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Sample records for serotonin system including

  1. Peripheral Serotonin: a New Player in Systemic Energy Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, Jun; Kim, Hail; Park, Sangkyu

    2015-01-01

    Whole body energy balance is achieved through the coordinated regulation of energy intake and energy expenditure in various tissues including liver, muscle and adipose tissues. A positive energy imbalance by excessive energy intake or insufficient energy expenditure results in obesity and related metabolic diseases. Although there have been many obesity treatment trials aimed at the reduction of energy intake, these strategies have achieved only limited success because of their associated adverse effects. An ancient neurotransmitter, serotonin is among those traditional pharmacological targets for anti-obesity treatment because it exhibits strong anorectic effect in the brain. However, recent studies suggest the new functions of peripheral serotonin in energy homeostasis ranging from the endocrine regulation by gut-derived serotonin to the autocrine/paracrine regulation by adipocyte-derived serotonin. Here, we discuss the role of serotonin in the regulation of energy homeostasis and introduce peripheral serotonin as a possible target for anti-obesity treatment. PMID:26628041

  2. Serotonin induces peripheral antinociception via the opioidergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Danielle Aguiar; Petrocchi, Júlia Alvarenga; Navarro, Larissa Caldeira; Souza, Tâmara Cristina; Castor, Marina Gomes Miranda E; Duarte, Igor Dimitri Gama; Romero, Thiago Roberto Lima

    2018-01-01

    Studies conducted since 1969 have shown that the release of serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord contributes to opioid analgesia. In the present study, the participation of the opioidergic system in antinociceptive effect serotonin at the peripheral level was examined. The paw pressure test was used with mice (Swiss, males from 35 g) which had increased pain sensitivity by intraplantar injection of PGE 2 (2 μg). Serotonin (250 ng), administered locally to the right paw of animals, produces antinociception in this model. The selective antagonists for mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors, clocinnamox clocinnamox (40 μg), naltrindole (60 μg) and nor-binaltorfimina (200 μg), respectively, inhibited the antinociceptive effect induced by serotonin. Additionally, bestatin (400 μg), an inhibitor of enkephalinases that degrade peptides opioids, enhanced the antinociceptive effect induced by serotonin (low dose of 62.5 ng). These results suggest that serotonin possibly induce peripheral antinociception through the release of endogenous opioid peptides, possible from immune cells or keratinocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  4. Developmental exposure to fluoxetine modulates the serotonin system in hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Berg

    Full Text Available The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI fluoxetine (FLU, Prozac® is commonly prescribed for depression in pregnant women. This results in SSRI exposure of the developing fetus. However, there are knowledge gaps regarding the impact of SSRI exposure during development. Given the role of serotonin in brain development and its cross-talk with sex hormone function, we investigated effects of developmental exposure to pharmacologically relevant concentrations of FLU (3 and 30 nM (measured on brain neurotransmitter levels, gonadal differentiation, aromatase activity in brain and gonads, and the thyroid system, using the Xenopus tropicalis model. Tadpoles were chronically exposed (8 weeks until metamorphosis. At metamorphosis brains were cryosectioned and levels of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and their metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid were measured in discrete regions (telencephalon, hypothalamus and the reticular formation of the cryosections using high-performance liquid chromatography. Exposure to 30 nM FLU increased the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in hypothalamus compared with controls. FLU exposure did not affect survival, time to metamorphosis, thyroid histology, gonadal sex differentiation, or aromatase activity implying that the effect on the serotonergic neurotransmitter system in the hypothalamus region was specific. The FLU concentration that impacted the serotonin system is lower than the concentration measured in umbilical cord serum, suggesting that the serotonin system of the developing brain is highly sensitive to in utero exposure to FLU. To our knowledge this is the first study showing effects of developmental FLU exposure on brain neurochemistry. Given that SSRIs are present in the aquatic environment the current results warrant further investigation into the neurobehavioral effects of SSRIs in aquatic wildlife.

  5. Type I Interferon-Mediated Skewing of the Serotonin Synthesis Is Associated with Severe Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lood, Christian; Tydén, Helena; Gullstrand, Birgitta; Klint, Cecilia; Wenglén, Christina; Nielsen, Christoffer T.; Heegaard, Niels H. H.; Jönsen, Andreas; Kahn, Robin; Bengtsson, Anders A.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin, a highly pro-inflammatory molecule released by activated platelets, is formed by tryptophan. Tryptophan is also needed in the production of kynurenine, a process mediated by the type I interferon (IFN)-regulated rate-limiting enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). The aim of this study was to investigate levels of serotonin in patients with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), association to clinical phenotype and possible involvement of IDO in regulation of serotonin synthesis. Serotonin levels were measured in serum and plasma from patients with SLE (n=148) and healthy volunteers (n=79) by liquid chromatography and ELISA, as well as intracellularly in platelets by flow cytometry. We found that SLE patients had decreased serotonin levels in serum (p=0.01) and platelets (pserotonin (p=0.0008) as well as increased IDO activity (pserotonin levels in platelets and serum (pserotonin levels were associated with severe SLE with presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies and nephritis. In all, reduced serum serotonin levels in SLE patients were related to severe disease phenotype, including nephritis, suggesting involvement of important immunopathological processes. Further, our data suggest that type I IFNs, present in SLE sera, are able to up-regulate IDO expression, which may lead to decreased serum serotonin levels. PMID:25897671

  6. The serotonin system in autism spectrum disorder: from biomarker to animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Christopher L.; Anacker, Allison M.J.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Elevated whole blood serotonin, or hyperserotonemia, was the first biomarker identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is present in more than 25% of affected children. The serotonin system is a logical candidate for involvement in ASD due to its pleiotropic role across multiple brain systems both dynamically and across development. Tantalizing clues connect this peripheral biomarker with changes in brain and behavior in ASD, but the contribution of the serotonin system to ASD pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. Studies of whole blood serotonin levels in ASD and in a large founder population indicate greater heritability than for the disorder itself and suggest an association with recurrence risk. Emerging data from both neuroimaging and postmortem samples also indicate changes in the brain serotonin system in ASD. Genetic linkage and association studies of both whole blood serotonin levels and of ASD risk point to the chromosomal region containing the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene in males but not in females. In ASD families with evidence of linkage to this region, multiple rare SERT amino acid variants lead to a convergent increase in serotonin uptake in cell models. A knock-in mouse model of one of these variants, SERT Gly56Ala, recapitulates the hyperserotonemia biomarker and shows increased brain serotonin clearance, increased serotonin receptor sensitivity, and altered social, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Data from other rodent models also suggest an important role for the serotonin system in social behavior, in cognitive flexibility, and in sensory development. Recent work indicates that reciprocal interactions between serotonin and other systems, such as oxytocin, may be particularly important for social behavior. Collectively, these data point to the serotonin system as a prime candidate for treatment development in a subgroup of children defined by a robust, heritable biomarker. PMID:26577932

  7. The serotonin system in autism spectrum disorder: from biomarker to animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Christopher L.; Anacker, Allison M.J.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Elevated whole blood serotonin, or hyperserotonemia, was the first biomarker identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is present in more than 25% of affected children. The serotonin system is a logical candidate for involvement in ASD due to its pleiotropic role across multiple brain systems both dynamically and across development. Tantalizing clues connect this peripheral biomarker with changes in brain and behavior in ASD, but the contribution of the serotonin system to ASD pathophy...

  8. Involvement of serotonin system in bullimia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marazziti, D.; Macchi, E.; Rotondo, A.; Placidi, G.F.; Cassano, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Platelet 3 H-imipramine binding was investigated in 8 patients affected by bulimia according to DSM III criteria, and in 7 health volunteers. The Bmax /+ -/SD (fmol/mg protein) was 356 /+ -/ 53 in patients, and 1144 /+ -/ 134 in controls. The Kd /+ -/ SD (nM) was 1.35 /+ -/ 0.44 in patients, and 1.90 /+ -/ 0.72 in controls. There was a significant difference in Bmax values in the two groups, whereas no significant difference was observed in Kd values. This study suggests the possible involvement of the indoleamine system in bullimia

  9. Involvement of serotonin system in bullimia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marazziti, D.; Macchi, E.; Rotondo, A.; Placidi, G.F.; Cassano, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Platelet /sup 3/H-imipramine binding was investigated in 8 patients affected by bulimia according to DSM III criteria, and in 7 health volunteers. The Bmax /+ -/SD (fmol/mg protein) was 356 /+ -/ 53 in patients, and 1144 /+ -/ 134 in controls. The Kd /+ -/ SD (nM) was 1.35 /+ -/ 0.44 in patients, and 1.90 /+ -/ 0.72 in controls. There was a significant difference in Bmax values in the two groups, whereas no significant difference was observed in Kd values. This study suggests the possible involvement of the indoleamine system in bullimia.

  10. Serotonin Receptors in Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Laura Cristina; Rodríguez, Angelina; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin is an ancient molecular signal and a recognized neurotransmitter brainwide distributed with particular presence in hippocampus. Almost all serotonin receptor subtypes are expressed in hippocampus, which implicates an intricate modulating system, considering that they can be localized as autosynaptic, presynaptic, and postsynaptic receptors, even colocalized within the same cell and being target of homo- and heterodimerization. Neurons and glia, including immune cells, integrate a functional network that uses several serotonin receptors to regulate their roles in this particular part of the limbic system. PMID:22629209

  11. New Insights on Different Response of MDMA-Elicited Serotonin Syndrome to Systemic and Intracranial Administrations in the Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Ibrahim M; Callanan, John J; Sousa, John; Tao, Rui

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the fact that systemic administration of MDMA elicits serotonin syndrome, direct intracranial administration fails to reproduce the effect. To reconcile these findings, it has been suggested that the cause of serotonin syndrome is attributed mainly to MDMA hepatic metabolites, and less likely to MDMA itself. Recently, however, this explanation has been challenged, and alternative hypotheses need to be explored. Here, we tested the hypothesis that serotonin syndrome is the result of excessive 5HT simultaneously in many brain areas, while MDMA administered intracranially fails to cause serotonin syndrome because it produces only a localized effect at the delivery site and not to other parts of the brain. This hypothesis was examined using adult male Sprague Dawley rats by comparing 5HT responses in the right and left hemispheric frontal cortices, right and left hemispheric diencephalons, and medullar raphe nucleus. Occurrence of serotonin syndrome was confirmed by measuring change in body temperature. Administration routes included intraperitoneal (IP), intracerebroventricular (ICV) and reverse microdialysis. First, we found that IP administration caused excessive 5HT in all five sites investigated and induced hypothermia, suggesting the development of the serotonin syndrome. In contrast, ICV and reverse microdialysis caused excessive 5HT only in regions of delivery sites without changes in body-core temperature, suggesting the absence of the syndrome. Next, chemical dyes were used to trace differences in distribution and diffusion patterns between administration routes. After systemic administration, the dyes were found to be evenly distributed in the brain. However, the dyes administered through ICV or reverse microdialysis injection still remained in the delivery sites, poorly diffusing to the brain. In conclusion, intracranial MDMA administration in one area has no or little effect on other areas, which must be considered a plausible reason for the

  12. New Insights on Different Response of MDMA-Elicited Serotonin Syndrome to Systemic and Intracranial Administrations in the Rat Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Shokry

    Full Text Available In spite of the fact that systemic administration of MDMA elicits serotonin syndrome, direct intracranial administration fails to reproduce the effect. To reconcile these findings, it has been suggested that the cause of serotonin syndrome is attributed mainly to MDMA hepatic metabolites, and less likely to MDMA itself. Recently, however, this explanation has been challenged, and alternative hypotheses need to be explored. Here, we tested the hypothesis that serotonin syndrome is the result of excessive 5HT simultaneously in many brain areas, while MDMA administered intracranially fails to cause serotonin syndrome because it produces only a localized effect at the delivery site and not to other parts of the brain. This hypothesis was examined using adult male Sprague Dawley rats by comparing 5HT responses in the right and left hemispheric frontal cortices, right and left hemispheric diencephalons, and medullar raphe nucleus. Occurrence of serotonin syndrome was confirmed by measuring change in body temperature. Administration routes included intraperitoneal (IP, intracerebroventricular (ICV and reverse microdialysis. First, we found that IP administration caused excessive 5HT in all five sites investigated and induced hypothermia, suggesting the development of the serotonin syndrome. In contrast, ICV and reverse microdialysis caused excessive 5HT only in regions of delivery sites without changes in body-core temperature, suggesting the absence of the syndrome. Next, chemical dyes were used to trace differences in distribution and diffusion patterns between administration routes. After systemic administration, the dyes were found to be evenly distributed in the brain. However, the dyes administered through ICV or reverse microdialysis injection still remained in the delivery sites, poorly diffusing to the brain. In conclusion, intracranial MDMA administration in one area has no or little effect on other areas, which must be considered a plausible

  13. Antidepressant activity of curcumin: involvement of serotonin and dopamine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas K; Bhutani, Mohit Kumar; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2008-12-01

    Curcumin is a major active principle of Curcuma longa, one of the widely used preparations in the Indian system of medicine. It is known for its diverse biological actions. The present study was designed to investigate the involvement of monoaminergic system(s) in the antidepressant activity of curcumin and the effect of piperine, a bioavailability enhancer, on the bioavailability and biological effects of curcumin. Behavioral (forced swim test), biochemical (monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme inhibitory activity), and neurochemical (neurotransmitter levels estimation) tests were carried out. Curcumin (10-80 mg/kg, i.p.) dose dependently inhibited the immobility period, increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) as well as dopamine levels (at higher doses), and inhibited the monoamine oxidase enzymes (both MAO-A and MAO-B, higher doses) in mice. Curcumin (20 mg/kg, i.p.) enhanced the anti-immobility effect of subthreshold doses of various antidepressant drugs like fluoxetine, venlafaxine, or bupropion. However, no significant change in the anti-immobility effect of imipramine and desipramine was observed. Furthermore, combination of subthreshold dose of curcumin and various antidepressant drugs resulted in synergistic increase in serotonin (5-HT) levels as compared to their effect per se. There was no change in the norepinephrine levels. The coadministration of piperine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a bioavailability enhancing agent, with curcumin (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in potentiation of pharmacological, biochemical, and neurochemical activities. The study provides evidences for mechanism-based antidepressant actions of curcumin. The coadministration of curcumin along with piperine may prove to be a useful and potent natural antidepressant approach in the management of depression.

  14. The serotonin-lir nervous system of the Bryozoa (Lophotrochozoa): a general pattern in the Gymnolaemata and implications for lophophore evolution of the phylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaha, Thomas F; Wanninger, Andreas

    2015-10-14

    Serotonin represents an evolutionary ancient neurotransmitter that is ubiquitously found among animals including the lophotrochozoan phylum Bryozoa, a group of colonial filter-feeders. Comparatively little is known on their nervous system, and data on their serotonin-lir nervous system currently are mostly limited to the basal phylactolaemates. Previous investigations indicated a common ground-pattern of the serotonin-lir nervous system in these animals, but in order to assess this on a larger scale, 21 gymnolaemate species from 21 genera were comparatively analysed herein. Twenty-one species from 21 gymnolaemate genera were analysed by immunocytochemical stainings and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In all species the serotonin-lir signal is concentrated in the cerebral ganglion from where a nerve tract emanates laterally and traverses orally to engulf the foregut. Serotonin-lir perikarya are situated at the base of the tentacles that almost always correspond to the number of tentacles minus two. The oral side in almost all species shows three serotonin-lir perikarya followed by a 'serotonergic gap' that to our knowledge is not reflected in the morphology of the nervous system. Some species show additional serotonin-lir signal in tentacle nerves, visceral innervation and pore complexes. Paludicella articulata is exceptional as it shows signal in the latero-visceral nerves with serotonin-lir perikarya in the esophagus, parts of the tentacle sheath nerves as well as the frontal body wall around the parietal muscle bundles. In general, the serotonin-lir nervous system in the Bryozoa shows a consistent pattern among its different clades with few deviations. Preliminary data on phylactolaemates suggest the presence of a 'serotonergic gap' similar to gymnolaemates. Both show a subset of oral tentacles and the remaining tentacles in gymnolaemates which correspond to the lateral tentacles of phylactolaemates. The lophophoral concavity lacks serotonin-lir perikarya

  15. Effect of radiation and serotonin treatment on serotoninergic system of mouse fetal mesencephalon and diencophalon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapronova, A.Ya.; Proshlyakova, E.V.; Konstantinova, M.M.; Panaeva, S.V.; Podmareva, O.N.; Voronova, S.N.; Ugryumov, M.V.; Turpaev, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    Effect of radiation and introduction of serotonin before and after irradiation in the critical period of nervous system development on functional state of serotoninergic system of the mice marrow by the moment of their birth was determined. The revealed radioprotective effect of serotonin and its therapeutic effect after irradiation show that these effects are not conditioned by changes in the functional state of the serotoninergic system of the average and intermediate marrow of the mice fetus

  16. Serotonin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperserotonemia; Serotonergic syndrome; Serotonin toxicity; SSRI - serotonin syndrome; MAO - serotonin syndrome ... brain area. For example, you can develop this syndrome if you take migraine medicines called triptans together ...

  17. APRESS: apical regulatory super system, serotonin, and dopamine interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc, Cape Coral, FL, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA; 3DBS Labs, Duluth, MN, USABackground: The monoamines serotonin and dopamine are known to exist in two separate states: the endogenous state and the competitive inhibition state. The presence of the competitive inhibition state has been known to science for many years, but from a functional standpoint it has been noted in the literature as being "meaningless."Methods: A large database of monoamine transporter response to amino acid precursor administration variations with clinical outcomes was accumulated. In the process, a new organic cation transporter (OCT model has been published, and OCT functional status determination along with amino acid precursor manipulation methods have been invented and refined.Results: Methodology was developed whereby manipulation of the OCT, in the competitive inhibition state, is carried out in a predictable manner. This, in turn, has disproved the long-held assertion that the monoamine competitive inhibition state is functionally meaningless.Conclusion: The most significant aspect of this paper is the documentation of newly recognized relationships between serotonin and dopamine. When transport of serotonin and dopamine are both in the competitive inhibition state, manipulation of the concentrations of one will lead to predictable changes in concentrations of the other. From a functional standpoint, processes regulated and controlled by changes to only serotonin can now be controlled by changes to dopamine, and vice versa, in a predictable manner.Keywords: catecholamine, monoamine, competitive inhibition state

  18. [Specific aspects of thrombocyte system of serotonin in patients with different manifestations of schizoaffective psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusov, O S; Dikaia, V I; Zlobina, G P; Faktor, M I; Pavlova, O A; Bologov, P V; Korenev, A N

    2000-01-01

    45 women with different manifestations of schizoaffective psychosis (SAP) were examined. The diagnosis corresponded to ICD-10 (F25). According to the classification elaborated in Mental Health Research Centre of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, groups of patients were identified with different variants of the psychoses course: a nuclear SAP type; a borderline SAP variation with phasic-recurrent course; SAP with progredient variation (schizoaffective variation of schizophrenia). The patients were examined both during the attack and remission. A rate of serotonine uptake (Vmax) in blood platelets, a specific imipramine binding (Bmax) and the level of serotonin in blood platelets were evaluated. It was found that dynamics of both Vmax and the level of serotonin in different SAP types were different, that was related to clinical and biological SAP heterogeneity. A tendency to decreasing of serotonin system functional activity was found in progredient SAP variations, especially during the remission, which was of low quality in these cases. On the contrary, in the borderline variations the indices of the decreased function of serotonin system corresponded well to those of acute psychosis. In nuclear type--a type with the most favourable course of psychosis--any significant changes weren't revealed as compared with the normal parameters.

  19. Mapping neurotransmitter networks with PET: an example on serotonin and opioid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Lauri; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Hietala, Jarmo

    2014-05-01

    All functions of the human brain are consequences of altered activity of specific neural pathways and neurotransmitter systems. Although the knowledge of "system level" connectivity in the brain is increasing rapidly, we lack "molecular level" information on brain networks and connectivity patterns. We introduce novel voxel-based positron emission tomography (PET) methods for studying internal neurotransmitter network structure and intercorrelations of different neurotransmitter systems in the human brain. We chose serotonin transporter and μ-opioid receptor for this analysis because of their functional interaction at the cellular level and similar regional distribution in the brain. Twenty-one healthy subjects underwent two consecutive PET scans using [(11)C]MADAM, a serotonin transporter tracer, and [(11)C]carfentanil, a μ-opioid receptor tracer. First, voxel-by-voxel "intracorrelations" (hub and seed analyses) were used to study the internal structure of opioid and serotonin systems. Second, voxel-level opioid-serotonin intercorrelations (between neurotransmitters) were computed. Regional μ-opioid receptor binding potentials were uniformly correlated throughout the brain. However, our analyses revealed nonuniformity in the serotonin transporter intracorrelations and identified a highly connected local network (midbrain-striatum-thalamus-amygdala). Regionally specific intercorrelations between the opioid and serotonin tracers were found in anteromedial thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parietal cortex, i.e., in areas relevant for several neuropsychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders. This methodology enables in vivo mapping of connectivity patterns within and between neurotransmitter systems. Quantification of functional neurotransmitter balances may be a useful approach in etiological studies of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in drug development as a biomarker-based rationale for targeted

  20. Adrenaline and serotonin therapeutic effect on the hemopoietic system of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, I.B.; Dontsova, G.V.; Rakhmanina, O.N.; Konstantinova, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Post-irradiation effect of adrenaline and serotonin on the hemopoietic system of irradiated mice has been studied. The pharmaceuticals were injected subcutaneously 15 minutes before the X-radiation exposure at a dose of 7 Gy or immediately after it. The degree of radiation injury has been estimated from 30-day survival fraction of the animals, cell state of the bone marrow, mass of spleen, cfu quantity in the bone marrow at exo- and endocolonial growth (following implantation of bone marrow cells from mice that had been injected with these drugs to irradiated recipients). Post-irradiation effect of adrenaline turned to be weaker than that of serotonin, the latter increasing the survival rate of irradiated mice to 50%. It is stated that post-irradiation therapeutic effect of adrenaline and serotonin expressed in acceleration of the irradiated hemopoietic tissue repair can be realized under direct effect of drugs on the viable hemopoietic cells, probably, by enchancement of their proliferation

  1. Antidepressant effects of insulin in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice: Modulation of brain serotonin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepali; Kurhe, Yeshwant; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh

    2014-04-22

    Diabetes is a persistent metabolic disorder, which often leads to depression as a result of the impaired neurotransmitter function. Insulin is believed to have antidepressant effects in depression associated with diabetes; however, the mechanism underlying the postulated effect is poorly understood. In the present study, it is hypothesized that insulin mediates an antidepressant effect in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in mice through modulation of the serotonin system in the brain. Therefore, the current study investigated the antidepressant effect of insulin in STZ induced diabetes in mice and insulin mediated modulation in the brain serotonin system. In addition, the possible pathways that lead to altered serotonin levels as a result of insulin administration were examined. Experimentally, Swiss albino mice of either sex were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ. After one week, diabetic mice received a single dose of either insulin or saline or escitalopram for 14days. Thereafter, behavioral studies were conducted to test the behavioral despair effects using forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), followed by biochemical estimations of serotonin concentrations and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in the whole brain content. The results demonstrated that, STZ treated diabetic mice exhibited an increased duration of immobility in FST and TST as compared to non-diabetic mice, while insulin treatment significantly reversed the effect. Biochemical assays revealed that administration of insulin attenuated STZ treated diabetes induced neurochemical alterations as indicated by elevated serotonin levels and decreased MAO-A and MAO-B activities in the brain. Collectively, the data indicate that insulin exhibits antidepressant effects in depression associated with STZ induced diabetes in mice through the elevation of the brain serotonin levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Endogenous nociceptin level in ischemic stroke: connection to serotonin system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, Kornélia; Hantos, Mónika; Bátor, György; Gyenge, Melinda; Laufer, Rudolf; Folyovich, András

    2006-06-01

    Particular role of the heptadecapeptide nociceptin (orphanin FQ), the endogenous agonist of the NOP receptor, has been widely demonstrated in the regulation of pain sensation and anxiety-related behavior. In our best knowledge this is the first study reporting plasma nociceptin levels in 26 acute stroke and 6 transiens ischemic attack (TIA) patients. We have found significantly elevated plasma nociceptin levels in all the three groups of patients studied (stroke influencing the carotis or the lacunar region and TIA). We suggest that elevated plasma nociceptin level is the consequence of stroke as in the group of patients recovered from previous stroke was found similar the control value. Plasma serotonin level was found non-significantly decreased in patients with stroke influencing the lacunar region and TIA patients. However the plasma 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5HIAA) levels were found significantly elevated in patient groups with stroke influencing both the carotis and the lacunar regions. Data may serve as further evidence for the serotonergic dysregulation in stroke.

  3. An Exploration of the Serotonin System in Antisocial Boys with High Levels of Callous-Unemotional Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moul, Caroline; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Brennan, John; Hawes, David; Dadds, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background The serotonin system is thought to play a role in the aetiology of antisocial and aggressive behaviour in both adults and children however previous findings have been inconsistent. Recently, research has suggested that the function of the serotonin system may be specifically altered in a sub-set of antisocial populations – those with psychopathic (callous-unemotional) personality traits. We explored the relationships between callous-unemotional traits and functional polymorphisms of selected serotonin-system genes, and tested the association between callous-unemotional traits and serum serotonin levels independently of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Method Participants were boys with antisocial behaviour problems aged 3–16 years referred to University of New South Wales Child Behaviour Research Clinics. Participants volunteered either a blood or saliva sample from which levels of serum serotonin (N = 66) and/or serotonin-system single nucleotide polymorphisms (N = 157) were assayed. Results Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms from the serotonin 1b receptor gene (HTR1B) and 2a receptor gene (HTR2A) were found to be associated with callous-unemotional traits. Serum serotonin level was a significant predictor of callous-unemotional traits; levels were significantly lower in boys with high callous-unemotional traits than in boys with low callous-unemotional traits. Conclusion Results provide support to the emerging literature that argues for a genetically-driven system-wide alteration in serotonin function in the aetiology of callous-unemotional traits. The findings should be interpreted as preliminary and future research that aims to replicate and further investigate these results is required. PMID:23457595

  4. A High-Resolution In Vivo Atlas of the Human Brain's Serotonin System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Ganz-Benjaminsen, Melanie; Feng, Ling

    2017-01-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system modulates many important brain functions and is critically involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a high-resolution, multidimensional, in vivo atlas of four of the human brain's 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4...... with postmortem human brain autoradiography outcomes showed a high correlation for the five 5-HT targets and this enabled us to transform the atlas to represent protein densities (in picomoles per milliliter). We also assessed the regional association between protein concentration and mRNA expression in the human...... brain by comparing the 5-HT density across the atlas with data from the Allen Human Brain atlas and identified receptor- and transporter-specific associations that show the regional relation between the two measures. Together, these data provide unparalleled insight into the serotonin system...

  5. Voltammetric and Mathematical Evidence for Dual Transport Mediation of Serotonin Clearance In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kevin M.; Zeqja, Anisa; Nijhout, H. Frederik; Reed, Michael C.; Best, Janet; Hashemi, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin underlies many of the brain’s functions. Understanding serotonin neurochemistry is important for improving treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Antidepressants commonly target serotonin clearance via serotonin transporters (SERTs) and have variable clinical effects. Adjunctive therapies, targeting other systems including serotonin autoreceptors, also vary clinically and carry adverse consequences. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is particularly well suited for studying antidepressant effects on serotonin clearance and autoreceptors by providing real-time chemical information on serotonin kinetics in vivo. However, the complex nature of in vivo serotonin responses makes it difficult to interpret experimental data with established kinetic models. Here, we electrically stimulated the mouse medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to provoke and detect terminal serotonin in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr). In response to MFB stimulation we found three dynamically distinct serotonin signals. To interpret these signals we developed a computational model that supports two independent serotonin reuptake mechanisms (high affinity, low efficiency reuptake mechanism and low affinity, high efficiency reuptake system) and bolsters an important inhibitory role for the serotonin autoreceptors. Our data and analysis, afforded by the powerful combination of voltammetric and theoretical methods, gives new understanding of the chemical heterogeneity of serotonin dynamics in the brain. This diverse serotonergic matrix likely contributes to clinical variability of antidepressants. PMID:24702305

  6. Analysis of microdialysate monoamines, including noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, using capillary ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Barbara; Gifu, Elena-Patricia; Sandu, Ioana; Denoroy, Luc; Parrot, Sandrine

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical methods are very often used to detect catecholamine and indolamine neurotransmitters separated by conventional reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The present paper presents the development of a chromatographic method to detect monoamines present in low-volume brain dialysis samples using a capillary column filled with sub-2μm particles. Several parameters (repeatability, linearity, accuracy, limit of detection) for this new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method with electrochemical detection were examined after optimization of the analytical conditions. Noradrenaline, adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and its metabolite 3-methoxytyramine were separated in 1μL of injected sample volume; they were detected above concentrations of 0.5-1nmol/L, with 2.1-9.5% accuracy and intra-assay repeatability equal to or less than 6%. The final method was applied to very low volume dialysates from rat brain containing monoamine traces. The study demonstrates that capillary UHPLC with electrochemical detection is suitable for monitoring dialysate monoamines collected at high sampling rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Immune System Activation and Depression: Roles of Serotonin in the Central Nervous System and Periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Matthew J; Quinlan, Meagan A; Blakely, Randy D

    2017-05-17

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has long been recognized as a key contributor to the regulation of mood and anxiety and is strongly associated with the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Although more known for its roles within the central nervous system (CNS), 5-HT is recognized to modulate several key aspects of immune system function that may contribute to the development of MDD. Copious amounts of research have outlined a connection between alterations in immune system function, inflammation status, and MDD. Supporting this connection, peripheral immune activation results in changes in the function and/or expression of many components of 5-HT signaling that are associated with depressive-like phenotypes. How 5-HT is utilized by the immune system to effect CNS function and ultimately behaviors related to depression is still not well understood. This Review summarizes the evidence that immune system alterations related to depression affect CNS 5-HT signaling that can alter MDD-relevant behaviors and that 5-HT regulates immune system signaling within the CNS and periphery. We suggest that targeting the interrelationships between immune and 5-HT signaling may provide more effective treatments for subsets of those suffering from inflammation-associated MDD.

  8. Serotonin synthesis, release and reuptake in terminals: a mathematical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Best Janet

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that has been linked to a wide variety of behaviors including feeding and body-weight regulation, social hierarchies, aggression and suicidality, obsessive compulsive disorder, alcoholism, anxiety, and affective disorders. Full understanding of serotonergic systems in the central nervous system involves genomics, neurochemistry, electrophysiology, and behavior. Though associations have been found between functions at these different levels, in most cases the causal mechanisms are unknown. The scientific issues are daunting but important for human health because of the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other pharmacological agents to treat disorders in the serotonergic signaling system. Methods We construct a mathematical model of serotonin synthesis, release, and reuptake in a single serotonergic neuron terminal. The model includes the effects of autoreceptors, the transport of tryptophan into the terminal, and the metabolism of serotonin, as well as the dependence of release on the firing rate. The model is based on real physiology determined experimentally and is compared to experimental data. Results We compare the variations in serotonin and dopamine synthesis due to meals and find that dopamine synthesis is insensitive to the availability of tyrosine but serotonin synthesis is sensitive to the availability of tryptophan. We conduct in silico experiments on the clearance of extracellular serotonin, normally and in the presence of fluoxetine, and compare to experimental data. We study the effects of various polymorphisms in the genes for the serotonin transporter and for tryptophan hydroxylase on synthesis, release, and reuptake. We find that, because of the homeostatic feedback mechanisms of the autoreceptors, the polymorphisms have smaller effects than one expects. We compute the expected steady concentrations of serotonin transporter knockout mice and compare to

  9. Multi-Scale Molecular Deconstruction of the Serotonin Neuron System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaty, Benjamin W; Freret, Morgan E; Rood, Benjamin D; Brust, Rachael D; Hennessy, Morgan L; deBairos, Danielle; Kim, Jun Chul; Cook, Melloni N; Dymecki, Susan M

    2015-11-18

    Serotonergic (5HT) neurons modulate diverse behaviors and physiology and are implicated in distinct clinical disorders. Corresponding diversity in 5HT neuronal phenotypes is becoming apparent and is likely rooted in molecular differences, yet a comprehensive approach characterizing molecular variation across the 5HT system is lacking, as is concomitant linkage to cellular phenotypes. Here we combine intersectional fate mapping, neuron sorting, and genome-wide RNA-seq to deconstruct the mouse 5HT system at multiple levels of granularity-from anatomy, to genetic sublineages, to single neurons. Our unbiased analyses reveal principles underlying system organization, 5HT neuron subtypes, constellations of differentially expressed genes distinguishing subtypes, and predictions of subtype-specific functions. Using electrophysiology, subtype-specific neuron silencing, and conditional gene knockout, we show that these molecularly defined 5HT neuron subtypes are functionally distinct. Collectively, this resource classifies molecular diversity across the 5HT system and discovers sertonergic subtypes, markers, organizing principles, and subtype-specific functions with potential disease relevance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lack of association of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, including rs25531 with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Bagger, Yu; Tanko, Laszlo B

    2009-01-01

    We addressed the question whether 5-HTTLPR, a variable number of tandem repeats located in the 5' end of the serotonin transporter gene, is associated with smoking or alcohol consumption. Samples of DNA from 1,365 elderly women with a mean age of 69.2 years were genotyped for this polymorphism...... using a procedure, which allowed the simultaneous determination of variation in the number of repeat units and single nucleotide changes, including the A > G variation at rs25531 for discrimination between the L(A) and L(G) alleles. Qualitative and quantitative information on the women's current...... and previous consumption of cigarettes and alcohol were obtained using a questionnaire. Genotypes were classified according to allele size, that is, S and L with 14 and 16 repeat units, respectively, and on a functional basis by amalgamation of the L(G) and S alleles. Data were subjected to regression analyses...

  11. A High-Resolution In Vivo Atlas of the Human Brain's Serotonin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Ganz, Melanie; Feng, Ling; Ozenne, Brice; Højgaard, Liselotte; Fisher, Patrick M; Svarer, Claus; Greve, Douglas N; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-01-04

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system modulates many important brain functions and is critically involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a high-resolution, multidimensional, in vivo atlas of four of the human brain's 5-HT receptors (5-HT 1A , 5-HT 1B , 5-HT 2A , and 5-HT 4 ) and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT). The atlas is created from molecular and structural high-resolution neuroimaging data consisting of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired in a total of 210 healthy individuals. Comparison of the regional PET binding measures with postmortem human brain autoradiography outcomes showed a high correlation for the five 5-HT targets and this enabled us to transform the atlas to represent protein densities (in picomoles per milliliter). We also assessed the regional association between protein concentration and mRNA expression in the human brain by comparing the 5-HT density across the atlas with data from the Allen Human Brain atlas and identified receptor- and transporter-specific associations that show the regional relation between the two measures. Together, these data provide unparalleled insight into the serotonin system of the human brain. We present a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET)- and magnetic resonance imaging-based human brain atlas of important serotonin receptors and the transporter. The regional PET-derived binding measures correlate strongly with the corresponding autoradiography protein levels. The strong correlation enables the transformation of the PET-derived human brain atlas into a protein density map of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Next, we compared the regional receptor/transporter protein densities with mRNA levels and uncovered unique associations between protein expression and density at high detail. This new in vivo neuroimaging atlas of the 5-HT system not only provides insight in the human brain's regional protein

  12. Serotonin and Blood Pressure Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barman, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) was discovered more than 60 years ago as a substance isolated from blood. The neural effects of 5-HT have been well investigated and understood, thanks in part to the pharmacological tools available to dissect the serotonergic system and the development of the frequently prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. By contrast, our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the control and modification of blood pressure pales in comparison. Here we focus on the role of 5-HT in systemic blood pressure control. This review provides an in-depth study of the function and pharmacology of 5-HT in those tissues that can modify blood pressure (blood, vasculature, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, brain), with a focus on the autonomic nervous system that includes mechanisms of action and pharmacology of 5-HT within each system. We compare the change in blood pressure produced in different species by short- and long-term administration of 5-HT or selective serotonin receptor agonists. To further our understanding of the mechanisms through which 5-HT modifies blood pressure, we also describe the blood pressure effects of commonly used drugs that modify the actions of 5-HT. The pharmacology and physiological actions of 5-HT in modifying blood pressure are important, given its involvement in circulatory shock, orthostatic hypotension, serotonin syndrome and hypertension. PMID:22407614

  13. Oxytocin effects on emotional response to others' faces via serotonin system in autism: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Mina; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Yoshimura, Yuko; Miyagishi, Yoshiaki; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Yokokura, Masamichi; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Bunai, Tomoyasu; Minabe, Yoshio

    2017-09-30

    The oxytocin (OT)-related serotonergic system is thought to play an important role in the etiology and social symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, no evidence exists for the relation between the prosocial effect of chronic OT administration and the brain serotonergic system. Ten male subjects with ASD were administered OT for 8-10 weeks in an open-label, single-arm, non-randomized, uncontrolled manner. Before and during the OT treatment, positron emission tomography was used with the ( 11 C)-3-amino-4-(2-[(demethylamino)methyl]phenylthio)benzonitrile( 11 C-DASB) radiotracer. Then binding of serotonin transporter ( 11 C-DASB BP ND ) was estimated. The main outcome measures were changes in 11 C-DASB BP ND and changes in the emotional response to others' faces. No significant change was found in the emotional response to others' faces after the 8-10 week OT treatment. However, the increased serotonin transporter (SERT) level in the striatum after treatment was correlated significantly with increased negative emotional response to human faces. This study revealed a relation between changes in the serotonergic system and in prosociality after chronic OT administration. Additional studies must be conducted to verify the chronic OT effects on social behavior via the serotonergic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Serotonin-immunoreactivity in the ventral nerve cord of Pycnogonida--support for individually identifiable neurons as ancestral feature of the arthropod nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2015-07-10

    The arthropod ventral nerve cord features a comparably low number of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons, occurring in segmentally repeated arrays. In different crustaceans and hexapods, these neurons have been individually identified and even inter-specifically homologized, based on their soma positions and neurite morphologies. Stereotypic sets of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons are also present in myriapods, whereas in the investigated chelicerates segmental neuron clusters with higher and variable cell numbers have been reported. This led to the suggestion that individually identifiable serotonin-immunoreactive neurons are an apomorphic feature of the Mandibulata. To test the validity of this neurophylogenetic hypothesis, we studied serotonin-immunoreactivity in three species of Pycnogonida (sea spiders). This group of marine arthropods is nowadays most plausibly resolved as sister group to all other extant chelicerates, rendering its investigation crucial for a reliable reconstruction of arthropod nervous system evolution. In all three investigated pycnogonids, the ventral walking leg ganglia contain different types of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons, the somata of which occurring mostly singly or in pairs within the ganglionic cortex. Several of these neurons are readily and consistently identifiable due to their stereotypic soma position and characteristic neurite morphology. They can be clearly homologized across different ganglia and different specimens as well as across the three species. Based on these homologous neurons, we reconstruct for their last common ancestor (presumably the pycnogonid stem species) a minimal repertoire of at least seven identified serotonin-immunoreactive neurons per hemiganglion. Beyond that, each studied species features specific pattern variations, which include also some neurons that were not reliably labeled in all specimens. Our results unequivocally demonstrate the presence of individually identifiable serotonin

  15. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  16. [Effect of nociceptin on histamine and serotonin release in the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, Melinda; Hantos, Mónika; Laufer, Rudolf; Tekes, Korniléa

    2006-01-01

    Role in pain sensation of both nociceptin (NC), the bioactive heptadecapeptide sequence of preproorphaninFQ and of histamine has been widely evidenced in the central nervous system (CNS). In the current series of experiments effect of intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered NC (5.5 nmol/rat) on histamine and serotonin levels in blood plasma, CSF and brain areas (hypothalamus and hippocampus) was studies and compared to the effect of the mast cell degranulator Compound 48/80(100microg/kg, i.c.v.) and the neuroactive peptide Substance P (50nmol/rat, i.c.v.). It was found that all the three compounds increased the histamine level in the CNS, however their activity concerning the mast cell-, and neuronal histamine release is different. NC could release histamine from both the mast cells and the neurons and it decreased CNS serotonin levels. Substance P was found the most potent in increasing CNS histamine levels. Compound 48/80 treatment resulted in elevated histamine levels both in the CNS and blood plasma. It is concluded that the histamine releasing effects of i.c.v. administered NC and SP are limited to the CNS, but in the effect of Compound 48/80 its blood-brain barrier impairing activity is also involved. Data also demonstrate that NC has significant effect on both the histaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the CNS.

  17. Location and function of serotonin in the central and peripheral nervous system of the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeften, van T.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis we have localized serotoninergic neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata by means of immunohistochemistry with a specific antiserurn to serotonin and assessed the possible role of these

  18. Immunohistological localization of serotonin in the CNS and feeding system of the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), plays critical roles as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that control or modulate many behaviors in insects, such as feeding. Neurons immunoreactive (IR)to 5-HT were detected in the central nervous system (CNS) of the larval and adult stages of the stab...

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of 99mTc serotonin for central nervous system (CNS) receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geetha, R.; Ghodke, A.S.; Sachdev, S.S.; Sivaprasad, N.

    2001-01-01

    Serotonin was directly radiolabelled with 99m Tc. The complex was not very stable. Therefore, a conjugate of serotonin, cDTPAA (cyclic anhydride of diethylene triamine penta acetic acid) was prepared and characterised using IR. It was then radiolabelled with 99m Tc using stannous chloride as the reducing agent. The radiochemical purity as determined by paper chromatography was more than 80%. (author)

  20. Serotonin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... microscope. (For more, see the article on Anatomic Pathology .) See More Common Questions See Less Common Questions ... tumor. Accessed December 2010. Vorvick, L. (Updated 2009 March 14). Serum serotonin level. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On- ...

  1. Systems Biology Genetic Approach Identifies Serotonin Pathway as a Possible Target for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Results from a Literature Search Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Jagannathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Overall validity of existing genetic biomarkers in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA remains unclear. The objective of this systematic genetic study is to identify “novel” biomarkers for OSA using systems biology approach. Methods. Candidate genes for OSA were extracted from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase search engines and DisGeNET database. The gene ontology (GO analyses and candidate genes prioritization were performed using Enrichr tool. Genes pertaining to the top 10 pathways were extracted and used for Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results. In total, we have identified 153 genes. The top 10 pathways associated with OSA include (i serotonin receptor interaction, (ii pathways in cancer, (iii AGE-RAGE signaling in diabetes, (iv infectious diseases, (v serotonergic synapse, (vi inflammatory bowel disease, (vii HIF-1 signaling pathway, (viii PI3-AKT signaling pathway, (ix regulation lipolysis in adipocytes, and (x rheumatoid arthritis. After removing the overlapping genes, we have identified 23 candidate genes, out of which >30% of the genes were related to the genes involved in the serotonin pathway. Among these 4 serotonin receptors SLC6A4, HTR2C, HTR2A, and HTR1B were strongly associated with OSA. Conclusions. This preliminary report identifies several potential candidate genes associated with OSA and also describes the possible regulatory mechanisms.

  2. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  3. Providing straw to allow exploratory behaviour in a pig experimental system does not modify putative indicators of positive welfare: peripheral oxytocin and serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet Rius, M; Cozzi, A; Bienboire-Frosini, C; Teruel, E; Chabaud, C; Monneret, P; Leclercq, J; Lafont-Lecuelle, C; Pageat, P

    2018-01-22

    Numerous studies have shown that providing straw to pigs can reduce undesirable behaviours such as aggression, tail biting and stereotypy. The measurement of various neuromodulators can be helpful in assessing the development of positive behaviours and overall animal welfare. The oxytocin release is frequently linked to positive emotions and positive welfare. It has been suggested that oxytocin modulates the serotoninergic system. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of straw provision in pigs on peripheral levels of oxytocin and serotonin. In total, 18 mini-pigs were involved in an exploratory study conducted in two parallel groups, Enriched (n=10) and Control (n=8) groups. Pigs were divided by group and housed in pens of two individuals. Straw was provided continuously only in Enriched group and renewed each day for 2 weeks. Two blood samples were drawn from each animal 5 to 10 min before providing the straw, and 15 min after providing straw, during the 1st week, to analyse peripheral changes in oxytocin and serotonin before and after straw provision, and determine the existence of a putative short-term effect. The same procedure was carried out for Control group, without straw provision. Long-term effects of straw provision were also examined using blood samples drawn at the same hour from each animal in the 2nd and 3rd weeks. During this time, animals had the permanent possibility to explore the straw in Enriched group but not in Control group. At the end of each week, one animal-keeper completed two visual analogue scales for each mini-pig regarding the difficulty/ease to work with and handle it and its trust in humans. Results showed peripheral oxytocin increases in both groups after 2 weeks (P=0.02). Results did not demonstrate any effect of providing straw to allow exploratory behaviour on peripheral serotonin. Other results were not significant. This preliminary study explored the relationship between peripheral oxytocin and serotonin and

  4. Food choice in hyperthyroidism: potential influence of the autonomic nervous system and brain serotonin precursor availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl, H; de Meijer, P H; Langius, J; Coenegracht, C I; van den Berk, A H; Chandie Shaw, P K; Boom, H; Schoemaker, R C; Cohen, A F; Burggraaf, J; Meinders, A E

    2001-12-01

    We explored energy and macronutrient intake in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. We specifically hypothesized that hyperthyroidism is associated with increased appetite for carbohydrates, because of enhanced sympathetic tone and diminished serotonin mediated neurotransmission in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we measured food intake by dietary history and food selected for lunch in the laboratory in 14 patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Twenty-four-hour catecholamine excretion was used as a measure of activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the plasma [Trp]/[NAA] ratio was measured to estimate (rate limiting) precursor availability for brain 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis. All measurements were repeated after the subjects had been treated to establish euthyroidism. In addition, the effects of nonselective beta-adrenoceptor blockade upon these parameters were studied to evaluate the influence of beta-adrenergic hyperactivity on food intake. Hyperthyroidism was marked by increased SNS activity and reduced plasma [Trp]/[NAA] ratio. Accordingly, energy intake was considerably and significantly increased in hyper vs. euthyroidism, which was fully attributable to enhanced carbohydrate consumption, as protein and fat intake were not affected. These results suggest that hyperthyroidism alters the neurophysiology of food intake regulation. Increased SNS activity and reduced Trp precursor availability for 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in the brain may drive the marked hyperphagia and craving for carbohydrates that appears to characterize hyperthyroid patients. Because propranolol did not affect food intake in hyperthyroidism, the potential effect of catecholamines on food intake might be mediated by alpha-adrenoceptors.

  5. Selective decrease in central nervous system serotonin turnover in children with dopa-nonresponsive dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Birgit; Köhler, Martin; Hoffmann, Georg F; Heales, Simon; Surtees, Robert

    2002-07-01

    Childhood dystonia that does not respond to treatment with levodopa (dopa-nonresponsive dystonia, DND) has an unclear pathogenesis and is notoriously difficult to treat. To test the hypothesis that there may be abnormalities in serotonin turnover in DND we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of homovanillic (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic (HIAA) acids, metabolites of dopamine and serotonin, respectively, in 18 children with dystonia not responsive to levodopa. These were combined with a reference population of 85 children with neurologic or metabolic disease known not to affect dopamine or serotonin metabolism. Because of the known natural age-related decrement in HVA and HIAA concentrations, the results were analyzed using multiple regression using age and DND as predictors of CSF HIAA and HVA concentrations. DND was a highly significant predictor of CSF HIAA concentration (p model, the geometric mean ratio of CSF HIAA in DND compared with the reference range was 0.53 whereas that for CSF HVA was 0.95. We also analyzed CSF HIAA/HVA ratios. After fitting a regression model, we found no dependence on age, and the mean of CSF HIAA/HVA in DND was 0.28 whereas that for the reference range was 0.49 (p < 0.001). We conclude that a significant number of children with DND have reduced CNS serotonin turnover. Treatment with drugs that increase serotonin concentration in the synaptic cleft should be considered in this group of patients.

  6. Immunodetection of the serotonin transporter protein is a more valid marker for serotonergic fibers than serotonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten; Brask, Dorthe; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2006-01-01

    Tracking serotonergic pathways in the brain through immunodetection of serotonin has widely been used for the anatomical characterization of the serotonergic system. Immunostaining for serotonin is also frequently applied for the visualization of individual serotonin containing fibers...... and quantification of serotonin positive fibers has been widely used to detect changes in the serotonergic innervation. However, particularly in conditions with enhanced serotonin metabolism the detection level of serotonin may lead to an underestimation of the true number of serotonergic fibers. The serotonin...... immunostained for serotonin and SERT protein and colocalization was quantified in several brain areas by confocal microscopy. In comparison with untreated rats, MAO inhibitor treated rats had a significantly higher number (almost 200% increase) of serotonin immunopositive fibers whereas no difference...

  7. Armor systems including coated core materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; McHugh, Kevin M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  8. Development of a Fluorescent Bodipy Probe for Visualization of the Serotonin 5-HT1A Receptor in Native Cells of the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Torres, Gloria; Enríquez-Palacios, Ernesto; Mecha, Miriam; Feliú, Ana; Rueda-Zubiaurre, Ainoa; Angelina, Alba; Martín-Cruz, Leticia; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Palomares, Oscar; Guaza, Carmen; Peña-Cabrera, Eduardo; López-Rodríguez, María L; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Silvia

    2018-05-14

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates key aspects of the immune system. However, its precise function and the receptors involved in the observed effects have remained elusive. Among the different serotonin receptors, 5-HT 1A plays an important role in the immune system given its presence in cells involved in both the innate and adaptive immune responses, but its actual levels of expression under different conditions have not been comprehensively studied due to the lack of suitable tools. To further clarify the role of 5-HT 1A receptor in the immune system, we have developed a fluorescent small molecule probe that enables the direct study of the receptor levels in native cells. This probe allows direct profiling of the receptor expression in immune cells using flow cytometry. Our results show that important subsets of immune cells including human monocytes and dendritic cells express functional 5-HT 1A and that its activation is associated with anti-inflammatory signaling. Furthermore, application of the probe to the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis demonstrates its potential to detect the specific overexpression of the 5-HT 1A receptor in CD4+ T cells. Accordingly, the probe reported herein represents a useful tool whose use can be extended to study the levels of 5-HT 1A receptor in ex vivo samples of different immune system conditions.

  9. Applications of artificial intelligence, including expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    When Artificial Intelligence is applied to a complex physical system like a nuclear plant it is useful to distinguish between two rather distinct and different intelligent views of such a plant. The first view may be characterised as ''the designer's view''. This is the view of the plant as it was originally conceived and designed; it is essentially a once-and-for-all static view, corresponding to the implicit assumption of an ''ageless plant'', or at most a plant which ages in a preconceived, preset manner. The second view, which may be characterised as ''the operators view'', has to do more with a real-world, ageing plant. It is a more dynamic view, which sees the ageing process as one in which unforeseen, and possibly unforeseeable events may occur at equally unforeseen, and possibly unforeseeable times. The first view is predominantly a way of thinking about the plant, while the second is very often more a way of feeling about it. It should be emphasized that both ways are ways of intelligence. (author)

  10. ROLE OF SEROTONIN IN FISH REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy ePrasad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine mechanism regulates reproduction through the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis which is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. The HPG axis is regulated by a variety of internal as well as external factors. Serotonin, a monoamine neurotransmitter, is involved in a wide range of reproductive functions. In mammals, serotonin regulates sexual behaviours, gonadotropin release and gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH secretion. However, the serotonin system in teleost may play unique role in the control of reproduction as the mechanism of reproductive control in teleosts is not always the same as in the mammalian models. In fish, the serotonin system is also regulated by natural environmental factors as well as chemical substances. In particular, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are commonly detected as pharmaceutical contaminants in the natural environment. Those factors may influence fish reproductive functions via the serotonin system. This review summarizes the functional significance of serotonin in the teleosts reproduction.

  11. Preparation and evaluation of serotonin labelled with 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaprasad, N.; Geetha, R.; Ghodke, A.S.; Karmalkar, C.P.; Pilkhwal, N.S.; Sarnaik, J.S.; Borkute, S.D.; Nadkarni, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    Radiolabelled serotonin is an important tool for studying serotonin receptors and estimating serotonin levels in plants and animals. In this paper we report the synthesis of serotonin - 125 I. Tyrosine Methyl Ester (TME) was first labelled with 125 I using chloramine-T method. 125 I-TME was then conjugated with serotonin using carbodimide. The labelled conjugate was purified using gel filtration. Yield and radiochemical purity were estimated using electrophoresis and ITLC in different solvent systems. The binding of the purified tracer to serotonin receptors and serotonin antibodies was studied. (author)

  12. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  13. Ecstasy use and serotonin syndrome: a neglected danger to adolescents and young adults prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobry, Yuriy; Rice, Timothy; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    At present, there are scarce clinical and basic lab data concerning the risk of acute serotonin toxicity from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) co-administration. The health care community can strongly benefit from efforts to address the high risks associated with serotonin syndrome from this specific drug combination. The aim of this work is to review the risk of serotonin syndrome in adolescents and young adults prescribed with SSRIs and are concurrently using ecstasy. An electronic search of the major behavioral science bibliographic databases (Pubmed, PsycINFO, Medline) was conducted to retrieve peer-reviewed articles, which detail the clinical characteristics, biological mechanisms and social implications of SSRIs, MDMA, and their potential synergism in causing serotonin syndrome in the pediatric and young adult population. Search terms included "serotonin syndrome", "ecstasy", "MDMA", "pediatric", and "SSRI". Additional references were incorporated from the bibliographies of these retrieved articles. MDMA, in combination with the widely-prescribed SSRI antidepressant class, can lead to rapid, synergistic rise of serotonin (5-HT) concentration in the central nervous system, leading to the acute medical emergency known as serotonin syndrome. This review addresses such complication through an exploration of the theoretical mechanisms and clinical manifestations of this life-threatening pharmacological interaction. The increasing incidences of recreational ecstasy use and SSRI pharmacotherapy among multiple psychiatric disorders in the adolescent population have made this an overlooked yet increasingly relevant danger, which poses a threat to public health. This can be curbed through further research, as well as greater health care provision and attention from a regulatory body owing.

  14. Boosting serotonin in the brain: is it time to revamp the treatment of depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Mariana P; Gelenberg, Alan J; Vrana, Kent E

    2012-05-01

    Abnormalities in serotonin systems are presumably linked to various psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and depression. Medications intended for these disorders aim to either block the reuptake or the degradation of this neurotransmitter. In an alternative approach, efforts have been made to enhance serotonin levels through dietary manipulation of precursor levels with modest clinical success. In the last 30 years, there has been little improvement in the pharmaceutical management of depression, and now is the time to revisit therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this disease. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin. A recently discovered isoform, TPH2, is responsible for serotonin biosynthesis in the brain. Learning how to activate this enzyme (and its polymorphic versions) may lead to a new, more selective generation of antidepressants, able to regulate the levels of serotonin in the brain with fewer side effects.

  15. Visualisation of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptors in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passchier, J.; Waarde, A. van

    2001-01-01

    The 5-HT 1A subtype of receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin is predominantly located in the limbic forebrain and is involved in the modulation of emotion and the function of the hypothalamus. Since 5-HT 1A receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety, depression, hallucinogenic behaviour, motion sickness and eating disorders, they are an important target for drug therapy. Here, we review the radioligands which are available for visualisation and quantification of this important neuroreceptor in the human brain, using positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission tomography (SPET). More than 20 compounds have been labelled with carbon-11 (half-life 20 min), fluorine-18 (half-life 109.8 min) or iodine-123 (half-life 13.2 h): structural analogues of the agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, structural analogues of the antagonist, WAY 100635, and apomorphines. The most successful radioligands thus far are [carbonyl- 11 C] WAY-100635 (WAY), [carbonyl- 11 C]desmethyl-WAY-100635 (DWAY), p-[ 18 F]MPPF and [ 11 C]robalzotan (NAD-299). The high-affinity ligands WAY and DWAY produce excellent images of 5-HT 1A receptor distribution in the brain (even the raphe nuclei are visualised), but they cannot be distributed to remote facilities and they probably cannot be used to measure changes in endogenous serotonin. Binding of the moderate-affinity ligands MPPF and NAD-299 may be more sensitive to serotonin competition and MPPF can be distributed to PET centres within a flying distance of a few hours. Future research should be directed towards: (a) improvement of the metabolic stability in primates; (b) development of a fluorinated radioligand which can be produced in large quantities and (c) production of a radioiodinated or technetium-labelled ligand for SPET. (orig.)

