughput. The reported dataset is publicly available and provides a standard against which emergent technologies can be compared and evaluated for their contribution to serum-based biomarker discovery.

  3. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  4. Glycomic Analysis of Life Stages of the Human Parasite Schistosoma mansoni Reveals Developmental Expression Profiles of Functional and Antigenic Glycan Motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Cornelis H; van Diepen, Angela; Nguyen, D Linh; Wuhrer, Manfred; Hoffmann, Karl F; Deelder, André M; Hokke, Cornelis H

    2015-07-01

    Glycans present on glycoproteins and glycolipids of the major human parasite Schistosoma mansoni induce innate as well as adaptive immune responses in the host. To be able to study the molecular characteristics of schistosome infections it is therefore required to determine the expression profiles of glycans and antigenic glycan-motifs during a range of critical stages of the complex schistosome lifecycle. We performed a longitudinal profiling study covering schistosome glycosylation throughout worm- and egg-development using a mass spectrometry-based glycomics approach. Our study revealed that during worm development N-glycans with Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc (LeX) and core-xylose motifs were rapidly lost after cercariae to schistosomula transformation, whereas GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc (LDN)-motifs gradually became abundant and predominated in adult worms. LeX-motifs were present on glycolipids up to 2 weeks of schistosomula development, whereas glycolipids with mono- and multifucosylated LDN-motifs remained present up to the adult worm stage. In contrast, expression of complex O-glycans diminished to undetectable levels within days after transformation. During egg development, a rich diversity of N-glycans with fucosylated motifs was expressed, but with α3-core fucose and a high degree of multifucosylated antennae only in mature eggs and miracidia. N-glycan antennae were exclusively LDN-based in miracidia. O-glycans in the mature eggs were also diverse and contained LeX- and multifucosylated LDN, but none of these were associated with miracidia in which we detected only the Galβ1-3(Galβ1-6)GalNAc core glycan. Immature eggs also exhibited short O-glycan core structures only, suggesting that complex fucosylated O-glycans of schistosome eggs are derived primarily from glycoproteins produced by the subshell envelope in the developed egg. Lipid glycans with multifucosylated GlcNAc repeats were present throughout egg development, but with the longer highly fucosylated

  5. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the human serotonin transporter introduces a new site for N-linked glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Nygaard; Plenge, Per; Bay, Tina

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin transporter (hSERT) is responsible for reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) from the synaptic cleft and is target for antidepressant medicine. Differential hSERT activity caused by genetic polymorphisms is believed to affect the risk of developing depression and, moreover, to affect...... the response to antidepressant therapy. The hSERT contains in the second extracellular loop (EL2) two sites for N-linked glycosylation that are critical for functional transporter expression. Here we examine a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in EL2 that gives rise to a potential third...... as compared to hSERT in both cell systems. The increase in expression was accompanied by corresponding significant increases in the number of [(3)H]citalopram binding sites and in the V(max) for [(3)H]5-HT uptake. Characterization of mutants carrying all possible combinations of glycosylation sites...

  6. Identification of genes involved in the acetamidino group modification of the flagellin N-linked glycan of Methanococcus maripaludis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth M; Wu, John; Ding, Yan; Uchida, Kaoru; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Robotham, Anna; Logan, Susan M; Kelly, John; Jarrell, Ken F

    2012-05-01

    N-linked glycosylation of protein is a posttranslational modification found in all three domains of life. The flagellin proteins of the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis are known to be modified with an N-linked tetrasaccharide consisting of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), a diacetylated glucuronic acid (GlcNAc3NAc), an acetylated and acetamidino-modified mannuronic acid with a substituted threonine group (ManNAc3NAmA6Thr), and a novel terminal sugar residue [(5S)-2-acetamido-2,4-dideoxy-5-O-methyl-α-L-erythro-hexos-5-ulo-1,5-pyranose]. To identify genes involved in biosynthesis of the component sugars of this glycan, three genes, mmp1081, mmp1082, and mmp1083, were targeted for in-frame deletion, based on their annotation and proximity to glycosyltransferase genes known to be involved in assembly of the glycan. Mutants carrying a deletion in any of these three genes remained flagellated and motile. A strain with a deletion of mmp1081 had lower-molecular-mass flagellins in Western blots. Mass spectrometry of purified flagella revealed a truncated glycan with the terminal sugar absent and the threonine residue and the acetamidino group missing from the third sugar. No glycan modification was seen in either the Δmmp1082 or Δmmp1083 mutant grown in complex Balch III medium. However, a glycan identical to the Δmmp1081 glycan was observed when the Δmmp1082 or Δmmp1083 mutant was grown under ammonia-limited conditions. We hypothesize that MMP1082 generates ammonia and tunnels it through MMP1083 to MMP1081, which acts as the amidotransferase, modifying the third sugar residue of the M. maripaludis glycan with the acetamidino group.

  7. Archaeal surface appendages: their function and the critical role of N-linked glycosylation in their assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Ken F.; Nair, Divya B.; Jones, Gareth M.; Aizawa, S.-I.; Chong, James J. P.; Stark, Meg; Logan, Susan M.; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Kelly, John F.

    2011-10-01

    Many cultivated archaea are extremophiles and, as such, various archaea inhabit some of the most inhospitable niches on the planet in terms of temperature, pH, salinity and anaerobiosis. Different archaeal species have been shown to produce a number of unusual and sometimes unique surface structures. The best studied of these are flagella which are fundamentally different from bacterial flagella and instead bear numerous similarities to bacterial type IV pili in their structure and likely assembly. The major structural proteins, flagellins, are made as preproteins with type IV pilin-like signal peptides processed by a specific signal peptidase. In addition, the flagellins are glycoproteins with attached N-linked glycans. Both of these posttranslational modifications have been studied in the anaerobic archaeon, Methanococcus maripaludis, an organism which also possesses other surface appendages, an unusual version of type IV pili, whose major constituents are also glycoproteins. Analysis of mutants unable to make either or both of flagella and pili demonstrated that both are essential for attachment to surfaces. A number of mutants defective in the assembly and biosynthesis of the tetrasaccharide N-linked to the flagellins have been isolated. Investigations of these mutants by electron microscopy, mass spectrometry and motility assays have demonstrated that flagellins possessing no attached glycan or a glycan truncated to a single sugar cannot assemble flagella on their surface. Mutants which can attach a glycan of 2 or 3 sugars to flagellins assemble flagella but they are impaired in their swimming compared with wildtype cells which attach the tetrasaccharide to their flagellins.

  8. Structure-based comparative analysis and prediction of N-linked glycosylation sites in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Phuc Vinh Nguyen; Goldman, Radoslav; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Narsule, Tejas; Simonyan, Vahan; Soika, Valerii; Mazumder, Raja

    2013-04-01

    The asparagine-X-serine/threonine (NXS/T) motif, where X is any amino acid except proline, is the consensus motif for N-linked glycosylation. Significant numbers of high-resolution crystal structures of glycosylated proteins allow us to carry out structural analysis of the N-linked glycosylation sites (NGS). Our analysis shows that there is enough structural information from diverse glycoproteins to allow the development of rules which can be used to predict NGS. A Python-based tool was developed to investigate asparagines implicated in N-glycosylation in five species: Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our analysis shows that 78% of all asparagines of NXS/T motif involved in N-glycosylation are localized in the loop/turn conformation in the human proteome. Similar distribution was revealed for all the other species examined. Comparative analysis of the occurrence of NXS/T motifs not known to be glycosylated and their reverse sequence (S/TXN) shows a similar distribution across the secondary structural elements, indicating that the NXS/T motif in itself is not biologically relevant. Based on our analysis, we have defined rules to determine NGS. Using machine learning methods based on these rules we can predict with 93% accuracy if a particular site will be glycosylated. If structural information is not available the tool uses structural prediction results resulting in 74% accuracy. The tool was used to identify glycosylation sites in 108 human proteins with structures and 2247 proteins without structures that have acquired NXS/T site/s due to non-synonymous variation. The tool, Structure Feature Analysis Tool (SFAT), is freely available to the public at http://hive.biochemistry.gwu.edu/tools/sfat. Copyright © 2013. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Dictyostelium discoideum: mutants in the biosynthesis of the lipid-linked precursor of N-linked oligosaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze, H.; Willies, L.; Hamilton, S.

    1986-01-01

    The lysosomal enzymes of Dictyostelium discoideum share highly immunogenic oligosaccharides which contain multiple Man-6-SO 4 residues. Two mutant strains which lack the shared antigenic determinant were analyzed in an attempt to identify the primary defect in each. [ 3 H]Man labelled N-linked oligosaccharides of secreted glycoproteins were released by Endo/PNGaseF digestion and analyzed. Both of the mutant strains produced smaller, less sulfated oligosaccharides compared to the wild-type, yet both still contained considerable amounts of Man-6-SO 4 . The size of the precursor lipid-linked oligosaccharide from the wild-type is consistent with a Glc 3 Man 9 GlcNAc 2 structure, while those from both of the mutants have an oligosaccharide the size of Man 5 GlcNAc 2 . The authors conclude that both of the mutants are defective in the biosynthesis of the precursor oligosaccharide. Both oligosaccharides from the mutants contain a tri-mannosyl core and are not glucosylated. Two of the five Man residues are released by a 1,2 specific α mannosidase. Based on the size and mannosidase digestions the authors conclude that 4/5 of the Man residues on the α1,6 branch of the β-linked Man residues are missing. Thus, these residues must be required to define the shared antigenic determinant

  10. GlycoPep grader: a web-based utility for assigning the composition of N-linked glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Carrie L; Hua, David; Maxon, Morgan; Rebecchi, Kathryn R; Go, Eden P; Desaire, Heather

    2012-06-05

    GlycoPep grader (GPG) is a freely available software tool designed to accelerate the process of accurately determining glycopeptide composition from tandem mass spectrometric data. GPG relies on the identification of unique dissociation patterns shown for high mannose, hybrid, and complex N-linked glycoprotein types, including patterns specific to those structures containing fucose or sialic acid residues. The novel GPG scoring algorithm scores potential candidate compositions of the same nominal mass against MS/MS data through evaluation of the Y(1) ion and other peptide-containing product ions, across multiple charge states, when applicable. In addition to evaluating the peptide portion of a given glycopeptide, the GPG algorithm predicts and scores product ions that result from unique neutral losses of terminal glycans. GPG has been applied to a variety of glycoproteins, including RNase B, asialofetuin, and transferrin, and the HIV envelope glycoprotein, CON-S gp140ΔCFI. The GPG software is implemented predominantly in PostgreSQL, with PHP as the presentation tier, and is publicly accessible online. Thus far, the algorithm has identified the correct compositional assignment from multiple candidate N-glycopeptides in all tests performed.

  11. Facile removal of high mannose structures prior to extracting complex type N-glycans from de-N-glycosylated peptides retained by C18 solid phase to allow more efficient glycomic mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Hung; Kuo, Chu-Wei; Jarvis, Donald L; Khoo, Kay-Hooi

    2014-01-01

    The relative amount of high mannose structures within an N-glycomic pool differs from one source to another, but quite often it predominates over the larger size complex type structures carrying biologically important glyco-epitopes. An efficient method to separate these two classes of N-glycans would significantly aid in detecting the lower abundant components by MS. Capitalizing on an initial observation that only high mannose type structures were recovered in the flow-through fraction when peptide-N-glycosidase F digested peptides were passed through a C18 cartridge in 0.1% formic acid, we demonstrated here that native complex type N-glycans can be retained by C18 cartridge and to be efficiently separated from both the smaller high mannose type structures, as well as de-N-glycosylated peptides by stepwise elution with increasing ACN concentration. The weak retention of the largely hydrophilic N-glycans on C18 resin is dependent not only on size but also increased by the presence of α6-fucosylation. This was shown by comparing the resulting N-glycomic profiles of the washed and low-ACN eluted fractions derived from both a human cancer cell line and an insect cell line. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Novel polyfucosylated N-linked glycopeptides with blood group A, H, X and Y determinants from human small intestinal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Finne, J.; Breimer, M.E.; Hansson, G.C.; Karlsson, K.-A.; Leffler, H.; Halbeek, H. van

    1989-01-01

    A novel type of N-linked glycopeptides representing a major part of the glycans in human small intestinal epithelial cells from blood group A and O individuals were isolated by gel filtrations and affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose and Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin I-Sepharose.

  13. Altered N-Linked Glycosylation in Follicular Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Involvement in Pathogenesis and Potential Therapeutic Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Hollander

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available B-cell antigen receptor (BCR expression is indispensable for survival of most B-cell malignancies. In follicular lymphoma (FL, N-linked glycosylation sites are introduced in the immunoglobulin (Ig variable region genes. Oligosaccharides added to the acquired sites are unusually of the high-mannose type. These glycans interact with mannose-specific lectins, especially with dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN. Lectin binding to FL triggers persistent activating signals, suggesting that lectins within the tumor microenvironment promote cell survival and proliferation. Insertion of N-glycosylation sites in Ig variable region genes has been detected in other germinal center-associated lymphomas, specifically in subsets of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and Burkitt’s lymphomas, suggesting involvement of altered glycans in pathogenesis of these malignancies as well. Furthermore, the BCR in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL carries high-mannose oligosaccharides, albeit in the heavy chain constant rather than variable region. The high expression level of the unique glycoform, particularly in the more aggressive unmutated CLL subset, suggests a functional significance for this glycan in CLL. As lectin interaction with the BCR is critical for FL and probably for some other lymphomas, targeting this interaction is considered to be an interesting therapeutic strategy. Reagents for blockade of lectin–BCR interaction may include antibodies against high-mannose glycans and mannose-based oligosaccharide mimics or non-carbohydrate glycomimetics. Moreover, as this interaction triggers signaling pathways similar to those demonstrated for BCR engagement by antigen, BCR signal transduction inhibitors may emerge as effective therapeutics for lectin-driven malignancies.

  14. Altered N-Linked Glycosylation in Follicular Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Involvement in Pathogenesis and Potential Therapeutic Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Nurit; Haimovich, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) expression is indispensable for survival of most B-cell malignancies. In follicular lymphoma (FL), N-linked glycosylation sites are introduced in the immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region genes. Oligosaccharides added to the acquired sites are unusually of the high-mannose type. These glycans interact with mannose-specific lectins, especially with dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN). Lectin binding to FL triggers persistent activating signals, suggesting that lectins within the tumor microenvironment promote cell survival and proliferation. Insertion of N-glycosylation sites in Ig variable region genes has been detected in other germinal center-associated lymphomas, specifically in subsets of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and Burkitt's lymphomas, suggesting involvement of altered glycans in pathogenesis of these malignancies as well. Furthermore, the BCR in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) carries high-mannose oligosaccharides, albeit in the heavy chain constant rather than variable region. The high expression level of the unique glycoform, particularly in the more aggressive unmutated CLL subset, suggests a functional significance for this glycan in CLL. As lectin interaction with the BCR is critical for FL and probably for some other lymphomas, targeting this interaction is considered to be an interesting therapeutic strategy. Reagents for blockade of lectin-BCR interaction may include antibodies against high-mannose glycans and mannose-based oligosaccharide mimics or non-carbohydrate glycomimetics. Moreover, as this interaction triggers signaling pathways similar to those demonstrated for BCR engagement by antigen, BCR signal transduction inhibitors may emerge as effective therapeutics for lectin-driven malignancies.

  15. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochna Viola, E.M.; Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A.

    1981-01-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author) [es

  16. Identification of an N-linked glycan in the V1-loop of HIV-1 gp120 influencing neutralization by anti-V3 antibodies and soluble CD4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, G J; Hemming, A; Bolmstedt, A

    1994-01-01

    Glycosylation is necessary for HIV-1 gp120 to attain a functional conformation, and individual N-linked glycans of gp120 are important, but not essential, for replication of HIV-1 in cell culture. We have constructed a mutant HIV-1 infectious clone lacking a signal for N-linked glycosylation...... in the V1-loop of HIV-1 gp120. Lack of an N-linked glycan was verified by a mobility enhancement of mutant gp120 in SDS-gel electrophoresis. The mutated virus showed no differences in either gp120 content per infectious unit or infectivity, indicating that the N-linked glycan was neither essential nor...

  17. The use of a xylosylated plant glycoprotein as an internal standard accounting for N-linked glycan cleavage and sample preparation variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S Hunter; Taylor, Amber D; Muddiman, David C

    2013-06-30

    Traditionally, free oligosaccharide internal standards are used to account for variability in glycan relative quantification experiments by mass spectrometry. However, a more suitable internal standard would be a glycoprotein, which could also control for enzymatic cleavage efficiency, allowing for more accurate quantitative experiments. Hydrophobic, hydrazide N-linked glycan reagents (both native and stable-isotope labeled) are used to derivatize and differentially label N-linked glycan samples for relative quantification, and the samples are analyzed by a reversed-phase liquid chromatography chip system coupled online to a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer. The inclusion of two internal standards, maltoheptaose (previously used) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) (novel), is studied to demonstrate the effectiveness of using a glycoprotein as an internal standard in glycan relative quantification experiments. HRP is a glycoprotein containing a xylosylated N-linked glycan, which is unique from mammalian N-linked glycans. Thus, the internal standard xylosylated glycan could be detected without interference to the sample. Additionally, it was shown that differences in cleavage efficiency can be detected by monitoring the HRP glycan. In a sample where cleavage efficiency variation is minimal, the HRP glycan performs as well as maltoheptaose. Because the HRP glycan performs as well as maltoheptaose but is also capable of correcting and accounting for cleavage variability, it is a more versatile internal standard and will be used in all subsequent biological studies. Because of the possible lot-to-lot variation of an enzyme, differences in biological matrix, and variable enzyme activity over time, it is a necessity to account for glycan cleavage variability in glycan relative quantification experiments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Biosynthesis and Role of N-Linked Glycosylation in Cell Surface Structures of Archaea with a Focus on Flagella and S Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken F. Jarrell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetics and biochemistry of the N-linked glycosylation system of Archaea have been investigated over the past 5 years using flagellins and S layers as reporter proteins in the model organisms, Methanococcus voltae, Methanococcus maripaludis, and Haloferax volcanii. Structures of archaeal N-linked glycans have indicated a variety of linking sugars as well as unique sugar components. In M. voltae, M. maripaludis, and H. volcanii, a number of archaeal glycosylation genes (agl have been identified by deletion and complementation studies. These include many of the glycosyltransferases and the oligosaccharyltransferase needed to assemble the glycans as well as some of the genes encoding enzymes required for the biosynthesis of the sugars themselves. The N-linked glycosylation system is not essential for any of M. voltae, M. maripaludis, or H. volcanii, as demonstrated by the successful isolation of mutants carrying deletions in the oligosaccharyltransferase gene aglB (a homologue of the eukaryotic Stt3 subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex. However, mutations that affect the glycan structure have serious effects on both flagellation and S layer function.

  19. Glycomic Analysis of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Daubechies D20 wavelet transform [25,26], and the baseline was corrected by removing low frequency nodes using FFT convolution/deconvolution. Similar to...increase is quite high and outside the range of variability of our measurements and, more importantly, outside the var - iability of repeat sampling in the...enhanced laser desorption and ionization by denoising spectra with the undecimated discrete wavelet transform. Proteomics Nov. 2005;5(16):4107–17. [27

  20. Hyaluronan-binding region of aggrecan from pig laryngeal cartilage. Amino acid sequence, analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides and location of the keratan sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, F P; Gaw, J U; Young, C N; Neame, P J

    1992-09-15

    The hyaluronan-binding region (HABR) was prepared from pig laryngeal cartilage aggrecan and the amino acid sequence was determined. The HABR had two N-termini: one N-terminal sequence was Val-Glu-Val-Ser-Glu-Pro (367 amino acids in total), and a second N-terminal sequence (Ala-Ile-Ser-Val-Glu-Val; 370 amino acids in total) was found to arise due to alternate cleavage by the signal peptidase. The N-linked oligosaccharides were analysed by examining their reactivity with a series of lectins. It was found that the N-linked oligosaccharide on loop A was of the mannose type, while that on loop B was of the complex type. No reactivity was detected between the N-linked oligosaccharide on loop B' and any of the lectins. The location of keratan sulphate (KS) in the HABR was determined by Edman degradation of the immobilized KS-containing peptide. The released amino acid derivatives were collected and tested for the presence of epitope to antibody 5-D-4. On the basis of 5-D-4 reactivity and sequencing yields, the KS chains are attached to threonine residues 352 and 357. There is no KS at threonine-355. This site is not in fact in G1, but about 16 amino acid residues into the interglobular domain. Comparison of the structure of the KS chain from the HABR and from the KS domain of pig laryngeal cartilage aggrecan was made by separation on polyacrylamide gels of the oligosaccharides arising from digestion with keratanase. Comparison of the oligosaccharide maps suggests that the KS chains from both parts of the aggrecan molecule have the same structure.

  1. Variable domain N-linked glycosylation and negative surface charge are key features of monoclonal ACPA: implications for B-cell selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Katy A; Steen, Johanna; Amara, Khaled; Titcombe, Philip J; Israelsson, Lena; Lundström, Susanna L; Zhou, Diana; Zubarev, Roman A; Reed, Evan; Piccoli, Luca; Gabay, Cem; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Baeten, Dominique; Lundberg, Karin; Mueller, Daniel L; Klareskog, Lars; Malmström, Vivianne; Grönwall, Caroline

    2018-03-07

    Autoreactive B cells have a central role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and recent findings have proposed that anti-citrullinated protein autoantibodies (ACPA) may be directly pathogenic. Herein, we demonstrate the frequency of variable-region glycosylation in single-cell cloned mAbs. A total of 14 ACPA mAbs were evaluated for predicted N-linked glycosylation motifs in silico, and compared to 452 highly-mutated mAbs from RA patients and controls. Variable region N-linked motifs (N-X-S/T) were strikingly prevalent within ACPA (100%) compared to somatically hypermutated (SHM) RA bone marrow plasma cells (21%), and synovial plasma cells from seropositive (39%) and seronegative RA (7%). When normalized for SHM, ACPA still had significantly higher frequency of N-linked motifs compared to all studied mAbs including highly-mutated HIV broadly-neutralizing and malaria-associated mAbs. The Fab glycans of ACPA-mAbs were highly sialylated, contributed to altered charge, but did not influence antigen binding. The analysis revealed evidence of unusual B-cell selection pressure and SHM-mediated decreased in surface charge and isoelectric point in ACPA. It is still unknown how these distinct features of anti-citrulline immunity may have an impact on pathogenesis. However, it is evident that they offer selective advantages for ACPA+ B cells, possibly also through non-antigen driven mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Hyaluronan-binding region of aggrecan from pig laryngeal cartilage. Amino acid sequence, analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides and location of the keratan sulphate.

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, F P; Gaw, J U; Young, C N; Neame, P J

    1992-01-01

    The hyaluronan-binding region (HABR) was prepared from pig laryngeal cartilage aggrecan and the amino acid sequence was determined. The HABR had two N-termini: one N-terminal sequence was Val-Glu-Val-Ser-Glu-Pro (367 amino acids in total), and a second N-terminal sequence (Ala-Ile-Ser-Val-Glu-Val; 370 amino acids in total) was found to arise due to alternate cleavage by the signal peptidase. The N-linked oligosaccharides were analysed by examining their reactivity with a series of lectins. It...

  3. The Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae HMW1C-like glycosyltransferase mediates N-linked glycosylation of the Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 adhesin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Jae Choi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 adhesin is an important virulence exoprotein that is secreted via the two-partner secretion pathway and is glycosylated at multiple asparagine residues in consensus N-linked sequons. Unlike the heavily branched glycans found in eukaryotic N-linked glycoproteins, the modifying glycan structures in HMW1 are mono-hexoses or di-hexoses. Recent work demonstrated that the H. influenzae HMW1C protein is the glycosyltransferase responsible for transferring glucose and galactose to the acceptor sites of HMW1. An Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae protein designated ApHMW1C shares high-level homology with HMW1C and has been assigned to the GT41 family, which otherwise contains only O-glycosyltransferases. In this study, we demonstrated that ApHMW1C has N-glycosyltransferase activity and is able to transfer glucose and galactose to known asparagine sites in HMW1. In addition, we found that ApHMW1C is able to complement a deficiency of HMW1C and mediate HMW1 glycosylation and adhesive activity in whole bacteria. Initial structure-function studies suggested that ApHMW1C consists of two domains, including a 15-kDa N-terminal domain and a 55-kDa C-terminal domain harboring glycosyltransferase activity. These findings suggest a new subfamily of HMW1C-like glycosyltransferases distinct from other GT41 family O-glycosyltransferases.

  4. High molecular weight components containing N-linked oligosaccharides of Ascaris suum extract inhibit the dendritic cells activation through DC-SIGN and MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoretto, Bruna C; Casabuono, Adriana A C; Portes-Junior, José A; Jacysyn, Jacqueline F; Couto, Alicia S; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L

    2017-07-01

    Helminths, as well as their secretory/excretory products, induce a tolerogenic immune microenvironment. High molecular weight components (PI) from Ascaris suum extract down-modulate the immune response against ovalbumin (OVA). The PI exerts direct effect on dendritic cells (DCs) independent of TLR 2, 4 and MyD88 molecule and, thus, decreases the T lymphocytes response. Here, we studied the glycoconjugates in PI and the role of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), DC-SIGN and MR, in the modulation of DCs activity. Our data showed the presence of glycoconjugates with high mannose- and complex-type N-linked oligosaccharide chains and phosphorylcholine residues on PI. In addition, these N-linked glycoconjugates inhibited the DCs maturation induced by LPS. The binding and internalization of PI-Alexa were decreased on DCs previously incubated with mannan, anti-DC-SIGN and/or anti-MR antibodies. In agreement with this, the incubation of DCs with mannan, anti-DC-SIGN and/or anti-MR antibodies abolished the down-modulatory effect of PI on these cells. It was also observed that the blockage of CLRs, DC-SIGN and MR on DCs reverted the inhibitory effect of PI in in vitro T cells proliferation. Therefore, our data show the involvement of DC-SIGN and MR in the recognition and consequent modulatory effect of N-glycosylated components of PI on DCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Site-specific glycoprofiling of N-linked glycopeptides using MALDI-TOF MS: strong correlation between signal strength and glycoform quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Mysling, Simon; Højrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Site-specific glycoprofiling of N-linked glycopeptides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an emerging technique, but its quantitative accuracy lacks documentation. Thus, a systematic study of widely different glycopeptides was perf......Site-specific glycoprofiling of N-linked glycopeptides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an emerging technique, but its quantitative accuracy lacks documentation. Thus, a systematic study of widely different glycopeptides...... quantitation (correlation coefficient r = 0.9958, n = 5) when evaluated against a normal phase HPLC 2-AB glycan profile. Similarly, precise quantitation was observed for various forms of N-glycans (free, permethylated, and fluorescence-labeled) using MS. In addition, three different sialoglycopeptides from...... fetuin were site-specifically profiled, and good correlation between peak intensities and relative abundances was found with only a minor loss of sialic acids (r = 0.9664, n = 5). For glycopeptide purification, a range of hydrophilic and graphite materials packed in microcolumn format proved capable...

  6. Chemical Characterization of N-Linked Oligosaccharide As the Antigen Epitope Recognized by an Anti-Sperm Auto-Monoclonal Antibody, Ts4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yoshitake

    Full Text Available Ts4, an anti-sperm auto-monoclonal antibody, possesses immunoreactivity to the acrosomal region of mouse epididymal spermatozoa. In addition, the mAb shows specific immunoreactivity to reproduction-related regions such as testicular germ cells and early embryo. Our qualitative study previously showed that the antigen epitope for Ts4 contained a N-linked common oligosaccharide (OS chain on testicular glycoproteins as determined by Western blotting for testicular glycoproteins after treatment with several glycohydrolases. Since the distribution of the Ts4-epitope is unique, the OS chain in Ts4-epitope may have role(s in the reproductive process. The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular structure of the Ts4-epitope, particularly its OS moiety. Using Ts4 immunoprecipitation combined with liquid chromatography and multiple-stage mass spectrometry, the candidate carbohydrate structure in the Ts4-epitope is proposed to be N-linked fucosylated agalacto-biantennary with bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc or with N-acetylgalactosamine-GlcNAc motif. Further binding analyses using various lectins against the mouse testicular Ts4-immunoprecipitants revealed that Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin and Pisum sativum agglutinin showed positive staining of the bands corresponding to Ts4 reactive proteins. Moreover, the immunoreactivity of Ts4 against the testicular extract was completely abrogated after digestion with β-N-acetylglucosaminidase. These results show that the Ts4-epitope contains agalacto-biantennary N-glycan with bisecting GlcNAc carrying fucose residues.

  7. Serum globulin electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003544.htm Serum globulin electrophoresis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The serum globulin electrophoresis test measures the levels of proteins called globulins ...

  8. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  9. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  10. Arginine insertion and loss of N-linked glycosylation site in HIV-1 envelope V3 region confer CXCR4-tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kiyoto; Ode, Hirotaka; Hayashida, Tsunefusa; Kakizawa, Junko; Sato, Hironori; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The third variable region (V3) of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 plays a key role in determination of viral coreceptor usage (tropism). However, which combinations of mutations in V3 confer a tropism shift is still unclear. A unique pattern of mutations in antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-1 patient was observed associated with the HIV-1 tropism shift CCR5 to CXCR4. The insertion of arginine at position 11 and the loss of the N-linked glycosylation site were indispensable for acquiring pure CXCR4-tropism, which were confirmed by cell-cell fusion assay and phenotype analysis of recombinant HIV-1 variants. The same pattern of mutations in V3 and the associated tropism shift were identified in two of 53 other patients (3.8%) with CD4+ cell count tropism. Awareness of this rule will help to confirm the tropism prediction from V3 sequences by conventional rules. PMID:23925152

  11. Perturbation of N-linked oligosaccharide structure results in an altered incorporation of [3H]palmitate into specific proteins in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellner, R.B.; Ghosh, P.C.; Roecklein, B.; Wu, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into specific cellular proteins has been reported to occur in Chinese hamster ovary and yeast mutant cells. In this paper we report studies concerning the relationship between N-linked oligosaccharide structure and [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into proteins of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We have compared the incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitate into proteins of wild-type and four different mutant CHO cell lines defective in various steps of N-linked protein glycosylation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoretic analysis showed that three of the mutants exhibited increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into several CHO cellular proteins (approximately 30,000-38,000 molecular weight) as compared to the wild-type cells. One of the affected mutants which accumulates the Man5Gn2Asn intermediate structure was examined in detail. In agreement with earlier reports, virtually all of the [ 3 H] palmitate-labeled proteins of both wild-type and mutant cell lines are membrane-bound. Pretreatment of the mutant cell line with tunicamycin blocked the increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into the two specific proteins (both of approximately 30,000 molecular weight) observed in untreated cells; the decreased incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitate into the 30,000 molecular weight species was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitate into two proteins of approximately 20,000 molecular weight. Pretreatment of wild-type cells with tunicamycin also caused increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into the 20,000 molecular weight species

  12. Multiple Modes of Binding Enhance the Affinity of DC-SIGN for High-Mannose N-Linked Glycans Found on Viral Glycoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, H.; Castelli, R.; Drickamer, K.; Seeberger, P.H.; Weis, W.I.; /Stanford U., Med. School /Zurich, ETH /Imperial Coll., London

    2007-07-09

    The dendritic cell surface receptor DC-SIGN and the closely related endothelial cell receptor DC-SIGNR specifically recognize high mannose N-linked carbohydrates on viral pathogens. Previous studies have shown that these receptors bind the outer trimannose branch Man{alpha}1-3[Man{alpha}1-6]Man{alpha} present in high mannose structures. Although the trimannoside binds to DC-SIGN or DC-SIGNR more strongly than mannose, additional affinity enhancements are observed in the presence of one or more Man{alpha}1-2Man{alpha} moieties on the nonreducing termini of oligomannose structures. The molecular basis of this enhancement has been investigated by determining crystal structures of DC-SIGN bound to a synthetic six-mannose fragment of a high mannose N-linked oligosaccharide, Man{alpha}1-2Man{alpha}1-3[Man{alpha}1-2Man{alpha}1-6]Man{alpha}1-6Man and to the disaccharide Man{alpha}1-2Man. The structures reveal mixtures of two binding modes in each case. Each mode features typical C-type lectin binding at the principal Ca{sup 2+}-binding site by one mannose residue. In addition, other sugar residues form contacts unique to each binding mode. These results suggest that the affinity enhancement displayed toward oligosaccharides decorated with the Man{alpha}1-2Man{alpha} structure is due in part to multiple binding modes at the primary Ca{sup 2+} site, which provide both additional contacts and a statistical (entropic) enhancement of binding.

  13. MAGIC: an automated N-linked glycoprotein identification tool using a Y1-ion pattern matching algorithm and in silico MS² approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Ke-Shiuan; Chen, Chen-Chun; Lih, T Mamie; Cheng, Cheng-Wei; Su, Wan-Chih; Chang, Chun-Hao; Cheng, Chia-Ying; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Chen, Yu-Ju; Sung, Ting-Yi

    2015-02-17

    Glycosylation is a highly complex modification influencing the functions and activities of proteins. Interpretation of intact glycopeptide spectra is crucial but challenging. In this paper, we present a mass spectrometry-based automated glycopeptide identification platform (MAGIC) to identify peptide sequences and glycan compositions directly from intact N-linked glycopeptide collision-induced-dissociation spectra. The identification of the Y1 (peptideY0 + GlcNAc) ion is critical for the correct analysis of unknown glycoproteins, especially without prior knowledge of the proteins and glycans present in the sample. To ensure accurate Y1-ion assignment, we propose a novel algorithm called Trident that detects a triplet pattern corresponding to [Y0, Y1, Y2] or [Y0-NH3, Y0, Y1] from the fragmentation of the common trimannosyl core of N-linked glycopeptides. To facilitate the subsequent peptide sequence identification by common database search engines, MAGIC generates in silico spectra by overwriting the original precursor with the naked peptide m/z and removing all of the glycan-related ions. Finally, MAGIC computes the glycan compositions and ranks them. For the model glycoprotein horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and a 5-glycoprotein mixture, a 2- to 31-fold increase in the relative intensities of the peptide fragments was achieved, which led to the identification of 7 tryptic glycopeptides from HRP and 16 glycopeptides from the mixture via Mascot. In the HeLa cell proteome data set, MAGIC processed over a thousand MS(2) spectra in 3 min on a PC and reported 36 glycopeptides from 26 glycoproteins. Finally, a remarkable false discovery rate of 0 was achieved on the N-glycosylation-free Escherichia coli data set. MAGIC is available at http://ms.iis.sinica.edu.tw/COmics/Software_MAGIC.html .

  14. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  15. Identification of genes involved in the biosynthesis of the third and fourth sugars of the Methanococcus maripaludis archaellin N-linked tetrasaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Jones, Gareth M; Uchida, Kaoru; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Robotham, Anna; Logan, Susan M; Kelly, John; Jarrell, Ken F

    2013-09-01

    N-glycosylation is a protein posttranslational modification found in all three domains of life. Many surface proteins in Archaea, including S-layer proteins, pilins, and archaellins (archaeal flagellins) are known to contain N-linked glycans. In Methanococcus maripaludis, the archaellins are modified at multiple sites with an N-linked tetrasaccharide with the structure Sug-1,4-β-ManNAc3NAmA6Thr-1,4-β-GlcNAc3NAcA-1,3-β-GalNAc, where Sug is the unique sugar (5S)-2-acetamido-2,4-dideoxy-5-O-methyl-α-l-erythro-hexos-5-ulo-1,5-pyranose. In this study, four genes--mmp1084, mmp1085, mmp1086, and mmp1087--were targeted to determine their potential involvement of the biosynthesis of the sugar components in the N-glycan, based on bioinformatics analysis and proximity to a number of genes which have been previously demonstrated to be involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. The genes mmp1084 to mmp1087 were shown to be cotranscribed, and in-frame deletions of each gene as well as a Δmmp1086Δmmp1087 double mutant were successfully generated. All mutants were archaellated and motile. Mass spectrometry examination of purified archaella revealed that in Δmmp1084 mutant cells, the threonine linked to the third sugar of the glycan was missing, indicating a putative threonine transferase function of MMP1084. Similar analysis of the archaella of the Δmmp1085 mutant cells demonstrated that the glycan lacked the methyl group at the C-5 position of the terminal sugar, indicating that MMP1085 is a methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of this unique sugar. Deletion of the remaining two genes, mmp1086 and mmp1087, either singularly or together, had no effect on the structure of the archaellin N-glycan. Because of their demonstrated involvement in the N-glycosylation pathway, we designated mmp1084 as aglU and mmp1085 as aglV.

  16. Stabilization of sialic acids in N-linked oligosaccharides and gangliosides for analysis by positive ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, A K; Harvey, D J

    1996-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry of oligosaccharides and gangliosides normally causes loss of sialic acid, particularly when alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid is used as the matrix. In addition, the potential signal is split because both positive and, to a greater extent, negative ions are formed while signals are frequently complicated as the result of partial alkali-salt formation. In order to stabilize the sialic acid moieties under MALDI conditions and to divert all of the signal into the positive-ion mode, a method involving their conversion into methyl esters has been developed. The method is relatively rapid and produces strong positive-ion signals from N-linked oligosaccharides containing sialic acid and from gangliosides. The latter compounds are stable, even in the presence of alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid. They give abundant molecular (MNa+) ions, but with sufficient residual in-source fragmentation to allow the sequence of the sugar chain to be determined. The sialic acid residue is stable after methylation, irrespective of its linkage to the parent molecule.

  17. Identification of genes involved in the assembly and attachment of a novel flagellin N-linked tetrasaccharide important for motility in the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDyke, David J; Wu, John; Logan, Susan M; Kelly, John F; Mizuno, Shino; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Jarrell, Ken F

    2009-05-01

    Recently, the flagellin proteins of Methanococcus maripaludis were found to harbour an N-linked tetrasaccharide composed of N-acetylgalactosamine, di-acetylated glucuronic acid, an acetylated and acetamidino-modified mannuronic acid linked to threonine, and a novel terminal sugar [(5S)-2-acetamido-2,4-dideoxy-5-O-methyl-α-L-erythro-hexos-5-ulo-1,5-pyranose]. To identify genes involved in the assembly and attachment of this glycan, in-frame deletions were constructed in putative glycan assembly genes. Successful deletion of genes encoding three glycosyltransferases and an oligosaccharyltransferase (Stt3p homologue) resulted in flagellins of decreased molecular masses as evidenced by immunoblotting, indicating partial or completely absent glycan structures. Deletion of the oligosaccharyltransferase or the glycosyltransferase responsible for the transfer of the second sugar in the chain resulted in flagellins that were not assembled into flagella filaments, as evidenced by electron microscopy. Deletions of the glycosyltransferases responsible for the addition of the third and terminal sugars in the glycan were confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis of purified flagellins from these mutants. Although flagellated, these mutants had decreased motility as evidenced by semi-swarm plate analysis with the presence of each additional sugar improving movement capabilities.

