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Sample records for serpins spn40 spn55

  1. Serpins in arthropod biology

    OpenAIRE

    Meekins, David A.; Kanost, Michael R.; Michel, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Serpins are the largest known family of serine proteinase inhibitors and perform a variety of physiological functions in arthropods. Herein, we review the field of serpins in arthropod biology, providing an overview of current knowledge and topics of interest. Serpins regulate insect innate immunity via inhibition of serine proteinase cascades that initiate immune responses such as melanization and antimicrobial peptide production. In addition, several serpins with anti-pathogen activity are ...

  2. Serpins in arthropod biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekins, David A; Kanost, Michael R; Michel, Kristin

    2017-02-01

    Serpins are the largest known family of serine proteinase inhibitors and perform a variety of physiological functions in arthropods. Herein, we review the field of serpins in arthropod biology, providing an overview of current knowledge and topics of interest. Serpins regulate insect innate immunity via inhibition of serine proteinase cascades that initiate immune responses such as melanization and antimicrobial peptide production. In addition, several serpins with anti-pathogen activity are expressed as acute-phase serpins in insects upon infection. Parasitoid wasps can downregulate host serpin expression to modulate the host immune system. In addition, examples of serpin activity in development and reproduction in Drosophila have also been discovered. Serpins also function in host-pathogen interactions beyond immunity as constituents of venom in parasitoid wasps and saliva of blood-feeding ticks and mosquitoes. These serpins have distinct effects on immunosuppression and anticoagulation and are of interest for vaccine development. Lastly, the known structures of arthropod serpins are discussed, which represent the serpin inhibitory mechanism and provide a detailed overview of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  4. Serpins in unicellular Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, T.H.; Hejgaard, Jørn; Saunders, N.F.W

    2004-01-01

    , where serpins were found in only 4 of 13 genera, and Bacteria, in only 9 of 56 genera. The serpins from unicellular organisms appear to be phylogenetically distinct from all of the clades of higher eukaryotic serpins. Most of the sequences from unicellular organisms have the characteristics...

  5. SerpinE2, a poor biomarker of endometrial cancer, promotes the proliferation and mobility of EC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jianping; Lu, Lin

    2017-07-04

    The SerpinE2 pathway is evolutionarily conserved and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. SerpinE2 (a small ubiquitin-related modifier), like ubiquitin, conjugates SerpinE2 proteins onto lysine residues of target proteins. SerpinE2 over-expression has been found in several tumors. Here, we detected the level of SerpinE2 in 72 samples of EC tissue using immunohistochemistry to assess the role of SerpinE2 in EC prognosis. Meanwhile, we knocked down SerpinE2 by siRNA in the HTB-111 and Ishikawa EC cell lines and analyzed the viability and mobility change using an MTT assay, an annexin V/PI apoptosis assay, a wound scratch test and a transwell assay. A Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated a negative correlation between the level of SerpinE2 and the EC prognosis. Silencing SerpinE2 induced cell apoptosis and reduced the migration ability. Our data suggest SerpinE2 works as an oncogene in EC.

  6. Serpin functions in host-pathogen interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialing Bao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Serpins are a broadly distributed superfamily of protease inhibitors that are present in all kingdoms of life. The acronym, serpin, is derived from their function as potent serine proteases inhibitors. Early studies of serpins focused on their functions in haemostasis since modulating serine proteases activities are essential for coagulation. Additional research has revealed that serpins function in infection and inflammation, by modulating serine and cysteine proteases activities. The aim of this review is to summarize the accumulating findings and current understanding of the functions of serpins in host-pathogen interactions, serving as host defense proteins as well as pathogenic factors. We also discuss the potential crosstalk between host and pathogen serpins. We anticipate that future research will elucidate the therapeutic value of this novel target.

  7. Intracellular serpins, firewalls and tissue necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Stefan J; Lomas, David A

    2008-02-01

    Luke and colleagues have recently attributed a new role to a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. They have used Caenorhabditis elegans to show that an intracellular serpin is crucial for maintaining lysosomal integrity. We examine the role of this firewall in preventing necrosis and attempt to integrate this with current theories of stress-induced protein degradation. We discuss how mutant serpins cause disease either through polymerization or now, perhaps, by unleashing necrosis.

  8. A recombinant wheat serpin with inhibitory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren K; Dahl, Søren Weis; Nørgård, Anette

    1996-01-01

    A full-length clone encoding the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) serpin WSZ1 was isolated from a cDNA library based on mRNA from immature grain. The 398 amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA was corroborated by sequencing CNBr peptides of WSZ1 purified from resting grain. WSZ1 belongs to the sub......A full-length clone encoding the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) serpin WSZ1 was isolated from a cDNA library based on mRNA from immature grain. The 398 amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA was corroborated by sequencing CNBr peptides of WSZ1 purified from resting grain. WSZ1 belongs...... sequencing indicated that only few serpins are encoded by wheat, but at least three distinct genes are expressed in the grain. Cleavage experiments on a chymotrypsin column suggested a Gln-Gln reactive site bond not previously observed in inhibitory serpins....

  9. Involvement of a Serpin serine protease inhibitor (OoSerpin) from mollusc Octopus ocellatus in antibacterial response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiumei; Xu, Jie; Yang, Jianmin; Liu, Xiangquan; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Weijun; Yang, Jialong

    2015-01-01

    Serpin is an important member of serine protease inhibitors (SPIs), which is capable of regulating proteolytic events and involving in a variety of physiological processes. In present study, a Serpin homolog was identified from Octopus ocellatus (designated as OoSerpin). Full-length cDNA of OoSerpin was of 1735 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region of 214 bp, a 3' UTR of 282 bp, and an open reading frame of 1239 bp. The open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 412 amino acids which has a predicted molecular weight of 46.5 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.52. The OoSerpin protein shares 37% sequence identity with other Serpins from Mus musculus (NP_941373) and Ixodes scapularis (XP_002407493). The existence of a conserved SERPIN domain strongly suggested that OoSerpin was a member of the Serpin subfamily. Expression patterns of OoSerpin, both in tissues and towards bacterial stimulation, were then characterized. The mRNA of OoSerpin was constitutively expressed at different levels in all tested tissues of untreated O. ocellatus, including mantle (lowest), muscle, renal sac, gill, hemocyte, gonad, systemic heart, and hepatopancreas (highest). The transcriptional level of OoSerpin was significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) in O. ocellatus upon bacterial challenges with Vibrio anguillarum and Micrococcus luteus, indicating its involvement in the antibacterial immune response. Furthermore, rOoSerpin, the recombinant protein of OoSerpin, exhibited strong abilities to inhibit proteinase activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin as well as the growth of Escherichia coli. Our results demonstrate that OoSerpin is a potential antibacterial factor involved in the immune response of O. ocellatus against bacterial infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and activity of a lower eukaryotic serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) from Cyanea capillata: analysis of a jellyfish serpin, jellypin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elisabeth B; Miller, David; Rometo, David; Greenberg, Robert M; Brömme, Dieter; Cataltepe, Sule; Pak, Stephen C; Mills, David R; Silverman, Gary A; Luke, Cliff J

    2004-09-21

    Delineating the phylogenetic relationships among members of a protein family can provide a high degree of insight into the evolution of domain structure and function relationships. To identify an early metazoan member of the high molecular weight serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) superfamily, we initiated a cDNA library screen of the cnidarian, Cyanea capillata. We identified one serpin cDNA encoding for a full-length serpin, jellypin. Phylogenetic analysis using the deduced amino acid sequence showed that jellypin was most similar to the platyhelminthe Echinococcus multiocularis serpin and the clade P serpins, suggesting that this serpin evolved approximately 1000 million years ago (MYA). Modeling of jellypin showed that it contained all the functional elements of an inhibitory serpin. In vitro biochemical analysis confirmed that jellypin was an inhibitor of the S1 clan SA family of serine proteinases. Analysis of the interactions between the human serine proteinases, chymotrypsin, cathepsin G, and elastase, showed that jellypin inhibited these enzymes in the classical serpin manner, forming a SDS stable enzyme/inhibitor complex. These data suggest that the coevolution of serpin structure and inhibitory function date back to at least early metazoan evolution, approximately 1000 MYA.

  11. SerpinB1 Promotes Pancreatic β Cell Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Dirice, Ercument; Gedeon, Nicholas; Hu, Jiang; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Shirakawa, Jun; Hou, Lifei; Goodman, Jessica; Karampelias, Christos; Qiang, Guifeng; Boucher, Jeremie; Martinez, Rachael; Gritsenko, Marina A.; De Jesus, Dario F.; Kahraman, Sevim; Bhatt, Shweta; Smith, Richard D.; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Gong, Yanping; Goldfine, Allison B.; Liew, Chong Wee; Doria, Alessandro; Andersson, Olov; Qian, Wei-Jun; Remold-O’Donnell, Eileen; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory β-cell growth in response to insulin resistance is a common feature in diabetes. We recently reported that liver-derived factors participate in this compensatory response in the liver insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) mouse, a model of significant islet hyperplasia. Here we show that serpinB1 is a liver-derived secretory protein that controls β-cell proliferation. SerpinB1 is abundant in the hepatocyte secretome and sera derived from LIRKO mice. SerpinB1 and small molecule compounds that partially mimic serpinB1 activity enhanced proliferation of zebrafish, mouse and human β-cells. We report that serpinB1-induced β-cell replication requires protease inhibition activity and mice lacking serpinB1 exhibit attenuated β-cell replication in response to insulin resistance. Finally, SerpinB1-treatment of islets modulated signaling proteins in growth and survival pathways such as MAPK, PKA and GSK3. Together, these data implicate SerpinB1 as a protein that can potentially be harnessed to enhance functional β-cell mass in patients with diabetes.

  12. Heterologous Expression of Three Plant Serpins with Distinct Inhibitory Specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren Weis; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård; Hejgaard, Jørn

    1996-01-01

    For the first time, inhibitory plant serpins, including WSZ1 from wheat, BSZ4, and the previously unknown protein BSZx from barley, have been expressed in Escherichia coli, and a procedure for fast purification of native plant serpins has been developed, BSZx, BSZ4, and WSZ1 were assayed...... favorable P-2 Leu. BSZ4 inhibited cathepsin G (k(a) = 2.7 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)) at P-1 Met but was hydrolyzed by trypsin and chymotrypsin. The three plant serpins formed stable SDS-resistant complexes with the proteinases in accordance with the kinetic data....

  13. Electrophoresis- and FRET-Based Measures of Serpin Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faull, Sarah V; Brown, Anwen E; Haq, Imran; Irving, James A

    2017-01-01

    Many serpinopathies, including alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency, are associated with the formation of unbranched polymer chains of mutant serpins. In vivo, this deficiency is the result of mutations that cause kinetic or thermodynamic destabilization of the molecule. However, polymerization can also be induced in vitro from mutant or wild-type serpins under destabilizing conditions. The characteristics of the resulting polymers are dependent upon induction conditions. Due to their relationship to disease, serpin polymers, mainly those formed from A1AT, have been widely studied. Here, we describe Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and gel-based approaches for their characterization.

  14. Potential use of a serpin from Arabidopsis for pest control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alvarez-Alfageme

    Full Text Available Although genetically modified (GM plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided by those insect-resistant transgenic plants are not compromised and to target those pests that are not susceptible. Experimental GM plants producing plant protease inhibitors have been shown to confer resistance against a wide range of agricultural pests. In this study we assessed the potential of AtSerpin1, a serpin from Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh., for pest control. In vitro assays were conducted with a wide range of pests that rely mainly on either serine or cysteine proteases for digestion and also with three non-target organisms occurring in agricultural crops. AtSerpin1 inhibited proteases from all pest and non-target species assayed. Subsequently, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris were fed on artificial diets containing AtSerpin1, and S. littoralis was also fed on transgenic Arabidopsis plants overproducing AtSerpin1. AtSerpin1 supplied in the artificial diet or by transgenic plants reduced the growth of S. littoralis larvae by 65% and 38%, respectively, relative to controls. Nymphs of A. pisum exposed to diets containing AtSerpin1 suffered high mortality levels (LC(50 = 637 µg ml(-1. The results indicate that AtSerpin1 is a good candidate for exploitation in pest control.

  15. Three Pairs of Protease-Serpin Complexes Cooperatively Regulate the Insect Innate Immune Responses*

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Rui; Kim, Eun-Hye; Gong, Ji-Hee; Kwon, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Chan-Hee; Ryu, Kyoung-Hwa; Park, Ji-Won; Kurokawa, Kenji; Zhang, Jinghai; Gubb, David; Lee, Bok-Luel

    2009-01-01

    Serpins are known to be necessary for the regulation of several serine protease cascades. However, the mechanisms of how serpins regulate the innate immune responses of invertebrates are not well understood due to the uncertainty of the identity of the serine proteases targeted by the serpins. We recently reported the molecular activation mechanisms of three serine protease-mediated Toll and melanin synthesis cascades in a large beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Here, we purified three novel serpins ...

  16. Comparison of two serpins of Clonorchis sinensis by bioinformatics, expression, and localization in metacercaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yabo; Hu, Dong; Wang, Lexun; Liang, Chi; Hu, Xuchu; Xu, Jin; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2014-06-01

    Clonorchiasis, which has been an important public health problem in China, is caused by ingestion of raw or undercooked fish contaminated by live metacercaria. Therefore, preventing fish from infecting is of great significance for controlling the disease. SERPINs (serine protease inhibitors) are well known as negative regulators of hemostasis, thrombolysis, and innate immune responses. In the present study, two full-length sequences encoding SERPIN were identified from metacercaria cDNA library of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) and were denominated as CsSERPIN and CsSERPIN3, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the two sequences shares 35.9% identity to each other. Both of the sequences have SERPIN domain and the greatest difference between the two domains is the reactive centre loop. Transmembrane region was found in CsSERPIN3 while not in CsSERPIN. The expression of the two CsSERPINs was significantly higher at the life stage of metacercaria than that of adult. The transcription levels of CsSERPIN and CsSERPIN3 at metacercaria stage were 3.249- and 11.314-fold of that at adult stage, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of CsSERPIN was 4.32-fold of that of CsSERPIN3 at metacercaria stage. Immunobiochemistry revealed that CsERPIN was dispersed at subtegument and oral sucker of metacercaria, while CsSERPIN3 localized intensely in the tegument of metacercaria of C. sinensis inside of the cyst wall. All these indicated that the CsSERPINs play important roles at metacercaria stage of the parasite. CsSERPIN may take part in regulation of endogenous serine proteinase and CsSERPIN3 may be involved in immune evasion and be a potential candidate for vaccine and drug target for clonorchiasis.

  17. TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING OF HELIX B BASED CONFORMATIONAL DISEASES IN SERPIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Aman Jairajpuri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Serine protease inhibitors (serpins are a unique family of protease inhibitors that are prone to polymer formation due to their metastable nature and a complex inhibition mechanism that involves large scale conformational change. Helix B is in the shutter region near the strand 2A and strand 3A of �-sheet A, where reactive centre loop inserts during the serpin inhibition mechanism. Helix B region in serpins is a mutation hotspot for naturally occurring variants that result in pathological conditions due to polymerization. Helix B residues are completely buried in the native state and loop inserted latent state but not in the inhibitory loop inserted cleaved conformation. Native to cleaved transition during inhibition forms a large cavity in the shutter region, which invariably is the largest cavity in most serpins in native state. In a recent paper we had for the first time hypothesized that exposure of helix B at the N-terminal end is important for smooth insertion of the reactive center loop during serpin inhibition mechanism. It is therefore possible that natural variant that induces conformational deformation of helix B probably alter the cavity size which increases the rate of loop-sheet interaction between the monomers resulting in increased polymerization.

  18. Three sorghum serpin recombinant proteins inhibit midgut trypsin activity and growth of corn earworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genome contains at least 17 putative serpin (serine protease inhibitor) open reading frames, some of which are induced by pathogens. Recent transcriptome studies found that most of the putative serpins are expressed but their roles are unknown. Four sorghum serpins were...

  19. Serpins of oat (Avena sativa) grain with distinct reactive centres and inhibitory specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Hauge, S.

    2002-01-01

    Most proteinase inhibitors from plant seeds are assumed to contribute to broad-spectrum protection against pests and pathogens. In oat (Avena sativa L.) grain the main serine proteinase inhibitors were found to be serpins, which utilize a unique mechanism of irreversible inhibition. Four distinct...... inhibitors of the serpin superfamily were detected by native PAGE as major seed albumins and purified by thiophilic adsorption and anion exchange chromatography. The four serpins OSZa-d are the first proteinase inhibitors characterized from this cereal. An amino acid sequence close to the blocked N...... by chymotrypsin at the putative reactive centre bond P-1 -P-1 ' Tyrdown arrowSer, and no inhibition was detected. Together the oat grain serpins have a broader inhibitory specificity against digestive serine proteinases than represented by the major serpins of wheat, rye or barley grain. Presumably the serpins...

  20. Bombyx mori Serpin6 regulates prophenoloxidase activity and the expression of antimicrobial proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Yu, Hai-Zhong; Ye, Chong-Jun; Ma, Yan; Li, Xing; Fan, Tao; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Xu, Jia-Ping

    2017-04-30

    Serpins are a family of serine protease inhibitors that are found widely in insects. They play an important role in insect physiological responses, such as innate immunity and development. In this study, we obtained the Bombyx mori serpin6 (BmSerpin6) sequence from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the silkworm genome database (SilkDB). Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) results showed that BmSerpin6 was expressed highly in hemocytes, the midgut, and the fat body. After challenging with Micrococcus luteus (Mi) and Serratia marcescens (Sm), the BmSerpin6 expression level was induced significantly. Transcript levels of gloverin2 and prophenoloxidase (PPO) activity were reduced significantly in the fat body and hemocytes after injecting the recombinant BmSerpin6 protein into silkworm larvae. A BmSerpin6 recombinant plasmid (BmSerpin6-pAC 5.1) was constructed successfully and transfected into Drosophila S2 cells, which resulted in significantly reduced expression of the drosomycin protein. These results indicated that BmSerpin6 might regulate silkworm immune responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SerpinB2 is critical to Th2 immunity against enteric nematode infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SerpinB2, a member of the serine protease inhibitor family, is expressed by macrophages and up-regulated significantly by inflammation. Recent studies implicated a role for SerpinB2 in the control of Th1 and Th2 immune responses, but the mechanisms of these effects are unknown. In the current study...

  2. Influence of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1) 4G/5G polymorphism on circulating SERPINE-1 antigen expression in HCC associated with viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divella, Rosa; Mazzocca, Antonio; Gadaleta, Cosimo; Simone, Giovanni; Paradiso, Angelo; Quaranta, Michele; Daniele, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is heavily influenced by chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection. Elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1/PAI-1) have been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with viral infection. The gene encoding SERPINE1 is highly polymorphic and the frequently associated 4/5 guanosine (4G/5G) polymorphism in the gene promoter may influence its expression. Here, we investigated the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the 4G/5G polymorphism in patients with HCC, the influence of the 4G/5G polymorphism on plasma SERPINE1 levels and its association with viral infection. A total of 75 patients with HCC were enrolled: 32 (42.6%) were HBV(+)/HCV(+), 11 (14.6%) were only HCV(+), and 32 (42.6%) were negative for both viruses. A control group of healthy donors was also enrolled (n=50). SERPINE1 plasma concentrations were determined by ELISA and the detection of the promoter 4G/5G polymorphism was performed by an allele-specific PCR analysis. We found that the frequency of both the 4G/4G genotype (p=0.02) and the 4G allele (p=0.006) were significantly higher in patients with HCC compared to the control group, and particularly higher in patients with HCC co-infected with HBV(+)/HCV(+) than in those with no viral infection. We also found that patients with the 4G/4G genotype had significantly higher plasma SERPINE1 protein levels when compared with patients with the 4G/5G or 5G/5G genotype (p5G SERPINE1 polymorphism with a higher level of SERPINE1 protein in patients with HCC with HBV(+)/HCV(+) than those without infection, suggest the presence of two distinct pathogenic mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis, depending on the etiology.

  3. Inhibitory plant serpins with a sequence of three glutamine residues in the reactive center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    Serpins appear to be ubiquitous in eukaryotes, except fungi, and are also present in some bacteria, archaea and viruses. Inhibitory serpins with a glutamine as the reactive-center P1 residue have been identified exclusively in a few plant species. Unique serpins with a reactive center sequence...... of three Gln residues at P3-P1 or P2-P1' were isolated from barley and wheat grain, respectively. Barley BSZ3 was an irreversible inhibitor of chymotrypsin, with a second-order association rate constant for complex formation k(a)' of the order of 10(4) M-1 s(-1) ; however, only a minor fraction...... of the serpin molecules reacted with chymotrypsin, with the majority insensitive to cleavage in the reactive center loop. Wheat WSZ3 was cleaved specifically at P8 Thr and was not an inhibitor of chymotrypsin. These reactive-center loops may have evolved conformations that are optimal as inhibitory baits...

  4. Ixodes scapularis tick serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin gene family; annotation and transcriptional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalaire Katelyn C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serine proteinase inhibitors (Serpins are a large superfamily of structurally related, but functionally diverse proteins that control essential proteolytic pathways in most branches of life. Given their importance in the biology of many organisms, the concept that ticks might utilize serpins to evade host defenses and immunizing against or disrupting their functions as targets for tick control is an appealing option. Results A sequence homology search strategy has allowed us to identify at least 45 tick serpin genes in the Ixodes scapularis genome that are structurally segregated into 32 intronless and 13 intron-containing genes. Nine of the intron-containing serpins occur in a cluster of 11 genes that span 170 kb of DNA sequence. Based on consensus amino acid residues in the reactive center loop (RCL and signal peptide scanning, 93% are putatively inhibitory while 82% are putatively extracellular. Among the 11 different amino acid residues that are predicted at the P1 sites, 16 sequences possess basic amino acid (R/K residues. Temporal and spatial expression analyses revealed that 40 of the 45 serpins are differentially expressed in salivary glands (SG and/or midguts (MG of unfed and partially fed ticks. Ten of the 38 serpin genes were expressed from six to 24 hrs of feeding while six and fives genes each are predominantly or exclusively expressed in either MG and SG respectively. Conclusion Given the diversity among tick species, sizes of tick serpin families are likely to be variable. However this study provides insight on the potential sizes of serpin protein families in ticks. Ticks must overcome inflammation, complement activation and blood coagulation to complete feeding. Since these pathways are regulated by serpins that have basic residues at their P1 sites, we speculate that I. scapularis may utilize some of the serpins reported in this study to manipulate host defense. We have discussed our data in the context of

  5. Inhibition of coagulation factors by recombinant barley serpin BSZx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren Weis; Rasmussen, S.K.; Petersen, L..C.

    1996-01-01

    Barley serpin BSZx is a potent inhibitor of trypsin and chymotrypsin at overlapping reactive sites (Dahl, S.W., Rasmussen, S.K. and Hejgaard, J. (1996) J. Biol, Chem., in press), We have now investigated the interactions of BSZx with a range of serine proteinases from human plasma, pancreas......, urokinase and tissue type plasminogen activator, plasmin and pancreas kallikrein and elastase were not or only weakly affected, The inhibition pattern with mammalian proteinases reveal a specificity of BSZx similar to that of antithrombin III. Trypsin from Fusarium was not inhibited while interaction...... with subtilisin Carlsberg and Novo was rapid but most BSZx was cleaved as a substrate, Identification of a monoclonal antibody specific for native BSZx indicate that complex formation and loop cleavage result in similar conformational changes....

  6. Three-dimensional structure of a schistosome serpin revealing an unusual configuration of the helical subdomain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granzin, Joachim [Institute of Complex Systems, ICS-6: Structural Biochemistry, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Huang, Ying; Topbas, Celalettin [Department of Cell Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Huang, Wenying [Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Wu, Zhiping [Department of Cell Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Misra, Saurav [Department of Molecular Cardiology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Hazen, Stanley L. [Department of Cell Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Blanton, Ronald E. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44190 (United States); Lee, Xavier [Department of Cell Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Weiergräber, Oliver H., E-mail: o.h.weiergraeber@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Complex Systems, ICS-6: Structural Biochemistry, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    The crystal structure of ShSPI, a serpin from the blood fluke S. haematobium, reveals some peculiar features of the helical subdomain which have not been observed previously in the serpin superfamily. Parasitic organisms are constantly challenged by the defence mechanisms of their respective hosts, which often depend on serine protease activities. Consequently, protease inhibitors such as those belonging to the serpin superfamily have emerged as protective elements that support the survival of the parasites. This report describes the crystal structure of ShSPI, a serpin from the trematode Schistosoma haematobium. The protein is exposed on the surface of invading cercaria as well as of adult worms, suggesting its involvement in the parasite–host interaction. While generally conforming to the well established serpin fold, the structure reveals several distinctive features, mostly concerning the helical subdomain of the protein. It is proposed that these peculiarities are related to the unique biological properties of a small serpin subfamily which is conserved among pathogenic schistosomes.

  7. The serpin saga; development of a new class of virus derived anti-inflammatory protein immunotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Alexandra; Liu, Liying; Dai, Erbin; Bot, Ilze; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Munuswamy-Ramunujam, Ganesh; Davids, Jennifer A; Bartee, Mee Y; Richardson, Jakob; Christov, Alexander; Wang, Hao; Macaulay, Colin; Poznansky, Mark; Zhong, Robert; Miller, Leslie; Biessen, Erik; Richardson, Mary; Sullivan, Collin; Moyer, Richard; Hatton, Mark; Lomas, David A; McFadden, Grant

    2009-01-01

    Serine proteinase inhibitors, also called serpins, are an ancient grouping of proteins found in primitive organisms from bacteria, protozoa and horseshoe crabs and thus likely present at the time of the dinosaurs, up to all mammals living today. The innate or inflammatory immune system is also an ancient metazoan regulatory system, providing the first line of defense against infection or injury. The innate inflammatory defense response evolved long before acquired, antibody dependent immunity. Viruses have developed highly effective stratagems that undermine and block a wide variety of host inflammatory and immune responses. Some of the most potent of these immune modifying strategies utilize serpins that have also been developed over millions of years, including the hijacking by some viruses for defense against host immune attacks. Serpins represent up to 2-10 percent of circulating plasma proteins, regulating actions as wide ranging as thrombosis, inflammation, blood pressure control and even hormone transport. Targeting serpin-regulated immune or inflammatory pathways makes evolutionary sense for viral defense and many of these virus-derived inhibitory proteins have proven to be highly effective, working at very low concentrations--even down to the femptomolar to picomolar range. We are studying these viral anti-inflammatory proteins as a new class of immunomodulatory therapeutic agents derived from their native viral source. One such viral serpin, Serp-1 is now in clinical trial (conducted by VIRON Therapeutics, Inc.) for acute unstable coronary syndromes (unstable angina and small heart attacks), representing a 'first in class' therapeutic study. Several other viral serpins are also currently under investigation as anti-inflammatory or anti-immune therapeutics. This chapter describes these original studies and the ongoing analysis of viral serpins as a new class of virus-derived immunotherapeutic.

  8. Crystallization and diffraction analysis of the serpin IRS-2 from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovářová, Zuzana; Chmelař, Jindřich; Šanda, Miloslav; Brynda, Jiří; Mareš, Michael; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    Cleavage of the serpin IRS-2 from the hard tick I. ricinus by contaminating proteolytic activity mimicked the specific processing of the serpin by its target protease and resulted in a more stable form of the serpin which produced crystals that diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. IRS-2 from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus belongs to the serpin family of protease inhibitors. It is produced in the salivary glands of the tick and its anti-inflammatory activity suggests that it plays a role in parasite–host interaction. Recombinant IRS-2 prepared by heterologous expression in a bacterial system was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the primitive tetragonal space group P4 3 and diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. Mass-spectrometric and electrophoretic analyses revealed that IRS-2 was cleaved by contaminating proteases during crystallization. This processing of IRS-2 mimicked the specific cleavage of the serpin by its target protease and resulted in a more stable form (the so-called relaxed conformation), which produced well diffracting crystals. Activity profiling with specific substrates and inhibitors demonstrated traces of serine and cysteine proteases in the protein stock solution

  9. Serpine2 deficiency results in lung lymphocyte accumulation and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solleti, Siva Kumar; Srisuma, Sorachai; Bhattacharya, Soumyaroop; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Bijli, Kaiser M; Randall, Troy D; Rahman, Arshad; Mariani, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Serine proteinase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2), is a cell- and extracellular matrix-associated inhibitor of thrombin. Although SERPINE2 is a candidate susceptibility gene for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the physiologic role of this protease inhibitor in lung development and homeostasis is unknown. We observed spontaneous monocytic-cell infiltration in the lungs of Serpine2-deficient (SE2(-/-)) mice, beginning at or before the time of lung maturity, which resulted in lesions that resembled bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). The initiation of lymphocyte accumulation in the lungs of SE2(-/-) mice involved the excessive expression of chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules that are essential for BALT induction, organization, and maintenance. BALT-like lesion formation in the lungs of SE2(-/-) mice was also associated with a significant increase in the activation of thrombin, a recognized target of SE2, and excess stimulation of NF-κB, a major regulator of chemokine expression and inflammation. Finally, systemic delivery of thrombin rapidly stimulated lung chemokine expression in vivo These data uncover a novel mechanism whereby loss of serine protease inhibition leads to lung lymphocyte accumulation.-Solleti, S. K., Srisuma, S., Bhattacharya, S., Rangel-Moreno, J., Bijli, K. M., Randall, T. D., Rahman, A., Mariani, T. J. Serpine2 deficiency results in lung lymphocyte accumulation and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue formation. © FASEB.

  10. SERPINE2 is a possible candidate promotor for lymph node metastasis in testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahara, Akira; Nakayama, Masashi; Oka, Daizo; Tsuchiya, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Atsunari; Mukai, Masatoshi; Nakai, Yasutomo; Takayama, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Kazuo; Jo, Yoshimasa; Nagai, Atsushi; Okuyama, Akihiko; Nonomura, Norio

    2010-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) commonly metastasize to the lymph node or lung. However, it remains unclear which genes are associated with TGCT metastasis. The aim of this study was to identify gene(s) that promoted human TGCT metastasis. We intraperitoneally administered conditioned medium (CM) from JKT-1, a cell-line from a human testicular seminoma, or JKT-HM, a JKT-1 cell sub-line with high metastatic potential, into mice with JKT-1 xenografts. Administration of CM from JKT-HM significantly promoted lymph node metastasis. A cDNA microarray analysis showed that JKT-HM cells highly expressed the Serpine peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2), which encodes a secreted protein. Administration of CM from SERPINE2-silenced JKT-HM cells inhibited lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model, compared with administration of CM from JKT-HM cells. There was no significant difference in xenograft volume. Moreover, administration of CM from SERPINE2-over-expressing JKT-1 was likely to promote lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model. There was no difference in the in vitro proliferation or migration of JKT-1 cells cultured with CM from JKT-HM cells, compared to that with CM from JKT-1. There was no promotion of proliferation or lymphangiogenesis in the xenografts, as measured by Ki-67 and LYVE-1 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Although we could not clarify how SERPINE2 promoted lymph node metastasis, it may be a promoter in the development of lymph node metastasis in the human seminoma cells in a mouse xenograft model.

  11. SERPINE2 is a possible candidate promotor for lymph node metastasis in testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahara, Akira; Nakayama, Masashi; Oka, Daizo; Tsuchiya, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Atsunari; Mukai, Masatoshi; Nakai, Yasutomo; Takayama, Hitoshi [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishimura, Kazuo [Department of Urology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, 1-3-3 Nakamachi, Higashinari-ku, Osaka, 537-8511 (Japan); Jo, Yoshimasa; Nagai, Atsushi [Department of Urology, Kawasaki Medical University, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki-City, Okayama 701-0192 (Japan); Okuyama, Akihiko [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nonomura, Norio, E-mail: nono@uro.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-01-22

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) commonly metastasize to the lymph node or lung. However, it remains unclear which genes are associated with TGCT metastasis. The aim of this study was to identify gene(s) that promoted human TGCT metastasis. We intraperitoneally administered conditioned medium (CM) from JKT-1, a cell-line from a human testicular seminoma, or JKT-HM, a JKT-1 cell sub-line with high metastatic potential, into mice with JKT-1 xenografts. Administration of CM from JKT-HM significantly promoted lymph node metastasis. A cDNA microarray analysis showed that JKT-HM cells highly expressed the Serpine peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2), which encodes a secreted protein. Administration of CM from SERPINE2-silenced JKT-HM cells inhibited lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model, compared with administration of CM from JKT-HM cells. There was no significant difference in xenograft volume. Moreover, administration of CM from SERPINE2-over-expressing JKT-1 was likely to promote lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model. There was no difference in the in vitro proliferation or migration of JKT-1 cells cultured with CM from JKT-HM cells, compared to that with CM from JKT-1. There was no promotion of proliferation or lymphangiogenesis in the xenografts, as measured by Ki-67 and LYVE-1 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Although we could not clarify how SERPINE2 promoted lymph node metastasis, it may be a promoter in the development of lymph node metastasis in the human seminoma cells in a mouse xenograft model.

  12. Bayesian phylogeny analysis of vertebrate serpins illustrates evolutionary conservation of the intron and indels based six groups classification system from lampreys for ∼500 MY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The serpin superfamily is characterized by proteins that fold into a conserved tertiary structure and exploits a sophisticated and irreversible suicide-mechanism of inhibition. Vertebrate serpins are classified into six groups (V1–V6, based on three independent biological features—genomic organization, diagnostic amino acid sites and rare indels. However, this classification system was based on the limited number of mammalian genomes available. In this study, several non-mammalian genomes are used to validate this classification system using the powerful Bayesian phylogenetic method. This method supports the intron and indel based vertebrate classification and proves that serpins have been maintained from lampreys to humans for about 500 MY. Lampreys have fewer than 10 serpins, which expand into 36 serpins in humans. The two expanding groups V1 and V2 have SERPINB1/SERPINB6 and SERPINA8/SERPIND1 as the ancestral serpins, respectively. Large clusters of serpins are formed by local duplications of these serpins in tetrapod genomes. Interestingly, the ancestral HCII/SERPIND1 locus (nested within PIK4CA possesses group V4 serpin (A2APL1, homolog of α2-AP/SERPINF2 of lampreys; hence, pointing to the fact that group V4 might have originated from group V2. Additionally in this study, details of the phylogenetic history and genomic characteristics of vertebrate serpins are revisited.

  13. Epigenetic alterations of the SERPINE1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    , 17 of 20 patients with oral carcinoma were found to have between 2.5- and 50-fold increased tumor PAI-1 mRNA level, as compared with the matched tumor-adjacent normal tissues. The PAI-1 mRNA level in connective tissues from 15 healthy volunteers was similar to the level in tumor-adjacent normal...... tissues, but the level in epithelium was 5- to 10-fold lower. Analyzing DNA methylation of 25 CpG sites within 960 bp around the transcription initiation site of the SERPINE1 gene by bisulfite sequencing, we did the surprising observation that both tumors and tumor-adjacent normal tissue had a significant...... level of methylation, whereas there was very little methylation in tissue from healthy volunteers, suggesting that tumor-adjacent normal tissue already contains transformation-associated epigenetic changes. However, there was no general inverse correlation between PAI-1 mRNA levels and SERPINE1 gene...

  14. An antibody that prevents serpin polymerisation acts by inducing a novel allosteric behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi-Shad, Neda; Jagger, Alistair M; Liedtke, Maximilian; Faull, Sarah V; Nanda, Arjun Scott; Salvadori, Enrico; Wort, Joshua L; Kay, Christopher W M; Heyer-Chauhan, Narinder; Miranda, Elena; Perez, Juan; Ordóñez, Adriana; Haq, Imran; Irving, James A; Lomas, David A

    2016-10-01

    Serpins are important regulators of proteolytic pathways with an antiprotease activity that involves a conformational transition from a metastable to a hyperstable state. Certain mutations permit the transition to occur in the absence of a protease; when associated with an intermolecular interaction, this yields linear polymers of hyperstable serpin molecules, which accumulate at the site of synthesis. This is the basis of many pathologies termed the serpinopathies. We have previously identified a monoclonal antibody (mAb4B12) that, in single-chain form, blocks α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) polymerisation in cells. Here, we describe the structural basis for this activity. The mAb4B12 epitope was found to encompass residues Glu32, Glu39 and His43 on helix A and Leu306 on helix I. This is not a region typically associated with the serpin mechanism of conformational change, and correspondingly the epitope was present in all tested structural forms of the protein. Antibody binding rendered β-sheet A - on the opposite face of the molecule - more liable to adopt an 'open' state, mediated by changes distal to the breach region and proximal to helix F. The allosteric propagation of induced changes through the molecule was evidenced by an increased rate of peptide incorporation and destabilisation of a preformed serpin-enzyme complex following mAb4B12 binding. These data suggest that prematurely shifting the β-sheet A equilibrium towards the 'open' state out of sequence with other changes suppresses polymer formation. This work identifies a region potentially exploitable for a rational design of ligands that is able to dynamically influence α1-AT polymerisation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Crystallization and diffraction analysis of the serpin IRS-2 from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Zuzana; Chmelař, Jindřich; Šanda, Miloslav; Brynda, Jiří; Mareš, Michael; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    F66, č. 11 (2010), s. 1453-1457 ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/2183; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : protease inhibitor * serpin * tick * proteolysis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2010

  16. Origin of serpin-mediated regulation of coagulation and blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Wang

    Full Text Available Vertebrates evolved an endothelium-lined hemostatic system and a pump-driven pressurized circulation with a finely-balanced coagulation cascade and elaborate blood pressure control over the past 500 million years. Genome analyses have identified principal components of the ancestral coagulation system, however, how this complex trait was originally regulated is largely unknown. Likewise, little is known about the roots of blood pressure control in vertebrates. Here we studied three members of the serpin superfamily that interfere with procoagulant activity and blood pressure of lampreys, a group of basal vertebrates. Angiotensinogen from these jawless fish was found to fulfill a dual role by operating as a highly selective thrombin inhibitor that is activated by heparin-related glycosaminoglycans, and concurrently by serving as source of effector peptides that activate type 1 angiotensin receptors. Lampreys, uniquely among vertebrates, thus use angiotensinogen for interference with both coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation. Heparin cofactor II from lampreys, in contrast to its paralogue angiotensinogen, is preferentially activated by dermatan sulfate, suggesting that these two serpins affect different facets of thrombin's multiple roles. Lampreys also express a lineage-specific serpin with anti-factor Xa activity, which demonstrates that another important procoagulant enzyme is under inhibitory control. Comparative genomics suggests that orthologues of these three serpins were key components of the ancestral hemostatic system. It appears that, early in vertebrate evolution, coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation crosstalked through antiproteolytically active angiotensinogen, a feature that was lost during vertebrate radiation, though in gnathostomes interplay between these traits is effective.

  17. Role of Serpine gene polymorphism in recurrent implantation failure and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a rare case of serpine gene polymorphism causing thrombophilia and recurrent implantation failure following intrauterine insemination. SERPINE1 gene encodes plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and inhibits fibrinolysis, or clot dissolution. The 4G variant results in increased expression of SERPINE1 and consequently higher inhibition of fibrinolysis, thus leading to thrombophilia. The patient had unexplained primary infertility for 9 years. Ovulation induction was done with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH agonist long protocol. Recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (FSH with step down protocol was used. Ovulation trigger was given with recombinant human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG. Ovum pick up was done after 40 h of trigger. A total of 13 eggs were collected. Patient was put on Cabergoline to prevent ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Four frozen embryos were transferred on day 14 after Laser-assisted hatching. EmbryoGlue was used to prevent implantation failure. Luteal phase support was given. She was put on enoxaparin and pregnancy has now been confirmed. The patient was on strict monitoring as this gene is also associated with preeclampsia during pregnancy.

  18. Cucurbit phloem serpins are graft-transmissible and appear to be resistant to turnover in the sieve element-companion cell complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M.L.; Hejgaard, Jørn; Thompson, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Serpins are unique inhibitors of serine proteases that are located in various plant tissues and organs. An orthologue of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem serpin CmPS-1 was amplified from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) RNA by RT-PCR, cloned, and designated as CsPS-1 (GenBank accession no. AJ866989...

  19. SRP-2 is a cross-class inhibitor that participates in postembryonic development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: initial characterization of the clade L serpins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Stephen C; Kumar, Vasantha; Tsu, Christopher; Luke, Cliff J; Askew, Yuko S; Askew, David J; Mills, David R; Brömme, Dieter; Silverman, Gary A

    2004-04-09

    High molecular weight serpins are members of a large superfamily of structurally conserved proteins that inactivate target proteinases by a suicide substrate-like mechanism. In vertebrates, different clades of serpins distribute predominantly to either the intracellular or extracellular space. Although much is known about the function, structure, and inhibitory mechanism of circulating serpins such as alpha(1)-antitrypsin (SERPINA1) and antithrombin III (SERPINC1), relatively little is known about the function of the vertebrate intracellular (clade B) serpins. To gain a better understanding of the biology of the intracellular serpins, we initiated a comparative genomics study using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. A screen of the C. elegans genomic and cDNA databases revealed nine serpin genes, tandemly arrayed on chromosome V. Although the C. elegans serpins represent a unique clade (L), they share significant functional homology with members of the clade B group of intracellular serpins, since they lack typical N-terminal signal peptides and reside intracellularly. To determine whether nematode serpins function as proteinase inhibitors, one family member, srp-2, was chosen for further characterization. Biochemical analysis of recombinant SRP-2 protein revealed SRP-2 to be a dual cross-class inhibitor of the apoptosis-related serine proteinase, granzyme B, and the lysosomal cysteine proteinases, cathepsins K, L, S, and V. Analysis of temporal and spatial expression indicated that SRP-2 was present during early embryonic development and highly expressed in the intestine and hypoderm of larval and adult worms. Transgenic animals engineered to overexpress SRP-2 were slow growing and/or arrested at the first, second, or third larval stages. These data suggest that perturbations of serpin-proteinase balance are critical for correct postembryonic development in C. elegans.

