WorldWideScience

Sample records for serogroups o26 o45

  1. Detection by hyperspectral imaging of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 on rainbow agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, William R; Yoon, Seung-Chul; Ladely, Scott R; Haley, Jennifer A; Heitschmidt, Jerry W; Lawrence, Kurt C; Park, Bosoon; Narrang, Neelam; Cray, William C

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service has determined that six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) are adulterants in raw beef. Isolate and phenotypic discrimination of non-O157 STEC is problematic due to the lack of suitable agar media. The lack of distinct phenotypic color variation among non-O157serogroups cultured on chromogenic agar poses a challenge in selecting colonies for confirmation. In this study, visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and chemometrics were used to detect and classify non-O157 STEC serogroups grown on Rainbow agar O157. The method was first developed by building spectral libraries for each serogroup obtained from ground-truth regions of interest representing the true identity of each pixel and thus each pure culture colony in the hyperspectral agar-plate image. The spectral library for the pure-culture non-O157 STEC consisted of 2,171 colonies, with spectra derived from 124,347 of pixels. The classification models for each serogroup were developed with a k nearest-neighbor classifier. The overall classification training accuracy at the colony level was 99%. The classifier was validated with ground beef enrichments artificially inoculated with 10, 50, and 100 CFU/ml STEC. The validation ground-truth regions of interest of the STEC target colonies consisted of 606 colonies, with 3,030 pixels of spectra. The overall classification accuracy was 98%. The average specificity of the method was 98% due to the low false-positive rate of 1.2%. The sensitivity ranged from 78 to 100% due to the false-negative rates of 22, 7, and 8% for O145, O45, and O26, respectively. This study showed the potential of visible and near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for detecting and classifying colonies of the six non-O157 STEC serogroups. The technique needs to be validated with bacterial cultures directly extracted from meat products and positive

  2. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, and Salmonella in retail raw ground beef using the DuPont™ BAX® system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilenko, Jamie L; Fratamico, Pina M; Sommers, Christopher; DeMarco, Daniel R; Varkey, Stephen; Rhoden, Kyle; Tice, George

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella are food-borne pathogens commonly associated with beef, and reliable methods are needed to determine their prevalence in beef and to ensure food safety. Retail ground beef was tested for the presence of E. coli O157:H7, STEC serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, and Salmonella using the DuPont™ BAX® system method. Ground beef (325 g) samples were enriched in 1.5 L of TSB with 2 mg/L novobiocin at 42°C for 18 h, and then evaluated using the BAX® System real-time PCR assays for E. coli O157:H7 and STEC suite, and the BAX® System standard PCR assays for E. coli O157:H7 MP and Salmonella. Samples positive for STEC target genes by the BAX® System assays were subjected to immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and plating onto modified Rainbow Agar O157. Enrichments that were PCR positive for Salmonella were inoculated into RV broth, incubated for 18 h at 42°C, and then plated onto XLT-4 agar. Presumptive positive STEC and Salmonella colonies were confirmed using the BAX® System assays. Results of the BAX® System STEC assays showed 20/308 (6.5%) of samples positive for both the Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae) genes; 4 (1.3%) for stx, eae, and O26; 1 (0.3%) for stx, eae, and O45; 3 (1%) for stx, eae, and O103; and 1 (0.3%) for stx, eae, and O145. There were also 3 samples positive for stx, eae, and more than one STEC serogroup. Three (1.0%) of the samples were positive using the BAX® System real-time E. coli O157:H7 assay, and 28 (9.1%) were positive using the BAX® System Salmonella assay. STEC O103 and E. coli O157:H7 were isolated from 2/6 and 2/3 PCR positive samples, respectively. Salmonella isolates were recovered and confirmed from 27 of the 28 Salmonella PCR positive samples, and a portion of the isolates were serotyped and antibiotic resistance profiles determined. Results demonstrate that the BAX® System assays are effective for detecting STEC and Salmonella in beef.

  3. Validation of the detection of STEC (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157 in raw burgers using real-time PCR (BAX® System Q7, DuPont in “WET POOLS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mussio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O157:H7 and no-O157:H7 have been identified as emerging foodborne pathogens responsible for an increasing number of outbreaks worldwide. Many foods have been associated to these outbreaks, mainly undercooked beef burgers. Due to the increasing production and consumption of burgers in our country, it is important to have a rapid technique to identify and isolate the most important STEC strains in foods matrixes.The objective of these investigation was to assess the sensitivity, specificity and limit detection for the screening of the most prevalent STEC in frozen raw beef burgers, using the "STEC Screening stx/eae " kit to detect the stx/eae genes and the "Panel 1 STEC E. coli O26, O111, O121" and "Panel 2 STEC E. coli O45, O103, O145" and "E. coli O157: H7 MP” (DuPont kits for the detection of the different serogroups. The use of composed samples (wet pools, the recovery of each strain from the positives samples on selective media after specified inmunoconcentration and the detection of stx/eae virulence genes in isolates by PCR were also evaluated. We validated a technique that allows the detection of the mentioned STEC strains with limits of detection between 1-5 CFU in 65 grams of raw frozen hamburgers, using wet pools. 