  18. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose Restore Glucocorticoid Sensitivity in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia via Modification of N-Linked Glycosylation in an Oxygen Tension-Independent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Leni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, treatment failure is associated with resistance to glucocorticoid agents. Resistance to this class of drugs represents one of the strongest indicators of poor clinical outcome. We show that leukemic cells, which are resistant to the glucocorticoid drug methylprednisolone, display a higher demand of glucose associated with a deregulation of metabolic pathways, in comparison to sensitive cells. Interestingly, a combinatorial treatment of glucocorticoid and the glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose displayed a synergistic effect in methylprednisolone-resistant cells, in an oxygen tension-independent manner. Unlike solid tumors, where 2-deoxy-D-glucose promotes inhibition of glycolysis by hexokinase II exclusively under hypoxic conditions, we were able to show that the antileukemic effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose are far more complex in leukemia. We demonstrate a hexokinase II-independent cell viability decrease and apoptosis induction of the glucose analog in leukemia. Additionally, due to the structural similarity of 2-deoxy-D-glucose with mannose, we could confirm that the mechanism by which 2-deoxy-D-glucose predominantly acts in leukemia is via modification in N-linked glycosylation, leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress and consequently induction of the unfolded protein response.

  19. Quantitative O-glycomics based on improvement of the one-pot method for nonreductive O-glycan release and simultaneous stable isotope labeling with 1-(d0/d5)phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone followed by mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjian; Zhang, Ping; Jin, Wanjun; Li, Lingmei; Qiang, Shan; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Linjuan; Wang, Zhongfu

    2017-01-06

    O-glycomic comparison between perch and salmon eggs by ESI-MS, MS/MS and online RP-HPLC-UV-ESI-MS/MS, demonstrating its excellent applicability to various complex biological samples. O-Linked glycoproteins, generated via a widely existing glycosylation modification process on serine (Ser) or threonine (Thr) residues of nascent proteins, play essential roles in a series of biological processes. As a type of informational molecule, the O-glycans of these glycoproteins participate directly in these biological mechanisms. Thus, the characteristic differences or changes of O-glycans in expression level usually relate to pathologies of many diseases and represent an important opportunity to uncover the functional mechanisms of various glycoprotein O-glycans. The novel strategy introduced here provides a simple and versatile analytical method for the precise quantitation of glycoprotein O-glycans by mass spectrometry, enabling rapid evaluation of the differences or changes of O-glycans in expression level. It is attractive for the field of quantitative/comparative O-glycomics, which has great significance for exploring the complex structure-function relationship of O-glycans, as well as for the search of O-glycan biomarkers of some major diseases and O-glycan related targets of some drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Site-specific glycan-Peptide analysis for determination of N-glycoproteome heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Benjamin L; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Solis, Nestor

    2013-01-01

    A combined glycomics and glycoproteomics strategy was developed for the site-specific analysis of N-linked glycosylation heterogeneity from a complex mammalian protein mixture. Initially, global characterization of the N-glycome was performed using porous graphitized carbon liquid chromatography-...

  1. Structure determination by 1H NMR spectroscopy of (sulfated) sialylated N-linked carbohydrate chains released from porcine thyroglobulin by peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-β-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase-F

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Waard, P. de; Koorevaar, A.; Kamerling, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The N-linked carbohydrate chains of porcine thyroglobulin were released by peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-β-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase-F (PNGase- F). The resulting oligosaccharides were fractionated by a combination of fast protein liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography and

  2. Identification of a gene involved in the biosynthesis pathway of the terminal sugar of the archaellin N-linked tetrasaccharide in Methanococcus maripaludis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Jones, Gareth M; Brimacombe, Cedric; Uchida, Kaoru; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Logan, Susan M; Kelly, John F; Jarrell, Ken F

    2016-01-01

    In Methanococcus maripaludis, the three archaellins which comprise the archaellum are modified at multiple sites with an N-linked tetrasaccharide with the structure of Sug-4-β-ManNAc3NAmA6Thr-4-β-GlcNAc3NAcA-3-β-GalNAc, where Sug is a unique sugar (5S)-2-acetamido-2,4-dideoxy-5-O-methyl-L-erythro-hexos-5-ulo-1,5-pyranose, so far found exclusively in this species. In this study, a six-gene cluster mmp1089-1094, neighboring one of the genomic regions already known to contain genes involved with the archaellin N-glycosylation pathway, was examined for its potential involvement in the archaellin N-glycosylation or sugar biosynthesis pathway. The co-transcription of these six genes was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Mutants carrying an in-frame deletion in mmp1090, mmp1091 or mmp1092 were successfully generated. The Δmmp1090 deletion mutant was archaellated when examined by electron microscopy and mass spectrometry analysis of purified archaella showed that the archaellins were modified with a truncated N-glycan in which the terminal sugar residue and the threonine linked to the third sugar residue were missing. Both gene annotation and bioinformatic analyses indicate that MMP1090 is a UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, suggesting that the unique terminal sugar of the archaellin N-glycan might be synthesised from UDP-glucose or UDP-N-acetylglucosamine with an essential early step in synthesis catalysed by MMP1090. In contrast, no detectable phenotype related to archaellin glycosylation was observed in mutants deleted for either mmp1091 or mmp1092 while attempts to delete mmp1089, mmp1093 and mmp1094 were unsuccessful. Based on its demonstrated involvement in the archaellin N-glycosylation pathway, we designated mmp1090 as aglW.

  3. A single site for N-linked glycosylation in the envelope glycoprotein of feline immunodeficiency virus modulates the virus-receptor interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman Ayman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV targets helper T cells by attachment of the envelope glycoprotein (Env to CD134, a subsequent interaction with CXCR4 then facilitating the process of viral entry. As the CXCR4 binding site is not exposed until CD134-binding has occurred then the virus is protected from neutralising antibodies targeting the CXCR4-binding site on Env. Prototypic FIV vaccines based on the FL4 strain of FIV contain a cell culture-adapted strain of FIV Petaluma, a CD134-independent strain of FIV that interacts directly with CXCR4. In addition to a characteristic increase in charge in the V3 loop homologue of FIVFL4, we identified two mutations in potential sites for N-linked glycosylation in the region of FIV Env analogous to the V1–V2 region of HIV and SIV Env, T271I and N342Y. When these mutations were introduced into the primary GL8 and CPG41 strains of FIV, the T271I mutation was found to alter the nature of the virus-CD134 interaction; primary viruses carrying the T271I mutation no longer required determinants in cysteine-rich domain (CRD 2 of CD134 for viral entry. The T271I mutation did not confer CD134-independent infection upon GL8 or CPG41, nor did it increase the affinity of the CXCR4 interaction, suggesting that the principal effect was targeted at reducing the complexity of the Env-CD134 interaction.

  4. Regulation of serum phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate have major implications for what is understood as ‘normal’ and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied. PMID:24973411

  5. [The National Serum Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos-López, C; Sánchez-Villarreal, F; Gutiérrez, G; Tapia-Conyer, R

    1992-01-01

    A National Serum Bank was established to store sera obtained during the National Seroepidemiological Survey performed in Mexico in 1987. More than 70,000 serum samples were obtained from subjects of either sex 1-99 years of age in each of the 32 states of the country. The current collection of sera includes 28,704 male samples and 40,629 female samples. This paper describes the procedures for handling serum samples, including reception registry, storage and distribution to several laboratories for detection of measles, rubella, poliomyelitis, AIDS, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, brucella, salmonella, amoeba, toxoplasma, American trypanosomiasis and cysticercus. Determinations of total cholesterol were also made in order to describe its distribution and to identify the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia.

  6. The C-terminus of human nucleotide receptor P2X7 is critical for receptor oligomerization and N-linked glycosylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa E Wickert

    Full Text Available The P2X7 receptor binds extracellular ATP to mediate numerous inflammatory responses and is considered a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for diverse inflammatory and neurological diseases. P2X7 contains many single nucleotide polymorphisms, including several mutations located within its intracellular C-terminal trafficking domain. Mutations within the trafficking domain result in attenuated receptor activity and cell surface presentation, but the mechanisms by which amino acid changes within this region promote altered P2X7 function have not been elucidated.We analyzed the amino acid sequence of P2X7 for any potential trafficking signals and found that P2X7 contains putative Arg-X-Arg ER retention sequences. Alanine substitutions near or within these sequences were constructed, and we determined that single mutation of R574 and R578 but not R576 or K579 attenuates P2X7-stimulated activation of ERK1/2 and induction of the transcription factors FosB and ΔFosB. We found that mutation of R578 within the trafficking domain to the naturally occurring Gln substitution disrupts P2X7 localization at the plasma membrane and results in R578Q displaying a higher apparent molecular weight in comparison to wild-type receptor. We used the glycosidase endoglycosidase H to determine that this difference in mass is due in part to the R578Q mutant possessing a larger mass of oligosaccharides, indicative of improper N-linked glycosylation addition and/or trimming. Chemical cross-linking experiments were also performed and suggest that the R578Q variant also does not form trimers as well as wild-type receptor, a function required for its full activity.These data demonstrate the distal C-terminus of P2X7 is important for oligomerization and post-translational modification of the receptor, providing a mechanism by which mutations in the trafficking domain disrupt P2X7 activity and localization at the plasma membrane.

  7. N-linked glycosylation and sequence changes in a critical negative control region of the ASCT1 and ASCT2 neutral amino acid transporters determine their retroviral receptor functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Mariana; Lavillette, Dimitri; Kelly, Sean M; Kabat, David

    2003-03-01

    A widely dispersed interference group of retroviruses that includes the feline endogenous virus (RD114), baboon endogenous virus (BaEV), human endogenous virus type W (HERV-W), and type D primate retroviruses uses the human Na(+)-dependent neutral amino acid transporter type 2 (hASCT2; gene name, SLC1A5) as a common cell surface receptor. Although hamster cells are fully resistant to these viruses and murine cells are susceptible only to BaEV and HERV-W pseudotype viruses, these rodent cells both become highly susceptible to all of the viruses after treatment with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of protein N-linked glycosylation. A partial explanation for these results was recently provided by findings that the orthologous murine transporter mASCT2 is inactive as a viral receptor, that a related (ca. 55% identity) murine paralog (mASCT1; gene name, SLC1A4) mediates infections specifically of BaEV and HERV-W, and that N-deglycosylation of mASCT1 activates it as a receptor for all viruses of this interference group. Because the only two N-linked oligosaccharides in mASCT1 occur in the carboxyl-terminal region of extracellular loop 2 (ECL2), it was inferred that this region contributes in an inhibitory manner to infections by RD114 and type D primate viruses. To directly and more thoroughly investigate the receptor active sites, we constructed and analyzed a series of hASCT2/mASCT2 chimeras and site-directed mutants. Our results suggest that a hypervariable sequence of 21 amino acids in the carboxyl-terminal portion of ECL2 plays a critical role in determining the receptor properties of ASCT2 proteins for all viruses in this interference group. In addition, we analyzed the tunicamycin-dependent viral susceptibility of hamster cells. In contrast to mASCT1, which contains two N-linked oligosaccharides that partially restrict viral infections, hamster ASCT1 contains an additional N-linked oligosaccharide clustered close to the others in the carboxyl-terminal region of ECL2

  8. Radioimmunoassay of haloperidol in human serum: correlation of serum haloperidol with serum prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland, R.E.; Rubin, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of serum haloperidol is described. Compared to gaschromatography (GC), RIA vaues average 40% higher. However, a simple organic extraction of serum yields statistically equivalent RIA and GC haloperidol determinations. For both men and women combined, there was a positive correlation between dose (mg/kg/day) and steady-state serum haloperidol level (r = +0.86) and between steady-state serum haloperidol and serum prolactin (PRL) concentration

  9. 79 - 81_Wali - Serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... SERUM ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE. CELL ANAEMIA IN SOKOTO, ... Sickle cell anaemia is associated with elevated oxidative stress via increase generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and .... acid and alpha tocopherol in Sickle cell anaemia. Cent Af J. Med., 41: ...

  10. High glucose induces N-linked glycosylation-mediated functional upregulation and overexpression of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels in neuroendocrine-like differentiated human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Fukami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels were functionally regulated by asparagine (N-linked glycosylation, we examined effects of high glucose on the function of Cav3.2, known to regulate secretory function, in neuroendocrine-like differentiated prostate cancer LNCaP cells. High glucose accelerated the increased channel function and overexpression of Cav3.2 during neuroendocrine differentiation, the former prevented by enzymatic inhibition of N-glycosylation and cleavage of N-glycans. Hyperglycemia thus appears to induce N-linked glycosylation-mediated functional upregulation and overexpression of Cav3.2 in neuroendocrine-like differentiated prostate cancer cells.

  11. An N-Linked Bidentate Phosphoramidite Ligand (N-Me-BIPAM for Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric 1,4-Addition of Arylboronic Acids to α,β-Unsaturated Ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Miyaura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new bidentate phosphoramidite (N-Me-BIPAM based on Shibasaki’s N-linked BINOL was synthesized. This ligand appears to be highly effective for rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric conjugated addition of arylboronic acids to α,β-unsaturated enones. The reaction of ortho-substituted arylboronic acid with acyclic and cyclic enones provides the corresponding products in good yields and enantioselectivities.

  12. Simultaneous glycan-peptide characterization using hydrophilic interaction chromatography and parallel fragmentation by CID, HCD and ETD-MS applied to the N-linked glycoproteome of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Nichollas E; Parker, Benjamin L; Connolly, Angela M

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a gastrointestinal pathogen that is able to modify membrane and periplasmic proteins by the N-linked addition of a 7-residue glycan at the strict attachment motif, D/E-X-N-X-S/T. Strategies for a comprehensive analysis of the targets of glycosylation are, however, hampered...... to novel mass spectrometric fragmentation techniques may be suitable for application to eukaryotic glycoproteins for simultaneous elucidation of glycan structures and peptide sequence....

  13. Seasonal Variation in Serum Ascorbic Acid and Serum Lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine the serum ascorbic acid and serum lipid composition of the baboons under natural environmental conditions. We consider these data important as they .... way analysis of covariance" was computed on serum cholesterol, using cubic regression on body mass. Since 5 variables were under consideration, IO signi-.

  14. Radioimmunoassay for serum paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatori, D.; Hunter, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Two variants of a radioimmunoassay for the bipyridylium herbicide Paraquat are described. Both employ antiserum raised to Paraquat-BSA which has been covalently linked to particulate solid-phase support media. The rapid assay for clinical use employs a [ 3 H] Paraquat tracer, requires no agitation and yields results in the range 10-2500 ng/ml serum in 20 min from receipt of sample. The more sensitive assay, designed for research purposes, employs a 125 iodinated tracer, requires 2 h continuous agitation but can detect Paraquat at 0.1 ng/ml in simple aqueous solution or 0.25 ng/ml serum. Results from rapid clinical assay agree well with the existing colorimetric method. (Auth.)

  15. Serum Creatinine: Not So Simple!

    OpenAIRE

    DELANAYE, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Measuring serum creatinine is cheap and commonly done in daily practice. However, interpretation of serum creatinine results is not always easy. In this review, we will briefly remind the physiological limitations of serum creatinine due notably to its tubular secretion and the influence of muscular mass or protein intake on its concentration. We mainly focus on the analytical limitations of serum creatinine, insisting on important concept such as reference intervals, standardization (and IDM...

  16. Free serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, O.J.; Altschuler, Noe; Cabrejas, M.L. de; Pinkas, Mirta; Garcia del Rio, Hernan

    1982-01-01

    The use of radiommunoassay (RIA) tehcniques has increased the diagnosis of thyroid functional alterations. A solid phase RIA method for free thyroxine (FT4) measurement was tested. Serum FT4, Total T4, T3 and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay in 179 subjects. One hundred twenty two patients were normal (8 to 75 years old); FT4 was 1.42 +- 0.03 ng/100 ml (avg. value and std. error). In 27 cases of thyrotoxicosis the values were 4.66 +- 0.48 ng/100 ml and in 15 cases of hypothyroidism 0.50 +- 0.06 ng/100 ml (statistics probability [es

  17. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium in emergency surgical patients in a tertiary hospital in Ghana. Robert Djagbletey, Brenda Phillips, Frank Boni, Christian Owoo, Ebenezer Owusu-Darkwa, Papa Kobina Gyakye deGraft-Johnson, Alfred E. Yawson ...

  18. DETERMINATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of tribromoarsenazo(TB-ASA) with serum albumin in the presence of emulgent OP was studied by spectrophotometry. In a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 2.9, tribromoarsenazo and bovine serum albumin can immediately form a red compound in the presence of emulgent OP with a maximum absorption ...

  19. Profiling of Human Serum Glycans Associated with Liver Cancer and Cirrhosis by IMS–MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isailovic, D.; Kurulugama, R. T.; Plasencia, M. D.; Stokes, S. T.; Kyselova, Z.; Goldman, R.; Mechref, Y.; Novotny, M. V.; Clemmer, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation of human glycoproteins is related to various physiological states, including the onset of diseases such as cancer. Consequently, the search for glycans that could be markers of diseases or targets of therapeutic drugs has been intensive. Here, we describe a high-throughput ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis of N-linked glycans from human serum. Distributions of glycans are assigned according to their m/z values, while ion mobility distributions provide information about glycan conformational and isomeric composition. Statistical analysis of data from 22 apparently healthy control patients and 39 individuals with known diseases (20 with cirrhosis of the liver and 19 with liver cancer) shows that ion mobility distributions for individual m/z ions appear to be sufficient to distinguish patients with liver cancer or cirrhosis. Measurements of glycan conformational and isomeric distributions by IMS–MS may provide insight that is valuable for detecting and characterizing disease states. PMID:18237112

  20. Understanding of decreased sialylation of Fc-fusion protein in hyperosmotic recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell culture: N-glycosylation gene expression and N-linked glycan antennary profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hyun; Jeong, Yeong Ran; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Lee, Gyun Min

    2017-08-01

    To understand the effects of hyperosmolality on protein glycosylation, recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells producing the Fc-fusion protein were cultivated in hyperosmolar medium resulting from adding NaCl (415 mOsm/kg). The hyperosmotic culture showed increased specific Fc-fusion protein productivity (q Fc ) but a decreased proportion of acidic isoforms and sialic acid content of the Fc-fusion protein. The intracellular and extracellular sialidase activities in the hyperosmotic cultures were similar to those in the control culture (314 mOsm/kg), indicating that reduced sialylation of Fc-fusion protein at hyperosmolality was not due to elevated sialidase activity. Expression of 52 N-glycosylation-related genes was assessed by the NanoString nCounter system, which provides a direct digital readout using custom-designed color-coded probes. After 3 days of hyperosmotic culture, nine genes (ugp, slc35a3, slc35d2, gcs1, manea, mgat2, mgat5b, b4galt3, and b4galt4) were differentially expressed over 1.5-fold of the control, and all these genes were down-regulated. N-linked glycan analysis by anion exchange and hydrophilic interaction HPLC showed that the proportion of highly sialylated (di-, tri-, tetra-) and tetra-antennary N-linked glycans was significantly decreased upon hyperosmotic culture. Addition of betaine, an osmoprotectant, to the hyperosmotic culture significantly increased the proportion of highly sialylated and tetra-antennary N-linked glycans (P ≤ 0.05), while it increased the expression of the N-glycan branching/antennary genes (mgat2 and mgat4b). Thus, decreased expression of the genes with roles in the N-glycan biosynthesis pathway correlated with reduced sialic acid content of Fc-fusion protein caused by hyperosmolar conditions. Taken together, the results obtained in this study provide a better understanding of the detrimental effects of hyperosmolality on N-glycosylation, especially sialylation, in rCHO cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng

  1. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  2. Evidence that maturation of the N-linked glycans of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) glycoproteins is required for virus-mediated cell fusion: The effect of α-mannosidase inhibitors on RSV infectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Terence P.; Jeffree, Chris E.; Li, Ping; Rixon, Helen W. McL.; Brown, Gaie; Aitken, James D.; MacLellan, Kirsty; Sugrue, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Glycan heterogeneity of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein was demonstrated by proteomics. The effect of maturation of the virus glycoproteins-associated glycans on virus infectivity was therefore examined using the α-mannosidase inhibitors deoxymannojirimycin (DMJ) and swainsonine (SW). In the presence of SW the N-linked glycans on the F protein appeared in a partially mature form, whereas in the presence of DMJ no maturation of the glycans was observed. Neither inhibitor had a significant effect on G protein processing or on the formation of progeny virus. Although the level of infectious virus and syncytia formation was not significantly affected by SW-treatment, DMJ-treatment correlated with a one hundred-fold reduction in virus infectivity. Our data suggest that glycan maturation of the RSV glycoproteins, in particular those on the F protein, is an important step in virus maturation and is required for virus infectivity

  3. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... Aim: To determine the relationship between serum total magnesium and potassium levels in adult patients requiring an emergency ..... and in-hospital mortality in critically ill patients and a before-after analysis on the impact of computer- assisted potassium control. Crit Care [Internet]. 2015;19(1):1–11.

  4. Variation in N-linked carbohydrate chains in different batches of two chimeric monoclonal IgG1 antibodies produced by different murine SP2/0 transfectoma cell subclones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, A A; Stroop, C J; Murray, B; Holtorf, A P; Pluschke, G; Van Oostrum, J; Kamerling, J P; Vliegenthart, J F

    1995-06-01

    Two chimeric human/murine monoclonal antibodies were constructed by substitution of the murine constant regions with human gamma 1 and kappa constant regions for heavy and light chains, respectively. The chimeric human/murine molecules are anti-idiotypic antibodies, meaning that they were directed against the antigen binding site in the variable region of another antibody. Antibody batches were produced under identical production conditions, using two selected SP2/0 myeloma cell subclones, which produce chimeric antibodies with different variable regions, but identical constant regions. Several samples were collected during the production of the antibodies in hollow-fibre reactors. The heavy chain, but not the light chain, of the two different chimeric IgG1 antibodies is glycosylated. Structural analysis of the enzymically released N-linked carbohydrate chains by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, as well as by chromatographic profiling, demonstrated that the collection of N-glycans comprises a small amount of monoantennary, and for the greater part diantennary structures. The N-glycans are completely (alpha 1-->6)-fucosylated at the innermost GlcNAc residue. The antennae of the neutral diantennary N-glycans are built up from GlcNAc beta 1-->2, Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->2 or Gal alpha 1-->3G alpha 1 beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->2 elements, whereas the antennae of the neutral monoantennary carbohydrate chains have only (beta 1-->2)-linked GlcNAc residues. Galactosylation of the GlcNAc beta 1-->2Man alpha 1-->6 branch occurs four times more frequently than that of the GlcNAc beta 1-->2Man alpha 1-->3 branch, independently of the production batch. A small amount of the diantennary N-glycans are mono- or disialylated, carrying N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) or N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), exclusively (alpha 2-->6)-linked to beta Gal. Analysis of the different production batches demonstrates that the structures of the N-linked carbohydrate chains are identical in the two

  5. Serum biochemical changes accompanying prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... Toxicological evaluation of the whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora was carried out using the serum biochemical changes accompanying prolonged administration of the ethanolic extract of the fruit in ... glucose in rats administered with the extract of 8000 mg/kg body weight increased two and half-fold.

  6. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    To find out whether the consumption of lecithin has a more beneficial effect on serum cholesterol than does the consumption of equivalent amounts of polyunsaturated oils, we scrutinized 24 studies on the effect of supplementary lecithin intakes ranging from 1 to 54 mg/d. Most of the studies lacked

  7. Serum zinc level in thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keikhaei, B.; Badavi, M.; Pedram, M.; Zandian, K.

    2010-01-01

    To compare serum zinc level between Thalassemia Major (TM) patients and normal population at Shafa Hospital in South West of Iran. A total of 25 male and 36 female of TM patients were enrolled in this study. Out of 61 patients thirty were treated by deferroxamine (DFO) and 31 were on the combination of DFO and deferiprone (DEF) protocol therapy. Sixty normal subjects of the matching age and gender were recruited as controls. From each patient and control group 2 ml of blood was taken in fasting condition. Cell blood count and serum zinc were carried out for both thalassemia patients and normal subjects. The mean age of patients and control group was 15+- 5 years. Mean serum zinc level was 68.97+- 21.12 mu g/dl, 78.10-28.50 mu g/dl, and 80.16+- 26.54 mu g/dl in the TM with DFO, TM with DFO + DEF combination protocol and control group respectively. There was no significant correlation between patients and control group. However 50 percent of TM with DFO, 38.7 percent of TM with DFO + DEF and 32.8 percent of control group had hypozincemia. Nearly 40 to 50 percent of TM patients and one third of normal subjects are suffering from hypozincemia. This study shows that low level of serum zinc is a health problem in both thalassemia patients and normal population in South West of Iran. (author)

  8. Growth performance, haematological characteristic and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, haematological characteristic and serum biochemistry of Japanese quails fed with diets containing African pear seed meal. ... haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) serum total protein (PRO), Albumin (ALB), glucose (GLU), creatinine (CREAT), cholesterol (CHOL) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP).

  9. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  10. Serum Antibody Biomarkers for ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    45-56. Singh VK. (2009) Phenotypic expression of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD): A major subset of autism. Ann Clin Psychiat. 21:148-160. 5...spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in communication (verbal and nonverbal), social interactions, and... autoimmunity ; in particular, the generation of antibodies reactive against brain and CNS proteins. The goal of this grant is to identify serum

  11. SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Saritha Gadicherla; Suma M. N; Parveen Doddamani

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Serum paraoxonase is an enzyme synthesised in the liver. It is known to prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting oxidation of lowdensity lipoprotein. Renal transplant recipients have increased tendency for developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Reduced activity of serum paraoxonase contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular complications in these patients. The aim of this study was to estimate serum paraoxonase activity in re...

  12. Re-emergence of H3N2 strains carrying potential neutralizing mutations at the N-linked glycosylation site at the hemagglutinin head, post the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushirogawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Tadasuke; Tokunaga, Hirotoshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Nakano, Takashi; Terada, Kihei; Ohuchi, Masanobu; Saito, Mineki

    2016-08-08

    Seasonally prevalent H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses have evolved by antigenic drift; this evolution has resulted in the acquisition of asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation sites (NGSs) in the globular head of hemagglutinin (HA), thereby affecting the antigenic and receptor-binding properties, as well as virulence. An epidemiological survey indicated that although the traditional seasonal H1N1 strain had disappeared, H3N2 became predominant again in the seasons (2010-11 and 2011-12) immediately following the H1N1 pandemic of 2009. Interestingly, although the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain (H1N1pdm09) lacks additional NGSs, clinically isolated H3N2 strains obtained during these seasons gained N (Asn) residues at positions 45 and 144 of HA that forms additional NGSs. To investigate whether these NGSs are associated with re-emergence of H3N2 within the subtype, we tested the effect of amino acid substitutions on neutralizing activity by using the antisera raised against H3N2 strains with or without additional NGSs. Furthermore, because the N residue at position 144 of HA was identified as the site of mismatch between the vaccine and epidemic strains of 2011-2012, we generated mutant viruses by reverse genetics and tested the functional importance of this particular NGS for antibody-mediated neutralization by intranasal inoculation of mice. The results indicated that amino acid substitution at residue 144 significantly affected neutralization activity, acting as an escape mutation. Our data suggest that the newly acquired NGSs in the HA globular head may play an important role in the re-emergence of endemic seasonal H3N2 strain by aiding the escape from humoral immunity.

  13. HETEROGENIC SERUM, AGE, AND MULTIPLICATION OF FIBROBLASTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, A; Ebeling, A H

    1922-01-01

    The presence in a culture medium of heterogenic serum of various concentrations exerts a definite influence on the rate of multiplication of fibroblasts. Dog serum does not inhibit the growth of See PDF for Structure chicken fibroblasts markedly until its concentration reaches 15 per cent. Beyond this figure, each increase of the concentration brings about a rapid decrease in the rate of cell multiplication. When the concentration reaches from 30 to 45 per cent, no growth takes place. The inhibiting action of cat serum begins to manifest itself at a concentration of 25 per cent and prevents cell proliferation completely at a concentration of 55 and 60 per cent. The ratio, See PDF for Equation can be taken as expressing the action of the serum on fibroblast multiplication; that is, as the growth index of the serum. See PDF for Structure The inhibiting influence of heterogenic serum was found to vary in direct ratio to the age of the animal from which it was obtained. The rate of proliferation of chicken fibroblasts was studied comparatively in media containing varied concentrations of serum from young and old animals. For each concentration of serum, the rate of growth in the serum of the old animal was expressed in relation to the rate of growth in the serum of the young animal. When cat serum was used, the curve obtained in plotting this ratio in ordinates and the serum concentration in abscissae showed a rapid increase in the inhibiting action of the old serum as soon as the concentration reached 30 per cent. The same tests were repeated with the serum from young and old dogs. The general results were identical, although See PDF for Structure the quantitative inhibiting action of both sera was greater than that of cat serum. It may be concluded that under the conditions of the experiments: 1. Heterogenicsera inhibit and prevent the growth of chicken fibroblasts when their concentration is made to vary within certain limits. 2. A relation exists between the rate

  14. Highly specific purification of N-glycans using phosphate-based derivatization as an affinity tag in combination with Ti{sup 4+}-SPE enrichment for mass spectrometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying [Shanghai Cancer Center and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Key Laboratory of Glycoconjugates Research Ministry of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Peng, Ye; Bin, Zhichao [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Huijie [Shanghai Cancer Center and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Lu, Haojie, E-mail: luhaojie@fudan.edu.cn [Shanghai Cancer Center and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Key Laboratory of Glycoconjugates Research Ministry of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2016-08-31

    N-linked protein glycosylation is involved in regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes and associated with numerous diseases. Highly specific identification of N-glycome remains a challenge while its biological significance is acknowledged. The relatively low abundance of glycan in complex biological mixtures, lack of basic sites for protonation, and suppression by other highly abundant proteins/peptides lead to the particularly poor detection sensitivity of N-glycans in the MS analysis. Therefore, the highly specific purification procedure becomes a crucial step prior to MS analysis of the N-glycome. Herein, a novel N-glycans enrichment approach based on phosphate derivatization combined with Ti{sup 4+}-SPE (solid phase extraction) was developed. Briefly, in this strategy, N-glycans were chemically labeled with a phospho-group at their reducing ends, such that the Ti{sup 4+}-SPE microspheres were able to capture the phospho-containing glycans. The enrichment method was developed and optimized using model oligosaccharides (maltoheptaose DP7 and sialylated glycan A1) and also glycans from a standard glycoprotein (asialofetuin, ASF). This method experimentally showed high derivatization efficiency (almost 100%), excellent selectivity (analyzing DP7 in the digests of bovine serum albumin at a mass ratio of 1:100), high enriching recovery (90%), good reproducibility (CV<15%) as well as high sensitivity (LOD at fmol level). At last, the proposed method was successfully applied in the profiling of N-glycome in human serum, in which a total of 31 N-glycan masses were identified. - Graphical abstract: A selective enrichment method for the N-glycome is reported. N-glycans were chemically labeled with a phosphate derivatization reagent (AMS), then the phospho-containing glycans were enriched using Ti{sup 4+}-microspheres. - Highlights: • A highly specific N-glycans purification method based on phosphate derivatization combined with Ti{sup 4+}-SPE was developed

  15. Serum biochemical parameters of cows during pregnancy and early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    increased production diseases and fertility problems. (Hewett, 1974). This fertility problem has been found to be significantly inversely related to serum electrolytes such as serum inorganic phosphorus, serum potassium, serum total protein and serum urea - nitrogen (Hewett, 1974). Measuring serum electrolyte levels of ...

  16. Serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarla, Sara; Struglia, Manuela; Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Necozione, Stefano; Properzi, Giuliana; Ferri, Claudio

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the relationship among serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome. Anthropometric parameters, serum uric acid and metabolic parameters were evaluated in 139 subjects. Serum uric acid levels were significantly higher in subjects with than without metabolic syndrome (p metabolic syndrome components (p for trend uric acid significantly correlated with various anthropometric and serum metabolic parameters. Serum uric acid levels were higher in individuals with rather than without metabolic syndrome and raised gradually as the number of metabolic syndrome components increased. The relationship between serum uric acid levels and various metabolic parameters suggests that uric acid might be considered as a component of metabolic syndrome. Hyperuricemia is a common finding in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies indicated that hyperuricemia may be also a predictor of metabolic syndrome development.

  17. [Human serum alcaline phosphatase and ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, M R; Martins, M J; Ramos, E; Barros, H; Hipólito-Reis, C; Azevedo, I

    2003-01-01

    In experimental ageing models an inverse relationship between age and alkaline phosphatase activity has been observed. To characterize serum levels of alkaline phosphatase activity in humans according to age and gender. Serum alkaline phosphatase was determined in a random sample of 203 community dwellers aged 40 or more years. In men (n=87) total serum alkaline phosphatase markedly increased from the 5th to the 6th decade and then stabilized. For women (n=116) there was a slight increase in total serum alkaline phosphatase from the 5th to the 6th decade, followed by a bend upward after 69 years of age. There was a significant positive correlation between total serum alkaline phosphatase and age for the whole population. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity appears as a biomarker of age in humans, similarly to what has been described for experimental animal models.

  18. Variations of serum copper values in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukelić Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathological pregnancies and if this is of some importance. Methods. A total of 2170 plasma samples for copper analyses were made in the following groups: healthy non-pregnant women; healthy pregnant women from the 5th-40th gestational week, during the first delivery stage and during the first three postpartum weeks, in pregnant women with habitual abortion, imminent abortion, abortion in progress, missed abortion (9th-24th weeks, missed labour and premature rupture of membranes (29th-40th weeks. Levels of serum copper were determined by colorimetric technique of bathocuproin with disulphate as a chromogen. Results. Serum copper values in non-pregnant women range from 11.6-25.8 μmol/L. In healthy pregnant women, there is a constant trend of the increase of serum copper. The mean serum copper values revealed three significant peaks at the 22nd, 27th and 35th gestational week. Serum copper values in the patients with some pathological pregnancies in relation to the serum copper values of the healthy pregnant women were significantly lower. Conclusion. Serum copper values can be used as an indicator of some pathological pregnancies.

  19. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin concentrated from serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisula, B.C.; Louvet, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method for concentrating human TSH (hTSH) from serum for use in RIAs is described. The method takes advantage of the affinity of the plant lectin, concanavalin A, for the carbohydrate portion of the hTSH molecule. The hTSH from 2.5 ml serum was adsorbed to concanavalin A covalently linked to sepharose and then radioimmunoassayed using the hTSH antiserum and hTSH for iodination distributed by the National Pituitary Agency. For the RIA standard curve, the hTSH reference preparation was concentrated from a serum wwith undetectable hTSH in order to correct for recovery and to control for nonspecific effects. The percentage of serum hTSH extracted from 2.5 ml serum with the concentration procedure was 76.6 +- 3.4% (mean +- SD). The coefficient of correlation between serum hTSH, determined with the concentration procedure, and serum hTSH determined without was 0.979 (P < 0.001). Over 95% of normal adult men and women had detectable levels of serum hTSH, ranging from < 0.56 to 4.0 μU/ml. The mean of detectable serum hTSH levels in normal adult women (n = 11) was 1.54 +- 1.03 μU/ml (mean +- SD) and in normal men (n = 9) was 2.02 +- 1.15 μU/ml (mean +- SD). Clinically hyperthyroid patients with diffuse and nodular toxic goiters (n = 8) and patients with hypothyroidism secondary to pituitary disease (n = 6), four of whom were taking replacement doses of thyroid hormone, had undetectable serum hTSH levels. Serum hTSH in patients with primary hypothyroidism uniformly exceeded the normal range. This hTSH concentrating procedure enhances the effective sensitivity and, therefore, the clinical utility of the RIA for hTSH in serum

  20. Serum ferritin. Its clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochna Viola, E.M. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro de Medicina Nuclear); Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A. (Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica)

    1981-08-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis.

  1. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of fatty liver and relations with body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Young Deog; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kwon, K. H.; Kim, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic fatty infiltration appears as an area of increased echogenicity. And many factors concerned to fatty infiltration. With 65 cases of fatty liver and 42 cases of normal group, we analyzed fatty liver with grading and attempt to find relations between grade of fatty liver and levels of body index, serum triglyceride, and serum lipid. And compared fatty liver with normal control group. Patients with fatty liver are higher percentage of supra-normal value in body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride than normal control group. As fatty infiltration progressed, serum lipid, serum trig-lyceride and body index are also increased. Conclusively ultrasonographic examination of liver with serum triglyceride, serum lipid, and body index are simple method, useful follow-up examination of fatty liver, and preventive routine check-up of chronic liver disease

  2. Is serum lactate necessary in patients with normal anion gap and serum bicarbonate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronovich, Daniel; Trotter, Maykel; Rivera, Cynthia; Dalley, Michael; Farcy, David; Betancourt, Michel; Howard, Lydia; Licciardi, Sharon; Cubeddu, Luigi; Goldszer, Robert

    2015-05-01

    There has been an increase in patients having serum lactate drawn in emergency situations. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not it was necessary to obtain a lactate level in patients with a normal serum bicarbonate level and anion gap. This is a retrospective chart review evaluation of 304 patients who had serum lactate and electrolytes measured in an emergency setting in one academic medical center. In 66 patients who had elevated serum lactate (>2.2mmol/L), 45 (68%) patients had normal serum bicarbonate (SB) (greater than 21 mmol/L). Normal anion gap (AG) (normal range anion gap and 68% had normal serum bicarbonate. We conclude serum lactate should be drawn based on clinical suspicion of anaerobic tissue metabolism independent of serum bicarbonate or anion gap values.