  20. Contributions of basic amino acids in the autolysis loop of factor XIa to serpin specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Alireza R; Sun, Mao-fu; Gailani, David

    2006-08-08

    The autolysis loops (amino acids 143-154, chymotrypsinogen numbering) of plasma serine proteases play key roles in determining the specificity of protease inhibition by plasma serpins. We studied the importance of four basic residues (Arg-144, Lys-145, Arg-147, and Lys-149) in the autolysis loop of the coagulation protease factor XIa (fXIa) for inhibition by serpins. Recombinant fXIa mutants, in which these residues were replaced individually or in combination with alanine, were prepared. The proteases were compared to wild-type fXIa (fXIa-WT) with respect to their ability to activate factor IX in a plasma clotting assay, to hydrolyze the chromogenic substrate S2366, and to undergo inhibition by the C1-inhibitor (C1-INH), protein Z dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI), antithrombin (AT), and alpha(1)-protease inhibitor (alpha(1)-PI). All mutants exhibited normal activity in plasma and hydrolyzed S2366 with catalytic efficiencies similar to that of fXIa-WT. Inhibition of mutants by C1-INH was increased to varying degrees relative to that of fXIa-WT, with the mutant containing alanine replacements for all four basic residues (fXIa-144-149A) exhibiting an approximately 15-fold higher rate of inhibition. In contrast, the inhibition by ZPI was impaired 2-3-fold for single amino acid substitutions, and fXIa-144-149A was essentially resistant to inhibition by ZPI. Alanine substitution for Arg-147 impaired inhibition by AT approximately 7-fold; however, other substitutions did not affect it or slightly enhanced inhibition. Arg-147 was also required for inhibition by alpha(1)-PI. Cumulatively, the results demonstrate that basic amino acids in the autolysis loop of fXIa are important determinants of serpin specificity.

  1. Epigenetic alterations of the SERPINE1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    cells in oral carcinomas by immunohistochemistry, we found that PAI-1 was expressed in 18 of the 20 patients, mainly by cancer cells. Two showed PAI-1 positive stromal cells surrounding the tumor areas and five showed PAI-1 positive cells in tumor-adjacent normal epithelium. By real-time RT-PCR analysis......A high level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 or SERPINE1) in tumor extracts is a marker of a poor prognosis in human cancers, including oral carcinomas. However, the mechanisms responsible for the upregulation of PAI-1 in cancers remain unclear. Investigating specific PAI-1 expressing...

  2. Serpins in fruit and vegetative tissues of apple (Malus domestica): expression of four serpins with distinct reactive centres and characterisation of a major inhibitory seed form, MdZ1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Laing, W.A.; Marttila, S.

    2005-01-01

    in a wide variety of tissues, including developing and mature fruits, seeds and vegetative buds as well as developing, mature and senescing leaves. Analysis of 46 sequences, most full-length, identified serpins with four distinct reactive centres belonging to two subfamilies (MdZ1 and MdZ2) with similar...

  3. Kinetic intermediates en route to the final serpin-protease complex: studies of complexes of α1-protease inhibitor with trypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, Ashoka A; Swanson, Richard; Izaguirre, Gonzalo; Gettins, Peter G W; Olson, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    Serpin protein protease inhibitors inactivate their target proteases through a unique mechanism in which a major serpin conformational change, resulting in a 70-Å translocation of the protease from its initial reactive center loop docking site to the opposite pole of the serpin, kinetically traps the acyl-intermediate complex. Although the initial Michaelis and final trapped acyl-intermediate complexes have been well characterized structurally, the intermediate stages involved in this remarkable transformation are not well understood. To better characterize such intermediate steps, we undertook rapid kinetic studies of the FRET and fluorescence perturbation changes of site-specific fluorophore-labeled derivatives of the serpin, α1-protease inhibitor (α1PI), which report the serpin and protease conformational changes involved in transforming the Michaelis complex to the trapped acyl-intermediate complex in reactions with trypsin. Two kinetically resolvable conformational changes were observed in the reactions, ascribable to (i) serpin reactive center loop insertion into sheet A with full protease translocation but incomplete protease distortion followed by, (ii) full conformational distortion and movement of the protease and coupled serpin conformational changes involving the F helix-sheet A interface. Kinetic studies of calcium effects on the labeled α1PI-trypsin reactions demonstrated both inactive and low activity states of the distorted protease in the final complex that were distinct from the intermediate distorted state. These studies provide new insights into the nature of the serpin and protease conformational changes involved in trapping the acyl-intermediate complex in serpin-protease reactions and support a previously proposed role for helix F in the trapping mechanism.

  4. COOH-terminal substitutions in the serpin C1 inhibitor that cause loop overinsertion and subsequent multimerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eldering, E.; Verpy, E.; Roem, D.; Meo, T.; Tosi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The region COOH-terminal to the reactive center loop is highly conserved in the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family. We have studied the structural consequences of three substitutions (Val451-->Met, Phe455-->Ser, and Pro476-->Ser) found in this region of C1 inhibitor in patients suffering from

  5. Protease Inhibitors in Tick Saliva: The Role of Serpins and Cystatins in Tick-host-Pathogen Interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelař, J.; Kotál, Jan; Langhansová, Helena; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, MAY 29 (2017), č. článku 276. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-host interaction * immunomodulation * protease inhibitors * serpins * cystatins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  6. Characterization of cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1). A developmentally regulated elastase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, B C; Aoki, K; Xiang, Y; Campbell, L R; Hull, R J; Xoconostle-Cázares, B; Monzer, J; Lee, J Y; Ullman, D E; Lucas, W J

    2000-11-10

    We report on the molecular, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1), a novel 42-kDa serine proteinase inhibitor that is developmentally regulated and has anti-elastase properties. CmPS-1 was purified to near homogeneity from C. maxima (pumpkin) phloem exudate and, based on microsequence analysis, the cDNA encoding CmPS-1 was cloned. The association rate constant (k(a)) of phloem-purified and recombinant His(6)-tagged CmPS-1 for elastase was 3.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(5) and 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(5) m(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively. The fraction of complex-forming CmPS-1, X(inh), was estimated at 79%. CmPS-1 displayed no detectable inhibitory properties against chymotrypsin, trypsin, or thrombin. The elastase cleavage sites within the reactive center loop of CmPS-1 were determined to be Val(347)-Gly(348) and Val(350)-Ser(351) with a 3:2 molar ratio. In vivo feeding assays conducted with the piercing-sucking aphid, Myzus persicae, established a close correlation between the developmentally regulated increase in CmPS-1 within the phloem sap and the reduced ability of these insects to survive and reproduce on C. maxima. However, in vitro feeding experiments, using purified phloem CmPS-1, failed to demonstrate a direct effect on aphid survival. Likely roles of this novel phloem serpin in defense against insects/pathogens are discussed.

  7. Differential gene expression for suicide-substrate serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) in vegetative and grain tissues of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, T.H.; Marttila, S.; Rasmussen, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    centres in vitro, were ubiquitous at low levels, but the protein could not be detected. EST analysis showed that expression of genes for serpins with BSZx-type reactive centres in vegetative tissues is widespread in the plant kingdom, suggesting a common regulatory function. For BSZ4 and BSZ7, expression...... their irreversible inhibitory mechanism in the inhibition of exogenous proteinases capable of breaking down seed storage proteins, and in the defence of specific cell types in vegetative tissues.......Proteins of the serpin superfamily (similar to43 kDa) from mature cereal grains are in vitro suicide-substrate inhibitors of specific mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family. However, unlike the 'standard-mechanism' serine proteinase inhibitors (

  8. Regulation of DNA synthesis and the cell cycle in human prostate cancer cells and lymphocytes by ovine uterine serpin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uterine serpins are members of the serine proteinase inhibitor superfamily. Like some other serpins, these proteins do not appear to be functional proteinase inhibitors. The most studied member of the group, ovine uterine serpin (OvUS, inhibits proliferation of several cell types including activated lymphocytes, bovine preimplantation embryos, and cell lines for lymphoma, canine primary osteosarcoma and human prostate cancer (PC-3 cells. The goal for the present study was to evaluate the mechanism by which OvUS inhibits cell proliferation. In particular, it was tested whether inhibition of DNA synthesis in PC-3 cells involves cytotoxic actions of OvUS or the induction of apoptosis. The effect of OvUS in the production of the autocrine and angiogenic cytokine interleukin (IL-8 by PC-3 cells was also determined. Finally, it was tested whether OvUS blocks specific steps in the cell cycle using both PC-3 cells and lymphocytes. Results Recombinant OvUS blocked proliferation of PC-3 cells at concentrations as low as 8 μg/ml as determined by measurements of [3H]thymidine incorporation or ATP content per well. Treatment of PC-3 cells with OvUS did not cause cytotoxicity or apoptosis or alter interleukin-8 secretion into medium. Results from flow cytometry experiments showed that OvUS blocked the entry of PC-3 cells into S phase and the exit from G2/M phase. In addition, OvUS blocked entry of lymphocytes into S phase following activation of proliferation with phytohemagglutinin. Conclusion Results indicate that OvUS acts to block cell proliferation through disruption of the cell cycle dynamics rather than induction of cytotoxicity or apoptosis. The finding that OvUS can regulate cell proliferation makes this one of only a few serpins that function to inhibit cell growth.

  9. The molecular signature of impaired diabetic wound healing identifies serpinB3 as a healing biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadini, Gian Paolo; Albiero, Mattia; Millioni, Renato; Poncina, Nicol; Rigato, Mauro; Scotton, Rachele; Boscari, Federico; Brocco, Enrico; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Villano, Gianmarco; Turato, Cristian; Biasiolo, Alessandra; Pontisso, Patrizia; Avogaro, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    Chronic foot ulceration is a severe complication of diabetes, driving morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying delaying wound healing in diabetes are incompletely understood and tools to identify such pathways are eagerly awaited. Wound biopsies were obtained from 75 patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Matched subgroups of rapidly healing (RH, n = 17) and non-healing (NH, n = 11) patients were selected. Proteomic analysis was performed by labelling with isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification and mass spectrometry. Differentially expressed proteins were analysed in NH vs RH for identification of pathogenic pathways. Individual sample gene/protein validation and in vivo validation of candidate pathways in mouse models were carried out. Pathway analyses were conducted on 92/286 proteins that were differentially expressed in NH vs RH. The following pathways were enriched in NH vs RH patients: apoptosis, protease inhibitors, epithelial differentiation, serine endopeptidase activity, coagulation and regulation of defence response. SerpinB3 was strongly upregulated in RH vs NH wounds, validated as protein and mRNA in individual samples. To test the relevance of serpinB3 in vivo, we used a transgenic mouse model with α1-antitrypsin promoter-driven overexpression of human SERPINB3. In this model, wound healing was unaffected by SERPINB3 overexpression in non-diabetic or diabetic mice with or without hindlimb ischaemia. In an independent validation cohort of 47 patients, high serpinB3 protein content was confirmed as a biomarker of healing improvement. We provide a benchmark for the unbiased discovery of novel molecular targets and biomarkers of impaired diabetic wound healing. High serpinB3 protein content was found to be a biomarker of successful healing in diabetic patients.

  10. A two-component regulatory system controls autoregulated serpin expression in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Martin, Pablo; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Turroni, Francesca; Foroni, Elena; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2012-10-01

    This work reports on the identification and molecular characterization of a two-component regulatory system (2CRS), encoded by serRK, which is believed to control the expression of the ser(2003) locus in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. The ser(2003) locus consists of two genes, Bbr_1319 (sagA) and Bbr_1320 (serU), which are predicted to encode a hypothetical membrane-associated protein and a serpin-like protein, respectively. The response regulator SerR was shown to bind to the promoter region of ser(2003), and the probable recognition sequence of SerR was determined by a combinatorial approach of in vitro site-directed mutagenesis coupled to transcriptional fusion and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). The importance of the serRK 2CRS in the response of B. breve to protease-mediated induction was confirmed by generating a B. breve serR insertion mutant, which was shown to exhibit altered ser(2003) transcriptional induction patterns compared to the parent strain, UCC2003. Interestingly, the analysis of a B. breve serU mutant revealed that the SerRK signaling pathway appears to include a SerU-dependent autoregulatory loop.

  11. Aspirin Reduces Cardiac Interstitial Fibrosis by Inhibiting Erk1/2-Serpine2 and P-Akt Signalling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelian; Wang, GuoYuan; QiLi, MuGe; Liang, HaiHai; Li, TianShi; E, XiaoQiang; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xiao; Qian, Ming; Xu, BoZhi; Shen, ZhiHang; Gitau, Samuel Chege; Zhao, DanDan; Shan, HongLi

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac interstitial fibrosis is an abnormality of various cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, hypertrophy, and atrial fibrillation, and it can ultimately lead to heart failure. However, there is a lack of practical therapeutic approaches to treat fibrosis and reverse the damage to the heart. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term aspirin administration on pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis in mice and reveal the underlying mechanisms of aspirin treatment. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC), and treated with 10 mg·kg-1·day-1 of aspirin for 4 weeks. Masson staining and a collagen content assay were used to detect the effects of aspirin on cardiac fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. Western blot and qRT-PCR were applied to examine the impact of aspirin on extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erks), p-Akt/β-catenin, SerpinE2, collagen I, and collagen III levels in the mice heart. Aspirin significantly suppressed the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA; 1.19±0.19-fold) and collagen I (0.95±0.09-fold) in TAC mice. Aspirin, at doses of 100 and 1000 µM, also significantly suppressed angiotensin II-induced α-SMA and collagen I in cultured CFs. The enhanced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 caused by TAC (p-Erk1, 1.49±0.19-fold; p-Erk2, 1.96±0.68-fold) was suppressed by aspirin (p-Erk1, 1.04±0.15-fold; p-Erk2, 0.87±0.06-fold). SerpinE2 levels were suppressed via the Erk1/2 signalling pathway following treatment with aspirin (1.36±0.12-fold for TAC; 1.06±0.07-fold for aspirin+TAC). The p-Akt and β-catenin levels were also significantly inhibited in vivo and in vitro. Our study reveals a novel mechanism by which aspirin alleviates pressure overload-induced cardiac interstitial fibrosis in TAC mice by suppressing the p-Erk1/2 and p-Akt/β-catenin signalling pathways. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Identification and characterization of a new member of serpin family- HongrES1 in rat epididymis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A full length cDNA named HongrES1 was isolated and cloned by screening rat epididymis cDNA libraryusing a mouse EST as a probe and 5'RACE followed. It contained 1590bp nucleotides and its predictedprotein had 415 amino acid residues including a serpin (serine protease inhibitor) conserved domain. Tissuedistribution pattern showed it was specifically expressed in adult rat epididymis; moreover, in situ hybridyza-tion indicated this gene was expressed in a limited region of the cauda epididymis near vas deference. Suchkind of expression pattern sugested that HongrES1 had potential function in male reproduction.

  13. Serpin peptidase inhibitor (SERPINB5) haplotypes are associated with susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shun-Fa; Yeh, Chao-Bin; Chou, Ying-Erh; Lee, Hsiang-Lin; Liu, Yu-Fan

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The serpin peptidase inhibitor SERPINB5 is a tumour-suppressor gene that promotes the development of various cancers in humans. However, whether SERPINB5 gene variants play a role in HCC susceptibility remains unknown. In this study, we genotyped 6 SNPs of the SERPINB5 gene in an independent cohort from a replicate population comprising 302 cases and 590 controls. Additionally, patients who had at least one rs2289520 C allele in SERPINB5 tended to exhibit better liver function than patients with genotype GG (Child-Pugh grade A vs. B or C; P = 0.047). Next, haplotype blocks were reconstructed according to the linkage disequilibrium structure of the SERPINB5 gene. A haplotype “C-C-C” (rs17071138 + rs3744941 + rs8089204) in SERPINB5-correlated promoter showed a significant association with an increased HCC risk (AOR = 1.450 P = 0.031). Haplotypes “T-C-A” and “C-C-C” (rs2289519 + rs2289520 + rs1455555) located in the SERPINB5 coding region had a decreased (AOR = 0.744 P = 0.031) and increased (AOR = 1.981 P = 0.001) HCC risk, respectively. Finally, an additional integrated in silico analysis confirmed that these SNPs affected SERPINB5 expression and protein stability, which significantly correlated with tumour expression and subsequently with tumour development and aggressiveness. Taken together, our findings regarding these biomarkers provide a prediction model for risk assessment.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a highly specific serpin from the beetle Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Hee; Piao, Shunfu; Kwon, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bok Luel; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2010-01-01

    The Toll signalling pathway, which is crucial for innate immunity, is transduced in insect haemolymph via a proteolytic cascade consisting of three serine proteases. The proteolytic cascade is downregulated by a specific serine protease inhibitor (serpin). Recently, the serpin SPN48 was found to show an unusual specific reactivity towards the terminal serine protease, Spätzle-processing enzyme, in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. In this study, the mature form of SPN48 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The purified SPN48 protein was crystallized using 14% polyethylene glycol 8000 and 0.1 M 2-(N-morpho­lino)ethanesulfonic acid pH 6.0 as the precipitant. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.1 Å resolution and were suitable for structure determination. The crystals belonged to space group P21. The crystal structure will provide information regarding how SPN48 achieves its unusual specificity for its target protease. PMID:20124722

  15. Thermolysin damages animal life through degradation of plasma proteins enhanced by rapid cleavage of serpins and activation of proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lulu; Lu, Anrui; Guan, Jingmin; Yang, Bing; Li, Muwang; Hillyer, Julián F; Ramarao, Nalini; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Liu, Chaoliang; Ling, Erjun

    2015-01-01

    Thermolysin, a metallopeptidase secreted by pathogenic microbes, is concluded as an important virulence factor due to cleaving purified host proteins in vitro. Using the silkworm Bombyx mori as a model system, we found that thermolysin injection into larvae induces the destruction of the coagulation response and the activation of hemolymph melanization, which results in larval death. Thermolysin triggers the rapid degradation of insect and mammalian plasma proteins at a level that is considerably greater than expected in vitro and/or in vivo. To more specifically explore the mechanism, thermolysin-induced changes to key proteins belonging to the insect melanization pathway were assessed as a window for observing plasma protein cleavage. The application of thermolysin induced the rapid cleavage of the melanization negative regulator serpin-3, but did not directly activate the melanization rate-limiting enzyme prophenoloxidase (PPO) or the terminal serine proteases responsible for PPO activation. Terminal serine proteases of melanization are activated indirectly after thermolysin exposure. We hypothesize that thermolysin induces the rapid degradation of serpins and the activation of proteases directly or indirectly, boosting uncontrolled plasma protein degradation in insects and mammalians. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Experiment K-7-29: Connective Tissue Studies. Part 2; Changes in Muscle Serine Proteases, Serpins and Matrix Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festoff, B. W.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Rayford, A. R.; Burkovskaya, T. E.; Reddy, B. R.; Rao, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    In zero or micro-gravity, type 1 muscle fibers atrophy and lose predominance, especially in slow-twitch muscles. No increase in mononuclear cells has been observed, just as in simple denervation, where both types 1 and 2 fibers atrophy, again without infiltration of cells, but with clear satellite cell proliferation. However, extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation takes place after denervation and if re-innervation is encouraged, functional recovery to near control levels may be achieved. No information is available concerning the ECM milieu, the activation of serine proteases, their efficacy in degrading ECM components and the production of locally-derived natural protease inhibitors (serpins) in effecting surface proteolytic control. In addition, no studies are available concerning the activation of these enzymes in micro- or zero gravity or their response to muscle injury on the ground and what alterations, if any, occur in space. These studies were the basis for the experiments in Cosmos 2044.

  17. Conservative secondary structure motifs already present in early-stage folding (in silico) as found in serpines family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brylinski, Michal; Konieczny, Leszek; Kononowicz, Andrzej; Roterman, Irena

    2008-03-21

    The well-known procedure implemented in ClustalW oriented on the sequence comparison was applied to structure comparison. The consensus sequence as well as consensus structure has been defined for proteins belonging to serpine family. The structure of early stage intermediate was the object for similarity search. The high values of W(sequence) appeared to be accordant with high values of W(structure) making possible structure comparison using common criteria for sequence and structure comparison. Since the early stage structural form has been created according to limited conformational sub-space which does not include the beta-structure (this structure is mediated by C7eq structural form), is particularly important to see, that the C7eq structural form may be treated as the seed for beta-structure present in the final native structure of protein. The applicability of ClustalW procedure to structure comparison makes these two comparisons unified.

  18. Mucosal serpin A1 and A3 levels in HIV highly exposed sero-negative women are affected by the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives but are independent of epidemiological confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syeda; Rabbani, Rasheda; Wachihi, Charles; Kimani, Joshua; Plummer, Francis A; Ball, Terry B; Burgener, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Serpins (serine protease inhibitors) are associated with protection against HIV infection. Here, we characterized mucosal serpin expression in the genital tract of HIV highly exposed sero-negative (HESN) women meeting our epidemiological definition of HIV resistance in relation to epidemiological variables. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid and plasma were collected from 84 HIV-resistant, 54 HIV-uninfected, and 66 HIV-infected female commercial sex workers. Serpin A1 and A3 concentrations were measured by ELISA and compared with clinical information. Mucosal serpin A1 was elevated during proliferative phase over secretory phase (P = 0.017*), while A3 remained similar (P = 0.25). Plasma and mucosal serpin A1/A3 levels were not associated with each other and appeared compartment specific (r = 0.21, r = 0.056). Serpin A1/A3 expression did not associate with age (r = 0.009, r = -0.06), duration of sex work (r = 0.13, r = -0.10), clients per day (r = -0.11, r = -0.02), concurrent STIs (P = 0.36, P = 0.15), but was lower in women using hormonal contraceptives (P = 0.034, P = 0.008). Mucosal serpin A1/A3 levels in HIV-infected individuals were not significantly different with disease status as determined by plasma CD4(+) T-cell counts (P = 0.94, P = 0.30). This study shows the relationship of serpins to the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives, as well as their independence to epidemiological sexual confounders. This information provides a broader understanding of innate components of the mucosal immune system in women. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Dissociation of SERPINE1 mRNA from the translational repressor proteins Ago2 and TIA-1 upon platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corduan, Aurélie; Plé, Hélène; Laffont, Benoit; Wallon, Thérèse; Plante, Isabelle; Landry, Patricia; Provost, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Platelets play an important role in haemostasis, as well as in thrombosis and coagulation processes. They harbour a wide variety of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), that can template de novo protein synthesis, and an abundant array of microRNAs, which are known to mediate mRNA translational repression through proteins of the Argonaute (Ago) family. The relationship between platelet microRNAs and proteins capable of mediating translational repression, however, remains unclear. Here, we report that half of platelet microRNAs is associated to mRNA-regulatory Ago2 protein complexes, in various proportions. Associated to these Ago2 complexes are platelet mRNAs known to support de novo protein synthesis. Reporter gene activity assays confirmed the capacity of the platelet microRNAs, found to be associated to Ago2 complexes, to regulate translation of these platelet mRNAs through their 3'UTR. Neither the microRNA repertoire nor the microRNA composition of Ago2 complexes of human platelets changed upon activation with thrombin. However, under conditions favoring de novo synthesis of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) protein, we documented a rapid dissociation of the encoding platelet SERPINE1 mRNA from Ago2 protein complexes as well as from the translational repressor protein T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1). These findings are consistent with a scenario by which lifting of the repressive effects of Ago2 and TIA-1 protein complexes, involving a rearrangement of proteinmRNA complexes rather than disassembly of Ago2microRNA complexes, would allow translation of SERPINE1 mRNA into PAI-1 in response to platelet activation.

  20. Lack of involvement of strand s1'A of the viral serpin CrmA in anti-apoptotic or caspase-inhibitory functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonovic, Miljan; Denault, Jean-Bernard; Salvesen, Guy S.; Volz, Karl; Gettins, Peter G.W. (Brunham); (UIC); (Burnham)

    2010-11-30

    CrmA is a cowpox virus serpin required for full host infectivity and virulence. Residues 51-56 (DKNKDD), the only region that differs significantly from related viral serpins, were investigated for functional importance. A 1.6 {angstrom} X-ray structure reported here showed that this region can adopt either structured or unstructured conformations. Three variants were expressed, one with the region 51-56 deleted, one substituted by alanines, and one in which this region was replaced by the sequence encoded in smallpox virus. NMR showed that the region is an exposed, flexible loop that can be deleted without perturbing the serpin. The region is also very susceptible to proteolysis. Significantly, inhibition of caspases 1 and 8 was unaffected by the mutations, and each of the variants was as effective as wild-type CrmA in promoting survival from apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Thus, although the 51-56 region of CrmA is unique, and is exposed and highly susceptible to proteolysis, any in vivo role must involve a function other than proteinase inhibition or cell sparing.

  1. The predisposing effect of TGF-β1 and serpine-1 on the formation of traumatic deep vein thrombosis: an experimental study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jihong; Wu Xuemei; Li Xingguo; Li Hongkun; Zheng Hongyu; Zhao Xueling; Wang Bing

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of TGF-β1 and serpine-1 expression in femoral vein endothelial tissue in the experimental rat models with traumatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and to study the effect of expression level on the formation of traumatic deep vein thrombosis. Methods: A total of 60 SD rats were randomly divided into control group (n=10) and experimental group (n=50). Rat model of DVT used in experimental group was established by clamping the femoral vein together with the fixation of the lower extremity with plaster splint. The femoral arteries were dissected at 2.5 and 25 hours after trauma to observe the occurrence of thrombus and its severity. Based on the degree of thrombus formation, the rats in the experimental group was divided into group B (pre-thrombogenesis, 2.5 hours after trauma), group C (thrombogenesis, 25 hours after trauma) and group D (non-thrombogenesis, 25 hours after trauma). Then total RNA was extracted from the local femoral venous tissue. The different expressed genes were screened by adopting a special chip, Rat Genome 2302.0 These gene expressions were further identified by real-time PCR. In addition, these genes were further analyzed by using Pathway technique and other biological information analysis. Results: The results of both gene chip hybridization analysis and real-time PCR showed that the mRNA expressions of both TGF-β1 and serpine-1 in rat femoral vein endothelial tissue were significantly up-regulated at 2.5 hours after trauma, in addition, the expressions of group B were significantly higher than those of group A and group D (P 0.05). Pathway analysis showed that TGF-β1 was the epistatic regulatory gene of serpine-1, as it could induce the over-expression of serpine-1, inhibit fibrinolysis and promote thrombosis. Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study indicate that the up-regulated TGF-β1 and serpine-1 in local femoral venous endothelial tissue may play a crucial role in the formation of

  2. A novel serpin with antithrombin-like activity in Branchiostoma japonicum: implications for the presence of a primitive coagulation system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeqing Chao

    Full Text Available Serine protease inhibitors, or serpins, are a group of widely distributed proteins with similar structures that use conformational change to inhibit proteases. Antithrombin (AT is a member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily and a major coagulation inhibitor in all vertebrates, but its evolutionary origin remains elusive. In this study we isolated for the first time a cDNA encoding an antithrombin homolog, BjATl, from the protochordate Branchiostoma japonicum. The deduced protein BjATl consisted of 338 amino acids sharing 36.7% to 41.1% identity to known vertebrate ATs. BjATl contains a potential N-linked glycosylation site, two potential heparin binding sites and the reactive center loop with the absolutely conserved sequence Gly-Arg-Ser; all of these are features characteristic of ATs. All three phylogenetic trees constructed using Neighbor-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian-Inference methods also placed BjATl together with ATs. Moreover, BjATl expressed in yeast cells was able to inhibit bovine thrombin activity by forming a SDS-stable BjATl-thrombin complex. It also displays a concentration-dependent inhibition of thrombin that is accelerated by heparin. Furthermore, BjATl was predominantly expressed in the hepatic caecum and hind-gut, agreeing with the expression pattern of AT in mammalian species. All these data clearly demonstrate that BjATl is an ortholog of vertebrate ATs, suggesting that a primitive coagulation system emerged in the protochordate.

  3. Antibody Response to Serpin B13 Induces Adaptive Changes in Mouse Pancreatic Islets and Slows Down the Decline in the Residual Beta Cell Function in Children with Recent Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvalap, Yury; Lo, Chi-Wen; Manuylova, Ekaterina; Baldzizhar, Raman; Jospe, Nicholas; Czyzyk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is characterized by a heightened antibody (Ab) response to pancreatic islet self-antigens, which is a biomarker of progressive islet pathology. We recently identified a novel antibody to clade B serpin that reduces islet-associated T cell accumulation and is linked to the delayed onset of T1D. As natural immunity to clade B arises early in life, we hypothesized that it may influence islet development during that time. To test this possibility healthy young Balb/c male mice were injected with serpin B13 mAb or IgG control and examined for the number and cellularity of pancreatic islets by immunofluorescence and FACS. Beta cell proliferation was assessed by measuring nucleotide analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5-EdU) incorporation into the DNA and islet Reg gene expression was measured by real time PCR. Human studies involved measuring anti-serpin B13 autoantibodies by Luminex. We found that injecting anti-serpin B13 monoclonal Ab enhanced beta cell proliferation and Reg gene expression, induced the generation of ∼80 pancreatic islets per animal, and ultimately led to increase in the beta cell mass. These findings are relevant to human T1D because our analysis of subjects just diagnosed with T1D revealed an association between baseline anti-serpin activity and slower residual beta cell function decline in the first year after the onset of diabetes. Our findings reveal a new role for the anti-serpin immunological response in promoting adaptive changes in the endocrine pancreas and suggests that enhancement of this response could potentially help impede the progression of T1D in humans. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Phage display of the serpin alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor randomized at consecutive residues in the reactive centre loop and biopanned with or without thrombin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Scott

    Full Text Available In spite of the power of phage display technology to identify variant proteins with novel properties in large libraries, it has only been previously applied to one member of the serpin superfamily. Here we describe phage display of human alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (API in a T7 bacteriophage system. API M358R fused to the C-terminus of T7 capsid protein 10B was directly shown to form denaturation-resistant complexes with thrombin by electrophoresis and immunoblotting following exposure of intact phages to thrombin. We therefore developed a biopanning protocol in which thrombin-reactive phages were selected using biotinylated anti-thrombin antibodies and streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. A library consisting of displayed API randomized at residues 357 and 358 (P2-P1 yielded predominantly Pro-Arg at these positions after five rounds of thrombin selection; in contrast the same degree of mock selection yielded only non-functional variants. A more diverse library of API M358R randomized at residues 352-356 (P7-P3 was also probed, yielding numerous variants fitting a loose consensus of DLTVS as judged by sequencing of the inserts of plaque-purified phages. The thrombin-selected sequences were transferred en masse into bacterial expression plasmids, and lysates from individual colonies were screening for API-thrombin complexing. The most active candidates from this sixth round of screening contained DITMA and AAFVS at P7-P3 and inhibited thrombin 2.1-fold more rapidly than API M358R with no change in reaction stoichiometry. Deep sequencing using the Ion Torrent platform confirmed that over 800 sequences were significantly enriched in the thrombin-panned versus naïve phage display library, including some detected using the combined phage display/bacterial lysate screening approach. Our results show that API joins Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 as a serpin amenable to phage display and suggest the utility of this approach for the selection

  5. The Association between PAI-1 Gene Promoter Polymorphism and Serum Serpin E1, MDA, and Hs-CRP Levels in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar Karimian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is caused by atherosclerosis. Studies have shown that a number of factors, including cellular binding molecules such as Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and hemostasis, are closely related to development and progression of CAD. Objectives: The present case-control study aimed to evaluate the association between Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and oxidative stress markers and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD. Patients and Methods: Blood was drawn and DNA was extracted from 90 subjects (46 patients with angiographically diagnosed CAD and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. Besides, the risk factors, serpin E1, Malondialdehyde (MDA, high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP, and lipid profile serum levels were measured by standard methods and were compared between the two study groups using independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Mann-Whitney U test as appropriated. Results: Results: The frequency of 4G/4G genotype of PAI-1 gene was higher in the CAD patients than in the controls (28/46 (60.87% vs. 8/44 (18.18%, P < 0.01. Additionally, the serpin E1 plasma level was significantly higher in the CAD group carrying the 4G allele compared to those homozygous for the 5G allele (P = 0.016. Besides, a significant difference was found between the 4G/4G and 5G/5G subjects of the CAD group regarding plasma High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL (P < 0.01. Also, significant differences were observed among the three genotypes of both groups concerning the plasma levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL. However, no significant correlation was found between PAI-1 gene polymorphism and MDA serum level, hs-CRP, and risk of CAD. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggested that 4G/4G PAI

  6. Association between the SERPINE1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G insertion/deletion promoter polymorphism (rs1799889) and pre-eclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Linlu; Bracken, Michael B; Dewan, Andrew T; Chen, Suzan

    2013-03-01

    The SERPINE1 -675 4G/5G promoter region insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs1799889) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia (PE), but the genetic association has been inconsistently replicated. To derive a more precise estimate of the association, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. This study conformed to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus and HuGE Literature Finder literature databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the allelic comparison (4G versus 5G) and genotypic comparisons following the co-dominant (4G/4G versus 5G/5G and 4G/5G versus 5G/5G), dominant (4G/4G+4G/5G versus 5G/5G) and recessive (4G/4G versus 4G/5G+5G/5G) genetic models. Between-study heterogeneity was quantified by I(2) statistics and publication bias was appraised with funnel plots. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the robustness of meta-analysis findings. Meta-analysis of 11 studies involving 1297 PE cases and 1791 controls found a significant association between the SERPINE1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism and PE for the recessive genetic model (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.13-1.64, P = 0.001), a robust finding according to sensitivity analysis. A low level of between-study heterogeneity was detected (I(2) = 20%) in this comparison, which may be explained by ethnic differences. Funnel plot inspection did not reveal evidence of publication bias. In conclusion, this study provides a comprehensive examination of the available literature on the association between SERPINE1 -675 4G/5G and PE. Meta-analysis results support this polymorphism as a likely susceptibility variant for PE.

  7. The SANT2 domain of the murine tumor cell DnaJ-like protein 1 human homologue interacts with alpha1-antichymotrypsin and kinetically interferes with its serpin inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroczynska, Barbara; Evangelista, Christina M; Samant, Shalaka S; Elguindi, Ebrahim C; Blond, Sylvie Y

    2004-03-19

    The murine tumor cell DnaJ-like protein 1 or MTJ1/ERdj1 is a membrane J-domain protein enriched in microsomal and nuclear fractions. We previously showed that its lumenal J-domain stimulates the ATPase activity of the molecular chaperone BiP/GRP78 (Chevalier, M., Rhee, H., Elguindi, E. C., and Blond, S. Y. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 19620-19627). MTJ1/ERdj1 also contains a large carboxyl-terminal cytosolic extension composed of two tryptophan-mediated repeats or SANT domains for which the function(s) is unknown. Here we describe the cloning of the human homologue HTJ1 and its interaction with alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin (ACT), a member of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) family. The interaction was initially identified in a two-hybrid screening and further confirmed in vitro by dot blots, native electrophoresis, and fluorescence studies. The second SANT domain of HTJ1 (SANT2) was found to be sufficient for binding to ACT, both in yeast and in vitro. Single tryptophan-alanine substitutions at two strictly conserved residues significantly (Trp-497) or totally (Trp-520) abolished the interaction with ACT. SANT2 binds to human ACT with an intrinsic affinity equal to 0.5 nm. Preincubation of ACT with nearly stoichiometric concentrations of SANT2 wild-type but not SANT2: W520A results in an apparent loss of ACT inhibitory activity toward chymotrypsin. Kinetic analysis indicates that the formation of the covalent inhibitory complex ACT-chymotrypsin is significantly delayed in the presence of SANT2 with no change on the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. This work demonstrates for the first time that the SANT2 domain of MTJ1/HTJ1/ERdj1 mediates stable and high affinity protein-protein interactions.

  8. Conservation of a pair of serpin 2 genes and their expression in Amphiesmenoptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yonemura, N.; Sehnal, František; Koník, P.; Ajimura, M.; Tamura, T.; Mita, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2012), s. 371-380 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/2382 Grant - others:MOBITAG(CZ) FP7-REGPOT-2008-1, GA 229518 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : labial glands * Lepidoptera * protease inhibitors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965174812000203

  9. Three monoclonal antibodies against the serpin protease nexin-1 prevent protease translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousted, Tina Mostrup; Skjoedt, K; Petersen, S V

    2013-01-01

    abolish the protease inhibitory activity of PN-1. In the presence of the antibodies, PN-1 does not form a complex with its target proteases, but is recovered in a reactive centre cleaved form. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we mapped the three overlapping epitopes to an area spanning the gap between...

  10. Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor: A Novel Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor from Garlic Is a New Comrade of the Serpin Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Tooba Naz; Parveen, Romana; Amir, Mohd; Baig, Mohd Affan; Qureshi, M Irfan; Ali, Sher; Fatima, Sadaf

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to purify and characterize the Protease inhibitor (PI) from a plant Allium sativum (garlic) with strong medicinal properties and to explore its phytodrug potentials. Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor (ASPI) was purified using ammonium sulphate fractionation and Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography on anion exchanger Hi-Trap DEAE column. The purified protein was analyzed for its purity and molecular weight by SDS PAGE. The confirmation of presence of trypsin inhibiting PI was performed by MALDI TOF-TOF and analyzed by MASCOT database. The ASPI was further investigated for its kinetic properties and stability under extreme conditions of pH, temperature and chemical denaturants. Secondary structure was determined by Circular Dichorism (CD) spectroscopy. ASPI of ~15 kDa inhibited trypsin and matched "truncated kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor (Glycine max)" in MASCOT database. The purified ASPI showed 30376.1371 U/mg specific activity with a fold purity of 159.92 and yield ~93%. ASPI was quite stable in the range of pH 2-12 showing a decline in the activity around pH 4-5 suggesting that the pI value of the protein as ASPI aggregates in this range. ASPI showed stability to a broad range of temperature (10-80°C) but declined beyond 80°C. Further, detergents, oxidizing agents and reducing agents demonstrated change in ASPI activity under varying concentrations. The kinetic analysis revealed sigmoidal relationship of velocity with substrate concentration with Vmax 240.8 (μM/min) and Km value of 0.12 μM. ASPI showed uncompetitive inhibition with a Ki of 0.08±0.01 nM). The Far UV CD depicted 2.0% α -helices and 51% β -sheets at native pH. To conclude, purified ~15 kDa ASPI exhibited fair stability in wide range of pH and temperature Overall, there was an increase in purification fold with remarkable yield. Chemical modification studies suggested the presence of lysine and tryptophan residues as lead amino acids present in the reactive sites. Therefore, ASPI with trypsin inhibitory property has the potential to be used as a non-cytotoxic clinical agents.

  11. Influence of adjuvant formulation on inducing immune response in mice immunized with a recombinant serpin from Trichinella spiralis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J; Bai, X; Wang, L B; Shi, H N; van der Giessen, J W B; Boireau, P; Liu, M Y; Liu, X L

    Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are one of the most widespread zoonotic pathogens on the world, and they can still cause major public health problems in many parts of the world. Vaccination against the helminth nematode Trichinella could be a good strategy to reduce the risk of human and animal

  12. Automated high-content live animal drug screening using C. elegans expressing the aggregation prone serpin α1-antitrypsin Z.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager J Gosai

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of preclinical models amenable to live animal bioactive compound screening is an attractive approach to discovering effective pharmacological therapies for disorders caused by misfolded and aggregation-prone proteins. In general, however, live animal drug screening is labor and resource intensive, and has been hampered by the lack of robust assay designs and high throughput work-flows. Based on their small size, tissue transparency and ease of cultivation, the use of C. elegans should obviate many of the technical impediments associated with live animal drug screening. Moreover, their genetic tractability and accomplished record for providing insights into the molecular and cellular basis of human disease, should make C. elegans an ideal model system for in vivo drug discovery campaigns. The goal of this study was to determine whether C. elegans could be adapted to high-throughput and high-content drug screening strategies analogous to those developed for cell-based systems. Using transgenic animals expressing fluorescently-tagged proteins, we first developed a high-quality, high-throughput work-flow utilizing an automated fluorescence microscopy platform with integrated image acquisition and data analysis modules to qualitatively assess different biological processes including, growth, tissue development, cell viability and autophagy. We next adapted this technology to conduct a small molecule screen and identified compounds that altered the intracellular accumulation of the human aggregation prone mutant that causes liver disease in α1-antitrypsin deficiency. This study provides powerful validation for advancement in preclinical drug discovery campaigns by screening live C. elegans modeling α1-antitrypsin deficiency and other complex disease phenotypes on high-content imaging platforms.