  16. Investigating Direct Links between Depression, Emotional Control, and Physical Punishment with Adolescent Drive for Thinness and Bulimic Behaviors, Including Possible Moderation by the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenblat, Vanja; Ryan, Joanne; Wertheim, Eleanor H; King, Ross; Olsson, Craig A; Krug, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between psychological and social factors (depression, emotional control, sexual abuse, and parental physical punishment) and adolescent drive for Thinness and Bulimic behaviors in a large community sample, and to investigate possible genetic moderation. Method: Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP), a population-based cohort study that has followed a representative sample of 2443 participants from infancy to adulthood across 16 waves since 1983. A subsample of 650 participants (50.2% female) of Caucasian descent who provided DNA were genotyped for a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism ( 5-HTTLPR ). Adolescent disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed using the Bulimia and Drive for Thinness scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (15-16 years). Depression and emotional control were examined at the same age using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and an ATP-devised measure of emotional control. History of sexual abuse and physical punishment were assessed retrospectively (23-24 years) in a subsample of 467 of those providing DNA. Results: EDI-2 scores were associated with depression, emotional control, and retrospectively reported parental physical punishment. Although there was statistically significant moderation of the relationship between parental physical punishment and bulimic behaviors by 5-HTTLPR ( p = 0.0048), genotypes in this subsample were not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. No other G×E interactions were significant. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm the central importance of psychosocial processes in disordered eating patterns in adolescence. Evidence of moderation by 5-HTTLPR was not conclusive; however, genetic moderation observed in a subsample not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium warrants further investigation.

  17. Investigating Direct Links between Depression, Emotional Control, and Physical Punishment with Adolescent Drive for Thinness and Bulimic Behaviors, Including Possible Moderation by the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Rozenblat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the relationship between psychological and social factors (depression, emotional control, sexual abuse, and parental physical punishment and adolescent drive for Thinness and Bulimic behaviors in a large community sample, and to investigate possible genetic moderation.Method: Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP, a population-based cohort study that has followed a representative sample of 2443 participants from infancy to adulthood across 16 waves since 1983. A subsample of 650 participants (50.2% female of Caucasian descent who provided DNA were genotyped for a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR. Adolescent disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed using the Bulimia and Drive for Thinness scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (15–16 years. Depression and emotional control were examined at the same age using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and an ATP-devised measure of emotional control. History of sexual abuse and physical punishment were assessed retrospectively (23–24 years in a subsample of 467 of those providing DNA.Results: EDI-2 scores were associated with depression, emotional control, and retrospectively reported parental physical punishment. Although there was statistically significant moderation of the relationship between parental physical punishment and bulimic behaviors by 5-HTTLPR (p = 0.0048, genotypes in this subsample were not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium. No other G×E interactions were significant. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm the central importance of psychosocial processes in disordered eating patterns in adolescence. Evidence of moderation by 5-HTTLPR was not conclusive; however, genetic moderation observed in a subsample not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium warrants further investigation.

  18. The Gain-of-Function Integrin β3 Pro33 Variant Alters the Serotonin System in the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Michael R; Kooker, Christopher G; Bastarache, Lisa; Jessen, Tammy; Rinaldi, Capria; Varney, Seth; Mazalouskas, Matthew D; Pan, Hope; Oliver, Kendra H; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Sutcliffe, James S; Denny, Joshua C; Carneiro, Ana M D

    2017-11-15

    Engagement of integrins by the extracellular matrix initiates signaling cascades that drive a variety of cellular functions, including neuronal migration and axonal pathfinding in the brain. Multiple lines of evidence link the ITGB3 gene encoding the integrin β3 subunit with the serotonin (5-HT) system, likely via its modulation of the 5-HT transporter (SERT). The ITGB3 coding polymorphism Leu33Pro (rs5918, Pl A2 ) produces hyperactive αvβ3 receptors that influence whole-blood 5-HT levels and may influence the risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a phenome-wide scan of psychiatric diagnoses, we found significant, male-specific associations between the Pro33 allele and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and ASDs. Here, we used knock-in (KI) mice expressing an Itgb3 variant that phenocopies the human Pro33 variant to elucidate the consequences of constitutively enhanced αvβ3 signaling to the 5-HT system in the brain. KI mice displayed deficits in multiple behaviors, including anxiety, repetitive, and social behaviors. Anatomical studies revealed a significant decrease in 5-HT synapses in the midbrain, accompanied by decreases in SERT activity and reduced localization of SERTs to integrin adhesion complexes in synapses of KI mice. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) rescued SERT function in synapses of KI mice, demonstrating that constitutive active FAK signaling downstream of the Pro32Pro33 integrin αvβ3 suppresses SERT activity. Our studies identify a complex regulation of 5-HT homeostasis and behaviors by integrin αvβ3, revealing an important role for integrins in modulating risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The integrin β3 Leu33Pro coding polymorphism has been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) within a subgroup of patients with elevated blood 5-HT levels, linking integrin β3, 5-HT, and ASD risk. We capitalized on these interactions to demonstrate that the Pro33 coding variation in the murine

  19. Serotonin 2C receptors in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate energy and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Eric D; Liu, Chen; Sohn, Jong-Woo; Liu, Tiemin; Kim, Mi Hwa; Lee, Charlotte E; Vianna, Claudia R; Williams, Kevin W; Xu, Yong; Elmquist, Joel K

    2013-12-01

    Energy and glucose homeostasis are regulated by central serotonin 2C receptors. These receptors are attractive pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity; however, the identity of the serotonin 2C receptor-expressing neurons that mediate the effects of serotonin and serotonin 2C receptor agonists on energy and glucose homeostasis are unknown. Here, we show that mice lacking serotonin 2C receptors (Htr2c) specifically in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons had normal body weight but developed glucoregulatory defects including hyperinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. Moreover, these mice did not show anorectic responses to serotonergic agents that suppress appetite and developed hyperphagia and obesity when they were fed a high-fat/high-sugar diet. A requirement of serotonin 2C receptors in POMC neurons for the maintenance of normal energy and glucose homeostasis was further demonstrated when Htr2c loss was induced in POMC neurons in adult mice using a tamoxifen-inducible POMC-cre system. These data demonstrate that serotonin 2C receptor-expressing POMC neurons are required to control energy and glucose homeostasis and implicate POMC neurons as the target for the effect of serotonin 2C receptor agonists on weight-loss induction and improved glycemic control.

  20. Interplay between the key proteins of serotonin system in SSRI antidepressants efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Alexander V; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Ponimaskin, Evgeni; Kalueff, Allan V; Naumenko, Vladimir S; Popova, Nina K

    2018-04-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most effective and most used antidepressant drugs. Acting by inhibiting serotonin (5-HT) transporter, SSRIs display a typical 3-4-week delay in their therapeutic effects, with nearly 40% of depressed patients remaining treatment-resistant. Recent evidence suggests complex interplay between 5-HT receptors and key proteins of 5-HT metabolism in molecular mechanisms of such delay and resistance to SSRIs. Area covered: This paper concentrates on the interplay between 5-HT receptors in the delay of therapeutic effect of SSRIs, and the interaction between tryptophan hydroxylase 2 and 5-HT transporter in the SSRI resistance. Specifically, it discusses: (1) the data on the association between antidepressant drug efficacy and genetically defined characteristics of key proteins in the 5-HT signaling (TPH2, MAOA, SERT and 5-HT 1A receptor), (2) the effect of dimerization of 5-HT 7 and 5-HT 1A receptors on the internalization and functioning of 5-HT 1A presynaptic receptors, (3) the role of Tph2 deficiency in the resistance to SSRIs treatment. We shift the emphasis from individual proteins to their interactions in explaining antidepressant action of SSRI. Expert opinion: These interactions should be considered when developing more effective antidepressant drugs as well as for predicting and improving the efficacy of antidepressant therapies.

  1. BDNF val66met association with serotonin transporter binding in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, P. M.; Ozenne, B.; Svarer, C.

    2017-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key feature of the serotonin system, which is involved in behavior, cognition and personality and implicated in neuropsychiatric illnesses including depression. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms have predicted......-carriers have increased subcortical 5-HTT binding. The small difference suggests limited statistical power may explain previously reported null effects. Our finding adds to emerging evidence that BDNF val66met contributes to differences in the human brain serotonin system, informing how variability in the 5-HTT...

  2. Modulation of the intrinsic properties of motoneurons by serotonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, Jean-François; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger; Christensen, Rasmus Kordt

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is one of the main transmitters in the nervous system. Serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei in the brainstem innervate most parts of the central nervous system including motoneurons in the spinal cord and brainstem. This review will focus on the modulatory role that 5-HT exerts...... a sustained depolarization and an amplification of synaptic inputs. Under pathological conditions, such as after a spinal cord injury, the promotion of persistent inward currents by serotonin and/or the overexpression of autoactive serotonergic receptors may contribute to motoneuronal excitability, muscle...

  3. Serotonin: Modulator of a Drive to Withdraw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tops, Mattie; Russo, Sascha; Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Tucker, Don M.

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin is a fundamental neuromodulator in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems, with a suspected role in many human mental disorders. Yet, because of the complexity of serotonergic function, researchers have been unable to agree on a general theory. One function suggested for serotonin systems is the avoidance of threat. We propose…

  4. Temperament, character and serotonin activity in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuominen, L; Salo, J; Hirvonen, J

    2013-01-01

    The psychobiological model of personality by Cloninger and colleagues originally hypothesized that interindividual variability in the temperament dimension 'harm avoidance' (HA) is explained by differences in the activity of the brain serotonin system. We assessed brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT...

  5. Understanding the Role of Serotonin in Female Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Harry A

    2017-12-01

    The neurobiology of sexual response is driven in part by dopamine and serotonin-the former modulating excitatory pathways and the latter regulating inhibitory pathways. Neurobiological underpinnings of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) are seemingly related to overactive serotonin activity that results in underactive dopamine activity. As such, pharmacologic agents that decrease serotonin, increase dopamine, or some combination thereof, have therapeutic potential for HSDD. To review the role of serotonin in female sexual function and the effects of pharmacologic interventions that target the serotonin system in the treatment of HSDD. Searches of the Medline database for articles on serotonin and female sexual function. Relevant articles from the peer-reviewed literature were included. Female sexual response is regulated not only by the sex hormones but also by several neurotransmitters. It is postulated that dopamine, norepinephrine, oxytocin, and melanocortins serve as key neuromodulators for the excitatory pathways, whereas serotonin, opioids, and endocannabinoids serve as key neuromodulators for the inhibitory pathways. Serotonin appears to be a key inhibitory modulator of sexual desire, because it decreases the ability of excitatory systems to be activated by sexual cues. Centrally acting drugs that modulate the excitatory and inhibitory pathways involved in sexual desire (eg, bremelanotide, bupropion, buspirone, flibanserin) have been investigated as treatment options for HSDD. However, only flibanserin, a multifunctional serotonin agonist and antagonist (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT] 1A receptor agonist and 5-HT 2A receptor antagonist), is currently approved for the treatment of HSDD. The central serotonin system is 1 biochemical target for medications intended to treat HSDD. This narrative review integrates findings from preclinical studies and clinical trials to elucidate neurobiological underpinnings of HSDD but is limited to 1 neurotransmitter system

  6. Alterations to embryonic serotonin change aggression and fearfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal environment, including maternal hormones, affects the development of the serotonin (5-HT) system, with long-lasting effects on mood and behavioral exhibition in children and adults. The chicken provides a unique animal model to study the effects of embryonic development on childhood and ado...

  7. Reactor protection system including engineered features actuation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmaers, W.

    1982-01-01

    The safety concept requires to ensure that - the reactor protection system - the active engineered safeguard - and the necessary auxiliary systems are so designed and interfaced in respect of design and mode of action that, in the event of single component failure reliable control of the consequences of accidents remains ensured at all times and that the availability of the power plant is not limited unnecessarily. In order to satisfy these requirements due, importance was attached to a consistent spacial separation of the mutually redundant subsystems of the active safety equipment. The design and layout of the reactor protection system, of the power supply (emergency power supply), and of the auxiliary systems important from the safety engineering point of view, are such that their subsystems also largely satisfy the requirements of independence and spacial separation. (orig./RW)

  8. Serotonin 5-HT4 receptors and forebrain cholinergic system: receptor expression in identified cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas-Cazorla, Raúl; Vilaró, M Teresa

    2015-11-01

    Activation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors has pro-cognitive effects on memory performance. The proposed underlying neurochemical mechanism is the enhancement of acetylcholine release in frontal cortex and hippocampus elicited by 5-HT4 agonists. Although 5-HT4 receptors are present in brain areas related to cognition, e.g., hippocampus and cortex, the cellular localization of the receptors that might modulate acetylcholine release is unknown at present. We have analyzed, using dual label in situ hybridization, the cellular localization of 5-HT4 receptor mRNA in identified neuronal populations of the rat basal forebrain, which is the source of the cholinergic innervation to cortex and hippocampus. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was visualized with isotopically labeled oligonucleotide probes, whereas cholinergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic and parvalbumin-synthesizing neurons were identified with digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probes. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was not detected in the basal forebrain cholinergic cell population. In contrast, basal forebrain GABAergic, parvalbumin synthesizing, and glutamatergic cells contained 5-HT4 receptor mRNA. Hippocampal and cortical glutamatergic neurons also express this receptor. These results indicate that 5-HT4 receptors are not synthesized by cholinergic cells, and thus would be absent from cholinergic terminals. In contrast, several non-cholinergic cell populations within the basal forebrain and its target hippocampal and cortical areas express these receptors and are thus likely to mediate the enhancement of acetylcholine release elicited by 5-HT4 agonists.

  9. Regulation of Pituitary Beta Endorphin Release: Role of Serotonin Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-15

    endogenous) may be related to pain and its transmission in the nervous system. Areas known to have a large number of opiate receptors both in primates and...serotonin meta- bolite 5-hydroxytrvptamine; serotonin 5-hydroxtryptophan; serotonin precursor intra- cerebro -ventricular administration intermediate lobe

  10. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  11. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  12. The association of measures of the serotonin system, personality, alcohol use, and smoking with risk-taking traffic behavior in adolescents in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luht, Kadi; Eensoo, Diva; Tooding, Liina-Mai; Harro, Jaanus

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the neurobiological basis of risk-taking behavior have most often focused on the serotonin system. The promoter region of the gene encoding the serotonin transporter contains a polymorphic site (5-HTTLPR) that is important for the transcriptional activity, and studies have demonstrated its association with brain activity and behavior. Another molecular mechanism that reflects the capacity of the central serotonin system is the activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) as measured in platelets. The purpose of the present study was to examine how measures of the serotonin system (platelet MAO activity and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism), personality variables, alcohol use and smoking are associated with risk-taking traffic behavior in schoolchildren through late adolescence. The younger cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (originally n = 583) filled in questionnaires about personality traits, smoking status, alcohol use and traffic behavior at age 15 and 18 years. From venous blood samples, platelet MAO activity was measured radioenzymatically and 5-HTTLPR was genotyped. During late adolescence, subjects with lower platelet MAO activity were more likely to belong to the high-risk traffic behavior group. Male 5-HTTLPRs'-allele carriers were more likely to belong to the high-risk traffic behavior group compared to the l'/l' homozygotes. Other variables predicting risk group were alcohol use, smoking and Maladaptive impulsivity.The results suggest that lower capacity of the serotoninergic system is associated with more risky traffic behavior during late adolescence, but possibly by different mechanisms in boys and girls.

  13. Discrete Serotonin Systems Mediate Memory Enhancement and Escape Latencies after Unpredicted Aversive Experience in Drosophila Place Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Sitaraman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Feedback mechanisms in operant learning are critical for animals to increase reward or reduce punishment. However, not all conditions have a behavior that can readily resolve an event. Animals must then try out different behaviors to better their situation through outcome learning. This form of learning allows for novel solutions and with positive experience can lead to unexpected behavioral routines. Learned helplessness, as a type of outcome learning, manifests in part as increases in escape latency in the face of repeated unpredicted shocks. Little is known about the mechanisms of outcome learning. When fruit fly Drosophilamelanogaster are exposed to unpredicted high temperatures in a place learning paradigm, flies both increase escape latencies and have a higher memory when given control of a place/temperature contingency. Here we describe discrete serotonin neuronal circuits that mediate aversive reinforcement, escape latencies, and memory levels after place learning in the presence and absence of unexpected aversive events. The results show that two features of learned helplessness depend on the same modulatory system as aversive reinforcement. Moreover, changes in aversive reinforcement and escape latency depend on local neural circuit modulation, while memory enhancement requires larger modulation of multiple behavioral control circuits.

  14. Effect of acupuncture on Lipopolysaccharide-induced anxiety-like behavioral changes: involvement of serotonin system in dorsal Raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae Young; Jang, Eun Young; Ryu, Yeonhee; Lee, Gyu Won; Lee, Eun Byeol; Chang, Suchan; Lee, Jong Han; Koo, Jin Suk; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Hee Young

    2017-12-11

    Acupuncture has been used as a common therapeutic tool in many disorders including anxiety and depression. Serotonin transporter (SERT) plays an important role in the pathology of anxiety and other mood disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety-like behaviors and SERT in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN). Rats were given acupuncture at ST41 (Jiexi), LI11 (Quchi) or SI3 (Houxi) acupoint in LPS-treated rats. Anxiety-like behaviors of elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT) were measured and expressions of SERT and/or c-Fos were also examined in the DRN using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that 1) acupuncture at ST41 acupoint, but neither LI11 nor SI3, significantly attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behaviors in EPM and OFT, 2) acupuncture at ST41 decreased SERT expression increased by LPS in the DRN. Our results suggest that acupuncture can ameliorate anxiety-like behaviors, possibly through regulation of SERT in the DRN.

  15. Approach to novel functional foods for stress control 4. Regulation of serotonin transporter by food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikiko; Haito, Sakiko; Furumoto, Mari; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2005-11-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERTs) are pre-synaptic proteins specialized for the clearance of serotonin following vesicular release at central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system synapses. SERTs are high affinity targets in vivo for antidepressants such as serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and antihistamines, a plant extract called St John's Wort (Hypericum). Osteoclasts are the primary cells responsible for bone resorption. They arise by the differentiation of osteoclast precursors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. The expression of SERTs was increased in RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells. Using RANKL stimulation of RAW264.7 cells as a model system for osteoclast differentiation, we studied the direct effects of food factor on serotonin uptake. The SSRIs (fluoxetine and fluvoxamine) inhibited markedly (approximately 95%) in serotonin transport in differentiated osteoclast cells. The major components of St. John's Wort, hyperforin and hypericine were significantly decreased in serotonin transport activity. Thus, a new in vitro model using RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells may be useful to analyze the regulation of SERT by food factors and SSRIs.

  16. Effect of long-term actual spaceflight on the expression of key genes encoding serotonin and dopamine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Nina; Shenkman, Boris; Naumenko, Vladimir; Kulikov, Alexander; Kondaurova, Elena; Tsybko, Anton; Kulikova, Elisabeth; Krasnov, I. B.; Bazhenova, Ekaterina; Sinyakova, Nadezhda

    The effect of long-term spaceflight on the central nervous system represents important but yet undeveloped problem. The aim of our work was to study the effect of 30-days spaceflight of mice on Russian biosatellite BION-M1 on the expression in the brain regions of key genes of a) serotonin (5-HT) system (main enzymes in 5-HT metabolism - tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH-2), monoamine oxydase A (MAO A), 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors); b) pivotal enzymes in DA metabolism (tyrosine hydroxylase, COMT, MAO A, MAO B) and D1, D2 receptors. Decreased expression of genes encoding the 5-HT catabolism (MAO A) and 5-HT2A receptor in some brain regions was shown. There were no differences between “spaceflight” and control mice in the expression of TPH-2 and 5-HT1A, 5-HT3 receptor genes. Significant changes were found in genetic control of DA system. Long-term spaceflight decreased the expression of genes encoding the enzyme in DA synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase in s.nigra), DA metabolism (MAO B in the midbrain and COMT in the striatum), and D1 receptor in hypothalamus. These data suggested that 1) microgravity affected genetic control of 5-HT and especially the nigrostriatal DA system implicated in the central regulation of muscular tonus and movement, 2) the decrease in the expression of genes encoding key enzyme in DA synthesis, DA degradation and D1 receptor contributes to the movement impairment and dyskinesia produced by the spaceflight. The study was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant No. 14-04-00173.

  17. No effect of C1473G polymorphism in the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene on the response of the brain serotonin system to chronic fluoxetine treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenova, Ekaterina Y; Sinyakova, Nadezhda A; Kulikova, Elizabeth A; Kazarinova, Irina A; Bazovkina, Daria V; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Kulikov, Alexander V

    2017-07-13

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressants that block serotonin transporter (SERT) and increase serotonin (5-HT) level in the synaptic cleft. The interaction between SERT and the key enzyme of 5-HT synthesis in the brain, tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), is essential to maintain the brain 5-HT level. The G allele of C1473G polymorphism in Tph2 gene decreases enzyme activity by half in mouse brain. Here we studied effect of C1473G polymorphism on the reaction of brain 5-HT system to chronic fluoxetine treatment (120mg/l in drinking water, for 3 weeks) in adult males of the congenic B6-1473C and B6-1473G mouse lines with high and low enzyme activity, respectively. The polymorphism did not affect the levels of 5-HT, its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and Tph2 gene mRNA in the brain. Fluoxetine significantly attenuated 5-HT levels in the cortex and striatum, 5-HIAA concentrations in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum and midbrain, and Tph2 gene expression in the midbrain. However, we did not observed any effect of the genotype x treatment interaction on these neurochemical characteristics. Therefore, C1473G polymorphism does not seem to play an essential role in the reaction of the brain 5-HT system to chronic fluoxetine treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional link between the hypocretin and serotonin systems in the neural control of breathing and central chemosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Andrea E; Richerson, George B; Harris, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    Serotonin (5-HT)-synthesizing neurons of the medullary raphe are putative central chemoreceptors, proposed to be one of potentially multiple brain stem chemosensitive cell types and loci interacting to produce the respiratory chemoreflex. Hypocretin-synthesizing neurons of the lateral hypothalamus are important contributors to arousal state, thermoregulation, and feeding behavior and are also reportedly involved in the hypercapnic ventilatory response. Recently, a functional interaction was found between the hypocretin system and 5-HT neurons of the dorsal raphe. The validity and potential significance of hypocretin modulation of medullary raphe 5-HT neurons, however, is unknown. As such, the purpose of this study was to explore functional interactions between the hypocretin system and 5-HT system of the medullary raphe on baseline respiratory output and central chemosensitivity. To explore such interactions, we used the neonatal in vitro medullary slice preparation derived from wild-type (WT) mice (normal 5-HT function) and a knockout strain lacking all central 5-HT neurons (Lmx1b(f/f/p) mice). We examined effects of acidosis, hypocretin-1, a hypocretin receptor antagonist (SB-408124), and the effect of the antagonist on the response to acidosis. We confirmed the critical role of 5-HT neurons in central chemosensitivity given that the increased hypoglossal burst frequency with acidosis, characteristic of WT mice, was absent in preparations derived from Lmx1b(f/f/p) mice. We also found that hypocretin facilitated baseline neural ventilatory output in part through 5-HT neurons. Although the impact of hypocretin on 5-HT neuronal sensitivity to acidosis is still unclear, hypocretins did appear to mediate the burst duration response to acidosis via serotonergic mechanisms.

  19. Effect of U and 137Cs chronic contamination on dopamine and serotonin metabolism in the central nervous system of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houpert, P.; Lestaevel, P.; Amourette, C.; Dhieux, B.; Bussy, C.; Paquet, F.

    2004-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the most significant problem for the population of the former Soviet Union for the next 50-70 years will be chronic internal contamination by radionuclides. One of the few experiments carried out in this field reported that neurotransmitter metabolism in the central nervous system of the rat was disturbed after feeding with oats contaminated by 137 Cs for 1 month. The present study assessed the effect of chronic contamination by depleted U or 137 Cs on the metabolism of two neurotransmitters in cerebral areas of rats. Dopamine and serotonin were chosen because their metabolism has been shown to be disturbed after external irradiation, even at moderate doses. Dopamine, serotonin, and some of their catabolites were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with an electrochemical detector in five cerebral structures of rats contaminated over a 1-month period by drinking water (40 mg U·L -1 or 6500 Bq 137 Cs·L -1 ). In the striatum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum, the dopamine, serotonin, and catabolite levels were not significantly different between the control rats and rats contaminated by U or 137 Cs. These results are not in accordance with those previously described. (author)

  20. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  1. Developing standard transmission system for radiology reporting including key images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Chil

    2007-01-01

    Development of hospital information system and Picture Archiving Communication System is not new in the medical field, and the development of internet and information technology are also universal. In the course of such development, however, it is hard to share medical information without a refined standard format. Especially in the department of radiology, the role of PACS has become very important in interchanging information with other disparate hospital information systems. A specific system needs to be developed that radiological reports are archived into a database efficiently. This includes sharing of medical images. A model is suggested in this study in which an internal system is developed where radiologists store necessary images and transmit them is the standard international clinical format, Clinical Document Architecture, and share the information with hospitals. CDA document generator was made to generate a new file format and separate the existing storage system from the new system. This was to ensure the access to required data in XML documents. The model presented in this study added a process where crucial images in reading are inserted in the CDA radiological report generator. Therefore, this study suggests a storage and transmission model for CDA documents, which is different from the existing DICOM SR. Radiological reports could be better shared, when the application function for inserting images and the analysis of standard clinical terms are completed

  2. Characterization of the serotonin transporter knockout rat : A selective change in the functioning of the serotonergic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J. R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Smits, B. M. G.; Mul, J. D.; Mudde, J.; Verheul, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, O. F. M.; Cools, A. R.; Ronken, E; Cremers, Thomas; Schoffelmeere, A. N. M.; Ellenbroeik, B. A.; Cuppen, E.

    2007-01-01

    Serotonergic signaling is involved in many neurobiological processes and disturbed 5-HT homeostasis is implicated in a variety of psychiatric and addictive disorders. Here, we describe the functional characterization of the serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout rat model, that is generated by

  3. Characterization of the serotonin transporter knockout rat: a selective change in the functioning of the serotonergic system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Smits, B.M.; Mul, J.D.; Mudde, J.; Verheul, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, O.F.; Cools, A.R.; Ronken, E.; Cremers, T.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Cuppen, E.

    2007-01-01

    Serotonergic signaling is involved in many neurobiological processes and disturbed 5-HT homeostasis is implicated in a variety of psychiatric and addictive disorders. Here, we describe the functional characterization of the serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout rat model, that is generated by

  4. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Serotonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arreola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT induces concentration-dependent metabolic effects in diverse cell types, including neurons, entherochromaffin cells, adipocytes, pancreatic beta-cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, epithelial cells, and leukocytes. Three classes of genes regulating 5-HT function are constitutively expressed or induced in these cells: (a membrane proteins that regulate the response to 5-HT, such as SERT, 5HTR-GPCR, and the 5HT3-ion channels; (b downstream signaling transduction proteins; and (c enzymes controlling 5-HT metabolism, such as IDO and MAO, which can generate biologically active catabolites, including melatonin, kynurenines, and kynurenamines. This review covers the clinical and experimental mechanisms involved in 5-HT-induced immunomodulation. These mechanisms are cell-specific and depend on the expression of serotonergic components in immune cells. Consequently, 5-HT can modulate several immunological events, such as chemotaxis, leukocyte activation, proliferation, cytokine secretion, anergy, and apoptosis. The effects of 5-HT on immune cells may be relevant in the clinical outcome of pathologies with an inflammatory component. Major depression, fibromyalgia, Alzheimer disease, psoriasis, arthritis, allergies, and asthma are all associated with changes in the serotonergic system associated with leukocytes. Thus, pharmacological regulation of the serotonergic system may modulate immune function and provide therapeutic alternatives for these diseases.

  5. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  6. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  7. The influence of serotonin on fear learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hindi Attar

    Full Text Available Learning of associations between aversive stimuli and predictive cues is the basis of Pavlovian fear conditioning and is driven by a mismatch between expectation and outcome. To investigate whether serotonin modulates the formation of such aversive cue-outcome associations, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and dietary tryptophan depletion to reduce brain serotonin (5-HT levels in healthy human subjects. In a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm, 5-HT depleted subjects compared to a non-depleted control group exhibited attenuated autonomic responses to cues indicating the upcoming of an aversive event. These results were closely paralleled by reduced aversive learning signals in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex, two prominent structures of the neural fear circuit. In agreement with current theories of serotonin as a motivational opponent system to dopamine in fear learning, our data provide first empirical evidence for a role of serotonin in representing formally derived learning signals for aversive events.

  8. Triptans, serotonin agonists, and serotonin syndrome (serotonin toxicity): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, P Ken

    2010-02-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have suggested that fatal serotonin syndrome (SS) is possible with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and triptans: this warning affects millions of patients as these drugs are frequently given simultaneously. SS is a complex topic about which there is much misinformation. The misconception that 5-HT1A receptors can cause serious SS is still widely perpetuated, despite quality evidence that it is activation of the 5-HT2A receptor that is required for serious SS. This review considers SS involving serotonin agonists: ergotamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, bromocriptine, and buspirone, as well as triptans, and reviews the experimental foundation underpinning the latest understanding of SS. It is concluded that there is neither significant clinical evidence, nor theoretical reason, to entertain speculation about serious SS from triptans and SSRIs. The misunderstandings about SS exhibited by the FDA, and shared by the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (in relation to methylene blue), are an important issue with wide ramifications.

  9. Advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M; Yokoyama, R; Yasuda, K [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Sasaki, H [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Ogimoto, K [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems developed in Japan, putting focus on flexibility and efficiency in a practical application. First, criteria for evaluating flexibility of generation planning considering uncertainties are introduced. Secondly, the flexible generation mix problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization with more than two objective functions. The multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a single objective problem by using the weighting method, to obtain the Pareto optimal solution, and solved by a dynamics programming technique. Thirdly, a new approach for electric generation expansion planning of interconnected systems is presented, based on the Benders Decomposition technique. That is, large scale generation problem constituted by the general economic load dispatch problem, and several sub problems which are composed of smaller scale isolated system generation expansion plans. Finally, the generation expansion plan solved by an artificial neural network is presented. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this method from the viewpoint of flexibility and applicability to practical generation expansion planning are presented. (author) 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Radioprotective action of serotonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodop' yanova, L G; Vinogradova, M F [Leningradskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Biologicheskij Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst.

    1975-09-01

    Tests in vitro were performed to study the effect of serotonin on oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria of rat liver. Serotonin (2.10/sup -4/ M) was shown to suppress oxidation of ..cap alpha..-ketoglutaric acid without significantly changing succinic acid consumption. A comparison of the results obtained with those from the literature allowed to assume that the radioprotective effect of serotonin was based not only on its previously known ability to cause tissue hypoxia, but also on its ability to affect oxidation processes in mitochondria.

  11. Radiation-induced dysfunction of colonic transport: role of enteric nervous system and of serotonine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Agnes

    1998-01-01

    One of the most commonly observed features of radiation-induced injury of the gastrointestinal tract is the appearance of severe diarrhea. One difficulty in understanding the origin of radiation-induced diarrhea is the multiplicity of factors implicated, depending on the type of radiation, the dose received and the irradiated field. Colonic transport is regulated for a great part by the enteric nervous system (ENS), in close association with immunocompetent cells, especially mast cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the neuro-immune regulation of colonic transport could be implicated in radiation-induced attenuation and recovery of colonic functions. Male Wistar rats were whole-body irradiated at 3.8 Gy neutron or 5 and 10 Gy gamma. At 1 and 3 days after exposure, the colonic epithelium was hypo-responsive to neural stimulation (submucosal plexus). Mechanistic studies were performed after 10 Gy exposure. The decreased colonic transport was associated with the disappearance of both submucosal mast cells and histamine-mediated pathway, together with decreased responses to exogenous histamine. Similarly, the response to exogenous 5-HT was decreased, without any modification of either the neural (5-HT 3 ) or non-neural (5-HT 4 ) pathways. Seven days after exposure, colonic transport capacity returned to normal in spite of the absence of mast cells. However these observations were associated with the reappearance of a histaminergic pathway, the origin of which is still unknown. The part played by 5-HT 3 receptors was increased, together with the appearance of a neurally-associated 5-HT4 receptor-pathway. These results suggest that the decreased influence of the ENS on colonic transport observed 1 and 3 days after exposure may be due to both the disappearance of neuro-immune links and the hypo-responsiveness of colonic epithelium to the mediators released by ENS. The functional recovery at seven days may be related on one hand to the return of altered

  12. Serotonin Neuron Abnormalities in the BTBR Mouse Model of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yue-Ping; Commons, Kathryn G.

    2017-01-01

    The inbred mouse strain BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) i studied as a model of idiopathic autism because they are less social and more resistant to change than other strains. Forebrain serotonin receptors and the response to serotonin drugs are altered in BTBR mice, yet it remains unknown if serotonin neurons themselves are abnormal. In this study, we found that serotonin tissue content and the density of serotonin axons is reduced in the hippocampus of BTBR mice in comparison to C57BL/6J (C57) mice. This was accompanied by possible compensatory changes in serotonin neurons that were most pronounced in regions known to provide innervation to the hippocampus: the caudal dorsal raphe (B6) and the median raphe. These changes included increased numbers of serotonin neurons and hyperactivation of Fos expression. Metrics of serotonin neurons in the rostral 2/3 of the dorsal raphe and serotonin content of the prefrontal cortex were less impacted. Thus, serotonin neurons exhibit region-dependent abnormalities in the BTBR mouse that may contribute to their altered behavioral profile. PMID:27478061

  13. Kalaeloa Energy System Redevelopment Options Including Advanced Microgrids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, Marion Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baca, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanderMey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In June 2016, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) in collaboration with the Renewable Energy Branch for the Hawaii State Energy Office (HSEO), the Hawaii Community Development Authority (HCDA), the United States Navy (Navy), and Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) established a project to 1) assess the current functionality of the energy infrastructure at the Kalaeloa Community Development District, and 2) evaluate options to use both existing and new distributed and renewable energy generation and storage resources within advanced microgrid frameworks to cost-effectively enhance energy security and reliability for critical stakeholder needs during both short-term and extended electric power outages. This report discusses the results of a stakeholder workshop and associated site visits conducted by Sandia in October 2016 to identify major Kalaeloa stakeholder and tenant energy issues, concerns, and priorities. The report also documents information on the performance and cost benefits of a range of possible energy system improvement options including traditional electric grid upgrade approaches, advanced microgrid upgrades, and combined grid/microgrid improvements. The costs and benefits of the different improvement options are presented, comparing options to see how well they address the energy system reliability, sustainability, and resiliency priorities identified by the Kalaeloa stakeholders.

  14. Serotonin and conditioning: focus on Pavlovian psychostimulant drug conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Robert J; Damianopoulos, Ernest N

    2015-04-01

    Serotonin containing neurons are located in nuclei deep in the brainstem and send axons throughout the central nervous system from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex. The vast scope of these connections and interactions enable serotonin and serotonin analogs to have profound effects upon sensory/motor processes. In that conditioning represents a neuroplastic process that leads to new sensory/motor connections, it is apparent that the serotonin system has the potential for a critical role in conditioning. In this article we review the basics of conditioning as well as the serotonergic system and point up the number of non-associative ways in which manipulations of serotonin neurotransmission have an impact upon conditioning. We focus upon psychostimulant drug conditioning and review the contribution of drug stimuli in the use of serotonin drugs to investigate drug conditioning and the important impact drug stimuli can have on conditioning by introducing new sensory stimuli that can create or mask a CS. We also review the ways in which experimental manipulations of serotonin can disrupt conditioned behavioral effects but not the associative processes in conditioning. In addition, we propose the use of the recently developed memory re-consolidation model of conditioning as an approach to assess the possible role of serotonin in associative processes without the complexities of performance effects related to serotonin treatment induced alterations in sensory/motor systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Systems, Stakeholders, and Students: Including Students in School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zion, Shelley D.

    2009-01-01

    The education system in the United States is under pressure from a variety of sources to reform and improve the delivery of educational services to students. Change across a system as complex and dynamic as the educational system requires a systemic approach and requires the participation or buy-in of all participants and stakeholders. This…

  16. Molecular imaging of serotonin degeneration in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gwenn S; Barrett, Frederick S; Joo, Jin Hui; Nassery, Najlla; Savonenko, Alena; Sodums, Devin J; Marano, Christopher M; Munro, Cynthia A; Brandt, Jason; Kraut, Michael A; Zhou, Yun; Wong, Dean F; Workman, Clifford I

    2017-09-01

    Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions and is found in high concentrations in the serotonergic cell bodies of origin of these projections (raphe nuclei). Twenty-eight participants with mild cognitive impairment (age 66.6±6.9, 16 males) and 28 healthy, cognitively normal, demographically matched controls (age 66.2±7.1, 15 males) underwent magnetic resonance imaging for measurement of grey matter volumes and high-resolution positron emission tomography with well-established radiotracers for the serotonin transporter and regional cerebral blood flow. Beta-amyloid imaging was performed to evaluate, in combination with the neuropsychological testing, the likelihood of subsequent cognitive decline in the participants with mild cognitive impairment. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) the serotonin transporter would be lower in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic regions, 2) in mild cognitive impairment relative to controls, the serotonin transporter would be lower to a greater extent and observed in a more widespread pattern than lower grey matter volumes or lower regional cerebral blood flow and 3) lower cortical and limbic serotonin transporters would be correlated with greater deficits in auditory-verbal and visual-spatial memory in mild cognitive impairment, not in controls. Reduced serotonin transporter availability was observed in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic

  17. Characterization of intracellular regions in the human serotonin transporter for phosphorylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lena; Strømgaard, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders S

    2014-01-01

    In the central nervous system, synaptic levels of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin are mainly controlled by the serotonin transporter (SERT), and drugs used in the treatment of various psychiatric diseases have SERT as primary target. SERT is a phosphoprotein that undergoes phosphorylation....../dephosphorylation during transporter regulation by multiple pathways. In particular, activation and/or inhibition of kinases including PKC, PKG, p38MAPK, and CaMKII modulate SERT function and trafficking. The molecular mechanisms by which kinase activity is linked to SERT regulation are poorly understood, including...

  18. Serotonin receptor activity is necessary for olfactory learning and memory in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, O; Becnel, J; Nichols, C D

    2011-09-29

    Learning and memory in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a complex behavior with many parallels to mammalian learning and memory. Although many neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, dopamine, glutamate, and GABA have previously been demonstrated to be involved in aversive olfactory learning and memory, the role of serotonin has not been well defined. Here, we present the first evidence of the involvement of individual serotonin receptors in olfactory learning and memory in the fly. We initially followed a pharmacological approach, utilizing serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists to demonstrate that all serotonin receptor families present in the fly are necessary for short-term learning and memory. Isobolographic analysis utilizing combinations of drugs revealed functional interactions are occurring between 5-HT(1A)-like and 5-HT(2), and 5-HT(2) and 5-HT(7) receptor circuits in mediating short-term learning and memory. Examination of long-term memory suggests that 5-HT(1A)-like receptors are necessary for consolidation and important for recall, 5-HT(2) receptors are important for consolidation and recall, and 5-HT(7) receptors are involved in all three phases. Importantly, we have validated our pharmacological results with genetic experiments and showed that hypomorph strains for 5-HT(2)Dro and 5-HT(1B)Dro receptors, as well as knockdown of 5-HT(7)Dro mRNA, significantly impair performance in short-term memory. Our data highlight the importance of the serotonin system and individual serotonin receptors to influence olfactory learning and memory in the fly, and position the fly as a model system to study the role of serotonin in cognitive processes relevant to mammalian CNS function. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Serotonin control of thermotaxis memory behavior in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinxia Li

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans.

  20. Serotonin control of thermotaxis memory behavior in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinxia; Zhao, Yunli; Huang, Xu; Lin, Xingfeng; Guo, Yuling; Wang, Daoyong; Li, Chaojun; Wang, Dayong

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf)) increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans.

  1. Serotonin Control of Thermotaxis Memory Behavior in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuling; Wang, Daoyong; Li, Chaojun; Wang, Dayong

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf)) increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans. PMID:24223727

  2. Visualisation of serotonin-1A (5-HT{sub 1A}) receptors in the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passchier, J.; Waarde, A. van [PET Center, University Hospital Groningen (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    The 5-HT{sub 1A} subtype of receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin is predominantly located in the limbic forebrain and is involved in the modulation of emotion and the function of the hypothalamus. Since 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety, depression, hallucinogenic behaviour, motion sickness and eating disorders, they are an important target for drug therapy. Here, we review the radioligands which are available for visualisation and quantification of this important neuroreceptor in the human brain, using positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission tomography (SPET). More than 20 compounds have been labelled with carbon-11 (half-life 20 min), fluorine-18 (half-life 109.8 min) or iodine-123 (half-life 13.2 h): structural analogues of the agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, structural analogues of the antagonist, WAY 100635, and apomorphines. The most successful radioligands thus far are [carbonyl-{sup 11}C] WAY-100635 (WAY), [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]desmethyl-WAY-100635 (DWAY), p-[{sup 18}F]MPPF and [{sup 11}C]robalzotan (NAD-299). The high-affinity ligands WAY and DWAY produce excellent images of 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor distribution in the brain (even the raphe nuclei are visualised), but they cannot be distributed to remote facilities and they probably cannot be used to measure changes in endogenous serotonin. Binding of the moderate-affinity ligands MPPF and NAD-299 may be more sensitive to serotonin competition and MPPF can be distributed to PET centres within a flying distance of a few hours. Future research should be directed towards: (a) improvement of the metabolic stability in primates; (b) development of a fluorinated radioligand which can be produced in large quantities and (c) production of a radioiodinated or technetium-labelled ligand for SPET. (orig.)

  3. Harmonics and voltage stability analysis in power systems including ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    two parameters affecting power quality – harmonics and voltage stability. ... is necessary to pay attention to energy system stability in the planning, management, and ... where k ∈ {m, m + 1,... ,n} and n is total number of the buses in the system.

  4. Line outage contingency analysis including the system islanding scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D.; Bhuyan, S. [Assam Engineering College, Jalukbari, Guwahati 781013 (India); Chowdhury, S.P. [Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2006-05-15

    The paper describes an algorithm for determining the line outage contingency of a line taking into account of line over load effect in remaining lines and subsequent tripping of over loaded line(s) leading to possible system split or islanding of a power system. The optimally ordered sparse [B'], [B'] matrices for the integrated system are used for load flow analysis to determine modified values of voltage phase angles [{delta}] and bus voltages [V] to determine the over loading effect on the remaining lines due to outage of a selected line outage contingency. In case of over loading in remaining line(s), the over loaded lines are removed from the system and a topology processor is used to find the islands. A fast decoupled load flow (FDLF) analysis is carried out for finding out the system variables for the islanded (or single island) system by incorporating appropriate modification in the [B'] and [B'] matrices of the integrated system. Line outage indices based on line overload, loss of load, loss of generation and static voltage stability are computed to indicate severity of a line outage of a selected line. (author)

  5. Operational Linescan System (OLS) - Derived Products (including posters and slides)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and infrared imagery from DMSP Operational Linescan System (OLS) instruments are used to monitor the global distribution of clouds and cloud top temperatures...

  6. Transient performance of integrated SOFC system including spatial temperature control

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, F; Fardadi, M; Shaffer, B; Brouwer, J; Jabbari, F

    2010-01-01

    Spatial temperature feedback control has been developed for a simulated integrated non-pressurized simple cycle solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. The fuel cell spatial temperature feedback controller is based on (1) feed-forward set-points that minimize temperature variation in the fuel cell electrode-electrolyte solid temperature profile for the system operating power range, and (2) decentralized proportional-integral based feedback to maintain the fuel cell spatial temperature profile du...

  7. Reliability assessment of distribution power systems including distributed generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megdiche, M.

    2004-12-01

    Nowadays, power systems have reached a good level of reliability. Nevertheless, considering the modifications induced by the connections of small independent producers to distribution networks, there's a need to assess the reliability of these new systems. Distribution networks present several functional characteristics, highlighted by the qualitative study of the failures, as dispersed loads at several places, variable topology and some electrotechnical phenomena which must be taken into account to model the events that can occur. The adopted reliability calculations method is Monte Carlo simulations, the probabilistic method most powerful and most flexible to model complex operating of the distribution system. We devoted a first part on the case of a 20 kV feeder to which a cogeneration unit is connected. The method was applied to a software of stochastic Petri nets simulations. Then a second part related to the study of a low voltage power system supplied by dispersed generations. Here, the complexity of the events required to code the method in an environment of programming allowing the use of power system calculations (load flow, short-circuit, load shedding, management of units powers) in order to analyse the system state for each new event. (author)

  8. Serotonin Signaling in Schistosoma mansoni: A Serotonin–Activated G Protein-Coupled Receptor Controls Parasite Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mohammed; Ribeiro, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neuroactive substance in all the parasitic helminths. In Schistosoma mansoni, serotonin is strongly myoexcitatory; it potentiates contraction of the body wall muscles and stimulates motor activity. This is considered to be a critical mechanism of motor control in the parasite, but the mode of action of serotonin is poorly understood. Here we provide the first molecular evidence of a functional serotonin receptor (Sm5HTR) in S. mansoni. The schistosome receptor belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and is distantly related to serotonergic type 7 (5HT7) receptors from other species. Functional expression studies in transfected HEK 293 cells showed that Sm5HTR is a specific serotonin receptor and it signals through an increase in intracellular cAMP, consistent with a 5HT7 signaling mechanism. Immunolocalization studies with a specific anti-Sm5HTR antibody revealed that the receptor is abundantly distributed in the worm's nervous system, including the cerebral ganglia and main nerve cords of the central nervous system and the peripheral innervation of the body wall muscles and tegument. RNA interference (RNAi) was performed both in schistosomulae and adult worms to test whether the receptor is required for parasite motility. The RNAi-suppressed adults and larvae were markedly hypoactive compared to the corresponding controls and they were also resistant to exogenous serotonin treatment. These results show that Sm5HTR is at least one of the receptors responsible for the motor effects of serotonin in S. mansoni. The fact that Sm5HTR is expressed in nerve tissue further suggests that serotonin stimulates movement via this receptor by modulating neuronal output to the musculature. Together, the evidence identifies Sm5HTR as an important neuronal protein and a key component of the motor control apparatus in S. mansoni. PMID:24453972

  9. Harmonics and voltage stability analysis in power systems including

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, non-sinusoidal quantities and voltage stability, both known as power quality criteria, are examined together in detail. The widespread use of power electronics elements cause the existence of significant non-sinusoidal quantities in the system. These non-sinusoidal quantities can create serious harmonic ...

  10. Line outage contingency analysis including the system islanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimally ordered sparse [Bʹ], [Bʺ] matrices for the integrated system are used for load flow analysis to determine modified values of voltage phase angles [d] and bus voltages [V] to determine the over loading effect on the remaining lines due to outage of a selected line outage contingency. In case of over loading in ...

  11. Dynamic model including piping acoustics of a centrifugal compression system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helvoirt, van J.; Jager, de A.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with low frequency pulsation phenomena in full-scale centrifugal compression systems associated with compressor surge. The Greitzer lumped parameter model is applied to describe the dynamic behavior of an industrial compressor test rig and experimental evidence is provided for the

  12. Top 10 Threats to Computer Systems Include Professors and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    User awareness is growing in importance when it comes to computer security. Not long ago, keeping college networks safe from cyberattackers mainly involved making sure computers around campus had the latest software patches. New computer worms or viruses would pop up, taking advantage of some digital hole in the Windows operating system or in…

  13. Brain serotonin content - Increase following ingestion of carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernstrom, J. D.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    In the rat, the injection of insulin or the consumption of carbohydrate causes sequential increases in the concentrations of tryptophan in the plasma and the brain and of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin-containing neurons may thus participate in systems whereby the rat brain integrates information about the metabolic state in its relation to control of homeostasis and behavior.

  14. Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D

    2013-06-04

    A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

  15. Differential interaction with the serotonin system by S-ketamine, vortioxetine, and fluoxetine in a genetic rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Liebenberg, Nico; Müller, Heidi Kaastrup; Elfving, Betina; Sanchez, Connie; Wegener, Gregers

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms mediating ketamine's antidepressant effect have only been partly resolved. Recent preclinical reports implicate serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in the antidepressant-like action of ketamine. Vortioxetine is a multimodal-acting antidepressant that is hypothesized to exert its therapeutic activity through 5-HT reuptake inhibition and modulation of several 5-HT receptors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic-like profiles of S-ketamine, vortioxetine, and the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine in response to manipulation of 5-HT tone. Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic model of depression, were depleted of 5-HT by repeated administration of 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester HCl (pCPA). Using pCPA-pretreated and control FSL rats, we investigated the acute and sustained effects of S-ketamine (15 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), or vortioxetine (10 mg/kg) on recognition memory and depression-like behavior in the object recognition task (ORT) and forced swim test (FST), respectively. The behavioral phenotype of FSL rats was unaffected by 5-HT depletion. Vortioxetine, but not fluoxetine or S-ketamine, acutely ameliorated the memory deficits of FSL rats in the ORT irrespective of 5-HT tone. No sustained effects were observed in the ORT. In the FST, all three drugs demonstrated acute antidepressant-like activity but only S-ketamine had sustained effects. Unlike vortioxetine, the antidepressant-like responses of fluoxetine and S-ketamine were abolished by 5-HT depletion. These observations suggest that the acute and sustained antidepressant-like effects of S-ketamine depend on endogenous stimulation of 5-HT receptors. In contrast, the acute therapeutic-like effects of vortioxetine on memory and depression-like behavior may be mediated by direct activity at 5-HT receptors.

  16. Charge transfer in pi-stacked systems including DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebbeles, L.D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Charge migration in DNA is a subject of intense current study motivated by long-range detection of DNA damage and the potential application of DNA as a molecular wire in nanoscale electronic devices. A key structural element, which makes DNA a medium for long-range charge transfer, is the array of stacked base pairs in the interior of the double helix. The overlapping pi-orbitals of the nucleobases provide a pathway for motion of charge carriers generated on the stack. This 'pi-pathway' resembles the columnarly stacked macrocyclic cores in discotic materials such as triphenylenes. The structure of these pi-stacked systems is highly disordered with dynamic fluctuations occurring on picosecond to nanosecond time scales. Theoretical calculations, concerning the effects of structural disorder and nucleobase sequence in DNA, on the dynamics of charge carriers are presented. Electronic couplings and localization energies of charge carriers were calculated using density functional theory (DFT). Results for columnarly stacked triphenylenes and DNA nucleobases are compared. The results are used to provide insight into the factors that control the mobility of charge carriers. Further, experimental results on the site-selective oxidation of guanine nucleobases in DNA (hot spots for DNA damage) are analyzed on basis of the theoretical results

  17. Uremic anorexia: a consequence of persistently high brain serotonin levels? The tryptophan/serotonin disorder hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, A; Selgas, R; Codoceo, R; Bajo, A

    2000-01-01

    Anorexia is a frequent part of uremic syndrome, contributing to malnutrition in dialysis patients. Many factors have been suggested as responsible for uremic anorexia. In this paper we formulate a new hypothesis to explain the appetite disorders in dialysis patients: "the tryptophan/serotonin disorder hypothesis." We review current knowledge of normal hunger-satiety cycle control and the disorders described in uremic patients. There are four phases in food intake regulation: (1) the gastric phase, during which food induces satiety through gastric distention and satiety peptide release; (2) the post absorptive phase, during which circulating compounds, including glucose and amino acids, cause satiety by hepatic receptors via the vagus nerve; (3) the hepatic phase, during which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration is the main stimulus inducing hunger or satiety, with cytokines inhibiting ATP production; and (4) the central phase, during which appetite is regulated through peripheral (circulating plasma substances and neurotransmitters) and brain stimuli. Brain serotonin is the final target for peripheral mechanisms controlling appetite. High brain serotonin levels and a lower serotonin/dopamine ratio cause anorexia. Plasma and brain amino acid concentrations are recognized factors involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and appetite control. Tryptophan is the substrate of serotonin synthesis. High plasma levels of anorectics such as tryptophan (plasma and brain), cholecystokinin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, and leptin, and deficiencies of nitric oxide and neuropeptide Y have been described in uremia; all increase intracerebral serotonin. We suggest that brain serotonin hyperproduction due to a uremic-dependent excess of tryptophan may be the final common pathway involved in the genesis of uremic anorexia. Various methods of ameliorating anorexia by decreasing the central effects of serotonin are proposed.

  18. The serotonin transporter in psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spies, Marie; Knudsen, Karen Birgitte Moos; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, psychotropics affecting the serotonergic system have been used extensively in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Molecular imaging, in particular PET, has allowed for elucidation of the essential contribution of the serotonin transporter to the pathophysiology...... of various psychiatric disorders and their treatment. We review studies that use PET to measure cerebral serotonin transporter activity in psychiatric disorders, focusing on major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment. We also discuss opportunities and limitations in the application...... of this neuroimaging method in clinical practice. Although results from individual studies diverge, meta-analysis indicates a trend towards reduced serotonin transporter availability in patients with major depressive disorder. Inconsistencies in results might suggest symptom heterogeneity in major depressive disorder...

  19. Positive regulation of raphe serotonin neurons by serotonin 2B receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmer, Arnauld; Quentin, Emily; Diaz, Silvina L; Guiard, Bruno P; Fernandez, Sebastian P; Doly, Stéphane; Banas, Sophie M; Pitychoutis, Pothitos M; Moutkine, Imane; Muzerelle, Aude; Tchenio, Anna; Roumier, Anne; Mameli, Manuel; Maroteaux, Luc

    2018-06-01

    Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in many psychiatric diseases. In humans, a lack of 5-HT 2B receptors is associated with serotonin-dependent phenotypes, including impulsivity and suicidality. A lack of 5-HT 2B receptors in mice eliminates the effects of molecules that directly target serotonergic neurons including amphetamine derivative serotonin releasers, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT 2B receptors directly and positively regulate raphe serotonin neuron activity. By ex vivo electrophysiological recordings, we report that stimulation by the 5-HT 2B receptor agonist, BW723C86, increased the firing frequency of serotonin Pet1-positive neurons. Viral overexpression of 5-HT 2B receptors in these neurons increased their excitability. Furthermore, in vivo 5-HT 2B -receptor stimulation by BW723C86 counteracted 5-HT 1A autoreceptor-dependent reduction in firing rate and hypothermic response in wild-type mice. By a conditional genetic ablation that eliminates 5-HT 2B receptor expression specifically and exclusively from Pet1-positive serotonin neurons (Htr2b 5-HTKO mice), we demonstrated that behavioral and sensitizing effects of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine), as well as acute behavioral and chronic neurogenic effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine, require 5-HT 2B receptor expression in serotonergic neurons. In Htr2b 5-HTKO mice, dorsal raphe serotonin neurons displayed a lower firing frequency compared to control Htr2b lox/lox mice as assessed by in vivo extracellular recordings and a stronger hypothermic effect of 5-HT 1A -autoreceptor stimulation was observed. The increase in head-twitch response to DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine) further confirmed the lower serotonergic tone resulting from the absence of 5-HT 2B receptors in serotonin neurons. Together, these observations indicate that the 5-HT 2B receptor acts as a direct positive modulator of serotonin Pet1

  20. Individual differences in emotion-cognition interactions: Emotional valence interacts with serotonin transporter genotype to influence brain systems involved in emotional reactivity and cognitive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eStollstorff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR influences emotional reactivity and attentional bias towards or away from emotional stimuli and has been implicated in psychopathological states, such as depression and anxiety disorder. The short allele is associated with increased reactivity and attention towards negatively-valenced emotional information, whereas the long allele is associated with that towards positively-valenced emotional information. The neural basis for individual differences in the ability to exert cognitive control over these bottom-up biases in emotional reactivity and attention is unknown, an issue investigated in the present study. Two groups, homozygous 5-HTTLPR long allele carriers or homozygous short allele carriers, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while completing an Emotional Stroop-like task that varied with regards to the congruency of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information and the emotional valence of the task-irrelevant information. Behaviorally, participants demonstrated the classic Stroop effect (slower responses for incongruent than congruent trials, which did not differ by 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, fMRI results revealed that genotype influenced the degree to which neural systems were engaged depending on the valence of the conflicting task-irrelevant information. While the Long group recruited prefrontal control regions and superior temporal sulcus during conflict when task-irrelevant information was positively-valenced, the "Short" group recruited these regions when task-irrelevant information was negatively-valenced. Thus, participants successfully engaged cognitive control to overcome conflict in an emotional context using similar neural circuitry, but the engagement of this circuitry depended on emotional valence and 5-HTTLPR status. These results suggest that the interplay between emotion and cognition is modulated, in part, by a genetic polymorphism that influences serotonin

  1. Modulation for emergent networks: serotonin and dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Juyang; Paslaski, Stephen; Daly, James; VanDam, Courtland; Brown, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    In autonomous learning, value-sensitive experiences can improve the efficiency of learning. A learning network needs be motivated so that the limited computational resources and the limited lifetime are devoted to events that are of high value for the agent to compete in its environment. The neuromodulatory system of the brain is mainly responsible for developing such a motivation system. Although reinforcement learning has been extensively studied, many existing models are symbolic whose internal nodes or modules have preset meanings. Neural networks have been used to automatically generate internal emergent representations. However, modeling an emergent motivational system for neural networks is still a great challenge. By emergent, we mean that the internal representations emerge autonomously through interactions with the external environments. This work proposes a generic emergent modulatory system for emergent networks, which includes two subsystems - the serotonin system and the dopamine system. The former signals a large class of stimuli that are intrinsically aversive (e.g., stress or pain). The latter signals a large class of stimuli that are intrinsically appetitive (e.g., pleasure or sweet). We experimented with this motivational system for two settings. The first is a visual recognition setting to investigate how such a system can learn through interactions with a teacher, who does not directly give answers, but only punishments and rewards. The second is a setting for wandering in the presence of a friend and a foe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Serotonin, neural markers and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo eMeneses

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals’ species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence

  3. The importance of serotonin in the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Koza

    2017-12-01

    Description of the current knowledge and conclusions. Serotonin is responsible for some symptoms of carcinoid syndrome. It is the result of higher 5-hydroxytryptamine content in the body. Moreover disrupted serotonin system is found in different gastrointestinal disorders e.g. in gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional heartburn, hypersensitive esophagus, functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (both diarrhoea predominant and constipation predominant as well as in inflammatory bowel diseases. Knowledge of changed mechanisms in particular diseases facilitates the optimal choice of treatment. Drugs affecting the serotonin system in gastroenterological clinical practice are useful especially in the case of abnormalities in the brain - gut axis.