  3. Peranan Kadar Feritin Serum terhadap Kejadian Preeklampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Ulfah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Preeklampsia merupakan penyebab utama kematian maternal dan perinatal diseluruh dunia. Peningkatan kadar serum besi dan feritin memiliki potensi untuk digunakan secara diagnostik untuk memperingatkan preeklampsia tahap awal. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan peranan kadar serum feritin terhadap kejadianpreeklampsia. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian analitik observasional dengan desain case-control. Penelitian dilakukan dari Agustus 2013 hingga Juli 2014, bertempat di RS dr. M. Djamil, RS dr. Reksodiwiryo dan Laboratorium Biomedik UNAND Padang.  Jumlah sampel yang diteliti adalah 40 responden dimana sampel terdiri dari 2 kelompok,masing-masing terdiri dari 20 sampel. Pemeriksaan serum feritin dilakukan dengan metode ELISA. Perbedaan rerata kadar feritin serum antara kelompok preeklampsia dan kehamilan normal dianalisa dengan mengunakan independen ttest. Hasil penelitian diperoleh rerata kadar serum feritin pada kelompok preeklampsia dan kehamilan normal adalah50,46+4,37 ng/ml dan 17,64+1,6 ng/ml, dengan nilai p=0,004. Kadar feritin pada kedua kelompok masih dalam batas normal dan tidak ditemukan indikasi adanya kelebihan besi sebagai faktor resiko preeklampsia. Kesimpulan penelitian ini yaitu kadar serum feritin tidak memiliki peranan terhadap kejadian preeklampsia. Kata kunci: preeklampsia, hipertensi dalam kehamilan, serum feritin Abstract Preeclampsia is a major cause of worldwide maternal and prenatal mortality. The increase in iron serum and ferritin can be used as a diagnosis to warn of the early stage of preeclampsia. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of ferritin serum levels on preeclampsia. This study was an observational analytic study withcase-control design. It has been done from August 2013 to Juli 2014, in RS dr. M. Djamil, RS dr. Reksodiwiryo and Biomedical Laboratory of Andalas University Padang. Total sample evaluated was 40 samples. The sample consist of two groups, each group

  4. Rotavirus-specific antibodies in fetal bovine serum and commercial preparations of serum albumin.

    OpenAIRE

    Offit, P A; Clark, H F; Taylor, A H; Hess, R G; Bachmann, P A; Plotkin, S A

    1984-01-01

    Rotavirus-specific antibodies were detected in fetal bovine serum, bovine serum albumin, and human serum albumin by radioimmunoprecipitation with the NCDV strain of bovine rotavirus as the detecting antigen. Fetal bovine sera neutralized bovine rotavirus in a plaque reduction neutralization test to titers of 1:20 or greater. Immunoglobulins purified from fetal bovine serum by protein A-agarose affinity chromatography precipitated rotavirus antigens but did not neutralize bovine rotavirus. Rot...

  5. Characterization of feline serum-cobalt binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnelle, Amy N; Barger, Anne M; MacNeill, Amy L; Mitchell, Mark M; Solter, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress inhibits albumin's ability to complex with cobalt. Feline serum-cobalt binding has not been described. The objective was to develop a cobalt binding test for use with feline serum, and correlate the results with other biochemical and cellular constituents in blood, and with clinical diseases of cats. A colorimetric test of cobalt binding, based on the oxidation-reduction reaction of Co(+2) and dithiothreitol, was developed using feline serum. The test was used to measure cobalt binding in stored serum from 176 cats presented to the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a variety of disease conditions. Time-matched hematology and biochemical data, and clinical information, were obtained from the medical record of each cat and correlated with the serum-cobalt binding results. Serial dilution of feline serum with phosphate-buffered saline resulted in a highly linear decrease in serum-cobalt binding (r(2)  = .9984). Serum-cobalt binding of the clinical samples also correlated with albumin concentrations in a stepwise linear regression model (r(2)  = .425), and both cobalt binding and albumin were significantly decreased in cases of inflammation. Albumin and cobalt binding also shared significant correlations with several erythron variables, and serum concentration of total calcium and bilirubin. The correlation of cobalt binding measured by a colorimetric test with albumin concentration in the clinical samples and with serum dilution is consistent with feline albumin-cobalt complex formation. Hypoalbuminemia is the likely cause of reduced serum-cobalt binding in inflammation and the correlations observed between cobalt binding and other variables. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. High polymeric IgA content facilitates recognition of microbial polysaccharide-natural serum antibody immune complexes by immobilized human galectin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anu; Antony, Molly; Mathai, Jaisy; Appukuttan, Padinjaradath S

    2011-04-30

    Dextran-binding immunoglobulin (DIg) and anti-β-glucan antibody (ABG) are naturally occurring human serum antibodies specific to α- and β-glucoside epitopes respectively of polysaccharide antigens and heavily enriched in IgA. ABG and DIg are shown here to have much more of their IgA in polymeric form than does serum IgA in general. Cell wall β-glucans and glycoproteins of the widely consumed yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) offered several hundred fold better ligands for ABG than did small β-glucosides. Candida albicans cell wall antigen (CCA), a commonly encountered polysaccharide-rich fungal antigen was recognized by normal human serum anti-carbohydrate antibodies to precipitate maximally at a definite stoichiometry typical of immune complexes (IC). IC formed in serum in vitro on addition of CCA contained a significantly higher percentage of IgA than did either naturally occurring IC or serum. Polymeric IgA was far better ligand than monomeric IgA for both anti-IgA antibody and the most widely expressed human tissue lectin galectin-1 which recognizes O-linked oligosaccharides characteristic of IgA, in contrast to N-linked oligosaccharides present in all immunoglobulins. Moreover, desialylation by neuraminidase, an enzyme released into circulation during many microbial infections and diabetes, increased lectin-binding activity of polymeric IgA much more than that of monomeric IgA. Human galectin-1 immobilized in active form in vitro sugar-specifically captured IgA and IgA-containing IC formed by CCA in serum but not IgG. Results suggest that while high IgA content especially in polymeric form may render polysaccharide IC more susceptible to tissue uptake, desialylation of IgA in IC could enhance the process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone ... chloroquine are probably mediated via the generation of free radicals. ... Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Groups.

  8. Inhibition of serum naphthylamidases by atopic allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrens, L.

    1968-01-01

    Human serum hydrolyses the 2-naphthylamides of -lysine and -arginine. The enzymatic activity of the serum naphthylamidases is inhibited by atopic allergens and by protein-sugar conjugates carrying 1-deoxy-2-ketose residues attached to the -amino groups of lysine residues in their peptide moieties.

  9. Serological Investigation And Interpreting Serum Chemistry Profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological Investigation And Interpreting Serum Chemistry Profile Of Natural Infected Cattle By Foot And Mouth Disease. ... albumin, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus in the infected group than control group, on the other hand there was a highly significant increase in serum glucose concentration of infected group.

  10. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan

  11. Correlation between serum esterase polymorphism and production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The polymorphism of serum esterase (Es) of Henan Yuxi fat-tailed sheep was detected through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and the correlation between serum esterase and productivity was analyzed. The research result indicated that there are two alleles on the Es loci of Henan Yuxi fat-tailed sheep: Es+ ...

  12. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Gabriele; Giordano, Alessia; Pezzia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs.......Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs....

  13. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l [fr

  14. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l.

  15. Serum selenium level in acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah I Ali Kelani

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study supports a significant association between deficient serum Se concentration with cut-off value of up to 84 ng/ml and MI. Strikingly, the most predictor of MI is serum Se, followed by total cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, low-density lipoprotein, and hypertension.

  16. Online Serum PFOA Calculator for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartell, Scott M

    2017-10-24

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent environmental contaminant that has been detected in >100 public water systems in the United States alone. A variety of epidemiological investigations of PFOA have been published, mostly using measured or modeled serum PFOA concentrations as the exposure metric. Comparison of drinking water PFOA concentrations to those study findings or to typical serum concentrations requires pharmacokinetic modeling. This brief communication describes an online Javascript calculator that easily plots the expected serum PFOA concentration over time and at steady state for adults after starting or stopping consumption of PFOA-contaminated water. Two examples of usage are provided, including increasing serum PFOA after ongoing consumption of contaminated water at the federal limit, and decreasing serum PFOA after carbon filtration began in a contaminated water system. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2820.

  17. Serum zinc response in thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Solem, L D; McCall, J T; Ahrenholz, D H; McClain, C J

    1988-02-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element required for RNA and DNA synthesis and the function of over 200 zinc metalloenzymes. After surgery or trauma, the serum zinc concentration usually decreases. The magnitude and duration of this hypozincemia after thermal injury are unclear, as are mechanisms for this hypozincemia. In this study we evaluated, over the duration of their hospital course, serum zinc concentrations in 23 thermal injury patients. The initial mean serum zinc concentration was significantly depressed (42 +/- micrograms/dl; normal 66-110 micrograms/dl). By the second week of hospitalization, serum zinc concentrations gradually increased into the normal range in the majority of patients. Mechanisms for this hypozincemia were evaluated. Decreases in the serum zinc concentration did not correlate with increased urinary zinc excretion; thus increased urinary zinc excretion was an unlikely mechanism for the observed hypozincemia. Values for albumin, the major zinc binding protein in serum, generally were inversely correlated with the serum zinc concentration. Thus, hypoalbuminemia could not explain the decreased serum zinc concentration. Certain cytokines such as interleukin-1 are known to cause a decrease in the serum zinc concentration as part of the acute phase response. Therefore, we measured serum C reactive protein concentrations as an indicator of the acute phase response. Thermally injured patients initially had markedly elevated C-reactive protein levels which gradually decreased during hospitalization. We suggest that the initial hypozincemia observed in thermally injured patients may be a reflection of interleukin-1 mediated acute phase response. Whether one should vigorously attempt to correct this initial marked hypozincemia requires further investigation.

  18. Correlation of Serum Magnesium with Serum Parathormone Levels in Patients on Regular Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradaran Azar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT is a common, important, and treatable complication of end-stage renal disease. This study was conducted to investigate the role of serum magnesium (Mg in regulating the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH by the parathyroid gland in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Pre-dialysis serum levels of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, Mg, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, intact serum PTH (iPTH, serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25-OH Vit D and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3 were measured. The Urea Reduction Rate as well as duration and dosage of HD treatment were noted. Our study did not show any significant correlation between serum Mg levels and duration of HD treatment, levels of serum ALP, and plasma HCO3, Ca and P. An inverse correlation, albeit insignificant, was found between the serum Mg levels and iPTH (r=-0.30 p=0.079; also, a significant positive correlation was found between serum Mg levels and serum 25-OH Vit D levels (r= 0.40 p= 0.009. Our findings are in agreement with previous data, which suggest that factors other than serum Mg are more important in the regulation of PTH secretion in HD patients. A positive and strong association between serum Mg with 25-OH Vit D needs to be studied in greater detail.

  19. Serum and Urinary NGAL in Septic Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Smertka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL is postulated to be a potentially new and highly specific/sensitive marker of acute kidney injury (AKI. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of inflammation on serum and urine NGAL in newborns that were treated due to infection. We determined serum and urine NGAL concentrations in 73 infants (51 with sepsis; 22 with severe sepsis admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in the first month of life, for three consecutive days during the course of treatment for infection. 29 neonates without infection served as the control group. Septic patients, in particular, severe sepsis patients, had increased serum and urinary NGAL levels in the three subsequent days of observation. Five septic patients who developed AKI had elevated serum and urinary NGAL values to a similar extent as septic neonates without AKI. A strong correlation was found between the concentration of serum and urinary NGAL and inflammatory markers, such as CRP and procalcitonin. Serum and urinary NGAL levels were also significantly associated with NTISS (neonatal therapeutic intervention scoring system values. We conclude that increased serum and urinary NGAL values are not solely a marker of AKI, and more accurately reflect the severity of inflammatory status.

  20. SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saritha Gadicherla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Serum paraoxonase is an enzyme synthesised in the liver. It is known to prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting oxidation of lowdensity lipoprotein. Renal transplant recipients have increased tendency for developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Reduced activity of serum paraoxonase contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular complications in these patients. The aim of this study was to estimate serum paraoxonase activity in renal transplant recipients and compare it with healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 renal transplant recipients and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were taken for the study. Serum paraoxonase activity, blood urea, serum creatinine and uric acid were estimated in these groups. The serum paraoxonase activity was correlated with urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. RESULTS Serum paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to healthy controls. There was a negative correlation between paraoxonase activity and the levels of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. CONCLUSION In this study, the paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to controls. The increased cardiovascular disease in these patients could be due to reduced paraoxonase activity.

  1. Serum homocystein level in patients with scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarinia, Mohammadali; Shams, Mesbah; Kamali Sarvestani, Eskandar; Shenavande, Saeede; Khademalhosseini, Maryam; Khademalhosseini, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic connective tissue disease. In this study, we compared the serum Homocystein (Hcy) level between patients with SSc and normal control group. The current study was conducted to determine whether serum Hcy levels are elevated in SSc patients and whether there is any correlation between Hcy levels and RP, Gastro intestinal and lung involvement. Forty one patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SSc (39 females and 5 males) and Forty four community-based healthy individuals (sex and age matched) were enrolled in to the study. Serum Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate levels were determined. Thirty three patients (70.45%) had GI involvement, twenty two patients (50%) had lung involvement and twenty seven patients (61.36%) had Raynaud's phenomena. Mean serum Hcy level in control group was 22.78 ± 6.018 μmol/L and in case group was 19.43 ± 7.205 μmol/L, shows that the serum Hcy level in control group was significantly higher than patients (P = 0.020). Serum Hcy level is significantly lower in SSc patients than in control group. There is no statistically significant correlation between serum Hcy level and organ involvements.

  2. Clinical Usefulness of the Serum Anion Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sik; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Kang, Sung Kyew

    2006-01-01

    The anion gap in the serum is useful in the interpretation of acid-base disorders and in the diagnosis of other conditions. In the early 1980s, ion-selective electrodes for specific ionic species were introduced for the measurement of serum electrolytes. This new method has caused a shift of the anion gap from 12±4 mEq/L down 6±3 mEq/L. It is worthy for clinicians to understand the range of normal anion gap and the measuring methods for serum sodium and chloride in the laboratories that suppo...

  3. Modeling Serum Creatinine in Septic ICU Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Cortese, Giuliana; Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2004-01-01

    Serum creatinine is a metabolite assumed to be constantly produced by the normally functioning muscle mass and is a good measure for monitoring daily renal function in the intensive care unit (ICU). High serum creatinine levels or an abnormal departure from normal pre-disease basal levels....... The present work details the structure of a model describing observed creatinine serum concentration (CSC) variations, depending on the time-varying septic insult to renal function in ICU patients, as well as the estimation of its parameters. CSC determinations were routinely obtained from 12 patients...

  4. Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women who have had pre-eclampsia have a greater risk of developing hypertension, stroke and ischemic heart disease in later life. The etiology of pre-eclampsia remains unclear. Placental insufficiency plays a key role in the progression of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri.   Methods A case control study involving 200 primigravida (100 preeclamptic and 100 apparently healthy between the ages of 20 and 32 years attending General Hospital Owerri. Fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of serum selenium and serum calcium while membrane potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. The serum calcium was estimated using Randox Kit and serum selenium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Independent Student t test was used for statistical analysis.   Results The results revealed that membrane potential and serum selenium as well as serum calcium were significantly decreased in preeclampsia when compared with the controls, at p<0.05.   Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the decrease in membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. There may be a need for increasing the dietary intake of these essential trace metals during pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia in Owerri.

  5. Alteration of serum adropin level in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Gao, Bo; Wu, Zaigui; Wang, Hanzhi; Dong, Minyue

    2017-04-01

    To clarify the alterations in serum adropin and preptin concentrations in preeclampsia, we determined serum adropin and preptin levels in 29 women with normal pregnancy and 32 women with preeclampsia. We found that maternal age, body mass index and fetal gender were not significantly different between two groups; however, blood pressure, gestational age and neonatal birth weight were significantly different. Serum adropin levels were significantly increased in women with preeclampsia compared with those with normal pregnancy but there were no significant differences in preptin levels. An increase in maternal serum adropin level was found in preeclampsia, and this may be a compensation for pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute phase serum proteins in diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The serum concentration of various acute phase reactants were studied in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with and without retinopathy and in control subjects. The serum levels of haptoglobin was elevated in diabetics with retinopathy and the levels were highest in those with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The levels of serum albumin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1 antitrypsin and caeruloplasmin were not significantly different between the patients with retinopathy and controls. Haptoglobin increases serum viscosity and this could be the mechanism by which it plays a role in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. These preliminary observations need to be confirmed by studies based on larger number of patients. Longitudinal studies on acute phase reactants in various stages of development of diabetic retinopathy would also provide valuable information.

  7. Serum Prolactin in Diagnosis of Epileptic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies in databases and references concerning serum prolactin levels (PRL in patients with suspected seizures were rated for quality and analyzed by members of the Therapeutics Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

  8. IMPORTANCE AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM SIALIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. IMPORTANCE AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM SIALIC ACID AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE DETERMINATION IN CERVICAL CANCER PATIENTS. Farouk H. Saber, Essam F. Hammouda, Mohamed Khaled M, Essam A. Afifi. Abstract.

  9. The human serum paraoxonase/arylesterase polymorphism.

    OpenAIRE

    Eckerson, H W; Wyte, C M; La Du, B N

    1983-01-01

    The heterozygous human serum paraoxonase phenotype can be clearly distinguished from both homozygous phenotypes on the basis of its distinctive ratio of paraoxonase to arylesterase activities. A trimodal distribution of the ratio values was found with 348 individual serum samples, measuring the ratio of paraoxonase activity (with 1 M NaCl in the assay) to arylesterase activity, using phenylacetate. The three modes corresponded to the three paraoxonase phenotypes, A, AB, and B (individual geno...

  10. Online Serum PFOA Calculator for Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bartell, SM

    2017-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent environmental contaminant that has been detected in >100 public water systems in the United States alone. A variety of epidemiological investigations of PFOA have been published, mostly using measured or modeled serum PFOA concentrations as the exposure metric. Comparison of drinking water PFOA concentrations to those study findings or to typical serum concentrations requires pharmacokinetic modeling. This brief communication describes an online J...

  11. Prevalence of elevated serum creatinine among treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cut off mark of 1.5mg/dl was used to evaluate elevated serum creatinine levels. Results: There were 826patients with a male/female ratio of 1:1.32. Males were 356 (43.1%) and females 470 (56.9%). Among these patients, 118 (14.3%) had a serum creatinine value of over 1.5mg/dl, signifying renal disease. Conclusion: A ...

  12. Serum angiotensin converting enzyme in pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza M Robati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune blistering skin disease with unknown etiology. Drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors may contribute in the pathogenesis of pemphigus. Objective: We plan this essay to evaluate the serum ACE level in pemphigus vulgaris patients in comparison with healthy controls to recognize its possible role in disease pathogenesis or activity. Methods: This study was planned and performed in the dermatology clinics of Shahid Beheshti University of MedicalSciences′ Hospitals between July 2010 and June 2011. Patients with new onset of pemphigus vulgaris were enrolled in our study. Control subjects were frequency-matched to cases by sex and age. Serum ACE was determined by the spectrophotometric method. Results: Thirty-four patients with pemphigus vulgaris and 35 healthy individuals were recruited in the study. No statistical significant difference was detected in the mean level of serum ACE of the two groups (t-test, P = 0.11. The mean ACE level was significantly lower in male patients compared with male controls (P = 0.04. Moreover, a significant higher serum ACE level of patients with cutaneous involvement was observed compared to patients with mucosal involvement (P = 0.02. Conclusions: Despite lack of any significant difference of serum ACE level between pemphigus and control group, the serum ACE level was considerably lower in male pemphigus vulgaris patients compared with male controls. Therefore, ACE might have some association with pemphigus vulgaris especially in male patients; however, further studies are required to confirm this association.

  13. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual′s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, padults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust

  14. Serum Soluble Corin is Decreased in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Song, Yulin; Hu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Soluble corin was decreased in coronary heart disease. Given the connections between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, circulating corin might be a candidate marker of stroke risk. However, the association between circulating corin and stroke has not yet been studied in humans. Here, we aimed to examine the association in patients wtith stroke and community-based healthy controls. Four hundred eighty-one patients with ischemic stroke, 116 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 2498 healthy controls were studied. Serum soluble corin and some conventional risk factors of stroke were examined. Because circulating corin was reported to be varied between men and women, the association between serum soluble corin and stroke was evaluated in men and women, respectively. Patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had a significantly lower level of serum soluble corin than healthy controls in men and women (all P values, stroke than men in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin were also more likely to have ischemic (OR, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-5.44) and hemorrhagic (OR, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-31.02) stroke than women in the highest quartile. ORs of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly increased with the decreasing levels of serum soluble corin in men and women (all P values for trend, stroke compared with healthy controls. Our findings raise the possibility that serum soluble corin may have a pathogenic role in stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Chang

    Full Text Available The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species.

  16. Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation by Serum Creatinine or Serum Cystatin C in Preterm (<31 Weeks) Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Parvesh; Hidalgo, Guillermo

    2017-06-15

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by serum creatinine (Schwartz's equation) and serum cystatin C (Filler's equation) in preterm neonates (24-31 weeks of gestation) in a prospective cohort study. Serum creatinine and cystatin C was obtained at birth and then every two weeks during the first month. We found a poor fit between two methods, and a steadier GFR assessment by cystatin C.

  17. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels associate with elevated serum C-reactive protein in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Damera, Sriharsha; Raphael, Kalani L.; Baird, Bradley C.; Cheung, Alfred K.; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2010-01-01

    High serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations are associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the general population. To examine whether this association is independent of serum vitamin D levels or modified in chronic kidney disease (CKD), we determined if such associations exist using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III of 14,420 adult participants in which 5.7% had CKD (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min per 1.73...

  18. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, E; Kæstel, Pernille

    2001-01-01

    ) in Harare, Zimbabwe, who were receiving prenatal care. The statistical effects of age, season, gestational age, gravidity, HIV-1 infection, malaria parasitemia, and serum alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) on serum folate, serum ferritin (log10 transformed), and hemoglobin were estimated by using multiple linear...... regression analyses. RESULTS: Serum folate (x: 11.4 micromol/L) was 0.52-nmol/L (95% CI: 0.04, 1.0) lower in HIV-infected women than in uninfected women and 0.65-nmol/L (0.014, 1.28) lower in weeks 25-35 than in weeks 22-25. Serum ferritin (geometric x: 11.6 microg/L) was 0.93 times (0.86, 0.99) lower in HIV...... predictor of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin. HIV infection was associated with a 12.9-g/L (8.9, 16.8) lower hemoglobin concentration in women with nondepleted iron stores but low serum retinol and a 7-8-g/L lower hemoglobin concentration in women with other combinations of serum ferritin...

  19. Is Serum Lactate Necessary in Patients with Normal Anion Gap and Serum Bicarbonate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronovich, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There has been an increase in patients having serum lactate drawn in emergency situations. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not it was necessary to obtain a lactate level in patients with a normal serum bicarbonate level and anion gap. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review evaluation of 304 patients who had serum lactate and electrolytes measured in an emergency setting in one academic medical center. Results: In 66 patients who had elevated serum lactate (>2.2mmol/L, 45 (68% patients had normal serum bicarbonate (SB (greater than 21 mmol/L. Normal anion gap (AG (normal range <16 mEq/l was found in 51 of the 66 patients (77%. Conclusion: We found that among patients with elevated serum lactate, 77% had a normal anion gap and 68% had normal serum bicarbonate. We conclude serum lactate should be drawn based on clinical suspicion of anaerobic tissue metabolism independent of serum bicarbonate or anion gap values. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:364–366.

  20. Serum biomarkers in periprosthetic joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, A; George, J; Faour, M; Klika, A K; Higuera, C A

    2018-01-01

    The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is difficult and requires a battery of tests and clinical findings. The purpose of this review is to summarize all current evidence for common and new serum biomarkers utilized in the diagnosis of PJI. We searched two literature databases, using terms that encompass all hip and knee arthroplasty procedures, as well as PJI and statistical terms reflecting diagnostic parameters. The findings are summarized as a narrative review. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were the two most commonly published serum biomarkers. Most evidence did not identify other serum biomarkers that are clearly superior to ESR and CRP. Other serum biomarkers have not demonstrated superior sensitivity and have failed to replace CRP and ESR as first-line screening tests. D-dimer appears to be a promising biomarker, but more research is necessary. Factors that influence serum biomarkers include temporal trends, stage of revision, and implant-related factors (metallosis). Our review helped to identify factors that can influence serum biomarkers' level changes; the recognition of such factors can help improve their diagnostic utility. As such, we cannot rely on ESR and CRP alone for the diagnosis of PJI prior to second-stage reimplantation, or in metal-on-metal or corrosion cases. The future of serum biomarkers will likely shift towards using genomics and proteomics to identify proteins transcribed via messenger RNA in response to infection and sepsis. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2018;7:85-93. © 2018 Saleh et al.

  1. Fluorimetric determination of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiaosen; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of people"s living standard and the changes of living form, the number of people who suffer from hypercholesterolemia is increasing. It is not only harmful to heart and blood vessel, but also leading to obstruction of cognition. The conventional blood detection technology has weakness such as complex operation, long detecting period, and bad visibility. In order to develop a new detection method that can checkout hypercholesterolemia conveniently, spectroscopy of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum is obtained by the multifunctional grating spectrograph. The experiment results indicate that, under the excitation of light-emitting diode (LED) with the wavelength at 407 nm, the serum from normal human and the hypercholesterolemia serum emit different fluorescence spectra. The former can emit one fluorescence region with the peak locating at 516 nm while the latter can emit two more regions with peaks locating at 560 nm and 588 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of serum is non-linear increasing with the concentration of cholesterol increases when the concentration of cholesterol is lower than 13.8 mmol/L, and then, with the concentration of cholesterol increase, the fluorescence intensity decreases. However, the fluorescence intensity is still much higher than that of serum from normal human. Conclusions can be educed from the experiments: the intensity and the shape of fluorescence spectra of hypercholesterolemia serum are different of those of normal serum, from which the cholesterol abnormal in blood can be judged. The consequences in this paper may offer an experimental reference for the diagnosis of the hypercholesterolemia.

  2. Serum prolactin level in patients taking olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diganta Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olanzapine is a commonly used antipsychotic. Prolactin elevation is a common adverse effect of anstipsychotics, and serum prolactin elevation is seen in about 30% patients treated with olanzapine. There are confounding results about dose dependency of olanzapine and prolactin elevation, and also the duration of treatment. Method: Fifty six patients, 36 male and 20 female, who were taking olanzapine for any condition for more than a month at a constant dose were enrolled in the study. Patients’ age, weight, body mass index (BMI, serum prolactin levels, and some biochemical values were recorded. Patients were taken from the review outpatient department (OPD after due consent. Results: Five each in male and female groups showed elevation of serum prolactin (estimated to be high if >20 ng/dl for males, and >25 ng/dl for females. In females, the elevation was found at lesser dose of olanzapine (13 mg/day, in males 18 mg/day and early in the treatment (2.4 months vs. 9.7 months in males. Males tended to show raised prolactin with higher doses of olanzapine (mean 18 mg/day. Females (26.31% also showed higher prevalence of prolactin elevation compared to males (13.51%. No other parameter was found to modify the prolactin levels. Conclusion: Olanzapine causes elevation of serum prolactin, though lesser degree than some other antipsychotics. Females are more prone to have raised serum prolactin with olanzapine compared to males. However, the elevation seems to be transient. Higher doses of olanzapine tend to cause elevation of serum prolactin. Serum prolactin estimation in patients taking olanzapine may be undertaken to maintain quality life, particularly in females.

  3. Glycomics: revealing the dynamic ecology and evolution of sugar molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Stevan A; Gagneux, Pascal

    2016-03-01

    Sugars are the most functionally and structurally diverse molecules in the biological world. Glycan structures range from tiny single monosaccharide units to giant chains thousands of units long. Some glycans are branched, their monosaccharides linked together in many different combinations and orientations. Some exist as solitary molecules; others are conjugated to proteins and lipids and alter their collective functional properties. In addition to structural and storage roles, glycan molecules participate in and actively regulate physiological and developmental processes. Glycans also mediate cellular interactions within and between individuals. Their roles in ecology and evolution are pivotal, but not well studied because glycan biochemistry requires different methods than standard molecular biology practice. The properties of glycans are in some ways convenient, and in others challenging. Glycans vary on organismal timescales, and in direct response to physiological and ecological conditions. Their mature structures are physical records of both genetic and environmental influences during maturation. We describe the scope of natural glycan variation and discuss how studying glycans will allow researchers to further integrate the fields of ecology and evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum zinc level in children with malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.M.; Mahmood, M.T.; Baluch, G.R.; Bhatti, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Serum zinc level amongst children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) was evaluated in a control study conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Twenty-five children with PEM and 25 healthy children as control from the community were screened. Mean serum zinc level was found to be 54.48 -+ 18.91 mg/dl in children with PEM while it was 72.72 -+ 8.21 mg/dl in control group (P < 0.001). No significant difference in zinc level was noted between both sexes in each group. Marasmic 16 children revealed mean serum zinc level of 57.55 -+ 18.16 mg/dl while in Kwashiorkor it was 44.57 -+ 13.66 mg/dl. Serum zinc was significantly low in Kwashiorkor than in marasmus (P < 0.001). It was also significantly low in children with acute or chronic diarrhea associated with malnutrition (44.66 -+ 16.0 mg/dl). Acute respiratory infections in these children were not associated with low serum zinc level (71.66 -+ 16.51 mg/dl). (author)

  5. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugard, J.; Kew, M.C.; Da Fonseca, M.; Levin, J.

    1982-01-01

    Having found raised serum calcitonin concentrations is 94% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma when using a dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay, we have now repeated the study, using a double-antibody radio-immunoassay, in 102 further patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 35 matched controls. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentrations (iCT) in the controls ranged from 10 to 310 pg/ml (mean 154,6 pg/ml). Values in the tumour patients ranged from 10 to 1 650 pg/ml (mean 302,6 pg/ml). The mean figures were significantly higher in the tumour patients (P smaller than 0,001), 35,5% of them having values above 310 pg/ml. In 65 of the patients serum iCT concentrations were also determined by dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay. Values ranged from 10 to 10780 pg/ml (mean 2 179 pg/ml). If 1 000 pg/ml is taken as the upper limit of normal, 69% of the patients had raised iCT concentrations. There was a good correlation (r=0,67; P smaller than 0,001) between serum iCT values measured with both methods in 50 patients. If measured by the double-antibody radio-immunoassay method, the serum calcitonin value is not useful as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma

  6. Association of serum uric acid with blood urea and serum creatinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.U.; Ahmad, Z.; Rehman, J.U.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperuricemia can cause serious health problems including renal insufficiency. Hyperuricemia is associated with many diseases including Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertriglyceridemia and Obesity. Objective of the present study was to study the Association of Serum Uric Acid with Blood Urea and Serum Creatinine. Methods: Eighty subjects, aged above 40, having blood urea more than 40 mg/dl and serum Creatinine more than 1.3 mg/dl were selected. 52.5 % subjects were male. Eighty subjects were selected as control group matching the age and sex with study group with normal blood urea and serum Creatinine. Results: Serum Uric Acid was found to be raised in 33 patients. Mean Serum Uric Acid value was 6.98+-2.021 in males (p<0.05) and 5.054+-2.324 in females (p<0.05). Conclusion: Serum Uric Acid is raised in patients with impaired renal function (p<0.05). Levels of increased Serum Uric Acid were not significantly associated with the cause of renal disease. (author)

  7. Elemental analysis of human serum and serum protein fractions by thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of thermal neutron activation for the determination of elemental contents in human serum and human serum protein fractions are presented. Firstly total serum is dealt with, secondly serum protein fractions obtained by gel filtration are described. A brief review on the role of (trace) elements in human health and disease and a compilation of literature data for elemental contents in human serum, as obtained by neutron activation techniques, are given. The most important sources of statistical and systematic errors are evaluated. Results for the contents of sodium, potassium, magnesium, bromine, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, cesium and antimony in serum are given, with emphasis on control of accuracy and precision. The possible relation between selenium in blood and cancer occurrence in humans is discussed. The results of elemental analyses from cancer patients and from a patient receiving a cytostatic treatment are presented. A survey of literature results for the determination of protein-bound elemental contents in serum is presented. Subsequently, results from a study on the behaviour of elements during gel filtration are discussed. Gel-element and protein-element interactions are studied. Finally the protein-bound occurrence of trace elements in human serum is determined by gel filtration and neutron activation analysis. Results for both desalting and fractionation are given, for the elements bromine, copper, manganese, vanadium, selenium, zinc, rubidium, iron and iodine. (Auth.)

  8. Association between serum interleukin-6 and serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in nonthyroidal illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, A.; Platvoet-ter Schiphorst, M. C.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Increased serum concentrations of FFA, bilirubin, and carboxyl-methyl-propyl-furanpropionic acid, accumulating in chronic renal failure in direct relationship with serum creatinine, have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of the low T3 syndrome during illness. Cytokines may also be involved in

  9. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, E; Kæstel, Pernille

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folate and iron status and hemoglobin concentrations are important to maternal and infant health. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 1669 pregnant women (22-35 wk of gestation) in ...

  10. Serum proteinase inhibitors and other serum proteins in protein-energy malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelp, F.P.; Migasena, P.; Pongpaew, P.; SCHREURS W.H.P

    1977-01-01

    1. The concentrations of serum protein albumin, prealbumin and transferrin were determined in twenty-eight cases of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) with infection, together with the levels of serum proteinase inhibitors (PI), alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), alpha1-antichymotrypsin (Ach),

  11. Serum cardiac troponin I in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol and TNF-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Christensen, Anders Fogh

    2004-01-01

    Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a specific marker of myocardial injury related to in-patient fatality and cardiac injury in acute stroke. We investigated whether cTnI in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol, acute inflammatory response, and insular damage. We also investigated whether c...

  12. Association of serum leptin with serum C-reactive protein in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastegari Ebrahim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent investigations have shown that leptin is cleared principally by the kidney. Objectives: To examine whether and how in patients on hemodialysis the level of C-reactive protein level correlate with serum leptin. Patients and Methods: The total patients were 36. The mean patients’ age were 46 (16 years. The median length of the time patients were on hemodialysis were 19 months. Results: The mean serum C-reactive protein was 8.7 (6.6 mg/l (median: 8 mg/l. The mean serum leptin was 9.4 (14 ng/ml (median: 5.75 ng/ml. In this study we found a significant inverse correlation of serum leptin with serum C-reactive protein (r= -0.57, p= 0.041 was seen. Conclusion: Our data supports, the positive effect of leptin on nutrition and support the theory of protective effects (reverse epidemiology of leptin in hemodialysis patients.

  13. Radioimmunological determination of digoxin in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.; Sorger, D.

    1979-01-01

    The tested quality signs of the digoxin-RIA (Medica) correspond to other RIA-test methods. The digoxin-RIA (Medica) is, therefore, well suited for clinical examinations. In the dilanacin-(digoxin-) long-term therapy with the maintenance dose of 0.5 mg digoxin a day 75.4% of the patients examined (n = 65) were within the therapeutic field. In each case 12.3% were underdigitalised or overdigitalised, respectively. In the 8 patients in the toxic region only the half showed signs of digoxin intoxication. It is referred to the importance of creatinine and potassium in the serum, to the digoxin creatinene and potassium in the serum, to the digoxin clearance depending on age, to the body weight and the body surface, respectively, in very obese patients for the height of the serum digoxin level and for the compatibility of this heart glycoside. (author)

  14. Radioimmunoassay of parathormone in human blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leicht, E.

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for immune reactive PTH in human blood serum has been developed and optimized. The method described is capable of largely safely discriminating increased PTH concentrations from normal values. For the group of patients suffering from hypoparathyroidism, the PTH values in the blood serum have been found to be generally lower, but quite an overlapping of lower values and values at the lower normal limit has been stated at the same time. Subsequent to an oral administration of phosphate in an acute experiment, so following a calcium-deficient diet taken over 24 hours, an increase in immune reactive PTH in the serum could be detected. The part of this thesis dealing with the method of treatment thoroughly discussed the various steps of optimization of the assay on the basis of extensive experimental data collected by the author. It presents a detailed assessment of current knowledge on, efficiency of and problems involved in PTH determination by radioimmunoassay. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Clinical usefulness of the serum anion gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sik; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Kang, Sung Kyew

    2006-03-01

    The anion gap in the serum is useful in the interpretation of acid-base disorders and in the diagnosis of other conditions. In the early 1980s, ion-selective electrodes for specific ionic species were introduced for the measurement of serum electrolytes. This new method has caused a shift of the anion gap from 12±4 mEq/L down 6±3 mEq/L. It is worthy for clinicians to understand the range of normal anion gap and the measuring methods for serum sodium and chloride in the laboratories that support their practice. While an increase in the anion gap is almost always caused by retained unmeasured anions, a decrease in the anion gap can be generated by multiple mechanisms.

  16. Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, C; Johansen, J S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three......YKL-40 is a mammalian member of the chitinase protein family. Although the function of YKL-40 is unknown, the pattern of its expression suggests a function in remodelling or degradation of extracellular matrix. High serum YKL-40 has been found in patients with recurrent breast cancer and has been...

  17. HYPOLIPEMIC THERAPY AND LOW SERUM CHOLESTEROL CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladmila Bojanic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Low concentration of plasma lipoproteins (hypolipoproteinemia presents decreasing concentrations of all or particular lipids components. Classification of hypolipoproteinemia (hypoLP divides them into: primary (hereditary and secondary. Primary hipoLP are rare diseases and their main characteristic is disorder of apolipoproteins synthesis, which leads to low serum cholesterol concentration. Secondary hipoLP are presented in many diseases. They have diagnostic, prognostic significance and present good therapeutic marker. However, modern therapeutic approaches for aggressive lipid lowering pointed out many questions about physiological limits for cholesterol lowering. These approaches, also, open many questions about consequences of low serum concentration of total cholesterol and triglicerides.

  18. Competitive radioimmunoassay of digoxin in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oslapas, Raymond; Herrin, T.R.

    1975-01-01

    The process described is for determining the digoxin level of a serum. To do so a mixture is made by adding to the serum sample an antidigoxin antibody and a suitable labelling quantity of O 3 -(hydroxy-4 phenethylcarbamoyl)digoxigenin for radioactive labelling. The mixture is allowed to incubate so that the digoxin of the sample and the radioactive labelling reagent joint to the antidigoxin antibody. A precipitating agent is added to the mixture to help the formation of a precipitate and thus separate the labelled digoxin taken up from the precipitate free digoxin. The liquid is separated from the precipitate formed and the residual radioactivity of the precipitate is measured [fr

  19. Kidney function predictors and associated serum electrolytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Kidney disease has been recognised as one of the health challenges complicating HIV infection, prognosis and management. Early recognition, diagnosis and treatment are therefore key to ameliorating the deleterious impacts of kidney disease in HIV infected patients. Objectives: To assess serum kidney ...

  20. Relationships between blood lead, blood pressure, serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study examined the associations between blood – Pb, serum cholesterol, diastolic and, systolic blood pressures, hematocrit, body weight, age and body mass index in 528 study subjects comprising 50% cigarette smoking and 50% non-smoking male residents of Abeokuta, Nigeria, aged from 15 to 80 years. Blood Pb was ...

  1. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  2. Performance, immunity, serum biochemical and hematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... results suggest that supplementing broilers' diet with 5 g/kg thyme can indicate favorable influences of antibiotic growth promoter on performance without any detrimental impacts on immune responses and blood parameters. Key words: Broiler, thyme, growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry, hematology.