  13. Ixodes ricinus Salivary Serpin IRS-2 Affects Th17 Differentiation via Inhibition of the Interleukin-6/STAT-3 Signaling Pathway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Páleníková, Jana; Lieskovská, Jaroslava; Langhansová, Helena; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Chmelař, J.; Kopecký, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 5 (2015), s. 1949-1956 ISSN 0019-9567 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/2208 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : T-cells * Borrelia burgdorferi * transcription factor Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.603, year: 2015

  14. Association analyses of porcine SERPINE1 reveal sex-specific effects on muscling, growth, fat accretion and meat quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weisz, Filip; Bartenschlager, H.; Knoll, Aleš; Mileham, A.; Deeb, N.; Geldermann, H.; Čepica, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2012), s. 614-619 ISSN 0268-9146 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : association study * fat deposition * meat quality Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 2.584, year: 2012

  15. Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor: A Novel Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor from Garlic Is a New Comrade of the Serpin Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Naz Shamsi

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to purify and characterize the Protease inhibitor (PI from a plant Allium sativum (garlic with strong medicinal properties and to explore its phytodrug potentials.Allium sativum Protease Inhibitor (ASPI was purified using ammonium sulphate fractionation and Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography on anion exchanger Hi-Trap DEAE column. The purified protein was analyzed for its purity and molecular weight by SDS PAGE. The confirmation of presence of trypsin inhibiting PI was performed by MALDI TOF-TOF and analyzed by MASCOT database. The ASPI was further investigated for its kinetic properties and stability under extreme conditions of pH, temperature and chemical denaturants. Secondary structure was determined by Circular Dichorism (CD spectroscopy.ASPI of ~15 kDa inhibited trypsin and matched "truncated kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor (Glycine max" in MASCOT database. The purified ASPI showed 30376.1371 U/mg specific activity with a fold purity of 159.92 and yield ~93%. ASPI was quite stable in the range of pH 2-12 showing a decline in the activity around pH 4-5 suggesting that the pI value of the protein as ASPI aggregates in this range. ASPI showed stability to a broad range of temperature (10-80°C but declined beyond 80°C. Further, detergents, oxidizing agents and reducing agents demonstrated change in ASPI activity under varying concentrations. The kinetic analysis revealed sigmoidal relationship of velocity with substrate concentration with Vmax 240.8 (μM/min and Km value of 0.12 μM. ASPI showed uncompetitive inhibition with a Ki of 0.08±0.01 nM. The Far UV CD depicted 2.0% α -helices and 51% β -sheets at native pH.To conclude, purified ~15 kDa ASPI exhibited fair stability in wide range of pH and temperature Overall, there was an increase in purification fold with remarkable yield. Chemical modification studies suggested the presence of lysine and tryptophan residues as lead amino acids present in the reactive sites. Therefore, ASPI with trypsin inhibitory property has the potential to be used as a non-cytotoxic clinical agents.

  16. The pro-urokinase plasminogen-activation system in the presence of serpin-type inhibitors and the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Niels; List, Karin; Andreasen, Peter A

    2003-01-01

    The reciprocal pro-enzyme activation system of plasmin, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and their respective zymogens is a potent mechanism in the generation of extracellular proteolytic activity. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) acts as a negative regulator. This system...... is complicated by a poorly understood intrinsic reactivity of the uPA pro-enzyme (pro-uPA) before proteolytic activation, directed against both plasminogen and PAI-1. We have studied the integrated activation mechanism under the repression of PAI-1 in a purified system. A covalent reaction between pro...

  17. A regulatory hydrophobic area in the flexible joint region of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, defined with fluorescent activity-neutralizing ligands. Ligand-induced serpin polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, R; Einholm, A P; Pedersen, K E

    2001-01-01

    by all tested nonfluorescent neutralizers, indicating that all neutralizers bind to a common hydrophobic area preferentially accessible in active PAI-1. Activity neutralization proceeded through two consecutive steps as follows: first step is conversion to forms displaying substrate behavior toward u......PA, and second step is to forms inert to uPA. With some neutralizers, the second step was associated with PAI-1 polymerization. Vitronectin reduced the susceptibility to the neutralizers. Changes in sensitivity to activity neutralization by point mutations were compatible with the various neutralizers having...

  18. RNAi-mediated knockdown of serine protease inhibitor genes increases the mortality of Plutella xylostella challenged by destruxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengfei; Fan, Jiqiao; Liu, Yu; Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Yan, Shaoqiao; Qiu, Bao-Li; Ren, Shunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Destruxin A is a mycotoxin that is secreted by entomopathogenic fungi which has a broad-spectrum insecticidal effect. Previous transcript and protein profiling analysis showed that destruxin A has significant effects on the expression of serine protease inhibitor genes (serpin-2, 4, 5) in the larvae of Plutella xylostella. In the current study, we aimed to understand the role of serpins under application of destruxin A. We obtained two full-length cDNA sequences of P. xylostella serpins, named serpin-4 and serpin-5, and cloned the serpin-2 gene whose full-length has already been published. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these two serpin genes were highly clustered with other serpins associated with the immune response in other insects. The temporal and spatial expression of serpin-2, serpin-4 and serpin-5 were determined to be the highest in the fat body and hemolymph of 4th larval stage using qRT-PCR and western blot detection techniques. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated knockdown of P. xylostella serpin genes was carried out by microinjection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The expression levels of serpins decreased significantly after RNAi. Results showed that the depletion of serpins induced cecropins expression, increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity, body melanization and mortality in the larvae of P. xylostella under the same lethal concentration of destruxin A. The superimposed effects of serpins RNAi were similar with the destruxin A treatment upon mortality of P. xylostella larvae. We discovered for the first time that serpins play indispensable role in P. xylostella when challenged by destruxin A and deduced the possible function mechanism of destruxin A. Our findings are conducive to fully understanding the potential insecticidal mechanism of destruxin A and constitute a well-defined potential molecular target for novel insecticides.

  19. RNAi-Mediated Knockdown of Serine Protease Inhibitor Genes Increases the Mortality of Plutella xylostella Challenged by Destruxin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengfei; Fan, Jiqiao; Liu, Yu; Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Yan, Shaoqiao; Qiu, Bao-Li; Ren, Shunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Destruxin A is a mycotoxin that is secreted by entomopathogenic fungi which has a broad-spectrum insecticidal effect. Previous transcript and protein profiling analysis showed that destruxin A has significant effects on the expression of serine protease inhibitor genes (serpin-2, 4, 5) in the larvae of Plutella xylostella. In the current study, we aimed to understand the role of serpins under application of destruxin A. We obtained two full-length cDNA sequences of P. xylostella serpins, named serpin-4 and serpin-5, and cloned the serpin-2 gene whose full-length has already been published. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these two serpin genes were highly clustered with other serpins associated with the immune response in other insects. The temporal and spatial expression of serpin-2, serpin-4 and serpin-5 were determined to be the highest in the fat body and hemolymph of 4th larval stage using qRT-PCR and western blot detection techniques. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated knockdown of P. xylostella serpin genes was carried out by microinjection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The expression levels of serpins decreased significantly after RNAi. Results showed that the depletion of serpins induced cecropins expression, increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity, body melanization and mortality in the larvae of P. xylostella under the same lethal concentration of destruxin A. The superimposed effects of serpins RNAi were similar with the destruxin A treatment upon mortality of P. xylostella larvae. We discovered for the first time that serpins play indispensable role in P. xylostella when challenged by destruxin A and deduced the possible function mechanism of destruxin A. Our findings are conducive to fully understanding the potential insecticidal mechanism of destruxin A and constitute a well-defined potential molecular target for novel insecticides. PMID:24837592

  20. Structural and functional characterization of cleavage and inactivation of human serine protease inhibitors by the bacterial SPATE protease EspPα from enterohemorrhagic E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Weiss

    Full Text Available EspPα and EspI are serine protease autotransporters found in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. They both belong to the SPATE autotransporter family and are believed to contribute to pathogenicity via proteolytic cleavage and inactivation of different key host proteins during infection. Here, we describe the specific cleavage and functional inactivation of serine protease inhibitors (serpins by EspPα and compare this activity with the related SPATE EspI. Serpins are structurally related proteins that regulate vital protease cascades, such as blood coagulation and inflammatory host response. For the rapid determination of serpin cleavage sites, we applied direct MALDI-TOF-MS or ESI-FTMS analysis of coincubations of serpins and SPATE proteases and confirmed observed cleavage positions using in-gel-digest of SDS-PAGE-separated degradation products. Activities of both serpin and SPATE protease were assessed in a newly developed photometrical assay using chromogenic peptide substrates. EspPα cleaved the serpins α1-protease inhibitor (α1-PI, α1-antichymotrypsin, angiotensinogen, and α2-antiplasmin. Serpin cleavage led to loss of inhibitory function as demonstrated for α1-PI while EspPα activity was not affected. Notably, EspPα showed pronounced specificity and cleaved procoagulatory serpins such as α2-antiplasmin while the anticoagulatory antithrombin III was not affected. Together with recently published research, this underlines the interference of EspPα with hemostasis or inflammatory responses during infection, while the observed interaction of EspI with serpins is likely to be not physiologically relevant. EspPα-mediated serpin cleavage occurred always in flexible loops, indicating that this structural motif might be required for substrate recognition.

  1. Gene : CBRC-OANA-01-1559 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |Oan#S38831641 PREDICTED: Ornithorhynchus anatinus similar to serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade G (C1 inhibitor), member 1, (angioede...ma, hereditary), (LOC100079402), partial mRNA /cds=p(1,9

  2. Gene : CBRC-OANA-01-0477 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |Oan#S38831641 PREDICTED: Ornithorhynchus anatinus similar to serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade G (C1 inhibitor), member 1, (angioede...ma, hereditary), (LOC100079402), partial mRNA /cds=p(1,9

  3. Characterization and expression profiling of serine protease inhibitors in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hailan; Lin, Xijian; Zhu, Jiwei; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Xia, Xiaofeng; Yao, Fengluan; Yang, Guang; You, Minsheng

    2017-02-14

    Serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) have been found in all living organisms and play significant roles in digestion, development and innate immunity. In this study, we present a genome-wide identification and expression profiling of SPI genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a major pest of cruciferous crops with global distribution and broad resistance to different types of insecticides. A total of 61 potential SPI genes were identified in the P. xylostella genome, and these SPIs were classified into serpins, canonical inhibitors, and alpha-2-macroglobulins based on their modes of action. Sequence alignments showed that amino acid residues in the hinge region of known inhibitory serpins from other insect species were conserved in most P. xylostella serpins, suggesting that these P. xylostella serpins may be functionally active. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that P. xylostella inhibitory serpins were clustered with known inhibitory serpins from six other insect species. More interestingly, nine serpins were highly similar to the orthologues in Manduca sexta which have been demonstrated to participate in regulating the prophenoloxidase activation cascade, an important innate immune response in insects. Of the 61 P.xylostella SPI genes, 33 were canonical SPIs containing seven types of inhibitor domains, including Kunitz, Kazal, TIL, amfpi, Antistasin, WAP and Pacifastin. Moreover, some SPIs contained additional non-inhibitor domains, including spondin_N, reeler, and other modules, which may be involved in protein-protein interactions. Gene expression profiling showed gene-differential, stage- and sex-specific expression patterns of SPIs, suggesting that SPIs may be involved in multiple physiological processes in P. xylostella. This is the most comprehensive investigation so far on SPI genes in P. xylostella. The characterized features and expression patterns of P. xylostella SPIs indicate that the SPI family genes may be involved in innate immunity

  4. Pnserpin: A Novel Serine Protease Inhibitor from Extremophile Pyrobaculum neutrophilum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Serine protease inhibitors (serpins are native inhibitors of serine proteases, constituting a large protein family with members spread over eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, only very few prokaryotic serpins, especially from extremophiles, have been characterized to date. In this study, Pnserpin, a putative serine protease inhibitor from the thermophile Pyrobaculum neutrophilum, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli for purification and characterization. It irreversibly inhibits chymotrypsin-, trypsin-, elastase-, and subtilisin-like proteases in a temperature range from 20 to 100 °C in a concentration-dependent manner. The stoichiometry of inhibition (SI of Pnserpin for proteases decreases as the temperature increases, indicating that the inhibitory activity of Pnserpin increases with the temperature. SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that Pnserpin inhibits proteases by forming a SDS-resistant covalent complex. Homology modeling and molecular dynamic simulations predicted that Pnserpin can form a stable common serpin fold. Results of the present work will help in understanding the structural and functional characteristics of thermophilic serpin and will broaden the current knowledge about serpins from extremophiles.

  5. Effects of oversulfated and fucosylated chondroitin sulfates on coagulation. Challenges for the study of anticoagulant polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Roberto J C; Oliveira, Stephan-Nicollas M C G; Pomin, Vitor H; Mecawi, André S; Araujo, Iracema G; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2010-05-01

    We report the effects of a chemically oversulfated chondroitin sulfate and a naturally fucosylated chondroitin sulfate on the coagulation system. The former has been recently identified as a contaminant of heparin preparations and the latter has been proposed as an alternative anticoagulant. The mechanism of action of these polymers on coagulation is complex and target different components of the coagulation system. They have serpin-independent anticoagulant activity, which preponderates in plasma. They also have serpin-dependent anticoagulant activity but differ significantly in the target coagulation protease and preferential serpin. Their anticoagulant effects differ even more markedly when tested as inhibitors of coagulation proteases using plasma as a source of serpins. It is possible that the difference is due to the high availability of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate whereas oversulfated chondroitin sulfate has strong unspecific binding to plasma protein and low availability for the binding to serpins. When tested using a venous thrombosis experimental model, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate is less potent as an antithrombotic agent than fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. These highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates activate factor XII in in vitro assays, based on kallikrein release. However, only fucosylated chondroitin sulfate induces hypotension when intravenously injected into rats. In conclusion, the complexity of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the action of highly sulfated polysaccharides in coagulation requires their analysis by a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. Our results are relevant due to the urgent need for new anticoagulant drugs or alternative sources of heparin.

  6. 1.45 Å resolution structure of SRPN18 from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meekins, David A.; Zhang, Xin; Battaile, Kevin P.; Lovell, Scott; Michel, Kristin (Kansas); (KSU); (HWMRI)

    2016-11-19

    Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) in insects function within development, wound healing and immunity. The genome of the African malaria vector,Anopheles gambiae, encodes 23 distinct serpin proteins, several of which are implicated in disease-relevant physiological responses.A. gambiaeserpin 18 (SRPN18) was previously categorized as non-inhibitory based on the sequence of its reactive-center loop (RCL), a region responsible for targeting and initiating protease inhibition. The crystal structure ofA. gambiaeSRPN18 was determined to a resolution of 1.45 Å, including nearly the entire RCL in one of the two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure reveals that the SRPN18 RCL is extremely short and constricted, a feature associated with noncanonical inhibitors or non-inhibitory serpin superfamily members. Furthermore, the SRPN18 RCL does not contain a suitable protease target site and contains a large number of prolines. The SRPN18 structure therefore reveals a unique RCL architecture among the highly conserved serpin fold.

  7. Serine protease inhibitors of parasitic helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molehin, Adebayo J; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P

    2012-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are a superfamily of structurally conserved proteins that inhibit serine proteases and play key physiological roles in numerous biological systems such as blood coagulation, complement activation and inflammation. A number of serpins have now been identified in parasitic helminths with putative involvement in immune regulation and in parasite survival through interference with the host immune response. This review describes the serpins and smapins (small serine protease inhibitors) that have been identified in Ascaris spp., Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum Onchocerca volvulus, Haemonchus contortus, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Anisakis simplex, Trichuris suis, Schistosoma spp., Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Echinococcus spp. and discusses their possible biological functions, including roles in host-parasite interplay and their evolutionary relationships.

  8. Conversion of proteins from a non-polarized to an apical secretory pattern in MDCK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Lotte K.; Larsen, Jakob E.; Hansen, Martin; Truffer, Renato

    2005-01-01

    Previously it was shown that fusion proteins containing the amino terminus of an apical targeted member of the serpin family fused to the corresponding carboxyl terminus of the non-polarized secreted serpin, antithrombin, are secreted mainly to the apical side of MDCK cells. The present study shows that this is neither due to the transfer of an apical sorting signal from the apically expressed proteins, since a sequence of random amino acids acts the same, nor is it due to the deletion of a conserved signal for correct targeting from the non-polarized secreted protein. Our results suggest that the polarity of secretion is determined by conformational sensitive sorting signals

  9. Protein C Inhibitor-A Novel Antimicrobial Agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmström, E.; Mörgelin, M.; Malmsten, M.; Johansson, L.; Norrby-Teglund, A.; Shannon, O.; Schmidtchen, A.; Meijers, J.C.M.; Herwald, H.

    2009-01-01

    Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a heparin-binding serine proteinase inhibitor belonging to the family of serpin proteins. Here we describe that PCI exerts broad antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens. This ability is mediated by the interaction of PCI with lipid membranes, which

  10. Alboserpin, a Factor Xa Inhibitor from the Mosquito Vector of Yellow Fever, Binds Heparin and Membrane Phospholipids and Exhibits Antithrombotic Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Calvo, E.; Mizurini, D.M.; Sa-Nunes, A.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Andersen, J. F.; Mans, B.J.; Monteiro, R.Q.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Francischetti, I.M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 286, č. 32 (2011), 27998-28010 ISSN 0021-9258 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : serpin * mosquito * Aedes albopictus * phospholipids * Factor Xa * heparin * binding affinity * coagulation * thrombus * bleeding Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.773, year: 2011

  11. Biochemical Importance of Glycosylation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Ann; Pedersen, Katrine Egelund; Skottrup, Peter Durand

    2003-01-01

    The serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a potential target for anti-thrombotic and anti-cancer therapy. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N-linked glycosylation. We demonstrate here that PAI-1 expressed recombinantly or naturally by human cell lines display a heterogeneous glycosyla...

  12. ELISA to measure neutralizing capacity of anti-C1-inhibitor antibodies in plasma of angioedema patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Ruchira; Rensink, Irma; Roem, Dorina; Brouwer, Mieke; Kalei, Asma; Perry, Dawn; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wouters, Diana; Hamann, Dörte

    2015-01-01

    Neutralizing autoantibodies (NAbs) against plasma serpin C1-inhibitor (C1-inh) are implicated in the rare disorder, acquired angioedema (AAE). There is insufficient understanding of the process of antibody formation and its correlation with disease progression and severity. We have developed an

  13. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen 2 (SCCA2, SERPINB4): An Emerging Biomarker for Skin Inflammatory Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuhara, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Yukie; Ohta, Shoichiro; Nunomura, Satoshi; Nanri, Yasuhiro; Azuma, Yoshinori; Nomura, Noriko; Noguchi, Yasuhiko; Aihara, Michiko

    2018-04-06

    Squamous cell carcinoma antigens 1 and 2 (SCCA1 and 2, SERPIN B3 and B4), members of the ovalbumin serpin (ov-serpin)/clade B serpin family, were originally discovered as tumor-specific antigens and are used as tumor markers for various kinds of squamous cell carcinomas. Recently, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of how SCCA1/2 enhance tumor growth has greatly increased. Moreover, it has been shown that SCCA1/2 are involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases: asthma, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD). IL-22 and IL-17, signature cytokines of type 17 inflammation, as well as IL-4 and IL-13, signature cytokines of type 2 inflammation, both of which are positively correlated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis and allergic diseases, respectively, can induce expression of SCCA1/2 in airway epithelial cells and/or keratinocytes, leading to high expression of SCCA1/2 in these diseases. Based on these findings, several trials have been performed to examine the potential of applying SCCA1/2 to biomarkers for these diseases. The findings show that SCCA2 is useful to aid diagnosis, estimate clinical severity and disease type, and assess responses to treatment in psoriasis and AD. These results suggest that SCCA2 has emerged as a novel biomarker for skin inflammatory diseases.

  14. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen 2 (SCCA2, SERPINB4: An Emerging Biomarker for Skin Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Izuhara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma antigens 1 and 2 (SCCA1 and 2, SERPIN B3 and B4, members of the ovalbumin serpin (ov-serpin/clade B serpin family, were originally discovered as tumor-specific antigens and are used as tumor markers for various kinds of squamous cell carcinomas. Recently, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of how SCCA1/2 enhance tumor growth has greatly increased. Moreover, it has been shown that SCCA1/2 are involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases: asthma, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD. IL-22 and IL-17, signature cytokines of type 17 inflammation, as well as IL-4 and IL-13, signature cytokines of type 2 inflammation, both of which are positively correlated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis and allergic diseases, respectively, can induce expression of SCCA1/2 in airway epithelial cells and/or keratinocytes, leading to high expression of SCCA1/2 in these diseases. Based on these findings, several trials have been performed to examine the potential of applying SCCA1/2 to biomarkers for these diseases. The findings show that SCCA2 is useful to aid diagnosis, estimate clinical severity and disease type, and assess responses to treatment in psoriasis and AD. These results suggest that SCCA2 has emerged as a novel biomarker for skin inflammatory diseases.

  15. Schistosome serine protease inhibitors: parasite defense or homeostasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landys A. Lopez Quezada

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Serpins are a structurally conserved family of macromolecular inhibitors found in numerous biological systems. The completion and annotation of the genomes of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum has enabled the identification by phylogenetic analysis of two major serpin clades. S. mansoni shows a greater multiplicity of serpin genes, perhaps reflecting adaptation to infection of a human host. Putative targets of schistosome serpins can be predicted from the sequence of the reactive center loop (RCL. Schistosome serpins may play important roles in both post-translational regulation of schistosome-derived proteases, as well as parasite defense mechanisms against the action of host proteases.Serpinas são uma família de inibidores macromoleculares estruturalmente conservados encontrados em inúmeros sistemas biológicos. O término e a anotação dos genomas de Schistosoma mansoni e de Schistosoma japonicum permitiram a identificação por análise filogenética de dois principais clados de serpinas. S. mansoni mostra uma multiplicidade maior de genes de serpinas, talvez refletindo uma adaptação à infecção de um hospedeiro humano. Alvos putativos das serpinas de esquistossomos podem ser preditos a partir da sequência do "loop" do centro reativo. Serpinas de esquistossomos podem ter importantes papeis tanto na regulação pós-traducional de proteases derivadas do esquistossoma, quanto nos mecanismos de defesa contra a ação de proteases do hospedeiro.

  16. Tsetse GmmSRPN10 has anti-complement activity and is important for successful establishment of trypanosome infections in the fly midgut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cher-Pheng Ooi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complement cascade in mammalian blood can damage the alimentary tract of haematophagous arthropods. As such, these animals have evolved their own repertoire of complement-inactivating factors, which are inadvertently exploited by blood-borne pathogens to escape complement lysis. Unlike the bloodstream stages, the procyclic (insect stage of Trypanosoma brucei is highly susceptible to complement killing, which is puzzling considering that a tsetse takes a bloodmeal every 2-4 days. In this study, we identified four tsetse (Glossina morsitans morsitans serine protease inhibitors (serpins from a midgut expressed sequence tag (EST library (GmmSRPN3, GmmSRPN5, GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10 and investigated their role in modulating the establishment of a T. brucei infection in the midgut. Although not having evolved in a common blood-feeding ancestor, all four serpins have an active site sharing remarkable homology with the human complement C1-inhibitor serpin, SerpinG1. RNAi knockdown of individual GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10 genes resulted in a significant decreased rate of infection by procyclic form T. brucei. Furthermore, recombinant GmmSRPN10 was both able to inhibit the activity of human complement-cascade serine proteases, C1s and Factor D, and to protect the in vitro killing of procyclic trypanosomes when incubated with complement-activated human serum. Thus, the secretion of serpins, which may be part of a bloodmeal complement inactivation system in tsetse, is used by procyclic trypanosomes to evade an influx of fresh trypanolytic complement with each bloodmeal. This highlights another facet of the complicated relationship between T. brucei and its tsetse vector, where the parasite takes advantage of tsetse physiology to further its chances of propagation and transmission.

  17. Tsetse GmmSRPN10 has anti-complement activity and is important for successful establishment of trypanosome infections in the fly midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cher-Pheng; Haines, Lee R; Southern, Daniel M; Lehane, Michael J; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The complement cascade in mammalian blood can damage the alimentary tract of haematophagous arthropods. As such, these animals have evolved their own repertoire of complement-inactivating factors, which are inadvertently exploited by blood-borne pathogens to escape complement lysis. Unlike the bloodstream stages, the procyclic (insect) stage of Trypanosoma brucei is highly susceptible to complement killing, which is puzzling considering that a tsetse takes a bloodmeal every 2-4 days. In this study, we identified four tsetse (Glossina morsitans morsitans) serine protease inhibitors (serpins) from a midgut expressed sequence tag (EST) library (GmmSRPN3, GmmSRPN5, GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10) and investigated their role in modulating the establishment of a T. brucei infection in the midgut. Although not having evolved in a common blood-feeding ancestor, all four serpins have an active site sharing remarkable homology with the human complement C1-inhibitor serpin, SerpinG1. RNAi knockdown of individual GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10 genes resulted in a significant decreased rate of infection by procyclic form T. brucei. Furthermore, recombinant GmmSRPN10 was both able to inhibit the activity of human complement-cascade serine proteases, C1s and Factor D, and to protect the in vitro killing of procyclic trypanosomes when incubated with complement-activated human serum. Thus, the secretion of serpins, which may be part of a bloodmeal complement inactivation system in tsetse, is used by procyclic trypanosomes to evade an influx of fresh trypanolytic complement with each bloodmeal. This highlights another facet of the complicated relationship between T. brucei and its tsetse vector, where the parasite takes advantage of tsetse physiology to further its chances of propagation and transmission.

  18. The M358R variant of α{sub 1}-proteinase inhibitor inhibits coagulation factor VIIa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, William P., E-mail: sheffiel@mcmaster.ca [Canadian Blood Services, Centre for Innovation, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Bhakta, Varsha [Canadian Blood Services, Centre for Innovation, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-12

    The naturally occurring M358R mutation of the plasma serpin α{sub 1}-proteinase inhibitor (API) changes both its cleavable reactive centre bond to Arg–Ser and the efficacy with which it inhibits different proteases, reducing the rate of inhibition of neutrophil elastase, and enhancing that of thrombin, factor XIa, and kallikrein, by several orders of magnitude. Although another plasma serpin with an Arg–Ser reactive centre, antithrombin (AT), has been shown to inhibit factor VIIa (FVIIa), no published data are available with respect to FVIIa inhibition by API M358R. Recombinant bacterially-expressed API M358R and plasma-derived AT were therefore compared using gel-based and kinetic assays of FVIIa integrity and activity. Under pseudo-first order conditions of excess serpin over protease, both AT and API M358R formed denaturation-resistant inhibitory complexes with FVIIa in reactions accelerated by TF; AT, but not API M358R, also required heparin for maximal activity. The second order rate constant for heparin-independent API M358R-mediated FVIIa inhibition was determined to be 7.8 ± 0.8 × 10{sup 2} M{sup −1}sec{sup −1}. We conclude that API M358R inhibits FVIIa by forming inhibitory complexes of the serpin type more rapidly than AT in the absence of heparin. The likely 20-fold excess of API M358R over AT in patient plasma during inflammation raises the possibility that it could contribute to the hemorrhagic tendencies manifested by rare individuals expressing this mutant serpin. - Highlights: • The inhibitory specificity of the serpin alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (API) is sharply altered in the M358R variant. • API M358R forms denaturation-resistant complexes with coagulation factor VIIa at a rate accelerated by tissue factor but unaffected by heparin. • Complex formation was shown by gel-based assays and quantified kinetically by inhibition of FVIIa-dependent amidolysis.

  19. The M358R variant of α_1-proteinase inhibitor inhibits coagulation factor VIIa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, William P.; Bhakta, Varsha

    2016-01-01

    The naturally occurring M358R mutation of the plasma serpin α_1-proteinase inhibitor (API) changes both its cleavable reactive centre bond to Arg–Ser and the efficacy with which it inhibits different proteases, reducing the rate of inhibition of neutrophil elastase, and enhancing that of thrombin, factor XIa, and kallikrein, by several orders of magnitude. Although another plasma serpin with an Arg–Ser reactive centre, antithrombin (AT), has been shown to inhibit factor VIIa (FVIIa), no published data are available with respect to FVIIa inhibition by API M358R. Recombinant bacterially-expressed API M358R and plasma-derived AT were therefore compared using gel-based and kinetic assays of FVIIa integrity and activity. Under pseudo-first order conditions of excess serpin over protease, both AT and API M358R formed denaturation-resistant inhibitory complexes with FVIIa in reactions accelerated by TF; AT, but not API M358R, also required heparin for maximal activity. The second order rate constant for heparin-independent API M358R-mediated FVIIa inhibition was determined to be 7.8 ± 0.8 × 10"2 M"−"1sec"−"1. We conclude that API M358R inhibits FVIIa by forming inhibitory complexes of the serpin type more rapidly than AT in the absence of heparin. The likely 20-fold excess of API M358R over AT in patient plasma during inflammation raises the possibility that it could contribute to the hemorrhagic tendencies manifested by rare individuals expressing this mutant serpin. - Highlights: • The inhibitory specificity of the serpin alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (API) is sharply altered in the M358R variant. • API M358R forms denaturation-resistant complexes with coagulation factor VIIa at a rate accelerated by tissue factor but unaffected by heparin. • Complex formation was shown by gel-based assays and quantified kinetically by inhibition of FVIIa-dependent amidolysis.

  20. Conformational preludes to the latency transition in PAI-1 as determined by atomistic computer simulations and hydrogen/deuterium-exchange mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael; Madsen, Jeppe B; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2017-01-01

    activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). We report the first multi-microsecond atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of PAI-1 and compare the data with experimental hydrogen/deuterium-exchange data (HDXMS). The simulations reveal notable conformational flexibility of helices D, E and F and major fluctuations...... are observed in the W86-loop which occasionally leads to progressive detachment of β-strand 2 A from β-strand 3 A. An interesting correlation between Cα-RMSD values from simulations and experimental HDXMS data is observed. Helices D, E and F are known to be important for the overall stability of active PAI-1......Both function and dysfunction of serine protease inhibitors (serpins) involve massive conformational change in their tertiary structure but the dynamics facilitating these events remain poorly understood. We have studied the dynamic preludes to conformational change in the serpin plasminogen...

  1. Biochemical Importance of Glycosylation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Ann; Pedersen, Katrine Egelund; Skottrup, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a potential target for anti-thrombotic and anti-cancer therapy. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N-linked glycosylation. We demonstrate here that PAI-1 expressed recombinantly or naturally by human cell lines display a heterogeneous glycosyla......The serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a potential target for anti-thrombotic and anti-cancer therapy. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N-linked glycosylation. We demonstrate here that PAI-1 expressed recombinantly or naturally by human cell lines display a heterogeneous...... with the glycosylation sites could be excluded as explanation for the differential reactivity. The latency transition of non-glycosylated, but not of glycosylated PAI-1, was strongly accelerated by a non-ionic detergent. The different biochemical properties of glycosylated and non-glycosylated PAI-1 depended...

  2. Atick salivary protein targets cathepsin G and chymase and inhibits host inflammation and platelet aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelař, Jindřich; Oliveira, C. J.; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Kovářová, Zuzana; Pejler, G.; Kopáček, Petr; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Mareš, Michael; Kopecký, Jan; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 2 (2011), s. 736-744 ISSN 0006-4971 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/2183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : parasite serpin * IRS-2 * tick * Ixodes ricinus * platelet aggregation * inflammation * cathepsin G * chymase Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 9.898, year: 2011

  3. Secretome profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma-associated fibroblasts reveals organization and disassembly of extracellular matrix and collagen metabolic process signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagordakis, Elizabete; Sawazaki-Calone, Iris; Macedo, Carolina Carneiro Soares; Carnielli, Carolina M; de Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; Rodrigues, Priscila Campioni; Rangel, Ana Lucia C A; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Risteli, Juha; Graner, Edgard; Salo, Tuula; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Coletta, Ricardo D

    2016-07-01

    An important role has been attributed to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumorigenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most common tumor of the oral cavity. Previous studies demonstrated that CAF-secreted molecules promote the proliferation and invasion of OSCC cells, inducing a more aggressive phenotype. In this study, we searched for differences in the secretome of CAFs and normal oral fibroblasts (NOF) using mass spectrometry-based proteomics and biological network analysis. Comparison of the secretome profiles revealed that upregulated proteins involved mainly in extracellular matrix organization and disassembly and collagen metabolism. Among the upregulated proteins were fibronectin type III domain-containing 1 (FNDC1), serpin peptidase inhibitor type 1 (SERPINE1), and stanniocalcin 2 (STC2), the upregulation of which was validated by quantitative PCR and ELISA in an independent set of CAF cell lines. The transition of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)-mediating NOFs into CAFs was accompanied by significant upregulation of FNDC1, SERPINE1, and STC2, confirming the participation of these proteins in the CAF-derived secretome. Type I collagen, the main constituent of the connective tissue, was also associated with several upregulated biological processes. The immunoexpression of type I collagen N-terminal propeptide (PINP) was significantly correlated in vivo with CAFs in the tumor front and was associated with significantly shortened survival of OSCC patients. Presence of CAFs in the tumor stroma was also an independent prognostic factor for OSCC disease-free survival. These results demonstrate the value of secretome profiling for evaluating the role of CAFs in the tumor microenvironment and identify potential novel therapeutic targets such as FNDC1, SERPINE1, and STC2. Furthermore, type I collagen expression by CAFs, represented by PINP levels, may be a prognostic marker of OSCC outcome.

  4. Loss and gain of function in SERPINB11: an example of a gene under selection on standing variation, with implications for host-pathogen interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Seixas

    Full Text Available Serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs are crucial in the regulation of diverse biological processes including inflammation and immune response. SERPINB11, located in the 18q21 gene cluster, is a polymorphic gene/pseudogene coding for a non-inhibitory SERPIN. In a genome-wide scan for recent selection, SERPINB11 was identified as a potential candidate gene for adaptive evolution in Yoruba. The present study sought a better understanding of the evolutionary history of SERPINB11, with special focus on evaluating its selective signature. Through the resequencing of coding and noncoding regions of SERPINB11 in 20 Yorubans and analyzing primate orthologous sequences, we identified a full-length SERPINB11 variant encoding a non-inhibitory SERPIN as the putative candidate of selection--probably driven to higher frequencies by an adaptive response using preexisting variation. In addition, we detected contrasting evolutionary features of SERPINB11 in primates: While primate phylogeny as a whole is under purifying selection, the human lineage shows evidence of positive selection in a few codons, all associated with the active SERPINB11. Comparative modeling studies suggest that positively selected codons reduce SERPINB11's ability to undergo the conformational changes typical of inhibitory SERPINs--suggesting that it is evolving towards a new non-inhibitory function in humans. Significant correlations between SERPINB11 variants and the environmental variables, pastoralism and pathogen richness, have led us to propose a selective advantage through host-pathogen interactions, possibly linked to an adaptive response combating the emergence of infectious diseases in recent human evolution. This work represents the first description of a resurrected gene in humans, and may well exemplify selection on standing variation triggered by drastic ecological shifts.

  5. Metadata: JPST000160 [jPOST repository metadata[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance of the therapeutic effects of secreted factors from MSCs is increasing, but... functions are linked to MSCs’ biological effects, such as CTGF, SERPINE1, TGFB1, DKK3 and MYDGF, and also i...suggesting connection to the functions closely related to MSCs’ therapeutic effects.... This list of commonly secreted proteins could provide a reliable resource of biological factors which explain various effects

  6. The Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Citrullinome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilvawala, Ronak; Nguyen, Son Hong; Maurais, Aaron J; Nemmara, Venkatesh V; Nagar, Mitesh; Salinger, Ari J; Nagpal, Sunil; Weerapana, Eranthie; Thompson, Paul R

    2018-03-21

    Increased protein citrullination is linked to various diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), lupus, and cancer. Citrullinated autoantigens, a hallmark of RA, are recognized by anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) which are used to diagnose RA. ACPA-recognizing citrullinated enolase, vimentin, keratin, and filaggrin are also pathogenic. Here, we used a chemoproteomic approach to define the RA-associated citrullinome. The identified proteins include numerous serine protease inhibitors (Serpins), proteases and metabolic enzymes. We demonstrate that citrullination of antiplasmin, antithrombin, t-PAI, and C1 inhibitor (P1-Arg-containing Serpins) abolishes their ability to inhibit their cognate proteases. Citrullination of nicotinamide N-methyl transferase (NNMT) also abolished its methyltransferase activity. Overall, these data advance our understanding of the roles of citrullination in RA and suggest that extracellular protein arginine deiminase (PAD) activity can modulate protease activity with consequent effects on Serpin-regulated pathways. Moreover, our data suggest that inhibition of extracellular PAD activity will be therapeutically relevant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Glucose-independent persistence of PAI-1 gene expression and H3K4 tri-methylation in type 1 diabetic mouse endothelium: implication in metabolic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Fumihiko; Mizutani, Shuki; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Sawada, Naoki

    2013-03-29

    Clinical trials with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have identified a phenomenon known as "metabolic memory" in which previous periods of hyperglycemia result in the long-lasting deleterious impact on cardiovascular events. Emerging evidence shows that transient hyperglycemic exposure of human endothelial cells induces histone 3 lysine 4 mono-methylation (H3K4me1) on the promoter and persistent mRNA expression of RelA and IL-8 genes, suggesting that epigenetic histone modification and chromatin structure remodeling is a key event underlying metabolic memory. This burgeoning hypothesis, however, critically remains to be tested for relevance in the disease process of diabetes in vivo, and for broader applicability to an array of genes involved in endothelial dysfunction. To address this, we used type 1 diabetes mouse model induced by streptozocin to be hyperglycemic for 8 weeks, and isolated endothelial cells that were used either freshly after isolation or after 2 to 3-week cell culture in normoglycemic conditions. mRNA expression profiling in diabetic mouse endothelial cells revealed significant and persistent up-regulation of Serpine1 encoding PAI-1, the hypo-fibrinolytic mediator leading to thrombotic diseases in diabetes, along with Rock2, Fn1 and Ccl2, whereas only Serpine 1 was persistently elevated in high glucose-treated mouse endothelial cells. Chromosome immunoprecipitation assay in type 1 diabetic mouse endothelial cells showed predominant enrichment of H3K4 tri-methylation on Serpine1 promoter, suggesting a unique epigenetic regulation in diabetic mice as opposed to high glucose-treated human ECs. Our study demonstrates the importance of combining in vivo models of diabetes with high glucose-treated cell culture to better assess the epigenetic mechanisms relevant to disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanisms of PEDF-mediated protection against reactive oxygen species damage in diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahy, Mina; Baindur-Hudson, Swati; Cruzat, Vinicius F; Newsholme, Philip; Dass, Crispin R

    2014-09-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a pluripotent glycoprotein belonging to the serpin family. PEDF can stimulate several physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and survival. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy (DR), which is the major cause of blindness in young diabetic adults. PEDF plays a protective role in DR and there is accumulating evidence of the neuroprotective effect of PEDF. In this paper, we review the role of PEDF and the mechanisms involved in its antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Proteome analysis of barley seeds: Identification of major proteins from two-dimensional gels (pl 4-7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, O.; Finnie, Christine; Laugesen, S.

    2004-01-01

    inhibitors), and proteins related to desiccation and oxidative stress. Sixty-four of the identifications were made using expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Numerous spots in the 2-D gel pattern changed during germination (micromalting) and an intensely stained area which contained large amounts of the serpin......Germination of monocotyledonous plants involves activation and de novo synthesis of enzymes that degrade cell walls and starch and mobilize stored endosperm reserves for embryo growth. Two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were applied to identify major water...

  10. Genetic variants and multiple myeloma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martino, Alessandro; Campa, Daniele; Jurczyszyn, Artur

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic background plays a role in multiple myeloma susceptibility. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with genetic susceptibility to multiple myeloma were identified in the last years, but only a few of them were validated in independent studies. METHODS...... with multiple myeloma risk (P value range, 0.055-0.981), possibly with the exception of the SNP rs2227667 (SERPINE1) in women. CONCLUSIONS: We can exclude that the selected polymorphisms are major multiple myeloma risk factors. IMPACT: Independent validation studies are crucial to identify true genetic risk...

  11. Functional importance of PAI-1 glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anni; Naessens, Dominik; Skottrup, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Structure-function studies of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have previously been performed mostly with non-glycosylated material expressed in E. coli. We have now studied the importance of PAI-1 glycosylation for its functional properties. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N......-glycosylated PAI-1 could be conferred upon PAI-1 expressed in HEK293 cells by mutational inactivation of one or the other glycosylation site. These findings reveal a novel functional role for glycosylation of a serpin. The glycosylation sites are localised between a-helix H and b-strand 2C and b-strand 3C and a...

  12. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a serine proteinase inhibitor gene from Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Yael; Siman-Tov, Rama; Ankri, Serge

    2004-02-01

    Serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) are irreversible suicide inhibitors of proteinases that regulate a wide range of biological processes, including pathogen evasion of the host defence system. We report the cloning and characterization of a gene encoding a serpin from the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (Ehserp) that may function in this manner. The protein encoded by Ehserp contains 371 amino acids with a predicted mass of 42.6 kDa. Antibodies to a 42 kDa recombinant Ehserp react specifically with two bands of 42 and 49 kDa in trophozoite extracts. Ehserp has a cytoplasmic localization and is secreted by trophozoites incubated in the presence of mammalian cells, but not by resting trophozoites. A panel of mammalian serine proteinases was screened, but none of them was inhibited by the recombinant Ehserp. In contrast, the 49 kDa Ehserp present in the secretion product (SP) of activated macrophages interacted with human neutrophil cathepsin G to form a complex resistant to sodium dodecyl sulphate. We discuss the nature of the 42 and 49 kDa Ehserp and the possible roles that Ehserp may play in the survival of the parasite inside the host.

  13. The functional significance of the autolysis loop in protein C and activated protein C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Likui; Manithody, Chandrashekhara; Rezaie, Alireza R

    2005-07-01

    The autolysis loop of activated protein C (APC) is five residues longer than the autolysis loop of other vitamin K-dependent coagulation proteases. To investigate the role of this loop in the zymogenic and anticoagulant properties of the molecule, a protein C mutant was constructed in which the autolysis loop of the protein was replaced with the corresponding loop of factor X. The protein C mutant was activated by thrombin with approximately 5-fold higher rate in the presence of Ca2+. Both kinetics and direct binding studies revealed that the Ca2+ affinity of the mutant has been impaired approximately 3-fold. The result of a factor Va degradation assay revealed that the anticoagulant function of the mutant has been improved 4-5-fold in the absence but not in the presence of protein S. The improvement was due to a better recognition of both the P1-Arg506 and P1-Arg306 cleavage sites by the mutant protease. However, the plasma half-life of the mutant was markedly shortened due to faster inactivation by plasma serpins. These results suggest that the autolysis loop of protein C is critical for the Ca(2+)-dependence of activation by thrombin. Moreover, a longer autolysis loop in APC is not optimal for interaction with factor Va in the absence of protein S, but it contributes to the lack of serpin reactivity and longer half-life of the protease in plasma.