  4. Effects of Ginseng Fruit Saponins on Serotonin System in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Myocardial Infarction, Depression,and Myocardial Infarction Complicated with Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Fang He; Yan-Ping Ren; Mei-Yan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Our previous studies have demonstrated that the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-HT 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) in serum and platelet were associated with depression and myocardial infarction (MI),and pretreatment with ginseng fruit saponins (GFS) before MI and depression had an effect on the 5-HT system.In this study,the effects of GFS on the 5-HT system in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with MI,depression,and MI + depression were evaluated.Methods:A total of eighty SD rats were allocated to four groups:MI,depression,MI + depression,and control groups (n =20 in each group).Each group included two subgroups (n =10 in each subgroup):Saline treatment subgroup and GFS treatment subgroup.The levels of5-HT,5-HT2AR,and serotonin transporter (SERT) were quantified in serum,platelet lysate,and brain tissue through the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method,respectively.Results:Compared with those in the saline treatment subgroups,the levels of 5-HT in serum and platelet lysate statistically significantly increased in the GFS treatment subgroups of MI,depression,and MI + depression groups (serum:all P =0.000;platelet lysate:P =0.002,0.000,0.000,respectively).However,the 5-HT levels in brain homogenate significantly decreased in the GFS treatment subgroups compared with those in the saline treatment subgroups in MI and depression groups (P =0.025 and 0.044 respectively),and no significant difference was observed between saline and GFS treatment subgroups in MI + depression group (P =0.663).Compared with that in GFS treatment subgroup of control group,the 5-HT2AR levels in the platelet lysate significantly decreased in GFS treatment subgroups of MI,depression,and MI + depression groups (all P=0.000).Compared to those in the saline treatment subgroups,the serum SERT levels significantly decreased in the GFS treatment subgroups in MI,depression,and MI + depression groups (P =0.009,0.038,and P=0.001,respectively),while the SERT levels ofplatelet lysate

  5. Mutational Mapping and Modeling of the Binding Site for (S)-Citalopram in the Human Serotonin Transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Olsen, Lars; Hansen, Kasper B.

    2010-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the brain by facilitating uptake of released 5-hydroxytryptamine into neuronal cells. SERT is the target for widely used antidepressant drugs, including imipramine, fluoxetine...

  6. Serotonin metabolism in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    The metabolism of serotonin in rat brain was studied by measuring specific activities of tryptophan in plasma and of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and tryptophan in the brain after intravenous injection of tritiated tryptophan. For a detailed analysis of the specific activities, a computer simulation technique was used. It was found that only a minor part of serotonin in rat brain is synthesized from tryptophan rapidly transported from the blood. It is suggested that the brain tryptophan originates from brain proteins. It was also found that the serotonin in rat brain is divided into more than one metabolic compartment

  7. Discovery of a potent, dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Nicolas; Myers, Jason K; Badescu, Valentina O; de Frutos, Oscar; de la Puente, Maria Luz; Ding, Chunjin; Filla, Sandra A; Fynboe, Karsten; Gernert, Douglas L; Heinz, Beverly A; Hemrick-Luecke, Susan K; Johnson, Kirk W; Johnson, Michael P; López, Pilar; Love, Patrick L; Martin, Laura J; Masquelin, Thierry; McCoy, Michael J; Mendiola, Javier; Morrow, Denise; Muhlhauser, Mark; Pascual, Gustavo; Perun, Thomas J; Pfeifer, Lance A; Phebus, Lee A; Richards, Simon J; Rincón, Juan Antonio; Seest, Eric P; Shah, Jikesh; Shaojuan, Jia; Simmons, Rosa Maria A; Stephenson, Gregory A; Tromiczak, Eric G; Thompson, Linda K; Walter, Magnus W; Weber, Wayne W; Zarrinmayeh, Hamideh; Thomas, Craig E; Joshi, Elizabeth; Iyengar, Smriti; Johansson, Anette M

    2013-06-13

    The objective of the described research effort was to identify a novel serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) with improved norepinephrine transporter activity and acceptable metabolic stability and exhibiting minimal drug-drug interaction. We describe herein the discovery of a series of 3-substituted pyrrolidines, exemplified by compound 1. Compound 1 is a selective SNRI in vitro and in vivo, has favorable ADME properties, and retains inhibitory activity in the formalin model of pain behavior. Compound 1 thus represents a potential new probe to explore utility of SNRIs in central nervous system disorders, including chronic pain conditions.

  8. The Effects of Serotonin in Immune Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Herr, Nadine; Bode, Christoph; Duerschmied, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] plays an important role in many organs as a peripheral hormone. Most of the body’s serotonin is circulating in the bloodstream, transported by blood platelets and is released upon activation. The functions of serotonin are mediated by members of the 7 known mammalian serotonin receptor subtype classes (15 known subtypes), the serotonin transporter (SERT), and by covalent binding of serotonin to different effector proteins. Almost all immune cells express...

  9. Bisphenol A, bisphenol F and bisphenol S affect differently 5α-reductase expression and dopamine–serotonin systems in the prefrontal cortex of juvenile female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Beatriz; Sánchez, Pilar; Torres, Jesús M.; Ortega, Esperanza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) affects brain function and behavior, which might be attributed to its interference with hormonal steroid signaling and/or neurotransmitter systems. Alternatively, the use of structural analogs of BPA, mainly bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS), has increased recently. However, limited in vivo toxicity data exist. Objectives: We investigated the effects of BPA, BPF and BPS on 5α-reductase (5α-R), a key enzyme involved in neurosteroidogenesis, as well as on dopamine (DA)- and serotonin (5-HT)-related genes, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of juvenile female rats. Methods: Gestating Wistar rats were treated with either vehicle or 10 μg/kg/day of BPA, BPF or BPS from gestational day 12 to parturition. Then, female pups were exposed from postnatal day 1 through day 21 (PND21), when they were euthanized and RT-PCR, western blot and quantitative PCR-array experiments were performed. Results: BPA decreased 5α-R2 and 5α-R3 mRNA and protein levels, while both BPF and BPS decreased 5α-R3 mRNA levels in PFC at PND21. Further, BPA, BPF and BPS significantly altered, respectively, the transcription of 25, 56 and 24 genes out of the 84 DA and 5-HT-related genes assayed. Of particular interest was the strong induction by all these bisphenols of Cyp2d4, implicated in corticosteroids synthesis. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate for the first time that BPA, BPF and BPS differentially affect 5α-R and genes related to DA/5-HT systems in the female PFC. In vivo evidence of the potential adverse effects of BPF and BPS in the brain of mammals is provided in this work, raising questions about the safety of these chemicals as substitutes for BPA. - Highlights: • Juvenile prefrontal cortex of female rats exposed to bisphenol A, F or S was analyzed. • We provide the first in vivo data of BPF and BPS effects in mammal brain. • BPA, BPF and BPS differently affected dopamine and serotonin

  10. Bisphenol A, bisphenol F and bisphenol S affect differently 5α-reductase expression and dopamine–serotonin systems in the prefrontal cortex of juvenile female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Beatriz; Sánchez, Pilar [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, Avda. de Madrid s/n, 18012 Granada (Spain); Torres, Jesús M., E-mail: torrespi@ugr.es [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, Avda. de Madrid s/n, 18012 Granada (Spain); Institute of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Ortega, Esperanza, E-mail: esortega@ugr.es [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, Avda. de Madrid s/n, 18012 Granada (Spain); Institute of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) affects brain function and behavior, which might be attributed to its interference with hormonal steroid signaling and/or neurotransmitter systems. Alternatively, the use of structural analogs of BPA, mainly bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS), has increased recently. However, limited in vivo toxicity data exist. Objectives: We investigated the effects of BPA, BPF and BPS on 5α-reductase (5α-R), a key enzyme involved in neurosteroidogenesis, as well as on dopamine (DA)- and serotonin (5-HT)-related genes, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of juvenile female rats. Methods: Gestating Wistar rats were treated with either vehicle or 10 μg/kg/day of BPA, BPF or BPS from gestational day 12 to parturition. Then, female pups were exposed from postnatal day 1 through day 21 (PND21), when they were euthanized and RT-PCR, western blot and quantitative PCR-array experiments were performed. Results: BPA decreased 5α-R2 and 5α-R3 mRNA and protein levels, while both BPF and BPS decreased 5α-R3 mRNA levels in PFC at PND21. Further, BPA, BPF and BPS significantly altered, respectively, the transcription of 25, 56 and 24 genes out of the 84 DA and 5-HT-related genes assayed. Of particular interest was the strong induction by all these bisphenols of Cyp2d4, implicated in corticosteroids synthesis. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate for the first time that BPA, BPF and BPS differentially affect 5α-R and genes related to DA/5-HT systems in the female PFC. In vivo evidence of the potential adverse effects of BPF and BPS in the brain of mammals is provided in this work, raising questions about the safety of these chemicals as substitutes for BPA. - Highlights: • Juvenile prefrontal cortex of female rats exposed to bisphenol A, F or S was analyzed. • We provide the first in vivo data of BPF and BPS effects in mammal brain. • BPA, BPF and BPS differently affected dopamine and serotonin

  11. Positron emission tomography quantification of serotonin(1A) receptor binding in suicide attempters with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gregory M; Oquendo, Maria A; Milak, Matthew; Miller, Jeffrey M; Burke, Ainsley; Ogden, R Todd; Parsey, Ramin V; Mann, J John

    2015-02-01

    Serotonergic system dysfunction has been associated with increased lethal suicide attempts and suicide. Dysfunction includes higher binding of serotonin(1A) autoreceptor in the brainstem raphe of individuals who die by suicide. To determine the relationships between brain serotonin(1A) binding and suicidal behavior in vivo in major depressive disorder (MDD) using positron emission tomography and the serotonin(1A) antagonist radiotracer carbon C 11 [11C]-labeled WAY-100635. Cross-sectional positron emission tomography study at an academic medical center from 1999 through 2009. We compared serotonin(1A) binding between individuals with MDD who did not attempt suicide (nonattempters) (n = 62) and those who attempted suicide (attempters) (n = 29). We subdivided the attempters into those with lower (n = 16) and higher (n = 13) levels of lethality. The binding potential (BPF) of [11C]WAY-100635 (calculated as the number of receptors available divided by affinity) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and brainstem, estimated by kinetic modeling with an arterial input function; the severity of suicidal behaviors, including lethality and intent of suicide attempts; and suicidal ideation. Using a linear mixed-effects model, we found no difference between attempters and nonattempters with MDD in serotonin(1A) BPF in the PFC regions (F1,88 = 0.03; P = .87) or in the raphe nuclei (F1,88 = 0.29; P = .59). Raphe nuclei serotonin(1A) BPF was 45.1% greater in higher-lethality attempters compared with lower-lethality attempters (F1,25 = 7.33; P = .01), whereas no difference was observed in the PFC regions (F1,25 = 0.12; P = .73). Serotonin(1A )BPF in the raphe nuclei of suicide attempters was positively correlated with the lethality rating (F1,25 = 10.56; P = .003) and the subjective lethal intent factor (F1,25 = 10.63; P = .003; R2 = 0.32) based on the most recent suicide attempt. Suicide ideation in participants with

  12. Positron Emission Tomography Quantification of Serotonin1A Receptor Binding in Suicide Attempters With Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gregory M.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Milak, Matthew; Miller, Jeffrey M.; Burke, Ainsley; Ogden, R. Todd; Parsey, Ramin V.; Mann, J. John

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Serotonergic system dysfunction has been associated with increased lethal suicide attempts and suicide. Dysfunction includes higher binding of serotonin1A autoreceptor in the brainstem raphe of individuals who die by suicide. OBJECTIVES To determine the relationships between brain serotonin1A binding and suicidal behavior in vivo in major depressive disorder (MDD) using positron emission tomography and the serotonin1A antagonist radiotracer carbon C 11 [11C]–labeled WAY-100635. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional positron emission tomography study at an academic medical center from 1999 through 2009. We compared serotonin1A binding between individuals with MDD who did not attempt suicide (nonattempters) (n = 62) and those who attempted suicide (attempters) (n = 29). We subdivided the attempters into those with lower (n = 16) and higher (n = 13) levels of lethality. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The binding potential (BPF) of [11C]WAY-100635 (calculated as the number of receptors available divided by affinity) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and brainstem, estimated by kinetic modeling with an arterial input function; the severity of suicidal behaviors, including lethality and intent of suicide attempts; and suicidal ideation. RESULTS Using a linear mixed-effects model, we found no difference between attempters and nonattempters with MDD in serotonin1A BPF in the PFC regions (F1,88 = 0.03; P = .87) or in the raphe nuclei (F1,88 = 0.29; P = .59). Raphe nuclei serotonin1A BPF was 45.1% greater in higher-lethality attempters compared with lower-lethality attempters (F1,25 = 7.33; P = .01), whereas no difference was observed in the PFC regions (F1,25 = 0.12; P = .73). Serotonin1A BPF in the raphe nuclei of suicide attempters was positively correlated with the lethality rating (F1,25 = 10.56; P = .003) and the subjective lethal intent factor (F1,25 = 10.63; P = .003; R2 = 0.32) based on the most recent suicide attempt. Suicide ideation in

  13. Antinociception by systemically-administered acetaminophen (paracetamol) involves spinal serotonin 5-HT7 and adenosine A1 receptors, as well as peripheral adenosine A1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jean; Reid, Allison R; Sawynok, Jana

    2013-03-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic, but its sites and mechanisms of action remain incompletely understood. Recent studies have separately implicated spinal adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)Rs) and serotonin 5-HT(7) receptors (5-HT(7)Rs) in the antinociceptive effects of systemically administered acetaminophen. In the present study, we determined whether these two actions are linked by delivering a selective 5-HT(7)R antagonist to the spinal cord of mice and examining nociception using the formalin 2% model. In normal and A(1)R wild type mice, antinociception by systemic (i.p.) acetaminophen 300mg/kg was reduced by intrathecal (i.t.) delivery of the selective 5-HT(7)R antagonist SB269970 3μg. In mice lacking A(1)Rs, i.t. SB269970 did not reverse antinociception by systemic acetaminophen, indicating a link between spinal 5-HT(7)R and A(1)R mechanisms. We also explored potential roles of peripheral A(1)Rs in antinociception by acetaminophen administered both locally and systemically. In normal mice, intraplantar (i.pl.) acetaminophen 200μg produced antinociception in the formalin test, and this was blocked by co-administration of the selective A(1)R antagonist DPCPX 4.5μg. Acetaminophen administered into the contralateral hindpaw had no effect, indicating a local peripheral action. When acetaminophen was administered systemically, its antinociceptive effect was reversed by i.pl. DPCPX in normal mice; this was also observed in A(1)R wild type mice, but not in those lacking A(1)Rs. In summary, we demonstrate a link between spinal 5-HT(7)Rs and A(1)Rs in the spinal cord relevant to antinociception by systemic acetaminophen. Furthermore, we implicate peripheral A(1)Rs in the antinociceptive effects of locally- and systemically-administered acetaminophen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-conventional features of peripheral serotonin signalling - the gut and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Stephanie N; Mawe, Gary M

    2017-07-01

    Serotonin was first discovered in the gut, and its conventional actions as an intercellular signalling molecule in the intrinsic and extrinsic enteric reflexes are well recognized, as are a number of serotonin signalling pharmacotherapeutic targets for treatment of nausea, diarrhoea or constipation. The latest discoveries have greatly broadened our understanding of non-conventional actions of peripheral serotonin within the gastrointestinal tract and in a number of other tissues. For example, it is now clear that bacteria within the lumen of the bowel influence serotonin synthesis and release by enterochromaffin cells. Also, serotonin can act both as a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signalling molecule in the intestinal mucosa via activation of serotonin receptors (5-HT 7 or 5-HT 4 receptors, respectively). For decades, serotonin receptors have been known to exist in a variety of tissues other than the gut, but studies have now provided strong evidence for physiological roles of serotonin in several important processes, including haematopoiesis, metabolic homeostasis and bone metabolism. Furthermore, evidence for serotonin synthesis in peripheral tissues outside of the gut is emerging. In this Review, we expand the discussion beyond gastrointestinal functions to highlight the roles of peripheral serotonin in colitis, haematopoiesis, energy and bone metabolism, and how serotonin is influenced by the gut microbiota.

  15. Optimal design of power system stabilizer for power systems including doubly fed induction generator wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derafshian, Mehdi; Amjady, Nima

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm-based approach for optimal design of power system stabilizer (PSS) for multi-machine power systems that include doubly fed induction generator wind turbines. The proposed evolutionary algorithm is an improved particle swarm optimization named chaotic particle swarm optimization with passive congregation (CPSO-PC) applied for finding the optimal settings of PSS parameters. Two different eigenvalue-based objectives are combined as the objective function for the optimization problem of tuning PSS parameters. The first objective function comprises the damping factor of lightly damped electro-mechanical modes and the second one includes the damping ratio of these modes. The effectiveness of the proposed method to design PSS for the power systems including DFIG (Doubly Fed Induction Generator) is extensively demonstrated through eigenvalue analysis and time-domain simulations and also by comparing its simulation results with the results of other heuristic optimization approaches. - Highlights: • A new optimization model for design of PSS in power systems including DFIG is proposed. • A detailed and realistic modeling of DFIG is presented. • A new evolutionary algorithm is suggested for solving the optimization problem of designing PSS

  16. The role of serotonin in impulsive aggression, suicide, and homicide in adolescents and adults: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Amy R

    2015-05-01

    This is a literature review discussing previous studies on the associations between impulsive aggression and the serotonergic system in adults, adolescents, and children. The review demonstrates that there is a clear association between low cerebrospinal fluid serotonin and impulsive aggression. However, studies on neurotransmitter receptor profiles, functional imaging, genetics, and epigenetics reviewed in this article suggest a more complicated picture that includes consideration of gene vs. environment in the evaluation of risk. Serotonin supplementation studies suggest that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may reduce impulsive aggression in some adults but are less effective in adults with pathological aggression and also in children and adolescents. Child and adolescent studies are less conclusive, in part due to the heterogeneous physiologic and psychosocial changes occurring over the course of development. The author thus concludes that psychiatrists can reduce risk in these special patient populations by creating safer environments in the form of changes in policy and increased support services.

  17. Serotonin transporter is not required for the development of severe pulmonary hypertension in the Sugen hypoxia rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Raaf, Michiel Alexander; Kroeze, Yvet; Middelman, Anthonieke; de Man, Frances S.; de Jong, Helma; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; de Korte, Chris; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Homberg, Judith; Bogaard, Harm Jan

    2015-01-01

    Increased serotonin serum levels have been proposed to play a key role in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by regulating vessel tone and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. An intact serotonin system, which critically depends on a normal function of the serotonin transporter (SERT), is

  18. Mutational scanning of the human serotonin transporter reveals fast translocating serotonin transporter mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders S; Larsen, Mads B; Johnsen, Laust B

    2004-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) belongs to a family of sodium-chloride-dependent transporters responsible for uptake of amino acids and biogenic amines from the extracellular space. SERT represents a major pharmacological target in the treatment of several clinical conditions, including depressi...

  19. Mounting Systems for Structural Members, Fastening Assemblies Thereof, and Vibration Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Mounting systems for structural members, fastening assemblies thereof, and vibration isolation systems including the same are provided. Mounting systems comprise a pair of mounting brackets, each clamped against a fastening assembly forming a mounting assembly. Fastening assemblies comprise a spherical rod end comprising a spherical member having a through opening and an integrally threaded shaft, first and second seating members on opposite sides of the spherical member and each having a through opening that is substantially coaxial with the spherical member through opening, and a partially threaded fastener that threadably engages each mounting bracket forming the mounting assembly. Structural members have axial end portions, each releasably coupled to a mounting bracket by the integrally threaded shaft. Axial end portions are threaded in opposite directions for permitting structural member rotation to adjust a length thereof to a substantially zero strain position. Structural members may be vibration isolator struts in vibration isolation systems.

  20. Combinatorial evaluation of systems including decomposition of a system representation into fundamental cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joseph S [Richland, WA; Jones-Oliveira, Janet B [Richland, WA; Bailey, Colin G [Wellington, NZ; Gull, Dean W [Seattle, WA

    2008-07-01

    One embodiment of the present invention includes a computer operable to represent a physical system with a graphical data structure corresponding to a matroid. The graphical data structure corresponds to a number of vertices and a number of edges that each correspond to two of the vertices. The computer is further operable to define a closed pathway arrangement with the graphical data structure and identify each different one of a number of fundamental cycles by evaluating a different respective one of the edges with a spanning tree representation. The fundamental cycles each include three or more of the vertices.

  1. Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on behavior and key members of the brain serotonin system in genetically predisposed to behavioral disorders mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, V S; Kondaurova, E M; Bazovkina, D V; Tsybko, A S; Tikhonova, M A; Kulikov, A V; Popova, N K

    2012-07-12

    The effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on depressive-like behavior and serotonin (5-HT) system in the brain of antidepressant sensitive cataleptics (ASC)/Icg mouse strain, characterized by depressive-like behavior, in comparison with the parental nondepressive CBA/Lac mouse strain was examined. Significant decrease of catalepsy and tail suspension test (TST) immobility was shown 17days after acute central BDNF administration (300ng i.c.v.) in ASC mice. In CBA mouse strain, BDNF moderately decreased catalepsy without any effect on TST immobility time. Significant difference between ASC and CBA mice in the effect of BDNF on 5-HT system was revealed. It was shown that central administration of BDNF led to increase of 5-HT(1A) receptor gene expression but not 5-HT(1A) functional activity in ASC mice. Increased tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph-2) and 5-HT(2A) receptor genes expression accompanied by 5-HT(2A) receptor sensitization was shown in BDNF-treated ASC but not in CBA mouse strain, suggesting BDNF-induced increase of the brain 5-HT system functional activity and activation of neurogenesis in "depressive" ASC mice. There were no changes found in the 5-HT transporter mRNA level in BDNF-treated ASC and CBA mice. In conclusion, central administration of BDNF produced prolonged ameliorative effect on depressive-like behavior accompanied by increase of the Tph-2, 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) genes expression and 5-HT(2A) receptor functional activity in animal model of hereditary behavior disorders. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Serotonin blockade delays learning performance in a cooperative fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C; Paula, José R; Bshary, Redouan

    2016-09-01

    Animals use learning and memorizing to gather information that will help them to make ecologically relevant decisions. Neuro-modulatory adjustments enable them to make associations between stimuli and appropriate behavior. A key candidate for the modulation of cooperative behavior is serotonin. Previous research has shown that modulation of the serotonergic system spontaneously affects the behavior of the cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus during interactions with so-called 'client' reef fish. Here, we asked whether shifts in serotonin function affect the cleaners' associative learning abilities when faced with the task to distinguish two artificial clients that differ in their value as a food source. We found that the administration of serotonin 1A receptor antagonist significantly slowed learning speed in comparison with saline treated fish. As reduced serotonergic signaling typically enhances fear, we discuss the possibility that serotonin may affect how cleaners appraise, acquire information and respond to client-derived stimuli via manipulation of the perception of danger.

  3. [3]tetrahydrotrazodone binding. Association with serotonin binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, D.A.; Taylor, D.P.; Enna, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    High (17 nM) and low (603 nM) affinity binding sites for [ 3 ]tetrahydrotrazodone ([ 3 ] THT), a biologically active analogue of trazodone, have been identified in rat brain membranes. The substrate specificity, concentration, and subcellular and regional distributions of these sites suggest that they may represent a component of the serotonin transmitter system. Pharmacological analysis of [ 3 ]THT binding, coupled with brain lesion and drug treatment experiments, revealed that, unlike other antidepressants, [ 3 ] THT does not attach to either a biogenic amine transporter or serotonin binding sites. Rather, it would appear that [ 3 ]THT may be an antagonist ligand for the serotonin binding site. This probe may prove of value in defining the mechanism of action of trazodone and in further characterizing serotonin receptors

  4. β-CIT SPECT demonstrates reduced availability of serotonin transporters in patients with fatal familial insomnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeppel, S.; Kovacs, G.G.; Pirker, W.; Bruecke, T.; Almer, G.

    2002-01-01

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a rare hereditary human prion disease with unique clinical features including progressive sleep impairment and autonomic dysfunction. The serotonergic system is considered to be involved in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. In this study we demonstrate a reduced availability of serotonin transporters of 57 % and 73 % respectively in a thalamus-hypothalamus region of two FFI patients examined with β-CIT SPECT as compared to age-expected control values. (author)

  5. Bisphenol A, bisphenol F and bisphenol S affect differently 5α-reductase expression and dopamine-serotonin systems in the prefrontal cortex of juvenile female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Beatriz; Sánchez, Pilar; Torres, Jesús M; Ortega, Esperanza

    2015-10-01

    Early-life exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) affects brain function and behavior, which might be attributed to its interference with hormonal steroid signaling and/or neurotransmitter systems. Alternatively, the use of structural analogs of BPA, mainly bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS), has increased recently. However, limited in vivo toxicity data exist. We investigated the effects of BPA, BPF and BPS on 5α-reductase (5α-R), a key enzyme involved in neurosteroidogenesis, as well as on dopamine (DA)- and serotonin (5-HT)-related genes, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of juvenile female rats. Gestating Wistar rats were treated with either vehicle or 10 μg/kg/day of BPA, BPF or BPS from gestational day 12 to parturition. Then, female pups were exposed from postnatal day 1 through day 21 (PND21), when they were euthanized and RT-PCR, western blot and quantitative PCR-array experiments were performed. BPA decreased 5α-R2 and 5α-R3 mRNA and protein levels, while both BPF and BPS decreased 5α-R3 mRNA levels in PFC at PND21. Further, BPA, BPF and BPS significantly altered, respectively, the transcription of 25, 56 and 24 genes out of the 84 DA and 5-HT-related genes assayed. Of particular interest was the strong induction by all these bisphenols of Cyp2d4, implicated in corticosteroids synthesis. Our results demonstrate for the first time that BPA, BPF and BPS differentially affect 5α-R and genes related to DA/5-HT systems in the female PFC. In vivo evidence of the potential adverse effects of BPF and BPS in the brain of mammals is provided in this work, raising questions about the safety of these chemicals as substitutes for BPA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethanol intake and 3H-serotonin uptake I: A study in Fawn-Hooded rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoust, M.; Compagnon, P.; Legrand, E.; Boucly, P.

    1991-01-01

    Ethanol intake and synaptosomal 3 H-serotonin uptake were studied in male Fawn-Hooded and Sprague-Dawley rats. Fawn-Hooded rats consumed more alcohol and more water than Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma alcohol levels of Sprague-Dawley rats were not detectable but were about 5 mg/dl in Fawn-Hooded rats. Ethanol intake increased the Vmax of serotonin uptake in Fawn-Hooded rats in hippocampus and cortex, but not in thalamus. In Fawn-Hooded rats, serotonin uptake (Vmax) was higher than in Sprague-Dawley rats cortex. Ethanol intake reduced the Vmax of serotonin uptake in Fawn-Hooded rats in hippocampus and cortex. In cortex, the carrier affinity for serotonin was increased in alcoholized Fawn-Hooded rats. These results indicate that synaptosomal 3 H-serotonin uptake is affected by ethanol intake. In Fawn-Hooded rats, high ethanol consumption is associated with high serotonin uptake. In rats presenting high serotonin uptake, alcoholization reduces 3 H-serotonin internalization in synaptosomes, indicating a specific sensitivity to alcohol intake of serotonin uptake system

  7. 75 FR 36678 - In the Matter of Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-697] In the Matter of Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic Devices; Notice of Commission Decision Not to... importation of certain authentication systems, including software and handheld electronic devices, by reason...

  8. Serotonin-promoted elevation of ROS levels may lead to cardiac pathologies in diabetic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM develop tendencies toward heart disease. Hyperglycemia induces the release of serotonin from enterochromaffin cells (EC. Serotonin was observed to elevate reactive oxygen species (ROS and downregulate antioxidant enzymes. As a result, elevated levels of serotonin could contribute to diabetic complications, including cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by alloxan administration; this was followed by the administration of serotonin to experimental animals. ROS, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP expression, and histopathological assessments were performed. Elevated ROS concentrations and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities were detected. Further, we observed an increase in cell surface area and elevated BNP expression which suggests that events associated with cardiac hypertrophy were increased in serotonin-administered diabetic rats. We conclude that serotonin secretion in diabetes could contribute to diabetic complications, including cardiac hypertrophy, through enhanced ROS production.

  9. The roles of dopamine and serotonin in decision making: evidence from pharmacological experiments in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Neurophysiological experiments in primates, alongside neuropsychological and functional magnetic resonance investigations in humans, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the neural architecture of decision making. In this review, I consider the more limited database of experiments that have investigated how dopamine and serotonin activity influences the choices of human adults. These include those experiments that have involved the administration of drugs to healthy controls, experiments that have tested genotypic influences upon dopamine and serotonin function, and, finally, some of those experiments that have examined the effects of drugs on the decision making of clinical samples. Pharmacological experiments in humans are few in number and face considerable methodological challenges in terms of drug specificity, uncertainties about pre- vs post-synaptic modes of action, and interactions with baseline cognitive performance. However, the available data are broadly consistent with current computational models of dopamine function in decision making and highlight the dissociable roles of dopamine receptor systems in the learning about outcomes that underpins value-based decision making. Moreover, genotypic influences on (interacting) prefrontal and striatal dopamine activity are associated with changes in choice behavior that might be relevant to understanding exploratory behaviors and vulnerability to addictive disorders. Manipulations of serotonin in laboratory tests of decision making in human participants have provided less consistent results, but the information gathered to date indicates a role for serotonin in learning about bad decision outcomes, non-normative aspects of risk-seeking behavior, and social choices involving affiliation and notions of fairness. Finally, I suggest that the role played by serotonin in the regulation of cognitive biases, and representation of context in learning, point toward a role in the cortically mediated cognitive

  10. Upregulation of the dorsal raphe nucleus-prefrontal cortex serotonin system by chronic treatment with escitalopram in hyposerotonergic Wistar-Kyoto rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamada, Makiko; Kawahara, Yukie; Kaneko, Fumi; Kishikawa, Yuki; Sotogaku, Naoki; Poppinga, Wilfred J.; Folgering, Joost H. A.; Dremencov, Eliyahu; Kawahara, Hiroshi; Nishi, Akinori

    Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats are sensitive to chronic stressors and exhibit depression-like behavior. Dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) serotonin (5-HT) neurons projecting to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) comprise the important neurocircuitry underlying the pathophysiology of depression. To evaluate the DRN-PFC

  11. Serotonin and decision making processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important player in decision making. Serotonergic antidepressant, anxiolytic and antipsychotic drugs are extensively used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by impaired decision making, and exert both beneficial and harmful effects in patients.

  12. Interaction between serotonin transporter and serotonin receptor 1 B genes polymorphisms may be associated with antisocial alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Chen-Lin; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lu, Ru-Band

    2012-07-11

    Several studies have hypothesized that genes regulating the components of the serotonin system, including serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and serotonin 1 B receptor (5-HT1B), may be associated with alcoholism, but their results are contradictory because of alcoholism's heterogeneity. Therefore, we examined whether the 5-HTTLPR gene and 5-HT1B gene G861C polymorphism are susceptibility factors for a specific subtype of alcoholism, antisocial alcoholism in Han Chinese in Taiwan. We recruited 273 Han Chinese male inmates with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) [antisocial alcoholism (AS-ALC) group (n=120) and antisocial non-alcoholism (AS-N-ALC) group (n=153)] and 191 healthy male controls from the community. Genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. There were no significant differences in the genotypic frequency of the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism between the 3 groups. Although AS-ALC group members more frequently carried the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes than controls, the difference became non-significant after controlling for the covarying effects of age. However, the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes may have interacted with the 5-HT1B G861C C/C polymorphism and increased the risk of becoming antisocial alcoholism. Our study suggests that neither the 5-HTTLPR gene nor the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism alone is a risk factor for antisocial alcoholism in Taiwan's Han Chinese population, but that the interaction between both genes may increase susceptibility to antisocial alcoholism.

  13. Interaction between Serotonin Transporter and Serotonin Receptor 1 B genes polymorphisms may be associated with antisocial alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tzu-Yun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have hypothesized that genes regulating the components of the serotonin system, including serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR and serotonin 1 B receptor (5-HT1B, may be associated with alcoholism, but their results are contradictory because of alcoholism’s heterogeneity. Therefore, we examined whether the 5-HTTLPR gene and 5-HT1B gene G861C polymorphism are susceptibility factors for a specific subtype of alcoholism, antisocial alcoholism in Han Chinese in Taiwan. Methods We recruited 273 Han Chinese male inmates with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD [antisocial alcoholism (AS-ALC group (n = 120 and antisocial non-alcoholism (AS-N-ALC group (n = 153] and 191 healthy male controls from the community. Genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. Results There were no significant differences in the genotypic frequency of the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism between the 3 groups. Although AS-ALC group members more frequently carried the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes than controls, the difference became non-significant after controlling for the covarying effects of age. However, the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/LG, and LG/LG genotypes may have interacted with the 5-HT1B G861C C/C polymorphism and increased the risk of becoming antisocial alcoholism. Conclusion Our study suggests that neither the 5-HTTLPR gene nor the 5-HT1B G861C polymorphism alone is a risk factor for antisocial alcoholism in Taiwan’s Han Chinese population, but that the interaction between both genes may increase susceptibility to antisocial alcoholism.

  14. Conundrums in neurology: diagnosing serotonin syndrome - a meta-analysis of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneke, Ursula; Jamshidi, Fariba; Taylor, David M; Ott, Michael

    2016-07-12

    Serotonin syndrome is a toxic state, caused by serotonin (5HT) excess in the central nervous system. Serotonin syndrome's main feature is neuro-muscular hyperexcitability, which in many cases is mild but in some cases can become life-threatening. The diagnosis of serotonin syndrome remains challenging since it can only be made on clinical grounds. Three diagnostic criteria systems, Sternbach, Radomski and Hunter classifications, are available. Here we test the validity of four assumptions that have become widely accepted: (1) The Hunter classification performs clinically better than the Sternbach and Radomski criteria; (2) in contrast to neuroleptic malignant syndrome, the onset of serotonin syndrome is usually rapid; (3) hyperthermia is a hallmark of severe serotonin syndrome; and (4) serotonin syndrome can readily be distinguished from neuroleptic malignant syndrome on clinical grounds and on the basis of medication history. Systematic review and meta-analysis of all cases of serotonin syndrome and toxicity published between 2004 and 2014, using PubMed and Web of Science. Two of the four assumptions (1 and 2) are based on only one published study each and have not been independently validated. There is little agreement between current criteria systems for the diagnosis of serotonin syndrome. Although frequently thought to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of the serotonin syndrome, the Hunter criteria did not perform better than the Sternbach and Radomski criteria. Not all cases seem to be of rapid onset and only relatively few cases may present with hyperthermia. The 0 differential diagnosis between serotonin syndrome and neuroleptic malignant syndrome is not always clear-cut. Our findings challenge four commonly made assumptions about serotonin syndrome. We propose our meta-analysis of cases (MAC) method as a new way to systematically pool and interpret anecdotal but important clinical information concerning uncommon or emergent phenomena that cannot be

  15. 30 CFR 285.810 - What must I include in my Safety Management System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my Safety Management System? 285.810 Section 285.810 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 285.810 What must I include in my Safety Management System...

  16. 42 CFR 413.217 - Items and services included in the ESRD prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... payment system. 413.217 Section 413.217 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT....217 Items and services included in the ESRD prospective payment system. The following items and services are included in the ESRD prospective payment system effective January 1, 2011: (a) Renal dialysis...

  17. 78 FR 25304 - Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ..., USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Source... Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), including on- site leased... of February 2013, Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology...

  18. Behavioral Effects of Systemic, Infralimbic and Prelimbic Injections of a Serotonin 5-HT2A Antagonist in Carioca High- and Low-Conditioned Freezing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. León

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT] and 5-HT2A receptors in anxiety has been extensively studied, mostly without considering individual differences in trait anxiety. Our laboratory developed two lines of animals that are bred for high and low freezing responses to contextual cues that are previously associated with footshock (Carioca High-conditioned Freezing [CHF] and Carioca Low-conditioned Freezing [CLF]. The present study investigated whether ketanserin, a preferential 5-HT2A receptor blocker, exerts distinct anxiety-like profiles in these two lines of animals. In the first experiment, the animals received a systemic injection of ketanserin and were exposed to the elevated plus maze (EPM. In the second experiment, these two lines of animals received microinjections of ketanserin in the infralimbic (IL and prelimbic (PL cortices and were exposed to either the EPM or a contextual fear conditioning paradigm. The two rat lines exhibited bidirectional effects on anxiety-like behavior in the EPM and opposite responses to ketanserin. Both systemic and intra-IL cortex injections of ketanserin exerted anxiolytic-like effects in CHF rats but anxiogenic-like effects in CLF rats. Microinjections of ketanserin in the PL cortex also exerted anxiolytic-like effects in CHF rats but had no effect in CLF rats. These results suggest that the behavioral effects of 5-HT2A receptor antagonism might depend on genetic variability associated with baseline reactions to threatening situations and 5-HT2A receptor expression in the IL and PL cortices.Highlights-CHF and CLF rats are two bidirectional lines that are based on contextual fear conditioning.-CHF rats have a more “anxious” phenotype than CLF rats in the EPM.-The 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin had opposite behavioral effects in CHF and CLF rats.-Systemic and IL injections either decreased (CHF or increased (CLF anxiety-like behavior.-PL injections either decreased (CHF anxiety

  19. Perceived Parenting Mediates Serotonin Transporter Gene (5-HTTLPR) and Neural System Function during Facial Recognition: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Saori

    2015-01-01

    This study examined changes in prefrontal oxy-Hb levels measured by NIRS (Near-Infrared Spectroscopy) during a facial-emotion recognition task in healthy adults, testing a mediational/moderational model of these variables. Fifty-three healthy adults (male = 35, female = 18) aged between 22 to 37 years old (mean age = 24.05 years old) provided saliva samples, completed a EMBU questionnaire (Swedish acronym for Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran [My memories of upbringing]), and participated in a facial-emotion recognition task during NIRS recording. There was a main effect of maternal rejection on RoxH (right frontal activation during an ambiguous task), and a gene × environment (G×E) interaction on RoxH, suggesting that individuals who carry the SL or LL genotype and who endorse greater perceived maternal rejection show less right frontal activation than SL/LL carriers with lower perceived maternal rejection. Finally, perceived parenting style played a mediating role in right frontal activation via the 5-HTTLPR genotype. Early-perceived parenting might influence neural activity in an uncertain situation i.e. rating ambiguous faces among individuals with certain genotypes. This preliminary study makes a small contribution to the mapping of an influence of gene and behaviour on the neural system. More such attempts should be made in order to clarify the links. PMID:26418317

  20. Perceived Parenting Mediates Serotonin Transporter Gene (5-HTTLPR and Neural System Function during Facial Recognition: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Nishikawa

    Full Text Available This study examined changes in prefrontal oxy-Hb levels measured by NIRS (Near-Infrared Spectroscopy during a facial-emotion recognition task in healthy adults, testing a mediational/moderational model of these variables. Fifty-three healthy adults (male = 35, female = 18 aged between 22 to 37 years old (mean age = 24.05 years old provided saliva samples, completed a EMBU questionnaire (Swedish acronym for Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran [My memories of upbringing], and participated in a facial-emotion recognition task during NIRS recording. There was a main effect of maternal rejection on RoxH (right frontal activation during an ambiguous task, and a gene × environment (G × E interaction on RoxH, suggesting that individuals who carry the SL or LL genotype and who endorse greater perceived maternal rejection show less right frontal activation than SL/LL carriers with lower perceived maternal rejection. Finally, perceived parenting style played a mediating role in right frontal activation via the 5-HTTLPR genotype. Early-perceived parenting might influence neural activity in an uncertain situation i.e. rating ambiguous faces among individuals with certain genotypes. This preliminary study makes a small contribution to the mapping of an influence of gene and behaviour on the neural system. More such attempts should be made in order to clarify the links.

  1. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettner, Daisie

    2001-01-01

    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  2. Serotonin is critical for rewarded olfactory short-term memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaraman, Divya; LaFerriere, Holly; Birman, Serge; Zars, Troy

    2012-06-01

    The biogenic amines dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin are critical in establishing normal memories. A common view for the amines in insect memory performance has emerged in which dopamine and octopamine are largely responsible for aversive and appetitive memories. Examination of the function of serotonin begins to challenge the notion of one amine type per memory because altering serotonin function also reduces aversive olfactory memory and place memory levels. Could the function of serotonin be restricted to the aversive domain, suggesting a more specific dopamine/serotonin system interaction? The function of the serotonergic system in appetitive olfactory memory was examined. By targeting the tetanus toxin light chain (TNT) and the human inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.1) to the serotonin neurons with two different GAL4 driver combinations, the serotonergic system was inhibited. Additional use of the GAL80(ts1) system to control expression of transgenes to the adult stage of the life cycle addressed a potential developmental role of serotonin in appetitive memory. Reduction in appetitive olfactory memory performance in flies with these transgenic manipulations, without altering control behaviors, showed that the serotonergic system is also required for normal appetitive memory. Thus, serotonin appears to have a more general role in Drosophila memory, and implies an interaction with both the dopaminergic and octopaminergic systems.

  3. Annexes to the lecture on reactor protection system including engineered features actuation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmaers, W.

    1982-01-01

    The present paper deals with the fundamentals for a reactor protection system and discusses the following topics: - System lay-out - Analog measured data acquisition - Analog measured data processing - Limit value generation and logical gating - Procesing of the reactor protection actuation signals - Decoupling of the reactor protection system - Mechanical lay-out - Monitoring system and - Emergency control station. (orig./RW)

  4. Serotonin projection patterns to the cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A M; Thompson, G C

    2001-07-13

    The cochlear nucleus is well known as an obligatory relay center for primary auditory nerve fibers. Perhaps not so well known is the neural input to the cochlear nucleus from cells containing serotonin that reside near the midline in the midbrain raphe region. Although the specific locations of the main, if not sole, sources of serotonin within the dorsal cochlear nucleus subdivision are known to be the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, sources of serotonin located within other cochlear nucleus subdivisions are not currently known. Anterograde tract tracing was used to label fibers originating from the dorsal and median raphe nuclei while fluorescence immunohistochemistry was used to simultaneously label specific serotonin fibers in cat. Biotinylated dextran amine was injected into the dorsal and median raphe nuclei and was visualized with Texas Red, while serotonin was visualized with fluorescein. Thus, double-labeled fibers were unequivocally identified as serotoninergic and originating from one of the labeled neurons within the dorsal and median raphe nuclei. Double-labeled fiber segments, typically of fine caliber with oval varicosities, were observed in many areas of the cochlear nucleus. They were found in the molecular layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, in the small cell cap region, and in the granule cell and external regions of the cochlear nuclei, bilaterally, of all cats. However, the density of these double-labeled fiber segments varied considerably depending upon the exact region in which they were found. Fiber segments were most dense in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (especially in the molecular layer) and the large spherical cell area of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus; they were moderately dense in the small cell cap region; and fiber segments were least dense in the octopus and multipolar cell regions of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus. Because of the presence of labeled fiber segments in subdivisions of the cochlear nucleus other than the

  5. Deletion of the serotonin transporter in rats disturbs serotonin homeostasis without impairing liver regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matondo, R.B.; Punt, C.J.A.; Homberg, J.R.; Toussaint, M.J.; Kisjes, R.; Korporaal, S.J.; Akkerman, J.W.; Cuppen, E.; Bruin, A. de

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin transporter is implicated in the uptake of the vasoconstrictor serotonin from the circulation into the platelets, where 95% of all blood serotonin is stored and released in response to vascular injury. In vivo studies indicated that platelet-derived serotonin mediates liver

  6. Deletion of the serotonin transporter in rats disturbs serotonin homeostasis without impairing liver regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matondo, R.B.; Punt, C.; Homberg, J.R.; Toussaint, M.J.; Kisjes, R.; Korporaal, S.J.; Akkerman, J.W.; Cuppen, E.; de Bruin, A.

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin transporter is implicated in the uptake of the vasoconstrictor serotonin from the circulation into the platelets, where 95% of all blood serotonin is stored and released in response to vascular injury. In vivo studies indicated that platelet-derived serotonin mediates liver

  7. Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) Antidepressant SNRIs help relieve depression symptoms, such as irritability and sadness, ... effects they may cause. By Mayo Clinic Staff Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class ...

  8. 75 FR 448 - In the Matter of: Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-697] In the Matter of: Certain Authentication... the sale within the United States after importation of certain authentication systems, including... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of authentication systems, including...

  9. Integrated model of port oil piping transportation system safety including operating environment threats

    OpenAIRE

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Kuligowska, Ewa; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated general model of complex technical system, linking its multistate safety model and the model of its operation process including operating environment threats and considering variable at different operation states its safety structures and its components safety parameters. Under the assumption that the system has exponential safety function, the safety characteristics of the port oil piping transportation system are determined.

  10. Including natural systems into the system engineering process: benefits to spaceflight and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studor, George

    2014-03-01

    How did we get to the point where we don't have time to be inspired by the wonders of Nature? Our office walls, homes and city streets are so plain that even when we do escape to a retreat with nature all around us, we may be blind to its magnificence. Yet there are many who have applied what can be known of natural systems (NS) to create practical solutions, but often definite applications for them are lacking. Mimicry of natural systems is not only more possible than ever before, but the education and research programs in many major universities are churning out graduates with a real appreciation for Nature's complex integrated systems. What if these skills and perspectives were employed in the teams of systems engineers and the technology developers that support them to help the teams think "outside-the-box" of manmade inventions? If systems engineers (SE) and technology developers regularly asked the question, "what can we learn from Nature that will help us?" as a part of their processes, they would discover another set of potential solutions. Biomimicry and knowledge of natural systems is exploding. What does this mean for systems engineering and technology? Some disciplines such as robotics and medical devices must consider nature constantly. Perhaps it's time for all technology developers and systems engineers to perceive natural systems experts as potential providers of the technologies they need.

  11. Electrophysiological Assessment of Serotonin and GABA Neuron Function in the Dorsal Raphe during the Third Trimester Equivalent Developmental Period in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Russell A; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the development of the serotonin system can have prolonged effects, including depression and anxiety disorders later in life. Serotonin axonal projections from the dorsal raphe undergo extensive refinement during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodents (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy). However, little is known about the functional properties of serotonin and GABA neurons in the dorsal raphe during this critical developmental period. We assessed the functional properties and synaptic connectivity of putative serotoninergic neurons and GABAergic neurons in the dorsal raphe during early [postnatal day (P) P5-P7] and late (P15-P17) stages of the third trimester equivalent period using electrophysiology. Our studies demonstrate that GABAergic neurons are hyperexcitable at P5-P7 relative to P15-P17. Furthermore, putative serotonin neurons exhibit an increase in both excitatory and GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous postsynaptic currents during this developmental period. Our data suggest that GABAergic neurons and putative serotonin neurons undergo significant electrophysiological changes during neonatal development.

  12. Serotonin Modulation of Prefronto-Hippocampal Rhythms in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, M Victoria; Gener, Thomas

    2015-07-15

    There is mounting evidence that most cognitive functions depend upon the coordinated activity of neuronal networks often located far from each other in the brain. Ensembles of neurons synchronize their activity, generating oscillations at different frequencies that may encode behavior by allowing an efficient communication between brain areas. The serotonin system, by virtue of the widespread arborisation of serotonergic neurons, is in an excellent position to exert strong modulatory actions on brain rhythms. These include specific oscillatory activities in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, two brain areas essential for many higher-order cognitive functions. Psychiatric patients show abnormal oscillatory activities in these areas, notably patients with schizophrenia who display psychotic symptoms as well as affective and cognitive impairments. Synchronization of neural activity between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus seems to be important for cognition and, in fact, reduced prefronto-hippocampal synchrony has been observed in a genetic mouse model of schizophrenia. Here, we review recent advances in the field of neuromodulation of brain rhythms by serotonin, focusing on the actions of serotonin in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. Considering that the serotonergic system plays a crucial role in cognition and mood and is a target of many psychiatric treatments, it is surprising that this field of research is still in its infancy. In that regard, we point to future investigations that are much needed in this field.

  13. Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR, rs25531) influences the analgesic response to the short acting opioid Remifentanil in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Schalling Martin; Lonsdorf Tina B; Jensen Karin B; Kosek Eva; Ingvar Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There is evidence from animal studies that serotonin (5-HT) can influence the antinociceptive effects of opioids at the spinal cord level. Therefore, there could be an influence of genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin system on individual variability in response to opioid treatment of pain. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key regulator of serotonin metabolism and availability and its gene harbors several known polymorphisms that are known to affect 5-HTT expressio...

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS of THE TURKISH PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM WITH GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS INCLUDING SEPARATION of POWERS

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, Çağrı D.; ŞENER, Bülent; BİLGİLİ, Muhammed Yunus

    2017-01-01

    There are many debates on the “Turkish presidential government model (TPGM)” that propose radical changes in the Turkish administration system. Such discussions take its source from the dichotomies of the “unity of power-separation of powers” and the “presidential system-parliamentary system”. Until the constitutional amendment proposal of December 10, 2016 in Turkey the debate on the government system in Turkey has been publicized by the name of “presidential” or “Turkish type presidential” ...

  15. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  16. Oscillatory serotonin function in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Ronald M; Cowan, Ronald L

    2013-11-01

    Oscillations in brain activities with periods of minutes to hours may be critical for normal mood behaviors. Ultradian (faster than circadian) rhythms of mood behaviors and associated central nervous system activities are altered in depression. Recent data suggest that ultradian rhythms in serotonin (5HT) function also change in depression. In two separate studies, 5HT metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured every 10 min for 24 h before and after chronic antidepressant treatment. Antidepressant treatments were associated with enhanced ultradian amplitudes of CSF metabolite levels. Another study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure amplitudes of dorsal raphé activation cycles following sham or active dietary depletions of the 5HT precursor (tryptophan). During depletion, amplitudes of dorsal raphé activation cycles increased with rapid 6 s periods (about 0.18 Hz) while functional connectivity weakened between dorsal raphé and thalamus at slower periods of 20 s (0.05 Hz). A third approach studied MDMA (ecstasy, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) users because of their chronically diminished 5HT function compared with non-MDMA polysubstance users (Karageorgiou et al., 2009). Compared with a non-MDMA using cohort, MDMA users showed diminished fMRI intra-regional coherence in motor regions along with altered functional connectivity, again suggesting effects of altered 5HT oscillatory function. These data support a hypothesis that qualities of ultradian oscillations in 5HT function may critically influence moods and behaviors. Dysfunctional 5HT rhythms in depression may be a common endpoint and biomarker for depression, linking dysfunction of slow brain network oscillators to 5HT mechanisms affected by commonly available treatments. 5HT oscillatory dysfunction may define illness subtypes and predict responses to serotonergic agents. Further studies of 5HT oscillations in depression are indicated. Copyright

  17. Protonated serotonin: Geometry, electronic structures and photophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyan, Reza; Amanollahi, Zohreh; Azimi, Gholamhassan

    2017-07-01

    The geometry and electronic structures of protonated serotonin have been investigated by the aim of MP2 and CC2 methods. The relative stabilities, transition energies and geometry of sixteen different protonated isomers of serotonin have been presented. It has been predicted that protonation does not exhibit essential alteration on the S1 ← S0 electronic transition energy of serotonin. Instead, more complicated photophysical nature in respect to its neutral analogue is suggested for protonated system owing to radiative and non-radiative deactivation pathways. In addition to hydrogen detachment (HD), hydrogen/proton transfer (H/PT) processes from ammonium to indole ring along the NH+⋯ π hydrogen bond have been predicted as the most important photophysical consequences of SERH+ at S1 excited state. The PT processes is suggested to be responsible for fluorescence of SERH+ while the HD driving coordinate is proposed for elucidation of its nonradiative deactivation mechanism.

  18. Sex Differences in Serotonin 1 Receptor Binding in Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischette, Christine T.; Biegon, Anat; McEwen, Bruce S.

    1983-10-01

    Male and female rats exhibit sex differences in binding by serotonin 1 receptors in discrete areas of the brain, some of which have been implicated in the control of ovulation and of gonadotropin release. The sex-specific changes in binding, which occur in response to the same hormonal (estrogenic) stimulus, are due to changes in the number of binding sites. Castration alone also affects the number of binding sites in certain areas. The results lead to the conclusion that peripheral hormones modulate binding by serotonin 1 receptors. The status of the serotonin receptor system may affect the reproductive capacity of an organism and may be related to sex-linked emotional disturbances in humans.

  19. Method for pulse control in a laser including a stimulated brillouin scattering mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2007-10-23

    A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

  20. 75 FR 76487 - Haldex Brake Corporation, Commercial Vehicle Systems, Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ..., Commercial Vehicle Systems, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Johnston Integration Technologies, a... Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (``Act''), 19 U.S.C... system components. The company reports that workers leased from Johnston Integration Technologies, a...

  1. Integrated model of port oil piping transportation system safety including operating environment threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołowrocki Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an integrated general model of complex technical system, linking its multistate safety model and the model of its operation process including operating environment threats and considering variable at different operation states its safety structures and its components safety parameters. Under the assumption that the system has exponential safety function, the safety characteristics of the port oil piping transportation system are determined.

  2. Biodistribution and dosimetry of 123I-mZIENT: a novel ligand for imaging serotonin transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, Alice; Krishnadas, Rajeev; Champion, Sue; Tamagnan, Gilles; Stehouwer, Jeffrey S.; Goodman, Mark M.; Hadley, Donald M.; Pimlott, Sally L.