  3. Relationship between some serum electrolytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Trypanosoma brucei infection on changes in concentration of some serum electrolytes and the consequence of these changes on electrocardiographic (ECG) indices were investigated in dogs. The nature of association between each of the electrolytes and the various ECG indices were studied at different days ...

  4. Serum Iron Protects from Renal Postischemic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaugier, Céline; Amano, Mariane T; Chemouny, Jonathan M; Dussiot, Michael; Berrou, Claire; Matignon, Marie; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; Wang, Pamella H M; Fricot, Aurélie; Maciel, Thiago T; Grapton, Damien; Mathieu, Jacques R R; Beaumont, Carole; Peraldi, Marie-Noëlle; Peyssonnaux, Carole; Mesnard, Laurent; Daugas, Eric; Vrtovsnik, François; Monteiro, Renato C; Hermine, Olivier; Ginzburg, Yelena Z; Benhamou, Marc; Camara, Niels O S; Flamant, Martin; Moura, Ivan C

    2017-12-01

    Renal transplants remain a medical challenge, because the parameters governing allograft outcome are incompletely identified. Here, we investigated the role of serum iron in the sterile inflammation that follows kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. In a retrospective cohort study of renal allograft recipients ( n =169), increased baseline levels of serum ferritin reliably predicted a positive outcome for allografts, particularly in elderly patients. In mice, systemic iron overload protected against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury-associated sterile inflammation. Furthermore, chronic iron injection in mice prevented macrophage recruitment after inflammatory stimuli. Macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions had reduced responses to Toll-like receptor-2, -3, and -4 agonists, which associated with decreased reactive oxygen species production, increased nuclear localization of the NRF2 transcription factor, increased expression of the NRF2-related antioxidant response genes, and limited NF- κ B and proinflammatory signaling. In macrophage-depleted animals, the infusion of macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions did not reconstitute AKI after ischemia-reperfusion, whereas macrophages cultured in physiologic iron conditions did. These findings identify serum iron as a critical protective factor in renal allograft outcome. Increasing serum iron levels in patients may thus improve prognosis of renal transplants. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Comparison of Serum Calcium and Magnesium Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Evidence suggests the involvement of calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. However, findings from studies are heterogenous and inconsistent. Aim: The study aimed to compare the total serum calcium and magnesium levels in preeclamptic women with that of ...

  6. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquinetreated rats: effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2 ml/kg of normal ...

  7. Serum and urine trace metals in ketosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, R.E.; Hiner, C.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1974-01-01

    Three groups of male rats were housed in metabolic cages. The control group was fed ad libitum, a second group was fasted and diabetes was induced in the third group by the subcutaneous injection of alloxan. After 48 hours all animals were bled and livers, which were quick-frozen in situ, were obtained. Fasted and diabetic animals were ketotic as manifested by lowering urinary pH and elevated urinary and blood acetoacetate and ..beta..-hydroxybutyrate. Blood and hepatic content of acetate was elevated in diabetic versus control rats. Blood and hepatic content of acetate was not increased in fasted animals. In fasted rats total urinary Zn and Cu were decreased and Mg and Ca did not differ significantly from control values. In diabetic rats total urinary excretion of Mg was increased whereas urinary Zn, Cu and Ca levels did not differ significantly from control values. In fasted animals only serum Zn was diminished. In diabetic rats serum Cu and Ca were decreased and serum Mg was increased while serum Zn was unchanged. Thus, the ketosis of fasting differs from the ketosis of diabetes in several of its metabolic manifestations. 11 references, 9 figures.

  8. SERUM BETA HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN IN HUMAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives To determine whether raised levels of serum Beta -HCG) are associated with higher grade and Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin ( -HCG in higher category tumors and whether in patients with raised levels of -HCG their sera the rise (above normal range) and the fall (to normal) in levels would correspond with ...

  9. Biodegradable nanoporous nanoparticles for human serum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujia, A.; De Angelis, F.; Scumaci, D.; Gaspari, M.; Liberale, C.; Candeloro, P.; Cuda, G.; Di Fabrizio, E.

    2010-01-01

    Modern medicine and biology search for new powerful tool for biomarkers discovery, appears one of the most promising approaches for early cancer diagnosis. Nowadays, the low molecular weight fraction of human serum is the most informative source of biomarkers, but their study and identification are very difficult due to the incredible complexity of the raw human serum. In this work we describe a novel tool for the filtration of crude human serum or other bio-fluid based on water soluble nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a pore size of about 2-3 nm, and diameters of 200 nm were obtained by ultrasonication of nanoporous silicon. The porous nanoparticles act as a nanosieve able to exclusively harvest the low molecular weight fraction of the fluid thanks to a controllable pore size. After a short incubation, the infiltrated nanosieves can be extracted from the starting fluid by means of centrifugation, and dissolved in water in a few minutes to give the captured molecules back in their native state, without degradation and contamination. The raw fluid is so split in two components of high and low molecular weight, that are both available for further analyses with any other investigation technique. Here, fluorescence spectroscopy, 2D-gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry are exploited to show the split of different bio-fluids under physiological condition. A cut-off (or split level) of 13 kDa is demonstrated also for human serum.

  10. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum calcium level was determined by EDTA titration, inorganic phosphate by spectrophotometric method of Goldberg and the Haematological parameters by Bain method. Results: The age range of both test subjects and controls was 3 to 26 years. There were no significant differences in calcium and inorganic phosphate ...

  11. Growth performance, serum thiocyanate and haematological indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, serum thiocyanate and haematological indices of pigs fed Whole Cassava Chips (WCC) supplemented with brewer's yeast as substitute to maize in a twelve weeks feeding trial. Forty-eight crossbred growing pigs of Landrace and Hampshire breeds ...

  12. Dietary phosphorus, serum phosphorus, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Madhav C; Ix, Joachim H

    2013-10-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have linked higher serum phosphorus concentrations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. This association has been identified in the general population and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The risk of adverse outcomes appears to begin with phosphorus concentrations within the upper limit of the normal reference range. Multiple experimental studies have suggested pathogenetic mechanisms that involve direct and indirect effects of high phosphorus concentrations to explain these associations. Drawing from these observations, guideline-forming agencies have recommended that serum phosphorus concentrations be maintained within the normal reference range in patients with CKD and that dietary phosphorus restriction or use of intestinal phosphate binders should be considered to achieve this goal. However, outside the dialysis population, the links between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations, and dietary phosphorus intake and CVD events, are uncertain. With specific reference to the nondialysis populations, this review discusses the available data linking dietary phosphorus intake with serum phosphorus concentrations and CVD events. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Anaerobic exercise - Induced changes in serum mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic exercise, a non 02 – dependent energy metabolism leads to transient metabolic changes, which are corrected gradually by homestatic mechanism. We investigated in eight male subjects, the effects of anaerobic exercise after a day sedentary activity on serum mineral concentration. There was significant ...

  14. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Sickle cell disease has long been associated with bone deformities and pain. Mineral salts such as calcium and inorganic phosphate are critical in bone formation and metabolism. This investigation was designed to study the serum concentration of these minerals as well as some haematological parameters in ...

  15. Expression and characterization of recombinant human serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Key words: C-peptide, human serum albumin, recombinant fusion protein, Pichia pastoris, bioactivity, biological half-time. ... lines were purchased from Cell bank of Chinese academy of sciences (Shanghai, China). .... agarose electrophoresis and DNA sequencing (data was not shown). Expression and ...

  16. Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Weanling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on hematology and serum biochemistry in weanling dogs. Nine healthy local dogs between 12 to 14 weeks of age were randomly assigned to three treatments: control, 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg of medroxyprogesterone ...

  17. EFFECT OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON SERUM TRANSAMINASES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECT OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON SERUM TRANSAMINASES. ... Global Journal of Medical Sciences ... Alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity were assessed in 20 mild to moderate smokers, 20 heavy smokers and 20 non smokers, all males, aged between 17 and 35 years in Calabar Cross River ...

  18. Expression and characterization of recombinant human serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C-peptide (CP), connecting the A and B chains in proinsulin, has been considered to possess physiological effects in diabetes. In order to prolong the half-life of CP in vivo, a long acting CP analog [human serum albumin (HSA-CP)] was obtained by direct gene fusion of a single-chain CP to HSA and expressed in host ...

  19. Preliminary Studies on Some Haematological and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean serum values of sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate, as well as urea, creatinine and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) enzyme did not differ from the normal values, while the mean aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme value appeared to be lower than the normal range.In conclusion, the RBC, PCV ...

  20. ADSORPTION OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN ONTO ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this study, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin was studied using the activated carbon prepared from Elaeagnus stone with chemical activation. Elaeagnus stone activated carbon was characterized using the point of zero charge, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller method, ...

  1. Serum proteomic profiling of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, M; Chan, M K; Jansen, R; Lamers, F; Vogelzangs, N; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; Rothermundt, M; Cooper, J; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W J H

    2015-07-14

    Much has still to be learned about the molecular mechanisms of depression. This study aims to gain insight into contributing mechanisms by identifying serum proteins related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large psychiatric cohort study. Our sample consisted of 1589 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, comprising 687 individuals with current MDD (cMDD), 482 individuals with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 420 controls. We studied the relationship between MDD status and the levels of 171 serum proteins detected on a multi-analyte profiling platform using adjusted linear regression models. Pooled analyses of two independent validation cohorts (totaling 78 MDD cases and 156 controls) was carried out to validate our top markers. Twenty-eight analytes differed significantly between cMDD cases and controls (P depression. Changes were more prominent in cMDD, suggesting that molecular alterations in serum are associated with acute depression symptomatology. These findings may help to establish serum-based biomarkers of depression and could improve our understanding of its pathophysiology.

  2. Comparative serum biochemistry of captive mugger crocodiles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard serum biochemical parameters were determined for 28 mugger crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris) using Supra-occipital plexus technique and/or Cardiocentesis technique at the Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur, Chennai, Guindy Snake Park Trust and Amaravathy Crocodile farm, Tamilnadu, India (13° 0´ N; ...

  3. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  4. Serum irisin levels in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Anna; Myśliwiec, Hanna; Kiluk, Paulina; Świderska, Magdalena; Flisiak, Iwona

    2017-06-01

    Irisin has been proposed to regulate metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes or metabolic syndrome which are common comorbidities in psoriasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum irisin level in psoriasis and elucidate possible associations with disease activity, inflammatory or metabolic parameters and topical treatment. Thirty-seven individuals with active plaque-type psoriasis and 15 healthy controls were enrolled. Blood samples were collected before and after two weeks of therapy. Serum irisin concentrations were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results were correlated with psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), body mass index (BMI), inflammatory and biochemical markers, lipid profile and effectiveness of topical treatment. Irisin serum levels were insignificantly increased in psoriatic patients in comparison to the controls (p = 0.38). No significant correlations between investigated adipokine and several indicators of metabolic disorders, nor BMI (p = 0.37) or PASI (p = 0.5) were found. Significant positive correlations with C-reactive protein (CRP) (0.009), lipocalin-2 (p = 0.02), age (p = 0.02) and disease duration (p = 0.008) were noted. After topical treatment, serum irisin level did not significantly change (p = 0.31), despite clinical improvement. Irisin might be a marker of inflammation in psoriatic patients, but may not be a reliable indicator of metabolic conditions, severity of psoriasis nor efficacy of antipsoriatic treatment.

  5. METABOLITE CHARACTERIZATION IN SERUM SAMPLES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    fasting 10 mL of blood sample from each individual was taken and was allowed to clot in plastic tube for 2 h at room temperature. The serum was collected by centrifugation. The samples were stored under liquid nitrogen for NMR analysis. Before NMR analysis, 600 µL of the samples were taken in a 5 mm high quality NMR ...

  6. Growth performance, hematological and serum biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A twelve (12) weeks feeding trial was carried out to determine the effect of varying dietary inclusions of Microdesmis puberula leaf meal (MPLM) on the growth performance, hematological indices and serum biochemical constituents of growing rabbits. Four grower rabbit diets were formulated to contain the leaf meal at ...

  7. Maternal serum fructosamine values after delivery ofmacrosomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expl.anation for this discrepancy is that the half-lives of these. 1. Brudenell M, Wilds PLo Medical and Surgical Problems in Obstetrics. Bristol: John Wright, 1984: 120-124. 2. Baker JR, O'Connor JP, Metcalf P, Lawson MR, Johnson RN. Oinical usefulness of estimation of serum frucrosamine concentration as a screening.

  8. gene polymorphism and its serum lev

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    Running title: Interleukin-10 gene polymorphism in metabolic syndrome. Keywords: ... polymorphisms, IL-10 -819 C >T and -592C >A were significantly associated with risk of metabolic syndrome. The mutant ..... Upon analysis for correlation of IL-10 serum level with clinico-biochemical characteristics of cases and controls,.

  9. Circulating serum xenoestrogens and mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Brian L; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Hedman, Curtis J; Wang, Jue; Hemming, Jocelyn Dc; Hampton, John M; Buist, Diana Sm; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Sisney, Gale S; Burnside, Elizabeth S

    2013-05-27

    Humans are widely exposed to estrogenically active phthalates, parabens, and phenols, raising concerns about potential effects on breast tissue and breast cancer risk. We sought to determine the association of circulating serum levels of these chemicals (reflecting recent exposure) with mammographic breast density (a marker of breast cancer risk). We recruited postmenopausal women aged 55 to 70 years from mammography clinics in Madison, Wisconsin (N = 264). Subjects completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample that was analyzed for mono-ethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, butyl paraben, propyl paraben, octylphenol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol A (BPA). Percentage breast density was measured from mammograms by using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Serum BPA was positively associated with mammographic breast density after adjusting for age, body mass index, and other potentially confounding factors. Mean percentage density was 12.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 11.4 to 14.0) among the 193 women with nondetectable BPA levels, 13.7% (95% CI, 10.7 to 17.1) among the 35 women with detectable levels below the median (0.55 ng/ml; Ptrend = 0.01). Percentage breast density was also elevated (18.2%; 95% CI, 13.4 to 23.7) among the 18 women with serum mono-ethyl phthalate above the median detected level (>3.77 ng/ml) compared with women with nondetectable BPA levels (13.1%; 95% CI, 11.9 to 14.3; Ptrend = 0.07). No other chemicals demonstrated associations with percentage breast density. Postmenopausal women with high serum levels of BPA and mono-ethyl phthalate had elevated breast density. Further investigation of the impact of BPA and mono-ethyl phthalate on breast cancer risk by using repeated serum measurements or other markers of xenoestrogen exposure are needed.

  10. False positive acetaminophen concentrations in icteric serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Jong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Serum concentrations of acetaminophen are measured to predict the risk of hepatotoxicity in cases of acetaminophen overdose and to identify acetaminophen use in patients with acute liver injury without a known cause. The acetaminophen concentration determines if treatment with N-acetyl cysteine, the antidote for acetaminophen poisoning, is warranted. Description: A 49-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a hepatic encephalopathy and a total serum bilirubin concentration of 442 µmol/l. The acetaminophen concentration of 11.5 mg/l was measured with an enzymatic-colorimetric assay, thus treatment with N-acetyl cysteine was started. Interestingly, the acetaminophen concentration remained unchanged (11.5–12.3 mg/l during a period of 4 consecutive days. In contrast, the acetaminophen concentration measured by HPLC, a chromatographic technique, remained undetectable Discussion: In the presented case, elevated bilirubin was the most likely candidate to interfere with acetaminophen assay causing false positive results. Bilirubin has intense absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and for that reason it causes interference in an enzymatic-colorimetric assay. Conclusion: False positive acetaminophen laboratory test results may be found in icteric serum, when enzymatic-colorimetric assays are used for determination of an acetaminophen concentration. Questionable acetaminophen results in icteric serum should be confirmed by a non-enzymatic method, by means of ultrafiltration of the serum, or by dilution studies. Keywords: Acetaminophen, Enzymatic-colorimetric assays, HPLC, Bilirubin, Interference, Paracetamol, Liver failure, Jaundice

  11. Global serum glycoform profiling for the investigation of dystroglycanopathies & Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy E. Heywood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG are an expanding group of genetic disorders which encompass a spectrum of glycosylation defects of protein and lipids, including N- & O-linked defects and among the latter are the muscular dystroglycanopathies (MD. Initial screening of CDG is usually based on the investigation of the glycoproteins transferrin, and/or apolipoprotein CIII. These biomarkers do not always detect complex or subtle defects present in older patients, therefore there is a need to investigate additional glycoproteins in some cases. We describe a sensitive 2D-Differential Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE method that provides a global analysis of the serum glycoproteome. Patient samples from PMM2-CDG (n = 5, CDG-II (n = 7, MD and known complex N- & O-linked glycosylation defects (n = 3 were analysed by 2D DIGE. Using this technique we demonstrated characteristic changes in mass and charge in PMM2-CDG and in charge in CDG-II for α1-antitrypsin, α1-antichymotrypsin, α2-HS-glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, and α1-acid glycoproteins 1&2. Analysis of the samples with known N- & O-linked defects identified a lower molecular weight glycoform of C1-esterase inhibitor that was not observed in the N-linked glycosylation disorders indicating the change is likely due to affected O-glycosylation. In addition, we could identify abnormal serum glycoproteins in LARGE and B3GALNT2-deficient muscular dystrophies. The results demonstrate that the glycoform pattern is varied for some CDG patients not all glycoproteins are consistently affected and analysis of more than one protein in complex cases is warranted. 2D DIGE is an ideal method to investigate the global glycoproteome and is a potentially powerful tool and secondary test for aiding the complex diagnosis and sub classification of CDG. The technique has further potential in monitoring patients for future treatment strategies. In an era of shifting emphasis from gel- to mass-spectral based

  12. Serum and Synovial Fluid Serum Amyloid A Response in Equine Models of Synovitis and Septic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Elsa K; Brandon Wiese, R; Graham, Megan R; Tyler, Amelia J; Settlage, Julie M; Werre, Stephen R; Petersson-Wolfe, Christina S; Kanevsky-Mullarky, Isis; Dahlgren, Linda A

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the serum and synovial fluid serum amyloid A (SAA) response in equine models of synovitis and septic arthritis and to compare handheld and validated immunoturbidometric assays for SAA quantification. Controlled, experimental study. Healthy adult horses (n = 9). Synovitis (n = 4) and septic arthritis (n = 5) were induced using lipopolysaccharide and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, and serial serum and synovial fluid samples were collected. Serial synovial fluid cytology was performed for both models and synovial fluid from the septic arthritis model was submitted for bacterial culture. Serum and synovial fluid SAA were quantified by handheld test and immunoturbidometric assay. Cytologic and SAA data were compared within and between models (mixed model ANOVA) and results of SAA assays were compared using category-by-category analysis (weighted kappa coefficient). Synovial fluid total nucleated cell counts and total protein increased significantly following induction of both models. Serum and synovial fluid SAA remained normal in synovitis horses and increased significantly in septic arthritis horses. Serum SAA increased more rapidly than synovial fluid SAA. Agreement was 98% when SAA concentrations were low (septic arthritis in horses. SAA concentrations for the assays diverged and examination using a larger sample size is needed before direct numeric comparisons between the assays can be made. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  13. A low percentage of autologous serum can replace bovine serum to engineer human nasal cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Wolf

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available For the generation of cell-based therapeutic products, it would be preferable to avoid the use of animal-derived components. Our study thus aimed at investigating the possibility to replace foetal bovine serum (FBS with autologous serum (AS for the engineering of cartilage grafts using expanded human nasal chondrocytes (HNC. HNC isolated from 7 donors were expanded in medium containing 10% FBS or AS at different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10% and cultured in pellets using serum-free medium or in Hyaff®-11 meshes using medium containing FBS or AS. Tissue forming capacity was assessed histologically (Safranin O, immunohistochemically (type II collagen and biochemically (glycosaminoglycans -GAG- and DNA. Differences among experimental groups were assessed by Mann Whitney tests. HNC expanded under the different serum conditions proliferated at comparable rates and generated cartilaginous pellets with similar histological appearance and amounts of GAG. Tissues generated by HNC from different donors cultured in Hyaff®-11 had variable quality, but the accumulated GAG amounts were comparable among the different serum conditions. Staining intensity for collagen type II was consistent with GAG deposition. Among the different serum conditions tested, the use of 2% AS resulted in the lowest variability in the GAG contents of generated tissues. In conclusion, a low percentage of AS can replace FBS both during the expansion and differentiation of HNC and reduce the variability in the quality of the resulting engineered cartilage tissues.

  14. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum biochemistry concentrations (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and cortisol and insulin concentration) and blood hematology (red blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and percentage neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophiles, eosinophils and ratio of neutrophils to ...

  15. Serum chromium concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FPG). Lower serum chromium concentrations and poor chromium status are common in type 2 diabetics in Osogbo, Nigeria. Keywords: Diabetes, serum chromium, glucose tolerance, insulin. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences ...

  16. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-Ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (k(q)) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gamma radiation effects on liofilized human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron Soler, E.; Romay Penabad, Z.; Chavez Ardanza, A.; Hernandez Gonzalez, C.; Martin Gonzalez, O.; Garcia Gonzalez, I.; Prieto Miranda, E.

    1995-01-01

    Human freeze dried serum was artificially contaminated with Flavobacterium sp. for studying the effects of gamma radiation of it. The radiobiological parameters of the contaminator were determined and the sterilization dose was set. The quality of the product irradiated at both, calculated sterilization dose (8.5 kGy) an another one about 25 kGy was determined. It was made according to: sterility testing, total proteins, pH enzymes (alanina-aminotransferase, aspartato-aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase), protein electrophoresis, fast performance liquid chromatographic and effect on the cellular growth. From the latter was concluded that the calculated sterilization dose was adequate form keeping the biological properties and viability of the irradiated serum. Nevertheless, the dose of 25 k Gy was not adequate because of its dangerous effects on the cell culture

  18. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  19. Growth performance, haematological and serum biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total protein (4.03g/l) and globulin (2.63g/dl) were highest in broilers on diet B and least values of urea (16.00 mg/dl) and alkaline phosphatase (64.75μ/l). In conclusion diet B was best considering the growth performance, haematology and serum biochemistry of the broiler chickens fed cassava composite meal. Keywords: ...

  20. Measurement of theophylline in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetten, O. von; Zech, K.

    1980-01-01

    A radioimmunological (RIA-matsup(R) Theophylline) and a HPLC method for the determination of theophylline concentrations in human serum are compared. HPLC as most specific and precise method is not suitable for greater numbers of analyses due to time needed for chromatography. Theophylline-RIA yields excellent results regarding precision, specificity and recovery with excellent correlation and considerable time savings compared to HPLC. (orig.) [de

  1. Group specific component in serum and otosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Vase, P; Thymann, M

    1994-01-01

    An earlier Swedish study suggested a positive association between otosclerosis and the group-specific component GC*1F marker. We investigated the distribution of GC subtypes in 101 Danish patients with otosclerosis who all had surgery performed in the county of Funen. Compared to 1674 Danish...... controls we found no evidence of any association between markers from the GC serum protein system and otosclerosis....

  2. Serum leptin and insulin tests in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yin; Jiang Xiaojin; Leng Xiumei

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance and the relations of leptin and insulin on obesity group. Methods: Leptin and insulin were tested with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in pre-obesity group and obesity group respectively. Results: Serum leptin and insulin levels were significantly elevated in obesity group compare with the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Changing with insulin, the elevation of leptin in obesity group has been identified as an important agent of diabetes mellitus (DM)

  3. A radioimmunoassay for urinary and serum dexamethasone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliland, J.M.; Morris, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay suitable for measuring dexamethasone concentrations in serum and urine specimens following the low dose dexamethasone suppression test (0.25-1.0 mg dexamethasone) is reported. The assay has a sensitivity of 0.26 nmol/L, a between-assay coefficient of variation (CV) for dexamethasone concentrations between 1.15 and 15.40 nmol/L ranging from 11.7 - 5.5% and recoveries of 91 - 103%. (author)

  4. Calumenin interacts with serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Jacobsen, Christian; Honoré, Bent

    2000-01-01

    with calumenin in the presence of Ca(2+). Amino acid sequencing identified this protein as serum amyloid P component (SAP). Furthermore, we verified and characterized the calumenin-SAP interaction by the surface plasmon resonance technique. The findings indicate that calumenin may participate...... in the immunological defense system and could be involved in the pathological process of amyloidosis that leads to formation of amyloid deposits seen in different types of tissues. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Jan-14...

  5. Radioimmunoassay of serum digoxin levels. Clinical exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galland, F.; Geslin, P.; Kerjean, J.; Six, P.; Tadei, A.; Jallet, P.

    1982-01-01

    This work undertakes, in a second part, the clinical exploration of 947 serum digoxin levels of 281 hospitalized patients on a cardiology ward. Our results, which coincide with those of other researchers, have led us to draw certain practical conclusions: the posology is determined first of all according to kidney function, weight and age of the patient. When the treatment is insufficient or, on the other hand, poorly tolerated, a serum digoxin level is performed permitting thus: in the case of ineffective treatment: to be sure of the patient's cooperation, to increase the posology if the serum digoxin level is not in the toxic zone, to discover an eventual pharmacokinetic problem; to establish the responsability of digitalis (when there are signs of intolerance or of intoxication), in case of arrhythmia, in patients with pacemakers, when associated drugs are capable of causing similar adverse effects; to better manage a digitalis treatment in a high risk patient (unstable renal function, advanced myocardial disease, chronic obstructive disease) [fr

  6. The radioimmunoassay of human serum inhibin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, R.; Robertson, D.M.; Healy, D.L.; Findlay, J.K.; De Kretser, D.M.; Burger, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of circulating inhibin is essential to the advancement of our understanding of its role in the control of FSH secretion. Recently, sensitive in vitro bioassay systems have been described which have allowed the measurement of inhibin bioactivity in the peripheral serum of immature female rats, sheep and women (C. Tsonis, personal communication) following ovarian hyperstimulation with exogenous gonadotrophins. Inhibin bioactivity has also been shown to rise in ovarian venous blood in the late follicular phase of women and during FSHG administration to primates. Such studies have some important limitations, in particular, the bioassay systems employed lack the sensitivity required for the study of normal physiology, and questions regarding the specificity of in vitro bioassay in application to serum samples have arisen following the reports of FSH releasing factors (transforming growth factor-beta inhibin B subunit dimers) that may confound the accurate assessment of inhibin bioactivity. This paper reports on the development of sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems applicable to human serum utilizing highly purified preparations of 58kDa and 31kDa bovine follicular fluid (bFF) inhibin. The development of two RIA systems utilizing antisera raised to either or 31kDa bFF inhibin is detailed and their application to the study of inhibin physiology in the human female during ovulation inducting, the normal menstrual cycle and gestation described

  7. Correlations Between Macular, Skin, and Serum Carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Bell, James P.; Besch, Brian M.; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Farnsworth, Kelliann; Ermakov, Igor; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ocular and systemic measurement and imaging of the macular carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been employed extensively as potential biomarkers of AMD risk. In this study, we systematically compare dual wavelength retinal autofluorescence imaging (AFI) of macular pigment with skin resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and serum carotenoid levels in a clinic-based population. Methods Eighty-eight patients were recruited from retina and general ophthalmology practices from a tertiary referral center and excluded only if they did not have all three modalities tested, had a diagnosis of macular telangiectasia (MacTel) or Stargardt disease, or had poor AFI image quality. Skin, macular, and serum carotenoid levels were measured by RRS, AFI, and HPLC, respectively. Results Skin RRS measurements and serum zeaxanthin concentrations correlated most strongly with AFI macular pigment volume under the curve (MPVUC) measurements up to 9° eccentricity relative to MPVUC or rotationally averaged macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measurements at smaller eccentricities. These measurements were reproducible and not significantly affected by cataracts. We also found that these techniques could readily identify subjects taking oral carotenoid-containing supplements. Conclusions Larger macular pigment volume AFI and skin RRS measurements are noninvasive, objective, and reliable methods to assess ocular and systemic carotenoid levels. They are an attractive alternative to psychophysical and optical methods that measure MPOD at a limited number of eccentricities. Consequently, skin RRS and MPVUC at 9° are both reasonable biomarkers of macular carotenoid status that could be readily adapted to research and clinical settings. PMID:28728169

  8. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  9. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2011 Academic Journals. Full Length ... This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental chromium on performance and blood serum biochemistry of dairy ... Serum biochemistry concentrations (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and cortisol and insulin ...

  10. marital status and occupation versus serum total cholesterol and hdl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Keywords: Occupation, Cholesterol, Kano, Serum Lipid. INTRODUCTION. Differences in serum HDL – CH and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL – CH) levels between communities have been employed in explaining the postulated relationship that exist between serum lipoprotein levels and the incidence of coronary ...

  11. Serum Uric Acid Levels among Nigerians with Essential Hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an ongoing debate on the role of serum uric acid as an independent risk factor for hypertension and renal disease. This study determined the serum uric acid levels of Nigerians with essential hypertension and also evaluated the association between serum uric acid levels and blood pressure of these patients.

  12. Age-specific serum prostate specific antigen ranges among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels increase with age and varies among different races and communities. The study was aimed at defining the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA in our environment. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between age and serum PSA levels and the ...

  13. Serum albumin--a non-saturable carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Larsen, F G

    1984-01-01

    The shape of binding isotherms for sixteen ligands to human serum albumin showed no signs of approaching saturation at high ligand concentrations. It is suggested that ligand binding to serum albumin is essentially different from saturable binding of substrates to enzymes, of oxygen to haemoglobin......, etc. Binding to serum albumin appears to be non-saturable. Udgivelsesdato: 1984-Feb...

  14. Aspects of the Hematology and Serum Biochemistry of Sahel and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of year, age, season and breeds on aspects of the hematology and serum biochemical indices of Sahel and Sokoto red bucks in Mubi, Adamawa state, Nigeria. Blood and serum samples were used to determine PCV, Hb, RBC and WBC, and while serum protein (BSP) and ...

  15. relationship between maternal serum zinc, cord blood zinc and birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    Conclusion: The study outcome suggests that cord serum zinc but not maternal serum zinc predicts birth weight. In spite of low maternal serum zinc level, ... Therefore, in order to ensure optimal fetal growth and development, ... info statistical software version 3.5.3. A 95% confidence interval was used and a p- value of less.

  16. Association between low serum free testosterone and adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The association of serum free testosterone (FT) with prostate cancer is not fully understood. Studies on the results of the relationship between serum testosterone level and prostate cancer are conflicting. However, there is a reported association between lower serum testosterone levels and high-grade prostate ...

  17. Comparative study of serum ferritin levels after oral supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron supplementation is almost universally recommended during pregnancy to correct or prevent iron deficiency. Iron status can be assessed prepartum by estimating blood hemoglobin concentration, serum iron, serum total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin. This study attempts to know the therapeutic efficacy ...

  18. The Effect Of Glycemic Control On Serum Lipids And Calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect Of Glycemic Control On Serum Lipids And Calcium – Phosphate Profiles In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. ... control levels in type 2 diabetic patients on the serum lipids and lipoprotein profiles and the serum levels of calcium, ... The patients were classified into two groups depending on their glycosylated

  19. Analysis of serum magnesium ions in dogs exposed to external ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although various factors including foods and physical conditions have been reported to change serum Mg2+ status in humans, serum Mg2+2+ in dogs at different conditions using the guide dog candidates for the blind. Serum Mg2+ was decreased in winter and increased in summer. Guide dog candidates in an elementary ...

  20. Serum hyaluronic acid in polymyositis: high serum levels tend to correlate with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M B; Silva, M G; Shinjo, S K

    2014-01-01

    Polymyositis (PM) is a rare systemic idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is closely linked to inflammatory cellular reactions and disease activity. Increased serum levels of HA have been reported in several inflammatory diseases, but currently, there are no studies analysing the HA in PM. Thus, clinical association of HA with PM in patients was determined in the present study. The present cross-sectional study was performed at one centre from 2012 to 2013 and included 35 consecutive adult patients with PM (Bohan and Peter criteria, 1975) and 38 adult healthy volunteers. The serum HA was assessed with anti-HA antibody, using the specific ELISA/EIA kits according to the manufacturer's protocol. The average age, distribution of females and ethnicity were comparable in patients with PM and the control group. Regarding disease status, patients with PM had a median patient visual analogue score (VAS) of 2 [0-6], physician VAS of 1 [0-3], MMT-8 of 74 [68-80] and HAQ of 0.48 [0.00-1.14]. The serum levels of HA were also significantly increased in patients with PM (390±412 ng/mL) compared to healthy subjects (129±119 ng/mL), p=0.001. In an additional analysis, the serum levels of HA did not correlate with PM demographic data (gender and ethnicity), current organ involvement or autoantibodies and were not been influenced by the use of prednisolone and/or immunosuppressives by the PM patients. However, there was a positive correlation between serum levels of HA and VAS (patient and physician), and a negative correlation between serum levels of HA and MMT-8. High serum levels of HA were observed in patients with PM and tended to correlate with PM disease activity. Additional studies are needed to assess this correlation, as well as to understand the mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of PM by HA.

  1. An analysis of the relationship between serum cortisol and serum sodium in routine clinical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor McLaughlan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Adrenal insufficiency is an uncommon cause of hyponatraemia that should not be overlooked due to the severe consequences of an Addisonian crisis. Using the laboratory database of a large teaching hospital, we have explored the relationship between serum sodium and serum cortisol, and have estimated the frequency of hypoadrenalism in severely hyponatraemic patients. Design and methods: Data were gathered over a 23 month period from the Laboratory Information Management System at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust for instances where serum sodium and cortisol had been measured on a single sample. Data were also gathered over the same time period for all patients with severe hyponatraemia (serum sodium ≤120 mmol/L in order to determine the frequency of cortisol requesting and the incidence of adrenal insufficiency. Results: Analysis of the data (n=3268 patients revealed a trend showing higher cortisol concentrations in patients who were severely hypo- or hypernatraemic. The median cortisol concentration for patients with sodium ≤110 mmol/L was 856 nmol/L, and there was a gradual decrease in cortisol over the sodium range ≤110–150 mmol/L (Rs =−0.323, p<0.0001. Patients with sodium ≥151 mmol/L had a median cortisol of 725 nmol/L. 42% of the 978 patients with serum sodium ≤120 mmol/L had serum cortisol measured within two weeks, of whom 1.7% were diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency. Conclusions: This dataset shows rising cortisol in response to hypo- or hypernatraemia, in keeping with the stress response to illness. The data show that adrenal insufficiency is a rare cause of hyponatraemia which may be overlooked. Keywords: Serum, Sodium, Cortisol, Adrenal insufficiency

  2. Serum hypercoagulability states in Coats’ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassemi F

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fariba Ghassemi,1 Carol L Shields,2 Masoumeh Mohebbi,1 Mehdi Nili Ahmadabadi,1 Fatemeh Morsali,1 Siamak Sabour3,4 1Ocular Oncology and Retina and Vitreous Service, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Centre, 4Department of Clinical Epidemiology, School of Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum hypercoagulability state and common viral and protozoan infections in Coats’ disease versus a normal control group. Materials and methods: In this comparative case series, 22 consecutive patients with Coats’ disease and 19 non-Coats’ patients undergoing lensectomy for congenital, traumatic, or senile cataract between January 2011 and June 2014 were included. Laboratory data for hypercoagulability states and common viral and protozoan infections were investigated. Results: The mean age for the Coats’ group was 14.5 years (median 8 years, range: 2 months to 59 years, and for the control group it was 30.6 years (median 17 years, range: 2–82 years. In patients aged 10 years or younger, anticytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G (IgG (P≤0.01, homocysteine (P=0.03, and serum beta globulin (P<0.001 were associated with Coats’ disease. In those older than 10 years, higher serum protein S (P=0.04, beta globulin (P=0.05, and gamma globulin (P=0.04 were related to Coats’ diagnosis. After adjusting for sex and age as confounding factors, only beta globulin was found to be associated with Coats’ disease in logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–3.1, P=0.02. Conclusion: Serum beta globulin levels appear to be elevated in patients with Coats’ disease. Keywords: anti-cytomegalovirus antibody, anti-herpes simplex antibody, Coats’ disease

  3. Origin of DNA in human serum and usefulness of serum as a material for DNA typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, T; Yamada, S; Watanabe, Y; Hirata, K; Nagai, A; Nakamura, I; Bunai, Y; Ohya, I

    2001-06-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the origin of DNA in human serum and to investigate whether serum is a material available for DNA typing in routine forensic practice. Blood was donated from 10 healthy adult volunteers and stored for up to 8 days, at 4 degrees C and at room temperature. The serum DNA concentration at zero time was in the range of 5.6 to 21.8 ng/ml with a mean of 12.2+/-1.6 ng/ml. The concentrations increased with storage time. On agarose gel electrophoresis, all serum samples showed ladder patterns and the size of each band was an integer multiple of approximately 180 bp considered to be characteristic of apoptosis. DNA typing from DNA released by apoptosis was possible. Exact DNA typing of D1S80, HLA DQA1, PM, CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01 and vWA was possible for each sample. These results indicate that serum contains fragmented DNA derived from apoptosis of leukocytes, especially neutrophils, and that fragmented DNA is an appropriate material for DNA typing.

  4. Proteome profiling analysis of human ovarian cancer serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognetti, F.; Citro, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry represents a powerful tool in cancer research to discovery of potential bio markers through peak identification from serum profiling. By using high resolution MALDITOF and bioinformatic analysis almost 400 serum sample homogeneously distributed between biopsy confirmed ovarian cancer and high risk serum samples were analyzed. Each serum sample run in duplicate and whole serum sample preparation procedure has been performed by Hamilton Star Robot in order to reduce bias and the replicates with a low Pearson coefficient are removed. After automated reverse phase magnetic beads separation the samples were tested in MALDI-TOF

  5. Radioimmunoassay for determination of thyroglobulin in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cabrera, M.E.; Blanca Fernandez, S.; Baldor Navarro, F.; Rodriguez Gonzalez, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    We described the development and analytical evaluation of a radioimmunoassay with double antibody in liquid phase for human serum thyroglobulin determination using a set of reagents produced in the National Institute of Endocrinology. The reference interval for normal population was 5.7 - 44 ng/ml (X± 2DS; n=170). The intra-assay precipision was 8.1 % (control serum A) and 7.0 (control serum B) and the inter-assay precision was 9.1 % (control serum A) and 9.2 % (control serum B). The sensibility was 4.7 ng/ml and the recovery was 95 %

  6. Relationship between vascular symptom and serum growth hormone in NIDDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuefeng

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the role of serum growth hormone (GH) in development of NIDDM vascular symptom, level of serum GH was measured by RIA in 180 patients with NIDDM. Results showed that in no vascular symptom NIDDM group, serum level of GH was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.05); while in vascular symptom NIDDM group, serum level of GH was significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.01). Serum level of GH was significantly distinction between the two NIDDM groups. GH may play an important role in development of NIDDM vascular symptom

  7. Determination of thymidine in serum used for cell culture media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, J.C.; Maurer, U.; Schindler, R.