  14. A retinoic acid-inducible mRNA from F9 teratocarcinoma cells encodes a novel protease inhibitor homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S Y; Gudas, L J

    1990-09-15

    We have previously isolated several cDNA clones specific for mRNA species that increase in abundance during the retinoic acid-associated differentiation of F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells. One of these mRNAs, J6, encodes a approximately 40 kDa protein as assayed by hybrid selection and in vitro translation (Wang, S.-Y., LaRosa, G., and Gudas, L. J. (1985) Dev. Biol. 107, 75-86). The time course of J6 mRNA expression is similar to those of both laminin B1 and collagen IV (alpha 1) messages following retinoic acid addition. To address the functional role of this protein, we have isolated a full-length cDNA clone complementary to this approximately 40-kDa protein mRNA. Sequence analysis reveals an open reading frame of 406 amino acids (Mr 45,652). The carboxyl-terminal portion of this predicted protein contains a region that is homologous to the reactive sites found among members of the serpin (serine protease inhibitor) family. The predicted reactive site (P1-P1') of this J6 protein is Arg-Ser, which is the same as that of antithrombin III. Like ovalbumin and human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor (mPAI-2), which are members of the serpin gene family, the J6 protein appears to have no typical amino-terminal signal sequence.

  15. Proteomics of inflammatory and oxidative stress response in cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Romana; Piras, Cristian; Kovačić, Mislav; Samardžija, Marko; Ahmed, Hany; De Canio, Michele; Urbani, Andrea; Meštrić, Zlata Flegar; Soggiu, Alessio; Bonizzi, Luigi; Roncada, Paola

    2012-07-19

    Cow serum proteome was evaluated by three different complementary approaches in the control group, subclinical and clinical mastitis in order to possibly find differential protein expression useful for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of mastitis as well as for an early diagnosis of the disease. The systemic inflammatory and oxidative stress response in cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were observed. The collected evidence shows a differential protein expression of serpin A3-1, vitronectin-like protein and complement factor H in subclinical mastitis in comparison with the control. It was also found a differential protein expression of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, serpin A3-1, C4b-binding protein alpha chain, haptoglobin and apolipoprotein A-I in clinical mastitis compared to the control. Among the inflammatory proteins up-regulated in clinical mastitis, vitronectin is over-expressed in both subclinical and clinical mastitis indicating a strong bacterial infection. This suggests vitronectin as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of the onset of mastitis as well as a valuable marker for diagnosis of the subclinical form of the disease. Obtained data could be useful for the detection of mastitis during the subclinical phase and for a better comprehension of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the onset of the disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel immunohistochemical markers differentiate intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma from benign bile duct lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Stefanie; Padden, Juliet; Kälsch, Julia; Ahrens, Maike; Pott, Leona; Canbay, Ali; Weber, Frank; Fingas, Christian; Hoffmann, Andreas C; Vietor, Antonie; Schlaak, Joerg F; Eisenacher, Martin; Reis, Henning; Sitek, Barbara; Baba, Hideo A

    2016-07-01

    The distinction between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and benign bile duct lesions can be challenging. Using our previously identified potential biomarkers for ICC, we examined whether these are useful for the differential diagnosis of ICC, bile duct adenoma and reactive bile duct proliferations in an immunohistochemical approach and identified a diagnostic marker panel including known biomarkers. Subjects included samples from 77 patients with ICC, 33 patients with bile duct adenoma and 47 patients with ductular reactions in liver cirrhosis. Our previously identified biomarkers (stress-induced phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1), SerpinH1, 14-3-3Sigma) were tested immunohistochemically following comparison with candidates from the literature (cluster of differentiation 56, heat shock protein (HSP)27, HSP70, B-cell-lymphoma2, p53, ki67). The expression of SerpinH1 and 14-3-3Sigma was significantly higher in ICC than in bile duct adenomas and ductular reactions (p5% might be used for the distinction of malignant and non-malignant lesions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. High Expression of Antiviral Proteins in Mucosa from Individuals Exhibiting Resistance to Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Milena Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Several soluble factors have been reported to have the capacity of inhibiting HIV replication at different steps of the virus life cycle, without eliminating infected cells and through enhancement of specific cellular mechanisms. Yet, it is unclear if these antiviral factors play a role in the protection from HIV infection or in the control of viral replication. Here we evaluated two cohorts: i one of 58 HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (HESNs who were compared with 59 healthy controls (HCs, and ii another of 13 HIV-controllers who were compared with 20 HIV-progressors. Peripheral blood, oral and genital mucosa and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT samples were obtained to analyze the mRNA expression of ELAFIN, APOBEC3G, SAMHD1, TRIM5α, RNase 7 and SerpinA1 using real-time PCR.HESNs exhibited higher expression of all antiviral factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, oral or genital mucosa when compared with HCs. Furthermore, HIV-controllers exhibited higher levels of SerpinA1 in GALT.These findings suggest that the activity of these factors is compartmentalized and that these proteins have a predominant role depending on the tissue to avoid the infection, reduce the viral load and modulate the susceptibility to HIV infection.

  18. Proteomic profiling identifies markers for inflammation-related tumor-fibroblast interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drev, Daniel; Bileck, Andrea; Erdem, Zeynep N; Mohr, Thomas; Timelthaler, Gerald; Beer, Andrea; Gerner, Christopher; Marian, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Cancer associated fibroblasts are activated in the tumor microenvironment and contribute to tumor progression, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and inflammation. To identify proteins characteristic for fibroblasts in colorectal cancer we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to derive protein abundance from whole-tissue homogenates of human colorectal cancer/normal mucosa pairs. Alterations of protein levels were determined by two-sided t test with greater than threefold difference and an FDR of matrix organization, TGFβ receptor signaling and angiogenesis mainly originating from the stroma. Most prominent were increased abundance of SerpinB5 in the parenchyme and latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein, thrombospondin-B2, and secreted protein acidic-and-cysteine-rich in the stroma. Extracellular matrix remodeling involved collagens type VIII, XII, XIV, and VI as well as lysyl-oxidase-2. In silico analysis of mRNA levels demonstrated altered expression in the tumor and the adjacent normal tissue as compared to mucosa of healthy individuals indicating that inflammatory activation affected the surrounding tissue. Immunohistochemistry of 26 tumor specimen confirmed upregulation of SerpinB5, thrombospondin B2 and secreted protein acidic-and-cysteine-rich. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting tumor- and compartment-specific protein-signatures that are functionally meaningful by proteomic profiling of whole-tissue extracts together with mining of RNA expression datasets. The results provide the basis for further exploration of inflammation-related stromal markers in larger patient cohorts and experimental models.

  19. The tempered polymerization of human neuroserpin.

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    Rosina Noto

    Full Text Available Neuroserpin, a member of the serpin protein superfamily, is an inhibitor of proteolytic activity that is involved in pathologies such as ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB. The latter belongs to a class of conformational diseases, known as serpinopathies, which are related to the aberrant polymerization of serpin mutants. Neuroserpin is known to polymerize, even in its wild type form, under thermal stress. Here, we study the mechanism of neuroserpin polymerization over a wide range of temperatures by different techniques. Our experiments show how the onset of polymerization is dependent on the formation of an intermediate monomeric conformer, which then associates with a native monomer to yield a dimeric species. After the formation of small polymers, the aggregation proceeds via monomer addition as well as polymer-polymer association. No further secondary mechanism takes place up to very high temperatures, thus resulting in the formation of neuroserpin linear polymeric chains. Most interesting, the overall aggregation is tuned by the co-occurrence of monomer inactivation (i.e. the formation of latent neuroserpin and by a mechanism of fragmentation. The polymerization kinetics exhibit a unique modulation of the average mass and size of polymers, which might suggest synchronization among the different processes involved. Thus, fragmentation would control and temper the aggregation process, instead of enhancing it, as typically observed (e.g. for amyloid fibrillation.

  20. A+-Helix of Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) Is a Cell-penetrating Peptide That Mediates Cell Membrane Permeation of PCI*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hanjiang; Wahlmüller, Felix Christof; Sarg, Bettina; Furtmüller, Margareta; Geiger, Margarethe

    2015-01-01

    Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a serpin with broad protease reactivity. It binds glycosaminoglycans and certain phospholipids that can modulate its inhibitory activity. PCI can penetrate through cellular membranes via binding to phosphatidylethanolamine. The exact mechanism of PCI internalization and the intracellular role of the serpin are not well understood. Here we showed that testisin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored serine protease, cleaved human PCI and mouse PCI (mPCI) at their reactive sites as well as at sites close to their N terminus. This cleavage was observed not only with testisin in solution but also with cell membrane-anchored testisin on U937 cells. The cleavage close to the N terminus released peptides rich in basic amino acids. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the released peptides of human PCI (His1–Arg11) and mPCI (Arg1–Ala18) functioned as cell-penetrating peptides. Because intact mPCI but not testisin-cleaved mPCI was internalized by Jurkat T cells, a truncated mPCI mimicking testisin-cleaved mPCI was created. The truncated mPCI lacking 18 amino acids at the N terminus was not taken up by Jurkat T cells. Therefore our model suggests that testisin or other proteases could regulate the internalization of PCI by removing its N terminus. This may represent one of the mechanisms regulating the intracellular functions of PCI. PMID:25488662

  1. Identification of novel adipokines in the joint. Differential expression in healthy and osteoarthritis tissues.

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    Javier Conde

    Full Text Available Emerging data suggest that several metabolic factors, released mainly by white adipose tissue (WAT and joint tissues, and collectively named adipokines, might have a role in the pathophysiology of OA. Recently, novel adipokines such as SERPINE2, WISP2, GPNMB and ITIH5 have been identified in WAT. The main goal of this study was to analyse the expression of these novel adipokines in synovium, infrapatellar fat pad and chondrocytes and to compare the expression of these molecules in healthy and OA tissues.Synovial tissues, infrapatellar fat pad and chondrocytes were obtained from 36 OA patients (age 52-85; mean BMI 28.9 who underwent total knee replacement surgery. Healthy synovial tissues and infrapatellar fat pad were obtained from 15 traumatic knee patients (age 23-53; mean BMI 23.5. mRNA and protein expression were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis respectively.All the novel adipokines, matter of our study, are expressed in OA synovium, infrapatellar fat pad and chondrocytes. Moreover, we detected a differential expression of SERPINE2 and ITIH5 in OA synovial tissues as compared to healthy samples. Finally, we also observed an increased expression of WISP2 in OA infrapatellar fat pad in comparison to healthy controls.In this study we demonstrated for the first time the expression of four novel adipokines in different joint tissues and how these molecules are differentially expressed in healthy and OA joint tissues.

  2. Association of Forced Vital Capacity with the Developmental Gene NCOR2.

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    Cosetta Minelli

    Full Text Available Forced Vital Capacity (FVC is an important predictor of all-cause mortality in the absence of chronic respiratory conditions. Epidemiological evidence highlights the role of early life factors on adult FVC, pointing to environmental exposures and genes affecting lung development as risk factors for low FVC later in life. Although highly heritable, a small number of genes have been found associated with FVC, and we aimed at identifying further genetic variants by focusing on lung development genes.Per-allele effects of 24,728 SNPs in 403 genes involved in lung development were tested in 7,749 adults from three studies (NFBC1966, ECRHS, EGEA. The most significant SNP for the top 25 genes was followed-up in 46,103 adults (CHARGE and SpiroMeta consortia and 5,062 children (ALSPAC. Associations were considered replicated if the replication p-value survived Bonferroni correction (p<0.002; 0.05/25, with a nominal p-value considered as suggestive evidence. For SNPs with evidence of replication, effects on the expression levels of nearby genes in lung tissue were tested in 1,111 lung samples (Lung eQTL consortium, with further functional investigation performed using public epigenomic profiling data (ENCODE.NCOR2-rs12708369 showed strong replication in children (p = 0.0002, with replication unavailable in adults due to low imputation quality. This intronic variant is in a strong transcriptional enhancer element in lung fibroblasts, but its eQTL effects could not be tested due to low imputation quality in the eQTL dataset. SERPINE2-rs6754561 replicated at nominal level in both adults (p = 0.036 and children (p = 0.045, while WNT16-rs2707469 replicated at nominal level only in adults (p = 0.026. The eQTL analyses showed association of WNT16-rs2707469 with expression levels of the nearby gene CPED1. We found no statistically significant eQTL effects for SERPINE2-rs6754561.We have identified a new gene, NCOR2, in the retinoic acid signalling pathway pointing

  3. Case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer.

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    Inoue, Tomoko; Yagami, Akiko; Shimojo, Naoshi; Hara, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masashi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-06-01

    We report here a case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer, in which a female patient developed angioedema of the eyelids shortly after consuming beer. In skin prick tests, the patient showed positive reactions to the base ingredients of beer, particularly malt and barley. The specific serum immunoglobulin E antibodies against barley and malt displayed weakly positive reactivity. To identify the immunoreactive antigens, malt and barley proteins were separated by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoreacted with the patient's serum. The results of mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the main antigen was a protein with similarity to protein z-type serpin. Notably, the identified antigen had a molecular weight of 20-25 kDa, which is markedly smaller than that previously reported for protein Z4 (44 kDa). Taken together, these analyses indicate that a possible new antigen which belongs to the protein Z family elicits immediate hypersensitivity to beer. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Functional requirements of AID's higher order structures and their interaction with RNA-binding proteins.

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    Mondal, Samiran; Begum, Nasim A; Hu, Wenjun; Honjo, Tasuku

    2016-03-15

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for the somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of Ig genes. Although both the N and C termini of AID have unique functions in DNA cleavage and recombination, respectively, during SHM and CSR, their molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay combined with glycerol gradient fractionation, we revealed that the AID C terminus is required for a stable dimer formation. Furthermore, AID monomers and dimers form complexes with distinct heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). AID monomers associate with DNA cleavage cofactor hnRNP K whereas AID dimers associate with recombination cofactors hnRNP L, hnRNP U, and Serpine mRNA-binding protein 1. All of these AID/ribonucleoprotein associations are RNA-dependent. We propose that AID's structure-specific cofactor complex formations differentially contribute to its DNA-cleavage and recombination functions.

  5. Further insight into the roles of the glycans attached to human blood protein C inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Wei; Parry, Simon; Ubhayasekera, Wimal

    2010-01-01

    Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a 57-kDa glycoprotein that exists in many tissues and secretions in human. As a member of the serpin superfamily of proteins it displays unusually broad protease specificity. PCI is implicated in the regulation of a wide range of processes, including blood coagulation......, fertilization, prevention of tumors and pathogen defence. It has been reported that PCI isolated from human blood plasma is highly heterogeneous, and that this heterogeneity is caused by differences in N-glycan structures, N-glycosylation occupancy, and the presence of two forms that differ by the presence...... or absence of 6 amino acids at the amino-terminus. In this study we have verified that such heterogeneity exists in PCI purified from single individuals, and that individuals of two different ethnicities possess a similar PCI pattern, verifying that the micro-heterogeneity is conserved among humans...

  6. Tissue type plasminogen activator regulates myeloid-cell dependent neoangiogenesis during tissue regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohki, Makiko; Ohki, Yuichi; Ishihara, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    tissue regeneration is not well understood. Bone marrow (BM)-derived myeloid cells facilitate angiogenesis during tissue regeneration. Here, we report that a serpin-resistant form of tPA by activating the extracellular proteases matrix metalloproteinase-9 and plasmin expands the myeloid cell pool......-A. Remarkably, transplantation of BM-derived tPA-mobilized CD11b(+) cells and VEGFR-1(+) cells, but not carrier-mobilized cells or CD11b(-) cells, accelerates neovascularization and ischemic tissue regeneration. Inhibition of VEGF signaling suppresses tPA-induced neovascularization in a model of hind limb...... and mobilizes CD45(+)CD11b(+) proangiogenic, myeloid cells, a process dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and Kit ligand signaling. tPA improves the incorporation of CD11b(+) cells into ischemic tissues and increases expression of neoangiogenesis-related genes, including VEGF...

  7. Kallistatin Ameliorates Influenza Virus Pathogenesis by Inhibition of Kallikrein-Related Peptidase 1-Mediated Cleavage of Viral Hemagglutinin

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    Leu, Chia-Hsing; Yang, Mei-Lin; Chung, Nai-Hui; Huang, Yen-Jang; Su, Yu-Chu; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Lin, Chia-Cheng; Shieh, Gia-Shing; Chang, Meng-Ya; Wang, Shainn-Wei; Chang, Yao; Chao, Julie; Chao, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus by host trypsin-like proteases is required for viral infectivity. Some serine proteases are capable of cleaving influenza virus HA, whereas some serine protease inhibitors (serpins) inhibit the HA cleavage in various cell types. Kallikrein-related peptidase 1 (KLK1, also known as tissue kallikrein) is a widely distributed serine protease. Kallistatin, a serpin synthesized mainly in the liver and rapidly secreted into the circulation, forms complexes with KLK1 and inhibits its activity. Here, we investigated the roles of KLK1 and kallistatin in influenza virus infection. We show that the levels of KLK1 increased, whereas those of kallistatin decreased, in the lungs of mice during influenza virus infection. KLK1 cleaved H1, H2, and H3 HA molecules and consequently enhanced viral production. In contrast, kallistatin inhibited KLK1-mediated HA cleavage and reduced viral production. Cells transduced with the kallistatin gene secreted kallistatin extracellularly, which rendered them more resistant to influenza virus infection. Furthermore, lentivirus-mediated kallistatin gene delivery protected mice against lethal influenza virus challenge by reducing the viral load, inflammation, and injury in the lung. Taking the data together, we determined that KLK1 and kallistatin contribute to the pathogenesis of influenza virus by affecting the cleavage of the HA peptide and inflammatory responses. This study provides a proof of principle for the potential therapeutic application of kallistatin or other KLK1 inhibitors for influenza. Since proteolytic activation also enhances the infectivity of some other viruses, kallistatin and other kallikrein inhibitors may be explored as antiviral agents against these viruses. PMID:26149981

  8. An original SERPINA3 gene cluster: Elucidation of genomic organization and gene expression in the Bos taurus 21q24 region

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    Ouali Ahmed

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins is involved in numerous fundamental biological processes as inflammation, blood coagulation and apoptosis. Our interest is focused on the SERPINA3 sub-family. The major human plasma protease inhibitor, α1-antichymotrypsin, encoded by the SERPINA3 gene, is homologous to genes organized in clusters in several mammalian species. However, although there is a similar genic organization with a high degree of sequence conservation, the reactive-centre-loop domains, which are responsible for the protease specificity, show significant divergences. Results We provide additional information by analyzing the situation of SERPINA3 in the bovine genome. A cluster of eight genes and one pseudogene sharing a high degree of identity and the same structural organization was characterized. Bovine SERPINA3 genes were localized by radiation hybrid mapping on 21q24 and only spanned over 235 Kilobases. For all these genes, we propose a new nomenclature from SERPINA3-1 to SERPINA3-8. They share approximately 70% of identity with the human SERPINA3 homologue. In the cluster, we described an original sub-group of six members with an unexpected high degree of conservation for the reactive-centre-loop domain, suggesting a similar peptidase inhibitory pattern. Preliminary expression analyses of these bovSERPINA3s showed different tissue-specific patterns and diverse states of glycosylation and phosphorylation. Finally, in the context of phylogenetic analyses, we improved our knowledge on mammalian SERPINAs evolution. Conclusion Our experimental results update data of the bovine genome sequencing, substantially increase the bovSERPINA3 sub-family and enrich the phylogenetic tree of serpins. We provide new opportunities for future investigations to approach the biological functions of this unusual subset of serine proteinase inhibitors.

  9. Differences in grain ultrastructure, phytochemical and proteomic profiles between the two contrasting grain Cd-accumulation barley genotypes.

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    Hongyan Sun

    Full Text Available To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low-grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars.

  10. Bone Collagen: New Clues to its Mineralization Mechanism From Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta

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    Eyre, David R.; Ann Weis, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Until 2006 the only mutations known to cause osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) were in the two genes coding for type I collagen chains. These dominant mutations affecting the expression or primary sequence of collagen α1(I) and α2(I) chains account for over 90% of OI cases. Since then a growing list of mutant genes causing the 5–10% of recessive cases has rapidly emerged. They include CRTAP, LEPRE1 and PPIB, which encode three proteins forming the prolyl 3-hydroxylase complex; PLOD2 and FKBP10, which encode respectively lysyl hydroxylase 2 and a foldase required for its activity in forming mature cross-links in bone collagen; SERPIN H1, which encodes the collagen chaperone HSP47; SERPIN F1, which encodes pigment epithelium-derived factor required for osteoid mineralization; and BMP1, which encodes the type I procollagen C-propeptidase. All cause fragile bone in infancy, which can include over-mineralization or under-mineralization defects as well as abnormal collagen post-translational modifications. Consistently both dominant and recessive variants lead to abnormal cross-linking chemistry in bone collagen. These recent discoveries strengthen the potential for a common pathogenic mechanism of misassembled collagen fibrils. Of the new genes identified, eight encode proteins required for collagen post-translational modification, chaperoning of newly synthesized collagen chains into native molecules or transport through the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi for polymerization, cross-linking and mineralization. In reviewing these findings, we conclude that a common theme is emerging in the pathogenesis of brittle bone disease of mishandled collagen assembly with important insights on post-translational features of bone collagen that have evolved to optimize it as a biomineral template. PMID:23508630

  11. Transcript and Protein Profiling Analysis of the Destruxin A-Induced Response in Larvae of Plutella xylostella

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    Dong, Xiaolin; Fan, Jiqiao; Qiu, Baoli; Ren, Shunxiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Destruxins (dtxs) are the mycotoxin produced by certain entomopathogenic fungi, such as Metarhizium anisopliae, Aschersonia sp, Alternaria brassicae and Ophiosphaerella herpotrichae. It can affect a wide variety of biological processes in insects, including innate immune, Ca2+ channel in cells, and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Dtxs have been used as biological control agent for a long time, however, their molecular mechanism of action is still unknown. Principal Findings In this study, both digital gene expression (DGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) approaches were adopted to examine the effects of dtx A on Plutella xyllostella (L.) larvae. By using DGE and 2-DE analyses, 1584 genes and 42 protein points were identified as being up- or down regulated at least 2-fold in response to dtx A. Firstly, injection of dtx A to larvae accelerated the increase of peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP), which could activate the Toll signal pathway inducing production of antibacterial substances such as cecropin and gloverin. Dtx A also stimulated prophenoloxidase (proPO) system which plays an important role in innate immunity and leads to melanization of external organisms. Secondly, dtx A suppressed the expression of genes related to the Toll pathway, and induced expression of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins), especially the serpin 2 that blocked process of the proPO system. Finally, other physiological process like xenobiotics detoxification, apoptosis, calcium signaling pathway and insect hormone biosynthesis, were also mediated in response to dtx A toxicity. Conclusions Transcript and protein profiling analyses will provide an insight into the potential molecular mechanism of action in P. xylostella larvae in response to dtx A. PMID:23585848

  12. Gene Expression Profile in the Early Stage of Angiotensin II-induced Cardiac Remodeling: a Time Series Microarray Study in a Mouse Model

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    Meng-Qiu Dang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Angiotensin II (Ang II plays a critical role in the cardiac remodeling contributing to heart failure. However, the gene expression profiles induced by Ang II in the early stage of cardiac remodeling remain unknown. Methods: Wild-type male mice (C57BL/6 background, 10-weeek-old were infused with Ang II (1500 ng/kg/min for 7 days. Blood pressure was measured. Cardiac function and remodeling were examined by echocardiography, H&E and Masson staining. The time series microarrays were then conducted to detected gene expression profiles. Results: Microarray results identified that 1,489 genes were differentially expressed in the hearts at day 1, 3 and 7 of Ang II injection. These genes were further classified into 26 profiles by hierarchical cluster analysis. Of them, 4 profiles were significant (No. 19, 8, 21 and 22 and contained 904 genes. Gene Ontology showed that these genes mainly participate in metabolic process, oxidation-reduction process, extracellular matrix organization, apoptotic process, immune response, and others. Significant pathways included focal adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, MAPK and insulin signaling pathways, which were known to play important roles in Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling. Moreover, gene co-expression networks analysis suggested that serine/cysteine peptidase inhibitor, member 1 (Serpine1, also known as PAI-1 localized in the core of the network. Conclusions: Our results indicate that many genes are mainly involved in metabolism, inflammation, cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy. Serpine1 may play a central role in the development of Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling at the early stage.

  13. Nasal airway epithelial cell IL-6 and FKBP51 gene expression and steroid sensitivity in asthmatic children.

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    Michael Fayon

    Full Text Available Many asthmatic patients exhibit uncontrolled asthma despite high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS. Airway epithelial cells (AEC have distinct activation profiles that can influence ICS response.A pilot study to identify gene expression markers of AEC dysfunction and markers of corticosteroid sensitivity in asthmatic and non-asthmatic control children, for comparison with published reports in adults.AEC were obtained by nasal brushings and primary submerged cultures, and incubated in control conditions or in the presence of 10 ng/ml TNFalpha, 10-8M dexamethasone, or both. RT-PCR-based expression of FKBP51 (a steroid hormone receptor signalling regulator, NF-kB, IL-6, LIF (an IL-6 family neurotrophic cytokine, serpinB2 (which inhibits plasminogen activation and promotes fibrin deposition and porin (a marker of mitochondrial mass were determined.6 patients without asthma (median age 11yr; min-max: 7-13, 8 with controlled asthma (11yr, 7-13; median daily fluticasone dose = 100 μg, and 4 with uncontrolled asthma (12yr, 7-14; 1000 μg fluticasone daily were included. Baseline expression of LIF mRNA was significantly increased in uncontrolled vs controlled asthmatic children. TNFalpha significantly increased LIF expression in uncontrolled asthma. A similar trend was observed regarding IL-6. Dexamethasone significantly upregulated FKBP51 expression in all groups but the response was blunted in asthmatic children. No significant upregulation was identified regarding NF-kB, serpinB2 and porin.LIF and FKBP51 expression in epithelial cells were the most interesting markers of AEC dysfunction/response to corticosteroid treatment.

  14. Impact of Diverse Immune Evasion Mechanisms of Cancer Cells on T Cells Engaged by EpCAM/CD3-Bispecific Antibody Construct AMG 110

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    Deisting, Wibke; Raum, Tobias; Kufer, Peter; Baeuerle, Patrick A.; Münz, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background Bispecific T cell engager (BiTE®) are single-chain bispecific antibody constructs with dual specificity for CD3 on T cells and a surface antigen on target cells. They can elicit a polyclonal cytotoxic T cell response that is not restricted by T cell receptor (TCR) specificity, and surface expression of MHC class I/peptide antigen complexes. Using human EpCAM/CD3-bispecific BiTE® antibody construct AMG 110, we here assessed to what extent surface expression of PD-L1, cytoplasmic expression of indoleamine-2,3-deoxygenase type 1, Bcl-2 and serpin PI-9, and the presence of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and adenosine in culture medium can impact redirected lysis by AMG 110-engaged T cells. Methods The seven factors, which are all involved in inhibiting T cell functions by cancer cells, were tested with human EpCAM-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) target cells at levels that in most cases exceeded those observed in a number of human cancer cell lines. Co-culture experiments were used to determine the impact of the evasion mechanisms on EC50 values and amplitude of redirected lysis by AMG 110, and on BiTE®-induced proliferation of previously resting human peripheral T cells. Findings An inhibitory effect on redirected lysis by AMG 110-engaged T cells was seen upon overexpression of serpin PI-9, Bcl-2, TGF-βand PD-L1. An inhibitory effect on induction of T cell proliferation was only seen with CHO cells overexpressing IDO. In no case, a single evasion mechanism rendered target cells completely resistant to BiTE®-induced lysis, and even various combinations could not. Conclusions Our data suggest that diverse mechanisms employed by cancer cells to fend off T cells cannot inactivate AMG 110-engaged T cells, and that inhibitory effects observed in vitro may be overcome by increased concentrations of the BiTE® antibody construct. PMID:26510188

  15. Impact of Diverse Immune Evasion Mechanisms of Cancer Cells on T Cells Engaged by EpCAM/CD3-Bispecific Antibody Construct AMG 110.

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    Wibke Deisting

    Full Text Available Bispecific T cell engager (BiTE® are single-chain bispecific antibody constructs with dual specificity for CD3 on T cells and a surface antigen on target cells. They can elicit a polyclonal cytotoxic T cell response that is not restricted by T cell receptor (TCR specificity, and surface expression of MHC class I/peptide antigen complexes. Using human EpCAM/CD3-bispecific BiTE® antibody construct AMG 110, we here assessed to what extent surface expression of PD-L1, cytoplasmic expression of indoleamine-2,3-deoxygenase type 1, Bcl-2 and serpin PI-9, and the presence of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β, interleukin-10 (IL-10 and adenosine in culture medium can impact redirected lysis by AMG 110-engaged T cells.The seven factors, which are all involved in inhibiting T cell functions by cancer cells, were tested with human EpCAM-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO target cells at levels that in most cases exceeded those observed in a number of human cancer cell lines. Co-culture experiments were used to determine the impact of the evasion mechanisms on EC50 values and amplitude of redirected lysis by AMG 110, and on BiTE®-induced proliferation of previously resting human peripheral T cells.An inhibitory effect on redirected lysis by AMG 110-engaged T cells was seen upon overexpression of serpin PI-9, Bcl-2, TGF-β and PD-L1. An inhibitory effect on induction of T cell proliferation was only seen with CHO cells overexpressing IDO. In no case, a single evasion mechanism rendered target cells completely resistant to BiTE®-induced lysis, and even various combinations could not.Our data suggest that diverse mechanisms employed by cancer cells to fend off T cells cannot inactivate AMG 110-engaged T cells, and that inhibitory effects observed in vitro may be overcome by increased concentrations of the BiTE® antibody construct.

  16. The immediate and late effects of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine) on murine coagulation gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum-Asfar, Salam; Boelen, Anita; Reitsma, Pieter H; van Vlijmen, Bart J M

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is associated with changes in coagulation. The aim of our study was to gain more insight into the role of thyroid hormone in coagulation control. C57Black/6J mice received a low-iodine diet and drinking water supplemented with perchlorate to suppress endogenous triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) production. Under these conditions, the impact of exogenous T3 on plasma coagulation, and hepatic and vessel-wall-associated coagulation gene transcription was studied in a short- (4 hours) and long-term (14 days) setting. Comparing euthyroid conditions (normal mice), with hypothyroidism (conditions of a shortage of thyroid hormone) and those with replacement by incremental doses of T3, dosages of 0 and 0.5 μg T3/mouse/day were selected to study the impact of T3 on coagulation gene transcription. Under these conditions, a single injection of T3 injection increased strongly hepatic transcript levels of the well-characterized T3-responsive genes deiodinase type 1 (Dio1) and Spot14 within 4 hours. This coincided with significantly reduced mRNA levels of Fgg, Serpinc1, Proc, Proz, and Serpin10, and the reduction of the latter three persisted upon daily treatment with T3 for 14 days. Prolonged T3 treatment induced a significant down-regulation in factor (F) 2, F9 and F10 transcript levels, while F11 and F12 levels increased. Activity levels in plasma largely paralleled these mRNA changes. Thbd transcript levels in the lung (vessel-wall-associated coagulation) were significantly up-regulated after a single T3 injection, and persisted upon prolonged T3 exposure. Two-week T3 administration also resulted in increased Vwf and Tfpi mRNA levels, whereas Tf levels decreased. These data showed that T3 has specific effects on coagulation, with Fgg, Serpinc1, Proc, Proz, Serpin10 and Thbd responding rapidly, making these likely direct thyroid hormone receptor targets. F2, F9, F10, F11, F12, Vwf, Tf and Tfpi are late responding genes and probably indirectly

  17. Neuroserpin polymers cause oxidative stress in a neuronal model of the dementia FENIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagno, Noemi A; Moriconi, Claudia; Licursi, Valerio; D'Acunto, Emanuela; Nisi, Paola S; Carucci, Nicoletta; De Jaco, Antonella; Cacci, Emanuele; Negri, Rodolfo; Lupo, Giuseppe; Miranda, Elena

    2017-07-01

    The serpinopathies are human pathologies caused by mutations that promote polymerisation and intracellular deposition of proteins of the serpin superfamily, leading to a poorly understood cell toxicity. The dementia FENIB is caused by polymerisation of the neuronal serpin neuroserpin (NS) within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of neurons. With the aim of understanding the toxicity due to intracellular accumulation of neuroserpin polymers, we have generated transgenic neural progenitor cell (NPC) cultures from mouse foetal cerebral cortex, stably expressing the control protein GFP (green fluorescent protein), or human wild type, G392E or delta NS. We have characterised these cell lines in the proliferative state and after differentiation to neurons. Our results show that G392E NS formed polymers that were mostly retained within the ER, while wild type NS was correctly secreted as a monomeric protein into the culture medium. Delta NS was absent at steady state due to its rapid degradation, but it was easily detected upon proteasomal block. Looking at their intracellular distribution, wild type NS was found in partial co-localisation with ER and Golgi markers, while G392E NS was localised within the ER only. Furthermore, polymers of NS were detected by ELISA and immunofluorescence in neurons expressing the mutant but not the wild type protein. We used control GFP and G392E NPCs differentiated to neurons to investigate which cellular pathways were modulated by intracellular polymers by performing RNA sequencing. We identified 747 genes with a significant upregulation (623) or downregulation (124) in G392E NS-expressing cells, and we focused our attention on several genes involved in the defence against oxidative stress that were up-regulated in cells expressing G392E NS (Aldh1b1, Apoe, Gpx1, Gstm1, Prdx6, Scara3, Sod2). Inhibition of intracellular anti-oxidants by specific pharmacological reagents uncovered the damaging effects of NS polymers. Our results support a role

  18. The maspin expression in canine mammary tumors: an immunohistochemical and molecular study A expressão do maspin nos tumores mamários caninos: um estudo imuno-histoquímico e molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora A.P.C. Zuccari

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The serpin maspin, a tumor suppressor in breast cancer was described as an inhibitor of cell migration and inducer of cell adhesion between the basement membrane and extracellular matrix resulting in inhibition of tumor metastasis. In contrast, overexpression of maspin is correlated with poor prognosis in other types of cancer. Little is known about expression, regulation and function of maspin in canine mammary tumors. It was demonstrated in this study, a loss of maspin expression in malignant canine mammary cells compared with a pool of normal canine mammary tissue, analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR; weak maspin expression in malignant canine mammary tumors were observed by immunohistochemistry. It was also demonstrated that a correlation with nuclear maspin expression and a good prognosis. It is suggested that maspin could be used as a prognostic marker in canine mammary neoplasia.O serpin maspin, um supressor tumoral no câncer de mama foi descrito como inibidor de migração celular e indutor de adesão celular entre a membrana basal e a matriz extracelular resultando na inibição da metástase tumoral. Por outro lado, a alta expressão do maspin está relacionada com um mau prognóstico em outros tipos de câncer. Pouco se sabe sobre a expressão, regulação e função do maspin nos tumores mamários caninos. Neste estudo, foi demonstrada uma perda da expressão de maspin nas células mamárias malignas de cães quando comparadas com um pool de tecido mamário normal de cães, analisado por PCR quantitativa em tempo real. Houve uma expressão fraca maspin em preparações de tumores mamários malignos observadas por imuno-histoquímica. Também foi verificado que a expressão nuclear do maspin em tumores mamários caninos está relacionada a um bom prognóstico. Assim, o maspin pode ser utilizado como um marcador prognóstico nas neoplasias mamárias em cães.

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies the SERPINB gene cluster as a susceptibility locus for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenholz, Ingo; Grosche, Sarah; Kalb, Birgit; Rüschendorf, Franz; Blümchen, Katharina; Schlags, Rupert; Harandi, Neda; Price, Mareike; Hansen, Gesine; Seidenberg, Jürgen; Röblitz, Holger; Yürek, Songül; Tschirner, Sebastian; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin; Homuth, Georg; Schmidt, Carsten O; Nöthen, Markus M; Hübner, Norbert; Niggemann, Bodo; Beyer, Kirsten; Lee, Young-Ae

    2017-10-20

    Genetic factors and mechanisms underlying food allergy are largely unknown. Due to heterogeneity of symptoms a reliable diagnosis is often difficult to make. Here, we report a genome-wide association study on food allergy diagnosed by oral food challenge in 497 cases and 2387 controls. We identify five loci at genome-wide significance, the clade B serpin (SERPINB) gene cluster at 18q21.3, the cytokine gene cluster at 5q31.1, the filaggrin gene, the C11orf30/LRRC32 locus, and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. Stratifying the results for the causative food demonstrates that association of the HLA locus is peanut allergy-specific whereas the other four loci increase the risk for any food allergy. Variants in the SERPINB gene cluster are associated with SERPINB10 expression in leukocytes. Moreover, SERPINB genes are highly expressed in the esophagus. All identified loci are involved in immunological regulation or epithelial barrier function, emphasizing the role of both mechanisms in food allergy.

  20. Improving the Therapeutic Potential of Human Granzyme B for Targeted Cancer Therapy

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    Georg Melmer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer treatments lack specificity and often cause severe side effects. Targeted therapeutic approaches are therefore preferred, including the use of immunotoxins (ITs that comprise cell-binding and cell death-inducing components to allow the direct and specific delivery of pro-apoptotic agents into malignant cells. The first generation of ITs consisted of toxins derived from bacteria or plants, making them immunogenic in humans. The recent development of human cytolytic fusion proteins (hCFP consisting of human effector enzymes offers the prospect of highly-effective targeted therapies with minimal side effects. One of the most promising candidates is granzyme B (GrB and this enzyme has already demonstrated its potential for targeted cancer therapy. However, the clinical application of GrB may be limited because it is inactivated by the overexpression in tumors of its specific inhibitor serpin B9 (PI-9. It is also highly charged, which means it can bind non-specifically to the surface of non-target cells. Furthermore, human enzymes generally lack an endogenous translocation domain, thus the endosomal release of GrB following receptor-mediated endocytosis can be inefficient. In this review we provide a detailed overview of these challenges and introduce promising solutions to increase the cytotoxic potency of GrB for clinical applications.

  1. Function of the activated protein C (APC) autolysis loop in activated FVIII inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Thomas J; Gale, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    Activated protein C (APC) binds to its substrates activated factor V (FVa) and activated factor VIII (FVIIIa) with a basic exosite that consists of loops 37, 60, 70 and the autolysis loop. These loops have a high density of basic residues, resulting in a positive charge on the surface of APC. Many of these residues are important in the interaction of APC with FVa and FVIIIa. The current study focused on the function of the autolysis loop in the interaction with FVIIIa. This loop was previously shown to interact with FVa, and it inhibits APC inactivation by plasma serpins. Charged residues of the autolysis loop were individually mutated to alanine and the activity of these mutants was assessed in functional FVIIIa inactivation assays. The autolysis loop was functionally important for FVIIIa inactivation. Mutation of R306, K311 and R314 each resulted in significantly reduced FVIIIa inactivation. The inactivating cleavages of FVIIIa at R336 and R562 were affected equally by the mutations. Protein S and FV stimulated cleavage at R562 more than cleavage at R336, independent of mutations in the autolysis loop. Together, these results confirmed that the autolysis loop plays a significant role as part of the basic exosite on APC in the interaction with FVIIIa. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Effect of thrombopoietin receptor agonists on markers of coagulation and P-selectin in patients with immune thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garabet, Lamya; Ghanima, Waleed; Monceyron Jonassen, Christine

    2018-01-01

    patients in cohort 1. Significantly higher levels of F1+2, D-dimer, and PAI-1 were found in ITP patients before TPO-RA treatment and in patients on long-term TPO-RA treatment than in controls. Pre-treatment levels of sP-selectin did not differ from controls. Analysis of longitudinal trends showed...... an increase in platelet count, sP-selectin, and PAI-1 after initiation of TPO-RA, followed by gradual decline. Platelet count and sP-selectin remained at higher levels throughout the study, whereas PAI-1 did not. Levels of other studied parameters did not show significant changes after initiation of treatment....... Expression of SELP was up-regulated after initiation of TPO-RA, while the expression of SERPINE1 showed no significant changes. In conclusion, elevated pre-treatment levels of F1+2, D-dimer and PAI-1 are compatible with ITP being an intrinsically pro-thrombotic condition. After TPO-RA treatment, there were...

  3. Diabetic retinopathy: could the alpha-1 antitrypsin be a therapeutic option?

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    Gustavo Ortiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most important causes of blindness. The underlying mechanisms of this disease include inflammatory changes and remodeling processes of the extracellular-matrix (ECM leading to pericyte and vascular endothelial cell damage that affects the retinal circulation. In turn, this causes hypoxia leading to release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF to induce the angiogenesis process. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT is the most important circulating inhibitor of serine proteases (SERPIN. Its targets include elastase, plasmin, thrombin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, proteinase 3 (PR-3 and plasminogen activator (PAI. AAT modulates the effect of protease-activated receptors (PARs during inflammatory responses. Plasma levels of AAT can increase 4-fold during acute inflammation then is so-called acute phase protein (APPs. Individuals with low serum levels of AAT could develop disease in lung, liver and pancreas. AAT is involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and inflammation, particularly migration and chemotaxis of neutrophils. It can also suppress nitric oxide (NO by nitric oxide sintase (NOS inhibition. AAT binds their targets in an irreversible way resulting in product degradation. The aim of this review is to focus on the points of contact between multiple factors involved in diabetic retinopathy and AAT resembling pleiotropic effects that might be beneficial.