    2012-01-01

    123 I-labelled mZIENT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(3'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane) has been developed as a radioligand for the serotonin transporter. The aim of this preliminary study was to assess its whole-body biodistribution in humans and estimate dosimetry. Three healthy controls and three patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy for depression were included (two men, four women, age range 41-56 years). Whole-body imaging, brain SPECT imaging and blood and urine sampling were performed. Whole-body images were analysed using regions of interest (ROIs), time-activity curves were derived using compartmental analysis and dosimetry estimated using OLINDA software. Brain ROI analysis was performed to obtain specific-to-nonspecific binding ratios in the midbrain, thalamus and striatum. Initial high uptake in the lungs decreased in later images. Lower uptake was seen in the brain, liver and intestines. Excretion was primarily through the urinary system. The effective dose was estimated to be of the order of 0.03 mSv/MBq. The organ receiving the highest absorbed dose was the lower large intestine wall. Uptake in the brain was consistent with the known SERT distribution with higher specific-to-nonspecific binding in the midbrain, thalamus and striatum in healthy controls compared with patients receiving SSRI therapy. 123 I-mZIENT may be a promising radioligand for imaging the serotonin transporters in humans with acceptable dosimetry. (orig.)

  3. Central fatigue and nycthemeral change of serum tryptophan and serotonin in the athletic horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percipalle Maurizio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serotonergic system is associated with numerous brain functions, including the resetting of the mammalian circadian clock. The synthesis and metabolism of 5-HT in the brain increases in response to exercise and is correlated with high levels of blood-borne tryptophan (TRP. The present investigation was aimed at testing the existence of a daily rhythm of TRP and 5-HT in the blood of athletic horses. Methods Blood samples from 5 Thoroughbred mares were collected at 4-hour intervals for 48 hours (starting at 08:00 hours on day 1 and finishing at 4:00 on day 2 via an intravenous cannula inserted into the jugular vein. Tryptophan and serotonin concentrations were assessed by HPLC. Data analysis was conducted by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA and by the single cosinor method. Results ANOVA showed a highly significant influence of time both on tryptophan and on serotonin, in all horses, on either day, with p values Conclusion The results showed that serotonin and tryptophan blood levels undergo nycthemeral variation with typical evening acrophases. These results enhance the understanding of the athlete horse's chronoperformance and facilitate the establishment of training programs that take into account the nycthemeral pattern of aminoacids deeply involved in the onset of central fatigue.

  4. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of serotonin receptors in the rat brain. I. Serotonin-1 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos, A.; Palacios, M.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of serotonin-1 (5-HT 1 ) receptors in the rat brain was studied by light microscopic quantitative autoradiography. Receptors were labeled with [ 3 H]serotonin (5-[ 3 H]HT), 8-hydroxy-2-[N-dipropylamino- 3 H]tetralin (8-OH-[ 3 H]DPAT), [ 3 H]LSD and [ 3 H]mesulergine, and the densities quantified by microdensitometry with the aid of a computer-assisted image-analysis system. Competition experiments for 5-[ 3 H]HT binding by several serotonin-1 agonists led to the identification of brain areas enriched in each one of the three subtypes of 5-HT 1 recognition sites already described. The existence of these 'selective' areas allowed a detailed pharmacological characterization of these sites to be made in a more precise manner than has been attained in membrane-binding studies. Very high concentrations of 5-HT 1 receptors were localized in the choroid plexus, lateroseptal nucleus, globus pallidus and ventral pallidum, dentate gyrus, dorsal subiculum, olivary pretectal nucleus, substantia nigra, reticular and external layer of the entorhinal cortex. The distribution of 5-HT 1 receptors reported here is discussed in correlation with the distribution of serotoninergic neurons and fibers, the related anatomical pathways and the effects which appear to be mediated by these sites. (Auth.)

  5. Economic/Environmental power dispatch for power systems including wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen BEN JAOUED

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the Economic/Environmental power Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind energies. The power flow model for a stall regulated fixed speed wind generator (SR-FSWG system is discussed to assess the steady-state condition of power systems with wind farms. Modified Newton-Raphson algorithm including SR-FSWG is used to solve the load flow equations in which the state variables of the wind generators are combined with the nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the entire network. The EED problem is a nonlinear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, two competing fuel cost and pollutant emission objectives should be minimized simultaneously while satisfying certain system constraints. In this paper, the resolution is done by the algorithm multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus test system and using MATLAB software package.

  6. Cascade Controller Including Back-stepping for Hydraulic-Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choux, Martin; Hovland, Geir; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Development of a cascade controller structure including adaptive backstepping for a nonlinear hydraulic-mechanical system is considered in this paper where a dynamic friction (LuGre) model is included to obtain the necessary accuracy. The paper compares the performance of two variants of an adapt......Development of a cascade controller structure including adaptive backstepping for a nonlinear hydraulic-mechanical system is considered in this paper where a dynamic friction (LuGre) model is included to obtain the necessary accuracy. The paper compares the performance of two variants...... of an adaptive backstepping tracking controller with earlier results. The new control architecture is analysed and enhanced tracking performance is demonstrated when including the extended friction model. The complexity of the backstepping procedure is significantly reduced due to the cascade structure. Hence...

  7. Systems and strippable coatings for decontaminating structures that include porous material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Avci, Recep [Bozeman, MT; Groenewold, Gary S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  8. Dextromethorphan, chlorphenamine and serotonin toxicity: case report and systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Andrew A; Chuang, Ryan; Bodmer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe a patient with serotonin toxicity after an overdose of dextromethorphan and chlorphenamine and to perform a systematic literature review exploring whether dextromethorphan and chlorphenamine may be equally contributory in the development of serotonin toxicity in overdose. A Medline literature review was undertaken to identify cases of serotonin toxicity due to dextromethorphan and/or chlorphenamine. Case reports were included if they included information on the ingested dose or plasma concentrations of dextromethorphan and/or chlorphenamine, information about co-ingestions and detailed clinical information to evaluate for serotonin toxicity. Cases were reviewed by two toxicologists and serotonin toxicity, defined by the Hunter criteria, was diagnosed when appropriate. The literature was then reviewed to evaluate whether chlorphenamine may be a serotonergic agent. One hundred and fifty-five articles of dextromethorphan or chlorphenamine poisoning were identified. There were 23 case reports of dextromethorphan, of which 18 were excluded for lack of serotonin toxicity. No cases were identified in which serotonin toxicity could be solely attributed to chlorphenamine. This left six cases of dextrometorphane and/or chlorphenamine overdose, including our own, in which serotonin toxicity could be diagnosed based on the presented clinical information. In three of the six eligible cases dextromethorphan and chlorphenamine were the only overdosed drugs. There is substantial evidence from the literature that chlorphenamine is a similarly potent serotonin re-uptake inhibitor when compared with dextrometorphan. Chlorphenamine is a serotonergic medication and combinations of chlorphenamine and dextromethorphan may be dangerous in overdose due to an increased risk of serotonin toxicity. PMID:21175434

  9. Serotonin Syndrome in the Setting of Lamotrigine, Aripiprazole, and Cocaine Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Kotwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with increased serotonergic activity in the central nervous system. It is classically associated with the simultaneous administration of two serotonergic agents, but it can occur after initiation of a single serotonergic drug or increasing the dose of a serotonergic drug in individuals who are particularly sensitive to serotonin. We describe a case of serotonin syndrome that occurred after ingestion of higher than prescribed doses of lamotrigine and aripiprazole, in addition to cocaine abuse. The diagnosis was established based on Hunter toxicity criteria and severity was classified as mild. The features of this syndrome resolved shortly after discontinuation of the offending agents. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by mental status changes, autonomic hyperactivity, and neuromuscular abnormalities along a spectrum ranging from mild to severe. Serotonin syndrome in our patient was most likely caused by the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between lamotrigine, aripiprazole, and cocaine leading to increased CNS serotonergic activity.

  10. Neuroticism Associates with Cerebral in Vivo Serotonin Transporter Binding Differently in Males and Females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuominen, Lauri; Miettunen, Jouko; Cannon, Dara M

    2017-01-01

    scores from 91 healthy males and 56 healthy females. We specifically tested if the association between neuroticism and serotonin transporter is different in females and males. Results: We found that neuroticism and thalamic serotonin transporter binding potentials were associated in both males......). Conclusions: The finding is in agreement with recent studies showing that the serotonergic system is involved in affective disorders differently in males and females and suggests that contribution of thalamic serotonin transporter to the risk of affective disorders depends on sex....... and females, but with opposite directionality. Higher neuroticism associated with higher serotonin transporter binding potential in males (standardized beta 0.292, P=.008), whereas in females, higher neuroticism associated with lower serotonin transporter binding potential (standardized beta -0.288, P=.014...

  11. TS Fuzzy Model-Based Controller Design for a Class of Nonlinear Systems Including Nonsmooth Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vafamand, Navid; Asemani, Mohammad Hassan; Khayatiyan, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel robust controller design for a class of nonlinear systems including hard nonlinearity functions. The proposed approach is based on Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy modeling, nonquadratic Lyapunov function, and nonparallel distributed compensation scheme. In this paper, a novel...... criterion, new robust controller design conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are derived. Three practical case studies, electric power steering system, a helicopter model and servo-mechanical system, are presented to demonstrate the importance of such class of nonlinear systems comprising...

  12. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Low Pressure Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Kennett, Andrew (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Systems and methods to fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using low-pressure casting techniques are described. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: introducing molten alloy into a mold cavity defined by a mold using a low enough pressure such that the molten alloy does not conform to features of the mold cavity that are smaller than 100 microns; and cooling the molten alloy such that it solidifies, the solid including a metallic glass-based material.

  13. Thermal Insulation System for Non-Vacuum Applications Including a Multilayer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The thermal insulation system of the present invention is for non-vacuum applications and is specifically tailored to the ambient pressure environment with any level of humidity or moisture. The thermal insulation system includes a multilayered composite including i) at least one thermal insulation layer and at least one compressible barrier layer provided as alternating, successive layers, and ii) at least one reflective film provided on at least one surface of the thermal insulation layer and/or said compressible barrier layer. The different layers and materials and their combinations are designed to provide low effective thermal conductivity for the system by managing all modes of heat transfer. The thermal insulation system includes an optional outer casing surrounding the multilayered composite. The thermal insulation system is particularly suited for use in any sub-ambient temperature environment where moisture or its adverse effects are a concern. The thermal insulation system provides physical resilience against damaging mechanical effects including compression, flexure, impact, vibration, and thermal expansion/contraction.

  14. Implications of genetic research on the role of the serotonin in depression: emphasis on the serotonin type 1A receptor and the serotonin transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeister, Alexander; Young, Theresa; Stastny, Juergen

    2004-08-01

    Serotonin systems appear to play a key role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Consequently, ongoing research determines whether serotonin related genes account for the very robust differential behavioral and neural mechanisms that discriminate patients with depression from healthy controls. Serotonin type 1(A) receptors and the serotonin transporters are reduced in depression, and recent genetic research in animals and humans has implicated both in depression. Preclinical studies have utilized a variety of animal models that have been used to explain pathophysiological mechanisms in humans, although it is not clear at all whether these models constitute relevant models for depression in humans. However, data from preclinical studies can generate hypotheses that are tested in humans by combining genetic data with behavioral and physiological challenge paradigms and neuroimaging. These studies will enhance our understanding about combined influences from multiple interacting genes, as well as from environmental factors on brain circuits and their function, and about how these mechanisms may contribute to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. A role for serotonin in piglet preweaning mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving piglet survivability rate is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortality or failure to thrive (FTT) in human infants. The aim of this study was to examine the role...

  16. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors reduces fertility in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørr, L; Bennedsen, Birgit; Fedder, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Clinical review of the present data on the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on male fertility was the objective of the study. PubMed and Scopus were searched for publications in English or Danish and reviewed. Human trials, animal studies and in vitro studies were included...

  17. Brief Report: Platelet-Poor Plasma Serotonin in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George M.; Hertzig, Margaret E.; McBride, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Possible explanations for the well-replicated platelet hyperserotonemia of autism include an alteration in the platelet's handling of serotonin (5-hydroxyserotonin, 5-HT) or an increased exposure of the platelet to 5-HT. Measurement of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) levels of 5-HT appears to provide the best available index of in vivo exposure of the…

  18. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolllins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  19. Serotonin mediates rapid changes of striatal glucose and lactate metabolism after systemic 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") administration in awake rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Cumming, Paul

    2007-01-01

     The pathway for selective serotonergic toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") is poorly understood, but has been linked to hyperthermia and disturbed energy metabolism. We investigated the dose-dependency and time-course of MDMA-induced perturbations of cerebral glucose...... was monitored by telemetry. A single dose of MDMA (2-10-20 mg/kg i.v.) evoked a transient increase of interstitial glucose concentrations in striatum (139-223%) with rapid onset and of less than 2h duration, a concomitant but more prolonged lactate increase (>187%) at the highest MDMA dose and no significant...... depletions of striatal serotonin. Blood glucose and lactate levels were also transiently elevated (163 and 135%) at the highest MDMA doses. The blood glucose rises were significantly related to brain glucose and brain lactate changes. The metabolic perturbations in striatum and the hyperthermic response (+1...

  20. Melatonin and serotonin effects on gastrointestinal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, P J; Krolczyk, G; Gil, K; Zurowski, D; Nowak, L

    2007-12-01

    The gastrointestinal tract represents the most important extra pineal source of melatonin. Presence of melatonin (M) suggests that this hormone is somehow involved in digestive pathophysiology. Release of GI melatonin from serotonin-rich enterochromaffin EC cells of the GI mucosa suggest close antagonistic relationship with serotonin (S) and seem to be related to periodicity of food intake. Food deprivation resulted in an increase of tissue and plasma concentrations of M. Its also act as an autocrine and paracrine hormone affecting not only epithelium and immune system but also smooth muscle of the digestive tract. Low doses M improve gastrointestinal transit and affect MMC. M reinforce MMCs cyclic pattern but inhibits spiking bowel activity. Pharmacological doses of M delay gastric emptying via mechanisms that involve CCK2 and 5HT3 receptors. M released in response to lipid infusion exerts a modulatory influence that decreases the inhibitory effects of the ileal brake on gastric emptying. On isolated bowel S induces dose dependent increase in tone and reduction in amplitude of contraction which is affected by M. M reduced the tone but not amplitude or frequency of contraction. M is a promising therapeutic agent for IBS with activities independent of its effects on sleep, anxiety or depression. Since of its unique properties M could be considered for prevention or treatment of colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis, gastric ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome.

  1. Multi-Objective Dynamic Economic Dispatch of Microgrid Systems Including Vehicle-to-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of electric vehicles (EVs, this paper establishes the load models of EVs under the autonomous charging mode and the coordinated charging and discharging mode. Integrating the EVs into a microgrid system which includes wind turbines (WTs, photovoltaic arrays (PVs, diesel engines (DEs, fuel cells (FCs and a storage battery (BS, this paper establishes multi-objective economic dispatch models of a microgrid, including the lowest operating cost, the least carbon dioxide emissions, and the lowest pollutant treatment cost. After converting the multi-objective functions to a single objective function by using the judgment matrix method, we analyze the dynamic economic dispatch of the microgrid system including vehicle-to-grid (V2G with an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm under different operation control strategies. With the example system, the proposed models and strategies are verified and analyzed. Simulation results show that the microgrid system with EVs under the coordinated charging and discharging mode has better operation economics than the autonomous charging mode. Meanwhile, the greater the load fluctuation is, the higher the operating cost of the microgrid system is.

  2. Serotonin-induced down-regulation of cell surface serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Christensen, Peter Møller; Gether, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic signaling and enables refilling of synaptic vesicles by mediating reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) released into the synaptic cleft. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT activity and surface expression are not fully understood...

  3. Positron emission tomography quantification of serotonin transporter in suicide attempters with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey M; Hesselgrave, Natalie; Ogden, R Todd; Sullivan, Gregory M; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V

    2013-08-15

    Several lines of evidence implicate abnormal serotonergic function in suicidal behavior and completed suicide, including low serotonin transporter binding in postmortem studies of completed suicide. We have also reported low in vivo serotonin transporter binding in major depressive disorder (MDD) during a major depressive episode using positron emission tomography (PET) with [(11)C]McN5652. We quantified regional brain serotonin transporter binding in vivo in depressed suicide attempters, depressed nonattempters, and healthy controls using PET and a superior radiotracer, [(11)C]DASB. Fifty-one subjects with DSM-IV current MDD, 15 of whom were past suicide attempters, and 32 healthy control subjects underwent PET scanning with [(11)C]DASB to quantify in vivo regional brain serotonin transporter binding. Metabolite-corrected arterial input functions and plasma free-fraction were acquired to improve quantification. Depressed suicide attempters had lower serotonin transporter binding in midbrain compared with depressed nonattempters (p = .031) and control subjects (p = .0093). There was no difference in serotonin transporter binding comparing all depressed subjects with healthy control subjects considering six a priori regions of interest simultaneously (p = .41). Low midbrain serotonin transporter binding appears to be related to the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior rather than of major depressive disorder. This is consistent with postmortem work showing low midbrain serotonin transporter binding capacity in depressed suicides and may partially explain discrepant in vivo findings quantifying serotonin transporter in depression. Future studies should investigate midbrain serotonin transporter binding as a predictor of suicidal behavior in MDD and determine the cause of low binding. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethanol intake and 3H-serotonin uptake II: A study in alcoholic patients using platelets 3H-paroxetine binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoust, M.; Boucly, P.; Ernouf, D.; Breton, P.; Lhuintre, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of 3 H-paroxetine binding and 3 H-serotonin uptake were studied in platelets of alcoholic patients. There was no difference between alcoholic and non alcoholic subjects in 3 H-paroxetine binding. When binding and 3 H-serotonin uptake were studied, in the same plasma of the same subjects, the Vmax of serotonin uptake was increased in alcoholics. The data confirm the involvement of serotonin uptake system in alcohol dependance and suggest that serotonin uptake and paroxetine binding sites may be regulated independently in this pathology

  5. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  6. An Update on ConSys Including a New LabVIEW FPGA Based LLRF System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Torben; Nielsen, Jørgen S.

    . This system use a National Instruments NI-PCIe7852R DAQ card, which includes an on-board FPGA and are hosted in a standard PC. The fast (50 kHz) amplitude loop has been implemented on the FPGA, whereas the slower tuning and phase loops are implemented in the real-time system. An operator interface including......ConSys, the Windows based control system for ASTRID and ASTRID2, is now a mature system, having been in operation for more than 15 years. All the standard programs (Console, plots, data logging, control setting store/restore etc.) are fully general and are configured through a database or file. Con......Sys is a standard publisher/subscriber system, where all nodes can act both as client and server. One very strong feature is the easy ability to make virtual devices (devices which do not depend on hardware directly, but combine hardware parameters.) For ASTRID2 a new LabVIEW based Low-Level RF system has been made...

  7. S5-4: Formal Modeling of Affordance in Human-Included Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namhun Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of it being necessary for humans to consider modeling, analysis, and control of human-included systems, it has been considered a challenging problem because of the critical role of humans in complex systems and of humans' capability of executing unanticipated actions–both beneficial and detrimental ones. Thus, to provide systematic approaches to modeling human actions as a part of system behaviors, a formal modeling framework for human-involved systems in which humans play a controlling role based on their perceptual information is presented. The theory of affordance provides definitions of human actions and their associated properties; Finite State Automata (FSA based modeling is capable of mapping nondeterministic humans into computable components in the system representation. In this talk, we investigate the role of perception in human actions in the system operation and examine the representation of perceptual elements in affordance-based modeling formalism. The proposed framework is expected to capture the natural ways in which humans participate in the system as part of its operation. A human-machine cooperative manufacturing system control example and a human agent simulation example will be introduced for the illustrative purposes at the end of the presentation.

  8. Autoradiographic study of serotonin transporter during memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Ruth; Rocha, Luisa; Castillo, Carlos; Meneses, Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) has been associated with drugs of abuse like d-methamphetamine (METH). METH is well known to produce effects on the monoamine systems but it is unclear how METH affects SERT and memory. Here the effects of METH and the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) on autoshaping and novel object recognition (NOR) were investigated. Notably, both memory tasks recruit different behavioral, neural and cognitive demand. In autoshaping task a dose-response curve for METH was determined. METH (1.0mg/kg) impaired short-term memory (STM; lasting less of 90min) in NOR and impaired both STM and long-term memory (LTM; lasting 24 and 48h) in autoshaping, indicating that METH had long-lasting effects in the latter task. A comparative autoradiography study of the relationship between the binding pattern of SERT in autoshaping new untrained vs. trained treated (METH, FLX, or both) animals was made. Considering that hemispheric dominance is important for LTM, hence right vs. left hemisphere of the brain was compared. Results showed that trained animals decreased cortical SERT binding relative to untrained ones. In untrained and trained treated animals with the amnesic dose (1.0mg/kg) of METH SERT binding in several areas including hippocampus and cortex decreased, more remarkably in the trained animals. In contrast, FLX improved memory, increased SERT binding, prevented the METH amnesic effect and re-established the SERT binding. In general, memory and amnesia seemed to make SERT more vulnerable to drugs effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  10. Role of Serotonin Neurons in L-DOPA- and Graft-Induced Dyskinesia in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunju Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available L-DOPA, the most effective drug to treat motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, causes abnormal involuntary movements, limiting its use in advanced stages of the disease. An increasing body of evidence points to the serotonin system as a key player in the appearance of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID. In fact, exogenously administered L-DOPA can be taken up by serotonin neurons, converted to dopamine and released as a false transmitter, contributing to pulsatile stimulation of striatal dopamine receptors. Accordingly, destruction of serotonin fibers or silencing serotonin neurons by serotonin agonists could counteract LID in animal models. Recent clinical work has also shown that serotonin neurons are present in the caudate/putamen of patients grafted with embryonic ventral mesencephalic cells, producing intense serotonin hyperinnervation. These patients experience graft-induced dyskinesia (GID, a type of dyskinesia phenotypically similar to the one induced by L-DOPA but independent from its administration. Interestingly, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist buspirone has been shown to suppress GID in these patients, suggesting that serotonin neurons might be involved in the etiology of GID as for LID. In this paper we will discuss the experimental and clinical evidence supporting the involvement of the serotonin system in both LID and GID.

  11. SEROTONIN METABOLISM FOLLOWING PLATINUM-BASED CHEMOTHERAPY COMBINED WITH THE SEROTONIN TYPE-3 ANTAGONIST TROPISETRON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHRODER, CP; VANDERGRAAF, WTA; KEMA, IP; GROENEWEGEN, A; SLEIJFER, DT; DEVRIES, EGE

    1995-01-01

    The administration of platinum-based chemotherapy induces serotonin release from the enterochromaffin cells, causing nausea and vomiting. This study was conducted to evaluate parameters of serotonin metabolism following platinum-based chemotherapy given in combination with the serotonin type-3

  12. Low Level RF Including a Sophisticated Phase Control System for CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Mourier, J; Nonglaton, J M; Syratchev, I V; Tanner, L

    2004-01-01

    CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility 3), currently under construction at CERN, is a test facility designed to demonstrate the key feasibility issues of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) two-beam scheme. When completed, this facility will consist of a 150 MeV linac followed by two rings for bunch-interleaving, and a test stand where 30 GHz power will be generated. In this paper, the work that has been carried out on the linac's low power RF system is described. This includes, in particular, a sophisticated phase control system for the RF pulse compressor to produce a flat-top rectangular pulse over 1.4 µs.

  13. CERN’s Computing rules updated to include policy for control systems

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    The use of CERN’s computing facilities is governed by rules defined in Operational Circular No. 5 and its subsidiary rules of use. These rules are available from the web site http://cern.ch/ComputingRules. Please note that the subsidiary rules for Internet/Network use have been updated to include a requirement that control systems comply with the CNIC(Computing and Network Infrastructure for Control) Security Policy. The security policy for control systems, which was approved earlier this year, can be accessed at https://edms.cern.ch/document/584092 IT Department

  14. Automated mass spectrometric analysis of urinary and plasma serotonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Wilhelmina H. A.; Wilkens, Marianne H. L. I.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Kema, Ido P.

    Serotonin emerges as crucial neurotransmitter and hormone in a growing number of different physiologic processes. Besides extensive serotonin production previously noted in patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors, serotonin now is implicated in liver cell regeneration and bone formation. The aim

  15. Method and apparatus for controlling a powertrain system including a multi-mode transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessell, Steven M.; Morris, Robert L.; McGrogan, Sean W.; Heap, Anthony H.; Mendoza, Gil J.

    2015-09-08

    A powertrain including an engine and torque machines is configured to transfer torque through a multi-mode transmission to an output member. A method for controlling the powertrain includes employing a closed-loop speed control system to control torque commands for the torque machines in response to a desired input speed. Upon approaching a power limit of a power storage device transferring power to the torque machines, power limited torque commands are determined for the torque machines in response to the power limit and the closed-loop speed control system is employed to determine an engine torque command in response to the desired input speed and the power limited torque commands for the torque machines.

  16. Oxytocin and Serotonin Brain Mechanisms in the Nonhuman Primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Arthur; Richard, Nathalie; Jazayeri, Mina; Beuriat, Pierre-Aurélien; Fieux, Sylvain; Zimmer, Luc; Duhamel, Jean-René; Sirigu, Angela

    2017-07-12

    Oxytocin (OT) is increasingly studied for its therapeutic potential in psychiatric disorders, which are associated with the deregulation of several neurotransmission systems. Studies in rodents demonstrated that the interaction between OT and serotonin (5-HT) is critical for several aspects of social behavior. Using PET scan in humans, we have recently found that 5-HT 1A receptor (5-HT 1A R) function is modified after intranasal oxytocin intake. However, the underlying mechanism between OT and 5-HT remains unclear. To understand this interaction, we tested 3 male macaque monkeys using both [ 11 C]DASB and [ 18 F]MPPF, two PET radiotracers, marking the serotonin transporter and the 5-HT 1A R, respectively. Oxytocin (1 IU in 20 μl of ACSF) or placebo was injected into the brain lateral ventricle 45 min before scans. Additionally, we performed postmortem autoradiography. Compared with placebo, OT significantly reduced [ 11 C]DASB binding potential in right amygdala, insula, and hippocampus, whereas [ 18 F]MPPF binding potential increased in right amygdala and insula. Autoradiography revealed that [ 11 C]DASB was sensitive to physiological levels of 5-HT modification, and that OT does not act directly on the 5-HT 1A R. Our results show that oxytocin administration in nonhuman primates influences serotoninergic neurotransmission via at least two ways: (1) by provoking a release of serotonin in key limbic regions; and (2) by increasing the availability of 5-HT 1A R receptors in the same limbic areas. Because these two molecules are important for social behavior, our study sheds light on the specific nature of their interaction, therefore helping to develop new mechanisms-based therapies for psychiatric disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Social behavior is largely controlled by brain neuromodulators, such as oxytocin and serotonin. While these are currently targeted in the context of psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, a new promising pharmaceutical

  17. A robust mixed H2/H∞ based LFC of a deregulated power system including SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Jalili, A.; Shayanfar, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust decentralized controller based on mixed H 2 /H ∞ control technique for the solution of load frequency control (LFC) problem including superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in a deregulated electricity environment. To achieve decentralization, in each control area, the connections between this area and the rest of the system and the effects of possible contracts are treated as a set of new disturbance signals. In order to minimize effects of load disturbances and to achieve desired level of robust performance in the presence of modeling uncertainties and practical constraints on control action the idea of mixed H 2 /H ∞ control technique is being used for the solution of LFC problem. This newly developed design strategy combines advantage of H 2 and H ∞ control syntheses and gives a powerful multi-objectives design addressed by the linear matrix inequalities (LMI) technique. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method a four-area restructured power system is considered as a test system under different operating conditions. The simulation results with the proposed controller are shown to maintain robust performance in the presence of SMES unit in two areas at power system and without SMES unit in any of the areas. Analysis reveals that the proposed control strategy with considering SMES unit improves significantly the dynamical performances of system such as settling time and overshoot against parametric uncertainties for a wide range of area load demands and disturbances in either of the areas even in the presence of system nonlinearities

  18. A project-based system for including farmers in the EU ETS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    as ‘the missing link’ in past climate negotiations. We argue that farmers have relatively low marginal reduction costs and that consequences in terms of the effect on permit price and technology are overall positive in the EU Emission Trading System (ETS). Thus, we propose a project-based system......Farmers in the EU do not trade greenhouse gases under the Kyoto agreement. This is an empirical puzzle because agriculture is a significant contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU and may harvest private net gains from trade. Furthermore, the US has strongly advocated land-use practices...... for including the farming practices in the EU ETS that reduces the uncertainty from measuring emission reduction in this sector. The system encourages GHG reduction either by introducing a new and less polluting practice or by reducing the polluting activity. When doing so, farmers will receive GHG permits...

  19. Matrix formulations of radiative transfer including the polarization effect in a coupled atmosphere-ocean system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Yoshifumi; Higurashi, Akiko; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    A vector radiative transfer model has been developed for a coupled atmosphere-ocean system. The radiative transfer scheme is based on the discrete ordinate and matrix operator methods. The reflection/transmission matrices and source vectors are obtained for each atmospheric or oceanic layer through the discrete ordinate solution. The vertically inhomogeneous system is constructed using the matrix operator method, which combines the radiative interaction between the layers. This radiative transfer scheme is flexible for a vertically inhomogeneous system including the oceanic layers as well as the ocean surface. Compared with the benchmark results, the computational error attributable to the radiative transfer scheme has been less than 0.1% in the case of eight discrete ordinate directions. Furthermore, increasing the number of discrete ordinate directions has produced computations with higher accuracy. Based on our radiative transfer scheme, simulations of sun glint radiation have been presented for wavelengths of 670 nm and 1.6 μm. Results of simulations have shown reasonable characteristics of the sun glint radiation such as the strongly peaked, but slightly smoothed radiation by the rough ocean surface and depolarization through multiple scattering by the aerosol-loaded atmosphere. The radiative transfer scheme of this paper has been implemented to the numerical model named Pstar as one of the OpenCLASTR/STAR radiative transfer code systems, which are widely applied to many radiative transfer problems, including the polarization effect.

  20. Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWall, Kevin George [Pocatello, ID; Garcia, Humberto Enrique [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael George [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-17

    Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

  1. 15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Vehicles (including cruise missile systems, target drones and reconnaissance drones) End-Uses. 744.3... missile systems, target drones and reconnaissance drones) End-Uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition..., anywhere in the world except by governmental programs for nuclear weapons delivery of NPT Nuclear Weapons...

  2. A new Drosophila octopamine receptor responds to serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi-Xiang; Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Mao, Fen; Ye, Gong-Yin; Liu, Weiwei; Huang, Jia

    2017-11-01

    As the counterparts of the vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, octopamine and tyramine are important physiological regulators in invertebrates. They control and modulate many physiological and behavioral functions in insects. In this study, we reported the pharmacological properties of a new α2-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (CG18208) from Drosophila melanogaster, named DmOctα2R. This new receptor gene encodes two transcripts by alternative splicing. The long isoform DmOctα2R-L differs from the short isoform DmOctα2R-S by the presence of an additional 29 amino acids within the third intracellular loop. When heterologously expressed in mammalian cell lines, both receptors were activated by octopamine, tyramine, epinephrine and norepinephrine, resulting in the inhibition of cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. The long form is more sensitive to the above ligands than the short form. The adrenergic agonists naphazoline, tolazoline and clonidine can stimulate DmOctα2R as full agonists. Surprisingly, serotonin and serotoninergic agonists can also activate DmOctα2R. Several tested adrenergic antagonists and serotonin antagonists blocked the action of octopamine or serotonin on DmOctα2R. The data presented here reported an adrenergic-like G protein-coupled receptor activated by serotonin, suggesting that the neurotransmission and neuromodulation in the nervous system could be more complex than previously thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, A; Khayrullina, A; Khmelik, M; Sveshnikova, A; Borzenko, V

    2016-01-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia. (paper)

  4. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  5. β-cell serotonin production is associated with female sex, old age, and diabetes-free condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Gi; Moon, Joon Ho; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Juok; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Lee, Junguee; Kang, Shinae; Park, Joon Seong; Kim, Hail

    2017-11-25

    Serotonin is known to be present in pancreatic β-cells and to play several physiological roles, including insulin secretion, β-cell proliferation, and paracrine inhibition of α-cells. However, the serotonin production of different cell lines and islets has not been compared based on age, sex, and diabetes related conditions. Here, we directly compared the serotonin concentrations in βTC and MIN6 cell lines, as well as in islets from mice using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The average serotonin concentration was 5-10 ng/mg protein in the islets of male and non-pregnant female mice. The serotonin level was higher in females than males at 8 weeks, although there was no difference at 1 year. Furthermore, we observed serotonin by immunofluorescence staining in the pancreatic tissues of mice and human. Serotonin was detected by immunofluorescence staining in a portion of β-cells from islets of old female mice, but not of male or young female mice. A similar pattern was observed in human pancreas as well. In humans, serotonin production in β-cells was associated with a diabetes-free condition. Thus, serotonin production in β-cells was associated with old age, female sex, and diabetes-free condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Induced Systemic Tolerance to Multiple Stresses Including Biotic and Abiotic Factors by Rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Je Yoo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, global warming and drastic climate change are the greatest threat to the world. The climate change can affect plant productivity by reducing plant adaptation to diverse environments including frequent high temperature; worsen drought condition and increased pathogen transmission and infection. Plants have to survive in this condition with a variety of biotic (pathogen/pest attack and abiotic stress (salt, high/low temperature, drought. Plants can interact with beneficial microbes including plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, which help plant mitigate biotic and abiotic stress. This overview presents that rhizobacteria plays an important role in induced systemic resistance (ISR to biotic stress or induced systemic tolerance (IST to abiotic stress condition; bacterial determinants related to ISR and/or IST. In addition, we describe effects of rhizobacteria on defense/tolerance related signal pathway in plants. We also review recent information including plant resistance or tolerance against multiple stresses (bioticabiotic. We desire that this review contribute to expand understanding and knowledge on the microbial application in a constantly varying agroecosystem, and suggest beneficial microbes as one of alternative environment-friendly application to alleviate multiple stresses.

  7. Development of resistance to serotonin-induced itch in bile duct ligated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Haddadi, Nazgol-Sadat; Foroutan, Arash; Azimi, Ehsan; Elmariah, Sarina; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2017-06-01

    Cholestatic itch can be severe and significantly impair the quality of life of patients. The serotonin system is implicated in cholestatic itch; however, the pruritogenic properties of serotonin have not been evaluated in cholestatic mice. Here, we investigated the serotonin-induced itch in cholestatic mice which was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Serotonin, sertraline or saline were administered intradermally to the rostral back area in BDL and sham operated (SHAM) mice, and the scratching behaviour was videotaped for 1 hour. Bile duct ligated mice had significantly increased scratching responses to saline injection on the seventh day after surgery. Additionally, serotonin or sertraline significantly induced scratching behaviour in BDL mice compared to saline at day 7 after surgery, while it did not induce itch at day 5. The scratching behaviour induced by serotonin or sertraline was significantly less in BDL mice compared to SHAM mice. Likewise, the locomotor activity of BDL or SHAM mice was not significantly different from unoperated (UNOP) mice on the fifth and seventh day, suggesting that the scratching behaviour was not affected by motor dysfunctions. Our data suggest that despite the potentiation of evoked itch, a resistance to serotonin-induced itch is developed in cholestatic mice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Effect of acute administration of hypericum perforatum-CO2 extract on dopamine and serotonin release in the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, V; Di Giovanni, G; Di Mascio, M; Esposito, E

    2000-01-01

    The hydromethanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum has been shown to be an effective antidepressant, although its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study, in vivo microdialysis was used to investigate the effects of Hypericum perforatum-CO2 extract on dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) release in various areas of brain. Administration of Hypericum perforatum extract (1 mg/kg, p.o.) caused a slight, but significant increase of DA outflow both in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum. The maximal increase of DA efflux (+19.22+/-1.93%, relative to the control group) in the nucleus accumbens occurred 100 min after administration of Hypericum perforatum. In the striatum, the extract maximally enhanced DA outflow (+24.83+/-7.49 %, relative to the control group) 80 min after administration. Extraneuronal DOPAC levels were not significantly affected by Hypericum perforatum treatment. Moreover, Hypericum perforatum (1 mg/kg, p.o.) did not produce any significant effect on either 5-HT or 5-HIAA efflux in the ventral hippocampus. This study shows for the first time that Hypericum perforatum extract is capable of increasing in vivo DA release.

  9. Uniform discretizations: a quantization procedure for totally constrained systems including gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campiglia, Miguel [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Igua 4225, esq. Mataojo, Montevideo (Uruguay); Di Bartolo, Cayetano [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon BolIvar, Aptdo. 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela); Gambini, Rodolfo [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Igua 4225, esq. Mataojo, Montevideo (Uruguay); Pullin, Jorge [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    We present a new method for the quantization of totally constrained systems including general relativity. The method consists in constructing discretized theories that have a well defined and controlled continuum limit. The discrete theories are constraint-free and can be readily quantized. This provides a framework where one can introduce a relational notion of time and that nevertheless approximates in a well defined fashion the theory of interest. The method is equivalent to the group averaging procedure for many systems where the latter makes sense and provides a generalization otherwise. In the continuum limit it can be shown to contain, under certain assumptions, the 'master constraint' of the 'Phoenix project'. It also provides a correspondence principle with the classical theory that does not require to consider the semiclassical limit.

  10. Structural and functional effects of heavy metals on the nervous system, including sense organs, of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E

    1991-01-01

    metals are well known pollutants in the aquatic environment. Their interaction with relevant chemical stimuli may interfere with the communication between fish and environment. 5. The affinity for a number of ligands and macromolecules makes heavy metals most potent neurotoxins. 6. The present Mini......1. Today, fish in the environment are inevitably exposed to chemical pollution. Although most hazardous substances are present at concentrations far below the lethal level, they may still cause serious damage to the life processes of these animals. 2. Fish depend on an intact nervous system......, including their sense organs, for mediating relevant behaviour such as food search, predator recognition, communication and orientation. 3. Unfortunately, the nervous system is most vulnerable and injuries to its elements may dramatically change the behaviour and consequently the survival of fish. 4. Heavy...

  11. iPSCs: A Minireview from Bench to Bed, including Organoids and the CRISPR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Javier Orqueda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When Dolly the sheep was born, the first probe into an adult mammalian genome traveling back in time and generating a whole new animal appeared. Ten years later, the reprogramming process became a defined method of producing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs through the overexpression of four transcription factors. iPSCs are capable of originating virtually all types of cells and tissues, including a whole new animal. The reprogramming strategies based on patient-derived cells should make the development of clinical applications of cell based therapy much more straightforward. Here, we analyze the current state, opportunities, and challenges of iPSCs from bench to bed, including organoids and the CRISPR system.

  12. Monitoring system including an electronic sensor platform and an interrogation transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Robert L.; Sheets, Larry R.

    2003-09-23

    A wireless monitoring system suitable for a wide range of remote data collection applications. The system includes at least one Electronic Sensor Platform (ESP), an Interrogator Transceiver (IT) and a general purpose host computer. The ESP functions as a remote data collector from a number of digital and analog sensors located therein. The host computer provides for data logging, testing, demonstration, installation checkout, and troubleshooting of the system. The IT transmits signals from one or more ESP's to the host computer to the ESP's. The IT host computer may be powered by a common power supply, and each ESP is individually powered by a battery. This monitoring system has an extremely low power consumption which allows remote operation of the ESP for long periods; provides authenticated message traffic over a wireless network; utilizes state-of-health and tamper sensors to ensure that the ESP is secure and undamaged; has robust housing of the ESP suitable for use in radiation environments; and is low in cost. With one base station (host computer and interrogator transceiver), multiple ESP's may be controlled at a single monitoring site.

  13. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  14. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including a valving scheme for competition assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Piccini, Matthew E.; Singh, Anup K.

    2017-09-19

    Examples are described including measurement systems for conducting competition assays. A first chamber of an assay device may be loaded with a sample containing a target antigen. The target antigen in the sample may be allowed to bind to antibody-coated beads in the first chamber. A control layer separating the first chamber from a second chamber may then be opened to allow a labeling agent loaded in a first portion of the second chamber to bind to any unoccupied sites on the antibodies. A centrifugal force may then be applied to transport the beads through a density media to a detection region for measurement by a detection unit.

  15. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including a valving scheme for competition assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Piccini, Matthew E.; Singh, Anup K.

    2017-07-11

    Examples are described including measurement systems for conducting competition assays. A first chamber of an assay device may be loaded with a sample containing a target antigen. The target antigen in the sample may be allowed to bind to antibody-coated beads in the first chamber. A control layer separating the first chamber from a second chamber may then be opened to allow a labeling agent loaded in a first portion of the second chamber to bind to any unoccupied sites on the antibodies. A centrifugal force may then be applied to transport the beads through a density media to a detection region for measurement by a detection unit.

  16. Serotonin shapes risky decision making in monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Arwen B.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.; Platt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Some people love taking risks, while others avoid gambles at all costs. The neural mechanisms underlying individual variation in preference for risky or certain outcomes, however, remain poorly understood. Although behavioral pathologies associated with compulsive gambling, addiction and other psychiatric disorders implicate deficient serotonin signaling in pathological decision making, there is little experimental evidence demonstrating a link between serotonin and risky decision making, in ...

  17. The serotonin transporter knockout rat : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, Jocelien; Cools, Alexander; Ellenbroek, Bart A.; Cuppen, E.; Homberg, Judith; Kalueff, Allan V.; LaPorte, Justin L.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter dicusses the most recent data on the serotonin transporter knock-out rat, a unique rat model that has been generated by target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) driven mutagenesis. The knock-out rat is the result of a premature stopcodon in the serotonin transporter gene, and the

  18. Effects of chronic treatment with fluvoxamine and paroxetine during adolescence on serotonin-related behavior in adult male rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, T.R. de; Snaphaan, L.J.A.E.; Pattij, T.; Veening, J.G.; Waldinger, M.D.; Cools, A.R.; Olivier, B.

    2006-01-01

    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are designed to treat adults, but are increasingly prescribed for adolescents. SSRIs might cause permanent changes in serotonin-related behavior in adolescents, since their serotonergic system is still developing. Male Wistar rats were treated with

  19. Serotonin and calcium homeostasis during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, S R; Laporta, J; Moore, S A E; Hernandez, L L

    2016-07-01

    The transition from pregnancy to lactation puts significant, sudden demands on maternal energy and calcium reserves. Although most mammals are able to effectively manage these metabolic adaptations, the lactating dairy cow is acutely susceptible to transition-related disorders because of the high amounts of milk being produced. Hypocalcemia is a common metabolic disorder that occurs at the onset of lactation. Hypocalcemia is also known to result in poor animal welfare conditions. In addition, cows that develop hypocalcemia are more susceptible to a host of other negative health outcomes. Different feeding tactics, including manipulating the dietary cation-anion difference and administering low-calcium diets, are commonly used preventative strategies. Despite these interventions, the incidence of hypocalcemia in the subclinical form is still as high as 25% to 30% in the United States dairy cow population, with a 5% to 10% incidence of clinical hypocalcemia. In addition, although there are various effective treatments in place, they are administered only after the cow has become noticeably ill, at which point there is already significant metabolic damage. This emphasizes the need for developing alternative prevention strategies, with the monoamine serotonin implicated as a potential therapeutic target. Our research in rodents has shown that serotonin is critical for the induction of mammary parathyroid hormone-related protein, which is necessary for the mobilization of bone tissue and subsequent restoration of maternal calcium stores during lactation. We have shown that circulating serotonin concentrations are positively correlated with serum total calcium on the first day of lactation in dairy cattle. Administration of serotonin's immediate precursor through feeding, injection, or infusion to various mammalian species has been shown to increase circulating serotonin concentrations, with positive effects on other components of maternal metabolism. Most recently

  20. Decreased frontal serotonin2A receptor binding in antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hans; Erritzoe, David; Andersen, Rune

    2010-01-01

    , in vivo studies of serotonin(2A) binding report conflicting results, presumably because sample sizes have been small or because schizophrenic patients who were not antipsychotic-naive were included. Furthermore, the relationships between serotonin(2A) binding, psychopathology, and central neurocognitive...

  1. Interaction between serotonin transporter gene variants and life events predicts response to antidepressants in the GENDEP project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keers, R.; Uher, R.; Huezo-Diaz, P.

    2011-01-01

    , and several polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) have been genotyped including the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Stressful life events were shown to predict a significantly better response to escitalopram but had no effect on response to nortriptyline...

  2. Enzyme oxidation of plant galactomannans yielding biomaterials with novel properties and applications, including as delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Yves M; Merlini, Luca; Silvetti, Tiziana; Campia, Paola; Rossi, Bianca; Viani, Fiorenza; Brasca, Milena

    2018-06-01

    New biomaterials from renewable sources and the development of "functionalized biopolymers" are fields of growing industrial interest. Plant polysaccharides represent a valid alternative to traditional synthetic polymers, which are obtained from monomers of fossil, non-renewable origin. Several polysaccharides, either in their natural or chemically/biochemically modified forms, are currently employed in the biomedical, food and feed, and industrial fields, including packaging. Sustainable biochemical reactions, such as enzyme modifications of polysaccharides, open further possibilities for new product and process innovation. In the present review, we summarize the recent progress on enzyme oxidation of galactomannans (GM) from few leguminous plants (performed either with galactose oxidase or laccase) and we focus on the versatile and easily accessible laccase/TEMPO oxidative reaction. The latter causes a steep viscosity increase of GM water solutions and a transition of the gels from a viscous to an elastic form, due to formation of emiacetalic bonds and thus of internal cross-linking of the polymers. Following lyophilization of these hydrogels, stable aerogels can be obtained, which were shown to have good potential as delivery systems (DS) of actives. The active molecules tested and herewith described are polymyxin B, an antibiotic; nisin, an antimicrobial peptide; the enzymes lysozyme, protease and lipase; the mixture of the industrial microbiocides 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (CIT) and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MIT). The advantages of such aerogel systems and the possibilities they open for future developments, including as DS, are described.

  3. Detection systems for carbapenemase gene identification should include the SME serine carbapenemase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Karen; Pannell, Megan; Lock, John L; Queenan, Anne Marie; Jorgensen, James H; Lee, Ryan M; Lewis, James S; Jarrett, Deidre

    2013-01-01

    Carbapenemase detection has become a major problem in hospitals that encounter outbreaks of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Rapid detection systems have been reported using multiplex PCR analyses and DNA microarray assays. Major carbapenemases that are detected by these systems include the KPC and OXA serine carbapenemases, and the IMP, VIM and NDM families of metallo-β-lactamases. However, increasing numbers of the SME serine carbapenemase are being reported from Serratia marcescens, especially from North and South America. These organisms differ from many of the other carbapenemase-producing pathogens in that they are generally susceptible to the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins ceftazidime and cefepime while retaining resistance to almost all other β-lactam antibiotics. Thus, multiplex PCR assays or DNA microarray testing of carbapenem-resistant S. marcescens isolates should include analyses for production of the SME carbapenemase. Confirmation of the presence of this enzyme may provide reassurance that oxyimino-cephalosporins can be considered for treatment of infections caused by these carbapenem-resistant pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Aggressive Behavior and Altered Amounts of Brain Serotonin and Norepinephrine in Mice Lacking MAOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases, Olivier; Grimsby, Joseph; Gaspar, Patricia; Chen, Kevin; Pournin, Sandrine; Müller, Ulrike; Aguet, Michel; Babinet, Charles; Shih, Jean Chen; De Maeyer, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Deficiency in monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), an enzyme that degrades serotonin and norepinephrine, has recently been shown to be associated with aggressive behavior in men of a Dutch family. A line of transgenic mice was isolated in which transgene integration caused a deletion in the gene encoding MAOA, providing an animal model of MAOA deficiency. In pup brains, serotonin concentrations were increased up to ninefold, and serotonin-like immunoreactivity was present in catecholaminergic neurons. In pup and adult brains, norepinephrine concentrations were increased up to twofold, and cytoarchitectural changes were observed in the somatosensory cortex. Pup behavioral alterations, including trembling, difficulty in righting, and fearfulness were reversed by the serotonin synthesis inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine. Adults manifested a distinct behavioral syndrome, including enhanced aggression in males. PMID:7792602

  5. A project-based system for including farmers in the EU ETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-04-01

    Farmers in the EU do not trade greenhouse gases under the Kyoto agreement. This is an empirical puzzle because agriculture is a significant contributor of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU and may harvest private net gains from trade. Furthermore, the US has strongly advocated land-use practices as 'the missing link' in past climate negotiations. We argue that farmers have relatively low marginal reduction costs and that consequences in terms of the effect on permit price and technology are overall positive in the EU Emission Trading System (ETS). Thus, we propose a project-based system for including the farming practices in the EU ETS that reduces the uncertainty from measuring emission reduction in this sector. The system encourages GHG reduction either by introducing a new and less polluting practice or by reducing the polluting activity. When doing so, farmers will receive GHG permits corresponding to the amount of reduction which can be stored for later use or sold in the EU ETS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Divergent Roles of Central Serotonin in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-Ning Song

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The central serotonin (5-HT system is the main target of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, the first-line antidepressants widely used in current general practice. One of the prominent features of chronic SSRI treatment in rodents is the enhanced adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which has been proposed to contribute to antidepressant effects. Therefore, tremendous effort has been made to decipher how central 5-HT regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In this paper, we review how changes in the central serotonergic system alter adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We focus on data obtained from three categories of genetically engineered mouse models: (1 mice with altered central 5-HT levels from embryonic stages, (2 mice with deletion of 5-HT receptors from embryonic stages, and (3 mice with altered central 5-HT system exclusively in adulthood. These recent findings provide unique insights to interpret the multifaceted roles of central 5-HT on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its associated effects on depression.

  7. Context-dependent fluctuation of serotonin in the auditory midbrain: the influence of sex, reproductive state and experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jessica L.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of changing behavioral situations, plasticity of sensory systems can be a valuable mechanism to facilitate appropriate behavioral responses. In the auditory system, the neurotransmitter serotonin is an important messenger for context-dependent regulation because it is sensitive to both external events and internal state, and it modulates neural activity. In male mice, serotonin increases in the auditory midbrain region, the inferior colliculus (IC), in response to changes in behavioral context such as restriction stress and social contact. Female mice have not been measured in similar contexts, although the serotonergic system is sexually dimorphic in many ways. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sex, experience and estrous state on the fluctuation of serotonin in the IC across contexts, as well as potential relationships between behavior and serotonin. Contrary to our expectation, there were no sex differences in increases of serotonin in response to a restriction stimulus. Both sexes had larger increases in second exposures, suggesting experience plays a role in serotonergic release in the IC. In females, serotonin increased during both restriction and interactions with males; however, the increase was more rapid during restriction. There was no effect of female estrous phase on the serotonergic change for either context, but serotonin was related to behavioral activity in females interacting with males. These results show that changes in behavioral context induce increases in serotonin in the IC by a mechanism that appears to be uninfluenced by sex or estrous state, but may depend on experience and behavioral activity. PMID:24198252

  8. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  9. Blood levels of serotonin are differentially affected by romantic love in men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Langeslag, Sandra; Veen, Frederik; Fekkes, Durk

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPeople who are in love think about their beloved the whole day, which is supposed to be associated with serotonin. The research questions were how peripheral serotonin levels differ between individuals that are in love compared to individuals that are not in love, and how these levels are associated with obsessive thinking about the beloved. Because gender differences exist in romantic love and in the serotonergic system, gender differences were tested. Twenty participants who wer...

  10. Influence of inhibitors of serotonin uptake on intestinal epithelium and colorectal carcinomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Tutton, P. J.; Barkla, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that in certain tissues, including colonic carcinomas, cell proliferation may be promoted by serotonin, and indirect evidence suggests that the effects of this amine on colonic tumours involves a cellular-uptake mechanism. In the present study, two specific inhibitors of serotonin uptake, Citalopram and Fluoxetine, are examined for their effects on cell proliferation and tumour growth. Each of the agents was found to suppress cell division in dimethylhydrazine-indu...

  11. Thermal enhanced vapor extraction systems: Design, application and performance prediction including contaminant behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    Soil heating technologies have been proposed as a method to accelerate contaminant removal from subsurface soils. These methods include the use of hot air, steam, conductive heaters, in-situ resistive heating and in-situ radiofrequency heating (Buettner et.al., EPA, Dev et.al., Heath et.al.). Criteria for selection of a particular soil heating technology is a complex function of contaminant and soil properties, and efficiency in energy delivery and contaminant removal technologies. The work presented here seeks to expand the understanding of the interactions of subsurface water, contaminant, heat and vacuum extraction through model predictions and field data collection. Field demonstration will involve the combination of two soil heating technologies (resistive and dielectric) with a vacuum vapor extraction system and will occur during the summer of 1994

  12. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz [Livermore, CA

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  13. Advanced exergy-based analyses applied to a system including LNG regasification and electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morosuk, Tatiana; Tsatsaronis, George; Boyano, Alicia; Gantiva, Camilo [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) will contribute more in the future than in the past to the overall energy supply in the world. The paper discusses the application of advanced exergy-based analyses to a recently developed LNG-based cogeneration system. These analyses include advanced exergetic, advanced exergoeconomic, and advanced exergoenvironmental analyses in which thermodynamic inefficiencies (exergy destruction), costs, and environmental impacts have been split into avoidable and unavoidable parts. With the aid of these analyses, the potentials for improving the thermodynamic efficiency and for reducing the overall cost and the overall environmental impact are revealed. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate (a) the potential for generating electricity while regasifying LNG and (b) some of the capabilities associated with advanced exergy-based methods. The most important subsystems and components are identified, and suggestions for improving them are made. (orig.)

  14. Economic Dispatch for Power System Included Wind and Solar Thermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen BRINI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of technologies of alternative energy, the electric power network can be composed of several renewable energy resources. The energy resources have various characteristics in terms of operational costs and reliability. In this study, the problem is the Economic Environmental Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind and solar thermal energies. Renewable energy resources depend on the data of the climate such as the wind speed for wind energy, solar radiation and the temperature for solar thermal energy. In this article it proposes a methodology to solve this problem. The resolution takes account of the fuel costs and reducing of the emissions of the polluting gases. The resolution is done by the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA method and the simulations have been made on an IEEE network test (30 nodes, 8 machines and 41 lines.

  15. Local existence of solutions to the Euler-Poisson system, including densities without compact support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Uwe; Karp, Lavi

    2018-01-01

    Local existence and well posedness for a class of solutions for the Euler Poisson system is shown. These solutions have a density ρ which either falls off at infinity or has compact support. The solutions have finite mass, finite energy functional and include the static spherical solutions for γ = 6/5. The result is achieved by using weighted Sobolev spaces of fractional order and a new non-linear estimate which allows to estimate the physical density by the regularised non-linear matter variable. Gamblin also has studied this setting but using very different functional spaces. However we believe that the functional setting we use is more appropriate to describe a physical isolated body and more suitable to study the Newtonian limit.

  16. A structural design and analysis of a piping system including seismic load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The structural design/analysis of a piping system at a nuclear fuel facility is used to investigate some aspects of current design procedures. Specifically the effect of using various stress measures including ASME Boiler ampersand Pressure Vessel (B ampersand PV) Code formulas is evaluated. It is found that large differences in local maximum stress values may be calculated depending on the stress criterion used. However, when the global stress maximum for the entire system are compared the differences are much smaller, being nevertheless, for some load combinations, of the order of 50 percent. The effect of using an Equivalent Static Method (ESM) analysis is also evaluated by comparing its results with those obtained from a Response Spectrum Method (RSM) analysis with the modal responses combined by using the absolute summation (ABS), by using the square root of the squares (SRSS), and by using the 10 percent method (10PC). It is shown that for a spectrum amplification factor (equivalent static coefficient greater than unity) of at least 1.32 must be used in the current application of the ESM analysis in order to obtain results which are conservative in all aspects relative to an RSM analysis based on ABS. However, it appears that an adequate design would be obtained from the ESM approach even without the use of a spectrum amplification factor. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Study of Power Flow Algorithm of AC/DC Distribution System including VSC-MTDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, distributed generation and a large number of sensitive AC and DC loads have been connected to distribution networks, which introduce a series of challenges to distribution network operators (DNOs. In addition, the advantages of DC distribution networks, such as the energy conservation and emission reduction, mean that the voltage source converter based multi-terminal direct current (VSC-MTDC for AC/DC distribution systems demonstrates a great potential, hence drawing growing research interest. In this paper, considering losses of the reactor, the filter and the converter, a mathematical model of VSC-HVDC for the load flow analysis is derived. An AC/DC distribution network architecture has been built, based on which the differences in modified equations of the VSC-MTDC-based network under different control modes are analyzed. In addition, corresponding interface functions under five control modes are provided, and a back/forward iterative algorithm which is applied to power flow calculation of the AC/DC distribution system including VSC-MTDC is proposed. Finally, by calculating the power flow of the modified IEEE14 AC/DC distribution network, the efficiency and validity of the model and algorithm are evaluated. With various distributed generations connected to the network at appropriate locations, power flow results show that network losses and utilization of transmission networks are effectively reduced.