  4. Virulence factors, serogroups and antimicrobial resistance properties of Escherichia coli strains in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Yazdani, Farshad; Mozafari, Jalal; Valizadeh, Yousef

    2014-04-07

    From a clinical perspective, it is essential to know the microbial safety of fermented dairy products. Doogh and kashk are fermented dairies. These products are used by millions of people but their microbial qualities are unknown. Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most commonly detected pathogens in the cases of food poisoning and food-borne illnesses. The present investigation was carried out in order to study the molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from fermented dairy products. Six hundred fermented dairy samples were collected and immediately transferred to the laboratory. All samples were cultured immediately and those that were E. coli-positive were analyzed for the presence of O157 , O26, O103, O111, O145, O45, O91, O113, O121 and O128 STEC serogroups, tetA, tetB, blaSHV, CITM, cmlA, cat1, aadA1, dfrA1, qnr, aac (3)-IV, sul1 and ereA antibiotic resistance genes and stx1, stx2, eaeA, ehly, cnf1, cnf2, iutA, cdtB, papA, traT, sfaS and fyuA virulence factors using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed also using disk diffusion methodology with Mueller-Hinton agar. Fifty out of 600 (8.33%) dairy samples harbored E. coli. In addition, yoghurt was the most commonly contaminated dairy. O157 (26%) and O26 (12%) were the most commonly detected serogroups. A significant difference was found between the frequency of Attaching and Effacing E. coli and Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (P Fermented dairy products can easily become contaminated by antibiotic resistant STEC strains. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in Iran. Clinicians should exercise caution when prescribing antibiotics, especially in veterinary treatments.

  5. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Escherichia coli O26:H8 among Diarrheagenic E. coli O26 Strains Isolated in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Roxane M. F.; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Saridakis, Halha O.; Pedroso, Margareth Z.; Rocha, Letícia B.; Gomes, Tânia A. T.; Vieira, Mônica A. M.; Beutin, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains of serogroup O26 comprise two distinct groups of pathogens, characterized as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Among the several genes related to type III secretion system-secreted effector proteins, espK was found to be highly specific for EHEC O26:H11 and its stx-negative derivative strains isolated in European countries. E. coli O26 strains isolated in Brazil from infant diarrhea, foods, and the environment have consistently been shown to lack stx genes and are thus considered atypical EPEC. However, no further information related to their genetic background is known. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to discriminate and characterize these Brazilian O26 stx-negative strains by phenotypic, genetic, and biochemical approaches. Among 44 isolates confirmed to be O26 isolates, most displayed flagellar antigen H11 or H32. Out of the 13 nonmotile isolates, 2 tested positive for fliCH11, and 11 were fliCH8 positive. The identification of genetic markers showed that several O26:H11 and all O26:H8 strains tested positive for espK and could therefore be discriminated as EHEC derivatives. The presence of H8 among EHEC O26 and its stx-negative derivative isolates is described for the first time. The interaction of three isolates with polarized Caco-2 cells and with intestinal biopsy specimen fragments ex vivo confirmed the ability of the O26 strains analyzed to cause attaching-and-effacing (A/E) lesions. The O26:H32 strains, isolated mostly from meat, were considered nonvirulent. Knowledge of the virulence content of stx-negative O26 isolates within the same serotype helped to avoid misclassification of isolates, which certainly has important implications for public health surveillance. PMID:23974139

  6. A rapid procedure for the detection and isolation of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serogroup O26, O103, O111, O118, O121, O145 and O157 strains and the aggregative EHEC O104:H4 strain from ready-to-eat vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzschoppe, Markus; Martin, Annett; Beutin, Lothar