  4. De novo cloning and annotation of genes associated with immunity, detoxification and energy metabolism from the fat body of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jia Yang

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive pest in tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analysis of the fat body of B. dorsalis and obtained more than 59 million sequencing reads, which were assembled into 27,787 unigenes with an average length of 591 bp. Among them, 17,442 (62.8% unigenes matched known proteins in the NCBI database. The assembled sequences were further annotated with gene ontology, cluster of orthologous group terms, and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes. In depth analysis was performed to identify genes putatively involved in immunity, detoxification, and energy metabolism. Many new genes were identified including serpins, peptidoglycan recognition proteins and defensins, which were potentially linked to immune defense. Many detoxification genes were identified, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases and ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. Many new transcripts possibly involved in energy metabolism, including fatty acid desaturases, lipases, alpha amylases, and trehalose-6-phosphate synthases, were identified. Moreover, we randomly selected some genes to examine their expression patterns in different tissues by quantitative real-time PCR, which indicated that some genes exhibited fat body-specific expression in B. dorsalis. The identification of a numerous transcripts in the fat body of B. dorsalis laid the foundation for future studies on the functions of these genes.

  5. Acclimation to high CO2 in maize is related to water status and dependent on leaf rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Anneke; Mukubi, Josephine Muchwesi; Pellny, Till K; Verrier, Paul J; Beyene, Getu; Lopes, Marta Silva; Emami, Kaveh; Treumann, Achim; Lelarge-Trouverie, Caroline; Noctor, Graham; Kunert, Karl J; Kerchev, Pavel; Foyer, Christine H

    2011-02-01

    The responses of C(3) plants to rising atmospheric CO(2) levels are considered to be largely dependent on effects exerted through altered photosynthesis. In contrast, the nature of the responses of C(4) plants to high CO(2) remains controversial because of the absence of CO(2) -dependent effects on photosynthesis. In this study, the effects of atmospheric CO(2) availability on the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome profiles of two ranks of source leaves in maize (Zea mays L.) were studied in plants grown under ambient CO(2) conditions (350 +/- 20 µL L(-1) CO(2) ) or with CO(2) enrichment (700 +/- 20 µL L(-1) CO(2) ). Growth at high CO(2) had no effect on photosynthesis, photorespiration, leaf C/N ratios or anthocyanin contents. However, leaf transpiration rates, carbohydrate metabolism and protein carbonyl accumulation were altered at high CO(2) in a leaf-rank specific manner. Although no significant CO(2) -dependent changes in the leaf transcriptome were observed, qPCR analysis revealed that the abundance of transcripts encoding a Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor and a serpin were changed by the growth CO(2) level in a leaf rank specific manner. Moreover, CO(2) -dependent changes in the leaf proteome were most evident in the oldest source leaves. Small changes in water status may be responsible for the observed responses to high CO(2,) particularly in the older leaf ranks. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Preliminary screening of the radiosensitivity-associated genes on colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Chungen; Yang Xiaodong; Zhou Liying; Wu Yongyou; Jiang Yinfen; Dai Hong; Lv Xiaodong; Gong Wei

    2007-01-01

    The screening of radiosensitive genes of human colorectal cancer was made by gene chip. Two human colorectal cancer cell lines LOVO and SW480 were cultivated and the total RNA was extracted from at least lxl0 7 cells. Then the gene expression profiling was performed by HG-U133 Plus 2.0 Array and the difference of gene expression has been analyzed. The results shows that there are 16882 genes expressed in LOVO cell and 17114 genes expressed in SW480 cell through gene expression profiling. It has been found that the genes with 2-fold expressed differentially include 908 genes up-regulated and 1312 genes down-regulated. The same genes, such as Fas and NFkB which is up-regulated, Caspas6, and RAD21 which is down-regulated, have been proved to be related to radiosensitivity. The genes with high expression level including CEACAM5, THBS1, SERPINE2, ARL7, HPGD in LOVO cell may also be related to the radiosensitivity. And the genes with high expression level including SCD, NQ01, LYZ, KRT20, ATP1B1 in SW480 cell may be related to the radioresistance of human colorectal cancer. It could be concluded that the radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer can be reflected from gene and protein expression level. And gene expression profiling is a fast and sensitive tool to predict the radiosensitivity and screen radiosensitive genes of colorectal cancer. (authors)

  7. Phthalic Acid Chemical Probes Synthesized for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Jen Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasticizers are additives that are used to increase the flexibility of plastic during manufacturing. However, in injection molding processes, plasticizers cannot be generated with monomers because they can peel off from the plastics into the surrounding environment, water, or food, or become attached to skin. Among the various plasticizers that are used, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid is a typical precursor to generate phthalates. In addition, phthalic acid is a metabolite of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP. According to Gene_Ontology gene/protein database, phthalates can cause genital diseases, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, etc. In this study, a silanized linker (3-aminopropyl triethoxyslane, APTES was deposited on silicon dioxides (SiO2 particles and phthalate chemical probes were manufactured from phthalic acid and APTES–SiO2. These probes could be used for detecting proteins that targeted phthalic acid and for protein-protein interactions. The phthalic acid chemical probes we produced were incubated with epithelioid cell lysates of normal rat kidney (NRK-52E cells to detect the interactions between phthalic acid and NRK-52E extracted proteins. These chemical probes interacted with a number of chaperones such as protein disulfide-isomerase A6, heat shock proteins, and Serpin H1. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA software showed that these chemical probes were a practical technique for protein-protein interaction analysis.

  8. Silibinin and Paclitaxel Cotreatment Significantly Suppress the Activity and Lung Metastasis of Triple Negative 4T1 Mammary Tumor Cell in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Ying Ho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro and in vivo bioactivities of silibinin (SB, paclitaxel (PTX and SB and PTX in combination (SB+PTX against murine metastatic mammary 4T1 cancer cell line were investigated. Isobologram and combination index (CI analyses showed that SB and PTX can function synergistically in the inhibition of 4T1 cell proliferation with a CI value<1. Both SB and PTX alone or SB+PTX treatment inhibited 4T1 cell migration and motility possibly through downregulation of the serpin protease nexin-1 (PN-1 and N-cadherin expression, inhibition of matrix metalloprotease (MMP-9 activity, and upregulation of E-cadherin. Flow cytometry and Western blot analyses demonstrated that both drugs deregulated cell-cycle mediators and induced apoptosis in 4T1 cells. A real-time in vivo bioluminescence imaging system to monitor the breast cancer cell metastasis in syngeneic BALB/c mice was established using a stable 4T1pGL−COX−2/Luc cell clone carrying a COX-2 promoter driven-luciferase reporter gene. In vivo study using the allograft 4T1pGL−COX−2/Luc metastatic mouse model indicated that SB co-treated with PTX can significantly suppress lung metastasis of 4T1 cells likely through inhibiting cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Together, this study demonstrates that SB could act synergistically with PTX in 4T1 cells, providing a therapeutic option for highly metastatic triple negative breast cancer.

  9. Genetics of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Nakamura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous family studies suggested that genetic variation contributes to COPD susceptibility. The only gene proven to influence COPD susceptibility is SERPINA1, encoding α1-antitrypsin. Most studies on COPD candidate genes except SERPINA1, have not been consistently replicated. However, longitudinal studies of decline in lung function, meta-analyses of candidate gene studies, and family-based linkage analyses suggested that variants in EPHX1, GST, MMP12, TGFB1, and SERPINE2 were associated with susceptibility to COPD. A genome-wide association (GWA study has recently demonstrated that CHRNA3/5 in 15q25 was associated with COPD compared with control smokers. It was of interest that the CHRNA3/5 locus was associated with nicotine dependence and lung cancer as well. The associations of HHIP on 4q31 and FAM13A on 4q22 with COPD were also suggested in GWA studies. Another GWA study has shown that BICD1 in 12p11 was associated with the presence or absence of emphysema. Although every genetic study on COPD has some limitations including heterogeneity in smoking behaviors and comorbidities, it has contributed to the progress in elucidating the pathogenesis of COPD. Future studies will make us understand the mechanisms underlying the polygenic disease, leading to the development of a specific treatment for each phenotype.

  10. Transcriptomics Profiling of Alzheimer’s Disease Reveal Neurovascular Defects, Altered Amyloid-β Homeostasis, and Deregulated Expression of Long Noncoding RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistri, Marco; Velmeshev, Dmitry; Makhmutova, Madina; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The underlying genetic variations of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) cases remain largely unknown. A combination of genetic variations with variable penetrance and lifetime epigenetic factors may converge on transcriptomic alterations that drive LOAD pathological process. Transcriptome profiling using deep sequencing technology offers insight into common altered pathways regardless of underpinning genetic or epigenetic factors and thus represents an ideal tool to investigate molecular mechanisms related to the pathophysiology of LOAD. We performed directional RNA sequencing on high quality RNA samples extracted from hippocampi of LOAD and age-matched controls. We further validated our data using qRT-PCR on a larger set of postmortem brain tissues, confirming downregulation of the gene encoding substance P (TAC1) and upregulation of the gene encoding the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1). Pathway analysis indicates dysregulation in neural communication, cerebral vasculature, and amyloid-β clearance. Beside protein coding genes, we identified several annotated and non-annotated long noncoding RNAs that are differentially expressed in LOAD brain tissues, three of them are activity-dependent regulated and one is induced by Aβ1 - 42 exposure of human neural cells. Our data provide a comprehensive list of transcriptomics alterations in LOAD hippocampi and warrant holistic approach including both coding and non-coding RNAs in functional studies aimed to understand the pathophysiology of LOAD. PMID:26402107

  11. Efficacy of an adapted granzyme B-based anti-CD30 cytolytic fusion protein against PI-9-positive classical Hodgkin lymphoma cells in a murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, S; Hansen, H P; Hehmann-Titt, G; Huhn, M; Fischer, R; Barth, S; Thepen, T

    2013-01-01

    Tumors develop when infiltrating immune cells contribute growth stimuli, and cancer cells are selected to survive within such a cytotoxic microenvironment. One possible immune-escape mechanism is the upregulation of PI-9 (Serpin B9) within cancer cells. This serine proteinase inhibitor selectively inactivates apoptosis-inducing granzyme B (GrB) from cytotoxic granules of innate immune cells. We demonstrate that most classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL)-derived cell lines express PI-9, which protects them against the GrB attack and thereby renders them resistant against GrB-based immunotherapeutics. To circumvent this disadvantage, we developed PI-9-insensitive human GrB mutants as fusion proteins to target the Hodgkin-selective receptor CD30. In contrast to the wild-type GrB, a R201K point-mutated GrB construct most efficiently killed PI-9-positive and -negative cHL cells. This was tested in vitro and also in vivo whereby a novel optical imaging-based tumor model with HL cell line L428 was applied. Therefore, this variant, as part of the next generation immunotherapeutics, also named cytolytic fusion proteins showing reduced immunogenicity, is a promising molecule for (targeted) therapy of patients with relapsing malignancies, such as cHL, and possibly other PI-9-positive malignancies, such as breast or lung carcinoma

  12. Proteomic profiling of antibody-inducing immunogens in tumor tissue identifies PSMA1, LAP3, ANXA3, and maspin as colon cancer markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Roehrl, Michael H.; Wang, Julia Y.

    2018-01-01

    We hypothesized that cancer tissue immunogens – antigens capable of inducing specific antibody production in patients – are promising targets for development of precision diagnostics and humoral immunotherapies. We developed an innovative immuno-proteomic strategy and identified new immunogenic markers of colon cancer. Proteins from cancers and matched normal tissues were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis and blotted with serum antibodies from the same patients. Antibody-reactive proteins were sequenced by mass spectrometry and validated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. 170 serum antibody-reactive proteins were identified only in cancerous but not matched normal. Among these, proteasome subunit alpha type 1 (PSA1), leucine aminopeptidase 3 (LAP3), annexin A3 (ANXA3), and maspin (serpin B5) were reproducibly found in tissues from three patients. Differential expression patterns were confirmed in samples from eight patients with various stages of colon adenocarcinoma and liver metastases. These tumor-resident proteins and/or their associated serum antibodies may be promising markers for colon cancer screening and early diagnosis. Furthermore, tumor tissue-specific antibodies could potentially be exploited as immunotherapeutic targets against cancer. More generally, proteomic profiling of antibody-inducing cancer-associated immunogens represents a powerful generic method for uncovering the tumor antigen-ome, i.e., the totality of immunogenic tumor-associated proteins. PMID:29423100

  13. From fibrinolysis to the plasminogen-plasmin system and beyond: a remarkable growth of knowledge, with personal observations on the history of fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaan, Hau C

    2014-07-01

    Great advances have been made in our understanding of the fibrinolytic system from the initial discovery of proteolysis of fibrin by plasmin to the multifaceted and complex role of the plasminogen-plasmin (P-P) system. We now know that the P-P system is composed of several serine proteases and their inhibitors (serpins). This system is involved in many physiological functions, including embryogenesis, cell migration, and wound healing. They also play an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including atherosclerosis, obesity, cancer, and even autoimmune disorders, and neuronal degeneration. Knowledge of their role in cancer enables their use as a prognostic factor. Therapeutic use of various forms of proteases derived from this system has been employed as thrombolytic agents. In addition, small molecules designed to inhibit many of the components of the P-P system are now available for clinical trial, aimed at treatment of these various disorders. The history of such remarkable development of our knowledge on fibrinolysis is reviewed in this article. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Low Oxygen Consumption is Related to a Hypomethylation and an Increased Secretion of IL-6 in Obese Subjects with Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Pascual, Amaya; Lasa, Arrate; Portillo, María P; Arós, Fernando; Mansego, María L; González-Muniesa, Pedro; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation is an epigenetic modification involved in gene expression regulation, usually via gene silencing, which contributes to the risks of many multifactorial diseases. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of resting oxygen consumption on global and gene DNA methylation as well as protein secretion of inflammatory markers in blood cells from obese subjects with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). A total of 44 obese participants with SAHS were categorized in 2 groups according to their resting oxygen consumption. DNA methylation levels were evaluated using a methylation-sensitive high resolution melting approach. The analyzed interleukin 6 (IL6) gene cytosine phosphate guanine (CpG) islands showed a hypomethylation, while serum IL-6 was higher in the low compared to the high oxygen consumption group (p DNA methylation of tumor necrosis factor (B = -0.82, 95% CI -1.33 to -0.30) and long interspersed nucleotide element 1 (B = -0.46; 95% CI -0.87 to -0.04) gene CpGs were found. Finally, studied CpG methylation levels of serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E member 1 (r = 0.43; p = 0.01), and IL6 (r = 0.41; p = 0.02) were positively associated with fat-free mass. These findings suggest a potential role of oxygen in the regulation of inflammatory genes. Oxygen consumption measurement at rest could be proposed as a clinical biomarker of metabolic health. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Inherited Anti-Thrombin Deficiency in A Malay-Malaysian Family: A Missense Mutation at Nucleotide g.13267C>A aka anti-thrombin Budapest 5 (p.Pro439Thr) of the SERPINC 1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlelawati, A T; Rusmawati, I; Naznin, M; Nur Nadia, O; Rizqan Aizzani, R; Noraziana, A W

    2014-02-01

    Inherited anti-thrombin deficiency is an autosomal dominant disorder which is associated with increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). This condition is very rare in Malaysia and there has been no documented report. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the type of an inherited anti-thrombin deficiency mutation in a 25-year-old Malay woman who presented with deep vein thrombosis in her first pregnancy. DNA was extracted from the patient's blood sample and buccal mucosal swabs from family members. Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) assays were designed to cover all seven exons of the serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade C (antithrombin), member 1 (SERPINC1) gene; and the products were subjected to DNA sequencing. Sequences were referred to NCBI Reference Sequence: NG_012462.1. A heterozygous substitution mutation at nucleotide position 13267 (CCT->ACT) was identified in the patient and two other family members, giving a possible change of codon 439 (Pro→Thr) also known as anti-thrombin Budapest 5. The genotype was absent in 90 healthy controls. The study revealed a heterozygous antithrombin Budapest 5 mutation in SERPINC 1 giving rise to a possible anti-thrombin deficiency in a Malay-Malaysian family.

  16. Protein-transitions in and out of the dough matrix in wheat flour mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Appels, Rudi; Zhang, Xiaoke; Bekes, Ferenc; Torok, Kitti; Tomoskozi, Sandor; Diepeveen, Dean; Ma, Wujun; Islam, Shahidul

    2017-02-15

    Sequential protein behavior in the wheat dough matrix under continuous mixing and heating treatment has been studied using Mixolab-dough samples from two Australian wheat cultivars, Westonia and Wyalkatchem. Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) analysis indicated that 32min (80°C) was a critical time point in forming large protein complexes and loosing extractability of several protein groups like y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), gamma-gliadins, beta-amylases, serpins, and metabolic proteins with higher mass. Up to 32min (80°C) Westonia showed higher protein extractability compared to Wyalkatchem although it was in the opposite direction thereafter. Twenty differentially expressed proteins could be assigned to chromosomes 1D, 3A, 4A, 4B, 4D, 6A, 6B, 7A and 7B. The results expanded the range of proteins associated with changes in the gluten-complex during processing and provided targets for selecting new genetic variants associated with altered quality attributes of the flour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural and binding studies of SAP-1 protein with heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikash K; Mandal, Rahul S; Puniya, Bhanwar L; Kumar, Rahul; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2015-03-01

    SAP-1 is a low molecular weight cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) which belongs to type-2 cystatins family. SAP-1 protein purified from human seminal plasma (HuSP) has been shown to inhibit cysteine and serine proteases and exhibit interesting biological properties, including high temperature and pH stability. Heparin is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan (with varied chain length) which interacts with a number of proteins and regulates multiple steps in different biological processes. As an anticoagulant, heparin enhances inhibition of thrombin by the serpin antithrombin III. Therefore, we have employed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to improve our understanding of the binding interaction between heparin and SAP-1 (protease inhibitor). SPR data suggest that SAP-1 binds to heparin with a significant affinity (KD = 158 nm). SPR solution competition studies using heparin oligosaccharides showed that the binding of SAP-1 to heparin is dependent on chain length. Large oligosaccharides show strong binding affinity for SAP-1. Further to get insight into the structural aspect of interactions between SAP-1 and heparin, we used modelled structure of the SAP-1 and docked with heparin and heparin-derived polysaccharides. The results suggest that a positively charged residue lysine plays important role in these interactions. Such information should improve our understanding of how heparin, present in the reproductive tract, regulates cystatins activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Fibrinolytic and procoagulant activities of Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, T K

    2015-06-01

    Pla of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis and PgtE of the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica are surface-exposed, transmembrane β-barrel proteases of the omptin family that exhibit a complex array of interactions with the hemostatic systems in vitro, and both proteases are established virulence factors. Pla favors fibrinolysis by direct activation of plasminogen, inactivation of the serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and α2-antiplasmin, inactivation of the thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor, and activation of single-chain urokinase. PgtE is structurally very similar but exhibits partially different functions and differ in expression control. PgtE proteolysis targets control aspects of fibrinolysis, and mimicry of matrix metalloproteinases enhances cell migration that should favor the intracellular spread of the bacterium. Enzymatic activity of both proteases is strongly influenced by the environment-induced variations in lipopolysaccharide that binds to the β-barrel. Both proteases cleave the tissue factor pathway inhibitor and thus also express procoagulant activity. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. Quantitative Tissue Proteomics Analysis Reveals Versican as Potential Biomarker for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naboulsi, Wael; Megger, Dominik A; Bracht, Thilo; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Eisenacher, Martin; Voss, Don Marvin; Schlaak, Jörg F; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Weber, Frank; Baba, Hideo A; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara

    2016-01-04

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive tumors, and the treatment outcome of this disease is improved when the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage. This requires biomarkers allowing an accurate and early tumor diagnosis. To identify potential markers for such applications, we analyzed a patient cohort consisting of 50 patients (50 HCC and 50 adjacent nontumorous tissue samples as controls) using two independent proteomics approaches. We performed label-free discovery analysis on 19 HCC and corresponding tissue samples. The data were analyzed considering events known to take place in early events of HCC development, such as abnormal regulation of Wnt/b-catenin and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). 31 proteins were selected for verification experiments. For this analysis, the second set of the patient cohort (31 HCC and corresponding tissue samples) was analyzed using selected (multiple) reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM). We present the overexpression of ATP-dependent RNA helicase (DDX39), Fibulin-5 (FBLN5), myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), and Serpin H1 (SERPINH1) in HCC for the first time. We demonstrate Versican core protein (VCAN) to be significantly associated with well differentiated and low-stage HCC. We revealed for the first time the evidence of VCAN as a potential biomarker for early-HCC diagnosis.

  20. Human stefin B role in cell's response to misfolded proteins and autophagy.

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    Mira Polajnar

    Full Text Available Alternative functions, apart from cathepsins inhibition, are being discovered for stefin B. Here, we investigate its role in vesicular trafficking and autophagy. Astrocytes isolated from stefin B knock-out (KO mice exhibited an increased level of protein aggregates scattered throughout the cytoplasm. Addition of stefin B monomers or small oligomers to the cell medium reverted this phenotype, as imaged by confocal microscopy. To monitor the identity of proteins embedded within aggregates in wild type (wt and KO cells, the insoluble cell lysate fractions were isolated and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Chaperones, tubulins, dyneins, and proteosomal components were detected in the insoluble fraction of wt cells but not in KO aggregates. In contrast, the insoluble fraction of KO cells exhibited increased levels of apolipoprotein E, fibronectin, clusterin, major prion protein, and serpins H1 and I2 and some proteins of lysosomal origin, such as cathepsin D and CD63, relative to wt astrocytes. Analysis of autophagy activity demonstrated that this pathway was less functional in KO astrocytes. In addition, synthetic dosage lethality (SDL gene interactions analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing human stefin B suggests a role in transport of vesicles and vacuoles These activities would contribute, directly or indirectly to completion of autophagy in wt astrocytes and would account for the accumulation of protein aggregates in KO cells, since autophagy is a key pathway for the clearance of intracellular protein aggregates.

  1. Proteomic analysis of the impacts of powdery mildew on wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Xinhao; Yang, Xiwen; Li, Yongchun; Wang, Chenyang; He, Dexian

    2018-09-30

    Powdery mildew of wheat is one of the major foliar diseases, causing significant yield loss and flour quality change. In this study, grain protein and starch response to powdery mildew infection were investigated. Total protein, glutenin and gliadin exhibited a greater increase in grains from infected wheat, while the content of total starch and amylopectin was decreased. Comparative proteomic analysis demonstrated that the overabundant protein synthesis-related proteins might facilitate the accumulation of storage proteins in grains from infected plants. The significant increase in triticin, serpin and HMW-GS in grains from infected wheat might relate to the superior gluten quality. In addition, overabundant carbohydrate metabolism-related proteins in grains from infected wheat were conducive to the depletion of starch, whereas the decreased abundance of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase might be related to the deficiency of starch synthesis. These results provide a deeper understanding on the change of wheat quality under powdery mildew infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of vaspin in human eating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitfeld, Jana; Tönjes, Anke; Gast, Marie-Therese; Schleinitz, Dorit; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Kovacs, Peter; Böttcher, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    The adipokine vaspin (visceral adipose tissue derived serine protease inhibitor, serpinA12) follows a meal-related diurnal variation in humans and intracerebroventricular vaspin administration leads to acutely reduced food intake in db/db mice. We therefore hypothesized that vaspin may play a role in human eating behaviour. We measured serum vaspin concentrations in 548 subjects from a self-contained population of Sorbs (Germany) who underwent detailed metabolic testing including eating behaviour assessments using the three-factor eating questionnaire. In addition, genetic variation within vaspin was assessed by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all study subjects. Serum vaspin concentrations correlated positively with restraint, disinhibition and hunger (all P0.05). Independent of observed correlations, genetic variants in vaspin were associated with serum vaspin levels but showed no significant association with any of the eating behaviour phenotypes after accounting for multiple testing (P≥0.05 after adjusting for age, gender and BMI). Our data suggest that serum vaspin concentrations might modulate human eating behaviour, which does not seem to be affected by common genetic variation in vaspin.

  3. Specific Nongluten Proteins of Wheat Are Novel Target Antigens in Celiac Disease Humoral Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    While the antigenic specificity and pathogenic relevance of immunologic reactivity to gluten in celiac disease have been extensively researched, the immune response to nongluten proteins of wheat has not been characterized. We aimed to investigate the level and molecular specificity of antibody response to wheat nongluten proteins in celiac disease. Serum samples from patients and controls were screened for IgG and IgA antibody reactivity to a nongluten protein extract from the wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Butte 86. Antibodies were further analyzed for reactivity to specific nongluten proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Immunoreactive molecules were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with healthy controls, patients exhibited significantly higher levels of antibody reactivity to nongluten proteins. The main immunoreactive nongluten antibody target proteins were identified as serpins, purinins, α-amylase/protease inhibitors, globulins, and farinins. Assessment of reactivity toward purified recombinant proteins further confirmed the presence of antibody response to specific antigens. The results demonstrate that, in addition to the well-recognized immune reaction to gluten, celiac disease is associated with a robust humoral response directed at a specific subset of the nongluten proteins of wheat. PMID:25329597

  4. The Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (PAI-1) Level and PAI-1 4G/5G Gene Polymorphism with the Formation and the Grade of Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Malik Ejder; Karakuş, Savas; Kurtulgan, Hande Küçük; Kılıçgün, Hasan; Erşan, Serpil; Bakır, Sevtap

    2017-08-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor (Serpine 1), and it inhibits both tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator which are important in fibrinolysis. We aimed to find whether there is a possible association between PAI-1 level, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, and endometrial cancer. PAI-1 levels in peripheral blood were determined in 82 patients with endometrial carcinoma and 76 female healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Then, the genomic DNA was extracted and screened by reverse hybridization procedure (Strip assay) to detect PAI 1 4G/5G polymorphism. The levels of PAI-1 in the patients were higher statistically in comparison to controls (P 5G polymorphism was quite different between patients and controls (P = 0.008), and 4G allelic frequency was significantly higher in the patients of endometrial cancer than in controls (P = 0.026). We found significant difference between Grade 1 and Grade 2+3 patients in terms of the PAI-1 levels (P = 0.047). There was no association between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and the grades of endometrial cancer (P = 0.993). Our data suggest that the level of PAI-1 and PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism are effective in the formation of endometrial cancer. PAI-1 levels are also associated with the grades of endometrial cancer.

  5. Hereditary angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Francisco A

    2005-11-01

    Hereditary angioedema is an autosomal-dominant deficiency of C1 inhibitor--a serpin inhibitor of kallikrein, C1r, C1s, factor XII, and plasmin. Quantitative or qualitative deficiency of C1 inhibitor leads to the generation of vasoactive mediators, most likely bradykinin. The clinical syndrome is repeated bouts of nonpruritic, nonpitting edema of the face, larynx, extermities, and intestinal viscera. Recently, investigators, physicians, and industry have demonstrated a renewed interest in the biology and treatment of hereditary angioedema. Investigators have generated a C1INH-/- mouse model that has demonstrated the importance of the contact activation system for hereditary angioedema-related vascular permeability. An interactive database of mutations is available electronically. Investigators have continued exploration into mRNA/protein levels. The proceedings of a recent workshop have been impressive in the scope and depth. Clinicians have produced consensus documents and expert reviews. The pharmaceutical industry has initiated clinical trails with novel agents. Hereditary angioedema is often misdiagnosed and poorly treated. Diagnosis requires careful medical and family history and the measurement of functional C1 inhibitor and C4 levels. Attenuated androgens, anti-fibrinolytics, and C1 inhibitor concentrates are used for long-term and preprocedure prophylaxis, but have significant drawbacks. C1 inhibitor concentrates and fresh frozen plasma are available for acute intervention. The mainstays of supportive care are airway monitoring, pain relief, hydration, and control of nausea. New agents such as recombinant C1 inhibitor, kallikrein inhibitors, and bradykinin inhibitors may offer safer and more tolerable treatments.

  6. Proteome analysis of gut and salivary gland proteins of fifth-instar nymph and adults of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdi, Mohammad Saadati; Toorchi, Mahmoud; Pourabad, Reza Farshbaf; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Nouri, Mohammad-Zaman; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-10-01

    In the digestive system of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), the salivary gland has a key role in extra oral digestion and the gut is the main site for digestion of food. In this study, proteomics was used to study the role of proteins involved in digestion. The amount of feeding on wheat grain by adult insects increased by comparison to fifth-instar nymphs. Proteins of the gut and salivary gland in adults and fifth-instar nymphs were analyzed 1 day after feeding. The proteins related to digestion, metabolism, and defense against toxins were accumulated in the gut of adult insects. Three plant proteins including serpin, dehydroascorbate reductase, and β-amylase were accumulated in guts of adults. In the salivary gland, phospholipase A2 and arginine kinase were increased in adults. Heat shock protein 70 increased in the gut of fifth-instar nymphs. Proteomic analysis revealed that most of changed proteins in digestive system of sunn pest were increased in adults. This study provided more targets derived from gut and salivary gland for pest management. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Resolving distinct molecular origins for copper effects on PAI-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Joel C; McClintock, Carlee S; Chu, Yuzhuo; Ware, Gregory L; McConnell, Kayla D; Emerson, Joseph P; Peterson, Cynthia B

    2017-10-01

    Components of the fibrinolytic system are subjected to stringent control to maintain proper hemostasis. Central to this regulation is the serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which is responsible for specific and rapid inhibition of fibrinolytic proteases. Active PAI-1 is inherently unstable and readily converts to a latent, inactive form. The binding of vitronectin and other ligands influences stability of active PAI-1. Our laboratory recently observed reciprocal effects on the stability of active PAI-1 in the presence of transition metals, such as copper, depending on the whether vitronectin was also present (Thompson et al. Protein Sci 20:353-365, 2011). To better understand the molecular basis for these copper effects on PAI-1, we have developed a gel-based copper sensitivity assay that can be used to assess the copper concentrations that accelerate the conversion of active PAI-1 to a latent form. The copper sensitivity of wild-type PAI-1 was compared with variants lacking N-terminal histidine residues hypothesized to be involved in copper binding. In these PAI-1 variants, we observed significant differences in copper sensitivity, and these data were corroborated by latency conversion kinetics and thermodynamics of copper binding by isothermal titration calorimetry. These studies identified a copper-binding site involving histidines at positions 2 and 3 that confers a remarkable stabilization of PAI-1 beyond what is observed with vitronectin alone. A second site, independent from the two histidines, binds metal and increases the rate of the latency conversion.

  8. ER stress proteins in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eMorito

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, heat shock proteins (HSPs have been implicated in inflammatory responses and autoimmunity. HSPs were originally believed to maintain protein quality control in the cytosol. However, they also exist extracellularly and appear to act as inflammatory factors. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggested that the other class of stress proteins such as, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress proteins, which originally act as protein quality control factors in the secretory pathway and are induced by ER stress in inflammatory lesions, also participate in inflammation and autoimmunity. The immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (Bip/glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78, homocysteine-induced ER protein (Herp, calnexin, calreticulin, glucose-regulated protein 94 (Grp94/gp96, oxygen-regulated protein 150 (ORP150 and heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47/Serpin H1, which are expressed not only in the ER but also occasionally at the cell surface play pathophysiological roles in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as pro- or anti-inflammatory factors. Here we describe the accumulating evidence of the participation of ER stress proteins in autoimmunity and inflammation and discuss the critical differences between the two classes of stress proteins.

  9. Genetic Alterations in Gastric Cancer Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Castillo-Rojas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a world health problem and depicts the fourth leading mortality cause from malignancy in Mexico. Causation of gastric cancer is not only due to the combined effects of environmental factors and genetic variants. Recent molecular studies have transgressed a number of genes involved in gastric carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to understand the recent basics of gene expression in the development of the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants, polymorphisms, desoxyribonucleic acid methylation, and genes involved in mediating inflammation have been associated with the development of gastric carcinogenesis. Recently, these genes (interleukin 10, Il-17, mucin 1, β-catenin, CDX1, SMAD4, SERPINE1, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 subunit alpha, GSK3β, CDH17, matrix metalloproteinase 7, RUNX3, RASSF1A, TFF1, HAI-2, and COX-2 have been studied in association with oncogenic activation or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. All these mechanisms have been investigated to elucidate the process of gastric carcinogenesis, as well as their potential use as biomarkers and/or molecular targets to treatment of disease.

  10. DNA Methylation and Gene Expression Profiling of Ewing Sarcoma Primary Tumors Reveal Genes That Are Potential Targets of Epigenetic Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikul Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of aberrant DNA methylation in Ewing sarcoma is not completely understood. The methylation status of 503 genes in 52 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded EWS tumors and 3 EWS cell lines was compared to human mesenchymal stem cell primary cultures (hMSCs using bead chip methylation analysis. Relative expression of methylated genes was assessed in 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine-(5-AZA-treated EWS cell lines and in a cohort of primary EWS samples and hMSCs by gene expression and quantitative RT-PCR. 129 genes demonstrated statistically significant hypermethylation in EWS tumors compared to hMSCs. Thirty-six genes were profoundly methylated in EWS and unmethylated in hMSCs. 5-AZA treatment of EWS cell lines resulted in upregulation of expression of hundreds of genes including 162 that were increased by at least 2-fold. The expression of 19 of 36 candidate hypermethylated genes was increased following 5-AZA. Analysis of gene expression from an independent cohort of tumors confirmed decreased expression of six of nineteen hypermethylated genes (AXL, COL1A1, CYP1B1, LYN, SERPINE1, and VCAN. Comparing gene expression and DNA methylation analyses proved to be an effective way to identify genes epigenetically regulated in EWS. Further investigation is ongoing to elucidate the role of these epigenetic alterations in EWS pathogenesis.

  11. Cumulus cells gene expression profiling in terms of oocyte maturity in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devjak, Rok; Fon Tacer, Klementina; Juvan, Peter; Virant Klun, Irma; Rozman, Damjana; Vrtačnik Bokal, Eda

    2012-01-01

    In in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) is established by gonadotropins in combination with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists or antagonists, to prevent premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. The aim of our study was to improve the understanding of gene expression profile of cumulus cells (CC) in terms of ovarian stimulation protocol and oocyte maturity. We applied Affymetrix gene expression profiling in CC of oocytes at different maturation stages using either GnRH agonists or GnRH antagonists. Two analyses were performed: the first involved CC of immature metaphase I (MI) and mature metaphase II (MII) oocytes where 359 genes were differentially expressed, and the second involved the two GnRH analogues where no differentially expressed genes were observed at the entire transcriptome level. A further analysis of 359 differentially genes was performed, focusing on anti-Müllerian hormone receptor 2 (AMHR2), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) and serine protease inhibitor E2 (SERPINE2). Among other differentially expressed genes we observed a marked number of new genes connected to cell adhesion and neurotransmitters such as dopamine, glycine and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA). No differential expression in CC between the two GnRH analogues supports the findings of clinical studies where no significant difference in live birth rates between both GnRH analogues has been proven.

  12. PAI-1-dependent endothelial cell death determines severity of radiation-induced intestinal injury.

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    Rym Abderrahmani

    Full Text Available Normal tissue toxicity still remains a dose-limiting factor in clinical radiation therapy. Recently, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (SERPINE1/PAI-1 was reported as an essential mediator of late radiation-induced intestinal injury. However, it is not clear whether PAI-1 plays a role in acute radiation-induced intestinal damage and we hypothesized that PAI-1 may play a role in the endothelium radiosensitivity. In vivo, in a model of radiation enteropathy in PAI-1 -/- mice, apoptosis of radiosensitive compartments, epithelial and microvascular endothelium was quantified. In vitro, the role of PAI-1 in the radiation-induced endothelial cells (ECs death was investigated. The level of apoptotic ECs is lower in PAI-1 -/- compared with Wt mice after irradiation. This is associated with a conserved microvascular density and consequently with a better mucosal integrity in PAI-1 -/- mice. In vitro, irradiation rapidly stimulates PAI-1 expression in ECs and radiation sensitivity is increased in ECs that stably overexpress PAI-1, whereas PAI-1 knockdown increases EC survival after irradiation. Moreover, ECs prepared from PAI-1 -/- mice are more resistant to radiation-induced cell death than Wt ECs and this is associated with activation of the Akt pathway. This study demonstrates that PAI-1 plays a key role in radiation-induced EC death in the intestine and suggests that this contributes strongly to the progression of radiation-induced intestinal injury.

  13. Pyrosequencing the Manduca sexta larval midgut transcriptome: messages for digestion, detoxification and defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchet, Y; Wilkinson, P; Vogel, H; Nelson, D R; Reynolds, S E; Heckel, D G; ffrench-Constant, R H

    2010-02-01

    The tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta is an important model for insect physiology but genomic and transcriptomic data are currently lacking. Following a recent pyrosequencing study generating immune related expressed sequence tags (ESTs), here we use this new technology to define the M. sexta larval midgut transcriptome. We generated over 387,000 midgut ESTs, using a combination of Sanger and 454 sequencing, and classified predicted proteins into those involved in digestion, detoxification and immunity. In many cases the depth of 454 pyrosequencing coverage allowed us to define the entire cDNA sequence of a particular gene. Many new M. sexta genes are described including up to 36 new cytochrome P450s, some of which have been implicated in the metabolism of host plant-derived nicotine. New lepidopteran gene families such as the beta-fructofuranosidases, previously thought to be restricted to Bombyx mori, are also described. An unexpectedly high number of ESTs were involved in immunity, for example 39 contigs encoding serpins, and the increasingly appreciated role of the midgut in insect immunity is discussed. Similar studies of other tissues will allow for a tissue by tissue description of the M. sexta transcriptome and will form an essential complimentary step on the road to genome sequencing and annotation.

  14. Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) Binds to Phosphatidylserine Exposing Cells with Implications in the Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells and Activated Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Daniela; Assinger, Alice; Einfinger, Katrin; Sokolikova, Barbora; Geiger, Margarethe

    2014-01-01

    Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) is a secreted serine protease inhibitor, belonging to the family of serpins. In addition to activated protein C PCI inactivates several other proteases of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, suggesting a regulatory role in hemostasis. Glycosaminoglycans and certain negatively charged phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, bind to PCI and modulate its activity. Phosphatidylerine (PS) is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells and known as a phagocytosis marker. We hypothesized that PCI might bind to PS exposed on apoptotic cells and thereby influence their removal by phagocytosis. Using Jurkat T-lymphocytes and U937 myeloid cells, we show here that PCI binds to apoptotic cells to a similar extent at the same sites as Annexin V, but in a different manner as compared to live cells (defined spots on ∼10–30% of cells). PCI dose dependently decreased phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells by U937 macrophages. Moreover, the phagocytosis of PS exposing, activated platelets by human blood derived monocytes declined in the presence of PCI. In U937 cells the expression of PCI as well as the surface binding of PCI increased with time of phorbol ester treatment/macrophage differentiation. The results of this study suggest a role of PCI not only for the function and/or maturation of macrophages, but also as a negative regulator of apoptotic cell and activated platelets removal. PMID:25000564

  15. Monoclonal antibodies to the reactive centre loop (RCL) of human corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) can protect against proteolytic cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John G; Elder, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) binds most of the cortisol in circulation and is a non-functional member of the family of serine protease inhibitors (serpins) with an exposed elastase sensitive reactive centre loop (RCL). The RCL can be cleaved by human neutrophil elastase, released from activated neutrophils, and can also be cleaved at nearby site(s) by elastase released by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and at two further sites, also within the RCL, by bovine chymotrypsin. Cleavage of the RCL results in a conformational change accompanied by a marked decrease in affinity for cortisol and hence its release at the site of proteolysis. These cleavages are irreversible and the similar half-lives of cleaved and intact CBG could mean that there may be some advantage in slowing the rate of CBG cleavage in acute inflammation thereby increasing the proportion of intact CBG in circulation. Here we show, for the first time, that pre-incubation of tethered human CBG with two monoclonal antibodies to the RCL of CBG protects against cleavage by all three enzymes. Furthermore, in plasma, pre-incubation with both RCL monoclonal antibodies delays neutrophil elastase cleavage of the RCL and one of these RCL monoclonal antibodies also delays bovine chymotrypsin cleavage of the RCL. These findings may provide a basis and rationale for the concept of the use of RCL antibodies as therapeutic agents to effectively increase the proportion of intact CBG in circulation which may be of benefit in acute inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Profile of Inflammation-associated genes during Hepatic Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Joseph Ignatius Irudayam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Expression of genes associated with inflammation was analyzed during differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs to hepatic cells. Messenger RNA transcript profiles of differentiated endoderm (day 5, hepatoblast (day 15 and hepatocyte-like cells (day 21 were obtained by RNA sequencing analysis. When compared to endoderm cells an immature cell type, the hepatic cells (days 15 and 21 had significantly higher expression of acute phase protein genes including complement factors, coagulation factors, serum amyloid A and serpins. Furthermore, hepatic phase of cells expressed proinflammatory cytokines IL18 and IL32 as well as cytokine receptors IL18R1, IL1R1, IL1RAP, IL2RG, IL6R, IL6ST and IL10RB. These cells also produced CCL14, CCL15, and CXCL- 1, 2, 3, 16 and 17 chemokines. Endoderm cells had higher levels of chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, than that of hepatic cells. Sirtuin family of genes involved in aging, inflammation and metabolism were differentially regulated in endoderm and hepatic phase cells. Ligands and receptors of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF family as well as downstream signaling factors TRAF2, TRAF4, FADD, NFKB1 and NFKBIB were differentially expressed during hepatic differentiation.