  18. Serotonin shapes risky decision making in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Arwen B; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Platt, Michael L

    2009-12-01

    Some people love taking risks, while others avoid gambles at all costs. The neural mechanisms underlying individual variation in preference for risky or certain outcomes, however, remain poorly understood. Although behavioral pathologies associated with compulsive gambling, addiction and other psychiatric disorders implicate deficient serotonin signaling in pathological decision making, there is little experimental evidence demonstrating a link between serotonin and risky decision making, in part due to the lack of a good animal model. We used dietary rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) to acutely lower brain serotonin in three macaques performing a simple gambling task for fluid rewards. To confirm the efficacy of RTD experiments, we measured total plasma tryptophan using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. Reducing brain serotonin synthesis decreased preference for the safe option in a gambling task. Moreover, lowering brain serotonin function significantly decreased the premium required for monkeys to switch their preference to the risky option, suggesting that diminished serotonin signaling enhances the relative subjective value of the risky option. These results implicate serotonin in risk-sensitive decision making and, further, suggest pharmacological therapies for treating pathological risk preferences in disorders such as problem gambling and addiction.

  19. [Autism spectrum disorders and bisphenol A: Is serotonin the lacking link in the chain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrouilhe, D; Dejean, C

    2017-08-01

    The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is believed to be multifactorial and to involve genetic and environmental components. Environmental chemical exposures are increasingly understood to be important in causing neurotoxicity in fetuses and newborns. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States suggest a substantial increase in ASD prevalence, only partly explicable by factors such as diagnostic substitution. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous xenoestrogen widely employed in a variety of consumer products including plastic and metal food and beverage containers, dental sealants and fillings, medical equipment and thermal receipts. Therefore, most people are exposed almost continuously to BPA in industrialized countries. Sources of BPA exposure are predominantly diet, but also through inhalation or dermal absorption. BPA can be measured in many human fluids and tissues including saliva, serum, urine, amniotic fluid, follicular fluid, placental tissue and breast milk. There is concern that BPA exposure may influence human brain development and may contribute to the increasing prevalence of neurodevelopmental and behavioural problems. Epigenetic mechanisms are suggested by a mouse study that demonstrated that BPA exposure during gestation had long lasting, transgenerational effects on social recognition. Previous epidemiological studies suggested a relationship between maternal BPA exposure and ASD. A recent study of 46 children with ASD and 52 controls found for the first time a direct association between children with ASD and BPA exposure and demonstrated that BPA is not metabolized well in children with ASD. The metabolomic analyses showed a correlation between ASD and essential amino acid metabolism pathways. Essential amino acids are precursors of neurotransmitters, for example tryptophan for serotonin. Fetal and prenatal BPA exposure was suggested to perturb the serotonergic system in rat and mice models. On

  20. Animal experiment studies on biological and chemical radiation protection - the combined effects of serotonin and erythropoletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasse, U.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of a prophylactic combination treatment with serotonin and erythropoietin on the inhibited erythropoiesis of whole-body irradiated mice (500 R) was studied. Both erythropoietin and serotonin turned out to compensate the radiation-induced inhibition of the formation rate for erythrocytes to a small extent. However, only the enhancement of erythropoiesis due to serotonin indicated significant values. Yet the combined application of the named substances yielded a distinct and significant effect in radiation protection which even exceeded the simple addition of the protective effect yielded by serotonin and erythropoietin alone. But despite of this considerable success the radiation damage in the erythropoietic system was not even half compensated for. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Biodistribution and dosimetry of {sup 123}I-mZIENT: a novel ligand for imaging serotonin transporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, Alice [NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Krishnadas, Rajeev [University of Glasgow, Sackler Institute of Psychobiological Research, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Champion, Sue [University of Glasgow, Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Tamagnan, Gilles [Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT (United States); Stehouwer, Jeffrey S.; Goodman, Mark M. [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Hadley, Donald M. [NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Department of Neuro-Radiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Pimlott, Sally L. [NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, West of Scotland Radionuclide Dispensary, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    {sup 123}I-labelled mZIENT (2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(3'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane) has been developed as a radioligand for the serotonin transporter. The aim of this preliminary study was to assess its whole-body biodistribution in humans and estimate dosimetry. Three healthy controls and three patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy for depression were included (two men, four women, age range 41-56 years). Whole-body imaging, brain SPECT imaging and blood and urine sampling were performed. Whole-body images were analysed using regions of interest (ROIs), time-activity curves were derived using compartmental analysis and dosimetry estimated using OLINDA software. Brain ROI analysis was performed to obtain specific-to-nonspecific binding ratios in the midbrain, thalamus and striatum. Initial high uptake in the lungs decreased in later images. Lower uptake was seen in the brain, liver and intestines. Excretion was primarily through the urinary system. The effective dose was estimated to be of the order of 0.03 mSv/MBq. The organ receiving the highest absorbed dose was the lower large intestine wall. Uptake in the brain was consistent with the known SERT distribution with higher specific-to-nonspecific binding in the midbrain, thalamus and striatum in healthy controls compared with patients receiving SSRI therapy. {sup 123}I-mZIENT may be a promising radioligand for imaging the serotonin transporters in humans with acceptable dosimetry. (orig.)

  2. Serotonin Signal Transduction in Two Groups of Autistic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    behavioral, and now molecular genetic evidence implicate dysfunction of the serotonin system in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and specifically in...validationin individuals with autism spectrum disorders . 2007 J Autism Dev Disord . 37:855-66. Lord, C.L., Cook, E.H., Leventhal, B.L., Amaral, D.G...2000 Minireview: Autism spectrum disorders . Neuron.,28:355-363. Shao Y, Cuccaro ML, Hauser ER, Raiford KL, Menold MM, Wolpert CM, Ravan SA

  3. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Charles [Delta Products, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical

  4. A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F.; Gadomski, A. M.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-01-01

    The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to

  5. Disruption of Transient Serotonin Accumulation by Non-Serotonin-Producing Neurons Impairs Cortical Map Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms that alter serotonin transporter SERT expression and functionality increase the risks for autism and psychiatric traits. Here, we investigate how SERT controls serotonin signaling in developing CNS in mice. SERT is transiently expressed in specific sets of glutamatergic neurons and uptakes extrasynaptic serotonin during perinatal CNS development. We show that SERT expression in glutamatergic thalamocortical axons (TCAs dictates sensory map architecture. Knockout of SERT in TCAs causes lasting alterations in TCA patterning, spatial organizations of cortical neurons, and dendritic arborization in sensory cortex. Pharmacological reduction of serotonin synthesis during the first postnatal week rescues sensory maps in SERTGluΔ mice. Furthermore, knockdown of SERT expression in serotonin-producing neurons does not impair barrel maps. We propose that spatiotemporal SERT expression in non-serotonin-producing neurons represents a determinant in early life genetic programming of cortical circuits. Perturbing this SERT function could be involved in the origin of sensory and cognitive deficits associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  6. Emissions and targets of greenhouse gases not included in the Emission Trading System 2013-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.

    2011-06-15

    This report evaluates the European Commission's (EC) proposal to calculate Member States' targets for emissions not included in the Emission Trading System (ETS) (as announced in the so-called Effort Sharing Decision). The calculation procedures and data sources proposed by the EC have been used for calculating non-ETS emission targets for the Netherlands, for the years from 2013 to 2020. In order to compare results, an alternative approach also was introduced and evaluated. In this approach more transparent data sources were used. Furthermore, the report updates the emission forecast of non-ETS emission levels in the Netherlands, for 2020, and evaluates the consequences of excluding uncertainties related to monitoring from the (updated) emission forecast. It is concluded that, for the Netherlands, the non-ETS emission caps as proposed by the EC would result in an emission cap of 105 Mt CO2 equivalent by 2020. This is higher than in the alternative approach, which would result in a cap of 103 Mt CO2 equivalents. The difference is explained by the different data sources that were used. A drawback of the data sources used in the EC proposal is the lack of transparency of part of the data, which resulted in an additional uncertainty as not all issues could be verified. However, other Member States may not have similar data sources available, in case the EC decides to adopt the alternative approach. The calculated emission caps are to be considered as estimates based on the most recent (but sometimes uncertain) statistics. The EC will determine the definite caps by the end of 2012. Based on a 2010 forecast, and including both an updated division of emissions into ETS and non-ETS emissions and a revised methodology for calculating nitrous oxide emissions, we estimate that non-ETS emissions in the Netherlands would be 104 Mt CO2 equivalents by 2020, with an uncertainty range of between 96 and 112 Mt CO2 equivalents. It is our conclusion that non-ETS emission

  7. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, CL; Biskup, CS; Herpertz, S; Gaber, TJ; Kuhn, CM; Hood, SH

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research. PMID:25991656

  8. The postradiation efficacy of serotonin and its dependence on the stage of embryonal growith of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinova, M.M.; Podmareva, O.N.; Dontsova, G.V.; Turpaev, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    In earlier experiments, the authors discovered that if serotonin was given to the mouse after its exposure to radiation on the 8th or 9th day of pregnancy, i.e., in the period of intensive neurogenesis, during which this particular biogenic amine was accumulated in the neural tube, the radiation damage was lessened and the growth of the fetus was normalized. These findings suggested involvement of exogenous serotonin in the elimination of radiation damage to the central nervous system of the germ. A question rises: Can serotonin lessen radiation damage to the embryo if it is exposed to ionizing radiation at later periods of gestation, during the period when the bones and the muscles are formed? This is the object of the present study. If mice were irradiated on the 11th day of gestation at a dose of 2.63 Gy, the number of female mice with viable fetuses decreased to 76.9% (compared with 100% of intact controls). The number of fetuses per female decreases to 3.2 (vs. 5.14); all developed fetuses had abnormalities, while there were no malformations in the fetuses of the intact (not irradiated) animals. Comparison results, showing the absence of the therapeutic effect of serotonin at the stage of skeleton formation, with results of previous studies, which demonstrated serotonin efficacy at the stage of formation of the central nervous system, suggests that the therapeutic effect of serotonin depends on the stage of embryo growth during which the mother is exposed to radiation

  9. Challenges of including nitrogen effects on decomposition in earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the importance of litter decomposition for ecosystem fertility and carbon balance, key uncertainties remain about how this fundamental process is affected by nitrogen (N) availability. Nevertheless, resolving such uncertainties is critical for mechanistic inclusion of such processes in earth system models, towards predicting the ecosystem consequences of increased anthropogenic reactive N. Towards that end, we have conducted a series of experiments examining nitrogen effects on litter decomposition. We found that both substrate N and externally supplied N (regardless of form) accelerated the initial decomposition rate. Faster initial decomposition rates were linked to the higher activity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes associated with externally supplied N and the greater relative abundances of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria associated with green leaves and externally supplied organic N (assessed using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA). By contrast, later in decomposition, externally supplied N slowed decomposition, increasing the fraction of slowly decomposing litter and reducing lignin-degrading enzyme activity and relative abundances of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Our results suggest that elevated atmospheric N deposition may have contrasting effects on the dynamics of different soil carbon pools, decreasing mean residence times of active fractions comprising very fresh litter, while increasing those of more slowly decomposing fractions including more processed litter. Incorporating these contrasting effects of N on decomposition processes into models is complicated by lingering uncertainties about how these effects generalize across ecosystems and substrates.

  10. Review article: the many potential roles of intestinal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signalling in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M D; Tekin, I; Vrana, K E; Mawe, G M

    2017-09-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important mediator of every major gut-related function. Recent investigations also suggest that 5-HT can influence the development and severity of inflammation within the gut, particularly in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To review the roles that the intestinal serotonin signalling system plays in gut function, with a specific focus on IBD. We reviewed manuscripts from 1952 to 2017 that investigated and discussed roles for 5-HT signalling in gastrointestinal function and IBD, as well as the influence of inflammation on 5-HT signalling elements within the gut. Inflammation appears to affect every major element of intestinal 5-HT signalling, including 5-HT synthesis, release, receptor expression and reuptake capacity. Importantly, many studies (most utilising animal models) also demonstrate that modulation of selective serotonergic receptors (via agonism of 5-HT 4 R and antagonism of 5-HT 3 R) or 5-HT signal termination (via serotonin reuptake inhibitors) can alter the likelihood and severity of intestinal inflammation and/or its complicating symptoms. However, there are few human studies that have studied these relationships in a targeted manner. Insights discussed in this review have strong potential to lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic tools to improve the management of IBD and other related disorders. Specifically, strategies that focus on modifying the activity of selective serotonin receptors and reuptake transporters in the gut could be effective for controlling disease activity and/or its associated symptoms. Further studies in humans are required, however, to more completely understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the roles of 5-HT in this setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Expression analysis for inverted effects of serotonin transporter inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Manabu; Okamura-Oho, Yuko; Shimokawa, Kazuro; Kondo, Shinji; Nakamura, Sakiko; Yokota, Hideo; Himeno, Ryutaro; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2008-01-01

    Inactivation of serotonin transporter (HTT) by pharmacologically in the neonate or genetically increases risk for depression in adulthood, whereas pharmacological inhibition of HTT ameliorates symptoms in depressed patients. The differing role of HTT function during early development and in adult brain plasticity in causing or reversing depression remains an unexplained paradox. To address this we profiled the gene expression of adult Htt knockout (Htt KO) mice and HTT inhibitor-treated mice. Inverted profile changes between the two experimental conditions were seen in 30 genes. Consistent results of the upstream regulatory element search and the co-localization search of these genes indicated that the regulation may be executed by Pax5, Pax7 and Gata3, known to be involved in the survival, proliferation, and migration of serotonergic neurons in the developing brain, and these factors are supposed to keep functioning to regulate downstream genes related to serotonin system in the adult brain

  12. Probabilistic Identification of Spin Systems and their Assignments including Coil-Helix Inference as Output (PISTACHIO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Bahrami, Arash; Wang, Liya; Assadi, Amir; Markley, John L.

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel automated strategy (PISTACHIO) for the probabilistic assignment of backbone and sidechain chemical shifts in proteins. The algorithm uses peak lists derived from various NMR experiments as input and provides as output ranked lists of assignments for all signals recognized in the input data as constituting spin systems. PISTACHIO was evaluated by comparing its performance with raw peak-picked data from 15 proteins ranging from 54 to 300 residues; the results were compared with those achieved by experts analyzing the same datasets by hand. As scored against the best available independent assignments for these proteins, the first-ranked PISTACHIO assignments were 80-100% correct for backbone signals and 75-95% correct for sidechain signals. The independent assignments benefited, in a number of cases, from structural data (e.g. from NOESY spectra) that were unavailable to PISTACHIO. Any number of datasets in any combination can serve as input. Thus PISTACHIO can be used as datasets are collected to ascertain the current extent of secure assignments, to identify residues with low assignment probability, and to suggest the types of additional data needed to remove ambiguities. The current implementation of PISTACHIO, which is available from a server on the Internet, supports input data from 15 standard double- and triple-resonance experiments. The software can readily accommodate additional types of experiments, including data from selectively labeled samples. The assignment probabilities can be carried forward and refined in subsequent steps leading to a structure. The performance of PISTACHIO showed no direct dependence on protein size, but correlated instead with data quality (completeness and signal-to-noise). PISTACHIO represents one component of a comprehensive probabilistic approach we are developing for the collection and analysis of protein NMR data

  13. Probabilistic Identification of Spin Systems and their Assignments including Coil-Helix Inference as Output (PISTACHIO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eghbalnia, Hamid R., E-mail: eghbalni@nmrfam.wisc.edu; Bahrami, Arash; Wang, Liya [National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, Biochemistry Department (United States); Assadi, Amir [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Mathematics Department (United States); Markley, John L [National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, Biochemistry Department (United States)

    2005-07-15

    We present a novel automated strategy (PISTACHIO) for the probabilistic assignment of backbone and sidechain chemical shifts in proteins. The algorithm uses peak lists derived from various NMR experiments as input and provides as output ranked lists of assignments for all signals recognized in the input data as constituting spin systems. PISTACHIO was evaluated by comparing its performance with raw peak-picked data from 15 proteins ranging from 54 to 300 residues; the results were compared with those achieved by experts analyzing the same datasets by hand. As scored against the best available independent assignments for these proteins, the first-ranked PISTACHIO assignments were 80-100% correct for backbone signals and 75-95% correct for sidechain signals. The independent assignments benefited, in a number of cases, from structural data (e.g. from NOESY spectra) that were unavailable to PISTACHIO. Any number of datasets in any combination can serve as input. Thus PISTACHIO can be used as datasets are collected to ascertain the current extent of secure assignments, to identify residues with low assignment probability, and to suggest the types of additional data needed to remove ambiguities. The current implementation of PISTACHIO, which is available from a server on the Internet, supports input data from 15 standard double- and triple-resonance experiments. The software can readily accommodate additional types of experiments, including data from selectively labeled samples. The assignment probabilities can be carried forward and refined in subsequent steps leading to a structure. The performance of PISTACHIO showed no direct dependence on protein size, but correlated instead with data quality (completeness and signal-to-noise). PISTACHIO represents one component of a comprehensive probabilistic approach we are developing for the collection and analysis of protein NMR data.

  14. [Metabolism of serotonin in autism in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztejn, C; Ferrari, P; Dreux, C; Braconnier, A; Lancrenon, S

    1988-01-01

    In this controlled study of 22 autistic children and 22 normal controls matched for age and sex, the frequency of hyperserotonemia in infantile autism was confirmed. Platelet serotonin was elevated in patients. Comparative to controls, serotonin was also high in urine of autistic patients, while, on the contrary there was no difference for the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA. No difference was observed either for serotonin uptake and efflux or for MAO activity, in isolated platelets. The elevation of plasma free tryptophan - significant only with the Kolmogorov Smirnov test - suggests that 5-HT biosynthesis might be enhanced. In the group of patient reported in this study, disorders of serotonin metabolism are associated with disturbances of platelet catecholamines, and also with elevated immunoglobulins and enhanced cellular immunity reactions.

  15. Integrated outage management: Leveraging utility system assets including GIS and AMR for optimum outage response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finamore, E. P.

    2004-02-01

    The control of electrical system outages is discussed. The principal argument advanced is that traditional stand-alone methods of outage response will no longer get the job done without utility companies integrating their outage management systems with other system assets such as GIS (geographic information system) and AMR (advanced metering systems). Many meter reading systems, while primarily supporting customer billing, can also provide outage alarm and some are also capable of service restoration notification, which is an invaluable benefit to service operators since it obviates the need for verifying system restoration by labour-intensive on-site visits or customer call-backs. If successfully leveraged, optimization of all utility assets and improvements in labour productivity can results in improved outage management performance gains without affecting performance in other areas.

  16. Reassessing the NTCTCS Staging Systems for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Including Age at Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Donald S A; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Brierley, James D; Ain, Kenneth B; Cooper, David S; Fein, Henry G; Haugen, Bryan R; Ladenson, Paul W; Magner, James; Ross, Douglas S; Skarulis, Monica C; Steward, David L; Xing, Mingzhao; Litofsky, Danielle R; Maxon, Harry R; Sherman, Steven I

    2015-10-01

    Thyroid cancer is unique for having age as a staging variable. Recently, the commonly used age cut-point of 45 years has been questioned. This study assessed alternate staging systems on the outcome of overall survival, and compared these with current National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS) staging systems for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. A total of 4721 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were assessed. Five potential alternate staging systems were generated at age cut-points in five-year increments from 35 to 70 years, and tested for model discrimination (Harrell's C-statistic) and calibration (R(2)). The best five models for papillary and follicular cancer were further tested with bootstrap resampling and significance testing for discrimination. The best five alternate papillary cancer systems had age cut-points of 45-50 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. No significant difference in C-statistic was found between the best alternate and current NTCTCS systems (p = 0.200). The best five alternate follicular cancer systems had age cut-points of 50-55 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. All five best alternate staging systems performed better compared with the current system (p = 0.003-0.035). There was no significant difference in discrimination between the best alternate system (cut-point age 50 years) and the best system of cut-point age 45 years (p = 0.197). No alternate papillary cancer systems assessed were significantly better than the current system. New alternate staging systems for follicular cancer appear to be better than the current NTCTCS system, although they require external validation.

  17. Reassessing the NTCTCS Staging Systems for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Including Age at Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Donald S.A.; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Brierley, James D.; Ain, Kenneth B.; Cooper, David S.; Fein, Henry G.; Haugen, Bryan R.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Magner, James; Ross, Douglas S.; Skarulis, Monica C.; Steward, David L.; Xing, Mingzhao; Litofsky, Danielle R.; Maxon, Harry R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid cancer is unique for having age as a staging variable. Recently, the commonly used age cut-point of 45 years has been questioned. Objective: This study assessed alternate staging systems on the outcome of overall survival, and compared these with current National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS) staging systems for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Methods: A total of 4721 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were assessed. Five potential alternate staging systems were generated at age cut-points in five-year increments from 35 to 70 years, and tested for model discrimination (Harrell's C-statistic) and calibration (R2). The best five models for papillary and follicular cancer were further tested with bootstrap resampling and significance testing for discrimination. Results: The best five alternate papillary cancer systems had age cut-points of 45–50 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. No significant difference in C-statistic was found between the best alternate and current NTCTCS systems (p = 0.200). The best five alternate follicular cancer systems had age cut-points of 50–55 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. All five best alternate staging systems performed better compared with the current system (p = 0.003–0.035). There was no significant difference in discrimination between the best alternate system (cut-point age 50 years) and the best system of cut-point age 45 years (p = 0.197). Conclusions: No alternate papillary cancer systems assessed were significantly better than the current system. New alternate staging systems for follicular cancer appear to be better than the current NTCTCS system, although they require external validation. PMID:26203804

  18. Serotonin-induced nitric oxide production in the ventral nerve cord of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Y; Naganoma, Y; Horita, H; Ogawa, H; Oka, K

    2001-10-01

    Effect of serotonin on nitric oxide (NO) production in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida was investigated by a bio-imaging and an electrochemical technique. In the bio-imaging, the spatial pattern of NO production in VNC was visualized using an NO-specific fluorescent dye, diaminofluorescein-2 diacethyl (DAF-2 DA). Application of serotonin (100 microM) increased NO production in VNC by about 65% (PVNC. In the electrochemical technique, real-time basal and serotonin-induced NO production was estimated with an NO-specific electrode. On the ventral surface of VNC, the estimated basal NO production was stable at 200+/-52 nM, and was transiently augmented to 840+/-193 nM by the addition of 10 microM serotonin. In conclusion, the estimated basal NO production in the earthworm VNC is relatively high compared with other nervous systems earlier reported, and transiently augmented by serotonin. Our results suggest that NO signaling in VNC is involved in neuromodulation by serotonin.

  19. Life Support Goals Including High Closure and Low Mass Should Be Reconsidered Using Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    Recycling space life support systems have been built and tested since the 1960s and have operated on the International Space Station (ISS) since the mid 2000s. The development of space life support has been guided by a general consensus focused on two important related goals, increasing system closure and reducing launch mass. High closure is achieved by recycling crew waste products such as carbon dioxide and condensed humidity. Recycling directly reduces the mass of oxygen and water for the crew that must be launched from Earth. The launch mass of life support can be further reduced by developing recycling systems with lower hardware mass and reduced power. The life support consensus has also favored using biological systems. The goal of increasing closure using biological systems suggests that food should be grown in space and that biological processors be used for air, water, and waste recycling. The goal of reducing launch mass led to use of Equivalent System Mass (ESM) in life support advocacy and technology selection. The recent consensus assumes that the recycling systems architecture developed in the 1960s and implemented on ISS will be used on all future long missions. NASA and other project organizations use the standard systems engineering process to guide hardware development. The systems process was used to develop ISS life support, but it has been less emphasized in planning future systems for the moon and Mars. Since such missions are far in the future, there has been less immediate need for systems engineering analysis to consider trade-offs, reliability, and Life Cycle Cost (LCC). Preliminary systems analysis suggests that the life support consensus concepts should be revised to reflect systems engineering requirements.

  20. Economic analysis of including an MRS facility in the waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.W.; Conner, C.; Leiter, A.J.; Ching, E.

    1992-01-01

    The MRS System Study Summary Report (System Study) in June 1989 concluded that an MRS facility would provide early spent fuel acceptance as well as flexibility for the waste management system. However, these advantages would be offset by an increase in the total system cost (i.e., total cost to the ratepayer) ranging from $1.3 billion to about $2.8 billion depending on the configuration of the waste management system. This paper discusses this new investigation which will show that, in addition to the advantages of an MRS facility described above, a basic (i.e., store-only) MRS facility may result in a cost savings to the total system, primarily due to the inclusion in the analysis of additional at-reactor operating costs for maintaining shutdown reactor sites

  1. Multiagent-Based Flexible Automation of Microproduction Systems Including Mobile Transport Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Voos, Holger; Wangmanaopituk, Suparchoek

    2013-01-01

    In microproduction, i.e. in the production and assembly of micro-scale components and products, fully automated systems hardly exist so far. Besides the requirements of handling small parts with extreme precision, small batch sizes of highly customized products are among the main challenges. Therefore, economic microproduction requires very flexible production systems with a high level of automation. This contribution proposes a new concept of such a system that provides two main innova...

  2. Hardware-in-the-loop vehicle system including dynamic fuel cell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Z.; Lenhart, T.; Braun, M.; Maencher, H. [MAGNUM Automatisierungstechnik GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In order to reduce costs and accelerate the development of fuel cells and systems the usage of hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing and dynamic modelling opens new possibilities. The dynamic model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) together with a vehicle model is used to carry out a comprehensive system investigation, which allows designing and optimising the behaviour of the components and the entire fuel cell system. The set-up of a HIL system enables real time interaction between the selected hardware and the model. (orig.)

  3. A fatigue analysis including environmental effects for a pipe system in a Swedish BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steingrimsdottir, Kristin; Dahlberg, Magnus

    2011-10-01

    A BWR feed water piping system (austenitic steel) has been analyzed with two different fatigue curves and environmental factors. Original fatigue curve from ASME is compared to a new fatigue curve; ANL. The influence of environmental correction factors (Fen) is studied further for the piping system. It is noted that the results apply for this particular system, and general conclusions should be cautiously drawn. Typical for this system is that all dominant loads are within the low-cycle regime. This implies that the change of fatigue curve only leads to limited increases in usage factors. Larger changes can occur if larger number of cycles is within the high-cycle regime

  4. Alteration of the platelet serotonin transporter in romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, D; Akiskal, H S; Rossi, A; Cassano, G B

    1999-05-01

    The evolutionary consequences of love are so important that there must be some long-established biological process regulating it. Recent findings suggest that the serotonin (5-HT) transporter might be linked to both neuroticism and sexual behaviour as well as to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The similarities between an overvalued idea, such as that typical of subjects in the early phase of a love relationship, and obsession, prompted us to explore the possibility that the two conditions might share alterations at the level of the 5-HT transporter. Twenty subjects who had recently (within the previous 6 months) fallen in love, 20 unmedicated OCD patients and 20 normal controls, were included in the study. The 5-HT transporter was evaluated with the specific binding of 3H-paroxetine (3H-Par) to platelet membranes. The results showed that the density of 3H-Par binding sites was significantly lower in subjects who had recently fallen in love and in OCD patients than in controls. The main finding of the present study is that subjects who were in the early romantic phase of a love relationship were not different from OCD patients in terms of the density of the platelet 5-HT transporter, which proved to be significantly lower than in the normal controls. This would suggest common neurochemical changes involving the 5-HT system, linked to psychological dimensions shared by the two conditions, perhaps at an ideational level.

  5. A project-based system for including farmers in the EU ETS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    as ‘the missing link’ in past climate negotiations. We argue that farmers have relatively low marginal reduction costs and that consequences in terms of the effect on permit price and technology are overall positive in the EU Emission Trading System (ETS). Thus, we propose a project-based system...

  6. Periodic mesoporous organosilica-doped nanocomposite membranes and systems including same

    KAUST Repository

    Hammami, Mohamed Amen

    2017-12-28

    A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) nanoparticle functionalized nanocomposite membrane (NCM) for membrane distillation, the NCM including: polymer fibers such as polyetherimide fibers aggregated into a matrix; and hydrophobic PMO nanoparticles disposed on the polymer fibers. The PMO nanoparticles include a framework connected by organic groups and pentafluorophenyl groups. Good membrane flux and anti-fouling was demonstrated. Membranes can be prepared by electrospinning.

  7. Periodic mesoporous organosilica-doped nanocomposite membranes and systems including same

    KAUST Repository

    Hammami, Mohamed Amen; Francis, Lijo; Croissant, Jonas; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaiari, Shahad; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2017-01-01

    A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) nanoparticle functionalized nanocomposite membrane (NCM) for membrane distillation, the NCM including: polymer fibers such as polyetherimide fibers aggregated into a matrix; and hydrophobic PMO nanoparticles disposed on the polymer fibers. The PMO nanoparticles include a framework connected by organic groups and pentafluorophenyl groups. Good membrane flux and anti-fouling was demonstrated. Membranes can be prepared by electrospinning.

  8. THERMAL PROTECTION AND THERMAL STABILIZATION OF FIBER-OPTICAL GYROSCOPE INCLUDED IN STRAPDOWN INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Gromov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known, that temperature perturbations and thermal modes have significant influence on the accuracy of a fiber-optical gyroscope. Nowadays, thermal perturbations are among the main problems in the field of navigation accuracy. Review of existing methods for decrease of temperature influences on the accuracy of a strapdown inertial navigation system with fiberoptical gyros showed, that the usage of constructive and compensation methods only is insufficient and, therefore, thermostabilization is required. Reversible thermostabilization system is offered, its main executive elements are thermoelectric modules (Peltier’s modules, heat transfer from which is provided by heatsinks at work surfaces of modules. This variant of thermostabilization maintenance is considered; Peltier’s modules and temperature sensors for the system are chosen. Parameters of heatsinks for heat transfer intensification are calculated. Fans for necessary air circulation in the device are chosen and thickness of thermal isolation is calculated. Calculations of thermal modes of navigation system with thermostabilization are made in modern software Autodesk Simulation CFD. Comparison of results for present and previous researches and calculations shows essential decrease in gradients of temperature on gyro surfaces and better uniformity of temperature field in the whole device. Conclusions about efficiency of the given method usage in view of accuracy improvement of navigation system are made. Thermostabilization provision of a strapdown inertial navigation system with fiberoptical gyros is proved. Thermostabilization application in combination with compensational methods can reach a necessary accuracy of navigation system.

  9. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs Using a Hybrid FRP-UHPC System Including Shear Connector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiho Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric hybrid composite system made of UHPC and CFRP was proposed as a retrofit system to enhance flexural strength and ductility of RC slabs. While the effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed previously through testing three full-scale one-way slabs having two continuous spans, the slabs retrofitted with the hybrid system failed in shear. This sudden shear failure would stem from the excessive enhancement of the flexural strength over the shear strength. In this study, shear connectors were installed between the hybrid system and a RC slab. Using simple beam, only positive moment section was examined. Two full-scale RC slabs were cast and tested to failure: the first as a control and the second using this new strengthening technique. The proposed strengthening system increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slab by 70%, the stiffness by 60%, and toughness by 128%. The efficiency of shear connectors on ductile behavior of the retrofitted slab was also confirmed. After the UHPC top is separated from the slab, the shear connector transfer shear load and the slab system were in force equilibrium by compression in UHPC and tension in CFRP.

  10. An M/M/2 Queueing System with Heterogeneous Servers Including One with Working Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes an M/M/2 queueing system with two heterogeneous servers, one of which is always available but the other goes on vacation in the absence of customers waiting for service. The vacationing server, however, returns to serve at a low rate as an arrival finds the other server busy. The system is analyzed in the steady state using matrix geometric method. Busy period of the system is analyzed and mean waiting time in the stationary regime computed. Conditional stochastic decomposition of stationary queue length is obtained. An illustrative example is also provided.

  11. Statistical methods for including two-body forces in large system calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, S.M.

    1980-07-01

    Large systems of interacting particles are often treated by assuming that the effect on any one particle of the remaining N-1 may be approximated by an average potential. This approach reduces the problem to that of finding the bound-state solutions for a particle in a potential; statistical mechanics is then used to obtain the properties of the many-body system. In some physical systems this approach may not be acceptable, because the two-body force component cannot be treated in this one-body limit. A technique for incorporating two-body forces in such calculations in a more realistic fashion is described. 1 figure

  12. Rapid replacement of Tangier Island bridges including lightweight and durable fiber-reinforced polymer deck systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite cellular deck systems were used as new bridge decks on two replacement bridges on Tangier Island, Virginia. The most important characteristics of this application were reduced self-weight and increased durabil...

  13. Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by systemic factors including stress, glucocorticoids, sleep, and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.; van Dam, A.-M.; Czéh, B.; Gage, F.H.; Kempermann, G.; Song, H.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses the regulation of adult neurogenesis and hippocampal cellular plasticity by systemic factors. We focus on the role of stress, glucocorticoids, and related factors such as sleep deprivation and inflammation.

  14. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of serotonin receptors in the rat brain. II. Serotonin-2 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos, A.; Cortes, R.; Palacios, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of serotonin-2 (5-HT 2 ) receptors in the rat brain was studied by light microscopic quantitative autoradiography. Receptors were labeled with four ligands: [ 3 H]ketanserin, [ 3 H]mesulergine, [ 3 H]LSD and [ 3 H]spiperone, which are reported to show high affinity for 5-HT 2 receptors. Very high concentrations were localized in the claustrum, olfactory tubercle and layer IV of the neocortex. The anterior olfactory nucleus, piriform cortex and layer I of neocortex were also rich in 5-HT 2 receptors. The specificity of the different ligands used is discussed in terms of the other populations of sites recognized by them. The distribution of 5-HT 2 receptors here reported is discussed in correlation with (a) the known distribution of serotoninergic terminals, (b) the specific anatomical systems and (c) the central effects reported to be mediated by 5-HT 2 -selective drugs. (Auth.)

  15. Modeling a space-based quantum link that includes an adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchane, Alexander W.; Hodson, Douglas D.; Mailloux, Logan O.

    2017-10-01

    Quantum Key Distribution uses optical pulses to generate shared random bit strings between two locations. If a high percentage of the optical pulses are comprised of single photons, then the statistical nature of light and information theory can be used to generate secure shared random bit strings which can then be converted to keys for encryption systems. When these keys are incorporated along with symmetric encryption techniques such as a one-time pad, then this method of key generation and encryption is resistant to future advances in quantum computing which will significantly degrade the effectiveness of current asymmetric key sharing techniques. This research first reviews the transition of Quantum Key Distribution free-space experiments from the laboratory environment to field experiments, and finally, ongoing space experiments. Next, a propagation model for an optical pulse from low-earth orbit to ground and the effects of turbulence on the transmitted optical pulse is described. An Adaptive Optics system is modeled to correct for the aberrations caused by the atmosphere. The long-term point spread function of the completed low-earth orbit to ground optical system is explored in the results section. Finally, the impact of this optical system and its point spread function on an overall quantum key distribution system as well as the future work necessary to show this impact is described.

  16. Serotonin Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin Syndrome (SS is a potentially fatal iatrogenic condition that occurs as a result of an over-stimulation of the serotonergic receptors. Its typical presentation consists of the triad altered mental status, autonomic hyperactivity and neuromuscular alterations, although the clinical condition is highly variable. Despite being potentially treatable, many cases per year are underdiagnosed, a fact that has been mainly attributed to the lack of knowledge of this condition by the physicians. SS treatment relies on four pillars: removal of the precipitating agent and supportive therapy, antagonism of 5-HT2A receptors, and control of agitation, autonomic instability and hyperthermia. It is expected that its incidence will accompany the growth of the prescription of antidepressants, andincreasing physician’s awareness about its occurrence, could contribute to a timely diagnosis and to the success of the treatment. We present a clinical case of a patient diagnosed with Bipolar Affective Disorder, hospitalized for a depressive episode with a psychotic component, which developed a SS compatible condition. Based on this case report the authors undertake a theoretical review of this condition.

  17. Serotonin and decision making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Judith R

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important player in decision making. Serotonergic antidepressant, anxiolytic and antipsychotic drugs are extensively used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by impaired decision making, and exert both beneficial and harmful effects in patients. Detailed insight into the serotonergic mechanisms underlying decision making is needed to strengthen the first and weaken the latter. Although much remains to be done to achieve this, accumulating studies begin to deliver a coherent view. Thus, high central 5-HT levels are generally associated with improved reversal learning, improved attentional set shifting, decreased delay discounting, and increased response inhibition, but a failure to use outcome representations. Based on 5-HT's evolutionary role, I hypothesize that 5-HT integrates expected, or changes in, relevant sensory and emotional internal/external information, leading to vigilance behaviour affecting various decision making processes. 5-HT receptor subtypes play distinctive roles in decision making. 5-HT(2A) agonists and 5-HT2c antagonists decrease compulsivity, whereas 5-HT(2A) antagonists and 5-HT(2C) agonists decrease impulsivity. 5-HT(6) antagonists univocally affect decision making processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter and receptor genes: susceptibility to substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman AI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aryeh I Herman, Kornelia N BaloghDepartment of Psychiatry, VA Connecticut Healthcare/Yale University School of Medicine, West Haven, CT, USAAbstract: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT] is an important neurotransmitter implicated in regulating substance-use disorder (SUD acquisition, maintenance, and recovery. During the past several years, an abundance of research has begun discovering and describing specific 5-HT genetic polymorphisms associated with SUDs. Genetic variations in the 5-HT system, such as SLC6A4, HTR1B, HTR2A, HTR2C, HTR3 (HTR3A, HTR3B, HTR3C, HTR3D, and HTR3E, likely play a role contributing to SUD patient heterogeneity. The 5-HT transporter-linked polymorphic region S allele, located in SLC6A4, has now been modestly associated with alcohol dependence in two large meta-analyses. Additional 5-HT genes may also play a role but have not been extensively investigated. A limited number of SUD treatment studies have included 5-HT gene variation as moderating treatment outcomes, but the results have been equivocal. Future research on 5-HT addiction genetics should adopt whole-genome sequencing technology, utilize large study samples, and collect data from multiple ethnic groups. Together, these methods will build on the work already conducted with the aim of utilizing 5-HT genetics in SUD treatment settings.Keywords: serotonin, genetic, substance dependence, addiction, alcohol, drug

  19. Lab-scale experiment of a closed thermochemical heat storage system including honeycomb heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fopah-Lele, Armand; Rohde, Christian; Neumann, Karsten; Tietjen, Theo; Rönnebeck, Thomas; N'Tsoukpoe, Kokouvi Edem; Osterland, Thomas; Opel, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    A lab-scale thermochemical heat storage reactor was developed in the European project “thermal battery” to obtain information on the characteristics of a closed heat storage system, based on thermochemical reactions. The present type of storage is capable of re-using waste heat from cogeneration system to produce useful heat for space heating. The storage material used was SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O. Due to agglomeration or gel-like problems, a structural element was introduced to enhance vapour and heat transfer. Honeycomb heat exchanger was designed and tested. 13 dehydration-hydration cycles were studied under low-temperature conditions (material temperatures < 100 °C) for storage. Discharging was realized at water vapour pressure of about 42 mbar. Temperature evolution inside the reactor at different times and positions, chemical conversion, thermal power and overall efficiency were analysed for the selected cycles. Experimental system thermal capacity and efficiency of 65 kWh and 0.77 are respectively obtained with about 1 kg of SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O. Heat transfer fluid recovers heat at a short span of about 43 °C with an average of 22 °C during about 4 h, acceptable temperature for the human comfort (20 °C on day and 16 °C at night). System performances were obtained for a salt bed energy density of 213 kWh·m 3 . The overall heat transfer coefficient of the honeycomb heat exchanger has an average value of 147 W m −2  K −1 . Though promising results have been obtained, ameliorations need to be made, in order to make the closed thermochemical heat storage system competitive for space heating. - Highlights: • Lab-scale thermochemical heat storage is designed, constructed and tested. • The use of honeycomb heat exchanger as a heat and vapour process enhancement. • Closed system (1 kg SrBr 2 ·6H 2 O) able to give back 3/4 of initial thermal waste energy. • System storage capacity and thermal efficiency are respectively 65 kWh and 0.77.

  20. Sampled data CT system including analog filter and compensating digital filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, G. H.; DallaPiazza, D. G.; Pelc, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    A CT scanner in which the amount of x-ray information acquired per unit time is substantially increased by using a continuous-on x-ray source and a sampled data system with the detector. An analog filter is used in the sampling system for band limiting the detector signal below the highest frequency of interest, but is a practically realizable filter and is therefore non-ideal. A digital filter is applied to the detector data after digitization to compensate for the characteristics of the analog filter, and to provide an overall filter characteristic more nearly like the ideal

  1. Development of a quantitative safety assessment method for nuclear I and C systems including human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2004-02-01

    Conventional PSA (probabilistic safety analysis) is performed in the framework of event tree analysis and fault tree analysis. In conventional PSA, I and C systems and human operators are assumed to be independent for simplicity. But, the dependency of human operators on I and C systems and the dependency of I and C systems on human operators are gradually recognized to be significant. I believe that it is time to consider the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of PSA. But, unfortunately it seems that we do not have appropriate methods for incorporating the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of Pasa. Conventional human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are not developed to consider the interdependecy, and the modeling of the interdependency using conventional event tree analysis and fault tree analysis seem to be, event though is does not seem to be impossible, quite complex. To incorporate the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators, we need a new method for HRA and a new method for modeling the I and C systems, man-machine interface (MMI), and human operators for quantitative safety assessment. As a new method for modeling the I and C systems, MMI and human operators, I develop a new system reliability analysis method, reliability graph with general gates (RGGG), which can substitute conventional fault tree analysis. RGGG is an intuitive and easy-to-use method for system reliability analysis, while as powerful as conventional fault tree analysis. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RGGG method, it is applied to the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS), which is the actual plant protection system of Ulchin 5 and 6 nuclear power plants located in Republic of Korea. The latest version of the fault tree for DPPS, which is developed by the Integrated Safety Assessment team in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), consists of 64

  2. Increasing the technical and economic performance of wind diesel systems by including fresh water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P.

    1996-01-01

    In many remote regions of the world there is a lack of both electricity and potable water. In order to increase the standard of living and thus maintain the population both power and water have to be supplied at reasonable prices. A good option at many of these places are wind diesel systems...

  3. Case Studies in Systems Chemistry. Final Report. [Includes Complete Case Study, Carboxylic Acid Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, George

    This publication was produced as a teaching tool for college chemistry. The book is a text for a computer-based unit on the chemistry of acid-base titrations, and is designed for use with FORTRAN or BASIC computer systems, and with a programmable electronic calculator, in a variety of educational settings. The text attempts to present computer…

  4. Is variation management included in regional healthcare governance systems? Some proposals from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Sabina; Seghieri, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The Italian National Health System, which follows a Beveridge model, provides universal healthcare coverage through general taxation. Universal coverage provides uniform healthcare access to citizens and is the characteristic usually considered the added value of a welfare system financed by tax revenues. Nonetheless, wide differences in practice patterns, health outcomes and regional usages of resources that cannot be justified by differences in patient needs have been demonstrated to exist. Beginning with the experience of the health care system of the Tuscany region (Italy), this study describes the first steps of a long-term approach to proactively address the issue of geographic variation in healthcare. In particular, the study highlights how the unwarranted variation management has been addressed in a region with a high degree of managerial control over the delivery of health care and a consolidated performance evaluation system, by first, considering it a high priority objective and then by actively integrating it into the regional planning and control mechanism. The implications of this study can be useful to policy makers, professionals and managers, and will contribute to the understanding of how the management of variation can be implemented with performance measurements and financial incentives. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural and functional effects of heavy metals on the nervous system, including sense organs, of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E

    1991-01-01

    1. Today, fish in the environment are inevitably exposed to chemical pollution. Although most hazardous substances are present at concentrations far below the lethal level, they may still cause serious damage to the life processes of these animals. 2. Fish depend on an intact nervous system, incl...

  6. A vertex including emission of spin fields for an arbitrary bc system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vecchia, P.; Madsen, R.A.; Roland, K.

    1990-01-01

    We construct the (N+2M) Point Vertex involving the emission of N Neveu-Schwarz and 2M Ramond states for a bosonic and fermionic bc system with a bockground charge Q. From it one can compute correlation functions on the sphere involving any number of spin fields. We show in detail that the vertex satisfies overlap conditions. (orig.)

  7. Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the

  8. Including Pressure Measurements in Supervision of Energy Efficiency of Wastewater Pump Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Arensman, Mareike; Nerup-Jensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    energy). This article presents a method for a continuous supervision of the performance of both the pump and the pipeline in order to maintain the initial specific energy consumption as close as possible to the original value from when the system was commissioned. The method is based on pressure...

  9. Salivary serotonin does not correlate with central serotonin turnover in adult phenylketonuria (PKU patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Leung

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenylketonuria (PKU is an inborn error of metabolism associated with an increased risk of behavioural and mood disorders. There are currently no reliable markers for monitoring mood in PKU. The purpose of this study was to evaluate salivary serotonin as a possible non-invasive marker of long-term mood symptoms and central serotonin activity in patients with PKU. Methods: 20 patients were recruited from our Adult Metabolic Diseases Clinic. Age, sex, plasma phenylalanine (Phe level, DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales depression score, DASS anxiety score, BMI, salivary serotonin, salivary cortisol, 2-year average Phe, 2-year average tyrosine (Tyr, and 2-year average Phe:Tyr ratio were collected for each patient. Spearman's ρ correlation analysis was used to determine if there was any relationship between any of the parameters. Results: There were positive correlations between DASS anxiety and DASS depression scores (Spearman's ρ = 0.8708, p-value < 0.0001, BMI and plasma Phe level (Spearman's ρ = 0.6228, p-value = .0034, and 2-year average Phe and BMI (Spearman's ρ = 0.5448, p-value = .0130. There was also a negative correlation between salivary cortisol and plasma Phe level (Spearman's ρ = −0.5018, p-value = .0338. All other correlations were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Salivary serotonin does not correlate with peripheral phenylalanine levels, DASS depression scale scores, or DASS anxiety scale scores, implying that salivary serotonin does not reflect central serotonin turnover. Additionally, this study suggests that salivary serotonin is not a suitable marker for monitoring dietary control, mood, or anxiety in PKU. Synopsis: Salivary serotonin does not correlate with peripheral phenylalanine levels, DASS depression scale scores, or DASS anxiety scale scores, suggesting that salivary serotonin is not a suitable marker for monitoring dietary control, mood, or anxiety in PKU

  10. Including Life Cycle Assessment for decision-making in controlling wastewater nutrient removal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, Lluís; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Flores-Alsina, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the performance of seventeen control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It tackles the importance of using site-specific factors for nutrient enrichment when decision-makers have to select best operating....../or energy savings present an environmental benefit for N&P and P-deficient systems. This is not the case when addressing N-deficient systems for which the use of chemicals (even for improving N removal efficiencies) is not always beneficial for the environment. A sensitivity analysis on using weighting...... of the impact categories is conducted to assess how value choices (policy decisions) may affect the management of WWTPs. For the scenarios with only N-limitation, the LCA-based ranking of the control strategies is sensitive to the choice of weighting factors, whereas this is not the case for N&P or P...

  11. Nuclear waste glass melter design including the power and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    An energy balance of a joule-heated nuclear waste glass melter is used to discuss the problems in the design of the melter geometry and in the specifications of the power and control systems. The relationships between geometry, electrode current density, production rate, load voltage, and load power are presented graphically. The influence of liquid feeding on the surface of the glass and the variability of nuclear waste glass on the design and control during operation is discussed. 10 refs

  12. Use of the potentiometric titration method to investigate heterogeneous systems including phosphorylated complexones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshin, G.S.; Kharitonova, L.K.; Kuznetsova, O.B.

    1979-01-01

    Heterogeneous systems Y(NO 3 ) 3 (YCl 3 )-Hsub(n)L-KNO 3 (KCl)-H 2 O are investigated by potentiometric titration (with coulomb-meter generation of oH - ions). Hsub(n)L is one of the following: oxyethylidendiphosphonic; aminobenzilidendiphosphonic; glycine-bis-methyl-phosphonic; nitrilotrimethylphosphonic (H 6 L) and ethylenediaminetetramethylphosphonic acids. The range of the exsistence of YHsub(nL3)LxyH 2 O has been determined. The possibility of using potentiometric titration for investigating heterogeneous systems is demonstrated by the stUdy of the system Y(NO 3 ) 3 -H 6 L-KOH-H 2 o by the method of residual concentration. The two methods have shown that at pH 3 LxyH 2 O; at pH=6, KYH 2 Lxy'H 2 O, and at pH=7, K 2 YHLxy''H 2 O. The complete solubility products of nitrilotrimethylphosphonates are evaluated

  13. The immune system in space, including Earth-based benefits of space-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-08-01

    Exposure to space flight conditions has been shown to result in alterations in immune responses. Changes in immune responses of humans and experimental animals have been shown to be altered during and after space flight of humans and experimental animals or cell cultures of lymphoid cells. Exposure of subjects to ground-based models of space flight conditions, such as hindlimb unloading of rodents or chronic bed rest of humans, has also resulted in changes in the immune system. The relationship of these changes to compromised resistance to infection or tumors in space flight has not been fully established, but results from model systems suggest that alterations in the immune system that occur in space flight conditions may be related to decreases in resistance to infection. The establishment of such a relationship could lead to the development of countermeasures that could prevent or ameliorate any compromises in resistance to infection resulting from exposure to space flight conditions. An understanding of the mechanisms of space flight conditions effects on the immune response and development of countermeasures to prevent them could contribute to the development of treatments for compromised immunity on earth.

  14. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  15. 75 FR 76038 - Zach System Corporation a Subdivision of Zambon Company, SPA Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Subdivision of Zambon Company, SPA Including On-Site Leased Workers of Turner Industries and Go Johnson, La..., including on-site leased workers from Turner Industries and Go Johnson, La Porte, Texas. The Department's... investigation revealed that Zach System Corporation is a subdivision of Zambon Company, SPA, not Zach System SPA...

  16. Polarization tracking system for free-space optical communication, including quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Hughes, Richard John

    2018-01-09

    Quantum communication transmitters include beacon lasers that transmit a beacon optical signal in a predetermined state of polarization such as one of the states of polarization of a quantum communication basis. Changes in the beacon polarization are detected at a receiver, and a retarder is adjusted so that the states of polarization in a received quantum communication optical signal are matched to basis polarizations. The beacon and QC signals can be at different wavelengths so that the beacon does not interfere with detection and decoding of the QC optical signal.

  17. Common selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor side effects in older adults associated with genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and receptors: data from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Lauren D; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E; Pollock, Bruce G; Kristjansson, Sean D; Doré, Peter M; Lenze, Eric J

    2014-10-01

    Antidepressant side effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation, and, rarely, significant harm. Older adults assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side effects and genetic variation in the serotonin system in anxious, older adults participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram. Adults (N = 177) aged ≥ 60 years were randomized to active treatment or placebo for 12 weeks. Side effects were assessed using the Udvalg fur Kliniske Undersøgelser side-effect rating scale. Genetic polymorphisms were putative functional variants in the promoters of the serotonin transporter and 1A and 2A receptors (5-HTTLPR [L/S + rs25531], HTR1A rs6295, HTR2A rs6311, respectively). Four significant drug-placebo side-effect differences were found: increased duration of sleep, dry mouth, diarrhea, and diminished sexual desire. Analyses using putative high- versus low-transcription genotype groupings revealed six pharmacogenetic effects: greater dry mouth and decreased sexual desire for the low- and high-expressing serotonin transporter genotypes, respectively, and greater diarrhea with the 1A receptor low-transcription genotype. Diminished sexual desire was experienced significantly more by high-expressing genotypes in the serotonin transporter, 1A, or 2A receptors. There was not a significant relationship between drug concentration and side effects nor a mean difference in drug concentration between low- and high-expressing genotypes. Genetic variation in the serotonin system may predict who develops common SSRI side effects and why. More work is needed to further characterize this genetic modulation and to translate research findings into strategies useful for more personalized patient care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Insomnia, platelet serotonin and platelet monoamine oxidase in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadic Sviglin, Korona; Nedic, Gordana; Nikolac, Matea; Mustapic, Maja; Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Borovecki, Fran; Pivac, Nela

    2011-08-18

    Insomnia is a common sleep disorder frequently occurring in chronic alcoholic patients. Neurobiological basis of insomnia, as well as of alcoholism, is associated with disrupted functions of the main neurotransmitter systems, including the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Blood platelets are considered a limited peripheral model for the central 5-HT neurons, since both platelets and central 5-HT synaptosomes have similar dynamics of 5-HT. Platelet 5-HT concentration and platelet monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) are assumed to represent biomarkers for particular symptoms and behaviors in psychiatric disorders. The hypothesis of this study was that platelet 5-HT concentration and platelet MAO-B activity will be altered in chronic alcoholic patients with insomnia compared to comparable values in patients without insomnia. The study included 498 subjects: 395 male and 103 female medication-free patients with alcohol dependence and 502 healthy control subjects: 325 men and 177 women. The effects of early, middle and late insomnia (evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), as well as sex, age and smoking on platelet 5-HT concentration and platelet MAO-B activity were evaluated using one-way ANOVA and multiple regression analysis by the stepwise method. Platelet 5-HT concentration, but not platelet MAO-B activity, was significantly reduced in alcoholic patients with insomnia compared to patients without insomnia. Multiple regression analysis revealed that platelet 5-HT concentration was affected by middle insomnia, smoking and sex, while platelet MAO activity was affected only by sex and age. The present and previous data suggest that platelet 5-HT concentration might be used, after controlling for sex and smoking, as a biomarker for insomnia in alcoholism, PTSD and in rotating shift workers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Developmental trauma disorder: pros and cons of including formal criteria in the psychiatric diagnostic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Marc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article reviews the current debate on developmental trauma disorder (DTD with respect to formalizing its diagnostic criteria. Victims of abuse, neglect, and maltreatment in childhood often develop a wide range of age-dependent psychopathologies with various mental comorbidities. The supporters of a formal DTD diagnosis argue that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD does not cover all consequences of severe and complex traumatization in childhood. Discussion Traumatized individuals are difficult to treat, but clinical experience has shown that they tend to benefit from specific trauma therapy. A main argument against inclusion of formal DTD criteria into existing diagnostic systems is that emphasis on the etiology of the disorder might force current diagnostic systems to deviate from their purely descriptive nature. Furthermore, comorbidities and biological aspects of the disorder may be underdiagnosed using the DTD criteria. Summary Here, we discuss arguments for and against the proposal of DTD criteria and address implications and consequences for the clinical practice.

  20. A Novel Mean-Value Model of the Cardiovascular System Including a Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Schmid Daners, Marianne

    2017-06-01

    Time-varying elastance models (TVEMs) are often used for simulation studies of the cardiovascular system with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Because these models are computationally expensive, they cannot be used for long-term simulation studies. In addition, their equilibria are periodic solutions, which prevent the extraction of a linear time-invariant model that could be used e.g. for the design of a physiological controller. In the current paper, we present a new type of model to overcome these problems: the mean-value model (MVM). The MVM captures the behavior of the cardiovascular system by representative mean values that do not change within the cardiac cycle. For this purpose, each time-varying element is manually converted to its mean-value counterpart. We compare the derived MVM to a similar TVEM in two simulation experiments. In both cases, the MVM is able to fully capture the inter-cycle dynamics of the TVEM. We hope that the new MVM will become a useful tool for researchers working on physiological control algorithms. This paper provides a plant model that enables for the first time the use of tools from classical control theory in the field of physiological LVAD control.