    2012-01-03

    Human infections with Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains (EHEC) as agents of Haemorrhagic Colitis (HC) and Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (HUS) are frequently associated with the consumption of EHEC contaminated foodstuffs of different origins. EHEC O26, O103, O111, O118, O121, O145 and O157 strains are responsible for the majority of HC and HUS cases worldwide. In May 2011, the emerging aggregative EHEC O104:H4 strain caused a large outbreak with high HUS incidence in northern Germany. Contaminated sprouted seeds were suspected to be the vehicles of transmission. The examination of vegetables retailed for raw consumption revealed low numbers of E. coli (vegetables are not yet published. Therefore, we have developed a rapid and sensitive method for detecting low EHEC contamination in vegetables (1-10 cfu/25 g) with artificially EHEC contaminated ready-to-eat salads. A 6-hour enrichment period in BRILA-broth was sufficient to detect 1-10 EHEC from spiked samples after plating 0.1 ml portions of enrichment culture on selective TBX-agar and CHROMagar STEC plates that were incubated at 44 °C overnight. Unlike EHEC strains, the growth of bacteria of the plant flora was substantially inhibited at 44 °C. DNA for real-time PCR detection of EHEC characteristic genes (stx(1), stx(2), eae, ehxA, and O-antigen associated) was prepared with bacteria grown on TBX-agar plates. The storage of EHEC inoculated salad samples for 72 h at 6 °C resulted in a significant reduction (mean value 14.6%) of detectable EHEC, suggesting interference of EHEC with the resident plant microflora. CHROMagar STEC was evaluated as a selective medium for the detection of EHEC strains. Growth on CHROMagar STEC was closely associated with EHEC O26:[H11], O111:[H8], O118:H16, O121:[H19], O145:[H28], O157:[H7] and aggregative EHEC O104:H4 strains and with the presence of the terB gene (tellurite resistance). TerB sequences were found in 87.2% of 235 EHEC but only in only 12.5% of 567 non

  7. Meningococcal disease serogroup C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas IE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Félix O Dickinson1, Antonio E Pérez1, Iván E Cuevas21Department of Epidemiology, “Pedro Kourí” Institute, Havana, Cuba; 2Pharmacovigilance Group, Finlay Institute, Havana, CubaAbstract: Despite current advances in antibiotic therapy and vaccines, meningococcal disease serogroup C (MDC remains a serious threat to global health, particularly in countries in North and Latin America, Europe, and Asia. MDC is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and neurological sequelae and it is a heavy economic burden. At the individual level, despite advances in antibiotics and supportive therapies, case fatality rate remains nearly 10% and severe neurological sequelae are frequent. At the population level, prevention and control of infection is more challenging. The main approaches include health education, providing information to the public, specific treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and the use of vaccines. Plain and conjugate meningococcal C polysaccharide vaccines are considered safe, are well tolerated, and have been used successfully for over 30 years. Most high-income countries use vaccination as a part of public health strategies, and different meningococcal C vaccination schedules have proven to be effective in reducing incidence. This is particularly so with conjugate vaccines, which have been found to induce immunogenicity in infants (the age group with the highest incidence rates of disease, stimulate immunologic memory, have longer effects, not lead to hyporesponsiveness with repeated dosing, and decrease acquisition of nasopharyngeal carriage, inducing herd immunity. Antibiotics are considered a cornerstone of MDC treatment and must be administered empirically as soon as possible. The choice of which antibiotic to use should be made based on local antibiotic resistance, availability, and circulating strains. Excellent options for a 7-day course are penicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone and

  8. Factor analysis of serogroups botanica and aurisina of Leptospira biflexa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinco, M

    1977-11-01

    Factor analysis is performed on serovars of Botanica and Aurisina serogroup of Leptospira biflexa. The results show the arrangement of main factors serovar and serogroup specific, as well as the antigens common with serovars of heterologous serogroups.

  9. Escherichia coli O26 IN RAW BUFFALO MILK: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O26 is considered to be one of the most important food-borne pathogen. In this study, 120 buffalo milk samples collected in Lazio and in Apulia regions were tested for the presence of E. coli O26. One buffalo milk sample (0,8% tested positive for E. coli O26; the isolate was positive at the verocytotoxicity test and it showed resistance properties to different antimicrobial classes. These preliminary results highlight the need to monitor the foods of animal origin used for production and eaten by a wide range of persons, respect VTEC organism.

  10. 77 FR 9888 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service... toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). This new date..., that are contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121...

  11. Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine (MenB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are meningococcal group B vaccines?Two serogroup B meningococcal group B vaccines (Bexsero and Trumenba) have been licensed by the Food and Drug ... Who should not get meningococcal group B vaccine or should wait?Tell the person ... you the vaccine:If you have any severe, life-threatening allergies. ...