  17. Raman optical activity of proteins and glycoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, E.

    2000-03-01

    Raman optical activity (ROA), measured in this project as a small difference in the intensity of Raman scattering from chiral molecules in right- and left-circularly polarised incident laser light, offers the potential to provide more information about the structure of biological molecules in aqueous solution than conventional spectroscopic techniques. Chapter one contains a general discussion of the relative merits of different spectroscopic techniques for structure determination of biomolecules, as well as a brief introduction to ROA. In Chapter two a theoretical analysis of ROA is developed, which extends the discussion in chapter one. The spectrometer setup and sample preparation is then discussed in chapter three. Instrument and sample conditions are monitored to ensure that the best results are obtained. As with any experimental project problems occur, which may result in a degradation of the spectra obtained. The cause of these problems was explored and remedied whenever possible. Chapter four introduces a brief account of protein, glycoprotein and carbohydrate structure and function, with a particular emphasis on the structure of proteins. In the remaining chapters experimental ROA results on proteins and glycoproteins, with some carbohydrate samples, from a wide range of sources are examined. For example, in chapter five some β-sheet proteins are examined. Structural features in these proteins are examined in the extended amide III region of their ROA spectra, revealing that ROA is sensitive to the rigidity or flexibility inherent in proteins. Chapter six concentrates on a group of proteins (usually glycoproteins) known as the serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins). Medically, the serpins are one of the most important groups of proteins of current interest, with wide-ranging implications in conditions such as Down's syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and emphysema with associated cirrhosis of the liver. With favourable samples and conditions ROA may offer the

  18. The role of autolysis loop in determining the specificity of coagulation proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Manithody, C; Rezaie, A R

    2007-08-01

    We recently demonstrated that the substitution of the autolysis loop (residues 143 to 154 in the chymotrypsin numbering system) of activated protein C (APC) with the corresponding loop of factor Xa (fXa) renders the APC mutant (APC/fX143-154) susceptible to inhibition by antithrombin (AT) in the presence of pentasaccharide. Our recent results further indicated, that in addition to an improvement in the reactivity of APC/fX143-154 with AT, both the amidolytic and anti-factor Va activities of the mutant APC have also been significantly increased. Since the autolysis loop of APC is five residues longer than the autolysis loop of fXa, it could not be ascertained whether this loop in the mutant APC specifically interacts with the activated conformation of AT or if a shorter autolysis loop is responsible for a global improvement in the catalytic activity of the mutant protease. To answer this question, we prepared another APC mutant in which the autolysis loop of the protease was replaced with the corresponding loop of trypsin (APC/Tryp143-154). Unlike an approximately 500-fold improvement in the reactivity of APC/fX143-154 with AT in the presence of pentasaccharide, the reactivity of APC/Tryp143-154 with the serpin was improved approximately 10-fold. These results suggest that both the length and structure of residues of the autolysis loop are critical for the specificity of the coagulation protease interaction with AT. Further factor Va inactivation studies with the APC mutants revealed a similar role for the autolysis loop of APC in the interaction with its natural substrate.

  19. The role of autolysis loop in determining the specificity of coagulation proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that the substitution of the autolysis loop (residues 143 to 154 in the chymotrypsin numbering system of activated protein C (APC with the corresponding loop of factor Xa (fXa renders the APC mutant (APC/fX143-154 susceptible to inhibition by antithrombin (AT in the presence of pentasaccharide. Our recent results further indicated, that in addition to an improvement in the reactivity of APC/fX143-154 with AT, both the amidolytic and anti-factor Va activities of the mutant APC have also been significantly increased. Since the autolysis loop of APC is five residues longer than the autolysis loop of fXa, it could not be ascertained whether this loop in the mutant APC specifically interacts with the activated conformation of AT or if a shorter autolysis loop is responsible for a global improvement in the catalytic activity of the mutant protease. To answer this question, we prepared another APC mutant in which the autolysis loop of the protease was replaced with the corresponding loop of trypsin (APC/Tryp143-154. Unlike an ~500-fold improvement in the reactivity of APC/fX143-154 with AT in the presence of pentasaccharide, the reactivity of APC/Tryp143-154 with the serpin was improved ~10-fold. These results suggest that both the length and structure of residues of the autolysis loop are critical for the specificity of the coagulation protease interaction with AT. Further factor Va inactivation studies with the APC mutants revealed a similar role for the autolysis loop of APC in the interaction with its natural substrate.

  20. Cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for a human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antalis, T.M.; Clark, M.A.; Barnes, T.; Lehrbach, P.R.; Devine, P.L.; Schevzov, G.; Goss, N.H.; Stephens, R.W.; Tolstoshev, P.

    1988-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor (mPAI-2) was purified to homogeneity from the U937 cell line and partially sequenced. Oligonucleotide probes derived from this sequence were used to screen a cDNA library prepared from U937 cells. One positive clone was sequenced and contained most of the coding sequence as well as a long incomplete 3' untranslated region (1112 base pairs). This cDNA sequence was shown to encode mPAI-2 by hybrid-select translation. A cDNA clone encoding the remainder of the mPAI-2 mRNA was obtained by primer extension of U937 poly(A) + RNA using a probe complementary to the mPAI-2 coding region. The coding sequence for mPAI-2 was placed under the control of the λ P/sub L/ promoter, and the protein expressed in Escherichia coli formed a complex with urokinase that could be detected immunologically. By nucleotide sequence analysis, mPAI-2 cDNA encodes a protein containing 415 amino acids with a predicted unglycosylated M/sub r/ of 46,543. The predicted amino acid sequence of mPAI-2 is very similar to placental PAI-2 and shows extensive homology with members of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. mPAI-2 was found to be more homologous to ovalbumin (37%) than the endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor, PAI-1 (26%). The 3' untranslated region of the mPAI-2 cDNA contains a putative regulatory sequence that has been associated with the inflammatory mediators

  1. Brugia malayi excreted/secreted proteins at the host/parasite interface: stage- and gender-specific proteomic profiling.

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    Sasisekhar Bennuru

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known about the filarial proteins that interact with the human host. Although the filarial genome has recently been completed, protein profiles have been limited to only a few recombinants or purified proteins of interest. Here, we describe a large-scale proteomic analysis using microcapillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry to identify the excretory-secretory (ES products of the L3, L3 to L4 molting ES, adult male, adult female, and microfilarial stages of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. The analysis of the ES products from adult male, adult female, microfilariae (Mf, L3, and molting L3 larvae identified 852 proteins. Annotation suggests that the functional and component distribution was very similar across each of the stages studied; however, the Mf contributed a higher proportion to the total number of identified proteins than the other stages. Of the 852 proteins identified in the ES, only 229 had previous confirmatory expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the available databases. Moreover, this analysis was able to confirm the presence of 274 "hypothetical" proteins inferred from gene prediction algorithms applied to the B. malayi (Bm genome. Not surprisingly, the majority (160/274 of these "hypothetical" proteins were predicted to be secreted by Signal IP and/or SecretomeP 2.0 analysis. Of major interest is the abundance of previously characterized immunomodulatory proteins such as ES-62 (leucyl aminopeptidase, MIF-1, SERPIN, glutathione peroxidase, and galectin in the ES of microfilariae (and Mf-containing adult females compared to the adult males. In addition, searching the ES protein spectra against the Wolbachia database resulted in the identification of 90 Wolbachia-specific proteins, most of which were metabolic enzymes that have not been shown to be immunogenic. This proteomic analysis extends our knowledge of the ES and provides insight into the host-parasite interaction.

  2. Antioxidant-rich leaf extract of Barringtonia racemosa significantly alters the in vitro expression of genes encoding enzymes that are involved in methylglyoxal degradation III

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    Kin Weng Kong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Barringtonia racemosa is a medicinal plant belonging to the Lecythidaceae family. The water extract of B. racemosa leaf (BLE has been shown to be rich in polyphenols. Despite the diverse medicinal properties of B. racemosa, information on its major biological effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still lacking. Methods In this study, the effect of the antioxidant-rich BLE on gene expression in HepG2 cells was investigated using microarray analysis in order to shed more light on the molecular mechanism associated with the medicinal properties of the plant. Results Microarray analysis showed that a total of 138 genes were significantly altered in response to BLE treatment (p < 0.05 with a fold change difference of at least 1.5. SERPINE1 was the most significantly up-regulated gene at 2.8-fold while HAMP was the most significantly down-regulated gene at 6.5-fold. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA revealed that “Cancer, cell death and survival, cellular movement” was the top network affected by the BLE with a score of 44. The top five canonical pathways associated with BLE were Methylglyoxal Degradation III followed by VDR/RXR activation, TR/RXR activation, PXR/RXR activation and gluconeogenesis. The expression of genes that encode for enzymes involved in methylglyoxal degradation (ADH4, AKR1B10 and AKR1C2 and glycolytic process (ENO3, ALDOC and SLC2A1 was significantly regulated. Owing to the Warburg effect, aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells may increase the level of methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic compound. Conclusions BLE has the potential to be developed into a novel chemopreventive agent provided that the cytotoxic effects related to methylglyoxal accumulation are minimized in normal cells that rely on aerobic glycolysis for energy supply.

  3. Deficiency of α-1-antitrypsin influences systemic iron homeostasis

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    Ghio AJ

    2013-01-01

    -antitrypsin deficiency, serpins, proteinase inhibitor proteins, ferritin, transferrin

  4. Identification of sheep ovary genes potentially associated with off-season reproduction.

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    Chen, Lei; Liu, Ka; Zhao, Zongsheng; Blair, Hugh T; Zhang, Peng; Li, Daquan; Ma, Runlin Z

    2012-04-20

    Off-season reproduction is a favorable economic trait for sheep industry. Hu sheep, an indigenous Chinese sheep breed, demonstrates a higher productivity of lambs and displays year-around oestrous behavior under proper nutrition and environment. The genetic basis behind these traits, however, is not well understood. In order to identify genes associated with the off-season reproduction, we constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library using pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 oestrous Hu females as a tester and the pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 non-oestrous Chinese Merino females as a driver. A total of 382 resulting positive clones were obtained after the SSH. We identified 114 differentially up-regulated genes in oestrous Hu sheep by using subsequent screening and DNA sequencing, of which 8 were previously known, 93 were reported for the first time in sheep, and 13 were novel with no significant homology to any sequence in the DNA databases. Functions of the genes identified are related to cell division, signal transduction, structure, metabolism, or cell defense. To validate the results of SSH, 6 genes (Ntrk2, Ppap2b, Htra1, Nid1, Serpine2 and Foxola) were selected for conformational analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and two of them (Htral and Foxo1a) were verified by Northern blot. All of the 6 genes were differentially up-regulated in the ovary of oestrous Hu. It is obvious that off-season reproduction is a complex trait involving multiple genes in multiple organs. This study helps to provide a foundation for the final identification of functional genes involved in the sheep ovary. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for a human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor.

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    Antalis, T M; Clark, M A; Barnes, T; Lehrbach, P R; Devine, P L; Schevzov, G; Goss, N H; Stephens, R W; Tolstoshev, P

    1988-02-01

    Human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor (mPAI-2) was purified to homogeneity from the U937 cell line and partially sequenced. Oligonucleotide probes derived from this sequence were used to screen a cDNA library prepared from U937 cells. One positive clone was sequenced and contained most of the coding sequence as well as a long incomplete 3' untranslated region (1112 base pairs). This cDNA sequence was shown to encode mPAI-2 by hybrid-select translation. A cDNA clone encoding the remainder of the mPAI-2 mRNA was obtained by primer extension of U937 poly(A)+ RNA using a probe complementary to the mPAI-2 coding region. The coding sequence for mPAI-2 was placed under the control of the lambda PL promoter, and the protein expressed in Escherichia coli formed a complex with urokinase that could be detected immunologically. By nucleotide sequence analysis, mPAI-2 cDNA encodes a protein containing 415 amino acids with a predicted unglycosylated Mr of 46,543. The predicted amino acid sequence of mPAI-2 is very similar to placental PAI-2 (3 amino acid differences) and shows extensive homology with members of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. mPAI-2 was found to be more homologous to ovalbumin (37%) than the endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor, PAI-1 (26%). Like ovalbumin, mPAI-2 appears to have no typical amino-terminal signal sequence. The 3' untranslated region of the mPAI-2 cDNA contains a putative regulatory sequence that has been associated with the inflammatory mediators.

  6. Oligomeric protein complexes of apolipoproteins stabilize the internal fluid environment of organism in redfins of the Tribolodon genus [Pisces; Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae].

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    Andreeva, Alla M; Serebryakova, Marina V; Lamash, Nina E

    2017-06-01

    One of the most important functions of plasma proteins in vertebrates is their participation in osmotic homeostasis in the organism. Modern concepts about plasma proteins and their capillary filtration are based on a model of large monomeric proteins that are able to penetrate the interstitial space. At the same time, it was revealed that a considerable amount of oligomeric complexes are present in the low-molecular-weight (LM) protein fraction in the extracellular fluids of fishes. The functions of these complexes are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the LM-fraction proteins in the plasma and interstitial fluid (IF) of redfins of the genus Tribolodon. This fish alternatively spends parts of its life cycle in saline and fresh waters. We identified the protein Wap65, serpins and apolipoproteins in this fraction. By combining the methods of 2D-E under native and denaturing conditions with MALDI, we demonstrated that only apolipoproteins formed complexes. We showed that serum apolipoproteins (АроА-I, Аро-14) were present in the form of homooligomeric complexes that were dissociated with the release of monomeric forms of proteins in the course of capillary filtration to IF. Dissociation of homooligomers is not directly correlated with the change in salinity but is correlated with seasonal dynamics. We found that there was a significant decrease in the total protein concentration in IF relative to plasma. Therefore, we suggested that dissociation of homooligomeric complexes from various apolipoproteins supports the isoosmoticity of extracellular fluids relative to capillary wall stabilization through a fluid medium in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Brown adipose tissue (BAT specific vaspin expression is increased after obesogenic diets and cold exposure and linked to acute changes in DNA-methylation

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    Juliane Weiner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies have demonstrated anti-diabetic and anti-obesogenic properties of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin and so evoked its potential use for treatment of obesity-related diseases. The aim of the study was to unravel physiological regulators of vaspin expression and secretion with a particular focus on its role in brown adipose tissue (BAT biology. Methods: We analyzed the effects of obesogenic diets and cold exposure on vaspin expression in liver and white and brown adipose tissue (AT and plasma levels. Vaspin expression was analyzed in isolated white and brown adipocytes during adipogenesis and in response to adrenergic stimuli. DNA-methylation within the vaspin promoter was analyzed to investigate acute epigenetic changes after cold-exposure in BAT. Results: Our results demonstrate a strong induction of vaspin mRNA and protein expression specifically in BAT of both cold-exposed and high-fat (HF or high-sugar (HS fed mice. While obesogenic diets also upregulated hepatic vaspin mRNA levels, cold exposure tended to increase vaspin gene expression of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT depots. Concomitantly, vaspin plasma levels were decreased upon obesogenic or thermogenic triggers. Vaspin expression was increased during adipogenesis but unaffected by sympathetic activation in brown adipocytes. Analysis of vaspin promoter methylation in AT revealed lowest methylation levels in BAT, which were acutely reduced after cold exposure. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate a novel BAT-specific regulation of vaspin gene expression upon physiological stimuli in vivo with acute epigenetic changes that may contribute to cold-induced expression in BAT. We conclude that these findings indicate functional relevance and potentially beneficial effects of vaspin in BAT function. Keywords: Brown adipose tissue, Browning, Cold exposure, DNA methylation, High-fat diet, High-sucrose diet, SerpinA12, Thermogenesis

  8. Elevated plasma pigment epithelium-derived factor in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus is attributable to obesity.

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    Tryggestad, Jeanie B; Wang, Joshua J; Zhang, Sarah X; Thompson, David M; Short, Kevin R

    2015-12-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a member of the serpin family secreted by adipocytes. Plasma PEDF is increased in obese children and adults. Adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have higher circulating PEDF but there are no reports in children with T2DM. To compare PEDF concentration in children with T2DM to normal weight and obese children without T2DM and determine associations with anthropometric or serum factors. Participants were 34 obese children with T2DM diagnosed by American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria, 61 normal weight [body mass index (BMI) 25-75 percentile] and 63 obese (BMI ≥ 95 percentile) children of age 8-18 yr. Plasma PEDF was measured in fasting plasma samples. Anthropometric, serum, and body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, DXA) data were obtained for each subject to identify potential predictor variables. PEDF was 55% higher (p = 0.001) in the T2DM group compared with normal weight children, but did not differ from obese children. In the T2DM group, fat mass and lean mass both individually predicted PEDF (r² = 0.22 and 0.17, p = 0.02 and p obese groups, therefore, obesity, rather than diabetes, may account for the higher PEDF in children with T2DM compared with normal weight children. PEDF was positively associated with both lean mass and fat mass both of which may contribute to the circulating level of the protein, and potentially to PEDF's association with insulin resistance in obese children with and without diabetes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. SERPINB3 in the chicken model of ovarian cancer: a prognostic factor for platinum resistance and survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

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    Whasun Lim

    Full Text Available Serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs appear to be ubiquitously expressed in a variety of species and play important roles in pivotal physiological processes such as angiogenesis, immune responses, blood coagulation and fibronolysis. Of these, squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 (SCCA1, also known as a SERPINB3, was first identified in squamous cell carcinoma tissue from the cervix of women. However, there is little known about the SERPINB3 expression in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the functional role of SERPINB3 gene in human EOC using chickens, the most relevant animal model. In 136 chickens, EOC was found in 10 (7.4%. SERPINB3 mRNA was induced in cancerous, but not normal ovaries of chickens (P<0.01, and it was abundant only in the glandular epithelium of cancerous ovaries of chickens. Further, several microRNAs, specifically miR-101, miR-1668 and miR-1681 were discovered to influence SERPINB3 expression via its 3'-UTR which suggests that post-transcriptional regulation influences SERPINB3 expression in chickens. SERPINB3 protein was localized predominantly to the glandular epithelium in cancerous ovaries of chickens, and it was abundant in the nucleus of both chicken and human ovarian cancer cell lines. In 109 human patients with EOC, 15 (13.8%, 66 (60.6% and 28 (25.7% patients showed weak, moderate and strong expression of SERPINB3 protein, respectively. Strong expression of SERPINB3 protein was a prognostic factor for platinum resistance (adjusted OR; odds ratio, 5.94; 95% Confidence Limits, 1.21-29.15, and for poor progression-free survival (PFS; adjusted HR; hazard ratio, 2.07; 95% CI; confidence interval, 1.03-4.41. Therefore, SERPINB3 may play an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis and be a novel biomarker for predicting platinum resistance and a poor prognosis for survival in patients with EOC.

  10. Inhibition of cornifins and up-regulation of protease inhibitors in cervicovaginal lavage imparts resistance to heterosexual HIV transmission

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    Sushama Rokade

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (HESNs are persons who remain seronegative despite repeated exposure to HIV, suggesting an in vivo resistance mechanism to HIV. Elucidation of endogenous factors responsible for this phenomenon may aid in the development of new classes of microbicides and therapeutics. The genital mucosal secretions of both men and women are known to contain a spectrum of antimicrobials and immune mediators that may contribute to resistance against HIV-1. Existence of HIV serodiscordant couples is a testimony to mucosal factors in the genital tract that prevent sexual transmission of the virus. We attempted to map such mucosal factors in female genital secretions of the serodiscordant couples in comparison with HIV infected and healthy participants using quantitative proteomics. The cervico vaginal lavage (CVL samples were collected from three groups of study participants (HIV infected, n=30; Un-infected Controls, n=10; Serodiscordant, n=24. Abundant proteins, albumin and globulins were removed from the pooled samples using multiple affinity removal spin cartridge (Agilent to enhance the sensitivity of iTRAQ proteomics analysis. Initial analysis identified a total of 135 proteins and associated 497 peptide matches. Serodiscordant females showed significantly down regulated levels of Cornifin A, B and C, Neutrophil gelatinase, myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase. Cornifins are cross-linked envelope protein of keratinocytes and are upregulated during inflammation. Downregulation of oxidative stress inducing enzymes and cornifins suggests immune-quiescence in serodiscordant females. CVL of these women showed significantly upregulated levels of Mucin 5B, S100A7, Alpha-2-macroglobulin, Cystatin A (protease inhibitor, Lacto-transferrin, SLPI (anti-leukoproteinase inhibitor and SERPIN G1 (protease inhibitor.  Significantly elevated levels of Cystatin B and Elafin in the CVL of serodiscordant females were confirmed by ELISA

  11. Localization of SERBP1 in stress granules and nucleoli.

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    Lee, Yu-Jen; Wei, Hung-Ming; Chen, Ling-Yun; Li, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    SERPINE1 mRNA-binding protein 1 (SERBP1) is an arginine-methylated RNA-binding protein whose modification affects protein interaction and intracellular localization. In the present study, we show that, under normal growth conditions without stress, SERBP1 interacts with arginine-methylated and stress granule-associated proteins such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, fragile X mental retardation protein and fragile X mental retardation syndrome-related protein 1 in an RNA-dependent manner. We also show that, after arsenite treatment, a proportion of full-length SERBP1 protein co-localizes with the typical stress granule marker T-cell intracellular antigen-1 in the cytoplasmic stress granules. Truncated SERBP1 with an N-terminal, central RG or C-terminal deletion, or single-domain segments comprising the N-terminal, central or C-terminal region, were recruited to stress granules upon arsenite treatment but with reduced efficiency. In addition, upon arsenite treatment, the localization of SERBP1 changed from a diffuse cytoplasmic localization to nuclear-dominant (concentrated in the nucleolus) A similar distribution was observed when cells were treated with the methylation inhibitor adenosine periodate, and was also detected for N- or C-terminal domain deletions and all three single-domain fragments even without stress induction. We further demonstrate that adenosine periodate treatment delays the association/dissociation of SERBP1 with stress granules. Hypomethylation retains SERBP1 in the nucleus/nucleolus regardless of arsenite treatment. Our study indicates that arginine methylation is correlated with recruitment of SERBP to stress granules and nucleoli and its retention therein. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an RNA-binding protein that is shifted simultaneously to cytoplasmic stress granules and nucleoli, two ribonucleoprotein-enriched subcellular compartments, upon stress. © 2013 FEBS.

  12. Genome-wide transcriptional response of silkworm (Bombyx mori to infection by the microsporidian Nosema bombycis.

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    Zhengang Ma

    Full Text Available Microsporidia have attracted much attention because they infect a variety of species ranging from protists to mammals, including immunocompromised patients with AIDS or cancer. Aside from the study on Nosema ceranae, few works have focused on elucidating the mechanism in host response to microsporidia infection. Nosema bombycis is a pathogen of silkworm pébrine that causes great economic losses to the silkworm industry. Detailed understanding of the host (Bombyx mori response to infection by N. bombycis is helpful for prevention of this disease. A genome-wide survey of the gene expression profile at 2, 4, 6 and 8 days post-infection by N. bombycis was performed and results showed that 64, 244, 1,328, 1,887 genes were induced, respectively. Up to 124 genes, which are involved in basal metabolism pathways, were modulated. Notably, B. mori genes that play a role in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathways were induced, suggesting that the host may accumulate JH as a response to infection. Interestingly, N. bombycis can inhibit the silkworm serine protease cascade melanization pathway in hemolymph, which may be due to the secretion of serpins in the microsporidia. N. bombycis also induced up-regulation of several cellular immune factors, in which CTL11 has been suggested to be involved in both spore recognition and immune signal transduction. Microarray and real-time PCR analysis indicated the activation of silkworm Toll and JAK/STAT pathways. The notable up-regulation of antimicrobial peptides, including gloverins, lebocins and moricins, strongly indicated that antimicrobial peptide defense mechanisms were triggered to resist the invasive microsporidia. An analysis of N. bombycis-specific response factors suggested their important roles in anti-microsporidia defense. Overall, this study primarily provides insight into the potential molecular mechanisms for the host-parasite interaction between B. mori and N. bombycis and may provide a

  13. Quantitative proteomic characterization of the lung extracellular matrix in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åhrman, Emma; Hallgren, Oskar; Malmström, Lars; Hedström, Ulf; Malmström, Anders; Bjermer, Leif; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Malmström, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a common feature in lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Here, we applied a sequential tissue extraction strategy to describe disease-specific remodeling of human lung tissue in disease, using end-stages of COPD and IPF. Our strategy was based on quantitative comparison of the disease proteomes, with specific focus on the matrisome, using data-independent acquisition and targeted data analysis (SWATH-MS). Our work provides an in-depth proteomic characterization of human lung tissue during impaired tissue remodeling. In addition, we show important quantitative and qualitative effects of the solubility of matrisome proteins. COPD was characterized by a disease-specific increase in ECM regulators, metalloproteinase inhibitor 3 (TIMP3) and matrix metalloproteinase 28 (MMP-28), whereas for IPF, impairment in cell adhesion proteins, such as collagen VI and laminins, was most prominent. For both diseases, we identified increased levels of proteins involved in the regulation of endopeptidase activity, with several proteins belonging to the serpin family. The established human lung quantitative proteome inventory and the construction of a tissue-specific protein assay library provides a resource for future quantitative proteomic analyses of human lung tissues. We present a sequential tissue extraction strategy to determine changes in extractability of matrisome proteins in end-stage COPD and IPF compared to healthy control tissue. Extensive quantitative analysis of the proteome changes of the disease states revealed altered solubility of matrisome proteins involved in ECM regulators and cell-ECM communication. The results highlight disease-specific remodeling mechanisms associated with COPD and IPF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inferring selection in the Anopheles gambiae species complex: an example from immune-related serine protease inhibitors

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    Little Tom J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae species complex are the primary vectors of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Many host genes have been shown to affect Plasmodium development in the mosquito, and so are expected to engage in an evolutionary arms race with the pathogen. However, there is little conclusive evidence that any of these mosquito genes evolve rapidly, or show other signatures of adaptive evolution. Methods Three serine protease inhibitors have previously been identified as candidate immune system genes mediating mosquito-Plasmodium interaction, and serine protease inhibitors have been identified as hot-spots of adaptive evolution in other taxa. Population-genetic tests for selection, including a recent multi-gene extension of the McDonald-Kreitman test, were applied to 16 serine protease inhibitors and 16 other genes sampled from the An. gambiae species complex in both East and West Africa. Results Serine protease inhibitors were found to show a marginally significant trend towards higher levels of amino acid diversity than other genes, and display extensive genetic structuring associated with the 2La chromosomal inversion. However, although serpins are candidate targets for strong parasite-mediated selection, no evidence was found for rapid adaptive evolution in these genes. Conclusion It is well known that phylogenetic and population history in the An. gambiae complex can present special problems for the application of standard population-genetic tests for selection, and this may explain the failure of this study to detect selection acting on serine protease inhibitors. The pitfalls of uncritically applying these tests in this species complex are highlighted, and the future prospects for detecting selection acting on the An. gambiae genome are discussed.

  15. Simplifying the human serum proteome for discriminating patients with bipolar disorder of other psychiatry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Jemmyson Romário; Galazzi, Rodrigo Moretto; de Lima, Tatiani Brenelli; Banzato, Cláudio Eduardo Muller; de Almeida Lima E Silva, Luiz Fernando; de Rosalmeida Dantas, Clarissa; Gozzo, Fábio Cézar; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2017-12-01

    An exploratory analysis using proteomic strategies in blood serum of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and with other psychiatric conditions such as Schizophrenia (SCZ), can provide a better understanding of this disorder, as well as their discrimination based on their proteomic profile. The proteomic profile of blood serum samples obtained from patients with BD using lithium or other drugs (N=14), healthy controls, including non-family (HCNF; N=3) and family (HCF; N=9), patients with schizophrenia (SCZ; N=23), and patients using lithium for other psychiatric conditions (OD; N=4) were compared. Four methods for simplifying the serum samples proteome were evaluated for both removing the most abundant proteins and for enriching those of lower-abundance: protein depletion with acetonitrile (ACN), dithiothreitol (DTT), sequential depletion using DTT and ACN, and protein equalization using commercial ProteoMiner® kit (PM). For proteomic evaluation, 2-D DIGE and nanoLC-MS/MS analysis were employed. PM method was the best strategy for removing proteins of high abundance. Through 2-D DIGE gel image comparison, 37 protein spots were found differentially abundant (p<0.05, Student's t-test), which exhibited ≥2.0-fold change of the average value of normalized spot intensities in the serum of SCZ, BD and OD patients compared to subject controls (HCF and HCNF). From these spots detected, 13 different proteins were identified: ApoA1, ApoE, ApoC3, ApoA4, Samp, SerpinA1, TTR, IgK, Alb, VTN, TR, C4A and C4B. Proteomic analysis allowed the discrimination of patients with BD from patients with other mental disorders, such as SCZ. The findings in this exploratory study may also contribute for better understanding the pathophysiology of these disorders and finding potential serum biomarkers for these conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tissue-specific transcriptome profiling of Plutella xylostella third instar larval midgut.

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    Xie, Wen; Lei, Yanyuan; Fu, Wei; Yang, Zhongxia; Zhu, Xun; Guo, Zhaojiang; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2012-01-01

    The larval midgut of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a dynamic tissue that interfaces with a diverse array of physiological and toxicological processes, including nutrient digestion and allocation, xenobiotic detoxification, innate and adaptive immune response, and pathogen defense. Despite its enormous agricultural importance, the genomic resources for P. xylostella are surprisingly scarce. In this study, a Bt resistant P. xylostella strain was subjected to the in-depth transcriptome analysis to identify genes and gene networks putatively involved in various physiological and toxicological processes in the P. xylostella larval midgut. Using Illumina deep sequencing, we obtained roughly 40 million reads containing approximately 3.6 gigabases of sequence data. De novo assembly generated 63,312 ESTs with an average read length of 416 bp, and approximately half of the P. xylostella sequences (45.4%, 28,768) showed similarity to the non-redundant database in GenBank with a cut-off E-value below 10(-5). Among them, 11,092 unigenes were assigned to one or multiple GO terms and 16,732 unigenes were assigned to 226 specific pathways. In-depth analysis identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, nutrient digestion, and innate immune defense. Besides conventional detoxification enzymes and insecticide targets, novel genes, including 28 chymotrypsins and 53 ABC transporters, have been uncovered in the P. xylostella larval midgut transcriptome; which are potentially linked to the Bt toxicity and resistance. Furthermore, an unexpectedly high number of ESTs, including 46 serpins and 7 lysozymes, were predicted to be involved in the immune defense.As the first tissue-specific transcriptome analysis of P. xylostella, this study sheds light on the molecular understanding of insecticide resistance, especially Bt resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest, and lays the foundation for future functional genomics research. In addition, current

  17. Functions of NQO1 in Cellular Protection and CoQ10 Metabolism and its Potential Role as a Redox Sensitive Molecular Switch

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    David Ross

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available NQO1 is one of the two major quinone reductases in mammalian systems. It is highly inducible and plays multiple roles in cellular adaptation to stress. A prevalent polymorphic form of NQO1 results in an absence of NQO1 protein and activity so it is important to elucidate the specific cellular functions of NQO1. Established roles of NQO1 include its ability to prevent certain quinones from one electron redox cycling but its role in quinone detoxification is dependent on the redox stability of the hydroquinone generated by two-electron reduction. Other documented roles of NQO1 include its ability to function as a component of the plasma membrane redox system generating antioxidant forms of ubiquinone and vitamin E and at high levels, as a direct superoxide reductase. Emerging roles of NQO1 include its function as an efficient intracellular generator of NAD+ for enzymes including PARP and sirtuins which has gained particular attention with respect to metabolic syndrome. NQO1 interacts with a growing list of proteins, including intrinsically disordered proteins, protecting them from 20S proteasomal degradation. The interactions of NQO1 also extend to mRNA. Recent identification of NQO1 as a mRNA binding protein have been investigated in more detail using SERPIN1A1 (which encodes the serine protease inhibitor α-1-antitrypsin as a target mRNA and indicate a role of NQO1 in control of translation of α-1-antitrypsin, an important modulator of COPD and obesity related metabolic syndrome. NQO1 undergoes structural changes and alterations in its ability to bind other proteins as a result of the cellular reduced/oxidized pyridine nucleotide ratio. This suggests NQO1 may act as a cellular redox switch potentially altering its interactions with other proteins and mRNA as a result of the prevailing redox environment.

  18. Enhanced venous thrombus resolution in plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 deficient mice.

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    Siefert, S A; Chabasse, C; Mukhopadhyay, S; Hoofnagle, M H; Strickland, D K; Sarkar, R; Antalis, T M

    2014-10-01

    The resolution of deep vein thrombosis requires an inflammatory response and mobilization of proteases, such as urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), to degrade the thrombus and remodel the injured vein wall. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) with unique immunosuppressive and cell survival properties that was originally identified as an inhibitor of uPA. To investigate the role of PAI-2 in venous thrombus formation and resolution. Venous thrombus resolution was compared in wild-type C57BL/6, PAI-2(-/-) , and PAI-1(-/-) mice using the stasis model of deep vein thrombosis. Formed thrombi were harvested, thrombus weights were recorded, and tissue was analyzed for uPA and MMP activities, PAI-1 expression, and the nature of inflammatory cell infiltration. We found that the absence of PAI-2 enhanced venous thrombus resolution, while thrombus formation was unaffected. Enhanced venous thrombus resolution in PAI-2(-/-) mice was associated with increased uPA activity and reduced levels of PAI-1, with no significant effect on MMP-2 and -9 activities. PAI-1 deficiency resulted in an increase in thrombus resolution similar to PAI-2 deficiency, but additionally reduced venous thrombus formation and altered MMP activity. PAI-2-deficient thrombi had increased levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL2, which was associated with early enhanced neutrophil recruitment. These data identify PAI-2 as a novel regulator of venous thrombus resolution, which modulates several pathways involving both inflammatory and uPA activity mechanisms, distinct from PAI-1. Further examination of these pathways may lead to potential therapeutic prospects in accelerating thrombus resolution. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. The associated expression of Maspin and Bax proteins as a potential prognostic factor in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani, Antonello A; Soliani, Paolo; Desenzani, Silvia; Borghetti, Angelo F; Crafa, Pellegrino

    2006-01-01

    Maspin, a member of the serpin family, is a suppressor of tumor growth, an inhibitor of angiogenesis and an inducer of apoptosis. Maspin induces apoptosis by increasing Bax, a member of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis-regulating proteins. In this exploratory study, we investigated the associated expression of Maspin and Bax proteins as a potential prognostic factor in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCCA). Twenty-two paraffin-embedded samples were analyzed by immunohistochemical methods using Maspin, Bax and CD34 antibodies. Maspin was scored semiquantitatively (HSCORE). Apoptosis was assessed using an antibody against cleaved caspase-3. The strong relationship observed between the expression of Maspin and Bax, indicates that Bax is likely to be the key effector of Maspin-mediated induction of apoptosis as indicated by the activation of cleaved caspase-3. We categorized Maspin HSCORE by calculating the optimal cutpoint. A Maspin HSCORE above the cutpoint was inversely related with tumor dimension, depth of tumor and vascular invasion. Uni/multivariate analysis suggests that a Maspin HSCORE below the cutpoint significantly worsens the patients' prognosis. Tumors with Maspin HSCORE below the cutpoint had a shorter survival (11+/-5 months) than did patients with Maspin HSCORE above the cutpoint (27+/-4 months), whereas Kaplan-Meier analysis and logrank test showed no significant difference in overall survival between the patients. The associated expression of Maspin and Bax might delay tumor progression in IHCCA. Maspin above the cutpoint might counteract tumor development by increasing cell apoptosis, and by decreasing tumor mass and cell invasion. The combined expression of Maspin and Bax appears to influence the susceptibility of tumor cholangiocytes to apoptosis and thus may be involved in delaying IHCCA progression

  20. Proteomic analysis on the alteration of protein expression in the early-stage placental villous tissue of electromagnetic fields associated with cell phone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiong; Jiang, Ying; Jin, Min; Xu, Jian; Huang, He-Feng

    2013-09-01

    To explore the possible adverse effects and search for cell phone electromagnetic field (EMF)-responsive proteins in human early reproduction, a proteomics approach was employed to investigate the changes in protein expression profile induced by cell phone EMF in human chorionic tissues of early pregnancy in vivo. Volunteer women about 50 days pregnant were exposed to EMF at the average absorption rate of 1.6 to 8.8 W/kg for 1 hour with the irradiation device placed 10 cm away from the umbilicus at the midline of the abdomen. The changes in protein profile were examined using 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Up to 15 spots have yielded significant change at least 2- to 2.5-folds up or down compared to sham-exposed group. Twelve proteins were identified- procollagen-proline, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta, chain D crystal structure of human vitamin D-binding protein, thioredoxin-like 3, capping protein, isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 alpha, calumenin, Catechol-O-methyltransferase protein, proteinase inhibitor 6 (PI-6; SerpinB6) protein, 3,2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase protein, chain B human erythrocyte 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate mutase, and nucleoprotein. Cell phone EMF might alter the protein profile of chorionic tissue of early pregnancy, during the most sensitive stage of the embryos. The exposure to EMF may cause adverse effects on cell proliferation and development of nervous system in early embryos. Furthermore, 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry is a promising approach to elucidate the effects and search for new biomarkers for environmental toxic effects.

  1. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Profiling of Plutella Xylostella Third Instar Larval Midgut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Lei, Yanyuan; Fu, Wei; Yang, Zhongxia; Zhu, Xun; Guo, Zhaojiang; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2012-01-01

    The larval midgut of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a dynamic tissue that interfaces with a diverse array of physiological and toxicological processes, including nutrient digestion and allocation, xenobiotic detoxification, innate and adaptive immune response, and pathogen defense. Despite its enormous agricultural importance, the genomic resources for P. xylostella are surprisingly scarce. In this study, a Bt resistant P. xylostella strain was subjected to the in-depth transcriptome analysis to identify genes and gene networks putatively involved in various physiological and toxicological processes in the P. xylostella larval midgut. Using Illumina deep sequencing, we obtained roughly 40 million reads containing approximately 3.6 gigabases of sequence data. De novo assembly generated 63,312 ESTs with an average read length of 416bp, and approximately half of the P. xylostella sequences (45.4%, 28,768) showed similarity to the non-redundant database in GenBank with a cut-off E-value below 10-5. Among them, 11,092 unigenes were assigned to one or multiple GO terms and 16,732 unigenes were assigned to 226 specific pathways. In-depth analysis indentified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, nutrient digestion, and innate immune defense. Besides conventional detoxification enzymes and insecticide targets, novel genes, including 28 chymotrypsins and 53 ABC transporters, have been uncovered in the P. xylostella larval midgut transcriptome; which are potentially linked to the Bt toxicity and resistance. Furthermore, an unexpectedly high number of ESTs, including 46 serpins and 7 lysozymes, were predicted to be involved in the immune defense. As the first tissue-specific transcriptome analysis of P. xylostella, this study sheds light on the molecular understanding of insecticide resistance, especially Bt resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest, and lays the foundation for future functional genomics research. In addition, current

  2. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in SERPINH1 cause rare autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta type X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Zhao, D; Xu, X; Lv, F; Li, L; Jiang, Y; Wang, O; Xia, W; Xing, X; Li, M

    2018-03-09

    We identified novel compound heterozygous mutations in SERPINH1 in a Chinese boy suffering from recurrent fractures, femoral deformities, and growth retardation, which resulted in extremely rare autosomal recessive OI type X. Long-term treatment of BPs was effective in increasing BMD Z-score, reducing fracture incidence and reshaping vertebrae compression. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable bone disorder characterized by low bone mineral density, recurrent fractures, and progressive bone deformities. Mutation in serpin peptidase inhibitor clade H, member 1 (SERPINH1), which encodes heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), leads to rare autosomal recessive OI type X. We aimed to detect the phenotype and the pathogenic mutation of OI type X in a boy from a non-consanguineous Chinese family. We investigated the pathogenic mutations and analyzed their relationship with the phenotype in the patient using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing. Moreover, the efficacy of long-term bisphosphonate treatment in this patient was evaluated. The patient suffered from multiple fractures, low bone mass, and bone deformities in the femur, without dentinogenesis imperfecta or hearing loss. Compound heterozygous variants were found in SERPINH1 as follows: c.149 T>G in exon 2 and c.1214G>A in exon 5. His parents were heterozygous carriers of each of these mutations, respectively. Bisphosphonates could be helpful in increasing BMD Z-score, reducing bone fracture risk and reshaping the compressed vertebral bodies of this patient. We reported novel compound heterozygous mutations in SERPINH1 in a Chinese OI patient for the first time, which expanded the spectrum of phenotype and genotype of extremely rare OI type X.