  1. Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY

    2009-01-01

    Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

  2. Serotonin and Serotonin Transporters in the Adrenal Medulla: A Potential Hub for Modulation of the Sympathetic Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, Rebecca L; Bauer, Mary Beth; Blakely, Randy D; Currie, Kevin P M

    2017-05-17

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system where it modulates circuits involved in mood, cognition, movement, arousal, and autonomic function. The 5-HT transporter (SERT; SLC6A4) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling, and genetic variations in SERT are associated with various disorders including depression, anxiety, and autism. This review focuses on the role of SERT in the sympathetic nervous system. Autonomic/sympathetic dysfunction is evident in patients with depression, anxiety, and other diseases linked to serotonergic signaling. Experimentally, loss of SERT function (SERT knockout mice or chronic pharmacological block) has been reported to augment the sympathetic stress response. Alterations to serotonergic signaling in the CNS and thus central drive to the peripheral sympathetic nervous system are presumed to underlie this augmentation. Although less widely recognized, SERT is robustly expressed in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenal chromaffin cells do not synthesize 5-HT but accumulate small amounts by SERT-mediated uptake. Recent evidence demonstrated that 5-HT 1A receptors inhibit catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells via an atypical mechanism that does not involve modulation of cellular excitability or voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels. This raises the possibility that the adrenal medulla is a previously unrecognized peripheral hub for serotonergic control of the sympathetic stress response. As a framework for future investigation, a model is proposed in which stress-evoked adrenal catecholamine secretion is fine-tuned by SERT-modulated autocrine 5-HT signaling.

  3. The value of blood serotonin for effective weight loss in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya Vadimovna Anikina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is a disorder of energy balance, which leads to excessive accumulation of fat. In recent years, many important discoveries were made in this field, including the discovery of hormones produced by adipose tissue and the identification of many of the central and peripheral pathways of energy balance. Objective. To study the levels of hormones that affect appetite and metabolism in women with obesity baseline and after weight loss while taking sibutramine. Materials and methods. The study included 56 women aged 42,9±9,5 years, with a BMI of 34,6±6,1 kg/m2. All patients underwent clinical, laboratory and instrumental examination. Hormonal study included determination of serotonin, leptin, ghrelin, endothelin-1, adiponectin. Results: In women with obesity we identified hyperleptinemia and increased serotonin levels. The decrease in body weight in patients receiving sibutramine was accompanied by lower levels of serotonin, leptin, ghrelin, endothelin-1, and increase of adiponectin. Conclusions: Obese patients have significantly elevated levels of leptin, serotonin, ghrelin compared to women of normal weight. Sibutramine treatment leads to a decrease in serotonin, leptin, ghrelin and is more effective in women with a BMI less than 36,5 kg/m2.

  4. Characterization of the effects of serotonin on the release of [3H]dopamine from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurse, B.; Russell, V.A.; Taljaard, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of serotonin agonists on the depolarization (K+)-induced, calcium-dependent, release of [ 3 H]dopamine (DA) from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices was investigated. Serotonin enhanced basal 3 H overflow and reduced K+-induced release of [ 3 H]DA from nucleus accumbens slices. The effect of serotonin on basal 3 H overflow was not altered by the serotonin antagonist, methysergide, or the serotonin re-uptake blocker, chlorimipramine, but was reversed by the DA re-uptake carrier inhibitors nomifensine and benztropine. With the effect on basal overflow blocked, serotonin did not modulate K+-induced release of [ 3 H]DA in the nucleus accumbens or striatum. The serotonin agonists, quipazine (in the presence of nomifensine) and 5-methoxytryptamine, did not significantly affect K+-induced release of [ 3 H]DA in the nucleus accumbens. This study does not support suggestions that serotonin receptors inhibit the depolarization-induced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens or striatum of the rat brain. The present results do not preclude the possibility that serotonin may affect the mesolimbic reward system at a site which is post-synaptic to dopaminergic terminals in the nucleus accumbens

  5. Robust and Adaptive OMR System Including Fuzzy Modeling, Fusion of Musical Rules, and Possible Error Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for optical music recognition (OMR in case of monophonic typeset scores. After clarifying the difficulties specific to this domain, we propose appropriate solutions at both image analysis level and high-level interpretation. Thus, a recognition and segmentation method is designed, that allows dealing with common printing defects and numerous symbol interconnections. Then, musical rules are modeled and integrated, in order to make a consistent decision. This high-level interpretation step relies on the fuzzy sets and possibility framework, since it allows dealing with symbol variability, flexibility, and imprecision of music rules, and merging all these heterogeneous pieces of information. Other innovative features are the indication of potential errors and the possibility of applying learning procedures, in order to gain in robustness. Experiments conducted on a large data base show that the proposed method constitutes an interesting contribution to OMR.

  6. Preliminary hazard analysis for the Brayton Isotope Ground Demonstration System (including vacuum test chamber)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    The Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the BIPS-GDS is a tabular summary of hazards and undesired events which may lead to system damage or failure and/or hazard to personnel. The PHA reviews the GDS as it is envisioned to operate in the Vacuum Test Chamber (VTC) of the GDS Test Facility. The VTC and other equipment which will comprise the test facility are presently in an early stage of preliminary design and will undoubtedly undergo numerous changes before the design is frozen. The PHA and the FMECA to follow are intended to aid the design effort by identifying areas of concern which are critical to the safety and reliability of the BIPS-GDS and test facility

  7. Photoflash unit having optical system including aspheric lens to enhance light output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    A photoflash unit employing an optical system or apparatus with improved center beam candle power seconds and zonal lumen seconds from the flash lamp therein, said unit also employing a minimized utilization ratio of lamp-to-package cross-sectional area. Each individual lamp capsule comprises a reflective element, a refractive element (lens), and at least one photoflash lamp (light source). The lens provides for lamp shred magnification so as to fill the cell (capsule) width to thus provide maximum transfer of light to the subject on axis. One embodiment has the light source fused (glued) to the reflector and lens while a second embodiment has an air interface between the source and the optical elements. In both embodiments, the lens is aspheric and substantially covers both the reflector and source

  8. Transition processes in solid-phase electrochemical systems including sulfur-containing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipova, N.V.; Mikhajlova, A.M.; Seryanov, Yu.V.

    2005-01-01

    Transition processes in direct-contact systems Li/Sb 2 S 3 and Li/Sb 2 S 5 are studied. As shown by potentiodynamic voltammetry, an Li 3 SbS 3 interphase is the most probable product of the cathodic reduction at direct-contact interfaces. At certain polarizations and current densities, under potentiodynamic and galvanostatic conditions, the main current-producing processes that lead to the formation of the Li 3 SbS 3 interphase compete with passivating cathodic reactions which occur via the mechanism of monolayer adsorption and result in the formation of an Li 2 S product which blocks grains of the lithium thiostibnite interphase. Effective transfer coefficients of passivating reactions are twice those of the main current-producing cathodic reactions [ru

  9. The need to include obstetric nurses in prenatal care visits in the public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aparecida Lagrosa Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate, with a qualitative approach, the role of Obstetric Nurses at the primary level of care given to women’s health as a vital component of the multidisciplinary team, which today is fundamental for providing care, prevention as well as health education and promotion, especially in programs whose activities are geared towards primary care of pregnant, parturient, and puerpera women. Methods: Brazilian laws and the determinations of Nursing Councils in reference to the activities of the obstetric nurse were researched, including the nurse’s responsibilities and limits. The bibliographic search was conducted in health-related journals, lay publications, and the Internet. Results: The conflicts between professional physicians and nurses were discussed. Conclusions: It was concluded that the activities of the nurse, conducting low-risk prenatal clinical visits in the basic healthcare network, has legal and ethical support and provides true benefit to the clients.

  10. Altered serotonin transporter availability in patients with multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama; Moeller, Franziska; Thomae, Eva; Then Bergh, Florian; Petroff, David; Lobsien, Donald; Luthardt, Julia; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Patt, Marianne; Seese, Anita; Meyer, Philipp M.; Regenthal, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of the immune system by the CNS may involve serotonergic regulation via the brain serotonin transporters (SERT). This regulation may be disturbed in patients with CNS disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Central serotonergic mechanisms have not been investigated in MS by in vivo imaging. The objective of the study was to assess the availability of SERT in antidepressant-naive patients with MS by means of PET. Included in this study were 23 patients with MS and 22 matched healthy volunteers who were investigated with PET and the SERT-selective marker [ 11 C]DASB, and distribution volume ratios were determined. Clinical assessment of the patients included the expanded disability status scale, the MS fatigue scale Wuerzburger Erschoepfungsinventar bei MS (WEIMuS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The PET data were analysed with both volume-of-interest and voxel-based analyses to determine regional SERT availability. Patients had lower SERT availability in the cingulate cortex, the thalamus and the insula, and increased availability in the orbitofrontal cortex. Patients with relapsing/remitting MS tended to have lower SERT in the hippocampus, whereas patients with primary progressive disease showed increased SERT availability in prefrontal regions. There was a positive correlation between SERT availability in the insula and both depression and fatigue scores (r = 0.56 vs. BDI, p = 0.02; r = 0.49 vs. WEIMuS, p = 0.05). Serotonergic neurotransmission in MS patients is altered in limbic and paralimbic regions as well as in the frontal cortex that this appears to contribute to psychiatric symptoms of MS. (orig.)

  11. Altered serotonin transporter availability in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Integrated Research and Treatment Center (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Moeller, Franziska; Thomae, Eva; Then Bergh, Florian [University of Leipzig, Department of Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Petroff, David [University of Leipzig, Coordinating Centre for Clinical Studies, Leipzig (Germany); Lobsien, Donald [University of Leipzig, Department of Neuroradiology, Leipzig (Germany); Luthardt, Julia; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Patt, Marianne; Seese, Anita; Meyer, Philipp M. [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Regenthal, Ralf [University of Leipzig, Clinical Pharmacology, Rudolf-Boehm-Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Modulation of the immune system by the CNS may involve serotonergic regulation via the brain serotonin transporters (SERT). This regulation may be disturbed in patients with CNS disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Central serotonergic mechanisms have not been investigated in MS by in vivo imaging. The objective of the study was to assess the availability of SERT in antidepressant-naive patients with MS by means of PET. Included in this study were 23 patients with MS and 22 matched healthy volunteers who were investigated with PET and the SERT-selective marker [{sup 11}C]DASB, and distribution volume ratios were determined. Clinical assessment of the patients included the expanded disability status scale, the MS fatigue scale Wuerzburger Erschoepfungsinventar bei MS (WEIMuS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The PET data were analysed with both volume-of-interest and voxel-based analyses to determine regional SERT availability. Patients had lower SERT availability in the cingulate cortex, the thalamus and the insula, and increased availability in the orbitofrontal cortex. Patients with relapsing/remitting MS tended to have lower SERT in the hippocampus, whereas patients with primary progressive disease showed increased SERT availability in prefrontal regions. There was a positive correlation between SERT availability in the insula and both depression and fatigue scores (r = 0.56 vs. BDI, p = 0.02; r = 0.49 vs. WEIMuS, p = 0.05). Serotonergic neurotransmission in MS patients is altered in limbic and paralimbic regions as well as in the frontal cortex that this appears to contribute to psychiatric symptoms of MS. (orig.)

  12. Different components of 3H-imipramine binding in rat brain membranes: relation to serotonin uptake sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbi, M.; Taddei, C.; Mennini, T.

    1988-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors confirm and extend previous studies showing heterogeneous 3 H-imipramine ( 3 H-IMI) binding sites. Inhibition curves of various drugs (serotonin, imipramine, desmethyl-imipramine, d-fenfluramine, d-norfenfluramine and indalpine, a potent serotonin uptake inhibitor) obtained using 2 nM 3 H-IMI and in presence of 120 mM NaCl, confirmed the presence of at least three 3 H-IMI binding sites: two of these were serotonin-insensitive while the third one was selectively inhibited by serotonin and indalpine with nanomolar affinities. Moreover this last component was found to be selectively modulated by chronic imipramine treatment thus suggesting a close relation to serontonin uptake mechanism. These data indicate that the use of a more selective inhibitors of the serotonin-sensitive component (like indalpine or serotonin itself) to define non specific 3 H-IMI, may be of help in understanding its relation with serotonin uptake system. 22 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  13. Serotonin receptor, SERT mRNA and correlations with symptoms in males with alcohol dependence and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P M; Cruz, D A; Olukotun, D Y; Delgado, P L

    2012-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that abnormalities in components of the serotonin (5HT) system in the prefrontal cortex are associated with suicide in alcohol-dependent subjects. Second, we assessed the relationship of lifetime impulsivity and mood symptoms with prefrontal cortex 5-HT measures. Tissue was obtained from Brodmann's areas (BA) 9 and 24 in postmortem samples of individuals who were alcohol dependent with suicide (n = 5), alcohol dependent without suicide (n = 9) and normal controls (n = 5). Serotonin receptor (5HT) and serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) mRNA were measured. Interviews with next of kin estimated lifetime impulsivity and mood symptoms in the last week of life. Serotonin receptor 1A (5HT1A) mRNA in BA 9 was elevated in the alcohol dependence without suicide group compared with controls. In the alcohol dependence with suicide group, anxiety symptoms were associated with decreased BA 24 SERT mRNA and depressive symptoms with BA 9 5HT1A mRNA expression. In the alcohol dependent only group impulsivity is correlated with increased BA 9, and BA 24 serotonin receptor 2A mRNA. Our data suggest region-specific change, rather than global serotonin blunting is involved in alcohol dependence and suicide. It also suggests that symptoms are differentially influenced by prefrontal cortex serotonin receptor mRNA levels. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Combined emission economic dispatch of power system including solar photo voltaic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Awan, Ahmed Bilal; Mahmood, Anzar; Razzaq, Sohail; Zafar, Adnan; Sidhu, Guftaar Ahmed Sardar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined Emission Economic Dispatch Problem has been solved with inclusion of solar power plants. • Mixed Integer Optimization Problem has been solved using Particle Swarm Optimization. • Static and dynamic case studies have been considered. • Clouds effect with 15% and 30% reduced radiations has also been taken into account. • Simulation results prove the effectiveness of proposed model. - Abstract: Reliable and inexpensive electricity provision is one of the significant research objectives since decades. Various Economic Dispatch (ED) methods have been developed in order to address the challenge of continuous and sustainable electricity provision at optimized cost. Rapid escalation of fuel prices, depletion of fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns have compelled us to incorporate the Renewable Energy (RE) resources in the energy mix. This paper presents Combined Emission Economic Dispatch (CEED) models developed for a system consisting of multiple Photo Voltaic (PV) plants and thermal units. Based on the nature of decision variables, our proposed model is essentially a Mixed Integer Optimization Problem (MIOP). Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to solve the optimization problem for a scenario involving six conventional and thirteen PV plants. Two test cases, Combined Static Emission Economic Dispatch (SCEED) and Combined Dynamic Emission Economic Dispatch (DCEED), have been considered. SCEED is performed for full solar radiation level as well as for reduced radiation level due to clouds effect. Simulation results have proved the effectiveness of the proposed model

  15. Pulley system including emergency locking means for nuclear reactor vessel inspection apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    A pulley system for driving the manipulating arm of a nuclear reactor vessel inspection device is disclosed. Two drive pulleys and pulley take-up spools are disposed in driving engagement with a motor. The pulley cable is looped about a first set of idler pulleys fixed to the manipulator arm which is to be driven along the main or central column of the inspection device. Two additional idler pulleys, a second set, are used to define another portion of the pulley cable loop, which portion serves to equalize unbalanced forces in the cable. When the drive motor is actuated, only that portion of the pulley cable between the drive set and the first set of idler pulleys moves. Depending on the direction of movement, the manipulator arm is raised or lowered with equal force on each side thereof minimizing wear and potential hazards. In addition, to guard against the possible dangers resulting from a snapped pulley cable, a restraining clip is secured to the cable between the second set of idler pulleys and is appropriately sized to jam between one of the idler pulleys and its support bracket. 3 claims

  16. Histomorphology of canine urethral sphincter systems, including three-dimensional reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen; Liatsikos, Evangelos N; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Ludewig, Eberhard; Ganzer, Roman

    2006-03-01

    To present a detailed anatomic description and comparison of the smooth and striated urethral sphincter in male and female dogs. We performed a thorough histologic evaluation, three-dimensional reconstruction, and magnetic resonance imaging of the lower urinary tract of male and female dogs. The lower urinary tract anatomy was investigated in 16 male and 18 female dogs by serial sectioning, including immunohistochemical staining and three-dimensional reconstruction. Magnetic resonance imaging performed in 5 male and 5 female dogs before histologic investigation helped to demonstrate the anatomy in vivo. A urethral sphincter muscle in both sexes existed without muscular connection to the pelvic floor. It ran circularly and consisted of an inner smooth and outer striated muscular part. In the female dog, the striated muscle encircled the urethra and vagina in the caudal third of the membranous urethra (musculus urethrovaginalis). A urinary diaphragm (diaphragma urogenitale) could not be found histologically or by magnetic resonance imaging. The dog is a suitable animal model for investigations of the urethral sphincter. In the female dog, attention should be given to the special topography of the musculus urethrovaginalis.

  17. Including oral health training in a health system strengthening program in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Seymour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rwanda's Ministry of Health, with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, implemented the Human Resources for Health (HRH Program. The purpose of the program is to train and retain high-quality health care professionals to improve and sustain health in Rwanda. Design: In May 2011, an oral health team from Rwanda and the United States proposed that oral health be included in the HRH Program, due to its important links to health, in a recommendation to the Rwandan Ministry of Health. The proposal outlined a diagonal approach to curriculum design that supports the principles of global health through interconnected training for both treatment and collaborative prevention, rather than discipline-based fragmented training focused on isolated risk factors. It combined ‘vertical’ direct patient care training with ‘horizontal’ interdisciplinary training to address common underlying risk factors and associations for disease through primary care, program retention, and sustainability. Results: The proposal was accepted by the Ministry of Health and was approved for funding by the US Government and The Global Fund. Rwanda's first Bachelor of Dental Surgery program, which is in the planning phase, is being developed. Conclusions: Competencies, the training curriculum, insurance and payment schemes, licensure, and other challenges are currently being addressed. With the Ministry of Health supporting the dental HRH efforts and fully appreciating the importance of oral health, all are hopeful that these developments will ultimately lead to more robust oral health data collection, a well-trained and well-retained dental profession, and vastly improved oral health and overall health for the people of Rwanda in the decades to come.

  18. Photovoltaic cell electrical heating system for removing snow on panel including verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Agnes; Weiss, Helmut

    2017-11-16

    Small photovoltaic plants in private ownership are typically rated at 5 kW (peak). The panels are mounted on roofs at a decline angle of 20° to 45°. In winter time, a dense layer of snow at a width of e.g., 10 cm keeps off solar radiation from the photovoltaic cells for weeks under continental climate conditions. Practically, no energy is produced over the time of snow coverage. Only until outside air temperature has risen high enough for a rather long-time interval to allow partial melting of snow; the snow layer rushes down in an avalanche. Following this proposal, snow removal can be arranged electrically at an extremely positive energy balance in a fast way. A photovoltaic cell is a large junction area diode inside with a threshold voltage of about 0.6 to 0.7 V (depending on temperature). This forward voltage drop created by an externally driven current through the modules can be efficiently used to provide well-distributed heat dissipation at the cell and further on at the glass surface of the whole panel. The adhesion of snow on glass is widely reduced through this heating in case a thin water film can be produced by this external short time heating. Laboratory experiments provided a temperature increase through rated panel current of more than 10 °C within about 10 min. This heating can initiate the avalanche for snow removal on intention as described before provided the clamping effect on snow at the edge of the panel frame is overcome by an additional heating foil. Basics of internal cell heat production, heating thermal effects in time course, thermographic measurements on temperature distribution, power circuit opportunities including battery storage elements and snow-removal under practical conditions are described.

  19. Including oral health training in a health system strengthening program in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Brittany; Muhumuza, Ibra; Mumena, Chris; Isyagi, Moses; Barrow, Jane; Meeks, Valli

    2013-01-01

    Objective Rwanda's Ministry of Health, with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, implemented the Human Resources for Health (HRH) Program. The purpose of the program is to train and retain high-quality health care professionals to improve and sustain health in Rwanda. Design In May 2011, an oral health team from Rwanda and the United States proposed that oral health be included in the HRH Program, due to its important links to health, in a recommendation to the Rwandan Ministry of Health. The proposal outlined a diagonal approach to curriculum design that supports the principles of global health through interconnected training for both treatment and collaborative prevention, rather than discipline-based fragmented training focused on isolated risk factors. It combined ‘vertical’ direct patient care training with ‘horizontal’ interdisciplinary training to address common underlying risk factors and associations for disease through primary care, program retention, and sustainability. Results The proposal was accepted by the Ministry of Health and was approved for funding by the US Government and The Global Fund. Rwanda's first Bachelor of Dental Surgery program, which is in the planning phase, is being developed. Conclusions Competencies, the training curriculum, insurance and payment schemes, licensure, and other challenges are currently being addressed. With the Ministry of Health supporting the dental HRH efforts and fully appreciating the importance of oral health, all are hopeful that these developments will ultimately lead to more robust oral health data collection, a well-trained and well-retained dental profession, and vastly improved oral health and overall health for the people of Rwanda in the decades to come. PMID:23473054

  20. Autoradiographic localization of 3H-paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, E.B.; Kuyatt, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Paroxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake into neurons. Serotonin uptake sites have been identified, localized, and quantified in rat brain by autoradiography with 3H-paroxetine; 3H-paroxetine binding in slide-mounted sections of rat forebrain was of high affinity (KD = 10 pM) and the inhibition affinity constant (Ki) values of various drugs in competing 3H-paroxetine binding significantly correlated with their reported potencies in inhibiting synaptosomal serotonin uptake. Serotonin uptake sites labeled by 3H-paroxetine were highly concentrated in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, central gray, superficial layer of the superior colliculus, lateral septal nucleus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and the islands of Calleja. High concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in brainstem areas containing dopamine (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) and norepinephrine (locus coeruleus) cell bodies. Moderate concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were present in laminae I and IV of the frontal parietal cortex, primary olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, regions of the basal ganglia, septum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and some brainstem areas including the interpeduncular, trigeminal, and parabrachial nuclei. Lower densities of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in other regions of the neocortex and very low to nonsignificant levels of binding were present in white matter tracts and in the cerebellum. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine caused large decreases in 3H-paroxetine binding. The autoradiographic distribution of 3H-paroxetine binding sites in rat brain corresponds extremely well to the distribution of serotonin terminals and cell bodies as well as with the pharmacological sites of action of serotonin

  1. Association between a genetic variant in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) and suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm Carlstrom, Eva; Saetre, Peter; Rosengren, Anders

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin; 5-HT) system has a central role in the circuitry of cognition and emotions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4; 5-HTT) is associated with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior. ...

  2. Role of serotonin in pathogenesis of analgesic induced headache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikiatkhachorn, A.

    1999-12-16

    Analgesic abuse has recently been recognized as a cause of deterioration in primary headache patients. Although the pathogenesis of this headache transformation is still obscure, and alteration of central pain control system is one possible mechanism. A number of recent studies indicated that simple analgesics exert their effect by modulating the endogenous pain control system rather than the effect at the peripheral tissue, as previously suggested. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine ; 5-HT) has long been known to play a pivotal role in the pain modulatory system in the brainstem. In the present study, we investigated the changes in 5-HT system in platelets and brain tissue. A significant decrease in platelet 5-HT concentration (221.8{+-}30.7, 445.3{+-}37.4 and 467.2{+-}38.5 ng/10{sup 9} platelets, for patients with analgesic-induced headache and migraine patients, respectively, p<0.02) were evident in patients with analgesic induced headache. Chronic paracetamol administration induced a decrease in 5-HT{sub 2} serotonin receptor in cortical and brain stem tissue in experimental animals (B{sub max}=0.93{+-}0.04 and 1.79{+-}0.61 pmol/mg protein for paracetamol treated rat and controls, respectively, p<0.05). Our preliminary results suggested that chronic administration of analgesics interferes with central and peripheral 5-HT system and therefore possibly alters the 5-HT dependent antinociceptive system. (author)

  3. Serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphisms modify the association between paroxetine serotonin transporter occupancy and clinical response in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhé, Henricus G.; Ooteman, Wendy; Booij, Jan; Michel, Martin C.; Moeton, Martina; Baas, Frank; Schene, Aart H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In major depressive disorder, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors target the serotonin transporter (SERT). Their response rates (30-50%) are modified by SERT promotor polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR). OBJECTIVES: To quantify the relationship between SERT occupancy and response, and whether

  4. Serotonin: Is it a marker for the diagnosis of hepatocellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impaired metabolic function in liver cirrhosis and slow uptake and storage of serotonin by the platelets is a sequelae of kinetic change of serotonin transport mechanisms or abnormal serotonin release from dense granules of activated platelets is a condition defined as ''platelet exhaustion'', contributes to elevated plasma ...

  5. [Effect of sibutramine (meridia) on body composition, peptide YY3-36 and serotonin levels in patients with exogenous constitutional obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Iu Iu; Ametov, A S

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of gradual weight loss and the positive effect of sibutramine on metabolic parameters and the levels of serotonin and neuropeptide YY3-36 levels in patients with exogenous constitutional obesity (ECO). The study included 36 patients (24 women and 12 men; mean age 37.56 +/- 0.9 years) with a verified diagnosis of ECO. The height, body weight, waist and hip circumference (WC and HC), and body mass index (BMI) were determined. Adipose tissue content was estimated by a bioimpedance method using an adipose mass analyzer. Serum peptide YY3-36 levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay and blood serotonin concentrations were estimated by high performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical method. 12-week sibutramine therapy caused a significant reduction in body weight, WC, HC, and BMI (p < 0.05) in all the patients. At the same time they were found to have a considerable body composition change (total body and visceral fat was decreased, total body water increased, and systemic metabolism was lowered). The mean peptide YY3-36 level was significantly decreased. Sibutramine did not affect the serum content of total serotonin in the sera of patients. Sibutramine used in the combined therapy in patients with ECO contributes to an effective and steady-state weight loss. Sibutramine treatment causes a reduction in total neuropeptide YY3-36, systemic metabolism, and adipose tissue at the expense of the visceral depot.

  6. 40 CFR 142.307 - What terms and conditions must be included in a small system variance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that may affect proper and effective operation and maintenance of the technology; (2) Monitoring... effective installation, operation and maintenance of the applicable small system variance technology in... health, which may include: (i) Public education requirements; and (ii) Source water protection...

  7. Effects of Ginseng Fruit Saponins on Serotonin System in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Myocardial Infarction, Depression, and Myocardial Infarction Complicated with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Fang He

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study indicated that GFS might inhibit the reuptake of 5-HT from serum to platelet according to decreased 5-HT2AR in platelet and SERT in serum and platelet. The change of 5-HT in serum after GFS treatment was inconsistent with that in the brain. It seemed that GFS could not pass through the blood-brain barrier to affect the central serotonergic system.

  8. The short (S) allele of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and acute tryptophan depletion both increase impulsivity in men

    OpenAIRE

    Walderhaug, Espen; Herman, Aryeh Isaac; Magnusson, Andres; Morgan, Michael John; Landrø, Nils Inge

    2010-01-01

    Reduced serotonergic neurotransmission is implicated in impulsive behavior. We studied the triallelic system of the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and acute manipulation of serotonin together to further delineate the mechanisms by which serotonergic neurotransmission affects impulsivity. Fifty-two healthy participants (38 men and 14 women) underwent acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group experiment. Impulsive ...

  9. 76 FR 2368 - Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2331-000] Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Balance Power Systems, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  10. Serotonin-related pathways and developmental plasticity: relevance for psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayer, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Risk for adult psychiatric disorders is partially determined by early-life alterations occurring during neural circuit formation and maturation. In this perspective, recent data show that the serotonin system regulates key cellular processes involved in the construction of cortical circuits. Translational data for rodents indicate that early-life serotonin dysregulation leads to a wide range of behavioral alterations, ranging from stress-related phenotypes to social deficits. Studies in humans have revealed that serotonin-related genetic variants interact with early-life stress to regulate stress-induced cortisol responsiveness and activate the neural circuits involved in mood and anxiety disorders. Emerging data demonstrate that early-life adversity induces epigenetic modifications in serotonin-related genes. Finally, recent findings reveal that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can reinstate juvenile-like forms of neural plasticity, thus allowing the erasure of long-lasting fear memories. These approaches are providing new insights on the biological mechanisms and clinical application of antidepressants. PMID:24733969

  11. Advanced theoretical and experimental studies in automatic control and information systems. [including mathematical programming and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoer, C. A.; Polak, E.; Zadeh, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    A series of research projects is briefly summarized which includes investigations in the following areas: (1) mathematical programming problems for large system and infinite-dimensional spaces, (2) bounded-input bounded-output stability, (3) non-parametric approximations, and (4) differential games. A list of reports and papers which were published over the ten year period of research is included.

  12. 78 FR 29156 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ..., and the sale within the United States after importation of certain digital media devices, including... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No 2954] Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems, Tablets and Mobile Phones, Components Thereof and...

  13. Common SSRI side-effects in older adults associated with genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and receptors: Data from a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Lauren D.; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Kristjansson, Sean D.; Doré, Peter M.; Lenze, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Antidepressant side-effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation and in rare cases significant harm. This is especially relevant for older adults, who assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side-effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side-effects and genetic variation in the serotonin system in anxious, older adults participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the SSRI escitalopram. Method Adults (n=177) aged ≥ 60 years were randomized to active treatment or placebo for 12-weeks. Side-effects were assessed using the UKU side effect rating scale. Genetic polymorphisms were putative functional variants in the promoters of the serotonin transporter and 1A and 2A receptors (5-HTTLPR (L/S + rs25531), HTR1A rs6295, HTR2A rs6311, respectively). Results Four significant drug-placebo side-effect differences were found, including increased duration of sleep, dry mouth, diarrhea and diminished sexual desire. Analyses using putative high- vs low-transcription genotype groupings revealed 6 pharmacogenetic effects: greater dry mouth and decreased sexual desire for the low- and high-expressing genotypes of the serotonin transporter, respectively, and greater diarrhea with the low-transcription genotype of the 1A receptor. Diminished sexual desire was experienced significantly more in those with high-expressing genotype and either the serotonin transporter, 1A or 2A receptors. There was not a significant relationship between drug concentration and side-effects nor a mean difference in drug concentration between low- and high-expressing genotypes. Conclusion Genetic variation in the 5HT system may predict who develops common SSRI side-effects and why. More work is needed to further characterize this genetic modulation and to translate research findings into strategies useful for more personalized patient care. PMID:24021217

  14. An approach for serotonin depletion in pigs: effects on serotonin receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Kornum, Birgitte R; Weikop, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Depletion of central serotonin (5-HT) levels and dysfunction in serotonergic transmission are implicated in a variety of human CNS disorders. The mechanisms behind these serotonergic deficits have been widely studied using rodent models, but only to a limited extent in larger animal models. The pig...... is increasingly used as an experimental animal model especially in neuroscience research. Here, we present an approach for serotonin depletion in the pig brain. Central serotonin depletion in Danish Landrace pigs was achieved following 4 days treatment with para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA). On day 5, tissue...... average decreases in 5-HT concentrations of 61% ± 14% and 66% ± 16%, respectively, and a substantial loss of 5-HT immunostaining was seen throughout the brain. The serotonin depletion significantly increased 5-HT₄ receptor binding in nucleus accumbens, but did not alter 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor...

  15. An approach for serotonin depletion in pigs: effects on serotonin receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Kornum, Birgitte R; Weikop, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Depletion of central serotonin (5-HT) levels and dysfunction in serotonergic transmission are implicated in a variety of human CNS disorders. The mechanisms behind these serotonergic deficits have been widely studied using rodent models, but only to a limited extent in larger animal models. The pig...... is increasingly used as an experimental animal model especially in neuroscience research. Here, we present an approach for serotonin depletion in the pig brain. Central serotonin depletion in Danish Landrace pigs was achieved following 4 days treatment with para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA). On day 5, tissue...... average decreases in 5-HT concentrations of 61% ± 14% and 66% ± 16%, respectively, and a substantial loss of 5-HT immunostaining was seen throughout the brain. The serotonin depletion significantly increased 5-HT4 receptor binding in nucleus accumbens, but did not alter 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor...

  16. Intrinsic neuromodulation in the Tritonia swim CPG: serotonin mediates both neuromodulation and neurotransmission by the dorsal swim interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P S; Frost, W N

    1995-12-01

    1. Neuromodulation has previously been shown to be intrinsic to the central pattern generator (CPG) circuit that generates the escape swim of the nudibranch mollusk Tritonia diomedea; the dorsal swim interneurons (DSIs) make conventional monosynaptic connections and evoke neuromodulatory effects within the swim motor circuit. The conventional synaptic potentials evoked by a DSI onto cerebral neuron 2 (C2) and onto the dorsal flexion neurons (DFNs) consist of a fast excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) followed by a prolonged slow EPSP. In their neuromodulatory role, the DSIs produce an enhancement of the monosynaptic connections made by C2 onto other CPG circuit interneurons and onto efferent flexion neurons. Previous work showed that the DSIs are immunoreactive for serotonin. Here we provide evidence that both the neurotransmission and the neuromodulation evoked by the DSIs are produced by serotonin, and that these effects may be pharmacologically separable. 2. Previously it was shown that bath-applied serotonin both mimics and occludes the modulation of the C2 synapses by the DSIs. Here we find that pressure-applied puffs of serotonin mimic both the fast and slow EPSPs evoked by a DSI onto a DFN, whereas high concentrations of bath-applied serotonin occlude both of these synaptic components. 3. Consistent with the hypothesis that serotonin mediates the actions of the DSIs, the serotonin reuptake inhibitor imipramine prolongs the duration of the fast DSI-DFN EPSP, increases the amplitude of the slow DSI-DFN EPSP, and increases both the amplitude and duration of the modulation of the C2-DFN synapse by the DSIs. 4. Two serotonergic antagonists were found that block the actions of the DSIs. Gramine blocks the fast DSI-DFN EPSP, and has far less of an effect on the slow EPSP and the modulation. Gramine also diminishes the depolarization evoked by pressure-applied serotonin, showing that it is a serotonin antagonist in this system. In contrast, methysergide greatly

  17. Measuring the serotonin uptake site using [3H]paroxetine--a new serotonin uptake inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, C.H.; Nutt, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that may be involved in ethanol preference and dependence. It is possible to label the serotonin uptake site in brain using the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, but this also binds to other sites. We have used the new high-affinity uptake blocker paroxetine to define binding to this site and report it to have advantages over imipramine as a ligand

  18. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor suppression of HIV infectivity and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Tami; Lynch, Kevin; Dubé, Benoit; Gettes, David R; Tustin, Nancy B; Ping Lai, Jian; Metzger, David S; Blume, Joshua; Douglas, Steven D; Evans, Dwight L

    2010-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram would down-regulate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity and that the greatest effects would be seen in people with depression. Depression is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathobiology of depression, and pharmacologic therapies for depression target this system. The 5-HT transporter and 5-HT receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous and immune systems. Depression has been associated with suppression of natural killer cells and CD8(+) lymphocytes, key regulators of HIV infection. Ex vivo models for acute and chronic HIV infection were used to study the effects of citalopram on HIV viral infection and replication in 48 depressed and nondepressed women. For both the acute and chronic infection models, HIV reverse transcriptase activity was measured in the citalopram treatment condition and the control condition. The SSRI significantly down-regulated the reverse transcriptase response in both the acute and chronic infection models. Specifically, citalopram significantly decreased the acute HIV infectivity of macrophages. Citalopram also significantly decreased HIV viral replication in the latently infected T-cell line and in the latently infected macrophage cell line. There was no difference in down-regulation by depression status. These studies suggest that an SSRI enhances natural killer/CD8 noncytolytic HIV suppression in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and decreases HIV viral infectivity of macrophages, ex vivo, suggesting the need for in vivo studies to determine a potential role for agents targeting serotonin in the host defense against HIV.

  19. BLOOD CHEMISTRY AND PLATELET SEROTONIN UPTAKE AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the blood chemistry and platelet serotonin uptake as alternative method of determining HIV disease stage in HIV/AIDS patients. Whole blood was taken from subjects at the Human Virology of the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research. Subjects were judged suitable for ...

  20. Modulation of defensive reflex conditioning in snails by serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, Vyatcheslav V.; Bogodvid, Tatiana K.; Deryabina, Irina B.; Golovchenko, Aleksandra N.; Muranova, Lyudmila N.; Tagirova, Roza R.; Vinarskaya, Aliya K.; Gainutdinov, Khalil L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Daily injection of serotonin before a training session accelerated defensive reflex conditioning in snails.Daily injection of 5-hydroxytryptophan before a training session in snails with a deficiency of serotonin induced by the “neurotoxic” analog of serotonin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, restored the ability of snails to learn.After injection of the “neurotoxic” analogs of serotonin 5,6- and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine as well as serotonin, depolarization of the membrane and decrease of the threshold potential of premotor interneurons was observed. We studied the role of serotonin in the mechanisms of learning in terrestrial snails. To produce a serotonin deficit, the “neurotoxic” analogs of serotonin, 5,6- or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,6/5,7-DHT) were used. Injection of 5,6/5,7-DHT was found to disrupt defensive reflex conditioning. Within 2 weeks of neurotoxin application, the ability to learn had recovered. Daily injection of serotonin before a training session accelerated defensive reflex conditioning and daily injections of 5-HTP in snails with a deficiency of serotonin induced by 5,7-DHT restored the snail's ability to learn. We discovered that injections of the neurotoxins 5,6/5,7-DHT as well as serotonin, caused a decrease in the resting and threshold potentials of the premotor interneurons LPa3 and RPa3. PMID:26557063

  1. High familial risk for mood disorder is associated with low dorsolateral prefrontal cortex serotonin transporter binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe G; Vinberg, Maj; Erritzoe, David

    2009-01-01

    at risk for developing depression. The aim of this study was to explore whether abnormalities in SERT might be present in healthy individuals with familial predisposition to mood disorder. Nine individuals at high familial risk (mean age 32.2+/-4.2 years) and 11 individuals at low risk (mean age 32......Mood disorders are elicited through a combination of genetic and environmental stress factors, and treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ameliorates depressive symptoms. Changes in the serotonin transporter (SERT) binding may therefore occur in depressive patients and in subjects.......4+/-5.0 years) for developing mood disorder were included. The subjects were healthy twins with or without a co-twin history of mood disorder identified by linking information from the Danish Twin Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Regional in vivo brain serotonin transporter binding...

  2. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    -stroke diesel engine and a conventional waste heat recovery system. The results suggest that an organic Rankine cycle placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase power generation from waste heat by 32...... consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal and an advanced waste heat recovery system including a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an organic Rankine cycle. The results are compared with those of a state-of-the-art machinery system featuring a two...

  3. The Effect of Traumatic Stress on Multiple Aminergic Systems in the Basolateral Amygdala and Hypothalamus: Specific Impairment of Serotonin 5-HT2a Receptor Signaling and its Pathophysiological Role in an Animal Model of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-27

    discomfort, such as pain (Tanimoto et al., 2003;Bernard et al., 1992), psychological stressors (LeDoux, 2003;LeDoux, 2000), and the disturbance of plasma...Barbarich NC, Kaye WH (2004) Altered 5-HT(2A) receptor binding after recovery from bulimia -type anorexia nervosa: relationships to harm avoidance and...Serotonin alterations in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: New insights from imaging studies. Physiology & Behavior 85:73-81. Kaye WH, Frank GK, Meltzer CC

  4. Theory of linear physical systems theory of physical systems from the viewpoint of classical dynamics, including Fourier methods

    CERN Document Server

    Guillemin, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    An eminent electrical engineer and authority on linear system theory presents this advanced treatise, which approaches the subject from the viewpoint of classical dynamics and covers Fourier methods. This volume will assist upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in moving from introductory courses toward an understanding of advanced network synthesis. 1963 edition.

  5. Influence of inhibitors of serotonin uptake on intestinal epithelium and colorectal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1982-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that in certain tissues, including colonic carcinomas, cell proliferation may be promoted by serotonin, and indirect evidence suggests that the effects of this amine on colonic tumours involves a cellular-uptake mechanism. In the present study, two specific inhibitors of serotonin uptake, Citalopram and Fluoxetine, are examined for their effects on cell proliferation and tumour growth. Each of the agents was found to suppress cell division in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic tumours in rats, and to retard the growth of 2 out of 3 lines of human colonic tumours propagated as xenografts in immune-deprived mice.

  6. Altered serotonin physiology in human breast cancers favors paradoxical growth and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vaibhav P; Marshall, Aaron M; Hernandez, Laura L; Buckley, Arthur R; Horseman, Nelson D

    2009-01-01

    The breast microenvironment can either retard or accelerate the events associated with progression of latent cancers. However, the actions of local physiological mediators in the context of breast cancers are poorly understood. Serotonin (5-HT) is a critical local regulator of epithelial homeostasis in the breast and other organs. Herein, we report complex alterations in the intrinsic mammary gland serotonin system of human breast cancers. Serotonin biosynthetic capacity was analyzed in human breast tumor tissue microarrays using immunohistochemistry for tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1). Serotonin receptors (5-HT1-7) were analyzed in human breast tumors using the Oncomine database. Serotonin receptor expression, signal transduction, and 5-HT effects on breast cancer cell phenotype were compared in non-transformed and transformed human breast cells. In the context of the normal mammary gland, 5-HT acts as a physiological regulator of lactation and involution, in part by favoring growth arrest and cell death. This tightly regulated 5-HT system is subverted in multiple ways in human breast cancers. Specifically, TPH1 expression undergoes a non-linear change during progression, with increased expression during malignant progression. Correspondingly, the tightly regulated pattern of 5-HT receptors becomes dysregulated in human breast cancer cells, resulting in both ectopic expression of some isoforms and suppression of others. The receptor expression change is accompanied by altered downstream signaling of 5-HT receptors in human breast cancer cells, resulting in resistance to 5-HT-induced apoptosis, and stimulated proliferation. Our data constitutes the first report of direct involvement of 5-HT in human breast cancer. Increased 5-HT biosynthetic capacity accompanied by multiple changes in 5-HT receptor expression and signaling favor malignant progression of human breast cancer cells (for example, stimulated proliferation, inappropriate cell survival). This occurs

  7. Serotonin increases synaptic activity in olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Julia; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Wachowiak, Matt; Shipley, Michael T

    2016-03-01

    Serotoninergic fibers densely innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the first sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Acting through 5HT2A receptors, serotonin (5HT) directly excites external tufted cells (ETCs), key excitatory glomerular neurons, and depolarizes some mitral cells (MCs), the olfactory bulb's main output neurons. We further investigated 5HT action on MCs and determined its effects on the two major classes of glomerular interneurons: GABAergic/dopaminergic short axon cells (SACs) and GABAergic periglomerular cells (PGCs). In SACs, 5HT evoked a depolarizing current mediated by 5HT2C receptors but did not significantly impact spike rate. 5HT had no measurable direct effect in PGCs. Serotonin increased spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) in PGCs and SACs. Increased sEPSCs were mediated by 5HT2A receptors, suggesting that they are primarily due to enhanced excitatory drive from ETCs. Increased sIPSCs resulted from elevated excitatory drive onto GABAergic interneurons and augmented GABA release from SACs. Serotonin-mediated GABA release from SACs was action potential independent and significantly increased miniature IPSC frequency in glomerular neurons. When focally applied to a glomerulus, 5HT increased MC spontaneous firing greater than twofold but did not increase olfactory nerve-evoked responses. Taken together, 5HT modulates glomerular network activity in several ways: 1) it increases ETC-mediated feed-forward excitation onto MCs, SACs, and PGCs; 2) it increases inhibition of glomerular interneurons; 3) it directly triggers action potential-independent GABA release from SACs; and 4) these network actions increase spontaneous MC firing without enhancing responses to suprathreshold sensory input. This may enhance MC sensitivity while maintaining dynamic range. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Serotonin and brain function: a tale of two receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Nutt, D J

    2017-09-01

    Previous attempts to identify a unified theory of brain serotonin function have largely failed to achieve consensus. In this present synthesis, we integrate previous perspectives with new and older data to create a novel bipartite model centred on the view that serotonin neurotransmission enhances two distinct adaptive responses to adversity, mediated in large part by its two most prevalent and researched brain receptors: the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. We propose that passive coping (i.e. tolerating a source of stress) is mediated by postsynaptic 5-HT1AR signalling and characterised by stress moderation. Conversely, we argue that active coping (i.e. actively addressing a source of stress) is mediated by 5-HT2AR signalling and characterised by enhanced plasticity (defined as capacity for change). We propose that 5-HT1AR-mediated stress moderation may be the brain's default response to adversity but that an improved ability to change one's situation and/or relationship to it via 5-HT2AR-mediated plasticity may also be important - and increasingly so as the level of adversity reaches a critical point. We propose that the 5-HT1AR pathway is enhanced by conventional 5-HT reuptake blocking antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), whereas the 5-HT2AR pathway is enhanced by 5-HT2AR-agonist psychedelics. This bipartite model purports to explain how different drugs (SSRIs and psychedelics) that modulate the serotonergic system in different ways, can achieve complementary adaptive and potentially therapeutic outcomes.

  9. Ontogeny of serotonin and serotonin2A receptors in rat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Abbas, Atheir I; O'Donohue, Heather; Lauder, Jean M; Roth, Bryan L; Walker, Paul D; Manis, Paul B

    2008-10-01

    Maturation of the mammalian cerebral cortex is, in part, dependent upon multiple coordinated afferent neurotransmitter systems and receptor-mediated cellular linkages during early postnatal development. Given that serotonin (5-HT) is one such system, the present study was designed to specifically evaluate 5-HT tissue content as well as 5-HT(2A) receptor protein levels within the developing auditory cortex (AC). Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), 5-HT and the metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), was measured in isolated AC, which demonstrated a developmental dynamic, reaching young adult levels early during the second week of postnatal development. Radioligand binding of 5-HT(2A) receptors with the 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonist, (125)I-DOI ((+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane HCl; in the presence of SB206553, a selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist, also demonstrated a developmental trend, whereby receptor protein levels reached young adult levels at the end of the first postnatal week (P8), significantly increased at P10 and at P17, and decreased back to levels not significantly different from P8 thereafter. Immunocytochemical labeling of 5-HT(2A) receptors and confocal microscopy revealed that 5-HT(2A) receptors are largely localized on layer II/III pyramidal cell bodies and apical dendrites within AC. When considered together, the results of the present study suggest that 5-HT, likely through 5-HT(2A) receptors, may play an important role in early postnatal AC development.

  10. Transient Serotonin Syndrome by Concurrent Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagahisa Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin syndrome, which is characterized by psychiatric, autonomic nervous and neurological symptoms, is considered to be caused by excessive stimulation of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors in the gray matter and spinal cord of the central nervous system, after the start of dosing or increase of the dose of a serotoninergic drug. There have been hardly any reports of induction of serotonin syndrome by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT in combination with antidepressant. We present the case of a female patient with major depressive disorder (MDD who developed transient serotonin syndrome soon after the first session of ECT in combination with paroxetine. Paroxetine was discontinued, and her psychiatric, autonomic nervous and neurological symptoms were gradually relieved and disappeared within 2 days. We performed the second ECT session 5 days after the initial session and performed 12 sessions of ECT without any changes in the procedure of ECT and anesthesia, but no symptoms of SS were observed. Finally, her MDD remitted. ECT might cause transiently increased blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability and enhance the transmissivity of the antidepressant in BBB. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to rare side effect of serotonin syndrome by ECT in combination with antidepressant.

  11. Transient serotonin syndrome by concurrent use of electroconvulsive therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Nagahisa; Sakamoto, Kota; Yamada, Maki

    2012-01-01

    The serotonin syndrome, which is characterized by psychiatric, autonomic nervous and neurological symptoms, is considered to be caused by excessive stimulation of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors in the gray matter and spinal cord of the central nervous system, after the start of dosing or increase of the dose of a serotoninergic drug. There have been hardly any reports of induction of serotonin syndrome by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in combination with antidepressant. We present the case of a female patient with major depressive disorder (MDD) who developed transient serotonin syndrome soon after the first session of ECT in combination with paroxetine. Paroxetine was discontinued, and her psychiatric, autonomic nervous and neurological symptoms were gradually relieved and disappeared within 2 days. We performed the second ECT session 5 days after the initial session and performed 12 sessions of ECT without any changes in the procedure of ECT and anesthesia, but no symptoms of SS were observed. Finally, her MDD remitted. ECT might cause transiently increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and enhance the transmissivity of the antidepressant in BBB. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to rare side effect of serotonin syndrome by ECT in combination with antidepressant.

  12. Expression changes of serotonin receptor gene subtype 5HT3a in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from schizophrenic patients treated with haloperidol and Olanzapin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Gholam Reza; Ahangari, Ghasem; Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Asadi, Seyed Mohammad; Pooyafard, Farzaneh; Ahmadkhaniha, Hamid Reza

    2009-09-01

    Serotonin receptors are involved in pathophysiology of schizophrenia and may mediate other neurotransmitter effects. We investigated serotonin receptors gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of naïve schizophrenic patients, before and after treatment. Also serotonin receptor gene expression was compared in two treatment groups including Haloperidol and Olanzapine. The PBMC was separated from whole blood by Ficoll-hypaque. The total cellular RNA was extracted and the cDNA was synthesized. This process was followed by real-time PCR using primer pairs specific for 5HT(3a) serotonin receptor mRNA and beta-actin as internal control. The results showed the presence of subtype of serotonin receptor in lymphocytes. Serotonin gene expression showed significant changes in Olanzapine treatment group which correlated with Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score improvement. In conclusion, the present study has shown that human PBMC express serotonin receptors 5HT(3a). Moreover, clinical symptom improvement of Olanzapin may be demonstrated by a change in serotonin receptor gene expression.

  13. Reliability analysis of the auxiliary feedwater system of Angra-1 including common cause failures using the multiple greek letter model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin.

    1996-05-01

    The use of redundancy to increase the reliability of industrial systems make them subject to the occurrence of common cause events. The industrial experience and the results of safety analysis studies have indicated that common cause failures are the main contributors to the unreliability of plants that have redundant systems, specially in nuclear power plants. In this Thesis procedures are developed in order to include the impact of common cause failures in the calculation of the top event occurrence probability of the Auxiliary Feedwater System in a typical two-loop Nuclear Power Plant (PWR). For this purpose the Multiple Greek Letter Model is used. (author). 14 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs

  14. The role of serotonin and norepinephrine in sleep-waking activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgane, P J; Stern, W C

    1975-11-01

    A critical review of the evidences relating the biogenic amines serotonin and norepinephrine to the states of slow-wave and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is presented. Various alternative explanations for specific chemical regulation of the individual sleep states, including the phasic events of REM sleep, are evaluated within the overall framework of the monoamine theory of sleep. Several critical neuropsychopharmacological studies relating to metabolsim of the amines in relation to sleep-waking behavior are presented. Models of the chemical neuronal circuitry involved in sleep-waking activity are derived and interactions between several brainstem nuclei, particularly the raphé complex and locus coeruleus, are discussed. Activity in these aminergic systems in relation to oscillations in the sleep-waking cycles is evaluated. In particular, the assessment of single cell activity in specific chemical systems in relations to chemical models of sleep is reviewed. Overall, it appears that the biogenic amines, especially serotonin and norepinephrine, play key roles in the generation and maintenance of the sleep states. These neurotransmitters participate in some manner in the "triggering" processes necessary for actuating each sleep phase and in regulating the transitions from sleep to waking activity. The biogenic amines are, however, probably not "sleep factors" or direct inducers of the sleep states. Rather, they appear to be components of a multiplicity of interacting chemical circuitry in the brain whose activity maintains various chemical balances in different brain regions. Shifts in these balances appear to be involved in the triggering and maintenance of the various states comprising the vigilance continuum.

  15. Serotonin neurones have anti-convulsant effects and reduce seizure-induced mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Gordon F; Murray, Nicholas M; Hajek, Michael A; Richerson, George B

    2014-01-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in patients with refractory epilepsy. Defects in central control of breathing are important contributors to the pathophysiology of SUDEP, and serotonin (5-HT) system dysfunction may be involved. Here we examined the effect of 5-HT neurone elimination or 5-HT reduction on seizure risk and seizure-induced mortality. Adult Lmx1bf/f/p mice, which lack >99% of 5-HT neurones in the CNS, and littermate controls (Lmx1bf/f) were subjected to acute seizure induction by maximal electroshock (MES) or pilocarpine, variably including electroencephalography, electrocardiography, plethysmography, mechanical ventilation or pharmacological therapy. Lmx1bf/f/p mice had a lower seizure threshold and increased seizure-induced mortality. Breathing ceased during most seizures without recovery, whereas cardiac activity persisted for up to 9 min before terminal arrest. The mortality rate of mice of both genotypes was reduced by mechanical ventilation during the seizure or 5-HT2A receptor agonist pretreatment. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram reduced mortality of Lmx1bf/f but not of Lmx1bf/f/p mice. In C57BL/6N mice, reduction of 5-HT synthesis with para-chlorophenylalanine increased MES-induced seizure severity but not mortality. We conclude that 5-HT neurones raise seizure threshold and decrease seizure-related mortality. Death ensued from respiratory failure, followed by terminal asystole. Given that SUDEP often occurs in association with generalised seizures, some mechanisms causing death in our model might be shared with those leading to SUDEP. This model may help determine the relationship between seizures, 5-HT system dysfunction, breathing and death, which may lead to novel ways to prevent SUDEP. PMID:25107926

  16. Robust upregulation of serotonin 2A receptors after chronic spinal transection of rats: An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Xiang-Yu; Wienecke, Jacob; Hultborn, Hans

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that spinal motoneurons below a spinal transection become supersensitive to a systemic administration of serotonin (5-HT) precursors, such as 5-hydroxytryptophan. This supersensitivity has been implicated in both the process of functional recovery following chronic lesions, and a...

  17. Does acute tryptophan depletion affect peripheral serotonin metabolism in the intestine?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keszthelyi, D.; Troost, F.J.; Jonkers, D.M.; Donkelaar, van E.L.; Dekker, J.; Buurman, W.A.; Masclee, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), a tryptophan metabolite, plays an important regulatory role in the human central nervous system and in the gastrointestinal tract. Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is currently the most widely established method to investigate 5-HT metabolism.

  18. Serotonin depletion induces pessimistic-like behavior in a cognitive bias paradigm in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, Jenny; Otten, Winfried; Tuchscherer, Armin; Puppe, Birger; Düpjan, Sandra

    2017-05-15

    Cognitive and affective processes are highly interrelated. This has implications for neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder in humans but also for the welfare of non-human animals. The brain serotonergic system might play a key role in mediating the relationship between cognitive functions and affective regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the influence of serotonin depletion on the affective state and cognitive processing in pigs, an important farm animal species but also a potential model species for biomedical research in humans. For this purpose, we modified a serotonin depletion model using para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) to decrease serotonin levels in brain areas involved in cognitive and affective processing (part 1). The consequences of serotonin depletion were then measured in two behavioral tests (part 2): the spatial judgement task (SJT), providing information about the effects of the affective state on cognitive processing, and the open field/novel object (OFNO) test, which measures behavioral reactions to novelty that are assumed to reflect affective state. In part 1, 40 pigs were treated with either pCPA or saline for six consecutive days. Serotonin levels were assessed in seven different brain regions 4, 5, 6, 11 and 13days after the first injection. Serotonin was significantly depleted in all analyzed brain regions up to 13days after the first application. In part 2, the pCPA model was applied to 48 animals in behavioral testing. Behavioral tests, the OFNO test and the SJT, were conducted both before and after pCPA/saline injections. While results from the OFNO tests were inconclusive, an effect of treatment as well as an effect of the phase (before and after treatment) was observed in the SJT. Animals treated with pCPA showed more pessimistic-like behavior, suggesting a more negative affective state due to serotonin depletion. Thus, our results confirm that the serotonergic system is a key player in cognitive

  19. 32 CFR 37.615 - What standards do I include for financial systems of for-profit firms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What standards do I include for financial... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.615 What...

  20. 78 FR 42804 - Whirlpool Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek/Tek Systems (Subcontractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-82,346] Whirlpool Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek/Tek Systems (Subcontractor of IBM Corporation) and Jones Lang... firm. The workers were engaged in production of refrigerators and trash compactors as well as...