    1978-01-01

    Thymidine concentrations in serum used for cell culture media were determined with an assay based on isotope dilution. In this assay, incorporation of (3H)-thymidine into DNA of cultured cells was measured in the presence of 5 and 20% serum as a function of the concentration of unlabeled thymidine added to the medium. Thymidine concentrations were measured using horse serum as well as fetal calf serum in the culture media. Dialysis of serum resulted in a reduction of thymidine levels by factors of at least 10

  8. Relationship Between the Serum Leptin and Children with Malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jixun

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the serum leptin and the children with malnutrition, the serum leptin levels in 50 malnourished children and 50 normal children were determined by RIA. The results showed that the serum leptin levels in children with malnutrition were significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). The serum leptin levels in children with malnutrition were positively correlated with body mass index values (r= 0.650, P<0.05), and positively correlated with serum albumin values (r= 0.740,P<0.05). The serum leptin levels in female children were higher than that in men children. The leptin may involve in the regulation of the body nutritional status of children. The serum leptin level may be correlated with the degree of child malnutrition and may be used as a laboratory indicator for the diagnosis of child malnutrition. (authors)

  9. Serum Albumin Domain Structures in Human Blood Serum by Mass Spectrometry and Computational Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsom, Adam; Schneider, Michael; Fischer, Lutz; Brock, Oliver; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-03-01

    Chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry has proven useful for studying protein-protein interactions and protein structure, however the low density of cross-link data has so far precluded its use in determining structures de novo. Cross-linking density has been typically limited by the chemical selectivity of the standard cross-linking reagents that are commonly used for protein cross-linking. We have implemented the use of a heterobifunctional cross-linking reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 4,4'-azipentanoate (sulfo-SDA), combining a traditional sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) ester and a UV photoactivatable diazirine group. This diazirine yields a highly reactive and promiscuous carbene species, the net result being a greatly increased number of cross-links compared with homobifunctional, NHS-based cross-linkers. We present a novel methodology that combines the use of this high density photo-cross-linking data with conformational space search to investigate the structure of human serum albumin domains, from purified samples, and in its native environment, human blood serum. Our approach is able to determine human serum albumin domain structures with good accuracy: root-mean-square deviation to crystal structure are 2.8/5.6/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 4.5/5.9/4.8Å (serum samples) for domains A/B/C for the first selected structure; 2.5/4.9/2.9 Å (purified samples) and 3.5/5.2/3.8 Å (serum samples) for the best out of top five selected structures. Our proof-of-concept study on human serum albumin demonstrates initial potential of our approach for determining the structures of more proteins in the complex biological contexts in which they function and which they may require for correct folding. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001692. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. The determination of serum prolactin by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantirasdr, K.

    1980-01-01

    The iodination of hPRL with 125 I utilizing chloramine-T technique at temperature 4 degrees C gave 125 I-hPRL having immunoreactivity. 125 I-hPRL could be used as a labelled compound for determination of human prolactin by radioimmunoassay. The assay was performed using 125 I-hPRL 5,000 cpm/tube and anti-hPRL 1 : 400,000 dilution (final) incubated at 25 degrees C for 24 hr. One percent dextran-coated charcoal suspension (0.5 ml) was used for separation of free from bound form. The criteria of reliability of the method was evaluated in terms of accuracy, precision, specificity and sensitivity. Under the condition of the assay, the addition of known amount of hPRL (6-50 ng/ml) to charcoaled serum, the recovery of the added hPRL was found to be 97.3-120.8%. The within and between assay variation were evaluated from replicate measurements of the same samples in the same assay and in three different assays. The percentage coefficients of variation was found to be 7.7-15.8% and 13.1-24.0% for within and between assays respectively. Cross-reactivities of tested several protein hormones indicated that the anti-hPRL was very specific. The sensitivity was found to be 1.90 ng/ml. The method was applied to measure serum prolactin for one cycle of 4 volunteers Thai women having normal menstrual cycle. The mean ± S D of serum prolactin was found to be 15.9 ± 5.6, 21.2 ± 12.7 and 16.4 ± 6.2 ng/ml at follicular phase, mid-cycle and luteal phase respectively

  11. Serum dioxin concentration and age at Menarche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.; Samuels, S.; Eskenazi, B. [Univ. of California at Berkeley (United States); Mocarelli, P.; Gerthoux, P.M. [Univ. of Milano-Biococca (Italy); Needham, L.; Patterson, D. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States)

    2004-09-15

    To date, no epidemiologic studies have examined the association of TCDD exposure and age at menarche. Three studies, however, have examined the relation of dioxin-like compounds to pubertal development, with inconsistent conclusions. A study of daughters of Michigan women who had consumed polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) in food in 1973, found an earlier age at menarche among daughters whose mothers had higher serum PBB levels 8. No differences were found in age at menarche of Taiwanese women who were exposed postnatally (but premenarche) to PCBs and PCDFs via consumption of contaminated rice oil (Yu-Cheng) compared to unexposed 9. In Flemish adolescents, there was no relation of age at menarche with current serum levels of dioxin-like compounds as measured by Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression bioassay toxic equivalents (CALUX-TEQ) or individual PCB congeners 118, 153, and 180 10. On July 10, 1976, as a result of a chemical explosion, residents of Seveso, Italy experienced the highest levels of TCDD exposure in a human population. Twenty years later (1996-1998), the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS), a retrospective cohort study, was initiated to determine whether the women were at higher risk for reproductive disease. Among participants in SWHS, we have observed that TCDD levels are associated with an increase in menstrual cycle length among those who were premenarcheal at exposure, but not in those who were postmenarcheal at exposure 11. Consistent with animal studies 12, this suggests that females may be particularly susceptible to the effects of TCDD during early stages of development, e.g. in utero or pre-pubertal. Thus, here we examine the association of individual serum TCDD and age of menarche among women who were premenarcheal in 1976, at the time of explosion.

  12. Molecular sex differences in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex.Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent cohorts of typical individuals, comprising 196 males and 196 females. Sex differences in analyte levels were quantified using a meta-analysis approach and put into biological context using k-means to generate clusters of analytes with distinct biological functions. Natural sex differences were established in these analyte groups and these were applied to illustrate sexually dimorphic analyte expression in a cohort of 22 males and 22 females with Asperger syndrome. Reproducible sex differences were found in the levels of 77 analytes in serum of typical controls, and these comprised clusters of molecules enriched with distinct biological functions. Analytes involved in fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation, immune cell growth and activation, and cell death were found at higher levels in females, and analytes involved in immune cell chemotaxis and other indistinct functions were higher in males. Comparison of these naturally occurring sex differences against a cohort of people with Asperger syndrome indicated that a cluster of analytes that had functions related to fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation was associated with sex and the occurrence of this condition.Sex-specific molecular differences were detected in serum of typical controls and these were reproducible across independent cohorts. This study extends current knowledge of sex differences in biological functions involved in metabolism and immune function. Deviations from typical sex differences were found in a cluster of molecules in Asperger syndrome

  13. Serum zinc levels in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Sharbaf F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy has been related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most studies in which pregnant women have been supplemented with zinc to examine its effects on the outcome of the pregnancy have been carried out in industrialized countries and the results have been inconclusive. It has been shown that women with gestational diabetes (GDM have lower serum zinc levels than healthy pregnant women, and higher rates of macrosomia. Zinc is required for normal glucose metabolism, and strengthens the insulin-induced transportation of glucose into cells by its effect on the insulin signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to assess the serum zinc levels of GDM patients and evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation. "nMethods: In the first stage of this prospective controlled study, we enrolled 70 women who were 24-28 weeks pregnant at the Prenatal Care Center of Mirza Kochak Khan Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The serum zinc level of each subject was determined. In the second stage, among these 70 subjects, the diabetics receiving insulin were divided into two groups, only one of which received a zinc supplement and the other group was the control group. Birth weight of neonates and insulin dosages were recorded. "nResults: The mean serum zinc level in the GDM group was lower than that of the control group (94.83 vs. 103.49mg/dl, respectively and the mean birth weight of neonates from the GDM women who received the zinc supplement was lower than that of the control group (3849g vs. 4136g. The rate of macrosomia was lower in the zinc supplemented group (20% vs. 53%. The mean of increase of insulin after receiving the zinc supplement was lower (8.4u vs. 13.53. "nConclusion: Maternal insulin resistance is associated with the accumulation of maternal fat tissue during early stages of pregnancy and greater fetoplacental nutrient availability in later stages, when 70% of fetal growth occurs, resulting in macrosomia. In

  14. Serum potassium concentrations: Importance of normokalaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Manuel; Fernández-Reyes, María José

    2017-06-21

    Abnormalities in potassium concentrations are associated with morbidity and mortality. In recent years it has been considered that small variations in serum potassium concentrations within normal intervals may also be associated with mortality. Strategies for achieving normokalaemia include dietary measures, limiting the use of potassium retaining drugs, and use of conventional cation exchange resins (calcium/sodium polystyrene sulfonate) and/or the new non-absorbed cation exchange polymer (patiromer). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, C; Johansen, J S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    YKL-40 is a mammalian member of the chitinase protein family. Although the function of YKL-40 is unknown, the pattern of its expression suggests a function in remodelling or degradation of extracellular matrix. High serum YKL-40 has been found in patients with recurrent breast cancer and has been...... survival (P gender showed that high YKL-40...... was an independent prognostic variable for short survival (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.8, P = 0.007). These results suggest that YKL-40 may play an important role in tumour invasion....

  16. Osteoprotegerin Serum Levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarz G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoprotegerin (OPG wird in der entzündeten Synovialis bei chronischer Polyarthritis von Makrophagen, dendritischen Zellen und B-Zellen produziert. OPG hemmt die Differenzierung von Osteoklasten und ihre Aktivierung durch die Bindung an RANKL (receptor activator of NFkappaBbeta ligand. OPG könnte daher eine wichtige Rolle in der Verhinderung des Auftretens von Erosionen bei chronischer Polyarthritis spielen. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde untersucht, ob die Serumspiegel von Osteoprotegerin mit Entzündungsparametern oder der Gelenksdestruktion bei chronischer Polyarthritiskorrelieren. Patienten und Methoden: In 85 Sera von 68 Patienten mit chronischer Polyarthritis wurden die Serumspiegel von OPG untersucht und mit klinischen Parametern, Laborbefunden und dem Larsen-Score verglichen. Zur OPG-Bestimmung wurde ein Sandwich-ELISA (enzyme-linked-im-munosorbent-assay mit zwei spezifischen OPG-Antikörpern verwendet. Mit dem bindenden Antikörper wurde eine Mikrotiterplatte beladen, der zweite Biotin-konjugierte Antikörper wurde durch Streptavidin-Peroxidase und TMB gemessen. Der Immunoassay mißt sowohl freies als auch an RANKL gebundenes OPG. Zur statistischen Auswertung wurde ein SAS-Programm verwendet, als Tests wurden der Mann-Whitney-Test, die Spearman-Korrelation und die Varianzanalyse (ANOVA angewandt. Ergebnisse: Verglichen mit einer gesunden Kontrollgruppe (Alter 56-76 Jahre lagen die Mittelwerte von Serum-OPG bei chronischer Polyarthritis höher. Wenn man den Mittelwert der Gesunden für die Einteilung in höhere oder niedrigere Serum-OPG-Werte bei Patienten mit chronischer Polyarthritis verwendet, zeigt sich im Mann-Whitney-Test eine signifikante Korrelation nicht nur mit BSG und Rheumafaktor, sondern auch mit dem Larsen-Score. Die OPG-Spiegel korrelierten mit dem Rheumafaktor, der BSG und dem Serum-CRP (C-reaktives Protein signifikant positiv, der Larsen-Score zeigte nur einen statistischen Trend. Diskussion: OPG blockiert die

  17. METABOLITE CHARACTERIZATION IN SERUM SAMPLES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    and 13C chemical shifts is given in Table 1. Table 1. Resonance assignments of most significant metabolites of serum control healthy samples. S. No Metabolite. Group. 1H shift 13C shift Multiplicities. 1 Fatty acids. CH3. 0.90. 19.7 t. 2 Isoleucine. δCH3. 0.94. 13.8 t. 3 Leucine. δCH3. 0.95. 23.5 d. 4 Leucine. δCH3. 0.96. 24.7.

  18. Serum cystatin C as a marker of renal function in critically ill patients with normal serum creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi; Namazi, Soha; Geramizadeh, Bita; Karimzadeh, Amin; Oghazian, Mohammad Bagher; Karimzadeh, Iman

    2014-03-01

    Serum creatinine as a classic marker of renal function has several limitations in the detection of renal dysfunction. This study assessed the validity of serum cystatin C as a marker of renal function in critically ill patients with normal serum creatinine. Eighty adult patients referred to intensive care units with serum creatinine levels < 1.5 mg/dL and without hemodynamic instability were chosen and their serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were measured. A 24-hour urine sample was collected to calculate creatinine clearance (Ccr). Renal dysfunction was defined as Ccr < 80 mL/min/1.73 m(2). There were significant correlations between measured Ccr and 1/serum creatinine (R = 0.51, P < 0.001) and 1/serum cystatin C (R = 0.25, P = 0.028). The difference between false negative rates of serum creatinine (93.33%) and cystatin C (80%) in the detection of renal dysfunction was significant (P = 0.032). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis illustrated that area under the curve of serum creatinine and cystatin C for detecting renal dysfunction were 0.711 and 0.607, respectively; however, this difference was not significant (P = 0.222). Our data demonstrated that serum cystatin C is not superior to serum creatinine in the early detection of renal dysfunction in critically ill patients.

  19. Performance of serum-supplemented and serum-free media in IFNgamma Elispot Assays for human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janetzki, Sylvia; Price, L; Britten, C M; van der Burg, S H; Caterini, J; Currier, J R; Ferrari, G; Gouttefangeas, C; Hayes, P; Kaempgen, E; Lennerz, V; Nihlmark, K; Souza, V; Hoos, A

    2010-04-01

    The choice of serum for supplementation of media for T cell assays and in particular, Elispot has been a major challenge for assay performance, standardization, optimization, and reproducibility. The Assay Working Group of the Cancer Vaccine Consortium (CVC-CRI) has recently identified the choice of serum to be the leading cause for variability and suboptimal performance in large international Elispot proficiency panels. Therefore, a serum task force was initiated to compare the performance of commercially available serum-free media to laboratories' own medium/serum combinations. The objective of this project was to investigate whether a serum-free medium exists that performs as well as lab-own serum/media combinations with regard to antigen-specific responses and background reactivity in Elispot. In this way, a straightforward solution could be provided to address the serum challenge. Eleven laboratories tested peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from four donors for their reactivity against two peptide pools, following their own Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). Each laboratory performed five simultaneous experiments with the same SOP, the only difference between the experiments was the medium used. The five media were lab-own serum-supplemented medium, AIM-V, CTL, Optmizer, and X-Vivo. The serum task force results demonstrate compellingly that serum-free media perform as well as qualified medium/serum combinations, independent of the applied SOP. Recovery and viability of cells are largely unaffected by serum-free conditions even after overnight resting. Furthermore, one serum-free medium was identified that appears to enhance antigen-specific IFNgamma-secretion.

  20. Serum angiogenin levels during menstrual cycle and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Yanagihara, T; Hata, T

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate alterations in maternal circulating angiogenin levels with advancing gestation and to assess the effect of labor stress on serum angiogenin levels in neonates delivered vaginally and by cesarean section. The maternal circulating angiogenin concentrations were compared in 37 normotensive nonpregnant women, in 60 normotensive pregnant women from 7 to 41 weeks of gestation, and in 12 normotensive postpartum women on the 3rd puerperal day. The serum angiogenin concentrations were also measured in 12 patients with threatened premature labor. Moreover, maternal and fetal serum angiogenin samples before and after delivery were used to determine differences in 12 neonates delivered vaginally and in 11 neonates delivered by elective cesarean section. The serum angiogenin level was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There was no significant difference in serum angiogenin levels during each phase of the menstrual cycle. The serum angiogenin levels were decreasing until 15 weeks of gestation and increasing thereafter. There was no significant difference in serum angiogenin levels between normal pregnant women and in patients with threatened premature labor. Labor stress did not affect either maternal or fetal serum angiogenin concentrations. The serum angiogenin levels of the neonates were significantly lower than those in maternal serum after both vaginal delivery and delivery by cesarean section. These results suggest that regulatory mechanisms of angiogenin may exist during pregnancy. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. THE COLLOIDAL BEHAVIOR OF SERUM GLOBULIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, David I.

    1922-01-01

    1. The globulin prepared from ox serum by dilution and precipitation with carbon dioxide has been found, by electrometric titration experiments, to behave like an amphoteric electrolyte, reacting stoichiometrically with acids and bases. 2. The potential difference developed between a solution of globulin chloride, phosphate, or acetate and a solution of the corresponding acid, free from protein, separated from the globulin by a collodion membrane, was found to be influenced by hydrogen ion concentration and salt concentration in the way predicted by Donnan's theory of membrane equilibrium. In experiments with sodium globulinate and sodium hydroxide it was found that the potential difference could be similarly explained. 3. The osmotic pressure of such solutions could be qualitatively accounted for by the Donnan theory, but exhibited a discrepancy which is explicable by analogy with certain experiments of Loeb on gelatin. 4. The application of Loeb's theory of colloidal behavior, which had previously been found to hold in the case of gelatin, casein, egg albumin, and edestin, has thus been extended to another protein, serum globulin. PMID:19871977

  2. Evaluation of three gentamicin serum assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, G.R.; Gwizdala, C.; Wery, J.; Ferry, D.; Starnes, R.

    1982-01-01

    This investigation was designed to compare the enzyme-modified immunoassay (Syva--EMIT) with a radioimmunoassay (New England Nuclear--RIA) and the radiometric assay (Johnston--BACTEC) to determine the optimal assay for use in our aminoglycoside dosing service. The serum concentration determinations obtained via the three assay methods were analyzed by linear regression analysis. Significant positive correlations were noted between the three assay techniques (p less than 0.005) during both sample collection phases. The coefficients of determination for EMIT vs BACTEC and RIA vs BACTEC were 0.73 and 0.83 during phase 1, respectively, and 0.65 and 0.68 during phase 2, respectively. The slope of the regression lines also varied markedly during the two phases; 0.49 and 0.42 for EMIT and for RIA vs BACTEC, respectively, during phase 1 compound with 1.12 and 0.77, respectively, during phase 2. The differences noted in these relationships during phase 1 and 2 may be related to the alteration of the pH of the control sera utilized in the BACTEC assay. In contrast, RIA vs EMIT regression analysis indicated that existence of a highly significant relationship (p less than 0.0005 and r2 . 0.90). The EMIT technique was the easiest and most accurate for determination of serum gentamicin concentrations, whereas the BACTEC method was judged unacceptable for clinical use

  3. Maternal serum adiponectin multimers in gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Erez, Offer; Mittal, Pooja; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kim, Sun Kwon; Pacora, Percy; Yeo, Lami; Gotsch, Francesca; Dong, Zhong; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine with profound insulin-sensitizing effect, consists of heterogeneous species of multimers. These oligomeric complexes circulate as low-molecular-weight (LMW) trimers, medium-molecular-weight (MMW) hexamers and high-molecular-weight (HMW) isoforms and can exert differential biological effects. The aims of this study were to determine whether there is a change in circulating adiponectin multimers in the presence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), overweight/obesity or with a treatment with sulfonylurea or insulin in patients with GDM. This cross-sectional study included women with: 1) normal pregnancy (n=149); and 2) patients with GDM (n=72). Thirty-three patients with GDM were managed with diet alone. Among the others 39 diabetic patients, 17 were treated with Glyburide and 22 with insulin. The study population was further stratified by first trimester body mass index (BMI) (normal weight or =25 kg/m(2)). Serum adiponectin multimers (total, HMW, MMW and LMW) concentrations were determined by ELISA. 1) The median maternal serum of total, HMW, MMW and LMW were lower in patients with GDM than in those with normal pregnancies (Pdiet, and those who were treated with pharmacological agents. 1) GDM is characterized by a distinctive pattern of concentrations and relative distribution of adiponectin multimers akin to Type 2 diabetes mellitus; 2) dysregulation of adiponectin multimeres can provide a mechanistic basis for the association between adiposity and GDM.

  4. Human serum amyloid genes--molecular characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sack, G.H.; Lease, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three clones containing human genes for serum amyloid A protein (SAA) have been isolated and characterized. Each of two clones, GSAA 1 and 2 (of 12.8 and 15.9 kilobases, respectively), contains two exons, accouting for amino acids 12-58 and 58-103 of mature SAA; the extreme 5' termini and 5' untranslated regions have not yet been defined but are anticipated to be close based on studies of murine SAA genes. Initial amino acid sequence comparisons show 78/89 identical residues. At 4 of the 11 discrepant residues, the amino acid specified by the codon is the same as the corresponding residue in murine SAA. Identification of regions containing coding regions has permitted use of selected subclones for blot hybridization studies of larger human SAA chromosomal gene organization. The third clone, GSAA 3 also contains SAA coding information by DNA sequence analysis but has a different organization which has not yet been fully described. We have reported the isolation of clones of human DNA hybridizing with pRS48 - a plasmid containing a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone for murine serum amyloid A (SAA; 1, 2). We now present more detailed data confirming the identity and defining some of the organizational features of these clones

  5. Evaluating serum prolactin and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in patients with pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Maryam; Mozafari, Nikoo; Hosseini, Mahboobeh Sadat; Gholamin, Sharareh; Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Younespour, Shima

    2016-06-01

    Altered levels of sex hormones have been observed in many autoimmune disorders, but there is no considerable data about pemphigus. The aim of this study is to compare serum total and free prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels between patients with pemphigus and healthy controls and to determine the correlation of these hormones with disease severity. This study included 52 newly diagnosed cases of pemphigus and 57 healthy controls. Serum prolactin (total and free) and DHEAS were measured in all subjects. Data analyses were performed using JMP, Version 7. Pemphigus patients had significantly higher levels of total and free serum prolactin (both P = 0.01) and lower levels of DHEAS (P = 0.005) than healthy controls. A significant association was found between severity of pemphigus and total prolactin levels (r = 0.40, P = 0.003). The patients with pemphigus had higher total and free prolactin and lower DHEAS concentrations, and patients with more severe disease had higher levels of serum total prolactin. These new data may suggest a potential role for sex hormones in the pathogenesis of pemphigus disease and provide new insights for the better management of this chronic and life-threatening disease. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. Relationships between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Almeida González, Delia; González Hernández, Ana; Domínguez Coello, Santiago; Marrugat, Jaume; Juan Alemán Sánchez, José; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Pérez, María del Cristo Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    The serum resistin level is associated with the incidence of ischemic heart disease in the general population. We analyzed the associations between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population. A cross-sectional study of 6,637 randomly recruited adults was conducted. The resistin levels were measured in thawed aliquots of serum using an enzyme immunoanalysis technique. The resistin level exhibited a positive nonparametric correlation with saturated fat intake(p correlation with adherence to the Mediterranean diet(p HDL cholesterol(p body mass index(p HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%= 0.76-0.93), a high non-HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%=0.72-0.99), a high LDL cholesterol level(OR=0.82 CI95%=0.70-0.97) and a waist/height ratio of ≥0.55(OR=0.76 CI95%=0.67-0.85). The multivariate models corroborated the positive associations between the resistin level and saturated fat intake(p adiposity.

  7. Blood serum components and serum protein test of Hybro-PG broilers of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRL Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood serum samples of HYBRO PG broilers were analyzed, with 30 samples collected from 21-day-old broilers (G1, 30 from 35-day-old birds (G2, and 30 from 42-day-old birds (G3, with the aim of establishing normal values of some blood serum parameters. The activities of the enzymes gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum levels of total calcium, calcium ion, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorides, creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, total and indirect and direct bilirubin, and electrophoretic profile of serum proteins in acrylamide (SDS-PAGE and agarose gel were determined. There was no influence of age on total bilirubin and albumin levels. All the other evaluated parameters presented differences in at least one age group. Protein electrophoretic profile also changed as a function of age. The obtained results can be considered as normal for the studied ages, and therefore be used as references for the interpretation of laboratory exams of broilers of this genetic line in the evaluated ages.

  8. Radioimmunological determination of reverse triiodo thyronine in unextracted serum and serum dialysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurberg, P.; Weeke, J.

    1977-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for measurements of 3,3,5-triiodothyronine (reverse T3,rT3) in small amounts of unextracted serum is described. The interference of rT3 binding proteins in serum was precluded by addition of 8-anilinol-naphthalene sulphonic acid (ANS). The cross reaction of T4 with the rT3 anti-serum varied with the concentration of T4 in the samples. At 50 per cent inhibition of I 125 rT3 binding, the T4 cross reaction was 0.075% (mol/mol). All values were corrected for T4 cross reaction. By the present method total rT3 averaged 0.37 nmol/l in thirty-two normal subjects. Higher values (0.81-1.98 nmol/l) were obtained in seventeen thyrotoxic patients, while the rT3 was very low (<=0.046 nmol/l) in ten patients with severe primary hypothyroidism. A modification of the total rT3 assay was used for measurements of rT3 in serum dialysates (free rT3). The sensitivity was 0.46 pmol/l. This sensitivity did not allow detection of free rT3 in all normal subjects. (Auth.)

  9. Neuroprotection against oxidative stress by serum from heat acclimated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit-Yannai, E; Trembovler, V; Horowitz, M; Lazarovici, P; Kohen, R; Shohami, E

    1998-09-25

    Exposure of PC12 cells, to 1% serum derived from normothermic (CON) rats resulted in 79% cell death. Sister cultures treated with 1% serum derived from heat acclimated (ACC) rats, were neuroprotected and expressed a significant reduction in cell death. In PC12 cells exposed to a free radical generator causing an oxidative stress, 90% cell death was measured in CON serum treated cultures, while ACC serum treated cultures were neuroprotected. Xanthine oxidase activity and uric acid (UA) levels were lower in ACC serum compared to CON. Addition of UA to both sera abolished the difference in cell viability, and toxicity of ACC serum reached that of CON. These findings suggest a causal relationship between the lower levels of UA in ACC and the neuroprotective effect observed. The present study proposes heat acclimation as an experimental and/or clinical tool for the achievement of neuroprotection.

  10. Serum testosterone concentrations in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C

    1987-01-01

    Median serum testosterone concentration of men with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 216) did not differ significantly from normal controls (n = 51), but serum testosterone concentrations varied by a factor 43.9 in patients compared to 3.2 in controls (P less than .001). Nineteen percent of the patients...... had serum testosterone concentrations above 30 nmol/L. Serum concentrations of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than .001) raised, and serum concentrations of calculated nonprotein-bound and non-SHBG-bound testosterone were significantly (P less than .001) decreased...... in patients compared to normal control values. A number of background variables were analyzed with reference to serum testosterone concentrations by means of multiple regression techniques after having divided the patients into groups (A, B, C) with decreasing liver function by a modification of the Child...

  11. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent epidemiologic studies have shown an increased mortality from cardiovascular diseases in people with higher serum copper levels. Even though higher serum copper concentration in women using oral contraceptives is well known, there is still uncertainty about the influence of newer......-1988. SUBJECTS: Nonpregnant and nonlactating women aged 18-44 y (n = 610). RESULTS: Overall, the use of oral contraceptives was positively associated with serum copper concentration in by bi- and multivariable linear regression models with log-transformed values of serum copper concentration as dependend...... variable and oral contraceptive preparations and potential confounding variables as independent variables. Serum copper concentration in women using oral contraceptives varied more strongly by different progestin compounds than by estrogen contents. The highest increase of serum copper was seen in women...

  12. Serum urea and creatinine levels in Nigerian human malaria patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum urea and creatinine levels were determined in malaria patients infected with P. falciparum. Serum urea levels decreased significantly (P<0.05) in both mild (4.10 ±1.10 mmol/L) and moderate (4.40 ±1.40 mmol/L) parasitaemia when compared to control subjects (5.50 ±1.40 mmol/L). On the other hand, serum ...

  13. Serum zinc in corneal ulcer-A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pati Santanu

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times zinc is emerging as a nutrient of clinical importance and had been found to be low in serum in various disease conditions. In the current study 11 control cases and 22 corneal ulcer cases were taken. Their serum zinc level was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum zinc level in recalcitrant corneal ulcer cases was found to be below normal.

  14. Bacteriostatic enterochelin-specific immunoglobulin from normal human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.; Yancey, R.J.; Lankford, C.E.; Earhart, C.F.

    1980-02-01

    Heat-inactivated normal human serum produces iron-reversible bacteriostasis of a number of microorganisms. This inhibitory effect was abolished by adsorption of serum with ultraviolet-killed cells of species that produce the siderophore enterochelin. Bacteriostasis also was alleviated by asorption of serum with 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine, a degradation product of enterochelin, bound to the insoluble matrix AH-Sepharose 4B. Our results indicate that enterochelin-specific immunoglobulins exist in normal human serum. These immunoglobulins may act synergistically with transferrin to effect bacteriostasis of enterochelin-producing pathogens.

  15. Inhibin B as a serum marker of spermatogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T K; Andersson, A M; Hjollund, N H

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on reproductive health of men in the general population. However, semen samples are difficult to obtain within sampling frames that allow comparisons. Blood samples are easier to obtain than ejaculates. Therefore, serum biomarkers of spermatogenesis are of major intere...... reproductive health, may serve as a new marker of spermatogenesis, in addition to sperm concentration and serum FSH....... for population studies. FSH has previously been used as a marker of spermatogenesis, although it is also influenced by the hypothalamus. Serum inhibin B was recently suggested as a possible, more direct serum marker of spermatogenesis in men with testicular disorders. In a Danish nationwide collaborative study...

  16. Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism when serum-thyroxine alone is raised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhäuser, M; Burer, T; Busset, R; Burger, A

    1977-07-09

    31 patients admitted to hospital with different non-thyroidal intercurrent diseases were found to have raised total serum-thyroxine (T4) and free T4 together with normal serum-triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations. At admission none was clinically hyperthyroid. Patients were assigned to 3 groups according to clinical course and the laboratory findings. In the first group (14 patients) classic hyperthyroidism developed after recovery from the intercurrent disease. 11 out of these 14 patients had recently received iodine-containing preparations. In a second group (11 patients) the initially raised serum-T4 rapidly returned to normal with recovery from the non-thyroidal disease. In a third group (6 patients) serum-T4 concentrations remained raised well after recovery from intercurrent disease. In this group, there were 2 cases of transient iodine-induced (Jod-Basedow) hyperthyroidism in which raised serum-T4 returned spontaneously to normal after several months as iodine was eliminated. These results indicate that increase in serum-T4 with normal serum-T3 in patients with intercurrent systemic disease is not always the result of hyperthyroidism and in many cases probably reflects changes in peripheral metabolism of T4. It is suggested that careful clinical follow-up is needed in patients with raised serum-T4 and normal serum-T3 for the early detection and treatment of classic hyperthyroidism.

  17. Maternal serum copeptin as a marker for fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Foda

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Maternal serum copeptin level can differentiate between the normal sized and small for gestational age fetuses. Also, it can differentiate between constitutionally small and growth restricted fetuses.

  18. Human gut microbes impact host serum metabolome and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Helle Krogh; Gudmundsdottir, Valborg; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a forerunner state of ischaemic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Here we show how the human gut microbiome impacts the serum metabolome and associates with insulin resistance in 277 non-diabetic Danish individuals. The serum metabolome of insulin-resistant individ......Insulin resistance is a forerunner state of ischaemic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Here we show how the human gut microbiome impacts the serum metabolome and associates with insulin resistance in 277 non-diabetic Danish individuals. The serum metabolome of insulin...

  19. Ready-made allogeneic ABO-specific serum eye drops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Nielsen, Connie; Ullum, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To overcome problems and delays of the preparation of autologous serum eye drops, a production line of ABO-specific allogeneic serum eye drops from male blood donors was set up in a blood bank. Feasibility, clinical routine, safety and efficacy were evaluated in a cohort of patients...... serum treatment. CONCLUSION: Ready-made ABO-identical allogeneic serum eye drops were straightforwardly produced, quality-assured and registered as a safe standard blood product for the treatment of certain cases of severe dry eye disease. Therapeutic efficacy was comparable to previous reports...

  20. Serum and urinary selenium levels in thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Solem, L D; Ahrenholz, D H; McCall, J T; McClain, C J

    1986-04-01

    Information concerning selenium status in thermal injury patients is limited. Therefore, both serum selenium concentration and 24 h urinary excretion of selenium were evaluated throughout the hospital course for 23 patients with partial and full skin thickness thermal burns. Serum selenium levels were depressed throughout the hospital course in the majority of patients, and only two patients' serum selenium levels had reached the normal range by discharge. Urinary selenium losses were essentially within normal range throughout the same period and thus were not responsible for the observed depression in serum selenium levels. A possible antagonistic relationship between selenium and silver is discussed.

  1. Calumenin interacts with serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Jacobsen, Christian; Honoré, Bent

    2000-01-01

    We recently reported the identification of human calumenin, a novel Ca(2+) binding, transformation-sensitive and secreted protein [Vorum et al. (1998) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1386, 121-131; Vorum et al. (1999) Exp. Cell Res. 248, 473-481] belonging to the family of multiple EF-hand proteins...... with calumenin in the presence of Ca(2+). Amino acid sequencing identified this protein as serum amyloid P component (SAP). Furthermore, we verified and characterized the calumenin-SAP interaction by the surface plasmon resonance technique. The findings indicate that calumenin may participate...... in the immunological defense system and could be involved in the pathological process of amyloidosis that leads to formation of amyloid deposits seen in different types of tissues. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Jan-14...

  2. Serum trypsin inhibitory capacity in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Mehrabifar, Hamid; Homayooni, Fatemeh; Naderi, Mohammad; Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Ghavami, Saeid

    2009-01-01

    It has been established that overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs during hemodialysis causing oxidation of proteins. Alpha-1-antitrypsin is the major circulating anti-protease which contains methionine in the active site. The aim of the present study was to measure the level of serum trypsin inhibitory capacity (sTIC) in hemodialysis patients. This case-control study was performed in 52 hemodialysis patients and 49 healthy controls. sTIC was measured by enzymatic assay. The sTIC was significantly (P< 0.001) lower in hemodialysis patients (1.87 + - 0.67 micron mol/min/mL) than healthy controls (2.83 + - 0.44 micron mol/min/L). Reduction of sTIC may be due to the oxidation of methionine residue in the reactive site of alpha-1 antitrypsin. (author)

  3. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation...... of tertiary carbon-centred radicals and disruption of the tryptophan ring system. In the case of porphyrins such as hematoporphyrin, which bind at specific sites on BSA, these species appear to arise via long-range transfer of damage within the protein structure, as the binding site is some distance from...... the ultimate site of radical formation. This transfer of damage is shown to depend on a number of factors including the conformation of the protein, the presence of blocking groups and pH. Alteration of the protein conformation results in radical formation at additional (or alternative) sites, as does blocking...

  4. High serum enalaprilat in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, T; Heisterberg, J; Kamper, A L

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and their metabolites are excreted renally and doses should hence be reduced in renal insufficiency. We studied whether the dosage of enalapril in daily clinical practice is associated with drug accumulation of enalaprilat in chronic...... renal failure. METHODS: Fifty nine out-patients with plasma creatinine >150 micromol/L and chronic antihypertensive treatment with enalapril were investigated, in a cross-sectional design. RESULTS: Median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 23(range 6-60) ml/minute/1.73 m2. The daily dose of enalapril......-68) ml/minute and correlated linearly with GFR (r=0.86, p=0.003). Intra-subject day-to-day variation in trough concentrations was 19.7%. CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic renal failure given small or moderately high doses of enalapril may thus have markedly elevated levels of serum enalaprilat. Whether...

  5. A novel adjuvant: polymerised serum albumin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, J.B.

    1985-09-01

    There is an ongoing need to develop new vaccine formulations. To complement accumulating knowledge on the structure of antigens and their interaction with cells of the immune system, new vaccine vehicles to optimise the immunogenic potential of the antigen must be developed. Associated with this adjuvanticity, should be minimal adverse side effects. This study was initiated to develop a vaccine vehicle, consisting of covalently cross-linked serum albumin beads, themselves non-immunogenic, containing virus. Following inoculation, in vivo proteolysis of the beads would allow a gradual release of antigen for sustained immunostimulation. This system might have application in virus vaccine programmes to improve low immunogenic vaccines, to allow optimal delivery of the recently derived synthetic virus subunit peptides as well as for inactivated virus vaccine preparations. 35 S-methionine labelled Blue Tongue Virus was used in this study

  6. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  7. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. 125 I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom

  8. [Blood serum lipoprotein spectrum in myocardial infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremushkin, G G; Goriacheva, A V; Kolomenskaia, T I; Solomatina, L G; Ovcharenko, R P

    1979-11-01

    The lipoprotein spectrum was studied in polyacrylamide gel and by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel in 236 patients with myocardial infarction in different periods of the disease, in 45 patients with unstable angina pectoris, in 75 healthy persons and in 8 dogs with experimental myocardial infarction. Besides an increase in the concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides and a decrease in the level of diglycerides in blood serum, there is a disturbance in the ratio of phospholipid fractions, mainly in myocardial infarction. The level of pre-beta-lipoproteins was increased in the acute period of myocardial infarction, the level of beta-lipoproteins in the subacute period. Complications and concomitant inflammatory diseases were attended by a higher level of beta-lipoproteins. A connection was noted between the lipoprotein spectrum, predominantly of the pre-beta-fraction, and the ABO phenotype and the season.

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection and serum ferritin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Bode, G; Blettner, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori may possibly affect the iron metabolism by occult bleeding, impaired absorption of non-hem iron, and by scavenging hem iron or ferritin, as some studies have suggested. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between H. pylori infection and serum ferritin...... in 1987/1988. The examination included a detailed questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, a 7-day food record, and blood samples. Infection with H. pylori was measured serologically by ELISA and Westernblot. RESULTS: In total, 39.2% of 1806 persons aged 18 to 89 yr included in the study...... were H. pylori positive, of whom 57.6% had an infection with a CagA-positive H. pylori strain. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric mean of ferritin was 54.5 microg/dl among H. pylori-infected compared with 63.8 microg/dl among uninfected persons. A multiple linear regression model with log...

  10. Admission levels of serum Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiødt, F V; Bondesen, S; Petersen, I

    1996-01-01

    Gc-globulin scavenges actin released from necrotic hepatocytes to the extracellular space. In 77 patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) (excluding patients treated with liver transplantation), admission levels of serum Gc-globulin and degree of complexing with monomeric actin (complex ratio......) were determined to evaluate their predictive values in relation to survival/nonsurvival. Gc-globulin levels were significantly reduced in 47 nonsurvivors, compared with 30 survivors (96 +/- 71 mg/L vs. 169 +/- 101 mg/L, P ... of patients with non-acetaminophen-induced FHF, whereas a higher value predicted survival in 60 percent. In patients with acetaminophen-induced FHF, nonsurvival was correctly predicted in 100 percent of patients and survival in 53 percent. In comparison, the King's College Hospital (KCH) criteria correctly...