  3. Therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells or conditioned medium reverse cardiac alterations in a high-fat diet-induced obesity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltro, P S; Barreto, B C; Silva, P G; Neto, P Chenaud; Sousa Filho, P H F; Santana Neta, D; Carvalho, G B; Silva, D N; Paredes, B D; de Alcantara, A C; Freitas, L A R; Couto, R D; Santos, R R; Souza, B S F; Soares, M B P; Macambira, S G

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous cardiac complications, including arrhythmias, cardiac fibrosis, remodeling and heart failure. Here we evaluated the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and their conditioned medium (CM) to treat cardiac complications in a mouse model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. After obesity induction and HFD withdrawal, obese mice were treated with MSCs, CM or vehicle. Cardiac function was assessed using electrocardiography, echocardiography and treadmill test. Body weight and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Cardiac tissue was used for real time (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and histopathologic analysis. Characterization of CM by protein array showed the presence of different cytokines and growth factors, including chemokines, osteopontin, cystatin C, Serpin E1 and Gas 6. HFD-fed mice presented cardiac arrhythmias, altered cardiac gene expression and fibrosis reflected in physical exercise incapacity associated with obesity and diabetes. Administration of MSCs or CM improved arrhythmias and exercise capacity. This functional improvement correlated with normalization of GATA4 gene expression in the hearts of MSC- or CM-treated mice. The gene expression of connexin 43, troponin I, adiponectin, transforming growth factor (TGF) β, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) were significantly reduced in MSCs, but not in CM-treated mice. Moreover, MSC or CM administration reduced the intensity of cardiac fibrosis. Our results suggest that MSCs and CM have a recovery effect on cardiac disturbances due to obesity and corroborate to the paracrine action of MSCs in heart disease models. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between vaspin gene expression and abdominal fat distribution of Korean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin-A; Park, Hye-Soon; Song, Young-Sook; Jang, Yeon-Jin; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Lee, Yeon-Ji; Heo, Yoon-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin (vaspin) is a novel adipokine that is thought to have insulin-sensitizing effects. We investigated vaspin mRNA expression in abdominal adipose tissue and examined how gene expression related to abdominal fat distribution and metabolic parameters in Korean women. We measured anthropometric variables, metabolic parameters, serum vaspin concentration, and vaspin mRNA expression in abdominal adipose tissue obtained from women who underwent abdominal gynecological surgery and were aged 18-67 years (n=85). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) area were measured in 40 subjects using computed tomography (CT). Vaspin expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative radiotherapy-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) according to abdominal fat distribution. Vaspin mRNA expression was greater in adipocytes than in stroma/vascular cells. In the total subjects, vaspin expression was significantly higher in SAT than in VAT. Vaspin expression in SAT in subcutaneous fat type (VSR ≤0.3) was significantly higher than in visceral fat type (VSR >0.3), although vaspin expression in VAT was similar between subcutaneous and visceral fat type. There was a significant negative correlation between vaspin expression in SAT and VAT area (r=-0.55, p=0.001). Serum vaspin concentration was significantly correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.30, p=0.02), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r=0.29, p=0.02), and the ratio of vaspin expression in VAT to vaspin expression in SAT (r=0.41, p=0.04). Vaspin expression in abdominal adipose tissue was adipocyte-specific and vaspin expression in SAT decreased as VAT area increased. (author)

  5. Consequences of PAI-1 specific deletion in endothelium on radiation-induced intestinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannou, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced injury to healthy tissues is a real public health problem, since they are one of the most limiting factors that restrict efficiency of radiation therapy. This problematic is also part of the French Cancer Plan 2014-2017, and involves clinical research. Concepts surrounding the development of radiation-induced damage have gradually evolved into a contemporary and integrated view of the pathogenesis, involving all compartments of target tissue. Among them, endothelium seems to be central in the sequence of interrelated events that lead to the development of radiation-induced damage, although there are rare concrete elements that support this concept. By using new transgenic mouse models, this PhD project provides a direct demonstration of an endothelium-dependent continuum in evolution of radiation-induced intestinal damage. Indeed, changes in the endothelial phenotype through targeted deletion of the gene SERPINE1, chosen because of its key role in the development of radiation enteritis, influences various parameters of the development of the disease. Thus, lack of PAI-1 secretion by endothelial cells significantly improves survival of the animals, and limits severity of early and late tissue damage after a localized small bowel irradiation. Furthermore, these mice partially KO for PAI-1 showed a decrease in the number of apoptotic intestinal stem cells in the hours following irradiation, a decrease in the macrophages infiltrate density one week after irradiation, and a change in the polarization of macrophages throughout the pathophysiological process. In an effort to protect healthy tissues from radiation therapy side effects, without hindering the cancer treatment, PAI-1 seems to be an obvious therapeutic target. Conceptually, this work represents the direct demonstration of the link between endothelium phenotype and radiation enteritis pathogenesis. (author)

  6. Identification of candidate biomarkers of the exposure to PCBs in contaminated cattle: A gene expression- and proteomic-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, F; Badino, P; Spalenza, V; Manzini, L; Renzone, G; Salzano, A M; Dal Piaz, F; Scaloni, A; Rychen, G; Nebbia, C

    2018-05-28

    Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread and persistent contaminants. Through a combined gene expression/proteomic-based approach, candidate biomarkers of the exposure to such environmental pollutants in cattle subjected to a real eco-contamination event were identified. Animals were removed from the polluted area and fed a standard ration for 6 months. The decontamination was monitored by evaluating dioxin and PCB levels in pericaudal fat two weeks after the removal from the contaminated area (day 0) and then bimonthly for six months (days 59, 125 and 188). Gene expression measurements demonstrated that CYP1B1 expression was significantly higher in blood lymphocytes collected in contaminated animals (day 0), and decreased over time during decontamination. mRNA levels of interleukin 2 showed an opposite quantitative trend. MALDI-TOF-MS polypeptide profiling of serum samples ascertained a progressive decrease (from day 0 to 188) of serum levels of fibrinogen β-chain and serpin A3-7-like fragments, apolipoprotein (APO) C-II and serum amyloid A-4 protein, along with an augmented representation of transthyretin isoforms, as well as APOC-III and APOA-II proteins during decontamination. When differentially represented species were combined with serum antioxidant, acute phase and proinflammatory protein levels already ascertained in the same animals (Cigliano et al., 2016), bioinformatics unveiled an interaction network linking together almost all components. This suggests the occurrence of a complex PCB-responsive mechanism associated with animal contamination/decontamination, including a cohort of protein/polypeptide species involved in blood redox homeostasis, inflammation and lipid transport. All together, these results suggest the use in combination of such biomarkers for identifying PCB-contaminated animals, and for monitoring the restoring of their healthy condition following a decontamination process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  7. High-Throughput Gene Expression Profiles to Define Drug Similarity and Predict Compound Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wolf, Hans; Cougnaud, Laure; Van Hoorde, Kirsten; De Bondt, An; Wegner, Joerg K; Ceulemans, Hugo; Göhlmann, Hinrich

    2018-04-01

    By adding biological information, beyond the chemical properties and desired effect of a compound, uncharted compound areas and connections can be explored. In this study, we add transcriptional information for 31K compounds of Janssen's primary screening deck, using the HT L1000 platform and assess (a) the transcriptional connection score for generating compound similarities, (b) machine learning algorithms for generating target activity predictions, and (c) the scaffold hopping potential of the resulting hits. We demonstrate that the transcriptional connection score is best computed from the significant genes only and should be interpreted within its confidence interval for which we provide the stats. These guidelines help to reduce noise, increase reproducibility, and enable the separation of specific and promiscuous compounds. The added value of machine learning is demonstrated for the NR3C1 and HSP90 targets. Support Vector Machine models yielded balanced accuracy values ≥80% when the expression values from DDIT4 & SERPINE1 and TMEM97 & SPR were used to predict the NR3C1 and HSP90 activity, respectively. Combining both models resulted in 22 new and confirmed HSP90-independent NR3C1 inhibitors, providing two scaffolds (i.e., pyrimidine and pyrazolo-pyrimidine), which could potentially be of interest in the treatment of depression (i.e., inhibiting the glucocorticoid receptor (i.e., NR3C1), while leaving its chaperone, HSP90, unaffected). As such, the initial hit rate increased by a factor 300, as less, but more specific chemistry could be screened, based on the upfront computed activity predictions.

  8. Designing the Sniper: Improving Targeted Human Cytolytic Fusion Proteins for Anti-Cancer Therapy via Molecular Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bochicchio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Targeted human cytolytic fusion proteins (hCFPs are humanized immunotoxins for selective treatment of different diseases including cancer. They are composed of a ligand specifically binding to target cells genetically linked to a human apoptosis-inducing enzyme. hCFPs target cancer cells via an antibody or derivative (scFv specifically binding to e.g., tumor associated antigens (TAAs. After internalization and translocation of the enzyme from endocytosed endosomes, the human enzymes introduced into the cytosol are efficiently inducing apoptosis. Under in vivo conditions such enzymes are subject to tight regulation by native inhibitors in order to prevent inappropriate induction of cell death in healthy cells. Tumor cells are known to upregulate these inhibitors as a survival mechanism resulting in escape of malignant cells from elimination by immune effector cells. Cytosolic inhibitors of Granzyme B and Angiogenin (Serpin P9 and RNH1, respectively, reduce the efficacy of hCFPs with these enzymes as effector domains, requiring detrimentally high doses in order to saturate inhibitor binding and rescue cytolytic activity. Variants of Granzyme B and Angiogenin might feature reduced affinity for their respective inhibitors, while retaining or even enhancing their catalytic activity. A powerful tool to design hCFPs mutants with improved potency is given by in silico methods. These include molecular dynamics (MD simulations and enhanced sampling methods (ESM. MD and ESM allow predicting the enzyme-protein inhibitor binding stability and the associated conformational changes, provided that structural information is available. Such “high-resolution” detailed description enables the elucidation of interaction domains and the identification of sites where particular point mutations may modify those interactions. This review discusses recent advances in the use of MD and ESM for hCFP development from the viewpoints of scientists involved in both fields.

  9. B-CLL cells acquire APC- and CTL-like phenotypic characteristics after stimulation with CpG ODN and IL-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagn, Magdalena; Blackwell, Sue E.; Beyer, Thamara; Ebel, Verena; Fabricius, Dorit; Lindner, Stefanie; Stilgenbauer, Stefan; Simmet, Thomas; Tam, Constantine; Neeson, Paul; Trapani, Joseph A.; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Weiner, George J.

    2014-01-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) and IL-21 are two promising agents for the treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Recently, we reported that the combination of CpG and IL-21 (CpG/IL-21) can induce granzyme B (GrB)-dependent apoptosis in B-CLL cells. Here, we demonstrate that treatment of B-CLL cells with CpG and IL-21 results in the development of antigen-presenting cell (APC)-like cells with cytotoxic features. These properties eventually give rise to B-CLL cell apoptosis, independently of their cytogenetic phenotype, whereas normal B-cell survival is not negatively affected by CpG/IL-21. APC- and CTL-typical molecules found to be up-regulated in CpG/IL-21-stimulated B-CLL cells include GrB, perforin, T-bet, monokine-induced by IFN-γ and IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), as well as molecules important for cell adhesion, antigen cross-presentation and costimulation. Also induced are molecules involved in GrB induction, trafficking and processing, whereas the GrB inhibitor Serpin B9 [formerly proteinase inhibitor-9 (PI-9)] is down-modulated by CpG/IL-21. In conclusion, CpG/IL-21-stimulated B-CLL cells acquire features that are reminiscent of killer dendritic cells, and which result in enhanced immunogenicity, cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Our results provide novel insights into the aberrant immune state of B-CLL cells and may establish a basis for the development of an innovative cellular vaccination approach in B-CLL. PMID:24497611

  10. Concomitant apoptosis and regeneration of liver cells as a mechanism of liver-tumor promotion by β-naphthoflavone involving TNFα-signaling due to oxidative cellular stress in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwata, Kazunori; Shibutani, Makoto; Hayashi, Hitomi; Shimamoto, Keisuke; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2011-01-01

    β-Naphthoflavone (BNF) is a strong inducer of cytochrome P450 1A enzymes, and exerts liver tumor-promoting activity through enhancement of oxidative stress responses in rats. This study investigated the role of the tissue environment surrounding hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions in the early tumor-promotion stage by BNF, using enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) as an anti-oxidative chemopreventive agent. Male F344 rats were fed a diet containing BNF (0.5%) for 6 weeks, with or without EMIQ (0.2%) in the drinking water, 2 weeks after initiation with N-diethylnitrosamine, and were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy 1 week after starting BNF-promotion. BNF-treatment increased concentrations of liver thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, single liver cells expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form or heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and concomitant apoptosis and proliferation of liver cells. Transcript upregulation of anti-oxidative enzymes (Aldh1a1 and Nqo1), cell cycle-related molecules (Cdc20 and Cdkn2b) and inflammation-related molecules including proinflammatory cytokines (Ccl2, Col1a1, Il6, Nos2 and Serpine1) was also evident. Furthermore, BNF increased HO-1-expressing Kupffer cells and liver cells expressing tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and the TNFR1-associated death domain. Most of these BNF-induced fluctuations disappeared or were suppressed by EMIQ in conjunction with suppression of tumor-promotion. Tnf transcript levels with BNF were also suppressed by EMIQ. These results suggest that BNF-induced oxidative stress causes single liver cell toxicity, allowing subsequent concomitant apoptosis and regeneration involving inflammatory responses including TNFα-signaling, contributing to tumor promotion. Kupffer cells may act to protect against inflammatory stimuli induced as a result of oxidative cellular stress by BNF, causing proinflammatory cytokine level fluctuations.

  11. Identification of CTLA2A, DEFB29, WFDC15B, SERPINA1F and MUP19 as Novel Tissue-Specific Secretory Factors in Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibin Zhang

    Full Text Available Secretory factors in animals play an important role in communication between different cells, tissues and organs. Especially, the secretory factors with specific expression in one tissue may reflect important functions and unique status of that tissue in an organism. In this study, we identified potential tissue-specific secretory factors in the fat, muscle, heart, lung, kidney and liver in the mouse by analyzing microarray data from NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO public repository and searching and predicting their subcellular location in GeneCards and WoLF PSORT, and then confirmed tissue-specific expression of the genes using semi-quantitative PCR reactions. With this approach, we confirmed 11 lung, 7 liver, 2 heart, 1 heart and muscle, 7 kidney and 2 adipose and liver-specific secretory factors. Among these genes, 1 lung-specific gene--CTLA2A (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 2 alpha, 3 kidney-specific genes--SERPINA1F (serpin peptidase inhibitor, Clade A, member 1F, WFDC15B (WAP four-disulfide core domain 15B and DEFB29 (defensin beta 29 and 1 liver-specific gene--MUP19 (major urinary protein 19 have not been reported as secretory factors. These genes were tagged with hemagglutinin at the 3'end and then transiently transfected to HEK293 cells. Through protein detection in cell lysate and media using Western blotting, we verified secretion of the 5 genes and predicted the potential pathways in which they may participate in the specific tissue through data analysis of GEO profiles. In addition, alternative splicing was detected in transcripts of CTLA2A and SERPINA1F and the corresponding proteins were found not to be secreted in cell culture media. Identification of novel secretory factors through the current study provides a new platform to explore novel secretory factors and a general direction for further study of these genes in the future.

  12. Complete genomic characterisation of two novel poxviruses (WKPV and EKPV) from western and eastern grey kangaroos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mark; Tu, Shin-Lin; Upton, Chris; McArtor, Cassie; Gillett, Amber; Laird, Tanya; O'Dea, Mark

    2017-10-15

    Poxviruses have previously been detected in macropods with cutaneous papillomatous lesions, however to date, no comprehensive analysis of a poxvirus from kangaroos has been performed. Here we report the genome sequences of a western grey kangaroo poxvirus (WKPV) and an eastern grey kangaroo poxvirus (EKPV), named for the host species from which they were isolated, western grey (Macropus fuliginosus) and eastern grey (Macropus giganteus) kangaroos. Poxvirus DNA from WKPV and EKPV was isolated and entire coding genome regions determined through Roche GS Junior and Illumina Miseq sequencing, respectively. Viral genomes were assembled using MIRA and SPAdes, and annotations performed using tools available from the Viral Bioinformatics Resource Centre. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy analysis was also performed on WKPV and its associated lesions. The WKPV and EKPV genomes show 96% identity (nucleotide) to each other and phylogenetic analysis places them on a distinct branch between the established Molluscipoxvirus and Avipoxvirus genera. WKPV and EKPV are 170 kbp and 167 kbp long, containing 165 and 162 putative genes, respectively. Together, their genomes encode up to 47 novel unique hypothetical proteins, and possess virulence proteins including a major histocompatibility complex class II inhibitor, a semaphorin-like protein, a serpin, a 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/δ 5→4 isomerase, and a CD200-like protein. These viruses also encode a large putative protein (WKPV-WA-039 and EKPV-SC-038) with a C-terminal domain that is structurally similar to the C-terminal domain of a cullin, suggestive of a role in the control of host ubiquitination. The relationship of these viruses to members of the Molluscipoxvirus and Avipoxvirus genera is discussed in terms of sequence similarity, gene content and nucleotide composition. A novel genus within subfamily Chordopoxvirinae is proposed to accommodate these two poxvirus species from kangaroos; we suggest

  13. Human astrocytes: secretome profiles of cytokines and chemokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung S Choi

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play a key role in maintenance of neuronal functions in the central nervous system by producing various cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, which act as a molecular coordinator of neuron-glia communication. At the site of neuroinflammation, astrocyte-derived cytokines and chemokines play both neuroprotective and neurotoxic roles in brain lesions of human neurological diseases. At present, the comprehensive profile of human astrocyte-derived cytokines and chemokines during inflammation remains to be fully characterized. We investigated the cytokine secretome profile of highly purified human astrocytes by using a protein microarray. Non-stimulated human astrocytes in culture expressed eight cytokines, including G-CSF, GM-CSF, GROα (CXCL1, IL-6, IL-8 (CXCL8, MCP-1 (CCL2, MIF and Serpin E1. Following stimulation with IL-1β and TNF-α, activated astrocytes newly produced IL-1β, IL-1ra, TNF-α, IP-10 (CXCL10, MIP-1α (CCL3 and RANTES (CCL5, in addition to the induction of sICAM-1 and complement component 5. Database search indicated that most of cytokines and chemokines produced by non-stimulated and activated astrocytes are direct targets of the transcription factor NF-kB. These results indicated that cultured human astrocytes express a distinct set of NF-kB-target cytokines and chemokines in resting and activated conditions, suggesting that the NF-kB signaling pathway differentially regulates gene expression of cytokines and chemokines in human astrocytes under physiological and inflammatory conditions.

  14. Whole-transcriptome brain expression and exon-usage profiling in major depression and suicide: evidence for altered glial, endothelial and ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazatos, S P; Huang, Y-Y; Rosoklija, G B; Dwork, A J; Arango, V; Mann, J J

    2017-05-01

    Brain gene expression profiling studies of suicide and depression using oligonucleotide microarrays have often failed to distinguish these two phenotypes. Moreover, next generation sequencing approaches are more accurate in quantifying gene expression and can detect alternative splicing. Using RNA-seq, we examined whole-exome gene and exon expression in non-psychiatric controls (CON, N=29), DSM-IV major depressive disorder suicides (MDD-S, N=21) and MDD non-suicides (MDD, N=9) in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 9) of sudden death medication-free individuals post mortem. Using small RNA-seq, we also examined miRNA expression (nine samples per group). DeSeq2 identified 35 genes differentially expressed between groups and surviving adjustment for false discovery rate (adjusted Pdepression, altered genes include humanin-like-8 (MTRNRL8), interleukin-8 (IL8), and serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade H (SERPINH1) and chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4), while exploratory gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed lower expression of immune-related pathways such as chemokine receptor activity, chemotaxis and cytokine biosynthesis, and angiogenesis and vascular development in (adjusted Psuicide and depression, and provisional evidence for altered DNA-dependent ATPase expression in suicide only. DEXSEq analysis identified differential exon usage in ATPase, class II, type 9B (adjusted Pdepression. Differences in miRNA expression or structural gene variants were not detected. Results lend further support for models in which deficits in microglial, endothelial (blood-brain barrier), ATPase activity and astrocytic cell functions contribute to MDD and suicide, and identify putative pathways and mechanisms for further study in these disorders.

  15. A Strong Immune Response in Young Adult Honeybees Masks Their Increased Susceptibility to Infection Compared to Older Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James C.; Ryabov, Eugene V.; Prince, Gill; Mead, Andrew; Zhang, Cunjin; Baxter, Laura A.; Pell, Judith K.; Osborne, Juliet L.; Chandler, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Honeybees, Apis mellifera, show age-related division of labor in which young adults perform maintenance (“housekeeping”) tasks inside the colony before switching to outside foraging at approximately 23 days old. Disease resistance is an important feature of honeybee biology, but little is known about the interaction of pathogens and age-related division of labor. We tested a hypothesis that older forager bees and younger “house” bees differ in susceptibility to infection. We coupled an infection bioassay with a functional analysis of gene expression in individual bees using a whole genome microarray. Forager bees treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. survived for significantly longer than house bees. This was concomitant with substantial differences in gene expression including genes associated with immune function. In house bees, infection was associated with differential expression of 35 candidate immune genes contrasted with differential expression of only two candidate immune genes in forager bees. For control bees (i.e. not treated with M. anisopliae) the development from the house to the forager stage was associated with differential expression of 49 candidate immune genes, including up-regulation of the antimicrobial peptide gene abaecin, plus major components of the Toll pathway, serine proteases, and serpins. We infer that reduced pathogen susceptibility in forager bees was associated with age-related activation of specific immune system pathways. Our findings contrast with the view that the immunocompetence in social insects declines with the onset of foraging as a result of a trade-off in the allocation of resources for foraging. The up-regulation of immune-related genes in young adult bees in response to M. anisopliae infection was an indicator of disease susceptibility; this also challenges previous research in social insects, in which an elevated immune status has been used as a marker of increased disease

  16. Insights into the working mechanism of water filtered infrared A (wIRA) irradiation on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E

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    Kuratli, Jasmin; Pesch, Theresa; Marti, Hanna; Blenn, Christian; Borel, Nicole

    2018-02-01

    Infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are the major cause for infectious blindness and still represent the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Considering the possible side effects of antibiotic therapy and the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, alternative therapeutic strategies are needed. Previous studies showed a reduction of C. trachomatis infectivity after irradiation with water filtered infrared A alone (wIRA) or in combination with visible light (wIRA/VIS). In this study, we aimed to gain further insight into the working mechanism of wIRA/VIS by analyzing cytokine and chemokine levels of infected and non-infected HeLa cells following triple dose irradiation at 24, 36 and 40 hours post infection. Subsequently, we examined the influence of cytokines on irradiation and chlamydial infection using a cytokine/chemokine inhibitor (Azelastine) and by IL-6 and IL-8 gene silencing. A triple dose irradiation significantly reduced chlamydial infectivity in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial stress response. The reducing effect was present regardless of the addition of cycloheximide (CHX), a host protein synthesis inhibitor. Chlamydial infection, wIRA/VIS treatment and the combination of both revealed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, RANTES, Serpin E1). The addition of Azelastine induced the chlamydial stress response in non-irradiated samples. This effect was even more pronounced in wIRA/VIS-treated conditions. Silencing of IL-6 and IL-8 resulted in a lower chlamydial infectivity. However, wIRA/VIS treatment of infected and silenced cells reduced the chlamydial infectivity similar to wIRA/VIS treated control cells. Further studies are needed to elucidate the working mechanism of wIRA/VIS.

  17. Differentiation state determines neural effects on microvascular endothelial cells

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    Muffley, Lara A.; Pan, Shin-Chen; Smith, Andria N.; Ga, Maricar; Hocking, Anne M.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that nerves and capillaries interact paracrinely in uninjured skin and cutaneous wounds. Although mature neurons are the predominant neural cell in the skin, neural progenitor cells have also been detected in uninjured adult skin. The aim of this study was to characterize differential paracrine effects of neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons on dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons have unique secretory profiles and distinct effects on dermal microvascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and nitric oxide production. Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons secrete different proteins related to angiogenesis. Specific to neural progenitor cells were dipeptidyl peptidase-4, IGFBP-2, pentraxin-3, serpin f1, TIMP-1, TIMP-4 and VEGF. In contrast, endostatin, FGF-1, MCP-1 and thrombospondin-2 were specific to dorsal root ganglion neurons. Microvascular endothelial cell proliferation was inhibited by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. In contrast, microvascular endothelial cell migration in a scratch wound assay was inhibited by neural progenitor cells and unaffected by dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, nitric oxide production by microvascular endothelial cells was increased by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. -- Highlights: ► Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. ► Neural progenitor cells, not dorsal root ganglion neurons, regulate microvascular endothelial cell migration. ► Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons do not effect microvascular endothelial tube formation. ► Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate microvascular endothelial cell production of nitric oxide. ► Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root

  18. Role of Corneal Stromal Cells on Epithelial Cell Function during Wound Healing

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    Bhavani S. Kowtharapu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Following injury, corneal stromal keratocytes transform into repair-phenotype of activated stromal fibroblasts (SFs and participate in wound repair. Simultaneously, ongoing bi-directional communications between corneal stromal-epithelial cells also play a vital role in mediating the process of wound healing. Factors produced by stromal cells are known to induce proliferation, differentiation, and motility of corneal epithelial cells, which are also subsequently the main processes that occur during wound healing. In this context, the present study aims to investigate the effect of SFs conditioned medium (SFCM on corneal epithelial cell function along with substance P (SP. Antibody microarrays were employed to profile differentially expressed cell surface markers and cytokines in the presence of SFCM and SP. Antibody microarray data revealed enhanced expression of the ITGB1 in corneal epithelial cells following stimulation with SP whereas SFCM induced abundant expression of IL-8, ITGB1, PD1L1, PECA1, IL-15, BDNF, ICAM1, CD8A, CD44 and NTF4. All these proteins have either direct or indirect roles in epithelial cell growth, movement and adhesion related signaling cascades during tissue regeneration. We also observed activation of MAPK signaling pathway along with increased expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK, paxillin, vimentin, β-catenin and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP phosphorylation. Additionally, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT regulating transcription factors Slug and ZEB1 expression were enhanced in the presence of SFCM. SP enriched the expression of integrin subunits α4, α5, αV, β1 and β3 whereas SFCM increased α4, α5, αV, β1 and β5 integrin subunits. We also observed increased expression of Serpin E1 following SP and SFCM treatment. Wound healing scratch assay revealed enhanced migration of epithelial cells following the addition of SFCM. Taken together, we conclude that SFCM-mediated sustained

  19. Plasma levels and placental expression of vaspin in pregnant women with diabetes mellitus

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    Y. Huo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate visceral adipose tissue-specific serpin (vaspin concentrations in serum and term placentas and relate these values to insulin resistance and lipid parameters in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. A total of 30 GDM subjects and 27 age-matched pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, control were included. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, lipid profile, insulin, and vaspin were measured at the end of pregnancy, and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR values were calculated. Vaspin mRNA and protein levels in placentas were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Serum vaspin levels were significantly lower in the GDM group than in controls (0.49±0.24 vs 0.83±0.27 ng/mL, respectively; P<0.01. Three days after delivery, serum vaspin levels were significantly decreased in subjects with GDM (0.36±0.13 vs 0.49±0.24 ng/mL, P<0.01. However, in the GDM group, serum vaspin levels were not correlated with the parameters evaluated. In contrast, in the control group, serum vaspin levels were positively correlated with triglycerides (TG; r=0.45, P=0.02 and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C; r=0.42, P=0.03. Placental mRNA vaspin (0.60±0.32 vs 0.68±0.32, P=0.46 and protein (0.30±0.08 vs 0.39±0.26; P=0.33 levels in the GDM group did not differ significantly from those in the control group, but were negatively correlated with neonatal birth weight in the GDM group (r=-0.48, P=0.03; r=-0.88; P<0.01. Our findings indicated that vaspin may be an important adipokine involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and may also play a role in fetal development.

  20. Effects of circadian clock genes and health-related behavior on metabolic syndrome in a Taiwanese population: Evidence from association and interaction analysis.

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    Eugene Lin

    Full Text Available Increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS has been associated with the circadian clock genes. In this study, we assessed whether 29 circadian clock-related genes (including ADCYAP1, ARNTL, ARNTL2, BHLHE40, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, CSNK1D, CSNK1E, GSK3B, HCRTR2, KLF10, NFIL3, NPAS2, NR1D1, NR1D2, PER1, PER2, PER3, REV1, RORA, RORB, RORC, SENP3, SERPINE1, TIMELESS, TIPIN, VIP, and VIPR2 are associated with MetS and its individual components independently and/or through complex interactions in a Taiwanese population. We also analyzed the interactions between environmental factors and these genes in influencing MetS and its individual components. A total of 3,000 Taiwanese subjects from the Taiwan Biobank were assessed in this study. Metabolic traits such as waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose were measured. Our data showed a nominal association of MetS with several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in five key circadian clock genes including ARNTL, GSK3B, PER3, RORA, and RORB; but none of these SNPs persisted significantly after performing Bonferroni correction. Moreover, we identified the effect of GSK3B rs2199503 on high fasting glucose (P = 0.0002. Additionally, we found interactions among the ARNTL rs10832020, GSK3B rs2199503, PER3 rs10746473, RORA rs8034880, and RORB rs972902 SNPs influenced MetS (P < 0.001 ~ P = 0.002. Finally, we investigated the influence of interactions between ARNTL rs10832020, GSK3B rs2199503, PER3 rs10746473, and RORB rs972902 with environmental factors such as alcohol consumption, smoking status, and physical activity on MetS and its individual components (P < 0.001 ~ P = 0.002. Our study indicates that circadian clock genes such as ARNTL, GSK3B, PER3, RORA, and RORB genes may contribute to the risk of MetS independently as well as through gene-gene and gene-environment interactions.

  1. MTHFR Glu429Ala and ERCC5 His46His polymorphisms are associated with prognosis in colorectal cancer patients: analysis of two independent cohorts from Newfoundland.

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    Amit A Negandhi

    Full Text Available In this study, 27 genetic polymorphisms that were previously reported to be associated with clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer patients were investigated in relation to overall survival (OS and disease free survival (DFS in colorectal cancer patients from Newfoundland.The discovery and validation cohorts comprised of 532 and 252 patients, respectively. Genotypes of 27 polymorphisms were first obtained in the discovery cohort and survival analyses were performed assuming the co-dominant genetic model. Polymorphisms associated with disease outcomes in the discovery cohort were then investigated in the validation cohort.When adjusted for sex, age, tumor stage and microsatellite instability (MSI status, four polymorphisms were independent predictors of OS in the discovery cohort MTHFR Glu429Ala (HR: 1.72, 95%CI: 1.04-2.84, p = 0.036, ERCC5 His46His (HR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.15-2.76, p = 0.01, SERPINE1 -675indelG (HR: 0.52, 95%CI: 0.32-0.84, p = 0.008, and the homozygous deletion of GSTM1 gene (HR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.03-1.92, p = 0.033. In the validation cohort, the MTHFR Glu429Ala polymorphism was associated with shorter OS (HR: 1.71, 95%CI: 1.18-2.49, p = 0.005, although with a different genotype than the discovery cohort (CC genotype in the discovery cohort and AC genotype in the validation cohort. When stratified based on treatment with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU-based regimens, this polymorphism was associated with reduced OS only in patients not treated with 5-FU. In the DFS analysis, when adjusted for other variables, the TT genotype of the ERCC5 His46His polymorphism was associated with shorter DFS in both cohorts (discovery cohort: HR: 1.54, 95%CI: 1.04-2.29, p = 0.032 and replication cohort: HR: 1.81, 95%CI: 1.11-2.94, p = 0.018.In this study, associations of the MTHFR Glu429Ala polymorphism with OS and the ERCC5 His46His polymorphism with DFS were identified in two colorectal cancer patient cohorts. Our results also suggest

  2. An Interleukin 13 Polymorphism Is Associated with Symptom Severity in Adult Subjects with Ever Asthma.

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    Simone Accordini

    Full Text Available Different genes are associated with categorical classifications of asthma severity. However, continuous outcomes should be used to catch the heterogeneity of asthma phenotypes and to increase the power in association studies. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in candidate gene regions and continuous measures of asthma severity, in adult patients from the general population. In the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD study (www.geird.org, 326 subjects (aged 20-64 with ever asthma were identified from the general population in Verona (Italy between 2007 and 2010. A panel of 236 SNPs tagging 51 candidate gene regions (including one or more genes was analysed. A symptom and treatment score (STS and pre-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted were used as continuous measures of asthma severity. The association of each SNP with STS and FEV1% predicted was tested by fitting quasi-gamma and linear regression models, respectively, with gender, body mass index and smoking habits as potential confounders. The Simes multiple-test procedure was used for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR. SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region (IL5/RAD50/IL13/IL4 was associated with STS (TG/GG vs TT genotype: uncorrected p-value = 0.00006, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.04, whereas rs20541 in the same gene region, in linkage disequilibrium with rs848 (r(2 = 0.94 in our sample, did not reach the statistical significance after adjusting for multiple testing (TC/CC vs TT: uncorrected p-value = 0.0003, FDR-corrected p-value = 0.09. Polymorphisms in other gene regions showed a non-significant moderate association with STS (IL12B, TNS1 or lung function (SERPINE2, GATA3, IL5, NPNT, FAM13A only. After adjusting for multiple testing and potential confounders, SNP rs848 in the IL13 gene region is significantly associated with a continuous measure of symptom severity in adult subjects with ever

  3. Loss of Maspin Expression in Bladder Cancer: Its Relationship with p53 and Clinico pathological Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Maqsoud, N.M.R.; Tawfiek, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Maspin (mammary serine protease inhibitor) is a member of the serpin super family of protease inhibitors and is known to have tumor-suppressor function in breast and prostate cancers, acting at the level of tumor invasion and metastasis. However, there have been no published data regarding the role of Maspin in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of urinary bladder. Patients and Methods: We have evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of Maspin and p53 in a series of 134 bladder cancer patients (56 SCC and 78 TCC) and the interrelationship between Clinico pathological features and Maspin and p53 expression. Results: There was positive Maspin expression in 53.7% in all cases. In TCC, expression was found in 48/78 cases (61.5%). High Maspin expression was found in low grade (p<0.001) and advanced stage (p=0.02). In SCC, expression was found in 24/56 (42.8%). There was a statistically significant association between lost Maspin expression and grading (p=0.001). No correlation was found between Maspin expression and other Clinico pathological parameters including gender, clinical stage and Bilharzial infestation. These results indicated that Maspin expression might predict a better prognosis for bladder carcinoma. Also Maspin probably could play a role in tumor progression. p53 was positive in 70 cases (52.2%) of all patients evaluated. In TCC, it was positive in 36/78 cases (46.1%) and correlated with high grade (p=0.01) and advanced stage (p=0.01). In SCC, it was positive in 34/56 cases (60.7%). There was a statistically significant association between p53 expression and high grade (p=0.01) and advanced stage (p=0.01). There was an inverse correlation between the Maspin and p53 expression in TCC and SCC of bladder cancer. We found no significant association between both Maspin and p53 expression and bilharziasis in TCC and SCC; this indicated that Maspin and p53 expression could be prognostic factors in both bilharzial and non

  4. Differential effects of a post-anthesis fertilizer regimen on the wheat flour proteome determined by quantitative 2-DE

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    Altenbach Susan B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mineral nutrition during wheat grain development has large effects on wheat flour protein content and composition, which in turn affect flour quality and immunogenic potential for a commodity of great economic value. However, it has been difficult to define the precise effects of mineral nutrition on protein composition because of the complexity of the wheat flour proteome. Recent improvements in the identification of flour proteins by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and the availability of a comprehensive proteome map of flour from the US wheat Butte 86 now make it possible to document changes in the proportions of individual flour proteins that result from the application of mineral nutrition. Results Plants of Triticum aestivum 'Butte 86' were grown with or without post-anthesis fertilization (PAF and quantitative 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was used to analyze protein composition of the resulting flour. Significant changes in the proportions of 54 unique proteins were observed as a result of the treatment. Most omega-gliadins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS and serpins as well as some alpha-gliadins increased in proportion with PAF. In contrast, alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors, farinins, purinins and puroindolines decreased in proportion. Decreases were also observed in several low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS, globulins, defense proteins and enzymes. The ratio of HMW-GS to LMW-GS in the flour increased from 0.61 to 0.95 and the ratio of gliadins to glutenins increased from 1.02 to 1.30 with PAF. Because flour protein content doubled with PAF from 7 to 14%, most protein types actually increased in absolute amount (μg/mg flour protein. Data further suggest that flour proteins change with PAF according to their content of sulfur-containing amino acids Cys + Met. Conclusions A 2-DE approach revealed changes in the wheat flour proteome due to PAF that are important for flour

  5. Unbiased proteomics analysis demonstrates significant variability in mucosal immune factor expression depending on the site and method of collection.

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    Kenzie M Birse

    Full Text Available Female genital tract secretions are commonly sampled by lavage of the ectocervix and vaginal vault or via a sponge inserted into the endocervix for evaluating inflammation status and immune factors critical for HIV microbicide and vaccine studies. This study uses a proteomics approach to comprehensively compare the efficacy of these methods, which sample from different compartments of the female genital tract, for the collection of immune factors. Matching sponge and lavage samples were collected from 10 healthy women and were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Data was analyzed by a combination of differential protein expression analysis, hierarchical clustering and pathway analysis. Of the 385 proteins identified, endocervical sponge samples collected nearly twice as many unique proteins as cervicovaginal lavage (111 vs. 61 with 55% of proteins common to both (213. Each method/site identified 73 unique proteins that have roles in host immunity according to their gene ontology. Sponge samples enriched for specific inflammation pathways including acute phase response proteins (p = 3.37×10(-24 and LXR/RXR immune activation pathways (p = 8.82×10(-22 while the role IL-17A in psoriasis pathway (p = 5.98×10(-4 and the complement system pathway (p = 3.91×10(-3 were enriched in lavage samples. Many host defense factors were differentially enriched (p<0.05 between sites including known/potential antimicrobial factors (n = 21, S100 proteins (n = 9, and immune regulatory factors such as serpins (n = 7. Immunoglobulins (n = 6 were collected at comparable levels in abundance in each site although 25% of those identified were unique to sponge samples. This study demonstrates significant differences in types and quantities of immune factors and inflammation pathways collected by each sampling technique. Therefore, clinical studies that measure mucosal immune activation or factors assessing HIV transmission should utilize

  6. Meta-analysis of archived DNA microarrays identifies genes regulated by hypoxia and involved in a metastatic phenotype in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, Michael; DeHertogh, Benoît; Gaigneaux, Anthoula; DeMeulder, Bertrand; Berger, Fabrice; Bareke, Eric; Michiels, Carine; Depiereux, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Metastasis is a major cancer-related cause of death. Recent studies have described metastasis pathways. However, the exact contribution of each pathway remains unclear. Another key feature of a tumor is the presence of hypoxic areas caused by a lack of oxygen at the center of the tumor. Hypoxia leads to the expression of pro-metastatic genes as well as the repression of anti-metastatic genes. As many Affymetrix datasets about metastasis and hypoxia are publicly available and not fully exploited, this study proposes to re-analyze these datasets to extract new information about the metastatic phenotype induced by hypoxia in different cancer cell lines. Affymetrix datasets about metastasis and/or hypoxia were downloaded from GEO and ArrayExpress. AffyProbeMiner and GCRMA packages were used for pre-processing and the Window Welch t test was used for processing. Three approaches of meta-analysis were eventually used for the selection of genes of interest. Three complementary approaches were used, that eventually selected 183 genes of interest. Out of these 183 genes, 99, among which the well known JUNB, FOS and TP63, have already been described in the literature to be involved in cancer. Moreover, 39 genes of those, such as SERPINE1 and MMP7, are known to regulate metastasis. Twenty-one genes including VEGFA and ID2 have also been described to be involved in the response to hypoxia. Lastly, DAVID classified those 183 genes in 24 different pathways, among which 8 are directly related to cancer while 5 others are related to proliferation and cell motility. A negative control composed of 183 random genes failed to provide such results. Interestingly, 6 pathways retrieved by DAVID with the 183 genes of interest concern pathogen recognition and phagocytosis. The proposed methodology was able to find genes actually known to be involved in cancer, metastasis and hypoxia and, thus, we propose that the other genes selected based on the same methodology are of prime interest in

  7. Different radiolabelling methods alter the pharmacokinetic and biodistribution properties of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 2 (PAI-2) forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranson, Marie; Berghofer, Paula; Vine, Kara L.; Greguric, Ivan; Shepherd, Rachael; Katsifis, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tumour-associated urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a critical marker of invasion and metastasis, and it is recognised as having strong prognostic relevance as well as being a therapeutic target. The specific uPA inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 (PAI-2, SerpinB2) specifically targets cell bound uPA and is internalised. Furthermore, preclinical studies have established the “proof-of-principle” of uPA-targeting by PAI-2-cytotoxin conjugates in human carcinoma models. However, these studies also suggest that PAI-2 is rapidly cleared via the renal system with low total dose reaching the tumour. In this study, a comparative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and biodistribution (BD) analysis of different forms of PAI-2 labelled with the radioisotopes iodine-123 ( 123 I) and technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) was undertaken. Methods: The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and BD of wild-type, ΔCD-loop and PEGylated ΔCD-loop PAI-2 labelled with the commonly used diagnostic SPECT radioisotopes 99m Tc or 123 I were compared in mouse models of human prostate carcinoma. Whole body SPECT imaging was also performed. Results: Both wild-type and the shorter but active ΔCD-loop form of PAI-2 123 I-labelled indirectly via conjugation to free amine groups (termed 123 I-Bn-PAI-2) exhibited low tumour uptake, rapid excretion and similar PK profiles. Preliminary studies with a short branched-chain PEGylated 123 I-Bn-PAI-2 ΔCD-loop indicated an increase in blood retention time and tumour uptake. All 123 I-Bn-labelled radiotracers were largely excreted through the kidneys. By comparison, both wild-type 123 I-PAI-2 (labelled directly via tyrosine residues) and 99m Tc-PAI-2 displayed different PK/BD patterns compared to 123 I-Bn-PAI-2, suggesting greater liver based catabolism and thus slower elimination. SPECT imaging mimicked the BD results of all radiotracers. Conclusion: The different labelling methods gave distinct PAI-2 BD and tumour

  8. Immunomodulatory Effects of Amblyomma variegatum Saliva on Bovine Cells: Characterization of Cellular Responses and Identification of Molecular Determinants

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    Valérie Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The tropical bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum, is a tick species of veterinary importance and is considered as one of major pest of ruminants in Africa and in the Caribbean. It causes direct skin lesions, transmits heartwater, and reactivates bovine dermatophilosis. Tick saliva is reported to affect overall host responses through immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory molecules, among other bioactive molecules. The general objective of this study was to better understand the role of saliva in interaction between the Amblyomma tick and the host using cellular biology approaches and proteomics, and to discuss its impact on disease transmission and/or activation. We first focused on the immuno-modulating effects of semi-fed A. variegatum female saliva on bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. We analyzed its immuno-suppressive properties by measuring the effect of saliva on PBMC proliferation, and observed a significant decrease in ConA-stimulated PBMC lymphoproliferation. We then studied the effect of saliva on bovine macrophages using flow cytometry to analyze the expression of MHC-II and co-stimulation molecules (CD40, CD80, and CD86 and by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO and pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines. We observed a significant decrease in the expression of MHC-II, CD40, and CD80 molecules, associated with decreased levels of IL-12-p40 and TNF-α and increased level of IL-10, which could explain the saliva-induced modulation of NO. To elucidate these immunomodulatory effects, crude saliva proteins were analyzed using proteomics with an Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. Among the 336 proteins identified in A. variegatum saliva, we evidenced bioactive molecules exhibiting anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and anti-oxidant properties (e.g., serpins, phospholipases A2, heme lipoprotein. We also characterized an intriguing ubiquitination complex that could be involved in

  9. Claudin 1 expression in basal-like breast cancer is related to patient age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Anne A; Ma, Xiuli; Dueck, Kevin J; Penner, Carla; Cooper, Steven C; Mulhall, Drew; Murphy, Leigh C; Leygue, Etienne; Myal, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Defects in tight junctions, gate-keepers of the integrity of the epidermal barrier function, are known to contribute to cancer development. As such, enhancing our understanding of how the expression of proteins involved in these junctions is regulated in cancer, remains a priority. Although the expression of one of these proteins, claudin 1, is down regulated in most invasive human breast cancers (HBC), we have recently shown that high levels of claudin 1, characterized tumors belonging to the very aggressive basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) subtype. In these tumors, the claudin 1 protein, usually localized in the cell membrane, is often mislocalized to the cytoplasm. To examine the clinical relevance of this observation, we have generated and analyzed an invasive HBC tissue microarray consisting of 151 breast tumor samples; 79 of which presented a basal-like phenotype (i.e. ER-ve, PR-ve HER2-ve, CK5/6 or EGFR+ve). We also interrogated the outcome of claudin 1 knockdown in a human BLBC cell line, BT-20. Immunohistochemical analysis of this patient cohort revealed a significant association between high claudin 1 expression and BLBCs in women 55 years of age and older. Interestingly, no significant association was found between claudin 1 and nodal involvement, tumor grade or tumor size. Regression analysis however, showed a significant positive association between claudin 1 and claudin 4, even though claudin 4 did not significantly correlate with patient age. Claudin 1 knockdown in BT-20 cells resulted in decreased cell migration. It also significantly altered the expression of several genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT); in particular, SERPINE 1 (PAI1) and SSP1 (osteopontin), known to inhibit EMT and cancer cell migration. Conversely, genes known to maintain EMT through their interaction, SNAIL2, TCF4 and FOXC2 were significantly down regulated. The association of high claudin 1 protein levels observed in tumors derived from older women with

  10. Establishment of an experimental human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1BM with high bone metastases potency by 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shunfang; Dong Qianggang; Yao Ming; Shi Meiping; Ye Jianding; Zhao Langxiang; Su Jianzhong; Gu Weiyong; Xie Wenhui; Wang Kankan; Du Yanzhi; Li Yao; Huang Yan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Bone metastasis is one of the most common clinical phenomena of late stage lung cancer. A major impediment to understanding the pathogenesis of bone metastasis has been the lack of an appropriate animal and cell model. This study aims to establish human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with highly bone metastases potency with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Methods: The human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells SPC-A-1 were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of NIH-Beige-Nude-XID (NIH-BNX) immunodeficient mice. The metastatic lesions of tumor-bearing mice were imaged with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy on a Siemens multi-single photon emission computed tomography. Pinhole images were acquired on a GZ-B conventional gamma camera with a self-designed pinhole collimator. The mice with bone metastasis were sacrificed under deep anesthesia, and the lesions were resected. Bone metastatic cancer cells in the resected lesions were subjected for culture and then reinoculated into the NIH-BNX mice through left cardiac ventricle. The process was repeated for eight cycles to obtain a novel cell subline SPC-A-1BM. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare the gene expression differences in the parental and SPC-A-1BM cells. Results: The bone metastasis sites were successfully revealed by bone scintigraphy. The established bone metastasis cell line SPC-A-1BM had a high potential to metastasize in bone, including mandible, humerus, thoracic vertebra, lumbar, femur, patella, ilium and cartilage rib. The expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor gene family, Bcl-2 and cell adhesion-related genes ECM1, ESM1, AF1Q, SERPINE2 and FN1 were examined. Gene expression difference was found between parental and bone-seeking metastasis cell SPC-A-1BM, which indicates SPC-A-1BM has metastatic capacity vs. its parental cells. Conclusion: SPC-A-1BM is a bone-seeking metastasis human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Bone scintigraphy may be used as an

  11. Prognostic breast cancer signature identified from 3D culture model accurately predicts clinical outcome across independent datasets

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    Martin, Katherine J.; Patrick, Denis R.; Bissell, Mina J.; Fournier, Marcia V.