  1. 76 FR 32227 - DST Systems, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Comsys Information Technology Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ..., Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Comsys Information Technology Services, Megaforce, and Kelly Services Kansas City, MO; DST Technologies, a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of DST Systems, Inc., Boston... Information Technology Services, Megaforce, and Kelly Services, Kansas City, Missouri (subject firm). The...

  2. 78 FR 56736 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-882] Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems, Tablets and Mobile Phones, Components... (``section 337''), in the importation into the United States, the sale for importation, and the sale within...

  3. 78 FR 36573 - Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain digital media devices... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-882] Certain Digital Media Devices, Including Televisions, Blu-Ray Disc Players, Home Theater Systems, Tablets and Mobile Phones, Components...

  4. Anhedonia Predicts Poorer Recovery among Youth with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Dana L.; Olino, Thomas M.; Porta, Giovanna; Dietz, Laura J.; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Gregory; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan R.; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Shamseddeen, Wael; Mayes, Taryn; Kennard, Betsy; Spirito, Anthony; Keller, Martin; Lynch, Frances L.; Dickerson, John F.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify symptom dimensions of depression that predict recovery among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment-resistant adolescents undergoing second-step treatment. Method: The Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial included 334 SSRI treatment-resistant youth randomized to a medication…

  5. Effects of Early Serotonin Programming on Fear Response, Memory and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) also acts as a neurogenic compound in the developing brain. Early administration of a 5-HT agonist could alter development of serotonergic circuitry, altering behaviors mediated by 5-HT signaling, including memory, fear and aggression. The present study was desi...

  6. The serotonin transporter in rhesus monkey brain: comparison of DASB and citalopram binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Zhizhen [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)]. E-mail: zhizhen_zeng@merck.com; Chen, T.-B. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Miller, Patricia J. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Dean, Dennis [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Tang, Y.S. [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Sur, Cyrille [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Williams, David L. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We have characterized the interaction of the serotonin transporter ligand [{sup 3}H]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine (DASB) with rhesus monkey brain in vitro using tissue homogenate binding and autoradiographic mapping. [{sup 3}H]-DASB, a tritiated version of the widely used [{sup 11}C] positron emission tomography tracer, was found to selectively bind to a single population of sites with high affinity (K {sub d}=0.20{+-}0.04 nM). The serotonin transporter density (B {sub max}) obtained for rhesus frontal cortex was found to be 66{+-}8 fmol/mg protein using [{sup 3}H]-DASB, similar to the B {sub max} value obtained using the reference radioligand [{sup 3}H]-citalopram, a well-characterized and highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (83{+-}22 fmol/mg protein). Specific binding sites of both [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram were similarly and nonuniformly distributed throughout the rhesus central nervous system, in a pattern consistent with serotonin transporter localization reported for human brain. Regional serotonin transporter densities, estimated from optical densities of the autoradiographic images, were well correlated between the two radioligands. Finally, DASB and fluoxetine showed dose-dependent full inhibition of [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding in a competition autoradiographic study, with K {sub i} values in close agreement with those obtained from rhesus brain homogenates. This side-by-side comparison of [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding sites in rhesus tissue homogenates and in adjacent rhesus brain slices provides additional support for the use of [{sup 11}C]-DASB to assess the availability and distribution of serotonin transporters in nonhuman primates.

  7. The serotonin transporter in rhesus monkey brain: comparison of DASB and citalopram binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhizhen; Chen, T.-B.; Miller, Patricia J.; Dean, Dennis; Tang, Y.S.; Sur, Cyrille; Williams, David L.

    2006-01-01

    We have characterized the interaction of the serotonin transporter ligand [ 3 H]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine (DASB) with rhesus monkey brain in vitro using tissue homogenate binding and autoradiographic mapping. [ 3 H]-DASB, a tritiated version of the widely used [ 11 C] positron emission tomography tracer, was found to selectively bind to a single population of sites with high affinity (K d =0.20±0.04 nM). The serotonin transporter density (B max ) obtained for rhesus frontal cortex was found to be 66±8 fmol/mg protein using [ 3 H]-DASB, similar to the B max value obtained using the reference radioligand [ 3 H]-citalopram, a well-characterized and highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (83±22 fmol/mg protein). Specific binding sites of both [ 3 H]-DASB and [ 3 H]-citalopram were similarly and nonuniformly distributed throughout the rhesus central nervous system, in a pattern consistent with serotonin transporter localization reported for human brain. Regional serotonin transporter densities, estimated from optical densities of the autoradiographic images, were well correlated between the two radioligands. Finally, DASB and fluoxetine showed dose-dependent full inhibition of [ 3 H]-citalopram binding in a competition autoradiographic study, with K i values in close agreement with those obtained from rhesus brain homogenates. This side-by-side comparison of [ 3 H]-DASB and [ 3 H]-citalopram binding sites in rhesus tissue homogenates and in adjacent rhesus brain slices provides additional support for the use of [ 11 C]-DASB to assess the availability and distribution of serotonin transporters in nonhuman primates

  8. Lower serotonin level and higher rate of fibromyalgia syndrome with advancing pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasever, Melahat; Namlı Kalem, Muberra; Sönmez, Çiğdem; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Yüce, Tuncay; Sahin Aker, Seda; Koç, Acar; Genc, Hakan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between changes in serotonin levels during pregnancy and fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) and the relationships between FS and the physical/psychological state, biochemical and hormonal parameters, which may be related to the musculoskeletal system. This study is a prospective case-control study conducted with 277 pregnant women at the obstetric unit of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, in the period between January and June 2015. FS was determined based on the presence or absence of the 2010 ACR diagnostic criteria and all the volunteers were asked to answer the questionnaires as Fibromyalgia Impact Criteria (FIQ), Widespread Pain Index (WPI), Symptom Severity Scale (SS), Beck Depression Inventory and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Biochemical and hormonal markers (glucose, TSH, T4, Ca (calcium), P (phosphate), PTH (parathyroid hormone) and serotonin levels) relating to muscle and bone metabolism were measured. In the presence of fibromyalgia, the physical and psychological parameters are negatively affected (p serotonin levels may contribute to the development of fibromyalgia but this was not statistically significant. The Beck Depression Inventory scale statistically showed that increasing scores also increase the risk of fibromyalgia (p serotonin levels in women with FS are lower than the control group and that serotonin levels reduce as pregnancy progresses. Anxiety and depression in pregnant women with FS are higher than the control group. The presence of depression increases the likelihood of developing FS at a statistically significant level. Serotonin impairment also increases the chance of developing FS, but this correlation has not been shown to be statistically significant.

  9. Dynamic model of a micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack including an integrated cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Martin; Brouwer, Jacob; Winkler, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    A novel dynamic micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (MT-SOFC) and stack model including an integrated cooling system is developed using a quasi three-dimensional, spatially resolved, transient thermodynamic, physical and electrochemical model that accounts for the complex geometrical relations between the cells and cooling-tubes. The modeling approach includes a simplified tubular geometry and stack design including an integrated cooling structure, detailed pressure drop and gas property calculations, the electrical and physical constraints of the stack design that determine the current, as well as control strategies for the temperature. Moreover, an advanced heat transfer balance with detailed radiative heat transfer between the cells and the integrated cooling-tubes, convective heat transfer between the gas flows and the surrounding structures and conductive heat transfer between the solid structures inside of the stack, is included. The detailed model can be used as a design basis for the novel MT-SOFC stack assembly including an integrated cooling system, as well as for the development of a dynamic system control strategy. The evaluated best-case design achieves very high electrical efficiency between around 75 and 55% in the entire power density range between 50 and 550 mW /cm2 due to the novel stack design comprising an integrated cooling structure.

  10. Serum Metabolomics Reveals Serotonin as a Predictor of Severe Dengue in the Early Phase of Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Tun Linn; Fang, Jinling; Pang, Junxiong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Leo, Yee Sin; Ong, Choon Nam; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective triage of dengue patients early in the disease course for in- or out-patient management would be useful for optimal healthcare resource utilization while minimizing poor clinical outcome due to delayed intervention. Yet, early prognosis of severe dengue is hampered by the heterogeneity in clinical presentation and routine hematological and biochemical measurements in dengue patients that collectively correlates poorly with eventual clinical outcome. Herein, untargeted liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry metabolomics of serum from patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the febrile phase (1.5) in the serum, among which are two products of tryptophan metabolism–serotonin and kynurenine. Serotonin, involved in platelet aggregation and activation decreased significantly, whereas kynurenine, an immunomodulator, increased significantly in patients with DHF, consistent with thrombocytopenia and immunopathology in severe dengue. To sensitively and accurately evaluate serotonin levels as prognostic biomarkers, we implemented stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry and used convalescence samples as their own controls. DHF serotonin was significantly 1.98 fold lower in febrile compared to convalescence phase, and significantly 1.76 fold lower compared to DF in the febrile phase of illness. Thus, serotonin alone provided good prognostic utility (Area Under Curve, AUC of serotonin = 0.8). Additionally, immune mediators associated with DHF may further increase the predictive ability than just serotonin alone. Nine cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8, G-CSF, MIP-1β, FGF basic, TNFα and RANTES were significantly different between DF and DHF, among which IFN-γ ranked top by multivariate statistics. Combining serotonin and IFN-γ improved the prognosis performance (AUC = 0.92, sensitivity = 77.8%, specificity = 95.8%), suggesting this duplex panel as accurate metrics for the early prognosis of DHF. PMID:27055163

  11. Serotonin 2a Receptor and serotonin 1a receptor interact within the medial prefrontal cortex during recognition memory in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Facundo Morici

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory, can be defined as the memory for unique events. The serotonergic system one of the main neuromodulatory systems in the brain appears to play a role in it. The serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2aR one of the principal post-synaptic receptors for 5-HT in the brain, is involved in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders associated with memory deficits. Recognition memory can be defined as the ability to recognize if a particular event or item was previously encountered and is thus considered, under certain conditions, a form of episodic memory. As human data suggest that a constitutively decrease of 5-HT2A signaling might affect episodic memory performance we decided to compare the performance of mice with disrupted 5-HT2aR signaling (htr2a -/- with wild type (htr2a+/+ littermates in different recognition memory and working memory tasks that differed in the level of proactive interference. We found that ablation of 5-HT2aR signaling throughout development produces a deficit in tasks that cannot be solved by single item strategy suggesting that 5-HT2aR signaling is involved in interference resolution. We also found that in the absence of 5-HT2aR signaling serotonin has a deleterious effect on recognition memory retrieval through the activation of 5-HT1aR in the medial prefrontal cortex.

  12. Tramadol: seizures, serotonin syndrome, and coadministered antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2009-04-01

    This ongoing column is dedicated to the challenging clinical interface between psychiatry and primary care-two fields that are inexorably linked.Tramadol (Ultram(®)) is a commonly prescribed analgesic because of its relatively lower risk of addiction and better safety profile in comparison with other opiates. However, two significant adverse reactions are known to potentially occur with tramadol-seizures and serotonin syndrome. These two adverse reactions may develop during tramadol monotherapy, but appear much more likely to emerge during misuse/overdose as well as with the coadministration of other drugs, particularly antidepressants. In this article, we review the data relating to tramadol, seizures, and serotonin syndrome. This pharmacologic intersection is of clear relevance to both psychiatrists and primary care clinicians.

  13. Binding of Serotonin to Lipid Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Wang, Chunhua; Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a prevalent neurotransmitter throughout the animal kingdom. It exerts its effect through the specific binding to the serotonin receptor, but recent research has suggested that neural transmission may also be affected by its nonspecific interactions...... with the lipid matrix of the synaptic membrane. However, membrane–5-HT interactions remain controversial and superficially investigated. Fundamental knowledge of this interaction appears vital in discussions of putative roles of 5-HT, and we have addressed this by thermodynamic measurements and molecular...... dynamics (MD) simulations. 5-HT was found to interact strongly with lipid bilayers (partitioning coefficient ∼1200 in mole fraction units), and this is highly unusual for a hydrophilic solute like 5-HT which has a bulk, oil–water partitioning coefficient well below unity. It follows that membrane affinity...

  14. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    the efficiency of machinery systems. The wet sulphuric acid process is an effective way of removing flue gas sulphur oxides from land-based coal-fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper describes the design...... that an ORC placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase the combined cycle thermal efficiency by 2.6%. The findings indicate that the technology has potential in marine applications regarding both energy...... and modeling of a highly efficient machinery system which includes the removal of exhaust gas sulphur oxides. The system consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal, a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an ORC. Results of numerical modeling efforts suggest...

  15. Explicitly-correlated ring-coupled-cluster-doubles theory: Including exchange for computations on closed-shell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehn, Anna-Sophia; Holzer, Christof; Klopper, Wim, E-mail: klopper@kit.edu

    2016-11-10

    Highlights: • Ring-coupled-cluster-doubles approach now implemented with exchange terms. • Ring-coupled-cluster-doubles approach now implemented with F12 functions. • Szabo–Ostlund scheme (SO2) implemented for use in SAPT. • Fast convergence to the limit of a complete basis. • Implementation in the TURBOMOLE program system. - Abstract: Random-phase-approximation (RPA) methods have proven to be powerful tools in electronic-structure theory, being non-empirical, computationally efficient and broadly applicable to a variety of molecular systems including small-gap systems, transition-metal compounds and dispersion-dominated complexes. Applications are however hindered due to the slow basis-set convergence of the electron-correlation energy with the one-electron basis. As a remedy, we present approximate explicitly-correlated RPA approaches based on the ring-coupled-cluster-doubles formulation including exchange contributions. Test calculations demonstrate that the basis-set convergence of correlation energies is drastically accelerated through the explicitly-correlated approach, reaching 99% of the basis-set limit with triple-zeta basis sets. When implemented in close analogy to early work by Szabo and Ostlund [36], the new explicitly-correlated ring-coupled-cluster-doubles approach including exchange has the perspective to become a valuable tool in the framework of symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) for the computation of dispersion energies of molecular complexes of weakly interacting closed-shell systems.

  16. Association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and upper gastrointestinal bleeding: population based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abajo, Francisco José; Rodríguez, Luis Alberto García; Montero, Dolores

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Design Population based case-control study. Setting General practices included in the UK general practice research database. Subjects 1651 incident cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and 248 cases of ulcer perforation among patients aged 40 to 79 years between April 1993 and September 1997, and 10 000 controls matched for age, sex, and year that the case was identified. Interventions Review of computer profiles for all potential cases, and an internal validation study to confirm the accuracy of the diagnosis on the basis of the computerised information. Main outcome measures Current use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or other antidepressants within 30 days before the index date. Results Current exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was identified in 3.1% (52 of 1651) of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding but only 1.0% (95 of 10 000) of controls, giving an adjusted rate ratio of 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1 to 4.4). This effect measure was not modified by sex, age, dose, or treatment duration. A crude incidence of 1 case per 8000 prescriptions was estimated. A small association was found with non-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (relative risk 1.4, 1.1 to 1.9) but not with antidepressants lacking this inhibitory effect. None of the groups of antidepressants was associated with ulcer perforation. The concurrent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increased the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding beyond the sum of their independent effects (15.6, 6.6 to 36.6). A smaller interaction was also found between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and low dose aspirin (7.2, 3.1 to 17.1). Conclusions Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The absolute effect is, however

  17. Leptin, adiponectin and serotonin levels in lean and obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Sang-Eun; Oh, Jung-Hyun; Seo, Kyoung-Won; Song, Kun-Ho

    2014-05-13

    Serotonin (5-hydroytryptamine or 5HT) is associated with numerous behavioral and psychological factors and is a biochemical marker of mood. 5HT is involved in the hypothalamic regulation of energy consumption. 5HT controls appetite in the central nerve system (CNS) and stimulates intestinal mobility. There are few studies looking at the role of 5HT and the relationship between peripheral circulating serotonin and obesity. The aim of this study was to find any differences in leptin, adiponectin, and 5HT between lean and obese dogs and to identify correlations among these factors. Leptin, triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels were higher in the obese group (all p obese group (p obesity in dogs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate peripheral 5HT levels in obese dogs. From this research, we can assume that 5HT may be correlated with canine obesity. Further studies will be needed to further elucidate the role of low serum 5HT levels in canine obesity.

  18. The neuropharmacology of serotonin and noradrenaline in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J

    2002-06-01

    Several classes of antidepressant drug exist, divided into three broad families, the monoamine reuptake inhibitors, the monoamine oxidase inhibitors and the monoamine receptor antagonists. All these drugs have a common pharmacological effect, to raise the synaptic concentrations of noradrenaline and serotonin. Although different drugs have different relative selectivity for noradrenaline and serotonin systems, these two neurotransmitter pathways work in parallel and in a coherent manner to produce the same final antidepressant response. The lag-time in the onset of action of antidepressants can be explained by the activation of inhibitory autoreceptors on serotonergic and noradrenergic neurones which initially attenuate the effects of antidepressants on synaptic transmitter levels. Over time, these autoreceptors desensitize, allowing the emergence of an overt antidepressant response. This theory has led to the proposition that antagonists at these autoreceptors such as pindolol may be useful adjuncts to antidepressant treatment, in order to hasten the appearance of a clinical response. Evidence for the clinical validity of this idea remains equivocal, however. The use of central monoamine depletion studies has demonstrated that it is elevated synaptic monoamine levels themselves, rather than some downstream postsynaptic changes in, for example, receptor sensitivity, that are responsible for the therapeutic effect of antidepressant drugs. Taken together, the data collected over the last 40 years have allowed the emergence of a unified monoamine hypothesis of antidepressant drug action.

  19. Dopamine and serotonin: influences on male sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Elaine M; Muschamp, John W; Sato, Satoru

    2004-11-15

    Steroid hormones regulate sexual behavior primarily by slow, genomically mediated effects. These effects are realized, in part, by enhancing the processing of relevant sensory stimuli, altering the synthesis, release, and/or receptors for neurotransmitters in integrative areas, and increasing the responsiveness of appropriate motor outputs. Dopamine has facilitative effects on sexual motivation, copulatory proficiency, and genital reflexes. Dopamine in the nigrostriatal tract influences motor activity; in the mesolimbic tract it activates numerous motivated behaviors, including copulation; in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) it controls genital reflexes, copulatory patterns, and specifically sexual motivation. Testosterone increases nitric oxide synthase in the MPOA; nitric oxide increases basal and female-stimulated dopamine release, which in turn facilitates copulation and genital reflexes. Serotonin (5-HT) is primarily inhibitory, although stimulation of 5-HT(2C) receptors increases erections and inhibits ejaculation, whereas stimulation of 5-HT(1A) receptors has the opposite effects: facilitation of ejaculation and, in some circumstances, inhibition of erection. 5-HT is released in the anterior lateral hypothalamus at the time of ejaculation. Microinjections of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors there delay the onset of copulation and delay ejaculation after copulation begins. One means for this inhibition is a decrease in dopamine release in the mesolimbic tract.

  20. Honesty mediates the relationship between serotonin and reaction to unfairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko; Takano, Harumasa; Camerer, Colin F; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Matsui, Hiroshi; Tamari, Yuki; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Arakawa, Ryosuke; Kodaka, Fumitoshi; Yamada, Makiko; Eguchi, Yoko; Murai, Toshiya; Okubo, Yoshiro; Kato, Motoichiro; Ito, Hiroshi; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2012-03-13

    How does one deal with unfair behaviors? This subject has long been investigated by various disciplines including philosophy, psychology, economics, and biology. However, our reactions to unfairness differ from one individual to another. Experimental economics studies using the ultimatum game (UG), in which players must decide whether to accept or reject fair or unfair offers, have also shown that there are substantial individual differences in reaction to unfairness. However, little is known about psychological as well as neurobiological mechanisms of this observation. We combined a molecular imaging technique, an economics game, and a personality inventory to elucidate the neurobiological mechanism of heterogeneous reactions to unfairness. Contrary to the common belief that aggressive personalities (impulsivity or hostility) are related to the high rejection rate of unfair offers in UG, we found that individuals with apparently peaceful personalities (straightforwardness and trust) rejected more often and were engaged in personally costly forms of retaliation. Furthermore, individuals with a low level of serotonin transporters in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are honest and trustful, and thus cannot tolerate unfairness, being candid in expressing their frustrations. In other words, higher central serotonin transmission might allow us to behave adroitly and opportunistically, being good at playing games while pursuing self-interest. We provide unique neurobiological evidence to account for individual differences of reaction to unfairness.

  1. Brain serotonin, psychoactive drugs, and effects on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, María Elena

    2009-12-01

    Serotonin, a biogenic amine, is present in significant amounts in many structures of the CNS. It is involved in regulation of a wide variety of physiological functions, such as sensory and motor functions, memory, mood, and secretion of hormones including reproductive hormones. It has also been implicated in the etiology of a range of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, and eating disorders, along with other conditions such as obesity and migraine. While some drugs that affect serotonin, such as fenfluramine and fluoxetine, have been successfully used in treatment of a range of psychiatric diseases, others, such as the amphetamine analogues MDMA and METH, are potent psychostimulant drugs of abuse. Alterations in serotonergic neurons caused by many of these drugs are well characterized; however, little is known about the reproductive consequences of such alterations. This review evaluates the effects of drugs such as MDMA, pCA, fenfluramine, and fluoxetine on serotonergic transmission in the brain, examines the relationships of these drug effects with the neuroendocrine mechanisms modulating reproductive events such as gonadotropin secretion, ovulation, spermatogenesis, and sexual behavior in animal models, and discusses possible reproductive implications of these drugs in humans.

  2. Battery system including batteries that have a plurality of positive terminals and a plurality of negative terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Symanski, James S; Kuempers, Joerg A; Miles, Ronald C; Hansen, Scott A; Smith, Nels R; Taghikhani, Majid; Mrotek, Edward N; Andrew, Michael G

    2014-01-21

    A lithium battery for use in a vehicle includes a container, a plurality of positive terminals extending from a first end of the lithium battery, and a plurality of negative terminals extending from a second end of the lithium battery. The plurality of positive terminals are provided in a first configuration and the plurality of negative terminals are provided in a second configuration, the first configuration differing from the second configuration. A battery system for use in a vehicle may include a plurality of electrically connected lithium cells or batteries.

  3. A computer software system for the generation of global ocean tides including self-gravitation and crustal loading effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer software system is described which computes global numerical solutions of the integro-differential Laplace tidal equations, including dissipation terms and ocean loading and self-gravitation effects, for arbitrary diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents. The integration algorithm features a successive approximation scheme for the integro-differential system, with time stepping forward differences in the time variable and central differences in spatial variables. Solutions for M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1 tidal constituents neglecting the effects of ocean loading and self-gravitation and a converged M2, solution including ocean loading and self-gravitation effects are presented in the form of cotidal and corange maps.

  4. Serotonin potentiates transforming growth factor-beta3 induced biomechanical remodeling in avian embryonic atrioventricular valves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R Buskohl

    Full Text Available Embryonic heart valve primordia (cushions maintain unidirectional blood flow during development despite an increasingly demanding mechanical environment. Recent studies demonstrate that atrioventricular (AV cushions stiffen over gestation, but the molecular mechanisms of this process are unknown. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ and serotonin (5-HT signaling modulate tissue biomechanics of postnatal valves, but less is known of their role in the biomechanical remodeling of embryonic valves. In this study, we demonstrate that exogenous TGFβ3 increases AV cushion biomechanical stiffness and residual stress, but paradoxically reduces matrix compaction. We then show that TGFβ3 induces contractile gene expression (RhoA, aSMA and extracellular matrix expression (col1α2 in cushion mesenchyme, while simultaneously stimulating a two-fold increase in proliferation. Local compaction increased due to an elevated contractile phenotype, but global compaction appeared reduced due to proliferation and ECM synthesis. Blockade of TGFβ type I receptors via SB431542 inhibited the TGFβ3 effects. We next showed that exogenous 5-HT does not influence cushion stiffness by itself, but synergistically increases cushion stiffness with TGFβ3 co-treatment. 5-HT increased TGFβ3 gene expression and also potentiated TGFβ3 induced gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Blockade of the 5HT2b receptor, but not 5-HT2a receptor or serotonin transporter (SERT, resulted in complete cessation of TGFβ3 induced mechanical strengthening. Finally, systemic 5-HT administration in ovo induced cushion remodeling related defects, including thinned/atretic AV valves, ventricular septal defects, and outflow rotation defects. Elevated 5-HT in ovo resulted in elevated remodeling gene expression and increased TGFβ signaling activity, supporting our ex-vivo findings. Collectively, these results highlight TGFβ/5-HT signaling as a potent mechanism for control of biomechanical

  5. Modeling a novel CCHP system including solar and wind renewable energy resources and sizing by a CC-MOPSO algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soheyli, Saman; Shafiei Mayam, Mohamad Hossein; Mehrjoo, Mehri

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Considering renewable energy resources as the main prime movers in CCHP systems. • Simultaneous application of FEL and FTL by optimizing two probability functions. • Simultaneous optimization the equipment and penalty factors by CC-MOPSO algorithm. • Reducing fuel consumption and pollution up to 263 and 353 times, respectively. - Abstract: Due to problems, such as, heat losses of equipment, low energy efficiency, increasing pollution and the fossil fuels consumption, combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems have attracted lots of attention during the last decade. In this paper, for minimizing fossil fuel consumption and pollution, a novel CCHP system including photovoltaic (PV) modules, wind turbines, and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as the prime movers is considered. Moreover, in order to minimize the excess electrical and heat energy production of the CCHP system and so reducing the need for the local power grid and any auxiliary heat production system, following electrical load (FEL) and following thermal load (FTL) operation strategies are considered, simultaneously. In order to determine the optimal number of each system component and also set the penalty factors in the used penalty function, a co-constrained multi objective particle swarm optimization (CC-MOPSO) algorithm is applied. Utilization of the renewable energy resources, the annual total cost (ATC) and the CCHP system area are considered as the objective functions. It also includes constraints such as, loss of power supply probability (LPSP), loss of heat supply probability (LHSP), state of battery charge (SOC), and the number of each CCHP component. A hypothetical hotel in Kermanshah, Iran is conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed system. 10 wind turbines, 430 PV modules, 11 SOFCs, 106 batteries and 2 heat storage tanks (HST) are numerical results for the spring as the best season in terms of decreasing cost and fuel consumption. Comparing the results

  6. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator-design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses the restriction of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) solutions to the algebraic Riccati Equation to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical systems. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist. Some examples of simple spring mass systems are shown to illustrate key points.

  7. Effects of LSD on grooming behavior in serotonin transporter heterozygous (Sert⁺/⁻) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays a crucial role in the brain, modulating mood, cognition and reward. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for the reuptake of 5-HT from the synaptic cleft and regulates serotonin signaling in the brain. In humans, SERT genetic variance is linked to the pathogenesis of various psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Rodent self-grooming is a complex, evolutionarily conserved patterned behavior relevant to stress, ASD and OCD. Genetic ablation of mouse Sert causes various behavioral deficits, including increased anxiety and grooming behavior. The hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent serotonergic agonist known to modulate human and animal behavior. Here, we examined heterozygous Sert(+/-) mouse behavior following acute administration of LSD (0.32 mg/kg). Overall, Sert(+/-) mice displayed a longer duration of self-grooming behavior regardless of LSD treatment. In contrast, LSD increased serotonin-sensitive behaviors, such as head twitching, tremors and backwards gait behaviors in both Sert(+/+) and Sert(+/-) mice. There were no significant interactions between LSD treatment and Sert gene dosage in any of the behavioral domains measured. These results suggest that Sert(+/-) mice may respond to the behavioral effects of LSD in a similar manner to wild-type mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Including Immigrants without Permanent Residence Status in the Public Health Insurance System in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepperová Jana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether an individual can or cannot participate in the Czech public health insurance system depends on several characteristics, one of which is whether he/she has permanent residence status in the Czech Republic, and a second whether he/she is employed. This means that those without permanent residence status, including self-employed migrants from third countries, their dependent relatives, and the dependent relatives of third country employees in the Czech Republic, cannot participate in the public health insurance system. Some argue that such migrants should be included in the system, since commercial health insurance is disadvantageous and the contributions they would pay into the public health insurance system would increase the public health insurance agencies’ income. We estimate the value of the contributions to public health insurance that would be paid by third country self-employed and non-working immigrants, if they were insured based on data from 2011 to 2013, and compare this to the assumed costs of their medical care. To calculate the contributions for self-employed migrants we use data on the distribution of the tax base for self-employed persons from personal income tax returns. Our estimation results in an overall negative balance of 22 million CZK on the data for 2012 and 2013. In the current system this deficit would be covered by the state, which would pay contributions to the system for certain (state insured persons amounting to 97 million CZK; overall therefore the inclusion of these immigrants would result in a positive balance of 75 million CZK.

  9. Generation of a Tph2 Conditional Knockout Mouse Line for Time- and Tissue-Specific Depletion of Brain Serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliarini, Sara; Pacini, Giulia; Pasqualetti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin has been gaining increasing attention during the last two decades due to the dual function of this monoamine as key regulator during critical developmental events and as neurotransmitter. Importantly, unbalanced serotonergic levels during critical temporal phases might contribute to the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. Despite increasing evidences from both animal models and human genetic studies have underpinned the importance of serotonin homeostasis maintenance during central nervous system development and adulthood, the precise role of this molecule in time-specific activities is only beginning to be elucidated. Serotonin synthesis is a 2-step process, the first step of which is mediated by the rate-limiting activity of Tph enzymes, belonging to the family of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and existing in two isoforms, Tph1 and Tph2, responsible for the production of peripheral and brain serotonin, respectively. In the present study, we generated and validated a conditional knockout mouse line, Tph2 flox/flox, in which brain serotonin can be effectively ablated with time specificity. We demonstrated that the Cre-mediated excision of the third exon of Tph2 gene results in the production of a Tph2 null allele in which we observed the near-complete loss of brain serotonin, as well as the growth defects and perinatal lethality observed in serotonin conventional knockouts. We also revealed that in mice harbouring the Tph2 null allele, but not in wild-types, two distinct Tph2 mRNA isoforms are present, namely Tph2Δ3 and Tph2Δ3Δ4, with the latter showing an in-frame deletion of amino acids 84–178 and coding a protein that could potentially retain non-negligible enzymatic activity. As we could not detect Tph1 expression in the raphe, we made the hypothesis that the Tph2Δ3Δ4 isoform can be at the origin of the residual, sub-threshold amount of serotonin detected in the brain of Tph2 null/null mice. Finally, we set

  10. Infrared Thermography in Serotonin-Induced Itch Model in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Gazerani, Parisa; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The study validated the application of infrared thermography in a serotonin-induced itch model in rats since the only available method in animal models of itch is the count of scratching bouts. Twenty four adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in 3 experiments: 1) local vasomotor response...... with no scratching reflex was investigated. Serotonin elicited significant scratching and lowered the local temperature at the site of injection. A negative dose-temperature relationship of serotonin was found by thermography. Vasoregulation at the site of serotonin injection took place in the absence of scratching...

  11. Metabolomics Approach Reveals Integrated Metabolic Network Associated with Serotonin Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Tian, Yonglu; Burton, Casey; Xu, Xinyuan; Liu, Yi; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-07-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that broadly participates in various biological processes. While serotonin deficiency has been associated with multiple pathological conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, the serotonin-dependent mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel biomarkers and metabolic pathways perturbed by serotonin deficiency using metabolomics approach in order to gain new metabolic insights into the serotonin deficiency-related molecular mechanisms. Serotonin deficiency was achieved through pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) or genetic knockout of the neuronal specific Tph2 isoform. This dual approach improved specificity for the serotonin deficiency-associated biomarkers while minimizing nonspecific effects of pCPA treatment or Tph2 knockout (Tph2-/-). Non-targeted metabolic profiling and a targeted pCPA dose-response study identified 21 biomarkers in the pCPA-treated mice while 17 metabolites in the Tph2-/- mice were found to be significantly altered compared with the control mice. These newly identified biomarkers were associated with amino acid, energy, purine, lipid and gut microflora metabolisms. Oxidative stress was also found to be significantly increased in the serotonin deficient mice. These new biomarkers and the overall metabolic pathways may provide new understanding for the serotonin deficiency-associated mechanisms under multiple pathological states.

  12. Effect of serotonin on small intestinal contractility in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.B.; Arif, F.; Gregersen, H.

    2008-01-01

    The physiological significance of serotonin released into the intestinal lumen for the regulation of motility is unknown in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of serotonin infused into the lumen of the gastric antrum, duodenum or the jejunum, on antro-duodeno-jejunal contrac......The physiological significance of serotonin released into the intestinal lumen for the regulation of motility is unknown in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of serotonin infused into the lumen of the gastric antrum, duodenum or the jejunum, on antro......-duodeno-jejunal contractility in healthy human volunteers. Manometric recordings were obtained and the effects of either a standard meal, continuous intravenous infusion of serotonin (20 nmol/kg/min) or intraluminal bolus infusions of graded doses of serotonin (2.5, 25 or 250 nmol) were compared. In addition, platelet......-depleted plasma levels of serotonin, blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram were evaluated. All subjects showed similar results. Intravenous serotonin increased migrating motor complex phase In frequency 3-fold and migrating velocity 2-fold. Intraluminal infusion of serotonin did not change contractile...

  13. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, Sara C.; Maes, An A.; Delesalle, Catherine J.; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M.; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI colic were collected at several pre- and post-operative time points. Serotonin concentrations were determined using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those for 24 healthy control animals. The serotonin concentrations in PPP were significantly lower (P serotonin was not a suitable prognostic factor in horses with SI surgical colic. PMID:25694668

  14. Stimulation of aortic smooth muscle cell mitogenesis by serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemecek, G.M.; Coughlin, S.R.; Handley, D.A.; Moskowitz, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Bovine aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro responded to 1 nM to 10 μM serotonin with increased incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into DNA. The mitogenic effect of serotonin was half-maximal at 80 nM and maximal above 1 μM. At a concentration of 1 μM, serotonin stimulated smooth muscle cell mitogenesis to the same extent as human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at 12 ng/ml. Tryptamine was ≅ 1/10th as potent as serotonin as a mitogen for smooth muscle cells. Other indoles that are structurally related to serotonin (D- and L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, melatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptophol) and quipazine were inactive. The stimulatory effect of serotonin on smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis required prolonged (20-24 hr) exposure to the agonist and was attenuated in the presence of serotonin D receptor antagonists. When smooth muscle cells were incubated with submaximal concentrations of serotonin and PDGF, synergistic rather than additive mitogenic responses were observed. These data indicate that serotonin has a significant mitogenic effect on smooth muscle cells in vitro, which appears to be mediated by specific plasma membrane receptors

  15. Rotavirus and Serotonin Cross-Talk in Diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Johan; Karlsson, Thommie; Sharma, Sumit; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Svensson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) has been shown to infect and stimulate secretion of serotonin from human enterochromaffin (EC) cells and to infect EC cells in the small intestine of mice. It remains to identify which intracellularly expressed viral protein(s) is responsible for this novel property and to further establish the clinical role of serotonin in RV infection. First, we found that siRNA specifically silencing NSP4 (siRNANSP4) significantly attenuated secretion of serotonin from Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) infected EC tumor cells compared to siRNAVP4, siRNAVP6 and siRNAVP7. Second, intracellular calcium mobilization and diarrhoeal capacity from virulent and avirulent porcine viruses correlated with the capacity to release serotonin from EC tumor cells. Third, following administration of serotonin, all (10/10) infants, but no (0/8) adult mice, responded with diarrhoea. Finally, blocking of serotonin receptors using Ondansetron significantly attenuated murine RV (strain EDIM) diarrhoea in infant mice (2.9 vs 4.5 days). Ondansetron-treated mice (n = 11) had significantly (p serotonin receptor antagonist significantly (p serotonin from human EC tumor cells and that serotonin participates in RV diarrhoea, which can be attenuated by Ondansetron. PMID:27459372

  16. Ca++ dependent bistability induced by serotonin in spinal motoneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J.; Kiehn, O.

    1985-01-01

    The plateau potential, responsible for the bistable state of spinal motoneurons, recently described in the decerebrate cat, was suggested to depend on serotonin (Hounsgaard et al. 1984). In an in vitro preparation of the spinal cord of the turtle we now show that serotonin, applied directly...... to the bath, transforms the intrinsic response properties of motoneurons, uncovering a plateau potential and voltage sensitive bistability. The changes induced by serotonin were blocked by Mn++, while the plateau potential and the bistability remained after application of tetrodotoxin. We conclude...... that serotonin controls the expression of a Ca++ dependent plateau potential in motoneurons....

  17. Relationships between Serotonin Transporter Binding in the Raphe Nuclei, Basal Ganglia, and Hippocampus with Clinical Symptoms in Cervical Dystonia : A [C]DASB Positron Emission Tomography Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Marenka; Vállez García, David; de Jong, Bauke M; Zoons, Evelien; Booij, Jan; Dierckx, Rudi A; Willemsen, Antoon T; de Vries, Erik F; Bartels, Anna L; Tijssen, Marina A

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Alterations of the central serotonergic system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In this molecular imaging study, we assessed whether altered presynaptic serotonin transporter (SERT) binding contributes to the pathophysiology of cervical dystonia (CD), concerning both

  18. Brain serotonin and dopamine transporter bindings in adults with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Sekine, Yoshimoto; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Futatsubashi, Masami; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Sugihara, Genichi; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Suda, Shiro; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Takei, Nori; Mori, Norio

    2010-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by repetitive and/or obsessive interests and behavior and by deficits in sociability and communication. Although its neurobiological underpinnings are postulated to lie in abnormalities of the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems, the details remain unknown. To determine the occurrence of changes in the binding of serotonin and dopamine transporters, which are highly selective markers for their respective neuronal systems. Using positron emission tomography, we measured the binding of brain serotonin and dopamine transporters in each individual with the radioligands carbon 11 ((11)C)-labeled trans-1,2,3,5,6,10-beta-hexahydro-6-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]pyrrolo-[2,1-a]isoquinoline ([(11)C](+)McN-5652) and 2beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane ([(11)C]WIN-35,428), respectively. Statistical parametric mapping was used for between-subject analysis and within-subject correlation analysis with respect to clinical variables. Participants recruited from the community. Twenty men (age range, 18-26 years; mean [SD] IQ, 99.3 [18.1]) with autism and 20 age- and IQ-matched control subjects. Serotonin transporter binding was significantly lower throughout the brain in autistic individuals compared with controls (P dopamine transporter binding was significantly higher in the orbitofrontal cortex of the autistic group (P dopamine transporter binding was significantly inversely correlated with serotonin transporter binding (r = -0.61; P = .004). The brains of autistic individuals have abnormalities in both serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter binding. The present findings indicate that the gross abnormalities in these neurotransmitter systems may underpin the neurophysiologic mechanism of autism. Our sample was not characteristic or representative of a typical sample of adults with autism in the community.

  19. A dualistic conformational response to substrate binding in the human serotonin transporter reveals a high affinity state for serotonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Severinsen, Kasper; Said, Saida

    2015-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is modulated by the membrane-embedded serotonin transporter (SERT). SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neurons. Conformational changes in SERT occur upon binding of ions and substrate and are crucial for translocation of serotonin across...... the membrane. Our understanding of these conformational changes is mainly based on crystal structures of a bacterial homolog in various conformations, derived homology models of eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters, and substituted cysteine accessibility method of SERT. However, the dynamic changes...

  20. A study on the quantitative evaluation for the software included in digital systems of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. K.; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Jeong, H. S.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    In general, probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) has been used as one of the most important methods to evaluate the safety of NPPs. The PSA, because most of NPPs have been installed and used analog I and C systems, has been performed based on the hardware perspectives. In addition, since the tendency to use digital I and C systems including software instead of analog I and C systems is increasing, the needs of quantitative evaluation methods so as to perform PSA are also increasing. Nevertheless, several reasons such as software did not aged and it is very perplexed to estimate software failure rate due to its non-linearity, make the performance of PSA difficult. In this study, in order to perform PSA including software more efficiently, test-based software reliability estimation methods are reviewed to suggest a preliminary procedure that can provide reasonable guidances to quantify software failure rate. In addition, requisite activities to enhance applicability of the suggested procedure are also discussed. 67 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  1. Mathematical multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including mitral valve dynamics. Application to ischemic mitral insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen Marie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves.

  2. Serotonin Coordinates Responses to Social Stress-What We Can Learn from Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backström, Tobias; Winberg, Svante

    2017-01-01

    Social interaction is stressful and subordinate individuals are often subjected to chronic stress, which greatly affects both their behavior and physiology. In teleost fish the social position of an individual may have long-term effects, such as effects on migration, age of sexual maturation or even sex. The brain serotonergic system plays a key role in coordinating autonomic, behavioral and neuroendocrine stress responses. Social subordination results in a chronic activation of the brain serotonergic system an effect, which seems to be central in the subordinate phenotype. However, behavioral effects of short-term acute activation of the serotonergic system are less obvious. As in other vertebrates, divergent stress coping styles, often referred to as proactive and reactive, has been described in teleosts. As demonstrated by selective breeding, stress coping styles appear to be partly heritable. However, teleost fish are characterized by plasticity, stress coping style being affected by social experience. Again, the brain serotonergic system appears to play an important role. Studies comparing brain gene expression of fish of different social rank and/or displaying divergent stress coping styles have identified several novel factors that seem important for controlling aggressive behavior and stress coping, e.g., histamine and hypocretin/orexin. These may also interact with brain monoaminergic systems, including serotonin.

  3. Serotonin Coordinates Responses to Social Stress—What We Can Learn from Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Backström

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Social interaction is stressful and subordinate individuals are often subjected to chronic stress, which greatly affects both their behavior and physiology. In teleost fish the social position of an individual may have long-term effects, such as effects on migration, age of sexual maturation or even sex. The brain serotonergic system plays a key role in coordinating autonomic, behavioral and neuroendocrine stress responses. Social subordination results in a chronic activation of the brain serotonergic system an effect, which seems to be central in the subordinate phenotype. However, behavioral effects of short-term acute activation of the serotonergic system are less obvious. As in other vertebrates, divergent stress coping styles, often referred to as proactive and reactive, has been described in teleosts. As demonstrated by selective breeding, stress coping styles appear to be partly heritable. However, teleost fish are characterized by plasticity, stress coping style being affected by social experience. Again, the brain serotonergic system appears to play an important role. Studies comparing brain gene expression of fish of different social rank and/or displaying divergent stress coping styles have identified several novel factors that seem important for controlling aggressive behavior and stress coping, e.g., histamine and hypocretin/orexin. These may also interact with brain monoaminergic systems, including serotonin.

  4. Altered dopamine and serotonin metabolism in motorically asymptomatic R6/2 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Mochel

    Full Text Available The pattern of cerebral dopamine (DA abnormalities in Huntington disease (HD is complex, as reflected by the variable clinical benefit of both DA antagonists and agonists in treating HD symptoms. In addition, little is known about serotonin metabolism despite the early occurrence of anxiety and depression in HD. Post-mortem enzymatic changes are likely to interfere with the in vivo profile of biogenic amines. Hence, in order to reliably characterize the regional and chronological profile of brain neurotransmitters in a HD mouse model, we used a microwave fixation system that preserves in vivo concentrations of dopaminergic and serotoninergic amines. DA was decreased in the striatum of R6/2 mice at 8 and 12 weeks of age while DA metabolites, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid, were already significantly reduced in 4-week-old motorically asymptomatic R6/2 mice. In the striatum, hippocampus and frontal cortex of 4, 8 and 12-week-old R6/2 mice, serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were significantly decreased in association with a decreased turnover of serotonin. In addition, automated high-resolution behavioural analyses displayed stress-like behaviours such as jumping and grooming and altered spatial learning in R6/2 mice at age 4 and 6 weeks respectively. Therefore, we describe the earliest alterations of DA and serotonin metabolism in a HD murine model. Our findings likely underpin the neuropsychological symptoms at time of disease onset in HD.

  5. A unified pathogenesis for kidney diseases, including genetic diseases and cancers, by the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Yil

    2017-06-01

    Every cell of an organism is separated and protected by a cell membrane. It is proposed that harmony between intercellular communication and the health of an organism is controlled by a system, designated the protein-homeostasis-system (PHS). Kidneys consist of a variety of types of renal cells, each with its own characteristic cell-receptor interactions and producing characteristic proteins. A functional union of these renal cells can be determined by various renal function tests, and harmonious intercellular communication is essential for the healthy state of the host. Injury to a kind of renal cells can impair renal function and induce an imbalance in total body health. Every acute or chronic renal disease has unknown etiologic substances that are responsible for renal cell injury at the molecular level. The immune/repair system of the host should control the etiologic substances acting against renal cells; if this system fails, the disease progresses to end stage renal disease. Each renal disease has its characteristic pathologic lesions where immune cells and immune proteins, such as immunoglobulins and complements, are infiltrated. These immune cells and immune proteins may control the etiologic substances involved in renal pathologic lesions. Also, genetic renal diseases and cancers may originate from a protein deficiency or malfunctioning protein under the PHS. A unified pathogenesis for renal diseases, including acute glomerulonephritis, idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, immunoglobulin A nephropathy, genetic renal diseases such as Alport syndrome, and malignancies such as Wilms tumor and renal cell carcinoma, is proposed using the PHS hypothesis.

  6. ECH system developments including the design of an intelligent fault processor on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.; Lohr, J.; Tooker, J.F.; O'Neill, R.C.; Moeller, C.P.; Doane, J.L.; Noraky, S.; Dubovenko, K.; Gorelov, Y.A.; Cengher, M.; Penaflor, B.G.; Ellis, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A new generation fault processor is in development which is intended to increase fault handling flexibility and reduce the number of incomplete DIII-D shots due to gyrotron faults. The processor, which is based upon a field programmable gate array device, will analyze signals for aberrant operation and ramp down high voltage to try to avoid hard faults. The processor will then attempt to ramp back up to an attainable operating point. The new generation fault processor will be developed during an expansion of the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) areas that will include the installation of a depressed collector gyrotron and associated equipment. Existing systems will also be upgraded. Testing of real-time control of the ECH launcher poloidal drives by the DIII-D plasma control system will be completed. The ECH control system software will be upgraded for increased scalability and to increase operator productivity. Resources permitting, all systems will receive an extra layer of interlocks for the filament and magnet power supplies, added shielding for the tank electronics, programmable filament boost shape for long pulses, and electronics upgrades for the installation of the advanced fault processor.

  7. A nonlinear relationship between cerebral serotonin transporter and 5-HT(2A) receptor binding: an in vivo molecular imaging study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erritzoe, David; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G.

    2010-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is involved in the regulation of physiological functions such as mood, sleep, memory, and appetite. Within the serotonin transmitter system, both the postsynaptically located serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor and the presynaptic serotonin transporter (SERT) are sensitive...... tomography. Within each individual, a regional intercorrelation for the various brain regions was seen with both markers, most notably for 5-HT2A receptor binding. An inverted U-shaped relationship between the 5-HT2A receptor and the SERT binding was identified. The observed regional intercorrelation...

  8. Regulation of serotonin release from enterochromaffin cells of rat cecum mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.; Ternaux, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The release of endogenous serotonin or previously taken up tritiated serotonin from isolated strips of rat cecum mucosa containing enterochromaffin cells was studied in vitro. Release of tritiated serotonin was increased by potassium depolarization and was decreased by tetrodotoxin, veratridine and the absence of calcium. Endogenous serotonin was released at a lower rate than tritiated serotonin; endogenous serotonin release was stimulated by potassium depolarization but was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, veratridine or the absence of calcium. Carbachol, norepinephrine, clonidine and isoproterenol decreased release of tritiated serotonin but had less or reverse effect on release of endogenous serotonin. The results suggest two different serotoninergic pools within the enterochromaffin cell population

  9. Brain dopamine and serotonin transporter binding are associated with visual attention bias for food in lean men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, K. E.; Roefs, A.; Elbers, D. C. E.; Fliers, E.; Booij, J.; Serlie, M. J.; La Fleur, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, the striatal dopamine (DA) system and the (hypo)thalamic serotonin (5-HT) system are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. In lean humans, little is known about the relationship between these brain neurotransmitter systems and feeding. We studied the relationship between

  10. Subsecond Sensory Modulation of Serotonin Levels in a Primary Sensory Area and Its Relation to Ongoing Communication Behavior in a Weakly Electric Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotowat, Haleh; Harvey-Girard, Erik; Cheer, Joseph F; Krahe, Rüdiger; Maler, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei of vertebrates project to most regions of the brain and are known to significantly affect sensory processing. The subsecond dynamics of sensory modulation of serotonin levels and its relation to behavior, however, remain unknown. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure serotonin release in the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus . These fish use an electric organ to generate a quasi-sinusoidal electric field for communicating with conspecifics. In response to conspecific signals, they frequently produce signal modulations called chirps. We measured changes in serotonin concentration in the hindbrain electrosensory lobe (ELL) with a resolution of 0.1 s concurrently with chirping behavior evoked by mimics of conspecific electric signals. We show that serotonin release can occur phase locked to stimulus onset as well as spontaneously in the ELL region responsible for processing these signals. Intense auditory stimuli, on the other hand, do not modulate serotonin levels in this region, suggesting modality specificity. We found no significant correlation between serotonin release and chirp production on a trial-by-trial basis. However, on average, in the trials where the fish chirped, there was a reduction in serotonin release in response to stimuli mimicking similar-sized same-sex conspecifics. We hypothesize that the serotonergic system is part of an intricate sensory-motor loop: serotonin release in a sensory area is triggered by sensory input, giving rise to motor output, which can in turn affect serotonin release at the timescale of the ongoing sensory experience and in a context-dependent manner.

  11. Serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors are the same size in membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brann, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Target size analysis was used to compare the sizes of serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors in rat brain membranes. The sizes of these receptors were standardized by comparison with the muscarinic receptor, a receptor of known size. The number of serotonin-S2 receptors labeled with (3H)ketanserin or (3H)spiperone in frontal cortex decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and receptor affinity was not affected. The number of dopamine-D2 receptors labeled with (3H)spiperone in striatum also decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and D2 and S2 receptors were equally sensitive to radiation. In both striatum and frontal cortex, the number of muscarinic receptors labeled with (3H)QNB decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and were much less sensitive to radiation than S2 and D2 receptors. These data indicate that in rat brain membranes, S2 and D2 receptors are of similar size, and both molecules are much larger than the muscarinic receptor

  12. No link of serotonin 2C receptor editing to serotonin transporter genotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyddon, R.; Cuppen, E.; Haroutunian, V.; Siever, L.J.; Dracheva, S.

    2010-01-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process, which has the potential to alter the function of encoded proteins. In particular, serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2cR) mRNA editing can produce 24 protein isoforms of varying functionality. Rodent studies have shown that 5-HT2cR editing is dynamically

  13. Both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of dietary 5-hydroxytryptophan and tyrosine are found on urinary excretion of serotonin and dopamine in a large human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J Trachte

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available George J Trachte1, Thomas Uncini2, Marty Hinz31Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of MN Medical School Duluth, Duluth, MN, USA; 2Chief Medical Examiner, St. Louis County, Hibbing, MN, USA; 3Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc., Duluth, MN, USA Abstract: Amino acid precursors of dopamine and serotonin have been administered for decades to treat a variety of clinical conditions including depression, anxiety, insomnia, obesity, and a host of other illnesses. Dietary administration of these amino acids is designed to increase dopamine and serotonin levels within the body, particularly the brain. Convincing evidence exists that these precursors normally elevate dopamine and serotonin levels within critical brain tissues and other organs. However, their effects on urinary excretion of neurotransmitters are described in few studies and the results appear equivocal. The purpose of this study was to define, as precisely as possible, the influence of both 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP and tyrosine on urinary excretion of serotonin and dopamine in a large human population consuming both 5-HTP and tyrosine. Curiously, only 5-HTP exhibited a marginal stimulatory influence on urinary serotonin excretion when 5-HTP doses were compared to urinary serotonin excretion; however, a robust relationship was observed when alterations in 5-HTP dose were compared to alterations in urinary serotonin excretion in individual patients. The data indicate three statistically discernible components to 5-HTP responses, including inverse, direct, and no relationships between urinary serotonin excretion and 5-HTP doses. The response to tyrosine was more consistent but primarily yielded an unexpected reduction in urinary dopamine excretion. These data indicate that the urinary excretion pattern of neurotransmitters after consumption of their precursors is far more complex than previously appreciated. These data on urinary neurotransmitter excretion might

  14. Experimental test of a hot water storage system including a macro-encapsulated phase change material (PCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongibello, L.; Atrigna, M.; Bianco, N.; Di Somma, M.; Graditi, G.; Risi, N.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems (TESs) are of fundamental importance for many energetic systems, essentially because they permit a certain degree of decoupling between the heat or cold production and the use of the heat or cold produced. In the last years, many works have analysed the addition of a PCM inside a hot water storage tank, as it can allow a reduction of the size of the storage tank due to the possibility of storing thermal energy as latent heat, and as a consequence its cost and encumbrance. The present work focuses on experimental tests realized by means of an indoor facility in order to analyse the dynamic behaviour of a hot water storage tank including PCM modules during a charging phase. A commercial bio-based PCM has been used for the purpose, with a melting temperature of 58°C. The experimental results relative to the hot water tank including the PCM modules are presented in terms of temporal evolution of the axial temperature profile, heat transfer and stored energy, and are compared with the ones obtained by using only water as energy storage material. Interesting insights, relative to the estimation of the percentage of melted PCM at the end of the experimental test, are presented and discussed.

  15. Apology in the criminal justice setting: evidence for including apology as an additional component in the legal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Carrie J

    2002-01-01

    The criminal justice system has reached unprecedented scope in the United States, with over 6.4 million people under some type of supervision. Remedies that have the potential to reduce this number are continually being sought. This article analyzes an innovative strategy currently being reconsidered in criminal justice: the apology. Despite a legal system that only sporadically acknowledges it, evidence for the use of apology is supported by social science research, current criminal justice theories, case law, and empirical studies. Social psychological, sociological and socio-legal studies pinpoint the elements and function of apology, what makes apologies effective, and concerns about apology if it were implemented in the criminal justice system. Theoretical evidence is examined (including restorative justice, therapeutic jurisprudence, crime, shame, and reintegration) to explore the process of apology in the criminal justice context. Attribution theory and social conduct theory are used to explain the apology process specifically for victims and offenders. A brief examination of case law reveals that though apology has no formal place in criminal law, it has surfaced recently under the federal sentencing guidelines. Finally, empirical evidence in criminal justice settings reveals that offenders want to apologize and victims desire an apology. Moreover, by directly addressing the harmful act, apology may be the link to reduced recidivism for offenders, as well as empowerment for victims. This evidence combined suggests that apology is worthy of further study as a potentially valuable addition to the criminal justice process. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Performance Analysis of a Six-Port Receiver in a WCDMA Communication System including a Multipath Fading Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Olopade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Third generation communication systems require receivers with wide bandwidth of operation to support high transmission rates and are also reconfigurable to support various communication standards with different frequency bands. An ideal software defined radio (SDR will be the absolute answer to this requirement but it is not achievable with the current level of technology. This paper proposes the use of a six-port receiver (SPR front-end (FE in a WCDMA communication system. A WCDMA end-to-end physical layer MATLAB demo which includes a multipath channel distortion block is used to determine the viability of the six-port based receiver. The WCDMA signal after passing through a multipath channel is received using a constructed SPR FE. The baseband signal is then calibrated and corrected in MATLAB. The six-port receiver performance is measured in terms of bit error rate (BER. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the transmitted IQ data is varied and the BER profile of the communication system is plotted. The effect of the multipath fading on the receiver performance and the accuracy of the calibration algorithm are obtained by comparing two different measured BER curves for different calibration techniques to the simulated BER curve of an ideal receiver.