  11. Blood serum galctosyl transferase in malignant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, A.D.; Zhordaniya, K.I.; Ivanov, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    The paper is concerned with comparative analysis of the results of the determination of activity of galactosyl transferase, CEA and antigen CA-125 in the blood serum of 44 healthy persons, 70 cancer patients and 12 patients with benign diseases. It was shown that a radiometric test for galactosyl transferase in its diagnostic sensitivity was no inferior to CEA in stomach and ovarian tumors and exceeded the test for antigen CA-125 in ovarian cancer. In color cancer the diagnostic accuracy of the tests for the activity of galactosyl transferase and CEA turned out to be identical. The most reliable diagnostic test in acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children was the test for galactosyl transferase activity

  12. Serum Antioxidants Are Associated with Serum Reproductive Hormones and Ovulation among Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Sunni L; Browne, Richard W; Schliep, Karen C; Schmelzer, Jonathan; Plowden, Torie C; Michels, Kara A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Zarek, Shvetha M; Perkins, Neil J; Messer, Lynne C; Radin, Rose G; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is growing that the equilibrium between reactive oxygen species and antioxidants plays a vital role in women's reproductive health. The objective of this study was to evaluate variations in serum antioxidant concentrations across the menstrual cycle and associations between antioxidants and reproductive hormones and anovulation among healthy women. The BioCycle Study, a prospective cohort, followed 259 women aged 18-44 y for up to 2 menstrual cycles. Serum fat-soluble vitamin and micronutrient (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, retinol, lutein, lycopene, and β-carotene), ascorbic acid, and reproductive hormone concentrations were measured 5-8 times/cycle. We used weighted linear mixed models to assess associations between antioxidants and hormone concentrations, after adjustment for age, race, body mass index, parity, sleep, pain medication use, total energy intake, concurrent hormones, serum cholesterol, F2-isoprostanes, and other antioxidants. Generalized linear models were used to identify associations with anovulation. Serum antioxidant concentrations varied across the menstrual cycle. Retinol and α-tocopherol were associated with higher estradiol [RR: 1.00 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.67, 1.34 pg/mL); RR: 0.02 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.003, 0.03 pg/mL), respectively] and testosterone [RR: 0.61 ng/dL (95% CI: 0.44, 0.78 ng/dL); RR: 0.01 ng/dL (95% CI: 0.001, 0.01 ng/dL), respectively]. Ascorbic acid was associated with higher progesterone (RR: 0.15 ng/mL; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.25 ng/mL) and with lower follicle-stimulating hormone (RR: -0.06 mIU/mL; 95% CI: -0.09, -0.03 mIU/mL). The ratio of α- to γ-tocopherol was associated with an increased risk of anovulation (RR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06). These findings shed new light on the intricate associations between serum antioxidants and endogenous hormones in healthy premenopausal women and support the hypothesis that concentrations of serum vitamins affect steroidogenesis even after adjustment for oxidative stress. © 2016 American

  13. Antioxidant flavonoids bind human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, C. D.; Tarantilis, P. A.; Polissiou, M. G.; Diamantoglou, S.; Tajmir-Riahi, H. A.

    2006-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a principal extracellular protein with a high concentration in blood plasma and carrier for many drugs to different molecular targets. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and prevent DNA damage. The antioxidative protections are related to their binding modes to DNA duplex and complexation with free radicals in vivo. However, flavonoids are known to inhibit the activities of several enzymes such as calcium phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, tyrosine protein kinase from rat lung, phosphorylase kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and DNA topoisomerases that exhibit the importance of flavonoid-protein interaction. This study was designed to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with quercetin (que), kaempferol (kae) and delphinidin (del) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration of 0.25 mM (final) and various drug contents of 1 μM-1 mM. FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyphenolic binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of flavonoid complexation on protein secondary structure. The spectroscopic results showed that flavonoids are located along the polypeptide chains through H-bonding interactions with overall affinity constant of Kque = 1.4 × 10 4 M -1, Kkae = 2.6 × 10 5 M -1 and Kdel = 4.71 × 10 5 M -1. The protein secondary structure showed no alterations at low pigment concentration (1 μM), whereas at high flavonoid content (1 mM), major reduction of α-helix from 55% (free HSA) to 42-46% and increase of β-sheet from 15% (free HSA) to 17-19% and β-anti from 7% (free HSA) to 10-20% occurred in the flavonoid-HSA adducts. The major reduction of HSA α-helix is indicative of a partial protein unfolding upon flavonoid interaction.

  14. Changes of serum CRP, serum uric acid and immunoglobulin in patients with renal damage of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Long

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the expression level of serum CRP, serum uric acid and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA and IgM in patients with renal damage of systemic lupus erythematosus, and explore their clinical application value. Methods: A total of 95 patients with SLE were divided into lupus nephritis group (LN group, n = 64 and non-lupus nephritis group (NLN group n=31 according to the diagnostic criteria of lupus nephritis, and another 35 healthy subjects were selected as normal control group. Blood samples were collected from all subjects before treatment. Serum CRP and serum uric acid concentrations were measured by ELISA. The levels of serum immunoglobulins were detected by immunoturbidimetry in the same time. Finally, the results were analyzed statistically. Results: The levels of serum CRP and serum uric acid in patients with SLE were significantly higher than those in control group. The levels of serum CRP and serum uric acid in LN group of SLE patients were significantly higher than those in NLN group and control group. Serum CRP level in NLN group was significantly higher than that in control group. Serum uric acid level in NLN group was slightly higher than that of the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. The level of serum immunoglobulin in SLE patients was higher than that in control group. The levels of serum immunoglobulin IgG, IgA and IgM in LN group of SLE patients were significantly higher than those in NLN group and control group. The levels of serum immunoglobulin IgG, IgA and IgM in NLN group of SLE patients were all higher than those in control group. Conclusion: Humoral immune of SLE patients with renal injury was activated at different degree, B-cell hyperthyroidism, severe systemic inflammatory response and kidney damage at varying degrees. Serum CRP, serum uric acid and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA and IgM may be involved in SLE renal injury pathological process, which is the early diagnosis of

  15. Serum amyloid A isoforms in serum and synovial fluid from spontaneously diseased dogs with joint diseases or other conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads Jens; Christensen, Michelle B.; Lee, Marcel Huisung

    2007-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a major acute phase protein in dogs. However, knowledge of qualitative properties of canine SAA and extent of its synthesis in extrahepatic tissues is limited. The aim of the study was to investigate expression of different SAA isoforms in serum and synovial fluid...... in samples obtained from dogs (n = 16) suffering from different inflammatory or non-inflammatory conditions, which were either related or unrelated to joints. Expression of SAA isoforms was visualized by denaturing isoelectric focusing and Western blotting. Serum amyloid A was present in serum from all dogs...

  16. Cutoff Values of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in Normal Korean Adults and Factors Influencing Serum CEA Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Soon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    1994-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic Antigen is one of most frequently checked tumor markers in cancer management. We performed statistical analysis with serum CEA data of 2626 persons who received regular health examination and were thought to be free of active disease to determine the cutoff values of serum CEA level in normal Korean adults and to study the factors influencing serum CEA levels in normal subjects. 1) The cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults in general were 9.28 ng/ml for men, 5.90 ng/ml for women. 2) Serum CEA level was influenced by age, present smoking history, sex, and abnormal findings in chest X ray. 3) Serum CEA level had no correlation with the history of amount of alcohol consumption or obesity. 4) Cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history. Serum CEA level was influenced by age, sex, present smoking history and abnormal findings in chest X ray and cutoff values of serum CEA were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history.

  17. Differences between human plasma and serum metabolite profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human plasma and serum are widely used matrices in clinical and biological studies. However, different collecting procedures and the coagulation cascade influence concentrations of both proteins and metabolites in these matrices. The effects on metabolite concentration profiles have not been fully characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the concentrations of 163 metabolites in plasma and serum samples collected simultaneously from 377 fasting individuals. To ensure data quality, 41 metabolites with low measurement stability were excluded from further analysis. In addition, plasma and corresponding serum samples from 83 individuals were re-measured in the same plates and mean correlation coefficients (r of all metabolites between the duplicates were 0.83 and 0.80 in plasma and serum, respectively, indicating significantly better stability of plasma compared to serum (p = 0.01. Metabolite profiles from plasma and serum were clearly distinct with 104 metabolites showing significantly higher concentrations in serum. In particular, 9 metabolites showed relative concentration differences larger than 20%. Despite differences in absolute concentration between the two matrices, for most metabolites the overall correlation was high (mean r = 0.81±0.10, which reflects a proportional change in concentration. Furthermore, when two groups of individuals with different phenotypes were compared with each other using both matrices, more metabolites with significantly different concentrations could be identified in serum than in plasma. For example, when 51 type 2 diabetes (T2D patients were compared with 326 non-T2D individuals, 15 more significantly different metabolites were found in serum, in addition to the 25 common to both matrices. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows that reproducibility was good in both plasma and serum, and better in plasma. Furthermore, as long as the same blood preparation procedure is

  18. Alterations of serum cholesterol and serum lipoprotein in breast cancer of women

    OpenAIRE

    Hasija, Kiran; Bagga, Hardeep K.

    2005-01-01

    Fasting blood sample of 50 normal subjects (control) and 100 patients of breast cancer were investigated for serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein cholesterol:low density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio during breast cancer of women. Five cancer stages, types, age groups, parity and menopausal status were undertaken...

  19. Isolation of human anti-serum albumin Fab antibodies with an extended serum-half life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The serum albumin (SA) has been exploited to generate long-acting biotherapeutics by taking advantage of the FcRn-mediated recycling mechanism in a direct or an indirect way. Since Fab fragments have been proven to be clinically safe for human usage, we assumed that human anti-SA Fab antibodies could have a great potential as a carrier molecule to extend the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins. We, herein, had attempted to isolate anti-SA Fab antibodies from HuDVFab-8L antibody library via a phage display technology, and identified eight discrete human Fab antibodies. One of the Fab antibodies, SL335, showed the strongest binding reactivity to human SA with nM range of affinity at both pH 6 and pH 7.4, and cross-reacted to SAs from various species including rat, mouse, canine and monkey. The in vivo pharmacokinetic assay using a rat model indicated that SL335 has approximately 10 fold longer serum half-life and 26 to 44-fold increase in AUC0 → ∞ compared to the negative control Fab molecule in both intravenous and subcutaneous administrations. Knowing that Fabs have proven to be safe in clinics for a long time, SL335 seems to have a great potential in generating long-acting protein drugs by tagging effector molecules with either chemical conjugation or genetic fusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Serum Vitamin D on Serum ALT Levels in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Elaine; Qayyum, Rehan

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship between vitamin D (VD) and liver disease but none have explored this relationship in adults with normal liver enzymes. Our aim was to explore an independent association of VD with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in a large sample of the US adults with liver enzymes in normal range (≤39 U/L). We used the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2006. We excluded individuals with serum ALT>39 U/L. We built linear regression models to estimate unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, race, diabetes, hypertension, alcohol use, smoking, and body mass index) effect sizes, taking into account the complex probability survey design. Of the 12,155 participants, 6635 (54.6%) were women, mean±SD age was 49.9±19.4 years, VD was 21.9±9.2 ng/mL, and ALT was 20.9±6.9 U/L. In unadjusted analysis, VD was significantly associated with serum ALT (0.02 U/L/ng/mL of VD, P=0.007). After adjustment for confounders, VD remained statistically significantly associated with serum ALT levels (0.04 U/L, PALT than those in the lowest quartile (unadjusted difference=0.98 U/L, PALT after excluding individuals with suspected active liver injury (ALT>39 U/L). The underlying mechanisms for this association are not known and needs further study.

  1. Human Serum Protein-Bound iodine and Protein Fractions at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine profile of Nigerians at different ages in both sexes and in pregnant women, and under narcotic influence, such as alcoholism, cigarette smoking and marijuana addiction were studied. Their serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were also determined. Results of the study showed that serum protein ...

  2. Serum testosterone levels in Nigerian male marijuana and cigarette ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of marijuana and cigarette use on serum levels of testosterone, the principal androgen in man has been a matter of serious controversy; and there is a paucity of reports on the subject in Nigeria in West Africa south of Sahara. We therefore investigated the effects of the use of these substances on serum levels of ...

  3. Effect Of Phytase Supplementation On The Performance , Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A significant increase in serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, Magnesium of birds received 500 and 1000 u/kg phytase while phytase supplementation show a significant reduction in serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Dietary phytase supplementation at a rate 500 and 1000 gm phytase show a significant increase in the ...

  4. Serum YKL-40 and interleukin 6 levels in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggar, R.J.; Johansen, J.S.; Smedby, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Serum levels of the inflammatory markers YKL-40 and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are increased in many conditions, including cancers. We examined serum YKL-40 and IL-6 levels in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, a tumor with strong immunologic reaction to relatively few tumor cells, especially...

  5. Marital Status and Occupation versus Serum Total Cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher mean serum ...

  6. Serum transferrin receptors in detection of iron deficiency in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, U; Flowers, C; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sood, S K; Sikka, M

    1999-08-01

    A prospective hospital-based study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of serum transferrin receptors in the detection of iron deficiency in pregnant women. The iron status of 100 pregnant women with single uncomplicated term pregnancies in the first stage of labor was established using standard laboratory measures. These included complete hemogram, red cell indices, serum iron, percent transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin. In addition, serum transferrin receptor (STFR) was estimated. The results of 81 women with complete laboratory profiles were analyzed. Thirty-five (43.2%) women were anemic (hemoglobin <11 g/dl). Hemoglobin (Hb) showed a significant correlation with MCH, MCHC, serum iron, and percent transferrin saturation, suggesting that the anemia was likely to be due to iron deficiency. The mean STFR level was 18.05+/-9.9 mg/l in the anemic women and was significantly raised (p<0.001) compared with that of the nonanemic women. STFR correlated significantly with Hb (p<0.001), MCH (p<0.05), MCHC (p<0.01), serum iron (p<0.01), and percent transferrin saturation (p<0.01) and also showed a highly significant correlation with the degree of anemia. Serum ferritin in these women did not correlate with Hb, and only 54.4% of the women had levels <12 ng/ml, which does not reflect the true prevalence of iron deficiency. Serum transferrin receptor estimation is thus a useful measure for detecting iron deficiency in pregnancy.

  7. Serum YKL-40 and gestational diabetes - an observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Johansen, Julia S; Christiansen, Ib J

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum YKL-40 in women developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In the present large observational cohort study of 1179 pregnant women, we determined serum YKL-40 four times during pregnancy (at gestational age 12, 20, 25, and 32 weeks). Pregnancy outcome was obtained from medical...

  8. Changes in Serum Proteins and Creatinine levels in HIV Infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the level of total serum proteins and globulins in HIV infected Nigerians. 64 patients with HIV infection and 10 apparently healthy subjects were recruited from 3 hospitals in Lagos Metropolis. They were examined for the presence of TB and malaria. Serum total protein, albumin and creatinine levels ...

  9. Serum Uric Acid Levels among Nigerians with Essential Hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    renal disease. This study determined the serum uric acid levels of Nigerians with essential hypertension and also evaluated .... Table 1: Blood Pressure, Serum Uric Acid, Lipid profile in patients with essential hypertension and control subjects. (Mean+ SEM) .... where rats developed high blood pressure in about 3 to 5 weeks ...

  10. Serum beta-2-microglobulin in the differential diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum beta-2-microglobulin (B2m) concentrations were determined in 43 southern African black patients with multiple myeloma (MM), in 130 black patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and in 70 control subjects. The results showed median values for serum B2m in patients with MM, ...

  11. Serum beta-2-microglobulin in the differential diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum beta-2-microglobulin (82m) concentrations were determined in 43 southern African black patients with multiple myeloma (MM), in 130 black patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and in 70 control subjects. The results showed median values for serum. 82m in patients with MM, ...

  12. Effect of organic contrast Media on the haematology and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, value of the serum sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate ions were determined, while the sodium/potassium ratio (Na/K) and anion gap (AG) were calculated. In this study, the administration of 76% urograffin does not significantly (P>0.05%) alter the PCV, Hb, RBC, WBC and Platelets. Similarly the serum ...

  13. Serum Iron and Nitric Oxide Production in Trypanosoma brucei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    by centrifugation of the clear part of blood after clotting at 3,000g for 15min and kept frozen until required, usually after 24hrs. Determination of serum iron level. The serum iron level was determined spectrophotometrically by the O- phenanthroline method16. Ferrous iron reacts with o-phenonthroline to form an orange-red ...

  14. Serum zinc values in children with congenital heart disease | Sadoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Some children with congenital heart diseases (CHD) may have increased pulmonary blood flow that causes recurrent bronchopneumonia and congestive heart failure. Serum zinc is reduced in children with pneumonia and patients on diuretics. Objective: To evaluate the serum zinc level of children with CHD ...

  15. Serum Magnesium Levels in Non-Pregnant, Pregnant And Pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the serum magnesium levels in normal pregnancy and pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia since magnesium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction. We measured serum magnesium levels in patients with pre-eclampsia (n=36), patients with normal ...

  16. Effect of general anesthesia and orthopedic surgery on serum tryptase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene H; Bech, Birgitte Louise; Mosbech, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Mast cell tryptase is used clinically in the evaluation of anaphylaxis during anesthesia, because symptoms and signs of anaphylaxis are often masked by the effect of anesthesia. No larger studies have examined whether surgery and anesthesia affect serum tryptase. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the effect of anesthesia and surgery on serum tryptase in the absence of anaphylaxis....

  17. Serum Vitamin E, Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine if there is a relationship between serum lipid and vitamin E levels and unexplained infertility and recurrent miscarriages. Eighty-two (82) healthy Nigerian Women volunteers were recruited for this study. The mean serum cholesterol and triglyceride were slightly higher in the women with ...

  18. The impact of environmental temperature on lithium serum levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, Ingeborg; Fase, Sandra; Martens, Edwin P.; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Nolen, Willem A.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.

    Objectives: Three studies have reported a seasonal variation in lithium serum levels, with higher levels during summer. Our objective was to investigate the impact of actual environmental temperature on lithium serum levels. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using available records of

  19. Serum protein fingerprint of patients with gastric cancer by SELDI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the serum protein fingerprint of patients with gastric cancer and to screen for protein molecules closely related to gastric cancer during the onset and progression of the disease using surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Serum samples from 80 gastric ...

  20. Oral squamous cell carcinoma and serum paraoxonase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin, Z Boy; Aydin, S; Unur, M; Cakmakoglu, B; Toptas, B; Hafiz, G; İsbir, T

    2013-12-01

    Serum paraoxonase 1 is involved in mechanisms that protect cells from oxidative stress damage. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between serum paraoxonase 1 activity and polymorphisms in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Fifty-seven patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and 59 matched healthy controls participated in the study. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity and polymorphisms in blood samples were compared with results for polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism tests. Mean serum paraoxonase 1 activity levels were lower in patients than controls (mean ± standard deviation, 21.9 ± 5 units/l and 120.4 ± 2 units/l, respectively) (p = 0.001). The serum paraoxonase 1 192 glutamine polymorphism was more common in patients than controls. Patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma had significantly lower serum paraoxonase 1 activity levels and a greater prevalence of the serum paraoxonase 1 192 glutamine allele, compared with controls. Serum paraoxonase 1 may play a role in the aetiology of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  1. Serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van R.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Schouten, E.G.; Vader, H.L.; Pop, V.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the relation between total serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period in a prospective study of 266 Dutch women, who were followed until 34 weeks after delivery. The decline in serum cholesterol between week 32 of pregnancy and week 10 postpartum was similar for

  2. Reference intervals for serum cystatin C and creatinine of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-25

    Sep 25, 2014 ... Background and Aim: Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is important for the evaluation of patients with kidney disease. Some studies suggest that GFR estimated from serum cystatin C (Cys C) is more accurate than that from serum creatinine (SCr). For Cys C to be used for this purpose, normal ...

  3. Association of Serum Adropin Concentrations with Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adropin is a newly identified regulatory protein encoded by the Enho gene and is critically involved in energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. This study aims to determine the correlation of serum adropin concentrations with diabetic nephropathy (DN. Methods. This study consisted of 245 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 81 healthy subjects. Then T2DM patients were divided into normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria subgroups based on urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR. Results. T2DM patients showed significantly lower serum adropin concentrations than those in the controls. T2DM patients with macroalbuminuria had significantly decreased serum adropin concentrations compared with the other three groups. In addition, T2DM patients with microalbuminuria showed lower serum adropin concentrations than those in patients with normoalbuminuria. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum adropin was correlated with decreased risk of developing T2DM and DN. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that serum adropin was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and ACR and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI and ACR were negatively correlated with serum adropin levels. Conclusion. Serum adropin concentrations are negatively associated with renal function. Adropin may be implicated in the pathogenesis of DN development.

  4. Serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R M; Schuit, A.J.; Schouten, E G; Vader, H L; Pop, V.J.

    We examined the relation between total serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period in a prospective study of 266 Dutch women, who were followed until 34 weeks after delivery. The decline in serum cholesterol between week 32 of pregnancy and week 10 postpartum was similar for

  5. Therapeutic properties and serum iron in T. brucei infected rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum iron was monitored in Trypanosoma brucei-infected rats treated with Amodiaquine and mefloquine antimalarials as the infection progressed. The chemotherapeutic properties of the drugs against African sleeping sickness were also assessed. Results show gradual reduction in the levels of serum iron in the infected ...

  6. Serum Markers and Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Chronic Gastrointestinal Ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Noord (Désirée); P.B.F. Mensink (Peter); R.J. de Knegt (Robert); M. Ouwendijk (Martine); J. Francke (Jan Paul); A.J. van Vuuren (Hanneke); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Diagnosing chronic gastrointestinal ischemia (CGI) is a challenging problem in clinical practice. Serum markers for CGI would be of great diagnostic value as a non-invasive test method. Aims: This study investigated serum markers in patients with well-defined ischemia.

  7. Analysis of serum magnesium ions in dogs exposed to external ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2017-12-01

    Dec 1, 2017 ... reported to change serum Mg2+ status in humans, serum Mg2+ in dogs exposed to external stress has been unclear. In this study, we ... fluctuation such as air temperature, nervousness in unaccustomed situations, age, and physical stress induced by exercise. ..... and pathophysiological consequences of.

  8. Short Term Comparative Analysis of Serum Electrolytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the changes that occur in performance characteristics and serum electrolytes of Red Sokoto bucks within the first four weeks post-surgical castration. Changes in serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate and chloride) and performance characteristics were investigated in ...

  9. serum albumin, creatinine, uric acid and hypertensive disorders of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-08-08

    Aug 8, 2003 ... pregnancy using single estimation of serum protein, creatinine and uric in serum samples of healthy primigravidae with singleton pregnancy. ... developing the disease early in pregnancy. This is because ... as hypertension, diabetes mellitus or renal disease and drug use. This was followed by a complete ...

  10. Structural changes during the unfolding of Bovine serum albumin in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The native form of serum albumin is the most important soluble protein in the body plasma. In order to investigate the structural changes of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) during its unfolding in the presence of urea, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study was performed. The scattering curves of dilute solutions of BSA ...

  11. Periodontal status and serum creatine kinase levels among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: It is hypothesized that soccer players with periodontal disease exhibit raised serum creatine kinase (CK) levels as compared to those without periodontal disease. We assessed the clinical gingival status and serum CK levels among young soccer players. Materials and Methods: Demographic data were ...

  12. Serum biochemistry profile of Nigerian horses ( Equus Caballus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the serum biochemistry profile of apparently healthy Nigerian horses and determined the influence of age, sex and season on the serum biochemistry parameters. A total of 61 apparently healthy horses of varied ages and either sex were studied during a six-month period [three months of dry season ...

  13. In vitro inhibition of the paraoxonase from human serum with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... at 595 nm according to Bradford (Bradford, 1976), with bovine se- rum albumin as a standard. Purification of paraoxonase. Human serum was isolated from 50 ml fresh human blood and put into a dry tube. For this, the blood samples were centrifuged at. 1500 rpm for 15 min and the serum was removed.

  14. Normal serum alkaline phosphatase in the presence of extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal serum alkaline phosphatase in this patient in the presence of extensive skeletal metastases may be due to the combination of the following factors: relative hypogonadism, osteoporosis, low serum zinc and magnesium. This case report may provide a possible explanation for the observation that about 10% of men ...

  15. Relationship between stress levels and the status of serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alternative methods for stress monitoring and evaluation prove very useful in proper dealing with it. Thus, establishing a link between stress exposure and serum antioxidant vitamins' levels would certainly provide a clue towards stress management. Aim : The study aimed at evaluating the status of serum ...

  16. Age‑specific Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Ranges Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethnic differences.[16] Although similar studies have been presented for a number of different groups of men and few studies have looked at the pattern of serum PSA among Nigerians[17‑20] but no such studies on normal serum PSA ranges and the age‑specific pattern have been carried out among healthy Nigerian men.

  17. Effects of Vitamin C Treatment on Serum Protein, Albumin, Beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... albumin and gamma globulin in the trypanosome-infected treated rats. It was concluded that consumption of the Vitamin C ameliorated the pathological changes in serum protein and body weight of T. brucei – infected rats. Keywords: Trypanosoma brucei, Rattus norvegicus, Ascorbic acid, Body weight, Serum protein ...

  18. Hematological and serum biochemical evaluation of broilers fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances ... Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) activities were higher at the finisher phase but not at the starter phase in 40.0% CFM fed birds, while serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) activities were significantly high (p<0.05) at both the starter and finisher ...

  19. Haematological and serum enzymes biomarkers of heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and serum enzymes biomarkers of heavy metals in Chrysichthys Nigrodigitatus and Cynoglossus senegalensis. ... Haematological and serum enzymes activities are predilective biomarkers for the detection and monitoring of aquatic ecosystems pollution. The inclusion of Allium sativum at 1.5g/kg is ...

  20. Reference intervals for serum cystatin C and creatinine of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim: Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is important for the evaluation of patients with kidney disease. Some studies suggest that GFR estimated from serum cystatin C (Cys C) is more accurate than that from serum creatinine (SCr). For Cys C to be used for this purpose, normal values need to ...

  1. A Study of Serum Testosterone and Luteinizing Hormone Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low libido is considered to be the most prominent symptomatic reflection of low serum testosterone and it is unclear how frequent an individual who reported to the clinic with low libido indicates low serum testosterone levels. Objective: This study seeks to know how many of the self reported patients with low ...

  2. A cohort effect on serum testosterone levels in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perheentupa, A; Mäkinen, J; Laatikainen, T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a population-level decline in serum testosterone exists in Finnish men. In comparison with other European populations, Finnish men have compared well in the studies of reproductive health (i.e. semen quality, incidence of cryptorchidism and testicular cancer); thus, we...... expected no significant cohort-dependent decrease in serum testosterone....

  3. Causal relationship between obesity and serum testosterone status in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Joel; Haring, Robin; Grarup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Obesity in men is associated with low serum testosterone and both are associated with several diseases and increased mortality. OBJECTIVES: Examine the direction and causality of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone. DESIGN: Bi-directional Mendelian...

  4. The clinical usefulness of initial serum procalcitonin as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serum levels of WBC counts and C‑reactive protein in the aggravation group were elevated. However, the median value (interquartile range) of procalcitonin was relatively increased at 2.28 (0.41–7.84 ng/ml), demonstrating a significant difference. Conclusions: In conclusion, initial serum levels of procalcitonin might be ...

  5. Serum Prohepcidin Levels Are Lower in Patients with Atrophic Gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Keun; Jang, Eun-Chul; Yeom, Ju-Ok; Kim, Sun-Young; Cho, Hyunjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Cho, Young-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone, is increased in response to inflammation and some infections. We investigated the relationships among serum prohepcidin, iron status, Helicobacter pylori infection status, and the presence of gastric mucosal atrophy. Methods. Seventy subjects undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy underwent multiple gastric biopsies, and the possibility of H. pylori infection and the degree of endoscopic and histologic gastritis were investigated. In all subjects, serum prohepcidin and iron parameters were evaluated. Results. No correlations were observed between serum prohepcidin levels and the other markers of anemia, such as hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity. Serum prohepcidin levels were not significantly different between the H. pylori-positive group and the H. pylori-negative group. Serum prohepcidin levels in atrophic gastritis patients were significantly lower than those in subjects without atrophic gastritis irrespective of H. pylori infection. Conclusion. Serum prohepcidin levels were not altered by H. pylori infection. Serum prohepcidin levels decrease in patients with atrophic gastritis, irrespective of H. pylori infection. It suggests that hepcidin may decrease due to gastric atrophy, a condition that causes a loss of hepcidin-producing parietal cells. Further investigations with a larger number of patients are necessary to substantiate this point. PMID:23533385

  6. Serum Prohepcidin Levels Are Lower in Patients with Atrophic Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Keun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone, is increased in response to inflammation and some infections. We investigated the relationships among serum prohepcidin, iron status, Helicobacter pylori infection status, and the presence of gastric mucosal atrophy. Methods. Seventy subjects undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy underwent multiple gastric biopsies, and the possibility of H. pylori infection and the degree of endoscopic and histologic gastritis were investigated. In all subjects, serum prohepcidin and iron parameters were evaluated. Results. No correlations were observed between serum prohepcidin levels and the other markers of anemia, such as hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity. Serum prohepcidin levels were not significantly different between the H. pylori-positive group and the H. pylori-negative group. Serum prohepcidin levels in atrophic gastritis patients were significantly lower than those in subjects without atrophic gastritis irrespective of H. pylori infection. Conclusion. Serum prohepcidin levels were not altered by H. pylori infection. Serum prohepcidin levels decrease in patients with atrophic gastritis, irrespective of H. pylori infection. It suggests that hepcidin may decrease due to gastric atrophy, a condition that causes a loss of hepcidin-producing parietal cells. Further investigations with a larger number of patients are necessary to substantiate this point.

  7. Serum calcium levels are not associated with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Y

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yuelong Jin,* Lianping He,* Quanhai Wang, Yan Chen, Xiaohua Ren, Hui Tang, Xiuli Song, Lingling Ding, Qin Qi, Zhiwei Huang, Jiegen Yu, Yingshui Yao Department of Preventive Medicine, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Numerous studies have reported that low calcium intake is related to a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between serum calcium and coronary heart disease is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare serum calcium levels in patients with coronary heart disease and those in healthy individuals. Methods: This retrospective, case-control study conducted in the People's Republic of China comprised 380 cases and 379 controls. Serum calcium levels, blood lipids, and anthropometric measurements were measured in both groups. The Student's unpaired t-test or Chi-square test was used to compare differences between cases and controls. Pearson's partial correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between serum calcium, blood lipids, and blood pressure in both groups. Results: Our results indicate that the average level of serum calcium in cases was higher than in controls. Serum calcium levels showed no correlation with any parameter except for triglycerides in either group. Conclusion: Overall, these data suggest that serum calcium has no influence on coronary heart disease or triglyceride levels in the general population. Keywords: serum calcium, hypertension, blood lipids

  8. The effect of Treculia africana African breadfruit on serum electrolyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sub-chronic effect of diet of Treculia africana (Bread fruit BF) on serum electrolyte, enzyme and some haematological parameters in rats was studied. The test-diets were administered for 21 days after which, serum electrolyte enzyme and heamatological parameters were assayed. The control group were similarly treated ...

  9. Serum biochemical parameters of cows during pregnancy and early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (overall) mean prepartum and postpartum serum electrolyte values did not differ significantly (P>0.05) except for bicarbonate, where its prepartum values were significantly (P<0.01) higher than the postpartum values. Generally, most of the serum electrolyte values were within normal range as reported in the literature while ...

  10. Biochemical values stability in serum and plasma of renal diseased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum and plasma were separated from clot and red cells and analysed in duplicates immediately to obtain the baseline fresh value (zero hour value). The remaining serum and plasma were stored at 40C ± 20C and 320C ± 20C for 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours, and then assayed in duplicates.

  11. Study Of The Relationship Between Serum Cortisol And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dementia is the general term that refers to the decline of mental abilities including memory and other thinking skills while a person is alert and awake. Dementia is considered a ... level decrease with age and mean serum cortisol levels was higher in both AD and VD than normal controls while mean serum ...

  12. The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HBe status, HBV DNA concentrations and serum ALT levels, based on the European Association for the study of the liver (EASL) guidelines.Serum HBsAg titres were measured using the Elecsys HBsAg II Quant assay (Roche Diagnostics).

  13. Serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: There is the recognition of a pattern of elevations of serum enzymes in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients. The aims of this study were to determine the activities of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate deydrogenase (LDH) in thyroid disorders, and to evaluate the relationship between CK, ...

  14. Serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P = 0.002). Conclusion: The significant elevation in serum CK and LDH activities indicates that these can be used as parameters for screening hypothyroid patients but not hyperthyroid patients. Key words: Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatine kinase. Date of Acceptance: 28-Aug-2011.

  15. Bacterial adherence: the role of serum and wound fluid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... Techno Company, Osaka, Japan). A sterile ... analysis. Wound treatment and adhesion essay. To determine the effect of wound fluid and serum on bacterial adherence, 0.5 ml of either wound fluid or serum and distilled water. (control) ... a mortar pestle to facilitate the elution of the bacteria cells from the.

  16. Serum ferritin levels in children with malaria anaemia in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    chronic disease, like malaria2. Serum ferritin concentrations of less than 12 µg/L are highly predictive of iron deficiency, defined by the absence of iron stores3. Alteration in serum ferritin levels are important not only in the classical diseases of iron acquisition, transport, and haemochromatosis, but also in diseases ...

  17. Bovine Serum Albumin Metal Complexes for Mimic of SOD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proteins are well-known for efficiency and selecti- vity that few other natural or artificial molecules can match,24,25 whether in catalysis or molecular recogni- tion. Owing to 35 cysteine residues, human serum albu- min (HSA) is facile to be combined with metal ions. The serum albumin is readily available, non-antigenic.

  18. Interaction of Tannin with Bovine Serum Albumin by Fluorescence Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Il, Kim; Son-Ae, Choe; Kye-Ryong, Sin

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tannin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined by the fluorescent quenching. The process of elimination between BSA and tannin was the one of a stationary state, and the coupling coefficient was one. The working strength between the tannin and the beef serum was hydrophobic one.

  19. Serum levels of fetal antigen 1 in extreme nutritional States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Alin; Niemeier, Andreas; Støving, Rene K

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Recent data suggest that fetal antigen (FA1) is linked to disorders of body weight. Thus, we measured FA1 serum levels in two extreme nutritional states of morbid obesity (MO) and anorexia nervosa (AN) and monitored its response to weight changes. Design. FA1 and insulin serum...

  20. Determination of antipsychotic drug in human serum by radioreceptor assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jinchang; Jiang Yimin

    1989-01-01

    Serum antipsychotic drug in 50 psychosis cases were measured by radioreceptor assay (RRA) and the values were compared in parallel with that by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results showed that the RRA values were lower than the RIA values, but both assays gave significant correlation between the serum drug level and antipsychotic dose

  1. Serum Calcium Level is Associated with Lipids in Young Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with high blood pressure in a representative sample of United States of American adults without cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) which was independent of age, sex, race, alcohol, smoking, diabetes, lipids, serum albumin, serum vitamin D and phosphorus.[23]. Calcium is an important intracellular messenger ...

  2. Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels and Selected Trace Metals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have been several reports on the role of macronutrients in the pathogenesis of high blood pressure (HBP), however, reports on the relationship between micronutrients and trace metals are few, especially in blacks. This study aim to determine the serum levels of trace metals and correlate same with serum levels of ...

  3. Abnormalities in Serum Lipids and Liver Fuction in Nigeria Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To estimate the serum lipids and liver function of Nigerian leprosy patients and the effect of dietary habits on their serum lipid levels. A questionnaire was administered to all leprosy patients seen in leprosy clinics in Anambra State to ascertain disease type, activity and duration as well as dietary preferences. Each patient ...

  4. hiv and serum protein electrophoresis patterns in kwazulu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-01

    Apr 1, 2011 ... To describe the effect of HIV serostatus on serum proteins, serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) patterns and monoclonal bands. Setting. Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Durban. Design. Retrospective, anonymous analysis of routine laboratory results. Results. Monoclonal bands were not increased ...

  5. Ambience-associated variation in serum biomarkers of oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out in donkeys to discover serum biomarkers of oxidative stress during moderate and extremely hot conditions. Serum biomarkers included vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, monoamine oxidase, glutathione reductase, xanthine oxidase, oxidase and ...

  6. Effect of Marijuana Smoking on Blood Chemistry and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of marijuana smoking on blood chemistry and serum biogenic amines concentrations in humans was investigated. Eighty Marijuana addicts and twenty non- marijuana smokers were used in the study. Blood chemistry and serum biogenic amines concentrations of the marijuana addicts and controls, were ...

  7. Serum hyaluronic acid as a marker of hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, J.A.; Khan, F.A.; Ijaz, A.; Khan, N.A.; Mehmood, T.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the serum hyaluronic acid (HA) levels as biochemical marker of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis and correlate it with the degree of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. This study was performed on 100 patients of chronic liver disease whose liver biopsies had been carried out. Fifty healthy controls were also included in the study. Routine liver function tests, hepatitis serology and serum hyaluronic acid levels were carried out on patients and controls. Liver biopsy of 100 patients revealed that 21 were in stage 0 fibrosis, 38 in stage 1 fibrosis, 26 in stage 3 fibrosis and 15 in stage 4 fibrosis. Mean Serum HA (mean +- SD) concentration in patients were 189 +- 98 mg/L vs. 21 +- 10 mg/L of healthy controls. The difference observed was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Patients in stage 4 fibrosis had significantly higher (p <0.001) mean serum HA concentration as compared to other stages of liver fibrosis. Diagnostic accuracy of serum HA at marginally elevated level of 60 mg/L determined the sensitivity 78.4 %, specificity 80.9%, positive predicted value 93.9% and negative predicted value of 50%. Serum HA is a useful non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis. There is a strong positive correlation between serum HA levels and degree of liver fibrosis. The concentration of serum HA rises according to progression of liver fibrosis and levels are highest in patients with liver cirrhosis. (author)

  8. The relative role of serum albumin and urinary creatinine as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their weight, Body mass index, serum albumin and 24-hour urinary creatinine were determined before treatment, at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 6th month of treatment. Using ANOVA, the mean values of the weight, BIM and serum albumin were analysed with further analysis paired student T- test of the pre-treatment ...