    2008-10-20

    One of the major tenets in breast cancer research is that early detection is vital for patient survival by increasing treatment options. To that end, we have previously used a novel unsupervised approach to identify a set of genes whose expression predicts prognosis of breast cancer patients. The predictive genes were selected in a well-defined three dimensional (3D) cell culture model of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cell morphogenesis as down-regulated during breast epithelial cell acinar formation and cell cycle arrest. Here we examine the ability of this gene signature (3D-signature) to predict prognosis in three independent breast cancer microarray datasets having 295, 286, and 118 samples, respectively. Our results show that the 3D-signature accurately predicts prognosis in three unrelated patient datasets. At 10 years, the probability of positive outcome was 52, 51, and 47 percent in the group with a poor-prognosis signature and 91, 75, and 71 percent in the group with a good-prognosis signature for the three datasets, respectively (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, p<0.05). Hazard ratios for poor outcome were 5.5 (95% CI 3.0 to 12.2, p<0.0001), 2.4 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.6, p<0.0001) and 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.2, p = 0.016) and remained significant for the two larger datasets when corrected for estrogen receptor (ER) status. Hence the 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome in both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors, though individual genes differed in their prognostic ability in the two subtypes. Genes that were prognostic in ER+ patients are AURKA, CEP55, RRM2, EPHA2, FGFBP1, and VRK1, while genes prognostic in ER patients include ACTB, FOXM1 and SERPINE2 (Kaplan-Meier p<0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis in the largest dataset showed that the 3D-signature was a strong independent factor in predicting breast cancer outcome. The 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome across multiple datasets and holds prognostic

  12. The Gastric Ganglion of Octopus vulgaris: Preliminary Characterization of Gene- and Putative Neurochemical-Complexity, and the Effect of Aggregata octopiana Digestive Tract Infection on Gene Expression

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    Elena Baldascino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The gastric ganglion is the largest visceral ganglion in cephalopods. It is connected to the brain and is implicated in regulation of digestive tract functions. Here we have investigated the neurochemical complexity (through in silico gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry of the gastric ganglion in Octopus vulgaris and tested whether the expression of a selected number of genes was influenced by the magnitude of digestive tract parasitic infection by Aggregata octopiana. Novel evidence was obtained for putative peptide and non-peptide neurotransmitters in the gastric ganglion: cephalotocin, corticotrophin releasing factor, FMRFamide, gamma amino butyric acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine, molluscan insulin-related peptide 3, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin–related peptide. Receptors for cholecystokininA and cholecystokininB, and orexin2 were also identified in this context for the first time. We report evidence for acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, octopamine, small cardioactive peptide related peptide, and receptors for cephalotocin and octopressin, confirming previous publications. The effects of Aggregata observed here extend those previously described by showing effects on the gastric ganglion; in animals with a higher level of infection, genes implicated in inflammation (NFκB, fascin, serpinB10 and the toll-like 3 receptor increased their relative expression, but TNF-α gene expression was lower as was expression of other genes implicated in oxidative stress (i.e., superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, and glutathione peroxidase. Elevated Aggregata levels in the octopuses corresponded to an increase in the expression of the cholecystokininA receptor and the small cardioactive peptide-related peptide. In contrast, we observed decreased relative expression of cephalotocin, dopamine β-hydroxylase, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin-related peptide genes. A discussion is provided on (i potential roles of the various molecules

  13. The Gastric Ganglion of Octopus vulgaris: Preliminary Characterization of Gene- and Putative Neurochemical-Complexity, and the Effect of Aggregata octopiana Digestive Tract Infection on Gene Expression

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    Baldascino, Elena; Di Cristina, Giulia; Tedesco, Perla; Hobbs, Carl; Shaw, Tanya J.; Ponte, Giovanna; Andrews, Paul L. R.

    2017-01-01

    The gastric ganglion is the largest visceral ganglion in cephalopods. It is connected to the brain and is implicated in regulation of digestive tract functions. Here we have investigated the neurochemical complexity (through in silico gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry) of the gastric ganglion in Octopus vulgaris and tested whether the expression of a selected number of genes was influenced by the magnitude of digestive tract parasitic infection by Aggregata octopiana. Novel evidence was obtained for putative peptide and non-peptide neurotransmitters in the gastric ganglion: cephalotocin, corticotrophin releasing factor, FMRFamide, gamma amino butyric acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine, molluscan insulin-related peptide 3, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin–related peptide. Receptors for cholecystokininA and cholecystokininB, and orexin2 were also identified in this context for the first time. We report evidence for acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, octopamine, small cardioactive peptide related peptide, and receptors for cephalotocin and octopressin, confirming previous publications. The effects of Aggregata observed here extend those previously described by showing effects on the gastric ganglion; in animals with a higher level of infection, genes implicated in inflammation (NFκB, fascin, serpinB10 and the toll-like 3 receptor) increased their relative expression, but TNF-α gene expression was lower as was expression of other genes implicated in oxidative stress (i.e., superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, and glutathione peroxidase). Elevated Aggregata levels in the octopuses corresponded to an increase in the expression of the cholecystokininA receptor and the small cardioactive peptide-related peptide. In contrast, we observed decreased relative expression of cephalotocin, dopamine β-hydroxylase, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin-related peptide genes. A discussion is provided on (i) potential roles of the various molecules in food intake

  14. Metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines in the alveolar lining fluid of healthy adults: compartmentalization and physiological correlates.

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    Carlos O Mendivil

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of hormone regulation in lung parenchyma is quite limited. We aimed to quantify a diverse array of biologically relevant protein mediators in alveolar lining fluid (ALF, compared to serum concentrations, and explore factors associated with protein compartmentalization on either side of the air-blood barrier.Participants were 24 healthy adult non-smoker volunteers without respiratory symptoms or significant medical conditions, with normal lung exams and office spirometry. Cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were analyzed for 24 proteins (including enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines using a highly sensitive multiplex ELISA. Measurements were normalized to ALF concentrations. The ALF:serum concentration ratios were examined in relation to measures of protein size, hydrophobicity, charge, and to participant clinical and spirometric values.ALF measurements from 24 individuals detected 19 proteins, including adiponectin, adipsin, apoA-I, apoA-II, apoB, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoE, C-reactive protein, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, glucagon, insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, resistin, and visfatin. C-peptide and serpin E1 were not detected in ALF for any individual, and IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha were not detected in either ALF or serum for any individual. In general, ALF levels were similar or lower in concentration for most proteins compared to serum. However, ghrelin, resistin, insulin, visfatin and GLP-1 had ALF concentrations significantly higher compared to serum. Importantly, elevated ALF:serum ratios of ghrelin, visfatin and resistin correlated with protein net charge and isoelectric point, but not with molecular weight or hydrophobicity.Biologically relevant enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines can be detected in the ALF of

  15. Cerebrovascular Remodeling and Neuroinflammation is a Late Effect of Radiation-Induced Brain Injury in Non-Human Primates

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    Andrews, Rachel N.; Metheny-Barlow, Linda J.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Hanbury, David B.; Tooze, Janet A.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Samuel A.; Cline, J. Mark

    2017-01-01

    Andrews, R. N., Metheny-Barlow, L. J., Peiffer, A. M., Hanbury, D. B., Tooze, J. A., Bourland, J. D., Hampson, R. E., Deadwyler, S. A. and Cline, J. M. Cerebrovascular Remodeling and Neuroinflammation is a Late Effect of Radiation-Induced Brain Injury in Non-Human Primates. Radiat. Res. 187, 599–611 (2017). Fractionated whole-brain irradiation (fWBI) is a mainstay of treatment for patients with intracranial neoplasia; however late-delayed radiation-induced normal tissue injury remains a major adverse consequence of treatment, with deleterious effects on quality of life for affected patients. We hypothesize that cerebrovascular injury and remodeling after fWBI results in ischemic injury to dependent white matter, which contributes to the observed cognitive dysfunction. To evaluate molecular effectors of radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI), real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, Brodmann area 46), hippocampus and temporal white matter of 4 male Rhesus macaques (age 6–11 years), which had received 40 Gray (Gy) fWBI (8 fractions of 5 Gy each, twice per week), and 3 control comparators. All fWBI animals developed neurologic impairment; humane euthanasia was elected at a median of 6 months. Radiation-induced brain injury was confirmed histopathologically in all animals, characterized by white matter degeneration and necrosis, and multifocal cerebrovascular injury consisting of perivascular edema, abnormal angiogenesis and perivascular extracellular matrix deposition. Herein we demonstrate that RIBI is associated with white matter-specific up-regulation of hypoxia-associated lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and that increased gene expression of fibronectin 1 (FN1), SERPINE1 and matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2) may contribute to cerebrovascular remodeling in late-delayed RIBI. Additionally, vascular stability and maturation associated tumor necrosis super family member 15 (TNFSF15) and

  16. Genome-wide analysis of murine renal distal convoluted tubular cells for the target genes of mineralocorticoid receptor

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    Ueda, Kohei [Department of Nephrology and Endocrinology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Fujiki, Katsunori; Shirahige, Katsuhiko [Research Center for Epigenetic Disease, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E. [Endocrine Section, G.V. (Sonny) Montgomery VA Medical Center, MS (United States); Endocrinology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, MS (United States); Fujita, Toshiro [Division of Clinical Epigenetics, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nangaku, Masaomi [Department of Nephrology and Endocrinology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nagase, Miki, E-mail: mnagase-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Nephrology and Endocrinology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Life Structure, School of Medicine Juntendo University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • We define a target gene of MR as that with MR-binding to the adjacent region of DNA. • We use ChIP-seq analysis in combination with microarray. • We, for the first time, explore the genome-wide binding profile of MR. • We reveal 5 genes as the direct target genes of MR in the renal epithelial cell-line. - Abstract: Background and objective: Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a member of nuclear receptor family proteins and contributes to fluid homeostasis in the kidney. Although aldosterone-MR pathway induces several gene expressions in the kidney, it is often unclear whether the gene expressions are accompanied by direct regulations of MR through its binding to the regulatory region of each gene. The purpose of this study is to identify the direct target genes of MR in a murine distal convoluted tubular epithelial cell-line (mDCT). Methods: We analyzed the DNA samples of mDCT cells overexpressing 3xFLAG-hMR after treatment with 10{sup −7} M aldosterone for 1 h by chromatin immunoprecipitation with deep-sequence (ChIP-seq) and mRNA of the cell-line with treatment of 10{sup −7} M aldosterone for 3 h by microarray. Results: 3xFLAG-hMR overexpressed in mDCT cells accumulated in the nucleus in response to 10{sup −9} M aldosterone. Twenty-five genes were indicated as the candidate target genes of MR by ChIP-seq and microarray analyses. Five genes, Sgk1, Fkbp5, Rasl12, Tns1 and Tsc22d3 (Gilz), were validated as the direct target genes of MR by quantitative RT-qPCR and ChIP-qPCR. MR binding regions adjacent to Ctgf and Serpine1 were also validated. Conclusions: We, for the first time, captured the genome-wide distribution of MR in mDCT cells and, furthermore, identified five MR target genes in the cell-line. These results will contribute to further studies on the mechanisms of kidney diseases.

  17. Antibody-validated proteins in inflamed islets of fulminant type 1 diabetes profiled by laser-capture microdissection followed by mass spectrometry.

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    Yoriko Nishida

    Full Text Available There are no reports of proteomic analyses of inflamed islets in type 1 diabetes.Proteins expressed in the islets of enterovirus-associated fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1DM with extensive insulitis were identified by laser-capture microdissection mass spectrometry using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pancreatic tissues.Thirty-eight proteins were identified solely in FT1DM islets, most of which have not been previously linked to type 1 diabetes. Five protein-protein interacting clusters were identified, and the cellular localization of selected proteins was validated immunohistochemically. Migratory activity-related proteins, including plastin-2 (LCP1, moesin (MSN, lamin-B1 (LMNB1, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein (IQGAP1 and others, were identified in CD8+ T cells and CD68+ macrophages infiltrated to inflamed FT1DM islets. Proteins involved in successive signaling in innate/adaptive immunity were identified, including SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein (IQGAP1, proteasome activator complex subunit 1 (PSME1, HLA class I histocompatibility antigen (HLA-C, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-alpha/beta (STAT1. Angiogenic (thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP and anti-angiogenic (tryptophan-tRNA ligase (WARS factors were identified in migrating CD8+ T cells and CD68+ macrophages. Proteins related to virus replication and cell proliferation, including probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DEAD box helicase 5 (DDX5 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H (HNRNPH1, were identified. The anti-apoptotic protein T-complex protein 1 subunit epsilon (CCT5, the anti-oxidative enzyme 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PDG, and the anti-viral and anti-apoptotic proteins serpin B6 (SERPINB6 and heat shock 70 kDa protein1-like (HSPA1L, were identified in FT1DM-affected islet cells.The identified FT1DM-characterizing proteins include those involved in aggressive beta cell destruction through

  18. Altered Gene Expression in Three Plant Species in Response to Treatment with Nep1, a Fungal Protein That Causes Necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keates, Sarah E.; Kostman, Todd A.; Anderson, James D.; Bailey, Bryan A.

    2003-01-01

    Nep1 is an extracellular fungal protein that causes necrosis when applied to many dicotyledonous plants, including invasive weed species. Using transmission electron microscopy, it was determined that application of Nep1 (1.0 μg mL–1, 0.1% [v/v] Silwet-L77) to Arabidopsis and two invasive weed species, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), caused a reduction in the thickness of the cuticle and a breakdown of chloroplasts 1 to 4 h after treatment. Membrane breakdown was most severe in cells closest to the surface of application. Differential display was used to isolate cDNA clones from the three species showing differential expression in response to Nep1 treatment. Differential gene expression was observed for a putative serpin (CmSER-1) and a calmodulin-like (CmCAL-1) protein from spotted knapweed, and a putative protein phosphatase 2C (ToPP2C-1) and cytochrome P-450 (ToCYP-1) protein from dandelion. In addition, differential expression was observed for genes coding for a putative protein kinase (AtPK-1), a homolog (AtWI-12) of wound-induced WI12, a homolog (AtLEA-1) of late embryogenesis abundant LEA-5, a WRKY-18 DNA-binding protein (AtWRKY-18), and a phospholipase D (AtPLD-1) from Arabidopsis. Genes showing elevated mRNA levels in Nep1-treated (5 μg mL–1, 0.1% [v/v] Silwet-L77) leaves 15 min after Nep1 treatment included CmSER-1 and CmCAL-1 for spotted knapweed, ToCYP-1 and CmCAL-1 for dandelion, and AtPK-1, AtWRKY-18, AtWI-12, and AtLEA-1 for Arabidopsis. Levels of mRNA for AtPLD-1 (Arabidopsis) and ToPP2C-1 (dandelion) decreased rapidly in Silwet-l77-treated plants between 15 min and 4 h of treatment, but were maintained or decreased more slowly over time in Nep1-treated (5 μg mL–1, 0.1% [v/v] Silwet-L77) leaves. In general, increases in mRNA band intensities were in the range of two to five times, with only ToCYP-1 in dandelion exceeding an increase of 10 times. The identified genes have been shown to be involved

  19. Immunomodulatory Effects of Amblyomma variegatum Saliva on Bovine Cells: Characterization of Cellular Responses and Identification of Molecular Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Valérie; Fernandez, Bernard; Vercoutere, Arthur; Chamayou, Léo; Andersen, Alexandre; Vigy, Oana; Demettre, Edith; Seveno, Martial; Aprelon, Rosalie; Giraud-Girard, Ken; Stachurski, Frédéric; Loire, Etienne; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Holzmuller, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The tropical bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum, is a tick species of veterinary importance and is considered as one of major pest of ruminants in Africa and in the Caribbean. It causes direct skin lesions, transmits heartwater, and reactivates bovine dermatophilosis. Tick saliva is reported to affect overall host responses through immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory molecules, among other bioactive molecules. The general objective of this study was to better understand the role of saliva in interaction between the Amblyomma tick and the host using cellular biology approaches and proteomics, and to discuss its impact on disease transmission and/or activation. We first focused on the immuno-modulating effects of semi-fed A. variegatum female saliva on bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. We analyzed its immuno-suppressive properties by measuring the effect of saliva on PBMC proliferation, and observed a significant decrease in ConA-stimulated PBMC lymphoproliferation. We then studied the effect of saliva on bovine macrophages using flow cytometry to analyze the expression of MHC-II and co-stimulation molecules (CD40, CD80, and CD86) and by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines. We observed a significant decrease in the expression of MHC-II, CD40, and CD80 molecules, associated with decreased levels of IL-12-p40 and TNF-α and increased level of IL-10, which could explain the saliva-induced modulation of NO. To elucidate these immunomodulatory effects, crude saliva proteins were analyzed using proteomics with an Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer. Among the 336 proteins identified in A. variegatum saliva, we evidenced bioactive molecules exhibiting anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and anti-oxidant properties (e.g., serpins, phospholipases A2, heme lipoprotein). We also characterized an intriguing ubiquitination complex that could be involved in saliva

  20. Systematic Analysis of Gene Expression Alterations and Clinical Outcomes for Long-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase Family in Cancer.

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    Wei-Ching Chen

    Full Text Available Dysregulated lipid metabolism contributes to cancer progression. Our previous study indicates that long-chain fatty acyl-Co A synthetase (ACSL 3 is essential for lipid upregulation induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this report, we aimed to identify the role of ACSL family in cancer with systematic analysis and in vitro experiment. We explored the ACSL expression using Oncomine database to determine the gene alteration during carcinogenesis and identified the association between ACSL expression and the survival of cancer patient using PrognoScan database. ACSL1 may play a potential oncogenic role in colorectal and breast cancer and play a potential tumor suppressor role in lung cancer. Co-expression analysis revealed that ACSL1 was coexpressed with MYBPH, PTPRE, PFKFB3, SOCS3 in colon cancer and with LRRFIP1, TSC22D1 in lung cancer. In accordance with PrognoScan analysis, downregulation of ACSL1 in colon and breast cancer cell line inhibited proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth. In contrast, increase of oncogenic property was observed in lung cancer cell line by attenuating ACSL1. High ACSL3 expression predicted a better prognosis in ovarian cancer; in contrast, high ACSL3 predicted a worse prognosis in melanoma. ACSL3 was coexpressed with SNUPN, TRIP13, and SEMA5A in melanoma. High expression of ACSL4 predicted a worse prognosis in colorectal cancer, but predicted better prognosis in breast, brain and lung cancer. ACSL4 was coexpressed with SERPIN2, HNRNPCL1, ITIH2, PROCR, LRRFIP1. High expression of ACSL5 predicted good prognosis in breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. ACSL5 was coexpressed with TMEM140, TAPBPL, BIRC3, PTPRE, and SERPINB1. Low ACSL6 predicted a worse prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. ACSL6 was coexpressed with SOX6 and DARC. Altogether, different members of ACSLs are implicated in diverse types of cancer development. ACSL-coexpressed molecules may be used to further investigate the role of ACSL

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Wang, X-z; Ortega, M S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature experience lower milk yield and fertility. Rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable, so genetic selection for body temperature regulation could reduce effects of heat stress on production. One aim of the study was to validate the relationship between genotype and heat tolerance for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with resistance to heat stress. A second aim was to identify new SNPs associated with heat stress resistance. Thermotolerance was assessed in lactating Holsteins during the summer by measuring rectal temperature (a direct measurement of body temperature regulation; n = 435), respiration rate (an indirect measurement of body temperature regulation, n = 450) and sweating rate (the major evaporative cooling mechanism in cattle, n = 455). The association between genotype and thermotolerance was evaluated for 19 SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature from a genomewide analysis study (GWAS), four SNPs previously associated with change in milk yield during heat stress from GWAS, 2 candidate gene SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature and respiration rate during heat stress (ATPA1A and HSP70A) and 66 SNPs in genes previously shown to be associated with reproduction, production or health traits in Holsteins. For SNPs previously associated with heat tolerance, regions of BTA4, BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with rectal temperature; regions of BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with respiration rate; and regions of BTA5, BTA26 and BTA29 were associated with sweating rate. New SNPs were identified for rectal temperature (n = 12), respiration rate (n = 8) and sweating rate (n = 3) from among those previously associated with production, reproduction or health traits. The SNP that explained the most variation were PGR and ASL for rectal temperature, ACAT2 and HSD17B7 for respiration rate, and ARL6IP1 and SERPINE2 for sweating rate. ARL6IP1 was associated with all three

  2. miR-145-dependent targeting of junctional adhesion molecule A and modulation of fascin expression are associated with reduced breast cancer cell motility and invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götte, M; Mohr, C; Koo, C-Y; Stock, C; Vaske, A-K; Viola, M; Ibrahim, S A; Peddibhotla, S; Teng, Y H-F; Low, J-Y; Ebnet, K; Kiesel, L; Yip, G W

    2010-12-16

    Micro RNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which regulate fundamental cellular and developmental processes at the transcriptional and translational level. In breast cancer, miR-145 expression is downregulated compared with healthy control tissue. As several predicted targets of miR-145 potentially regulate cell motility, we aimed at investigating a potential role for miR-145 in breast cancer cell motility and invasiveness. Assisted by Affymetrix array technology, we demonstrate that overexpression of miR-145 in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells and in Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma cells leads to a downregulation of the cell-cell adhesion protein JAM-A and of the actin bundling protein fascin. Moreover, podocalyxin and Serpin E1 mRNA levels were downregulated, and gamma-actin, transgelin and MYL9 were upregulated upon miR-145 overexpression. These miR-145-dependent expression changes drastically decreased cancer cell motility, as revealed by time-lapse video microscopy, scratch wound closure assays and matrigel invasion assays. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton and a change in cell morphology by miR-145 overexpression, resulting in a more cortical actin distribution, and reduced actin stress fiber and filopodia formation. Nuclear rotation was observed in 10% of the pre-miR-145 transfected MDA-MB-231 cells, accompanied by a reduction of perinuclear actin. Luciferase activation assays confirmed direct miR-145-dependent regulation of the 3'UTR of JAM-A, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of JAM-A expression resulted in decreased motility and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Our data identify JAM-A and fascin as novel targets of miR-145, firmly establishing a role for miR-145 in modulating breast cancer cell motility. Our data provide a rationale for future miR-145-targeted approaches of antimetastatic cancer therapy.

  3. The EndoC-βH1 cell line is a valid model of human beta cells and applicable for screenings to identify novel drug target candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonkova, Violeta Georgieva; Sand, Fredrik Wolfhagen; Wolf, Xenia Asbæk; Grunnet, Lars Groth; Kirstine Ringgaard, Anna; Ingvorsen, Camilla; Winkel, Louise; Kalisz, Mark; Dalgaard, Kevin; Bruun, Christine; Fels, Johannes Josef; Helgstrand, Charlotte; Hastrup, Sven; Öberg, Fredrik Kryh; Vernet, Erik; Sandrini, Michael Paolo Bastner; Shaw, Allan Christian; Jessen, Carsten; Grønborg, Mads; Hald, Jacob; Willenbrock, Hanni; Madsen, Dennis; Wernersson, Rasmus; Hansson, Lena; Jensen, Jan Nygaard; Plesner, Annette; Alanentalo, Tomas; Petersen, Maja Borup Kjær; Grapin-Botton, Anne; Honoré, Christian; Ahnfelt-Rønne, Jonas; Hecksher-Sørensen, Jacob; Ravassard, Philippe; Madsen, Ole D; Rescan, Claude; Frogne, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    To characterize the EndoC-βH1 cell line as a model for human beta cells and evaluate its beta cell functionality, focusing on insulin secretion, proliferation, apoptosis and ER stress, with the objective to assess its potential as a screening platform for identification of novel anti-diabetic drug candidates. EndoC-βH1 was transplanted into mice for validation of in vivo functionality. Insulin secretion was evaluated in cells cultured as monolayer and as pseudoislets, as well as in diabetic mice. Cytokine induced apoptosis, glucolipotoxicity, and ER stress responses were assessed. Beta cell relevant mRNA and protein expression were investigated by qPCR and antibody staining. Hundreds of proteins or peptides were tested for their effect on insulin secretion and proliferation. Transplantation of EndoC-βH1 cells restored normoglycemia in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Both in vitro and in vivo, we observed a clear insulin response to glucose, and, in vitro, we found a significant increase in insulin secretion from EndoC-βH1 pseudoislets compared to monolayer cultures for both glucose and incretins. Apoptosis and ER stress were inducible in the cells and caspase 3/7 activity was elevated in response to cytokines, but not affected by the saturated fatty acid palmitate. By screening of various proteins and peptides, we found Bombesin (BB) receptor agonists and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptides (PACAP) to significantly induce insulin secretion and the proteins SerpinA6, STC1, and APOH to significantly stimulate proliferation. ER stress was readily induced by Tunicamycin and resulted in a reduction of insulin mRNA. Somatostatin (SST) was found to be expressed by 1% of the cells and manipulation of the SST receptors was found to significantly affect insulin secretion. Overall, the EndoC-βH1 cells strongly resemble human islet beta cells in terms of glucose and incretin stimulated insulin secretion capabilities. The cell line has an active

  4. Encapsulation of Alpha-1 antitrypsin in PLGA nanoparticles: In Vitro characterization as an effective aerosol formulation in pulmonary diseases

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    Pirooznia Nazanin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha 1- antitrypsin (α1AT belongs to the superfamily of serpins and inhibits different proteases. α1AT protects the lung from cellular inflammatory enzymes. In the absence of α1AT, the degradation of lung tissue results to pulmonary complications. The pulmonary route is a potent noninvasive route for systemic and local delivery. The aerosolized α1AT not only affects locally its main site of action but also avoids remaining in circulation for a long period of time in peripheral blood. Poly (D, L lactide-co glycolide (PLGA is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer approved for sustained controlled release of peptides and proteins. The aim of this work was to prepare a wide range of particle size as a carrier of protein-loaded nanoparticles to deposit in different parts of the respiratory system especially in the deep lung. Various lactide to glycolide ratio of the copolymer was used to obtain different release profile of the drug which covers extended and rapid drug release in one formulation. Results Nonaqueous and double emulsion techniques were applied for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized in terms of surface morphology, size distribution, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, FTIR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. To evaluate the nanoparticles cytotoxicity, cell cytotoxicity test was carried out on the Cor L105 human epithelial lung cancer cell line. Nanoparticles were spherical with an average size in the range of 100 nm to 1μ. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be higher when the double emulsion technique was applied. XRD and DSC results indicated that α1AT encapsulated in the nanoparticles existed in an amorphous or disordered-crystalline status in the polymer matrix. The lactic acid to glycolic acid ratio affects the release profile of α1AT. Hence, PLGA with a 50:50 ratios exhibited the ability to release

  5. Proteomic identification of Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins, including a pro-cathepsin and a soluble γ-glutamyl transpeptidase

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    Sajid Mohammed

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In Drosophila melanogaster, the male seminal fluid contains proteins that are important for reproductive success. Many of these proteins are synthesised by the male accessory glands and are secreted into the accessory gland lumen, where they are stored until required. Previous studies on the identification of Drosophila accessory gland products have largely focused on characterisation of male-specific accessory gland cDNAs from D. melanogaster and, more recently, Drosophila simulans. In the present study, we have used a proteomics approach without any sex bias to identify proteins in D. melanogaster accessory gland secretions. Results Thirteen secreted accessory gland proteins, including seven new accessory gland proteins, were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments. They included protein-folding and stress-response proteins, a hormone, a lipase, a serpin, a cysteine-rich protein and two peptidases, a pro-enzyme form of a cathepsin K-like cysteine peptidase and a γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. Enzymatic studies established that accessory gland secretions contain a cysteine peptidase zymogen that can be activated at low pH. This peptidase may have a role in the processing of female and other male-derived proteins, but is unlikely to be involved in the processing of the sex peptide. γ-Glutamyl transpeptidases are type II integral membrane proteins; however, the identified AG γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT-1 is unusual in that it is predicted to be a soluble secreted protein, a prediction that is supported by biochemical evidence. GGT-1 is possibly involved in maintaining a protective redox environment for sperm. The strong γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity found in the secretions provides an explanation for the observation that glutamic acid is the most abundant free amino acid in accessory gland secretions of D. melanogaster. Conclusion We have applied biochemical approaches, not used

  6. Proteomic identification of Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins, including a pro-cathepsin and a soluble gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael J; Rylett, Caroline M; Keen, Jeff N; Audsley, Neil; Sajid, Mohammed; Shirras, Alan D; Isaac, R Elwyn

    2006-05-02

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the male seminal fluid contains proteins that are important for reproductive success. Many of these proteins are synthesised by the male accessory glands and are secreted into the accessory gland lumen, where they are stored until required. Previous studies on the identification of Drosophila accessory gland products have largely focused on characterisation of male-specific accessory gland cDNAs from D. melanogaster and, more recently, Drosophila simulans. In the present study, we have used a proteomics approach without any sex bias to identify proteins in D. melanogaster accessory gland secretions. Thirteen secreted accessory gland proteins, including seven new accessory gland proteins, were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments. They included protein-folding and stress-response proteins, a hormone, a lipase, a serpin, a cysteine-rich protein and two peptidases, a pro-enzyme form of a cathepsin K-like cysteine peptidase and a gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Enzymatic studies established that accessory gland secretions contain a cysteine peptidase zymogen that can be activated at low pH. This peptidase may have a role in the processing of female and other male-derived proteins, but is unlikely to be involved in the processing of the sex peptide. gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidases are type II integral membrane proteins; however, the identified AG gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT-1) is unusual in that it is predicted to be a soluble secreted protein, a prediction that is supported by biochemical evidence. GGT-1 is possibly involved in maintaining a protective redox environment for sperm. The strong gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity found in the secretions provides an explanation for the observation that glutamic acid is the most abundant free amino acid in accessory gland secretions of D. melanogaster. We have applied biochemical approaches, not used previously, to characterise

  7. Water-filtered infrared a irradiation in combination with visible light inhibits acute chlamydial infection.

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    Hanna Marti

    Full Text Available New therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome drawbacks in treatment of infections with intracellular bacteria. Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative bacteria implicated in acute and chronic diseases such as abortion in animals and trachoma in humans. Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA is short wavelength infrared radiation with a spectrum ranging from 780 to 1400 nm. In clinical settings, wIRA alone and in combination with visible light (VIS has proven its efficacy in acute and chronic wound healing processes. This is the first study to demonstrate that wIRA irradiation combined with VIS (wIRA/VIS diminishes recovery of infectious elementary bodies (EBs of both intra- and extracellular Chlamydia (C. in two different cell lines (Vero, HeLa regardless of the chlamydial strain (C. pecorum, C. trachomatis serovar E as shown by indirect immunofluorescence and titration by subpassage. Moreover, a single exposure to wIRA/VIS at 40 hours post infection (hpi led to a significant reduction of C. pecorum inclusion frequency in Vero cells and C. trachomatis in HeLa cells, respectively. A triple dose of irradiation (24, 36, 40 hpi during the course of C. trachomatis infection further reduced chlamydial inclusion frequency in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial persistence/stress response, as ascertained by electron microscopy. Irradiation of host cells (HeLa, Vero neither affected cell viability nor induced any molecular markers of cytotoxicity as investigated by Alamar blue assay and Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection, irradiation, and the combination of both showed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MIF/GIF, Serpin E1, RANTES, IL-6, IL-8 and chemokines (IL-16, IP-10, ENA-78, MIG, MIP-1α/β from host cells. Initial investigation into the mechanism indicated possible thermal effects on Chlamydia due to irradiation. In summary, we demonstrate a non-chemical reduction of chlamydial infection using the combination

  8. SERPINB11 frameshift variant associated with novel hoof specific phenotype in Connemara ponies.

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    Carrie J Finno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Horses belong to the order Perissodactyla and bear the majority of their weight on their third toe; therefore, tremendous force is applied to each hoof. An inherited disease characterized by a phenotype restricted to the dorsal hoof wall was identified in the Connemara pony. Hoof wall separation disease (HWSD manifests clinically as separation of the dorsal hoof wall along the weight-bearing surface of the hoof during the first year of life. Parents of affected ponies appeared clinically normal, suggesting an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. A case-control allelic genome wide association analysis was performed (ncases = 15, ncontrols = 24. Population stratification (λ = 1.48 was successfully improved by removing outliers (ncontrols = 7 identified on a multidimensional scaling plot. A genome-wide significant association was detected on chromosome 8 (praw = 1.37x10-10, pgenome = 1.92x10-5. A homozygous region identified in affected ponies spanned from 79,936,024-81,676,900 bp and contained a family of 13 annotated SERPINB genes. Whole genome next-generation sequencing at 6x coverage of two cases and two controls revealed 9,758 SNVs and 1,230 indels within the ~1.7-Mb haplotype, of which 17 and 5, respectively, segregated with the disease and were located within or adjacent to genes. Additional genotyping of these 22 putative functional variants in 369 Connemara ponies (ncases = 23, ncontrols = 346 and 169 horses of other breeds revealed segregation of three putative variants adjacent or within four SERPIN genes. Two of the variants were non-coding and one was an insertion within SERPINB11 that introduced a frameshift resulting in a premature stop codon. Evaluation of mRNA levels at the proximal hoof capsule (ncases = 4, ncontrols = 4 revealed that SERPINB11 expression was significantly reduced in affected ponies (p<0.001. Carrier frequency was estimated at 14.8%. This study describes the first genetic variant associated with a hoof wall

  9. The EndoC-βH1 cell line is a valid model of human beta cells and applicable for screenings to identify novel drug target candidates

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    Violeta Georgieva Tsonkova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the EndoC-βH1 cell line as a model for human beta cells and evaluate its beta cell functionality, focusing on insulin secretion, proliferation, apoptosis and ER stress, with the objective to assess its potential as a screening platform for identification of novel anti-diabetic drug candidates. Methods: EndoC-βH1 was transplanted into mice for validation of in vivo functionality. Insulin secretion was evaluated in cells cultured as monolayer and as pseudoislets, as well as in diabetic mice. Cytokine induced apoptosis, glucolipotoxicity, and ER stress responses were assessed. Beta cell relevant mRNA and protein expression were investigated by qPCR and antibody staining. Hundreds of proteins or peptides were tested for their effect on insulin secretion and proliferation. Results: Transplantation of EndoC-βH1 cells restored normoglycemia in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Both in vitro and in vivo, we observed a clear insulin response to glucose, and, in vitro, we found a significant increase in insulin secretion from EndoC-βH1 pseudoislets compared to monolayer cultures for both glucose and incretins.Apoptosis and ER stress were inducible in the cells and caspase 3/7 activity was elevated in response to cytokines, but not affected by the saturated fatty acid palmitate.By screening of various proteins and peptides, we found Bombesin (BB receptor agonists and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptides (PACAP to significantly induce insulin secretion and the proteins SerpinA6, STC1, and APOH to significantly stimulate proliferation.ER stress was readily induced by Tunicamycin and resulted in a reduction of insulin mRNA. Somatostatin (SST was found to be expressed by 1% of the cells and manipulation of the SST receptors was found to significantly affect insulin secretion. Conclusions: Overall, the EndoC-βH1 cells strongly resemble human islet beta cells in terms of glucose and incretin stimulated

  10. Computational approaches for discovery of common immunomodulators in fungal infections: towards broad-spectrum immunotherapeutic interventions.

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    Kidane, Yared H; Lawrence, Christopher; Murali, T M

    2013-10-07

    Fungi are the second most abundant type of human pathogens. Invasive fungal pathogens are leading causes of life-threatening infections in clinical settings. Toxicity to the host and drug-resistance are two major deleterious issues associated with existing antifungal agents. Increasing a host's tolerance and/or immunity to fungal pathogens has potential to alleviate these problems. A host's tolerance may be improved by modulating the immune system such that it responds more rapidly and robustly in all facets, ranging from the recognition of pathogens to their clearance from the host. An understanding of biological processes and genes that are perturbed during attempted fungal exposure, colonization, and/or invasion will help guide the identification of endogenous immunomodulators and/or small molecules that activate host-immune responses such as specialized adjuvants. In this study, we present computational techniques and approaches using publicly available transcriptional data sets, to predict immunomodulators that may act against multiple fungal pathogens. Our study analyzed data sets derived from host cells exposed to five fungal pathogens, namely, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Pneumocystis jirovecii, and Stachybotrys chartarum. We observed statistically significant associations between host responses to A. fumigatus and C. albicans. Our analysis identified biological processes that were consistently perturbed by these two pathogens. These processes contained both immune response-inducing genes such as MALT1, SERPINE1, ICAM1, and IL8, and immune response-repressing genes such as DUSP8, DUSP6, and SPRED2. We hypothesize that these genes belong to a pool of common immunomodulators that can potentially be activated or suppressed (agonized or antagonized) in order to render the host more tolerant to infections caused by A. fumigatus and C. albicans. Our computational approaches and methodologies described here can now be applied to

  11. The current status and future directions of myxoma virus, a master in immune evasion

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    Spiesschaert Bart

    2011-06-01

    .2. MYXV proteins interfering with leukocyte chemotaxis 4.3. MYXV serpins that inhibit cellular pro-inflammatory or pro-apoptotic proteases 4.4. MYXV proteins that interfere with leukocyte activation 4.5. MYXV proteins with sequence similarity to HIV proteins 4.6. MYXV proteins with unknown immune function 5. Vaccination strategies against myxomatosis 5.1. Current MYXV vaccines 5.2. Vaccination campaigns to protect European rabbits in the wild 6. Applications of myxoma virus for human medicine 6.1. MYXV proteins as therapeutics for allograft vasculopathy and atherosclerosis 6.2. Applications for MYXV as a live oncolytic virus to treat cancer 7. Discussion and Conclusions 8. List of Abbreviations References Author Details Authors' contributions Competing interests Figure Legends Acknowledgements