  17. Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present discourse links the electrical and chemical properties of the brain with neurotransmitters and movement behaviors to further elucidate strategies to diagnose and treat brain disease. Neuromolecular imaging (NMI, based on electrochemical principles, is used to detect serotonin in nerve terminals (dorsal and ventral striata and somatodendrites (ventral tegmentum of reward/motor mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal brain circuits. Neuronal release of serotonin is detected at the same time and in the same animal, freely moving and unrestrained, while open-field behaviors are monitored via infrared photobeams. The purpose is to emphasize the unique ability of NMI and the BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors to empirically image a pattern of temporal synchrony, previously reported, for example, in Aplysia using central pattern generators (CPGs, serotonin and cerebral peptide-2. Temporal synchrony is reviewed within the context of the literature on central pattern generators, neurotransmitters and movement disorders. Specifically, temporal synchrony data are derived from studies on psychostimulant behavior with and without cocaine while at the same time and continuously, serotonin release in motor neurons within basal ganglia, is detected. The results show that temporal synchrony between the neurotransmitter, serotonin and natural movement occurs when the brain is NOT injured via, e.g., trauma, addictive drugs or psychiatric illness. In striking contrast, in the case of serotonin and cocaine-induced psychostimulant behavior, a different form of synchrony and also asynchrony can occur. Thus, the known dysfunctional movement behavior produced by cocaine may well be related to the loss of temporal synchrony, the loss of the ability to match serotonin in brain with motor activity. The empirical study of temporal synchrony patterns in humans and animals may be more relevant to the dynamics of motor circuits and movement behaviors than are studies of

  18. Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Patricia A

    2013-06-21

    The present discourse links the electrical and chemical properties of the brain with neurotransmitters and movement behaviors to further elucidate strategies to diagnose and treat brain disease. Neuromolecular imaging (NMI), based on electrochemical principles, is used to detect serotonin in nerve terminals (dorsal and ventral striata) and somatodendrites (ventral tegmentum) of reward/motor mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal brain circuits. Neuronal release of serotonin is detected at the same time and in the same animal, freely moving and unrestrained, while open-field behaviors are monitored via infrared photobeams. The purpose is to emphasize the unique ability of NMI and the BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors to empirically image a pattern of temporal synchrony, previously reported, for example, in Aplysia using central pattern generators (CPGs), serotonin and cerebral peptide-2. Temporal synchrony is reviewed within the context of the literature on central pattern generators, neurotransmitters and movement disorders. Specifically, temporal synchrony data are derived from studies on psychostimulant behavior with and without cocaine while at the same time and continuously, serotonin release in motor neurons within basal ganglia, is detected. The results show that temporal synchrony between the neurotransmitter, serotonin and natural movement occurs when the brain is NOT injured via, e.g., trauma, addictive drugs or psychiatric illness. In striking contrast, in the case of serotonin and cocaine-induced psychostimulant behavior, a different form of synchrony and also asynchrony can occur. Thus, the known dysfunctional movement behavior produced by cocaine may well be related to the loss of temporal synchrony, the loss of the ability to match serotonin in brain with motor activity. The empirical study of temporal synchrony patterns in humans and animals may be more relevant to the dynamics of motor circuits and movement behaviors than are studies of static parameters

  19. Regulatory Mechanisms Controlling Maturation of Serotonin Neuron Identity and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, William C; Deneris, Evan S

    2017-01-01

    The brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system has been extensively studied for its role in normal physiology and behavior, as well as, neuropsychiatric disorders. The broad influence of 5-HT on brain function, is in part due to the vast connectivity pattern of 5-HT-producing neurons throughout the CNS. 5-HT neurons are born and terminally specified midway through embryogenesis, then enter a protracted period of maturation, where they functionally integrate into CNS circuitry and then are maintained throughout life. The transcriptional regulatory networks controlling progenitor cell generation and terminal specification of 5-HT neurons are relatively well-understood, yet the factors controlling 5-HT neuron maturation are only recently coming to light. In this review, we first provide an update on the regulatory network controlling 5-HT neuron development, then delve deeper into the properties and regulatory strategies governing 5-HT neuron maturation. In particular, we discuss the role of the 5-HT neuron terminal selector transcription factor (TF) Pet-1 as a key regulator of 5-HT neuron maturation. Pet-1 was originally shown to positively regulate genes needed for 5-HT synthesis, reuptake and vesicular transport, hence 5-HT neuron-type transmitter identity. It has now been shown to regulate, both positively and negatively, many other categories of genes in 5-HT neurons including ion channels, GPCRs, transporters, neuropeptides, and other transcription factors. Its function as a terminal selector results in the maturation of 5-HT neuron excitability, firing characteristics, and synaptic modulation by several neurotransmitters. Furthermore, there is a temporal requirement for Pet-1 in the control of postmitotic gene expression trajectories thus indicating a direct role in 5-HT neuron maturation. Proper regulation of the maturation of cellular identity is critical for normal neuronal functioning and perturbations in the gene regulatory networks controlling

  20. Looking on the bright side of serotonin transporter gene variation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Lesch, K.P.

    2011-01-01

    Converging evidence indicates an association of the short (s), low-expressing variant of the repeat length polymorphism, serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), in the human serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT, SERT, SLC6A4) with anxiety-related traits and increased risk for

  1. Acute serotonin depletion releases motivated inhibition of response vigour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, H.E.M. den; Swart, J.C.; Schmidt, K.; Fekkes, D.; Geurts, D.E.M.; Cools, R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The neurotransmitter serotonin has long been implicated in the motivational control of behaviour. Recent theories propose that the role of serotonin can be understood in terms of an interaction between a motivational and a behavioural activation axis. Experimental support for these ideas,

  2. Acute serotonin depletion releases motivated inhibition of response vigour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, H.E.M. den; Swart, J.C.; Schmidt, K.; Fekkes, D.; Geurts, D.E.M.; Cools, R.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: The neurotransmitter serotonin has long been implicated in the motivational control of behaviour. Recent theories propose that the role of serotonin can be understood in terms of an interaction between a motivational and a behavioural activation axis. Experimental support for these ideas,

  3. Effect of serotonin infusions on the mean plasma concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    hhazali@hotmail.com, tabeshyarnoor@yahoo.com. neurotransmitters. It has been shown that neurons secreting serotonin may be co-locolized with neurons secreting GHRH and TRH (Bujatti et al., 1976; Bulsa et al., 1998; Savard et al., 1986; Savard et al., 1983). This indicate that serotonin as a neurotransmitter may control.

  4. Serotonin synthesis rate and the tryptophan hydroxylase-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furmark, Tomas; Marteinsdottir, Ina; Frick, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    It is disputed whether anxiety disorders, like social anxiety disorder, are characterized by serotonin over- or underactivity. Here, we evaluated whether our recent finding of elevated neural serotonin synthesis rate in patients with social anxiety disorder could be reproduced in a separate cohor...

  5. Capture and retention of tritiated serotonin by the chick notochord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Anne; Gerard, Hubert; Dollander, Alexis

    1978-01-01

    The 3 day old chick notochord capacity to fix tritiated serotonin is maximal in its axis and in cephalic region. Observations permitting to find, the intracellular serotonin binding sites, contribute to an explanation of the capture mechanism and suggest a special direct role of the notochord on the monoaminergic neuron cytodifferentiation [fr

  6. Interaction of antidepressants with the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lena; Andersen, Jacob; Thomsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) and the norepinephrine transporter (NET) are sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters responsible for reuptake of released serotonin and norepinephrine, respectively, into nerve terminals in the brain. A wide range of inhibitors of SERT and NET are used...

  7. The rat frontal cortex serotonin receptors. Influence of supraletal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanez, P.O.; Timmermans, R.; Gerber, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    The density of the frontal cortex serotonin-2 receptors was determined after a supralethal irradiation (20 Gy) in Wistar rat. Using spiperone as ligand, we observed an important decrease in the density of serotonin-2 receptor and an increase in the dissociation constant receptor-ligand, 3 days after exposure [fr

  8. Serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter imaging in the canine brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peremans, Kathelijne [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Goethals, Ingeborg [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Vos, Filip [Laboratory of Radiopharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Dobbeleir, A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Bree, Henri [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Heeringen, Cees van [Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Kurt [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium) and Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000, Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: kurt.audenaert@ugent.be

    2006-10-15

    The serotonergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in a wide range of emotional and behavioral aspects of animals and humans and are involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are designed to block the 5-HT transporter (SERT), thereby increasing the available 5-HT in the brain. Functional imaging with specific SERT and dopamine transporter (DAT) ligands contributes to the study of the SSRI-transporter interaction. First, we evaluated the feasibility of a canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT with the radioligands [{sup 123}I]-{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]-FP-CIT as well as single-photon emission computed tomography imaging. Second, we studied the effect of SSRIs (sertraline, citalopram and escitalopram) on the SERT and DAT in two dogs. The position of the canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT is discussed and compared with other animal models.

  9. An Unusual Case of Serotonin Syndrome with Oxycodone and Citalopram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Walter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old female with recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer presented to a hospital outpatient clinic with tremor, weakness, inability to coordinate motor movements, and confusion. It was suspected that the symptoms were due to possible central nervous system metastases; however, a CT scan of her head was unremarkable. The lung clinic liaison pharmacist took a medication history from the patient, complimented by extra information from the patient’s community pharmacy. The pharmacist suspected the rare side effect of serotonin syndrome was responsible for the patient’s presenting symptoms caused by the combination of oxycodone and citalopram. The patient’s symptoms resolved soon after oxycodone was changed to morphine.

  10. Serotonin 2A receptor antagonists for treatment of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Rasmussen, Hans; Arnt, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: All approved antipsychotic drugs share an affinity for the dopamine 2 (D2) receptor; however, these drugs only partially ameliorate the symptoms of schizophrenia. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to identify new treatment strategies for schizophrenia. Areas covered......: Preclinical, clinical and post-mortem studies of the serotonin 5-HT2A system in schizophrenia are reviewed. The implications of a combined D2 and 5-HT2A receptor blockade, which is obtained by several current antipsychotic drugs, are discussed, and the rationale for the development of more selective 5-HT2A...... receptor antagonists is evaluated. Moreover, the investigational pipeline of major pharmaceutical companies is examined and an Internet search conducted to identify other pharmaceutical companies investigating 5-HT2A receptor antagonists for the treatment of schizophrenia. Expert opinion: 5-HT2A receptor...

  11. Serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter imaging in the canine brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peremans, Kathelijne; Goethals, Ingeborg; De Vos, Filip; Dobbeleir, A.; Ham, Hamphrey; Van Bree, Henri; Heeringen, Cees van; Audenaert, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    The serotonergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in a wide range of emotional and behavioral aspects of animals and humans and are involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are designed to block the 5-HT transporter (SERT), thereby increasing the available 5-HT in the brain. Functional imaging with specific SERT and dopamine transporter (DAT) ligands contributes to the study of the SSRI-transporter interaction. First, we evaluated the feasibility of a canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT with the radioligands [ 123 I]-β-CIT and [ 123 I]-FP-CIT as well as single-photon emission computed tomography imaging. Second, we studied the effect of SSRIs (sertraline, citalopram and escitalopram) on the SERT and DAT in two dogs. The position of the canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT is discussed and compared with other animal models

  12. Serum and ascitic fluid serotonin levels and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid urine excretion in the liver of cirrhotic patients with encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, C; Walecka-Kapica, E; Stepien, A; Pawlowicz, M; Wachowska-Kelly, P; Chojnacki, J

    2013-01-01

    The excess and deficit of serotonin can be the cause of somatic and mental disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate serotonin levels in blood and ascitic fluid as well as excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in urine in patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The study included 75 alcoholic cirrhotic patients divided into 3 groups (HE1, HE2, HE3), 25 patients each, with grade 1, 2 and 3 of hepatic encephalopathy according to West-Haven classification. The control group (C) included 25 clinically healthy volunteers. Venous blood and ascitic fluid were collected in fasting. On the same day a 24-hour urine collection was performed. Immunoenzymatic method was used to determine the serotonin level in serum and ascitic fluid, and 5-HIAA in urine (IBL-RE-59121, RE-59131). In the control group, mean serum serotonin level (ng/ml) was 155.5 ± 38.1 and in the 3 study groups: HE1 - 175.2 ± 32.4 (NS), HE2 - 137.2 ± 28.6 (NS), HE3 - 108.3 ± 46.3 (pencephalopathy. In patients with severe hepatic encephalopathy serotonin concentration in blood is decreased which can affect some clinical manifestation of this disease.

  13. Platelet serotonin level and impulsivity in human self-destructive behavior: A biological and psychological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Era Dutta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Suicide is a disease and a global public health problem. Suicidology has come to become a topic of study for intervention and research. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT] system has remained a prime area of investigation. The neurons and platelets display structural and functional similarities. Ninety-nine percent of 5HT is contained in platelets, which shares similar 5HT uptake and release mechanisms with 5HT neurons. Aims: This study aims to study human self-destructive behavior (HSDB. Objectives: Exploring the biological (serotonin levels in platelets and psychological aspects (impulsivity of attempted suicide or HSDB. Settings and Design: Thirty-one patients, above the age of 18 years, with a recent history of HSDB, were studied and given an International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnosis, after a detailed interview. Subjects and Methods: For the platelet 5HT estimation, blood samples were collected, and enzyme immunometric assay carried out. Detailed assessment of the impulsivity was done by the 25-item structured diagnostic interview for borderlines by Zanarini et al. Statistical Analysis Used: We obtained both categorical and continuous data. Chi-square test, Fisher's test, Student's t-test, and Pearson's product moment correlation were used. Results: Female subjects outnumbered males by 2:1. Major depression, adjustment disorder, personality disorder were predominant diagnoses. The mean platelet serotonin concentration for males = 57.3 ng/ml, that of females = 56.05 ng/ml (P > 0.05. Platelet 5HT levels were found to be negatively correlated with impulsivity scores (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Platelet serotonin levels in our study sample were quite low when compared with those reported in published literature. Low serotonin levels were inversely related to impulsivity, but only in males.

  14. SPECT imaging with the serotonin transporter radiotracer [123I]p ZIENT in nonhuman primate brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Staley, Julie K.; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Bois, Frederic; Plisson, Christophe; Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S.; Seibyl, John P.; Goodman, Mark M.; Tamagnan, Gilles D.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Serotonin dysfunction has been linked to a variety of psychiatric diseases; however, an adequate SPECT radioligand to probe the serotonin transporter system has not been successfully developed. The purpose of this study was to characterize and determine the in vivo selectivity of iodine-123-labeled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane, [ 123 I]p ZIENT, in nonhuman primate brain. Methods: Two ovariohysterectomized female baboons participated in nine studies (one bolus and eight bolus to constant infusion at a ratio of 9.0 h) to evaluate [ 123 I]p ZIENT. To evaluate the selectivity of [ 123 I]p ZIENT, the serotonin transporter blockers fenfluramine (1.5, 2.5 mg/kg) and citalopram (5 mg/kg), the dopamine transporter blocker methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg) and the norepinephrine transporter blocker nisoxetine (1 mg/kg) were given at 8 h post-radiotracer injection. Results: In the bolus to constant infusion studies, equilibrium was established by 4-8 h. [ 123 I]p ZIENT was 93% and 90% protein bound in the two baboons and there was no detection of lipophilic radiolabeled metabolites entering the brain. In the high-density serotonin transporter regions (diencephalon and brainstem), fenfluramine and citalopram resulted in 35-71% and 129-151% displacement, respectively, whereas methylphenidate and nisoxetine did not produce significant changes ( 123 I]p ZIENT is a favorable compound for in vivo SPECT imaging of serotonin transporters with negligible binding to norepinephrine and dopamine transporters.

  15. Neuroendocrine disruption in the shore crab Carcinus maenas: Effects of serotonin and fluoxetine on chh- and mih-gene expression, glycaemia and ecdysteroid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandrine; Monsinjon, Tiphaine; Delbecque, Jean-Paul; Olivier, Stéphanie; Poret, Agnès; Foll, Frank Le; Durand, Fabrice; Knigge, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Serotonin, a highly conserved neurotransmitter, controls many biological functions in vertebrates, but also in invertebrates. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine, are commonly used in human medication to ease depression by affecting serotonin levels. Their residues and metabolites can be detected in the aquatic environment and its biota. They may also alter serotonin levels in aquatic invertebrates, thereby perturbing physiological functions. To investigate whether such perturbations can indeed be expected, shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) were injected either with serotonin, fluoxetine or a combination of both. Dose-dependent effects of fluoxetine ranging from 250 to 750nM were investigated. Gene expression of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) as well as moult inhibiting hormone (mih) was assessed by RT-qPCR at 2h and 12h after injection. Glucose and ecdysteroid levels in the haemolymph were monitored in regular intervals until 12h. Serotonin led to a rapid increase of chh and mih expression. On the contrary, fluoxetine only affected chh and mih expression after several hours, but kept expression levels significantly elevated. Correspondingly, serotonin rapidly increased glycaemia, which returned to normal or below normal levels after 12h. Fluoxetine, however, resulted in a persistent low-level increase of glycaemia, notably during the period when negative feedback regulation reduced glycaemia in the serotonin treated animals. Ecdysteroid levels were significantly decreased by serotonin and fluoxetine, with the latter showing less pronounced and less rapid, but longer lasting effects. Impacts of fluoxetine on glycaemia and ecdysteroids were mostly observed at higher doses (500 and 750nM) and affected principally the response dynamics, but not the amplitude of glycaemia and ecdysteroid-levels. These results suggest that psychoactive drugs are able to disrupt neuroendocrine control in decapod crustaceans, as they interfere with the

  16. Application of Observed Precipitation in NCEP Global and Regional Data Assimilation Systems, Including Reanalysis and Land Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K. E.

    2006-12-01

    The Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) applies several different analyses of observed precipitation in both the data assimilation and validation components of NCEP's global and regional numerical weather and climate prediction/analysis systems (including in NCEP global and regional reanalysis). This invited talk will survey these data assimilation and validation applications and methodologies, as well as the temporal frequency, spatial domains, spatial resolution, data sources, data density and data quality control in the precipitation analyses that are applied. Some of the precipitation analyses applied by EMC are produced by NCEP's Climate Prediction Center (CPC), while others are produced by the River Forecast Centers (RFCs) of the National Weather Service (NWS), or by automated algorithms of the NWS WSR-88D Radar Product Generator (RPG). Depending on the specific type of application in data assimilation or model forecast validation, the temporal resolution of the precipitation analyses may be hourly, daily, or pentad (5-day) and the domain may be global, continental U.S. (CONUS), or Mexico. The data sources for precipitation include ground-based gauge observations, radar-based estimates, and satellite-based estimates. The precipitation analyses over the CONUS are analyses of either hourly, daily or monthly totals of precipitation, and they are of two distinct types: gauge-only or primarily radar-estimated. The gauge-only CONUS analysis of daily precipitation utilizes an orographic-adjustment technique (based on the well-known PRISM precipitation climatology of Oregon State University) developed by the NWS Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). The primary NCEP global precipitation analysis is the pentad CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), which blends both gauge observations and satellite estimates. The presentation will include a brief comparison between the CMAP analysis and other global

  17. Prediction of thermophysical and transport properties of ternary organic non-electrolyte systems including water by polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The description and prediction of the thermophysical and transport properties of ternary organic non-electrolyte systems including water by the polynomial equations are reviewed. Empirical equations of Radojković et al. (also known as Redlich-Kister, Kohler, Jacob-Fitzner, Colinet, Tsao-Smith, Toop, Scatchard et al. and Rastogi et al. are compared with experimental data of available papers appeared in well know international journals (Fluid Phase Equilibria, Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, Journal of Solution Chemistry, Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Journal of Molecular Liquids, Thermochimica Acta, etc.. The applicability of empirical models to estimate excess molar volumes, VE, excess viscosities, ηE, excess free energies of activation of a viscous flow,

  18. Contribution of non-genetic factors to dopamine and serotonin receptor availability in the adult human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J; Cervenka, S; Kuja-Halkola, R

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission systems are of fundamental importance for normal brain function and serve as targets for treatment of major neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite central interest for these neurotransmission systems in psychiatry research, little is known about...... and environmental factors, respectively, on dopaminergic and serotonergic markers in the living human brain. Eleven monozygotic and 10 dizygotic healthy male twin pairs were examined with PET and [(11)C]raclopride binding to the D2- and D3-dopamine receptor and [(11)C]WAY100635 binding to the serotonin 5-HT1A...

  19. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibition on neural activity related to risky decisions and monetary rewards in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Fisher, Patrick M; Haahr, Mette E

    2014-01-01

    the involvement of the normally functioning 5HT-system in decision-making under risk and processing of monetary rewards. The data suggest that prolonged SSRI treatment might reduce emotional engagement by reducing the impact of risk during decision-making or the impact of reward during outcome evaluation.......Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine are commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs targeting the dysfunctional serotonin (5-HT) system, yet little is known about the functional effects of prolonged serotonin reuptake inhibition in healthy individuals. Here we used...... functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate how a three-week fluoxetine intervention influences neural activity related to risk taking and reward processing. Employing a double-blinded parallel-group design, 29 healthy young males were randomly assigned to receive 3 weeks of a daily dose of 40 mg fluoxetine...

  20. Comparison of the performance of different DFT methods in the calculations of the molecular structure and vibration spectra of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Gao, Hongwei

    2012-04-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter which plays an important role in treating acute or clinical stress. The comparative performance of different density functional theory (DFT) methods at various basis sets in predicting the molecular structure and vibration spectra of serotonin was reported. The calculation results of different methods including mPW1PW91, HCTH, SVWN, PBEPBE, B3PW91 and B3LYP with various basis sets including LANL2DZ, SDD, LANL2MB, 6-31G, 6-311++G and 6-311+G* were compared with the experimental data. It is remarkable that the SVWN/6-311++G and SVWN/6-311+G* levels afford the best quality to predict the structure of serotonin. The results also indicate that PBEPBE/LANL2DZ level show better performance in the vibration spectra prediction of serotonin than other DFT methods.

  1. THE LEGITIMACY OF INCLUDING THE SOCIAL PARAMETERS IN EVALUATING THE HEALTH STATUS IN THE SOCIAL ASSURANCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI NEDELCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The social state crisis encouraged a reductionist tendency which had recently developed in the evaluations of the health status in the social assurance system. A holistic, psycho-medical approach, which took in consideration the implications of the social factors regarding disability, was confronted with a strictly medical model, in which the illness is exclusively considered a person’s problem; therefore, the references towards the „social” are irrelevant. In this context, the present paper states the question of the legitimacy of using some sociological concepts, in medical expertise, considered relevant in this area, such as: „occupational access” or the „social functioning of the person”. The present study doesn’t stop at offering as arguments of legitimacy the authority of some recommendations regarding the use of the social-medical model, including the evaluation of the health status, recommendations received from the behalf of OMS and the European Council (see CIF. The paper presents the construction of specific evaluation instruments and tries to identify the sense in which using the references regarding the „social” could influence the pressures in the social assurance system.

  2. A Dualistic Conformational Response to Substrate Binding in the Human Serotonin Transporter Reveals a High Affinity State for Serotonin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Severinsen, Kasper; Said, Saida; Wiborg, Ove; Sinning, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is modulated by the membrane-embedded serotonin transporter (SERT). SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neurons. Conformational changes in SERT occur upon binding of ions and substrate and are crucial for translocation of serotonin across the membrane. Our understanding of these conformational changes is mainly based on crystal structures of a bacterial homolog in various conformations, derived homology models of eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters, and substituted cysteine accessibility method of SERT. However, the dynamic changes that occur in the human SERT upon binding of ions, the translocation of substrate, and the role of cholesterol in this interplay are not fully elucidated. Here we show that serotonin induces a dualistic conformational response in SERT. We exploited the substituted cysteine scanning method under conditions that were sensitized to detect a more outward-facing conformation of SERT. We found a novel high affinity outward-facing conformational state of the human SERT induced by serotonin. The ionic requirements for this new conformational response to serotonin mirror the ionic requirements for translocation. Furthermore, we found that membrane cholesterol plays a role in the dualistic conformational response in SERT induced by serotonin. Our results indicate the existence of a subpopulation of SERT responding differently to serotonin binding than hitherto believed and that membrane cholesterol plays a role in this subpopulation of SERT. PMID:25614630

  3. Patient experienced continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system-a study including immigrants, refugees and ethnic danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Johansen, Katrine Schepelern; Kastrup, Marianne; Krasnik, Allan; Norredam, Marie

    2014-09-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system from the perspective of patients, including vulnerable groups such as immigrants and refugees. The study is based on 19 narrative interviews conducted with 15 patients with diverse migration backgrounds (immigrants, descendents, refugees, and ethnic Danes). Patients were recruited from a community psychiatric centre situated in an area with a high proportion of immigrants and refugees. Data were analysed through the lens of a theoretical framework of continuity of care in psychiatry, developed in 2004 by Joyce et al., which encompasses four domains: accessibility, individualised care, relationship base and service delivery. Investigating continuity of care, we found issues of specific concern to immigrants and refugees, but also commonalities across the groups. For accessibility, areas pertinent to immigrants and refugees include lack of knowledge concerning mental illness and obligations towards children. In terms of individualised care, trauma, additional vulnerability, and taboo concerning mental illness were of specific concern. In the domain of service delivery, social services included assistance with immigration papers for immigrants and refugees. In the relationship base domain, no differences were identified. Implications for priority area: The treatment courses of patients in the psychiatric field are complex and diverse and the patient perspective of continuity of care provides important insight into the delivery of care. The study highlights the importance of person-centred care irrespective of migration background though it may be beneficial to have an awareness of areas that may be of more specific concern to immigrants and refugees. The study sheds light on concerns specific to immigrants and refugees in a framework of continuity of care, but also commonalities across the patient groups.

  4. Medium-Throughput Screen of Microbially Produced Serotonin via a G-Protein-Coupled Receptor-Based Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenworth, Amy M; Claiborne, Tauris; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela

    2017-10-17

    Chemical biosensors, for which chemical detection triggers a fluorescent signal, have the potential to accelerate the screening of noncolorimetric chemicals produced by microbes, enabling the high-throughput engineering of enzymes and metabolic pathways. Here, we engineer a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-based sensor to detect serotonin produced by a producer microbe in the producer microbe's supernatant. Detecting a chemical in the producer microbe's supernatant is nontrivial because of the number of other metabolites and proteins present that could interfere with sensor performance. We validate the two-cell screening system for medium-throughput applications, opening the door to the rapid engineering of microbes for the increased production of serotonin. We focus on serotonin detection as serotonin levels limit the microbial production of hydroxystrictosidine, a modified alkaloid that could accelerate the semisynthesis of camptothecin-derived anticancer pharmaceuticals. This work shows the ease of generating GPCR-based chemical sensors and their ability to detect specific chemicals in complex aqueous solutions, such as microbial spent medium. In addition, this work sets the stage for the rapid engineering of serotonin-producing microbes.

  5. Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Traditional Korean Food Resources Enhances the Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans through Serotonin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Ri; Oh, Sangnam; Son, Seok Jun; Park, Dong-June; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sae Hun; Jeong, Do-Youn; Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Youngbok; Song, Minho; Kim, Younghoon

    2015-12-02

    In this study, we investigated potentially probiotic Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from traditional Korean food sources for ability to enhance longevity using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a simple in vivo animal model. We first investigated whether B. licheniformis strains were capable of modulating the lifespan of C. elegans. Among the tested strains, preconditioning with four B. licheniformis strains significantly enhanced the longevity of C. elegans. Unexpectedly, plate counting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicated that B. licheniformis strains were not more highly attached to the C. elegans intestine compared with Escherichia coli OP50 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG controls. In addition, qRT-PCR and an aging assay with mutant worms showed that the conditioning of B. licheniformis strain 141 directly influenced genes associated with serotonin signaling in nematodes, including tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase), bas-1 (serotonin- and dopamine-synthetic aromatic amino acid decarboxylase), mod-1 (serotonin-gated chloride channel), ser-1, and ser-7 (serotonin receptors) during C. elegans aging. Our findings suggest that B. licheniformis strain 141, which is isolated from traditional Korean foods, is a probiotic generally recognized as safe (GRAS) strain that enhances the lifespan of C. elegans via host serotonin signaling.

  6. EFFECTS OF 5, 7-DIHYDROXYTRYPTAMINE-INDUCED DEPLETION OF BRAIN SEROTONIN ON RADIAL ARM-MAZE TASK IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Hefco

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult rats pretreated with desipramine (25 mg/kg i.p.30 min before anesthesia in order to protect noradrenergic system, were subjected to intracerebroventriculare injection of 5, 7 –dihydroxytryptamine (5, 7-DHT, 150 μg, 4.5 μl/ventricle, a chronic neurotoxin of the central serotonergic function. After 1.5 months later, we assessed the working memory and reference memory in radial 8 arm-mazes. Serotonergic depletion impaired more significantly shortterm memory tested by means of the average working memory errors, entries to repeat and average time taken to consume all five baits during 12 days training. Long-term memory, explored by means of reference memory errors, was less impaired. It is concluded that serotonin, among other neurotransmitters, play one important role in cognitive functions, including learning and memory.

  7. Impulsivity, gender, and the platelet serotonin transporter in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Marazziti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Marazziti, Stefano Baroni, Irene Masala, Francesca Golia, Giorgio Consoli, Gabriele Massimetti, Michela Picchetti, Mario Catena Dell’Osso, Gino Giannaccini, Laura Betti, Antonio Lucacchini, Antonio CiapparelliDipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: The present study explored the possible relationships between impulsivity, gender, and a peripheral serotonergic marker, the platelet serotonin (5-HT transporter (SERT, in a group of 32 healthy subjects. The impulsivity was measured by means of the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, version 11 (BIS-11, a widely used self-report questionnaire, and the platelet SERT was evaluated by means of the specific binding of 3H-paroxetine (3H-Par to platelet membranes, according to standardized protocols. The results showed that women had a higher BIS-11 total score than men, and also higher scores of two factors of the same scale: the motor impulsivity and the cognitive complexity. The analysis of the correlations revealed that the density of the SERT proteins, as measured by the maximum binding capacity (Bmax of 3H-Par, was significantly and positively related to the cognitive complexity factor, but only in men. Men showed also a significant and negative correlation with the dissociation constant, Kd, of (3H-Par binding, and the motor impulsivity factor. These findings suggest that women are generally more impulsive than men, but that the 5-HT system is more involved in the impulsivity of men than in that of women.Keywords: impulsivity, gender, serotonin transporter, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, platelets, 3H-paroxetine

  8. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  9. The Agile Rapid Global Combat Support (ARGCS) System: A Cost and Benefit Analysis of Including the ARGCS Technologies in the Acquisition of the Enhanced Consolidated Support System (ECASS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lund, John N

    2007-01-01

    ...). The ultimate goal of this project is to assist in the analysis of the ARGCS technologies and what benefit they would provide if included in the proposed next generation of Naval Aviation test equipment, currently called the Enhanced Consolidated Automated Support System (ECASS).

  10. The Type of Forage Substrate Preparation Included as Substrate in a RUSITEC System Affects the Ruminal Microbiota and Fermentation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre V. Chaves

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro fermentation systems such as the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC are frequently used to assess dietary manipulations in livestock, thereby limiting the use of live animals. Despite being in use for nearly 40 years, improvements are continually sought in these systems to better reflect and mimic natural processes in ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of forage preparation, i.e., frozen minced (FM and freeze-dried and ground (FDG, on the ruminal microbiota and on fermentation characteristics when included as a substrate in a RUSITEC system. A completely randomized design experiment was performed over a 15-day period, with 7 days of adaptation and an 8-day experimental period. Fermentation parameters (total gas, CH4, and volatile fatty acid production were analyzed on a daily basis over the experimental period and the archaeal and bacterial microbiota (liquid-associated microbes [LAM] and solid-associated microbes [SAM] was assessed at 0, 5, 10, and 15 days using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results from this study suggested a tendency (P = 0.09 of FM treatment to increase daily CH4 (mg/d production by 16.7% when compared with FDG treatment. Of the major volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, and butyrate, only butyrate production was greater (P = 0.01 with FM treatment compared with FDG substrate. The archaeal and bacterial diversity and richness did not differ between the forage preparations, although feed particle size of the forage had a significant effect on microbial community structure in the SAM and LAM samples. The Bacteroidetes phylum was more relatively abundant in the FM substrate treatment, while Proteobacteria was enriched in the FDG treatment. At the genus-level, Butyrivibrio, Prevotella, and Roseburia were enriched in the FM substrate treatment and Campylobacter and Lactobacillus in the FDG substrate treatment. Evidence from this study suggests that forage preparation

  11. Serotonin 2c receptors in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate energy and glucose homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy and glucose homeostasis are regulated by central serotonin 2C receptors. These receptors are attractive pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity; however, the identity of the serotonin 2C receptor-expressing neurons that mediate the effects of serotonin and serotonin 2C receptor a...

  12. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsunaga

    Full Text Available Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others, we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative, as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative. Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking, which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  13. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk for gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batić-Mujanović Olivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most of the known effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, beneficial or harmful, are associated with the inhibitory action of the serotonin reuptake transporter. This mechanism is present not only in neurons, but also in other cells such as platelets. Serotoninergic mechanism seems to have an important role in hemostasis, which has long been underestimated. Abnormal activation may lead to a prothrombotic state in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. On one hand there may be an increased risk of bleeding, and on the other hand reduction in thrombotic risk may be possible. Serotonin is critical to maintain a platelet haemostatic function, such as platelet aggregation. Evidences from the studies support the hypothesis that antidepressants with a relevant blockade of action of serotonin reuptake mechanism may increase the risk of bleeding, which can occur anywhere in the body. Epidemiological evidences are, however, the most robust for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. It is estimated that this bleeding can occur in 1 in 100 to 1 in 1.000 patient-years of exposure to the high-affinity selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, with very old patients at the highest risk. The increased risk may be of particular relevance when selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are taken simultaneously with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, low dose of aspirin or warfarin.

  14. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  15. Waste heat recovery system including a mechanism for collection, detection and removal of non-condensable gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2017-06-20

    The disclosure describes a non-condensable gas collection, detection, and removal system for a WHR system that helps to maintain cycle efficiency of the WHR system across the life of an engine system associated with the WHR system. A storage volume is configured to collect non-condensable gas received from the working fluid circuit, and a release valve is configured to selectively release non-condensable gas contained within the storage volume.

  16. An Update on the Role of Serotonin and its Interplay with Dopamine for Reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Adrian G; Ullsperger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The specific role of serotonin and its interplay with dopamine (DA) in adaptive, reward guided behavior as well as drug dependance, still remains elusive. Recently, novel methods allowed cell type specific anatomical, functional and interventional analyses of serotonergic and dopaminergic circuits, promising significant advancement in understanding their functional roles. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that co-release of neurotransmitters is functionally relevant, understanding of which is required in order to interpret results of pharmacological studies and their relationship to neural recordings. Here, we review recent animal studies employing such techniques with the aim to connect their results to effects observed in human pharmacological studies and subjective effects of drugs. It appears that the additive effect of serotonin and DA conveys significant reward related information and is subjectively highly euphorizing. Neither DA nor serotonin alone have such an effect. This coincides with optogenetically targeted recordings in mice, where the dopaminergic system codes reward prediction errors (PE), and the serotonergic system mainly unsigned PE. Overall, this pattern of results indicates that joint activity between both systems carries essential reward information and invites parallel investigation of both neurotransmitter systems.

  17. An Update on the Role of Serotonin and its Interplay with Dopamine for Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian G. Fischer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The specific role of serotonin and its interplay with dopamine (DA in adaptive, reward guided behavior as well as drug dependance, still remains elusive. Recently, novel methods allowed cell type specific anatomical, functional and interventional analyses of serotonergic and dopaminergic circuits, promising significant advancement in understanding their functional roles. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that co-release of neurotransmitters is functionally relevant, understanding of which is required in order to interpret results of pharmacological studies and their relationship to neural recordings. Here, we review recent animal studies employing such techniques with the aim to connect their results to effects observed in human pharmacological studies and subjective effects of drugs. It appears that the additive effect of serotonin and DA conveys significant reward related information and is subjectively highly euphorizing. Neither DA nor serotonin alone have such an effect. This coincides with optogenetically targeted recordings in mice, where the dopaminergic system codes reward prediction errors (PE, and the serotonergic system mainly unsigned PE. Overall, this pattern of results indicates that joint activity between both systems carries essential reward information and invites parallel investigation of both neurotransmitter systems.

  18. Contribution of Impulsivity and Serotonin Receptor Neuroadaptations to the Development of an MDMA ('Ecstasy') Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Susan; Aronsen, Dane

    As is the case with other drugs of abuse, a proportion of ecstasy users develop symptoms consistent with a substance use disorder (SUD). In this paper, we propose that the pharmacology of MDMA, the primary psychoactive component of ecstasy tablets, changes markedly with repeated exposure and that neuroadaptations in dopamine and serotonin brain systems underlie the shift from MDMA use to MDMA misuse in susceptible subjects. Data from both the human and laboratory animal literature are synthesized to support the idea that (1) MDMA becomes a less efficacious serotonin releaser and a more efficacious dopamine releaser with the development of behaviour consistent with an SUD and (2) that upregulated serotonin receptor mechanisms contribute to the development of the MDMA SUD via dysregulated inhibitory control associated with the trait of impulsivity.

  19. The influence of X-rays, vitamin A and protease inhibitor on the hydroproteolytic activity and serotonin content in pancreas and intestine of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocmierska-Grodzka, D.

    1976-01-01

    Activity of MAO, hydroproteolytic enzymes including some lysosomal markers as well as serotonin content were examined in pancreas and intestinal tissue of rats 24 hours after irradiation with the dose of 800 R. It was stated that postirradiation disturbances of enzymatic activity in intestinal tract were accompanied by changes of serotonin content. Administration of vitamin A into rats caused in some parts of the intestine slight increase of acid phosphatase activity - and evident changes in serotonin content. Inhibitor of proteases (Trasylol) evidently prevented the disturbances of serotonin content both in rats exposed to X-rays or vitamin A administration - when simultaneously its influence on changes in hydroproteolytic activity (except of pancreas and colon) was of smaller degree. (orig.) [de

  20. Influence of X-rays, vitamin A and protease inhibitor on the hydroproteolytic activity and serotonin content in pancreas and intestine of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocmierska-Grodzka, D [Akademia Medyczna, Bialystok (Poland). Zaklad Farmakologii

    1976-06-01

    Activity of MAO, hydroproteolytic enzymes including some lysosomal markers as well as serotonin content were examined in pancreas and intestinal tissue of rats 24 hours after irradiation with the dose of 800 R. It was stated that postirradiation disturbances of enzymatic activity in intestinal tract were accompanied by changes of serotonin content. Administration of vitamin A into rats caused in some parts of the intestine slight increase of acid phosphatase activity - and evident changes in serotonin content. Inhibitor of proteases (Trasylol) evidently prevented the disturbances of serotonin content both in rats exposed to X-rays or vitamin A administration - when simultaneously its influence on changes in hydroproteolytic activity (except of pancreas and colon) was of smaller degree.

  1. The Role of Serotonin in Ventricular Repolarization in Pregnant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shanyu; Park, Hyewon; Park, Hyelim; Mun, Dasom; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyoeun; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Hail; Kim, Michael; Pak, Hui Nam; Lee, Moon Hyoung; Joung, Boyoung

    2018-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a(-/-)-NP). During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a(-/-)-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  2. Mother/offspring co-administration of the traditional herbal remedy yokukansan during the nursing period influences grooming and cerebellar serotonin levels in a rat model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kuwagata, Makiko; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-04-01

    Neurodevelopmental impairment in the serotonergic system may be involved in autism spectrum disorder. Yokukansan is a traditional herbal remedy for restlessness and agitation in children, and mother-infant co-administration (MICA) to both the child and the nursing mother is one of the recommended treatment approaches. Recent studies have revealed the neuropharmacological properties of Yokukansan (YKS), including its 5-HT1A (serotonin) receptor agonistic effects. We investigated the influence of YKS treatment on behavior in a novel environment and on brain monoamine metabolism during the nursing period in an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders, prenatally BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine)-treated rats (BrdU-rats). YKS treatment did not influence locomotor activity in BrdU-rats but reduced grooming in open-field tests. YKS treatment without MICA disrupted the correlation between locomotor behaviors and rearing and altered levels of serotonin and its metabolite in the cerebellum. These effects were not observed in the group receiving YKS treatment with MICA. These data indicate a direct pharmacological effect of YKS on the development of grooming behavior and profound effects on cerebellar serotonin metabolism, which is thought to be influenced by nursing conditions.

  3. Serotonin and Dopamine Transporter Binding in Children with Autism Determined by SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Ismo; Riikonen, Raili; Kokki, Hannu; Airaksinen, Mauno M.; Kuikka, Jyrki T.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in the serotonergic system have been recognized in autism. To investigate the association between serotonin and dopamine transporters and autism, we studied 15 children (14 males, one female; mean age 8y 8mo [SD 3y 10mo]) with autism and 10 non-autistic comparison children (five males, five females; mean age 9y 10mo [SD 2y 8mo]) using…

  4. Depression of Serotonin Synaptic Transmission by the Dopamine Precursor L-DOPA

    OpenAIRE

    Gantz, Stephanie C.; Levitt, Erica S.; Llamosas Muñozguren, Nerea; Neve, Kim A.; Williams, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Imbalance between the dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems has been implicated in the comorbidity of Parkinson's disease (PD) and psychiatric disorders. L-DOPA, the leading treatment of PD, facilitates the production and release of dopamine. This study assessed the action of L-DOPA on monoamine synaptic transmission in mouse brain slices. Application of L-DOPA augmented the D2-receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigr...

  5. Characterization of an allosteric citalopram-binding site at the serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fenghua; Breum Larsen, Mads; Neubauer, Henrik Amtoft

    2005-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT), which belongs to a family of       sodium/chloride-dependent transporters, is the major pharmacological       target in the treatment of several clinical disorders, including       depression and anxiety. In the present study we show that the dissociation       r...

  6. Serotonin syndrome:case report and current concepts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fennell, J

    2005-05-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI\\'s) are increasingly being used as the first line therapeutic agent for the depression. It is therefore not unusual to see a case of overdose with these agents. More commonly an adverse drug reaction may be seen among the older patients who are particularly vulnerable to the serotonin syndrome due to multiple co-morbidity and polypharmacy. The clinical picture of serotonin syndrome (SS) is non-specific and there is no confirmatory test. SS may go unrecognized because it is often mistaken for a viral illness, anxiety, neurological disorder or worsening psychiatric condition.

  7. Moderation of antidepressant response by the serotonin transporter gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huezo-Diaz, Patricia; Uher, Rudolf; Smith, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background: There have been conflicting reports on whether the length polymorphism in the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the antidepressant effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We hypothesised that the pharmacogenetic effect of 5-HTTLPR...... the serotonin transporter gene were genotyped in 795 adults with moderate-to-severe depression treated with escitalopram or nortriptyline in the Genome Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project. Results: The 5-HTTLPR moderated the response to escitalopram, with long-allele carriers improving more...

  8. Hippocampal volume and serotonin transporter polymorphism in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahdidan, Jamila; Foldager, Leslie; Rosenberg, Raben

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study was to replicate a previous finding in major depressive disorder (MDD) of association between reduced hippocampal volume and the long variant of the di- and triallelic serotonin transporter polymorphism in SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q11.2. Secondarily, we...... that we aimed to replicate, and no significant associations with the serotonin transporter polymorphism were found. Conclusions: The present quantitative and morphometric MRI study was not able to replicate the previous finding of association between reduced hippocampal volume in depressed patients...... and the serotonin transporter polymorphism....

  9. 77 FR 67399 - Trim Systems Operating Corp., a Subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc., Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,393] Trim Systems Operating..., applicable to workers and former workers of Trim Systems Operating Corp., a subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle.... The amended notice applicable to TA-W-81,393 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of Trim Systems...

  10. A System of Deception and Fraud Detection Using Reliable Linguistic Cues Including Hedging, Disfluencies, and Repeated Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpherys, Sean LaMarc

    2010-01-01

    Given the increasing problem of fraud, crime, and national security threats, assessing credibility is a recurring research topic in Information Systems and in other disciplines. Decision support systems can help. But the success of the system depends on reliable cues that can distinguish deceptive/truthful behavior and on a proven classification…

  11. Experimental study including subjective evaluations of mixing and displacement ventilation combined with radiant floor heating/cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen subjects evaluated the indoor environment in four experiments with different combinations of ventilation systems and radiant heating/cooling systems. In the first two tests, the simulated residential room was equipped either by a mixing ventilation system supplying warm air for space heat...

  12. Myenteric denervation differentially reduces enteroendocrine serotonin cell population in rats during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Luzmarina; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz; Pereira, Lucieni Cristina Marques da Silva; Freitas, Priscila de; Gama, Patrícia; Alvares, Eliana Parisi

    2006-05-01

    The enteric nervous and enteroendocrine systems regulate different processes in the small intestine. Ablation of myenteric plexus with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) stimulates epithelial cell proliferation, whereas endocrine serotonin cells may inhibit the process. To evaluate the connection between the systems and the influence of myenteric plexus on serotoninergic cells in rats during postnatal development, the ileal plexus was partially removed with BAC. Rats were treated at 13 or 21 days and sacrificed after 15 days. The cell bodies of myenteric neurons were stained by beta NADH-diaphorase to detect the extension of denervation. The number of enteroendocrine cells in the ileum was estimated in crypts and villi in paraffin sections immunostained for serotonin. The number of neurons was reduced by 27.6 and 45% in rats treated on the 13th and 21st days, respectively. We tried to establish a correlation of denervation and the serotonin population according to the age of treatment. We observed a reduction of immunolabelled cells in the crypts of rats treated at 13 days, whereas this effect was seen in the villi of rats denervated at 21 days. These results suggest that the enteric nervous system might control the enteroendocrine cell population and this complex mechanism could be correlated to changes in cell proliferation.

  13. The serotonin transporter: Examination of the changes in transporter affinity induced by ligand binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    The plasmalemmal serotonin transporter uses transmembrane gradients of Na + , Cl - and K + to accumulate serotonin within blood platelets. Transport is competitively inhibited by the antidepressant imipramine. Like serotonin transport, imipramine binding requires Na + . Unlike serotonin, however, imipramine does not appear to be transported. To gain insight into the mechanism of serotonin transport the author have analyzed the influences of Na + and Cl - , the two ions cotransported with serotonin, on both serotonin transport and the interaction of imipramine and other antidepressant drugs with the plasmalemmal serotonin transporter of human platelets. Additionally, the author have synthesized, purified and characterized the binding of 2-iodoimipramine to the serotonin transporter. Finally, the author have conducted a preliminary study of the inhibition of serotonin transport and imipramine binding produced by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. My results reveal many instances of positive heterotropic cooperativity in ligand binding to the serotonin transporter. Na + binding enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine and several other antidepressant drugs, and also increases the affinity for Cl - . Cl - enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine, as well as for Na + . At concentrations in the range of its K M for transport serotonin is a competitive inhibitor of imipramine binding. At much higher concentrations, however, serotonin also inhibits imipramines dissociation rate constant. This latter effect which is Na + -independent and species specific, is apparently produced by serotonin binding at a second, low affinity site on, or near, the transporter complex. Iodoimipramine competitively inhibit both [ 3 H]imipramine binding and [ 3 H]serotonin transport

  14. Serotonin binding in vitro by releasable proteins from human blood platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemstra, V.L.

    1983-11-01

    Among the substances released from human blood platelets are serotonin and various proteins. It was hypothesized that one of these proteins binds serotonin and that serotonin might be important to the protein's function or that the protein might be important to serotonin's function. Two platelet-specific proteins, platelet factor 4 (PF4) and β-thromboglobulin (βTG) were found to bind serotonin in vitro. Endogenous PF4 was isolated by serotonin-affinity chromatography and was identified by radioimmunoassay. Purified [ 125 I] -PF4 and native PF4 bound to and eluted from a serotonin-affinity column similarly. Ultrafiltration of the homologous protein, βTG, with [ 14 C]-serotonin demonstrated binding of about 8 moles serotonin per mole tetrameric βTG with a dissociation constant of about 4 X 10(sup-8) M. Equilibrium dialysis of PF4 with radiolabelled serotonin was attempted, but no binding constant values were obtained because serotonin apparently bound to the dialysis membrane. Since EDTA was one of the two agents that eluted PF4 from the serotonin-affinity gel, calcium binding by PF4 was investigated by equilibrium dialysis. Evidence was obtained for positively cooperative binding of calcium ions by PF4. It is concluded that PF4 and βTG bind serotonin in vitro, that they may also bind in vivo when platelets undergo release, and that the functions of serotonin, PF4 and βTG may be mediated in part by serotonin-protein associations

  15. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for fibromyalgia syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walitt, Brian; Urrútia, Gerard; Nishishinya, María Betina; Cantrell, Sarah E; Häuser, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia is a clinically well-defined chronic condition with a biopsychosocial aetiology. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain, sleep problems, cognitive dysfunction, and fatigue. Patients often report high disability levels and poor quality of life. Since there is no specific treatment that alters the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia, drug therapy focuses on pain reduction and improvement of other aversive symptoms. Objectives The objective was to assess the benefits and harms of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2014), EMBASE (1946 to June 2014), and the reference lists of reviewed articles. Selection criteria We selected all randomized, double-blind trials of SSRIs used for the treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms in adult participants. We considered the following SSRIs in this review: citalopram, fluoxetine, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline. Data collection and analysis Three authors extracted the data of all included studies and assessed the risks of bias of the studies. We resolved discrepancies by discussion. Main results The quality of evidence was very low for each outcome. We downgraded the quality of evidence to very low due to concerns about risk of bias and studies with few participants. We included seven placebo-controlled studies, two with citalopram, three with fluoxetine and two with paroxetine, with a median study duration of eight weeks (4 to 16 weeks) and 383 participants, who were pooled together. All studies had one or more sources of potential major bias. There was a small (10%) difference in patients who reported a 30% pain reduction between SSRIs (56/172 (32.6%)) and placebo (39/171 (22.8%)) risk difference (RD) 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.20; number needed to treat for an additional

  16. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Walitt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a clinically well-defined chronic condition with a biopsychosocial aetiology. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain, sleep problems, cognitive dysfunction, and fatigue. Patients often report high disability levels and poor quality of life. Since there is no specific treatment that alters the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia, drug therapy focuses on pain reduction and improvement of other aversive symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in the treatment of fibromyalgia. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 5, MEDLINE (1966 to June 2014, EMBASE (1946 to June 2014, and the reference lists of reviewed articles. Selection criteria: We selected all randomized, double-blind trials of SSRIs used for the treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms in adult participants. We considered the following SSRIs in this review: citalopram, fluoxetine, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline. Data collection and analysis: Three authors extracted the data of all included studies and assessed the risks of bias of the studies. We resolved discrepancies by discussion. MAIN RESULTS: The quality of evidence was very low for each outcome. We downgraded the quality of evidence to very low due to concerns about risk of bias and studies with few participants. We included seven placebo-controlled studies, two with citalopram, three with fluoxetine and two with paroxetine, with a median study duration of eight weeks (4 to 16 weeks and 383 participants, who were pooled together. All studies had one or more sources of potential major bias. There was a small (10% difference in patients who reported a 30% pain reduction between SSRIs (56/172 (32.6% and placebo (39/171 (22.8% risk difference (RD 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.01 to 0.20; number needed to treat for an

  17. The early warning system of landslides and sediment runoffs using meteorological condition including rainfall-soil moisture index (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, T.; Silva, I. C.; Hasnawir, H.

    2009-12-01

    The research including observation of rain, soil moisture content and sediment discharge is conducted on a torrent in northern Kyushu whose geology consists of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks (mainly schist) and whose vegetation consists of mainly Japanese cypress and cedar. Soil depth is approximately 50cm in average and permeability k is 0.1~0.01 order. With data obtained by the observation for more than 4 years, standard rainfalls of warning and evacuation against the sudden sediment runoffs are analyzed. Then, the result was compared with the ones in Nuevo Leon Mexico (geology of schist, slate, k=0.01~0.001 order) and in southern Sulawesi Island Indonesia (volcanic geology, k=0.001~0.0001 order). Hitherto, various methods were proposed to analyze the warning critical standard for landslide disaster or large sediment discharge. In this study, we employed Hirano's element slope runoff theory, the Self Organized Criticality Assumption (SOC), and the Elementary Catastrophe Theory (ETC) to analyze the data, although the soil moisture fluctuation, meteorological condition such as upper air wind and dew point depression, the rainfall-soil moisture index provided by Japan Meteorological Agency was considered. The last one is a cutting edge technology based on the tank model calculation of soil moisture content combined with short term rainfall prediction which is a product of numerical simulation using radar image advection analysis compensated with surface rain data and with orographic rain effect. In Hirano's theory, we can describe the critical rain Rc and rain intensity Ric as following equation. Q/A/M/ cosθ = Ri ∫(r*cosθ)dt = Ri*R (1) ∴ Ric*Rc = C (2) Here, Q: sediment runoff or debris flow discharge, A: watershed area, M: function concerning with sediment deposit features on the upstream torrents or slopes (porosity, torrent bed slope gradient, sediment accumulation length and depth, cohesion), t: time, θ: torrent bed or hillside slope gradient, r: instant

  18. The management of metastatic radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer requires an integrated approach including both directed and systemic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Shamil D; Topliss, Duncan J

    2017-01-01

    A 58-year-old man with metastatic radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) presented with left thigh and right flank numbness. He had known progressive and widespread bony metastases, for which he received palliative radiotherapy, and multiple bilateral asymptomatic pulmonary metastases. CT scan and MRI of the spine revealed metastases at right T10-L1 vertebrae with extension into the central canal and epidural disease at T10 and T11 causing cord displacement and canal stenosis but retention of spinal cord signal. Spinal surgery was followed by palliative radiotherapy resulting in symptom resolution. Two months later, sorafenib received approval for use in Australia and was commenced and up-titrated with symptomatic management of mild adverse effects. Follow-up CT scan three months after commencement of sorafenib revealed regression of pulmonary metastases but no evident change in most bone metastases except for an advancing lesion eroding into the right acetabulum. The patient underwent a right total hip replacement, intra-lesional curettage and cementing. After six months of sorafenib therapy, CT scanning showed enlarging liver lesions with marked elevation of serum thyroglobulin. Lenvatinib was commenced and sorafenib was ceased. He now has stable disease with a falling thyroglobulin more than 5 years after metastatic radioiodine-refractory DTC was diagnosed. In DTC, 5% of distant metastases become radioiodine-refractory, resulting in a median overall survival of 2.5-3.5 years. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has recently been demonstrated to increase progression-free survival in these patients but poses some unique management issues and is best used as part of an integrated approach with directed therapy. Directed therapies may have greater potential to control localised disease and related symptoms when compared to systemic therapies.Consider TKI therapy in progressive disease where benefits outweigh risks.Active surveillance and

  19. Association of serotonin transporter promoter regulatory region polymorphism and cerebral activity to visual presentation of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurijoki, Salla; Kuikka, Jyrki T; Niskanen, Eini; Carlson, Synnöve; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Pesonen, Ullamari; Kaprio, Jaakko M; Rissanen, Aila; Tiihonen, Jari; Karhunen, Leila

    2008-07-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed links between genetic polymorphisms and cognitive and behavioural processes. Serotonin is a classical neurotransmitter of central nervous system, and it is connected to the control of appetite and satiety. In this study, the relationship between the functional variation in the serotonin transporter gene and the activity in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a brain area activated by visual food stimuli was explored. Thirty subjects underwent serial fMRI studies and provided DNA for genetic analyses. Subjects homozygous for the long allele exhibited greater left PCC activity in the comparison food > non-food compared with individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the short allele. The association between genotype and activation was linear, the subjects with two copies of the long allele variant having the strongest activation. These results demonstrate the possible genetically driven variation in the response of the left PCC to visual presentation of food in humans.

  20. Testosterone levels in healthy men correlate negatively with serotonin 4 receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perfalk, Erik; Cunha-Bang, Sofi da; Holst, Klaus K.

    2017-01-01

    The serotonergic system integrates sex steroid information and plays a central role in mood and stress regulation, cognition, appetite and sleep. This interplay may be critical for likelihood of developing depressive episodes, at least in a subgroup of sensitive individuals. The serotonin 4...... receptor (5-HT4R) indexes central serotonergic tonus, which may be related to endogenous sex-steroid levels in the mentally healthy state even though this remains elusive. Here we evaluate if peripheral levels of estradiol and testosterone are associated with 5-HT4R binding as imaged by [11C]SB207145...... findings corroborate the link between sex hormone levels and serotonin signalling. Future longitudinal studies in clinical relevant populations are needed to elucidate the potential importance of testosterone in the pathophysiology of e.g. major depression and its treatment....