  9. The study of serum folate in patients with colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Sumei; Li Long

    2002-01-01

    Serum folate concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in 36 patients with colon cancer. Folate concentration in the patients was lower than that in controls (P<0.05). Serum folate concentration was closely related to colon cancer. Regulating food and drink structure to improve lower folate condition could play a active part in preventing colon cancer

  10. Serum Cystatin C Levels in Nigerian Children: Reference Intervals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Fifty-nine children aged two years to 16 years with no evidence of overt kidney disease were recruited from the Paediatric Clinics of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Serum cystatin C levels were measured using ELISA method while serum creatinine was measured by a rateblanked and compensated Jaffe ...

  11. Effect of irradiation of lipid peroxidation in serum, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisa, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    With blood obtained from patients irradiated for cervical uterine cancer (consisting of 4 cases of Stage I, 5 cases of Stage II and 4 cases of Stage III), changes of blood picture, serum lipid weight and serum lipid peroxide accompanying irradiation were studied on 3 occasions, before, during and after the irradiation. The following results were obtained. Serum lipid and serum lipid peroxide were found to increase along with the advance of uterine cancer from Stage I to II and III. At the termination of irradiation the serum lipid and serum lipid peroxide in the cases of cervical uterine cancer at Stage III were found to have recovered to close to the levels before irradiation, but in the other cases these values tended to increase with irradiation. Except the termination of irradiation treatment of cervical uterine cancer of Stage III, the decrease of leucocyte count has a mutual relationship with the increase of serum thiobarbituric acid (TBA), so that change in the serum TBA level can be assumed to be a criterion for irradiation injury. (auth.)

  12. Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Juul, A; Petersen, J H

    1997-01-01

    Inhibin B levels were measured in serum from 400 healthy Danish prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent males, aged 6-20 yr, in a cross-sectional study using a recently developed immunoassay that is specific for inhibin B, the physiologically important inhibin form in men. In addition, serum levels...

  13. Serum beta-2-microglobulin in the differential diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen of man (HLA) and other vertebrates.' It is present on the cytoplasmic membranes of nearly all nucleated cells, as well as in certain body fluids such as serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid.2. Increased levels of serum B2m have been observed in asso- ciation with ...

  14. Serum & cerebrospinal fluid ferritin levels in children with acute leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, A; Rusia, U; Anand, N K; Sood, S K

    1989-06-01

    Serum and CSF ferritin were estimated in 35 consecutive patients of acute leukaemia at the time of admission and on induction of remission. Serum ferritin levels were significantly raised in 94 per cent patients of acute leukaemia. The mean (+/- SD) serum ferritin (314.36 +/- 158.4 micrograms/1) was significantly higher when compared with control values (P less than 0.001). Remission induction resulted in significant fall in serum ferritin values to a mean of 149 (+/- 98.7) micrograms/l (P less than 0.05). Serum ferritin is thus of value in assessing the state of remission and is a sensitive indicator of the leukaemic cell mass and the state of activity of the disease. CSF ferritin levels in acute leukaemia were comparable to normal control values. CSF ferritin did not reflect CNS involvement in acute leukaemia and therefore its value as a tumour marker of CNS infiltration is doubtful.

  15. Reference values of serum rheumatoid factor in coastal residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xue; Huang, Li; Chen, Zhiping; Mo, Zengnan; Lin, Liwen; Huang, Shan; Yang, Xiaobo; Gao, Yong; Tan, Aihua; Li, Shan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the reference values of serum rheumatoid factor (RF) in coastal residents. We collected 1,762 serum samples from 20 - 69 year-old males who participated in the population-based Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey from September 2009 to December 2009. The values of serum RF were measured by immunoturbidimetry. The established normal reference value range of serum RF (coastal areas is lower than the current value that is extensively used (20 IU/mL). Age, ethnicity, and smoking specific reference values were calculated. Differences were found within groups, but no significant difference in drinking was observed. It is suggested that every special region should establish respective normal reference values of serum RF in healthy individuals.

  16. Reference intervals for serum lipids in coastal males from Fangchenggang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xue; Mo, Cuiju; Zeng, Zhiyu; Chen, Zhiping; Deng, Yan; Peng, Qiliu; Gao, Yong; Yi, Zhen; Li, Shan; Mo, Zengnan

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to establish the reference intervals for serum lipids in coastal residents of the Chinese male population. A total of 1436 subjects, aged between 19 and 86 years, were selected from the Fangchenggang Area for Male Health and Examination Survey (FAMHES). Reference intervals of serum lipids were measured by enzymatic endpoint colorimetry and information was obtained using a standard questionnaire. The total nonparametric reference intervals for TC 1.90 mmol/L (73.08 mg/dL), and LDL-C serum lipid levels were correlated with older age, higher body mass index (BMI), and more smoking, but not with alcohol consumption. The established reference intervals of serum lipids for coastal Chinese male residents would be helpful for assessing risk of cardiovascular disease. We recommend establishing population-based reference intervals for serum lipids in clinical laboratories.

  17. Serum leptin levels in female patients with niddm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Z.; Rahman, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare serum leptin levels of diabetic and non-diabetic female subjects and also assess the relationship of hyperglycemia with serum insulin, C-peptide and leptin levels. Results: Serum leptin levels of obese diabetic and non-diabetic subjects were significantly higher as compared with lean diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects (P<0.05). Leptin levels were positively correlated with serum insulin and C-peptide levels. Serum leptin increased with increase in body mass index and waist hip ratio was strongly related with insulin resistance in NIDDM. Conclusion: Leptin levels are increased in obesity and may play a role in development of insulin resistance and NIDDM. (author)

  18. Longitudinal study of serum placental GH in 455 normal pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Skibsted, Lillian; Skouby, Sven Olaf

    2002-01-01

    Placental GH is thought to be responsible for the rise in maternal IGF-I during pregnancy and is considered to be important for fetal growth. In this prospective longitudinal study of healthy pregnant women, we investigated determinants of placental GH in maternal serum. Serum was obtained from 455...... women with normal singleton pregnancies at approximately 19 and 28 wk gestation. Serum placental GH concentrations were measured by a highly specific immunoradiometric assay, and fetal size was measured by ultrasound. Data on birth weight, gender, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, and smoking...... habits were obtained from medical records. Serum placental GH concentrations were detectable in serum from all women as early as 14 wk gestation and increased during pregnancy in all individuals (P GH levels at second examination were found to be higher in women carrying female fetuses...

  19. Growth hormone and cortisol in serum and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantonen, P J; Penttilä, I; Meurman, J H; Savolainen, K; Närvänen, S; Helenius, T

    2000-12-01

    Salivary diagnosis is a developing area in clinical chemistry and dentistry. Cortisol analyses from saliva have been used in pediatric practice and as doping tests. Growth hormone (hGH), also a stress hormone, has not been analyzed from saliva. We studied the serum and saliva of 51 healthy subjects. The samples were taken at 8:00 in the morning after 12 h fasting. Cortisol concentrations were analyzed using RIA. An immunoradiometric assay was applied for analyzing serum and salivary hGH. The validity of this method developed in our laboratory was found to be good. The results showed correlation of salivary cortisol with that of serum (r = 0.47, P hGH concentrations were 1000-fold lower than the respective values in serum, but a clear correlation was found between salivary and serum hGH levels (r = 0.59, P < 0.001).

  20. Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG in children with primary nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal B Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel cytokine system secreted by osteoblast, osteoprotegerin (OPG and its ligand (OPGL regulates osteoclastogenesis. To determine the relation of the serum OPG levels in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS to the renal disease, we studied 30 patients with NS in comparison with 30 healthy children serving as controls. The study patients were divided into three equal groups: group 1 included newly diagnosed patients who were studied before and after a short course (one month of steroid therapy for the first time, group 2 included frequent relapsers (FR, and group 3 included infrequent relapsers (IFR. In addition to serum OPG (ELISA, osteocalcin (OC, parathormone (PTH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and 24- hour urinary Ca and proteins were measured. The NS patients revealed a significantly lower serum OPG and parameters of bone formation (ALP and OC and a significantly higher 24- hour urinary Ca than controls. A short course of glucocorticoids therapy for one month resulted in a significant decrease of serum OPG, ALP and OC levels and a significant increase of 24- hour urinary Ca, while serum PTH levels were not significantly affected by this the- rapy; the FR revealed a significantly lower serum level and a significantly higher 24- hour urinary Ca and serum PTH than the IFR. OPG had significant negative correlations with markers of disease activity and severity (ESR, serum cholesterol, 24- hour urinary protein and cumulative steroid dose, PTH and 24- hour urinary Ca. On the other hand, OPG had significant positive correlations with ALP, OC, and serum albumin. Low serum OPG, which is attributed to the renal disease and/or steroid therapy, may be an important factor contributing to bone resorption in NS. Studies of the protective effect of OPG administration against bone loss in NS are warranted.

  1. Serum Irisin Predicts Mortality Risk in Acute Heart Failure Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutong Shen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Irisin is a peptide hormone cleaved from a plasma membrane protein fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5. Emerging studies have indicated association between serum irisin and many major chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of serum irisin as a predictor for mortality risk in acute heart failure (AHF patients is not clear. Methods: AHF patients were enrolled and serum was collected at the admission and all patients were followed up for 1 year. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure serum irisin levels. To explore predictors for AHF mortality, the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, and receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis were used. To determine the role of serum irisin levels in predicting survival, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used. Results: In this study, 161 AHF patients were enrolled and serum irisin level was found to be significantly higher in patients deceased in 1-year follow-up. The univariate logistic regression analysis identified 18 variables associated with all-cause mortality in AHF patients, while the multivariate logistic regression analysis identified 2 variables namely blood urea nitrogen and serum irisin. ROC curve analysis indicated that blood urea nitrogen and the most commonly used biomarker, NT-pro-BNP, displayed poor prognostic value for AHF (AUCs ≤ 0.700 compared to serum irisin (AUC = 0.753. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that AHF patients with higher serum irisin had significantly higher mortality (P<0.001. Conclusion: Collectively, our study identified serum irisin as a predictive biomarker for 1-year all-cause mortality in AHF patients though large multicenter studies are highly needed.

  2. Serum creatine kinase isoenzymes in children with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eufemia, P; Finocchiaro, R; Zambrano, A; Lodato, V; Celli, L; Finocchiaro, S; Persiani, P; Turchetti, A; Celli, M

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates serum creatine kinase isoenzyme activity in children with osteogenesis imperfecta to determine its usefulness as a biochemical marker during treatment with bisphosphonate. The changes of creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme activity during and after discontinuation therapy were observed. These results could be useful in addressing over-treatment risk prevention. The brain isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CKbb) is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts during osteoclastogenesis, thus plays an important role in bone resorption. We previously identified high serum CKbb levels in 18 children with osteogenesis imperfect (OI) type 1 treated for 1 year with bisphosphonate (neridronate). In the present study, serum CK isoenzymes were evaluated in the same children with continuous versus discontinued neridronate treatment over a further 2-year follow-up period. This study included 18 children with OI type 1, 12 with continued (group A) and 6 with ceased (group B) neridronate treatment. Auxological data, serum biochemical markers of bone metabolism, bone mineral density z-score, and serum total CK and isoenzyme activities were determined in both groups. Serum CKbb was progressively and significantly increased in group A (p < 0.004) but rapidly decreased to undetectable levels in group B. In both groups, the cardiac muscle creatine kinase isoenzyme (CKmb) showed a marked decrease, while serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTx) levels were almost unchanged. This study provides evidence of the cumulative effect of neridronate administration in increasing serum CKbb levels and the reversible effect after its discontinuation. This approach could be employed for verifying the usefulness of serum CKbb as a biochemical marker in patients receiving prolonged bisphosphonate treatment. Moreover, the decreased serum CKmb levels suggest a systemic effect of these drugs.

  3. N-glycan signatures identified in tumor interstitial fluid and serum of breast cancer patients - association with tumor biology and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkelsen, Thilde; Haakensen, Vilde D; Saldova, Radka; Gromov, Pavel; Hansen, Merete Kjaer; Stöckmann, Henning; Lingjaerde, Ole Christian; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Papaleo, Elena; Helland, Åslaug; Rudd, Pauline M; Gromova, Irina

    2018-04-26

    Particular N-glycan structures are known to be associated with breast malignancies by coordinating various regulatory events within the tumor and corresponding microenvironment, thus implying that N-glycan patterns may be used for cancer stratification and as predictive or prognostic biomarkers. However, the association between N-glycans secreted by breast tumor and corresponding clinical relevance remain to be elucidated. We profiled N-glycans by HILIC UPLC across a discovery dataset composed of tumor interstitial fluids (TIF, n=85), paired normal interstitial fluids (NIF, n=54) and serum samples (n=28) followed by independent evaluation, with the ultimate goal of identifying tumor-related N-glycan patterns in blood of breast cancer patients. The segregation of N-linked oligosaccharides revealed 33 compositions, which exhibited differential abundances between TIF and NIF. TIFs were depleted of bisecting N-glycans, which are known to play essential roles in tumor suppression. An increased level of simple high mannose N-glycans in TIF strongly correlated with the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes within tumor. At the same time, a low level of highly complex N-glycans in TIF inversely correlated with the presence of infiltrating lymphocytes within tumor. Survival analysis showed that patients exhibiting increased TIF abundance of GP24 had better outcomes, whereas low levels of GP10, GP23, GP38, and coreF were associated with poor prognosis. Levels of GP1, GP8, GP9, GP14, GP23, GP28, GP37, GP38, and coreF were significantly correlated between TIF and paired serum samples. Cross-validation analysis using an independent serum dataset supported the observed correlation between TIF and serum, for five out of nine N-glycan groups: GP8, GP9, GP14, GP23, and coreF. Collectively, our results imply that profiling of N-glycans from proximal breast tumor fluids is a promising strategy for determining tumor-derived glyco-signature(s) in the blood. N-glycans structures

  4. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  5. Are There Any Promising Biochemical Correlates of Achievement Behavior and Motivation? The Evidence for Serum Uric Acid and Serum Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasl, Stanislav V.

    1974-01-01

    This review examines the available evidence in support of the argument that serum uric acid (SUA) possesses considerable promise as an indicator of one type of biochemical influence on achievement behavior. The evidence arguing for further research into the role of serum cholesterol in achievement behavior is also examined. (Author/JR)

  6. The effect of serum magnesium levels and serum endothelin-1 levels on bone mineral density in protein energy malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, C F; Karakelleoglu, C; Orbak, Z; Yildiz, L

    2012-06-01

    An inadequate and imbalanced intake of protein and energy results in protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). It is known that bone mineral density and serum magnesium levels are low in malnourished children. However, the roles of serum magnesium and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in the pathophysiology of bone mineralization are obscure. Thus, the relationships between serum magnesium and ET-1 levels and the changes in bone mineral density were investigated in this study. There was a total of 32 subjects, 25 of them had PEM and seven were controls. While mean serum ET-1 levels of the children with kwashiorkor and marasmus showed no statistically significant difference, mean serum ET-1 levels of both groups were significantly higher than that of the control group. Serum magnesium levels were lower than normal value in 9 (36%) of 25 malnourished children. Malnourished children included in this study were divided into two subgroups according to their serum magnesium levels. While mean serum ET-1 levels in the group with low magnesium levels were significantly higher than that of the group with normal magnesium levels (p malnutrition. Our study suggested that lower magnesium levels and higher ET-1 levels might be important factors in changes of bone mineral density in malnutrition. We recommend that the malnourished patients, especially with hypomagnesaemia, should be treated with magnesium early.

  7. Massive naproxen overdose with serial serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, Suad A; Anderson, Ilene B; Pedram, Fatehi; Colby, Jennifer M; Olson, Kent R

    2015-03-01

    Massive naproxen overdose is not commonly reported. Severe metabolic acidosis and seizure have been described, but the use of renal replacement therapy has not been studied in the context of overdose. A 28-year-old man ingested 70 g of naproxen along with an unknown amount of alcohol in a suicidal attempt. On examination in the emergency department 90 min later, he was drowsy but had normal vital signs apart from sinus tachycardia. Serum naproxen level 90 min after ingestion was 1,580 mg/L (therapeutic range 25-75 mg/L). He developed metabolic acidosis requiring renal replacement therapy using sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED) and continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) and had recurrent seizure activity requiring intubation within 4 h from ingestion. He recovered after 48 h. Massive naproxen overdose can present with serious toxicity including seizures, altered mental status, and metabolic acidosis. Hemodialysis and renal replacement therapy may correct the acid base disturbance and provide support in cases of renal impairment in context of naproxen overdose, but further studies are needed to determine the extraction of naproxen.

  8. Human blood serum analysis using TRXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkadas, C.; Karydas, A.G.; Paradellis, T.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence was applied in the analysis of a pool human blood serum sample, which was collected out of 100 healthy individuals during an ordinary day at a hospital in Athens. Direct measurements of 4 1 quantities were performed in a standard TRXRF module, but with the addition of a Mo filter after the cut-off reflector. In this way the exciting beam was further monochromatized leading to an improved peak to background ratio. The elements S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb were detected, with detection limits in the low ppb region for the elements of interest. The determined trace elements concentrations were found to be in very good agreement with values already reported in literature. For intercomparison a quantity of the same sample was freeze dried and measured in a secondary target assembly, in the form of pellets, giving almost identical results. The trace elements concentrations obtained can be considered as representative values for healthy population of Athens and therefore can be used as a monitor in order to associate the lack or excess of certain trace elements with pathological cases. (author)

  9. Human serum albumin binding of certain antimalarials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Olivera S.; Cvijetić, Ilija N.; Zlatović, Mario V.; Opsenica, Igor M.; Konstantinović, Jelena M.; Terzić Jovanović, Nataša V.; Šolaja, Bogdan A.; Verbić, Tatjana Ž.

    2018-03-01

    Interactions between eight in-house synthesized aminoquinolines, along with well-known chloroquine, and human serum albumin (HSA) have been studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. The synthesized aminoquinolines, despite being structurally diverse, were found to be very potent antimalarials. Fluorescence measurements indicate that three compounds having additional thiophene or benzothiophene substructure bind more strongly to HSA than other studied compounds. Competitive binding experiments indicate that these three compounds bind significantly stronger to warfarin compared to diazepam binding site. Fluorescence quenching at three temperatures (20, 25, and 37 °C) was analyzed using classical Stern-Volmer equation, and a static quenching mechanism was proposed. The enthalpy and entropy changes upon sulphur-containing compound-HSA interactions were calculated using Van't Hoff equation. Positive values of enthalpy and entropy changes indicate that non-specific, hydrophobic interactions are the main contributors to HSA-compound interaction. Molecular docking and calculated lipophilicity descriptors indicate the same, pointing out that the increased lipophilicity of sulphur-containing compounds might be a reason for their better binding to HSA. Obtained results might contribute to design of novel derivatives with improved pharmacokinetic properties and drug efficacy.

  10. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2003-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because a...... in aqueous compartments. - Bojesen, I. N., and H. S. Hansen. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin.......The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because...... a water-phase shuttle of monomers mediates such transfers. We have used our method based upon the use of albumin-filled red cell ghosts as a dispersed biological "reference binder" to measure the water-phase concentrations of anandamide. These concentrations were measured in buffer (pH 7.3) in equilibrium...

  11. Macrophage serum markers in pneumococcal bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren K; Weis, Nina

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a new macrophage-specific serum marker. This study investigated sCD163 and other markers of macrophage activation (neopterin, ferritin, transcobalamin, and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor [suPAR]) as prognostic factors in patients...... analyses at the time of first positive blood culture. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: sCD163 was highly correlated with other macrophage markers and was significantly elevated (median [25-75 percentiles], 4.6 mg/L [2.8-8.9]) compared with healthy controls (2.7 mg/L [2.1-3.3], p ..., all macrophage markers were increased in patients who died from their infection compared with survivors, whereas no change was observed in any of the markers in the very old age. At cutoff levels of 9.5 mg/L (sCD163) and 1650 nmol/L (C-reactive protein), the relative risk for fatal outcome in patients...

  12. KADAR ALBUMIN SERUM DAN FAAL GINJAL ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Kosnadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum albumin concentration (Sa is one of the determinants of single nephron glomerular filtration rate. Hypoalbuminemia is frequently encountered in our country due to protein calory malnutrition, liver function disorders and others. The renal function or glomerular filtration rate (GFR measurement in children suffering from renal diseases would be able to provide information regarding the extent of the renal damage. The aim of this study was to know the interaction between Sa and GFR in children. GFR was measured by standard inulin clearance (Cin and conventional endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr in 112 children hospitalized with renal diseases. Standard renal function status test, namely IKA-1984 was utilized for the renal function measurement. Result of this study showed a positive correlation between : Sa, Cin and Ccr in pediatric patients with decreased renal function : Cin = 5,23 + 12,14 Sa (r = 0,50; p = 0,007; n = 26 and Cr = 7,10 + 14,47 Sa (r = 0,53; p = 0,005; n = 26, so that the lower Sa level, usually will indicate the lower renal function and the more severe the renal failure.

  13. Serum Metabolomics of Burkitt Lymphoma Mouse Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengmin Yang

    Full Text Available Burkitt lymphoma (BL is a rare and highly aggressive type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The mortality rate of BL patients is very high due to the rapid growth rate and frequent systemic spread of the disease. A better understanding of the pathogenesis, more sensitive diagnostic tools and effective treatment methods for BL are essential. Metabolomics, an important aspect of systems biology, allows the comprehensive analysis of global, dynamic and endogenous biological metabolites based on their nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectrometry (MS. It has already been used to investigate the pathogenesis and discover new biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. In this study, we analyzed differences of serum metabolites in BL mice and normal mice by NMR-based metabolomics. We found that metabolites associated with energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and choline phospholipid metabolism were altered in BL mice. The diagnostic potential of the metabolite differences was investigated in this study. Glutamate, glycerol and choline had a high diagnostic accuracy; in contrast, isoleucine, leucine, pyruvate, lysine, α-ketoglutarate, betaine, glycine, creatine, serine, lactate, tyrosine, phenylalanine, histidine and formate enabled the accurate differentiation of BL mice from normal mice. The discovery of abnormal metabolism and relevant differential metabolites may provide useful clues for developing novel, noninvasive approaches for the diagnosis and prognosis of BL based on these potential biomarkers.

  14. Free serum cortisol: quantification applying equilibrium dialysis or ultrafiltration and an automated immunoassay system

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Möhnle, Patrick; Briegel, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Background: Quantification of bioactive, free serum cortisol concentrations can characterize adrenocortical function more appropriately compared to total serum cortisol measurement. Ultrafiltration or equilibrium dialysis of serum samples allow direct measurement of free serum cortisol concentrations but respective methods have poorly been validated so far. The aim of our study was to investigate the analytical performance of free serum cortisol measurement employing equilibrium dialysis and ...

  15. Human autologous serum as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in human Schwann cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Goodarzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cell -based and tissue engineered products have opened new horizons in treatment of incurable nervous system disorders. The number of studies on the role of Schwann cells (SC in treating nervous disorders is higher than other cell types. Different protocols have been suggested for isolation and expansion of SC which most of them have used multiple growth factors, mitogens and fetal bovine sera (FBS in culture medium. Because of potential hazards of animal-derived reagents, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of replacing FBS with human autologous serum (HAS on SC's yield and culture parameters. Samples from 10 peripheral nerve biopsies were retrieved and processed under aseptic condition. The isolated cells cultured in FBS (1st group or autologous serum (2nd group. After primary culture the cells were seeded at 10000 cell/cm2 in a 12 wells cell culture plate for each group. At 100% confluency, the cell culture parameters (count, viability, purity and culture duration of 2 groups were compared using paired t-test. The average donors' age was 35.80 (SD=13.35 and except for 1 sample the others cultured successfully. In first group, the averages of cell purity, viability and culture duration were 97% (SD=1.32, 97/33% (SD=1.22 and 11.77 (SD=2.58 days respectively. This parameters were 97.33% (SD=1.00, 97.55% (SD=1.33 and 10.33 days (SD=1.65 in second group. The difference of cell count, purity and viability were not significant between 2 groups (P>0.05. The cells of second group reached to 100% confluency in shorter period of time (P=0.03. The results of this study showed that autologous serum can be a good substitute for FBS in human SC culture. This can reduce the costs and improve the safety of cell product for clinical application.

  16. The study in the relationship between serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) by employing the various kits of PTH assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizumi, Kazutami; Aibata, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Yoshiyuki; Kiji, Shigeyuki; Ueyoshi, Akitaka; Shimizu, Eiji; Okamoto, Yukiharu; Tuda, Tadaaki; Ota, Kiichiro

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influences of serum PTH assay in the various concentrations of serum calcium, we divided into three groups which serum calcium had below 8.0 mg/dl, 8.2 mg/dl to 9.8 mg/dl and above 10.0 mg/dl at random samples and assayed PTH in serum sample, using various kits of PTH assay obtained from commercial sources. Our results suggested that the measurement of serum PTH influenced by the concentration of serum calcium and therefore, should be taken an attention of serum calcium in each sample. (author)

  17. Influence of feeding on serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations

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    Steiner JM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jörg M Steiner, Craig G Ruaux, David A Williams Gastrointestinal Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Measurement of serum concentration of pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI has been shown to be highly specific for exocrine pancreatic function and sensitive for the diagnosis of canine pancreatitis. Currently, it is recommended that food be withheld for at least 12 hours before collecting a blood sample for analysis from dogs. However, it is unknown whether feeding has any influence on serum canine PLI concentration. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of feeding on serum canine PLI concentrations in healthy dogs. Food was withheld from eight healthy adult Beagle dogs for at least 17 hours and a baseline serum sample (0 minutes was collected. Dogs were fed and serum samples were collected at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 minutes. There was no significant difference in serum canine PLI concentrations at any time after feeding (P=0.131. We conclude that feeding has no significant influence on serum canine PLI concentrations. Keywords: dog, pancreatic function, pancreatitis, biomarker, diagnostic test

  18. The relationship between serum levels of vitamin D and migraine

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    Tayebeh Mottaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is common worldwide. In recent years, vitamin D deficiency has been determined as a global health problem. A few studies have shown inverse relationship between serum vitamin D levels and headache. Thus, in this study, we assessed relationship between serum vitamin D levels with migraine. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional. Seventy-six migraine patients aged 10-61 years were included. The multiple linear regression was used to show association between serum 25-0H-D3 and migraine. Adjustments were performed for age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, number of chronic diseases, and education level . Results: The positive weak relationship was observed between serum vitamin D and headache diary result (P = 0.042, r = 0.19. But, no significant relationship was observed between serum vitamin D and migraine severity (P = 0.741. Conclusion: High levels of serum 25-OH-D3 was related to higher headache diary result. After adjustment for confounding variables, this significant association remained. No significant relationship was shown between serum vitamin D and migraine severity.

  19. Control of declared origin of bovine serum, a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, M.; Papesch, W.

    2009-04-01

    Bovine serum is the essential culture medium for cell cultures. Therefore it is highly demanded and the quality of the serum, e.g.: absence of bacteria, viruses certain antibodies, etc.., are important criteria. as some cattle diseases are endemic in certain regions, the origin of bovine serum is an important quality measure for its value. Thus the need to control the declared origins is present. Bovine serum was measured for d2H, d13C, d15N and d34S of proteine (dry residue) and d2H and d18O of the serum water. The hydrogen and oxygen are mainly depending by the isotopic composition of the water ingested by the cattle, and thus usually influenced by the isotopic signal of the precipitation. The carbon isotope signal is reflecting the diet of the cattle, whether it mainly feed on C3- or C4-plants. The nitrogen and sulphur isotope ratio is transferred from the ground/soil into the plant material and into the animal tissue, with some offset for nitrogen and without any significant offset for sulphur. Bovine serum samples from Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand have been analysed. Due to the variations in the environmental conditions in different countries and regions which influence the isotope signatures of the serum samples it is possible to discriminate samples of different origin. Main discriminating parameters are d2H and d18O, d13C and d34S.

  20. Evaluation of the serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo

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    Majid Rostami Mogaddam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Vitiligo is an acquired, idiopathic disorder characterized by circumscribed depigmented macules and patches, which affects approximately 0.1–2% of the general population worldwide. Zinc is an essential trace element that is necessary for growth and development at all stages of life. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and vitiligo. Aim : To measure the serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo compared to healthy subjects. Material and methods : One hundred patients with vitiligo and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. The two groups were matched for age and sex. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results : The mean serum level of zinc in vitiligo patients and controls was 80.11 ±17.10 µg/dl and 96.10 ±16.16 µg/dl, respectively. The serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p = 0.0001. Conclusions : The results of our study revealed a significant association between vitiligo and serum zinc levels. A relative decrease in the serum zinc level in vitiligo patients can highlight the role of zinc in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, and large-scale studies need to be conducted to confirm these findings and assess the effect of oral zinc supplements in patients with low zinc levels.

  1. Serum selenium level and risk of lung cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Hein, H O; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    Serum selenium has been implicated as a risk factor for lung cancer, but the issue remains unsettled. We tested in a cohort of 3,333 males aged 53 to 74 years the hypothesis that a low serum selenium would be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality.During 16 years, 167 subjects(5.......1%) died from lung cancer; 48 males (5.0%) among males with low serum selenium, 0.4-1.0 μmol·l(-1), n=965, 57 males (5.1%) among males with medium serum selenium, 1.1-1.2 μmol·l(-1), n=1,141, and 62 males (5.1%) among males with high serum selenium, 1.3-3.0 μmol·l(-1), n=1,227. After adjustment for age...... (chronic bronchitis and peak flow), referencing the lowest level of serum selenium HRs were 1.17(0.79-1.75), and 1.43(0.96-2.14), respectively. Among heavy smokers a high serum selenium was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer mortality after taking into account all potential...

  2. Binding and Anticancer Properties of Plumbagin with Human Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yi; Zhang, Yao; Qi, Jinxu; Kong, Linlin; Zhou, Zuping; Liang, Shichu; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Plumbagin has received extensive attention as a promising anticancer drug. Therefore, we investigated the binding and anticancer properties of plumbagin with human serum albumin. Fluorescence results demonstrated that plumbagin interacts with human serum albumin, although its binding affinity may be affected to various extents by different compounds. The human serum albumin-plumbagin complex structure revealed that plumbagin binds to the hydrophobic cavity in the IIA subdomain of human serum albumin through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. The plumbagin-human serum albumin complex enhances cytotoxicity by 2- to 3-fold particularly in cancer cells but has no effect on normal cells in vitro. Compared with the unbound drug, the human serum albumin-plumbagin complex promotes HeLa cell apoptosis and has a stronger capacity for cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase of HeLa cells. In conclusion, this study contributes to the rational design and development of plumbagin-based drugs and a drug-human serum albumin delivery system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Major determinants of serum homocysteine concentrations in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ja; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Jeong Uk; Ha, Hun Young; Choi, Bo Youl

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors that determine serum homocysteine concentrations in Korean population. In a community-based study, 871 participants completed detailed questionnaires and physical examination. We found that increased age, male sex, family history of stroke, deficiencies of serum folate and vitamin B12, and elevated serum creatinine significantly increased the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia. However, hormonal and behavioral factors (smoking, alcohol drinking, coffee consumption, and sedentary time) were not associated with the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia. The risk of hyperhomocysteinemia was steeply increased in subjects with two or more risk factors among four selected risk factors (deficiencies of serum folate and vitamin B12, elevated creatinine, and family history of stroke) compared to subjects who did not have any risk factors, especially subjects over the age of 65 yr (odds ratio [OR], 33.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.71-302.0 in men; OR, 39.2; 95% CI, 7.95-193.2 in women). In conclusion, increased age, male sex, family history of stroke, deficiencies of serum folate and vitamin B12, and elevated serum creatinine are important determinants of serum homocysteine concentrations with interaction effects between these factors.

  4. Serum relaxin-3 hormone relationship to male delayed puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafy, S; Sabry, J H; Akl, E M; Elethy, R A; Mostafa, T

    2018-03-01

    Puberty is the transitional period between childhood and adulthood, a process encompassing morphological, physiological and behavioural development to attain full reproductive capability. This study aimed to assess serum relaxin-3 hormone relationship with male delayed puberty. Sixty males were investigated as two equal groups: males with delayed puberty and healthy matched males as controls. They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination and estimation of serum FSH, LH, testosterone, relaxin-3 hormonal levels. The results showed that the secondary sexual characters in the patients group were at Tanner stages 1-2 and in the healthy controls at Tanner stages 3-5. The mean BMI in the patients group was significantly increased, whereas the mean levels of the span, testicular volume, serum LH, FSH, testosterone as well as relaxin-3 hormonal levels were significantly decreased compared with the healthy controls. Serum relaxin-3 levels showed significant positive correlation with the age, testis volume, span, Tanner stages, serum testosterone, FSH, LH hormones. In addition, serum relaxin-3 levels showed significant negative correlation with BMI. It is concluded that serum level of relaxin-3 hormone is an important mediator in the pathophysiological process of normal puberty being significantly decreased in males with delayed puberty. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Serum Selenium and Ceruloplasmin in Nigerians with Peripartum Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilu M. Karaye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine if selenium deficiency, serum ceruloplasmin and traditional birth practices are risk factors for peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM, in Kano, Nigeria. This is a case-control study carried out in three hospitals, and PPCM patients were followed up for six months. Critically low serum selenium concentration was defined as <70 µg/L. A total of 39 PPCM patients and 50 controls were consecutively recruited after satisfying the inclusion criteria. Mean serum selenium in patients (61.7 ± 14.9 µg/L was significantly lower than in controls (118.4 ± 45.6 µg/L (p < 0.001. The prevalence of serum selenium <70 µg/L was significantly higher among patients (76.9% than controls (22.0% (p < 0.001. The mean ceruloplasmin and prevalence of socio-economic indices, multiparity, pregnancy-induced hypertension, obesity and twin pregnancy were not different between the groups (p > 0.05. Logistic regression showed that rural residency significantly increased the odds for serum selenium <70 µg/L by 2.773-fold (p = 0.037. Baseline serum levels of selenium and ceruloplasmin were not associated with six-month mortality. This study has shown that selenium deficiency is a risk factor for PPCM in Kano, Nigeria, and is related to rural residency. However, serum ceruloplasmin, customary birth practices and some other characteristics were not associated with PPCM in the study area.

  6. Fatty acyltranferases in serum in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielenski, J.; Newman, L.J.; Slomiany, B.L.; Slomiany, A.

    1987-01-01

    Studies on serum and gastrointestinal secretion from CF patient is suggest that defective accumulation of mucus in gastrointestinal tract and excessive amount of a protease resistant peptides in serum are related to the abnormal activity of enzymes responsible for fatty acylation of proteins. Here, the authors investigated the fatty acyltransferase activities in serum of normal and CF patients. A 15μl of serum was mixed with 0.85 nmol [ 14 C]palmitoyl CoA, 200μg of serine and threonine and incubated at 37 0 C for 30 min. The incubates were immediately frozen, dried extracted with C/M and chromatographed in chloroform/methanol/water. The incorporation of [ 14 C]palmitate was determined using linear radioscanner and authoradiography. The results of HPTLC revealed that CF serum in addition of ACAT and LCAT contained enzymes responsible for the transfer of [ 14 C]palmitate to monoacylphosphoglycerides, and serine and threonine. In normal serum the formation of a small amount of palmitoyl serine and palmitoyl threonine was also observed but the acylation of monoacylphosphoglycerides was not detectable. The authors conclude that in cystic fibrosis the abnormal fatty acyltransferases are responsible for the occurrence of protease resistant glycoprotein, unusual peptides in serum and possibly for the modification of membrane proteins and lipids

  7. The reference range of serum, plasma and erythrocyte magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Immanuel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the clinical importance of serum magnesium level has just recently begun with the analysis and findings of abnormal magnesium level in cardiovascular, metabolic and neuromuscular disorder. Although the serum level does not reflect the body magnesium level, but currently, only serum magnesium determination is widely used. Erythrocyte magnesium is considered more sensitive than serum magnesium as it reflects intracellular magnesium status. According to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards every laboratory is recommended to have its own reference range for the tests it performs, including magnesium determination. The reference range obtained is appropriate for the population and affected by the method and technique. This study aimed to find the reference range of serum and plasma magnesium and also intracellular magnesium i.e. erythrocyte magnesium by direct method, and compare the results of serum and plasma magnesium. Blood was taken from 114-blood donor from Unit Transfusi Darah Daerah (UTDD Budhyarto Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI DKI Jakarta, consisted of 57 male and 57 female, aged 17 – 65 years, clinically healthy according to PMI donor criteria. Blood was taken from blood set, collected into 4 ml vacuum tube without anticoagulant for serum magnesium determination and 3 ml vacuum tube with lithium heparin for determination of erythrocyte and plasma magnesium Determination of magnesium level was performed with clinical chemistry auto analyzer Hitachi 912 by Xylidil Blue method colorimetrically. This study showed no significant difference between serum and heparinized plasma extra cellular magnesium. The reference range for serum or plasma magnesium was 1.30 – 2.00 mEq/L and for erythrocyte magnesium was 4.46 - 7.10 mEq/L. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:229-35Keywords: Reference range, extracellular magnesium, intracellular magnesium

  8. Serum amylase and lipase activities after exploratory laparotomy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellah, J R; Bell, G

    1989-09-01

    Serum amylase and lipase activities and creatinine concentration were determined before surgery, and at 1 and 2 days after exploratory laparotomy in 24 dogs. Examination of all viscera was done during each laparotomy, but a surgical procedure was not performed. The mean serum activities for lipase were: before surgery, 0.71 (0.0 to 2.0) Cherry Crandall units (CCU)/L; 1 day after surgery, 2.1 (0.0 to 4.5) CCU/L; and 2 days after surgery, 1.19 (0.0 to 3.9) CCU/L. The mean serum activities for amylase were: before surgery, 1,958 (1,027 to 3,426) IU/L; 1 day after surgery, 1,538 (937 to 2,659) IU/L; and 2 days after surgery, 1,663 (1,066 to 2,274) IU/L. Serum creatinine concentrations before surgery, 1 day after surgery, and 2 days after surgery were 0.88 (0.2 to 1.7) mg/dl, 0.78 (0.4 to 1.3) mg/dl, and 0.78 (0.3 to 1.3) mg/dl, respectively. Mean preoperative, day-1, and day-2 serum amylase activities and serum creatinine concentrations did not differ significantly from each other. Mean preoperative and day-2 serum lipase activities did not differ significantly; however, mean serum lipase activity was significantly greater when day 1 activities were compared with preoperative activities (P = 0.0002). Post-mortem examinations revealed no gross or histologic evidence of pancreatitis in any dog. The results of this study show that a 3 or more fold increase in serum lipase activity may occur after routine exploratory laparotomy in dogs without clinical signs or gross evidence of pancreatitis. Histologic evidence of pancreatitis was not found in the right pancreatic lobes in any dog.

  9. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis.

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    Chaojun Qi

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN.For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity-2000 (SLEDAI-2K scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry.Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages.Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest that it might play an

  10. Serum Sodium Changes in Fluoxetine Users at Different Age Groups

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    Khalil Talaeizadeh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: Fluoxetine, a widely used antidepressant, can affect the serum sodium level. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare changes in the serum sodium level of depressive patients taking fluoxetine according to age. "n Methods:This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 126 patients with depression, dividing the patients into two age groups of 15 to 35 years, and above 55 years, who referred to psychiatric clinics of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Serum sodium level was measured prior to fluoxetine therapy and at the first and third week after; adverse symptoms were recorded. Serum sodium level, hyponatremia, and other adverse effects were compared between the two age groups. Results: There was a significant decrease in serum sodium levels in the older patients at the first and third week after the therapy; but the serum sodium levels decreased only after the third week of therapy in the younger patients (p < 0.05. Serum sodium level was significantly lower in older than in younger patients at the third week of the therapy (140.8±2.26 vs. 135.2±2.06; p < 0.05, and hyponatremia was detected only in the older patients after the first and third week of therapy, 4.7% and 15.8%, respectively. Conclusions: Using fluoxetine can decrease serum sodium level, which is more frequent, more severe, and more clinically manifested in older than younger patients. Monitoring serum sodium level is recommended in early weeks of fluoxetine therapy especially for patients older than 55 years of age.

  11. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  12. Study of serum lipids in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anju

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty fresh and untreated patients of leprosy constituted the study group. Fifty, age and sex matched healthy individuals formed the controls. Ridly and Jopling system of classification was used in the study. Majority i.e 21 cases were of BT group, 12 of BB, 7 of BL, 9 of LL and one case was of TT leprosy. The serum triglyceride level was lower than normal in TT, showed no alteration in BT or BB and was insignificantly increased in bL and LL patients. The total cholesterol was lowerthan normal in TT, showed no alteration in BT or BB and was insignificantly increased in Bland LL patients. The total cholesterol was lower than normal in TT, whereas in BT, BB, BL and LL groups the levels were statistically decreased. The HDL cholesterol was within normal range in TT, significantly decreased in BT and LL patients, showed no significant alteration in BB and was insignificantly decreased in BL group. The LDL cholesterol in TT was low but was not so low statistically when compared with the controls, whereas in BT, BB, BL and LL groups the levels were statistically decreased. The VLDL cholesterol was within normal range in TT and BT, was raised insignificantly in 3 of 12 cases of BB, was within normal range in BL and in LL leprosy it was raised in one out of 9 cases. In the absence of any derangement of liver function tests, it can be concluded that leprosy per se leads to alterations in lipid metabolism. However, no correlation could be established between the group/type of leprosy, bacterial indices and levels of different lipid fractions in the present study.

  13. Isoforms of murine and human serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Hackler, R; Kold, B

    1998-01-01

    Isoelectric focusing (IEF) and immunofixation of murine serum amyloid P component (SAP), purified and in serum, showed a distinct and strain-dependent isoform pattern with up to seven bands (pI 5.1-5.7). Neuraminidase treatment caused a shift of the isoforms to more basic pI values, but did...... of isoforms of human SAP required the presence of urea and higher SAP concentrations. TEF and immunofixation of SAP monomers showed five to eight isoforms, ranging from pI 4.7-5.7. IEF of SAP in human serum resulted in a less distinct pattern and more acidic isoforms. As with murine SAP, neuraminidase...

  14. The contraction of container for shipping antibiotics and serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Romi; Kadarusman; Krismawan

    2003-01-01

    The construction of container for shipping antibiotics and serum. The construction of container is an engineering process to solve problem in shipping of antibiotics and serum to their destinations, in the same time to preserve their quality, in order to be used by the local patients. Inner part of antibiotics containers is made of stainless-steel, guarded by a vacuum and its temperature is conditioned between -10,8 to -20,2 oC so it can preserve the antibiotics and serum up to several days

  15. Ferritin. Radioimmunological determination in serum and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltwasser, J.P.; Werner, E.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Frankfurt am Main

    1977-01-01

    Ferritin is an iron storage protein which has been shown to be present in blood serum only recently. An immunoradiometric determination of ferritin in 324 subjects with different iron stores is reported. In healthy men and women a ferritin concentration of 131 μg/l (SD: 1.59) and 67 μg/l (SD: 1.79) was found respectively. In male and female blood donors as well as patients with iron deficiency and iron overload significant differences of serum ferritin concentration could be demonstrated. In clinical practice the determination of serum ferritin is a valuable method for the estimation of body iron stores. (orig.) [de

  16. Atomic structure and chemistry of human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao M.; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been determined crystallographically to a resolution of 2.8 A. It comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped molecule. Each domain is a product of two subdomains that possess common structural motifs. The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and ILIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. The structure explains numerous physical phenomena and should provide insight into future pharmacokinetic and genetically engineered therapeutic applications of serum albumin.

  17. Serum inhibin B levels during male childhood and puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2001-01-01

    Inhibin B is a testicular peptide hormone that regulates FSH secretion in a negative feedback loop. In males serum levels of inhibin B are detectable throughout life with prominent changes in the first year of life and during puberty. Serum inhibin B is normally detectable throughout childhood...... normal or near-normal levels are seen in cryptorchidism and disorders with preserved Sertoli cell function in spite of absence of germ cells or impaired androgen biosynthesis or action. During puberty a developmental change in the regulation of serum inhibin B occurs. In contrast to childhood inhibin B...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5700 - Whole human plasma or serum immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the proteins in plasma or serum. Measurements of proteins in plasma or serum aid in the diagnosis of any disease concerned with abnormal levels of plasma or serum proteins, e.g...

  19. Correlation of periodontitis with mandibular radiomorphometric indices, serum calcium and serum estradiol in postmenopausal women: A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Govind Chandak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis and periodontitis have several risk factors in common. The majority of studies evaluating periodontal bone loss and systemic bone mineral density have found that low bone mineral density systemically is significantly associated with an increase in loss of alveolar bone height and periodontal destruction. Hence, the purpose of the study was to determine the effect of periodontitis on mandibular radiomorphometric indices, serum calcium and serum estradiol levels in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Forty female patients in the age group of 35–55 years were included in the study. The participants were divided into two equal groups, i.e., control group A (twenty - postmenopausal women with healthy periodontium and study group B (twenty - postmenopausal women with periodontitis. A thorough clinical examination of all the forty patients was carried out to detect the presence of periodontitis on the basis of clinical attachment level. Quantitative indices were measured on digital panoramic radiographs, and serum calcium and estradiol levels were estimated. Results: No statistically significant correlation of periodontitis with any of the radiomorphometric indices, serum calcium and serum estradiol levels was observed in postmenopausal women. Conclusion: There is little evidence of correlation of serum estradiol, serum calcium levels, and morphometric indices with periodontitis and therefore detailed further research about this correlation is required.

  20. Serum proteomic analysis reveals potential serum biomarkers for occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis caused by trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peiwu; Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Xifei; Hong, Wenxu; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhang, Hang; Liu, Wei; Huang, Haiyan; Huang, Xinfeng; Wu, Desheng; Yang, Linqing; Tang, Haiyan; Zhou, Li; Li, Xuan; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-08-17

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent with widespread occupational exposure and also a major environmental contaminant. Occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene (OMLDT) is an autoimmune disease and it has become one major hazard in China. In this study, sera from 3 healthy controls and 3 OMLDT patients at different disease stages were used for a screening study by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Eight proteins including transthyretin (TTR), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), haptoglobin, clusterin, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein C-III and apolipoprotein C-II were found to be significantly altered among the healthy, acute-stage, healing-stage and healed-stage groups. Specifically, the altered expression of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin were further validated by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Our data not only suggested that TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin could serve as potential serum biomarkers of OMLDT, but also indicated that measurement of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin or their combination could help aid in the diagnosis, monitoring the progression and therapy of the disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of native and glycated human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Joshi, Virgina O. d.; Contreras, Silvia; Gil, Herminia; Medina, Honorio; Siemiarczuk, Aleksander

    1999-05-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation, also known as Maillard reaction, plays an important role in the secondary complications of the diabetic pathology and aging, therefore, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were glycated by a conventional method in our laboratory using glucose as the glycating agent. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were carried out with a laser strobe fluorometer equipped with a nitrogen/dye laser and a frequency doubler as a pulsed excitation source. The samples were excited at 295 nm and the emission spectra were recorded at 345 nm. The obtained decay curves were tried for double and triple exponential functions. It has been found that the shorter lifetime increases for glycated proteins as compared with that of the native ones. For example, in the case of glycated BSA the lifetime increased from 1.36 ns to 2.30 ns. Similarly, for HSA, the lifetime increases from 1.58 ns to 2.26 ns. Meanwhile, the longer lifetime changed very slightly for both proteins (from 6.52 ns to 6.72 ns). The increase in the lifetime can be associated with the environmental effect; originated from the attachment of glucose to some lysine residues. A good example is Trp 214 which is in the cage of Lys 225, Lys 212, Lys 233, Lys 205, Lys 500, Lys 199 and Lys 195. If fluorescence lifetime technique is calibrated and properly used it could be employed for assessing glycation of proteins.

  2. Stable cystatin C serum levels confirm normal renal function in patients with dronedarone-associated increase in serum creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, David; Oswald, Hanno; Gardiwal, Ajmal; Lüsebrink, Ulrich; König, Thorben; Schreyer, Hendrik; Klein, Gunnar

    2013-03-01

    Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic drug for patients with nonpermanent atrial fibrillation (AF). A relatively consistent finding in all trials studying dronedarone was a moderate but significant elevation of serum creatinine. Since dronedarone competes for the same organic cation transporter in the distal renal tubule with creatinine, serum creatinine and its derived estimated glomerular filtration rate might not reflect true renal function in patients on dronedarone. We therefore investigated alternative markers for renal function in these patients. We prospectively included 20 patients with nonpermanent AF in whom dronedarone 400 mg twice daily was started. Patients had normal renal function and serum creatinine; serum cystatin C and creatinine clearance were measured before treatment and 10 and 90 days after treatment started. Mean serum creatinine level for all 20 patients at baseline (day 0) was 84.55 ± 12.14 and 87.8 ± 17.59 µmol/L on day 10. This slight increase in all patients was not significant. Patients were now divided into the predefined groups of "increased creatinine" (increase in serum creatinine level > 1 standard deviation) and "not increased creatinine." Patients with increased creatinine levels (n = 5) showed a significant elevation of serum creatinine levels from day 0 to day 10 (82.4 ± 9.18 to 104.4 ± 12.74 µmol/L; P = .003), whereas change in serum creatinine levels in the not increased creatinine group (n = 15) was not significant. Serum cystatin C levels remained stable in both of these groups (increased creatinine group: 0.76 ± 0.08 to 0.78 ± 0.08 mg/L; P = .65; not increased creatinine group: 0.77 ± 0.108 to 0.77 ± 0.107 mg/L; P = .906). In conclusion, cystatin C represents an easily available and reliable biomarker for estimation of true renal function in patients on dronedarone treatment.

  3. Does a Reduction in Serum Sodium Concentration or Serum Potassium Concentration Increase the Prevalence of Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Donal; Miller, Kevin C; Edwards, Jeffrey E

    2016-08-01

    Although exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) are common in ultradistance runners and athletes in general, their etiology remains unclear. EAMC are painful, sudden, involuntary contractions of skeletal muscle occurring during or after exercise and are recognized by visible bulging or knotting of the whole, or part of, a muscle. Many clinicians believe EAMC occur after an imbalance in electrolyte concentrations, specifically serum sodium concentration ([Na+]s) and serum potassium concentration ([K+]s). Studies that have established a link between EAMC occurrence and serum electrolyte concentrations after an athletic event are unhelpful. Focused Clinical Question: Are [Na+]s and [K+]s different in athletes who experience EAMC than noncrampers?

  4. The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, G; Hayashi, I

    1976-12-01

    The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media. (Reemplazo del suero por hormonas en el medio de cultivo de células). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 120-121, 1976. The serum used in cell culture media can be replaced by a mixture of hormones and some accesory blood factors. The pituitary cell line GH3 can be grown in a medium in which serum is replaced by triiodothyronine, transferrin, parathormone, tyrotrophin releasing hormone and somatomedins. Hela and BHK cell strains can also be grown in serum free medium supplemented with hormones. Each cell type appears to have different hormonal requirements yet it may found that some hormones are required for most cell types.

  5. Timing of Levothyroxine Administration Affects Serum Thyrotropin Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Bach-Huynh, Thien-Giang; Nayak, Bindu; Loh, Jennifer; Soldin, Steven; Jonklaas, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients treated with levothyroxine typically ingest it in a fasting state to prevent food impairing its absorption. The serum thyrotropin concentration is the therapeutic index of levothyroxine action.

  6. Serum and cellular biologic tumor markers in testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadpour, N.; Lalehzarian, M.

    1987-01-01

    Several serum and cellular biologic tumor markers in testicular cancer are studied. The role of alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin in staying testicular tumors is reported and the use of radioimmunoassay is considered. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. Serum Kreatinin Seviyelerinin Perkutan Nefrolitotripside Kanama Uzerine Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Can sener

    2015-06-01

    Sonuc: Calismamizda kreatinin degerlerinin PNL sonrasi kanama icin bir risk faktoru oldugu, serum kreatinin degerlerinin yuksekligi olan hastalarda, olmayanlara oranla hematokrit dususunun daha fazla oldugu gorulmektedir. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 221-225

  8. Serum vitamin A levels among malnourished children aged 6 - 59 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control hospital-based descriptive study carried out at the Institute of Child. Health (ICH) Banzazzau, Zaria. Systematic sampling method was adopted to select undernourished children aged 6-59 months for the study. Serum vitamin A level was.

  9. Serum CA 125 concentrations in women with endometriosis or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist analogue therapy in women with endometriosis and uterine fibroids. Serum concentrations of this cell surface antigen did not correlate with uterine volume and appeared to have no value in the assessment of ...

  10. Serum YKL-40 and interleukin 6 levels in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggar, R.J.; Johansen, J.S.; Smedby, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Serum levels of the inflammatory markers YKL-40 and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are increased in many conditions, including cancers. We examined serum YKL-40 and IL-6 levels in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, a tumor with strong immunologic reaction to relatively few tumor cells, especially...... in nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed Danish and Swedish patients with incident Hodgkin lymphoma (N=470) and population controls from Denmark (n=245 for YKL-40; n=348 for IL-6). Serum YKL-40 and IL-6 levels were determined by ELISA, and log-transformed data were analyzed...... by linear regression, adjusting for age and sex. RESULTS: Serum levels of YKL-40 and IL-6 increased in Hodgkin lymphoma patients compared with controls (YKL-40, 3.6-fold; IL-6, 8.3-fold; both, PHodgkin lymphoma patients (n=176), levels were correlated...

  11. Serum arylesterase and paraoxonase activities in patients with ovarian tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Michalak

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: ARE activity is higher in patients with ovarian cancer than in patients with benign ovarian tumors; however, the serum activity of ARE is similar between patients with cancer and healthy individuals.

  12. Correlation between serum zinc level and height of adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-01

    4. The recommended ... tics and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) used serum zinc level below 10.71mmol/l as a cut .... demanded increased intake in childhood, adolescence and pregnancy. This may explain the low ...

  13. Systematic study of plasma and serum proteins in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daburon, F.; Nizza, P.; Hatchikian, C.; Schmidt, J.-P.

    1966-01-01

    This work has been carried out in the framework of the determination of the physiological constants of a normal pig. The aim was to study the serum and plasma proteins of this animal species, the ultimate object being to discover whether the qualitative and quantitative changes in these proteins can make a significant contribution to the establishment of a biological dosimetry for irradiated pigs. The serum and plasma from a normal pig were analyzed first by various simple electrophoretic methods and then by immuno-electrophoresis. As a result of the particular characteristics of pig serum we have gradually been led to make numerous modifications to the techniques used for human serums or for those of small laboratory animals. Much careful work and patience were required in order to obtain reproducible results. (authors) [fr

  14. Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Juul, A; Petersen, J H

    1997-01-01

    Inhibin B levels were measured in serum from 400 healthy Danish prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent males, aged 6-20 yr, in a cross-sectional study using a recently developed immunoassay that is specific for inhibin B, the physiologically important inhibin form in men. In addition, serum levels...... of FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol levels were measured. Serum levels of inhibin B, FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol all increased significantly between stages I and II of puberty. From stage II of puberty the inhibin B level was relatively constant, whereas the FSH level continued to increase...... between stages II and III. From stage III of puberty the FSH level was also relatively constant, although there was a nonsignificant trend of slightly decreased FSH levels at pubertal stage V compared to stage IV. The levels of serum LH, testosterone, and estradiol increased progressively throughout...

  15. Selected Blood Serum Elements in Van (Turkey Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Altunok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Van cat originates from eastern Turkey. One of the characteristic features of Van cats is the colour of their eyes, which can be both eyes blue, both eyes amber or one eye blue and the other amber. Serum essential trace, macro and industrial element concentrations of Van cats (n = 47 according to sex, age, hair length and eye colour differences were investigated. Serum aluminium, arsenic, boron, barium, cobalt, chromium, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, nickel, selenium, silver, sulphur, strontium, vanadium and zinc were measured with ICP-OES plasma optical atomic emission spectrometer. In result, serum aluminium, barium, copper, manganese and strontium levels in male cats were found higher (p p p p > 0.05 found in the age and hair length groups. Our results indicate that several of the blood serum elements of Van cats may be related to their eye colours and sex differences.

  16. Haematological and serum biochemical profiles of broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MOLM) on the haematological and serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens. Fresh Moringa leaves (FML) were shade-dried for four days and milled into meal. A total of two hundred broilers unsexed chickens (Anak strain) were randomly ...

  17. On the possible involvement of bovine serum albumin precursor in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biotin affinity chromatography and mass finger printing analysis technique, herein we report the identification of a 70 kDa size protein (bovine serum albumin precursor, BSAP) which binds strongly with lipoplexes and may play role in lipofection ...

  18. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  19. Serum leptin is correlated to high turnover in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipmair, Gunter; Böhler, Nikolaus; Maschek, Wilma; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Pichler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Clinical data have suggested that obesity protects against osteoporosis. Leptin, mainly secreted by white adipose tissue, might be involved by mediating an effect on bone metabolism. This study was conducted to investigate a possible relationship of leptin and bone turn-over in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We measured bone mineral density (BMD), serum leptin levels and markers of bone metabolism, including osteocalcin and cross-laps in 44 patients with osteoporosis. The main group consisted of 32 postmenopausal women. Mean serum leptin was 13.1 microg/L and showed no statistically significant difference to the levels measured in a collective of normal persons adjusted for age and BMI. When related to serum cross-laps as markers of bone resorption, a positive correlation (pturnover serum bone markers, at least in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  20. Serum YKL-40 in risk assessment for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia Sidenius; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2015-01-01

    to endoscopy due to symptoms or other risk factors for colorectal cancer. Blood samples were collected just before large bowel endoscopy. Serum YKL-40 was determined by ELISA. Serum YKL-40 was higher (P ...The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that high serum YKL-40 associates with colorectal cancer in subjects at risk of colorectal cancer. We measured serum YKL-40 in a prospective study of 4,496 Danish subjects [2,064 men, 2,432 women, median age 61 years (range, 18-97)] referred...... in combination with other biomarkers in risk assessment for colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(3); 621-6. ©2015 AACR....

  1. Serum cholesterol and depression: A puzzle never finished

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Budania

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a state of sadness, hopelessness, and discouragement. Various studies have been conducted to uncover the etiological factors involved in depression. Serum folic acid is one such factor. Many researchers have reported an inverse association between serum folic acid and depression. We did an extensive computerized database searches on PubMed, Medline, and EBSCO and found that low serum folic acid are associated with depression, not only in adults, but also in elderly and diabetic patients. Further augmentation of folic acid with antidepressant treatment also improves the treatment outcome in depressed patients. Hence, considering the high benefits to the adverse effects ratio of serum folic acid, its supplementation should be done in "at risk" population whenever possible.

  2. Prevalence of antileptospiral serum antibodies in dogs in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 474 serum samples from client owned Irish dogs were tested for the presence of antibodies against serovars Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, Autumnalis, Pomona, Altodouro, Grippotyphosa, Mozdok, Hardjobovis and Ballum. Six percent of dogs presented to veterinary practitioners for...

  3. Functional assay of the alternative complement pathway of rat serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coonrod, J.D.; Jenkins, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Two functional assays of the alternative pathway of complement activation in rat serum were developed. In the first assay, conditions were established for titration of alternative pathway activity by use of the 50% hemolytic end-point of rabbit red blood cells (RaRBC) in serum treated with ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N, N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). The second assay of alternative pathway activity was based on the opsonization of heat-killed radiolabeled pneumococci of serotype 25 (Pn25). Opsonization of Pn25 was shown to proceed entirely via the alternative pathway in rat serum. There was excellent correlation between the results obtained with the RaRBC lysis test and those obtained with the opsonization test. Because of its technical simplicity, the RaRBC lysis test appeared to be the single most useful test of alternative pathway activity in rat serum. (Auth.)

  4. Serum vaccine antibody concentrations in children exposed to perfluorinated compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as important food contaminants. They cause immune suppression in a rodent model at serum concentrations similar to those occurring in the US population, but adverse health effects of PFC exposure are poorly understood....

  5. Studies on the interaction between triptolide and Bovine Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the interaction between triptolide and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. Haidong Wang, Hailang Shi, Jie Pang, Xingfa Song, Caiyun Xu, Zengxian Sun ...

  6. Serum Biomarkers for Early Detection of Gynecologic Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Yutaka; Enomoto, Takayuki, E-mail: enomoto@gyne.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kimura, Toshihiro; Miyatake, Takashi; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Masami; Kimura, Tadashi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-06-14

    Ovarian, endometrial, and cervical cancers are three of the most common malignancies of the female reproductive organs. CA 125, historically the most reliable serum marker for ovarian cancer, is elevated in 50% of early-stage ovarian tumors. For endometrial cancers, there are no established serum markers. SCC, which is the best studied serum marker for squamous cell carcinomas, has been unreliable; SCC is elevated in cervical squamous cell carcinomas ranging from 28–85% of the time. Recent proteomics-based analyses show great promise for the discovery of new and more useful biomarkers. In this review, we will discuss the currently utilized serum tumor markers for gynecologic cancers and the novel biomarkers that are now under investigation.

  7. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1998-01-01

    types of oral contraceptives, elevation was more pronounced among women taking oral contraceptives with antiandrogen effective progestins like antiandrogens or third generation oral contraceptives containing desogestrel. Further investigation is required to shed light on the possible role of high serum......OBJECTIVES: Recent epidemiologic studies have shown an increased mortality from cardiovascular diseases in people with higher serum copper levels. Even though higher serum copper concentration in women using oral contraceptives is well known, there is still uncertainty about the influence of newer...... progestin compounds in oral contraceptives on serum copper concentration. This issue is of particular interest in the light of recent findings of an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in users of oral contraceptives containing newer progestins like desogestrel compared to users of other oral...

  8. Comparison of serum lipid profile in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, A.; Sharif, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    To compare serum lipid profile between patients of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes. Study Design: Cross sectional, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from August 2004 to February 2005. Methodology: Patients with diagnosis of stroke comprising 100 consecutive patients each of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes were included in the study while patients on lipid lowering therapy were excluded from study. To determine the subtype of stroke, clinical examination followed by CT scan of brain was done. A serum sample after 8 hours of overnight fasting was taken on the next day of admission for both groups of patients. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol was determined, using enzymatic colorimetric method. Statistical analysis was done by comparison of lipid profile in two subgroups, using proportion test for any significant difference. Results: The mean age at presentation of patients with stroke was 64.2+-12 years with a male to female ratio of 3.6:1. In 100 ischaemic stroke patients, raised serum total cholesterol was seen in 42, triglyceride in 04, LDL-cholesterol in 05 and VLDL-cholesterol in 07 patients. Serum HDL-cholesterol was below the normal reference in 31 cases. On the other hand, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides was raised in 05 patients each, LDL-cholesterol in 09 and VLDL-cholesterol in 03 patients of haemorrhagic stroke. Serum HDL-cholesterol was below normal in 04 patients of haemorrhagic stroke. On comparison, there were significantly greater number of patients with raised serum cholesterol and low HDL-cholesterol in ischaemic stroke than haemorrhagic stroke (p < 0.05). No statistical significance was found on comparing serum values of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke for triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol. Conclusion: Ischaemic stroke patients had high serum total cholesterol and lower HDL-cholesterol levels as compared to

  9. Plasma Homocysteine, Serum Folic Acid, Serum Vitamin B12, Serum Vitamin B6, MTHFR, and Risk of Normal-Tension Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinmiao; Xu, Fan; Zeng, Rui; Gong, Haijun; Lan, Yuqing

    2016-02-01

    This meta-analysis aims to comprehensively evaluate the association between total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, serum folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 levels, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, and risk of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). A systematic search of the EMBASE and PubMed databases was performed to evaluate plasma tHcy levels, serum folic acid, B vitamins' mean difference, and odds ratios of MTHFR C677T genotype between cases and controls. A total of 7 studies including 458 cases and 555 controls meeting the inclusion criteria were involved in this meta-analysis. There were 4 studies for tHcy (149 cases and 148 controls), 2 studies for vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate (90 cases and 82 controls), and 4 studies for MTHFR (343 cases and 449 controls). Overall, the mean plasma tHcy levels, serum folic acids, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 levels were 1.16 μmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), -0.13, 2.45], -0.62 μmol/L (95% CI, -1.98, 0.74), 5.81 μmol/L (95% CI, -3.53, 15.14), and -16.79 μmol/L (95% CI, -86.09, 52.51). MTHFR TT genotype was found to be unrelated to NTG risk (odds ratio=1.08; 95% CI, 0.69, 1.69). NTG is not associated with elevated plasma tHcy, serum folic acid, serum vitamin B12, serum vitamin B6, and MTHFR C677T genotype.

  10. The current state of serum biomarkers of hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Josef; Ratner, Marcia; Shaw, Martin; Bailey, Wendy; Schomaker, Shelli

    2008-03-20

    The level of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity reflects damage to hepatocytes and is considered to be a highly sensitive and fairly specific preclinical and clinical biomarker of hepatotoxicity. However, an increase in serum ALT activity level has also been associated with other organ toxicities, thus, indicating that the enzyme has specificity beyond liver in the absence of correlative histomorphologic alteration in liver. Thus, unidentified non-hepatic sources of serum ALT activity may inadvertently influence the decision of whether to continue development of a novel pharmaceutical compound. To assess the risk of false positives due to extraneous sources of serum ALT activity, additional biomarkers are sought with improved specificity for liver function compared to serum ALT activity alone. Current published biomarker candidates are reviewed herein and compared with ALT performance in preclinical and on occasion, clinical studies. An examination of the current state of hepatotoxic biomarkers indicates that serum F protein, arginase I, and glutathione-S-transferase alpha (GSTalpha) levels, all measured by ELISA, may show utility, however, antibody availability and high cost per run may present limitations to widespread applicability in preclinical safety studies. In contrast, the enzymatic markers sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, paraxonase, malate dehydrogenase, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase are all readily measured by photometric methods and use reagents that work across preclinical species and humans and are commercially available. The published literature suggests that these markers, once examined collectively in a large qualification study, could provide additional information relative to serum ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values. Since these biomarkers are found in the serum/plasma of treated humans and rats, they have potential to be utilized as bridging markers to monitor acute drug-induced liver injury in

  11. The current state of serum biomarkers of hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozer, Josef; Ratner, Marcia; Shaw, Martin; Bailey, Wendy; Schomaker, Shelli

    2008-01-01

    The level of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity reflects damage to hepatocytes and is considered to be a highly sensitive and fairly specific preclinical and clinical biomarker of hepatotoxicity. However, an increase in serum ALT activity level has also been associated with other organ toxicities, thus, indicating that the enzyme has specificity beyond liver in the absence of correlative histomorphologic alteration in liver. Thus, unidentified non-hepatic sources of serum ALT activity may inadvertently influence the decision of whether to continue development of a novel pharmaceutical compound. To assess the risk of false positives due to extraneous sources of serum ALT activity, additional biomarkers are sought with improved specificity for liver function compared to serum ALT activity alone. Current published biomarker candidates are reviewed herein and compared with ALT performance in preclinical and on occasion, clinical studies. An examination of the current state of hepatotoxic biomarkers indicates that serum F protein, arginase I, and glutathione-S-transferase alpha (GSTα) levels, all measured by ELISA, may show utility, however, antibody availability and high cost per run may present limitations to widespread applicability in preclinical safety studies. In contrast, the enzymatic markers sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, paraxonase, malate dehydrogenase, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase are all readily measured by photometric methods and use reagents that work across preclinical species and humans and are commercially available. The published literature suggests that these markers, once examined collectively in a large qualification study, could provide additional information relative to serum ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values. Since these biomarkers are found in the serum/plasma of treated humans and rats, they have potential to be utilized as bridging markers to monitor acute drug-induced liver injury in early

  12. SERUM LIPID PROFILE AS AN ETIOLOGY OF VERTIGO : A STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sami; Satveer Singh

    2015-01-01

    A prospective study of lipid profile was done in 60 patients of vertigo at E.L.M.C. Lucknow from 2011 to 2014. All components of serum cholesterol were analyzed. Serum cholesterol and hyperlipidemia as an etiology of the atherosclerosis of all blood vessel s also have a role in vestibulo - cochlear vessels. It was found that there were 34 females and 26 males and maximum number of patients (63.33%) in the age group of 31 - 50y...

  13. Serum alkaline phosphatase screening for vitamin D deficiency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, S.; Barrakzai, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether serum vitamin D levels are correlated with serum levels of alkaline phosphatase or not. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Multi-centre study, conducted at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, National Medical Centre and Medicare Hospital, Karachi, from January to October 2009. Methodology: Patients attending the Orthopaedic OPDs with complaints of pain in different body regions and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels of greater or equal to 30 ng/ml were included in the study. Patients with vitamin D deficiency were further categorized into mild deficiency or insufficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 20-29 ng/ml), moderate deficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 5 - 19 ng/ml) and severe deficiency forms (vit. D/sub 3/ < 5 ng/ml). Pearson correlation was applied to test the correlation of serum alkaline phosphatase levels with serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Out of 110 samples, 26 had mild (23%), 61 had moderate (55%) and 21 had severe (19.1%) vitamin D deficiencies. All of the patients in the three groups had alkaline phosphatase with in normal limits and the total mean value of the enzyme was 135.97 +- 68.14I U/L. The inter group comparison showed highest values of alkaline phosphatase in the moderate vitamin D deficiency group. The correlation coefficient of alkaline phosphatase and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels was r =0.05 (p =0.593). Conclusion: Serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels may not be correlated with increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Therefore, alkaline phosphatase may not be used as a screening test to rule out vitamin D deficiency. (author)

  14. Decreased serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in patients with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takci, Z; Bilgili, S G; Karadag, A S; Kucukoglu, M E; Selek, S; Aslan, M

    2015-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may be an important phenomenon in the pathophysiology of rosacea. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme with three activities: paraoxonase, arylesterase and dyazoxonase. In this study, we evaluated serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, and serum lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels in patients with rosacea in comparison to healthy controls. The study included 39 rosacea patients and healthy controls, consisting of 40 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured using paraoxon and phenylacetate substrates. Serum LOOH levels were measured with the ferrous ion oxidation-xylenol orange assay. In rosacea group mean serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were 74.54 ± 38.30 U L(-1) and 141.29 ± 22.27 kU L(-1) respectively, which were significantly lower than controls (P = 0.010, 0.005; respectively). Mean serum LOOH level of rosacea group was 8.17 ± 1.91 μmol L(-1) which was significantly higher than controls (P = 0.009). There were no statistically significant differences between the clinical subtypes of the disease, menopause situation or ocular involvement with the respect to the serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities and LOOH levels (all; P > 0.05). Serum PON1 enzyme activities have decreased significantly in rosacea. These findings support that decreased PON1 activity and increased oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of rosacea. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of PON1 activity in the pathophysiology of rosacea. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Serum Copper and Plasma Protein Status in Normal Pregnancy

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    Nushrat Noor, Nasim Jahan, Nayma Sultana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Gradual alteration of serum copper and some plasma protein levels may occur with advancement of pregnancy, which is associated with increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality.Objective: To observe serum copper and plasma protein levels in normal pregnant women of different trimesters in order to find out their nutritional status.Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC, Dhaka, between 1st January 2010 and December 2010. Ninety normal pregnant women of different trimesters with age 20-30 years were included in the study group. They were selected from Out Patient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SSMC. Age matched 30 non-pregnant women were taken as control. Serum copper level was measured by Spectrophotometric method, serum total protein and albumin levels were estimated by standard method. Statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA, Bonferroni and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test as applicable.Results: Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in all trimesters of pregnant women compared to control. Again, this value was significantly higher in 3rd trimester than that of in 1st and 2nd trimester and also in 2nd trimester than that of in 1st trimester. In addition, mean serum total protein level was significantly lower in 3rd trimester than control but no statistically significant difference was observed among different trimesters. Again, mean serum albumin level was significantly lower in 2nd and 3rd trimester than 1st trimester and control. In addition, serum Cu concentration showed significant positive correlation with different trimesters of gestation.Conclusion: This study reveals that hypercupremia along with hypoproteinemia occur in pregnant women from 1st to 3rd trimester of gestation. This gradual alteration of micro and macronutrients become more profound with advancement of pregnancy.

  16. Serum Protein Electrophoresis in Dogs With Intestinal Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    KAYMAZ, Alev AKDOĞAN; BAKIREL, Utku; GÖNÜL, Remzi; TAN, Hüseyin

    1999-01-01

    The serum of 66 dogs with intestinal parasites (showing gastrointestinal problems caused by taeniosis, coccidiosis, ancylostomosis, trichuriosis and ascarididosis) was examined by electrophoresis. There were 6 dogs with coccidiosis, 6 dogs with ancylostomosis, 6 dogs with trichuriosis, 24 dogs with taeniosis and 24 dogs with ascarididosis. After agar gel protein electorphoresis of the serum samples, ?1 globulin levels were significantly lower in the coccidiosis group than in the other grou...

  17. Serum repressing efflux pump CDR1 in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jen-Chung

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decades, the prevalence of candidemia has increased significantly and drug resistance has also become a pressing problem. Overexpression of CDR1, an efflux pump, has been proposed as a major mechanism contributing to the drug resistance in Candida albicans. It has been demonstrated that biological fluids such as human serum can have profound effects on antifungal pharmacodynamics. The aim of this study is to understand the effects of serum in drug susceptibility via monitoring the activity of CDR1 promoter of C. albicans. Results The wild-type C. albicans cells (SC5314 but not the cdr1/cdr1 mutant cells became more susceptible to the antifungal drug when the medium contained serum. To understand the regulation of CDR1 in the presence of serum, we have constructed CDR1 promoter-Renilla luciferase (CDR1p-RLUC reporter to monitor the activity of the CDR1 promoter in C. albicans. As expected, the expression of CDR1p-RLUC was induced by miconazole. Surprisingly, it was repressed by serum. Consistently, the level of CDR1 mRNA was also reduced in the presence of serum but not N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, a known inducer for germ tube formation. Conclusion Our finding that the expression of CDR1 is repressed by serum raises the question as to how does CDR1 contribute to the drug resistance in C. albicans causing candidemia. This also suggests that it is important to re-assess the prediction of in vivo therapeutic outcome of candidemia based on the results of standard in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing, conducted in the absence of serum.

  18. The measurement of total serum proteins by the Biuret method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubran, M M

    1978-01-01

    The biuret reaction for proteins provides a simple and precise method for measuring serum proteins; Beer's law is obeyed to at least 10 g per dl. Several stable biuret reagents are available. Hemoglobin is the only important cause of interference which cannot be minimized by use of a sample blank. The mechanism of the biuret reaction is described and attention is drawn to the heterogeneity of the serum proteins and to the use of a certified albumin standard.

  19. Serum Osteocalcin Levels in Children With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Saleh; El Amrousy, Doaa; Elrifaey, Shaymaa; Gamal, Rasha; Hodeib, Hossam

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between osteocalcin and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children with obesity. 60 obese children with NAFLD were taken as a patient group and 60 obese children and normal liver with matching age, sex, and body mass index were taken as a control group. Anthropometric measurements, abdominal ultrasonography for diagnosis and grading of NAFLD, and laboratory investigations in the form of liver function tests, lipid profile, fasting serum glucose and insulin, and serum osteocalcin levels were done for all children. Patients with NAFLD were further divided into patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and patients without MS. Age of NAFLD children was (10.55 ± 2.71), 20 boys and 40 girls, whereas age of children in control group was (10.05 ± 3.51), 24 boys and 36 girls (P > 0.05). Patients with NAFLD showed significant increase in waist and hip circumference, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance (IR), fasting serum glucose, and insulin, but lower serum osteocalcin level than control group. Serum osteocalcin level is inversely correlated with waist circumference, triglyceride, liver enzymes, fasting serum insulin, fasting serum glucose, IR, and grades of fatty liver. Increase in alanine aminotransferase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting insulin, and IR went with increase in degree of hepatic steatosis. Serum osteocalcin level <44.5 ng/mL is a good predictor for severity of hepatic steatosis with sensitivity and specificity of 80%. Osteocalcin plays an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism for protection against NAFLD occurrence and progression. Moreover, it could be a useful marker for progression of NAFLD in children with obesity.

  20. Serum chemistry of the minke whale from the northeastern Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, M; Brun, E

    2001-04-01

    Serum samples were collected from 42 harpooned minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) during commercial whaling off the coast of northern Norway (1997 and 1998) and analyzed for serum chemistry parameters in order to find clinical reference values for the northeastern Atlantic stock of this species. Mean and median values, as well as standard deviation and 90% central range, are presented for 28 different serum chemistry parameters. Lipemia is a common finding in marine mammals such as the minke whale, and chemical analysis of lipemic serum samples may produce artifacts. We found statistically significant elevated values of total protein, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), sodium and chloride in strongly-lipemic compared to non-lipemic samples, all which may be artifacts due to interference of lipids with the methods used for analysis. In addition, we found significantly elevated levels of creatin kinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, uric acid and triglycerides, as well as a decrease in creatinine in the strongly lipemic samples. Reanalyzing serum samples after twelve mo storage at -20 C (n = 13) revealed reduction in the serum concentration of the enzymes ALT (42%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP; 10%), LDH (19%), gamma glutamyl transferase (17%) and amylase (11%), as well as for triglycerides (9%) and non-esterified fatty acids (16%). It is crucial that serum chemistry analysis is performed without delay after sampling. Possible changes in the values of some parameters due to the presence of high amounts of lipids or long term storage of samples must be considered when interpreting results from serum chemistry analysis in these animals.