  12. Longitudinal study of two Irish dairy herds: Low numbers of of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and O26 super-shedders identified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Patricia Murphy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A 12-month longitudinal study was undertaken on two dairy herds to ascertain the Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC O157 and O26 shedding status of the animals and its impact (if any on raw milk. Cattle are a recognised reservoir for these organisms with associated public health and environmental implications. Animals shedding E. coli O157 at >10,000 CFU/g of faeces have been deemed super-shedders. There is a gap in the knowledge regarding super-shedding of other STEC serogroups. A cohort of 40 lactating cows from herds previously identified as positive for VTEC in a national surveillance project were sampled every second month between August, 2013 and July, 2014. Metadata on any potential super-shedders was documented including e.g. age of the animal, number of lactations and days in lactation, nutritional condition, somatic cell count and content of protein in milk to assess if any were associated with risk factors for super-shedding. Recto-anal mucosal swabs, raw milk, milk filters and water samples were procured for each herd. The swabs were examined for E. coli O157 and O26 using a quantitative real time PCR method. Counts (CFU swab-1 were obtained from a standard calibration curve that related real-time PCR cycle threshold (Ct values against the initial concentration of O157 or O26 in the samples. Results from Farm A: 305 animals were analysed; 15 E. coli O157 (5% were recovered, 13 were denoted STEC encoding either stx1 and/or stx2 virulence genes and 5 (2% STEC O26 were recovered. One super-shedder was identified shedding STEC O26 (stx1&2. Farm B: 224 animals were analysed; eight E. coli O157 (3.5% were recovered (seven were STEC and 9 (4% STEC O26 were recovered. Three super-shedders were identified, one was shedding STEC O157 (stx2 and two STEC O26 (stx2. Three encoded the adhering and effacement gene (eae and one isolate additionally encoded the haemolysin gene (hlyA. The results of this study show, low numbers of super

  13. Serogroup prevalence of Shigellae in Bombay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonawala M

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Shigellae serotypes in Bombay was studied from June 1988 to May 1991. A total of 2758 faecal specimens were collected from paediatric patients (< 12 yrs with acute gastroenteritis. A total of 90 Shigella were isolated giving the isolation rate of 3.2%. Shigella flexneri was the predominant serogroup (73.3% followed by Shigella dysenteriae (16.6%. All the isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid. Eighty percent of the Shigellae were multidrug resistant. Present data were compared with the study carried out during the period of 1983-87 from the same institute. A change in the serogroup prevalence was noted wherein Shigella flexneri dominated over Shigella dysenteriae since 1985. Increase in resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole was seen in Shigella flexneri strains as compared to previous years.

  14. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, David S [Stone Mountain, GA; Gudlavalleti, Seshu K [Kensington, MD; Tzeng, Yih-Ling [Atlanta, GA; Datta, Anup K [San Diego, CA; Carlson, Russell W [Athens, GA

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  15. Serogroup B Meningococcal vaccine (MenB) - What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disabilities such as hearing loss, brain damage, kidney damage, amputations, nervous system problems, or severe scars from skin grafts. Serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccines can help prevent meningococcal disease caused by serogroup ...

  16. Fatal coinfection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Bemer, Pascale; Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Bretonnière, Cédric; Lepelletier, Didier; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Villers, Daniel; Jarraud, Sophie; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2008-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. We report on a patient who simultaneously developed L. pneumophila serogroup 8 pneumonia and Aspergillus fumigatus lung abscesses. Despite appropriate treatments, Aspergillus disease progressed with metastasis. Coinfections caused by L. pneumophila and A. fumigatus remain exceptional. In apparently immunocompetent patients, corticosteroid therapy is a key risk factor for aspergillosis.

  17. Immunological properties of meningococcal lipopolysaccharide from serogroups A, B & C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T J; Kharazmi, A; Shand, G

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure and compare the oxidative burst, chemotaxis and cytokine production of human white blood cells, stimulated with meningococcal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from three different serogroups (A, B and C) of Neisseria meningitidis, and to evaluate whether...

  18. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Cliff S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Munik, A C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Seon Y [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Haley, Bradd J [U. MARYLAND; Taviani, Elisa [U. MARYLAND; Jeon, Yoon - Seong [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Kim, Dong Wook [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Lee, Jae - Hak [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Walters, Ronald A [PNNL; Hug, Anwar [NATL. INST. CHOLERIC ENTERIC DIS.; Colwell, Rita R [U. MARYLAND

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to

  19. Optimized enrichment for the detection of Escherichia coli O26 in French raw milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, F; Rozand, C; Bouvier, M; Gleizal, A; Thevenot, D

    2011-06-01

    Our main objective was to optimize the enrichment of Escherichia coli O26 in raw milk cheeses for their subsequent detection with a new automated immunological method. Ten enrichment broths were tested for the detection of E. coli O26. Two categories of experimentally inoculated raw milk cheeses, semi-hard uncooked cheese and 'Camembert' type cheese, were initially used to investigate the relative efficacy of the different enrichments. The enrichments that were considered optimal for the growth of E. coli O26 in these cheeses were then challenged with other types of raw milk cheeses. Buffered peptone water supplemented with cefixim-tellurite and acriflavin was shown to optimize the growth of E. coli O26 artificially inoculated in the cheeses tested. Despite the low inoculum level (1-10 CFU per 25 g) in the cheeses, E. coli O26 counts reached at least 5.10(4) CFU ml(-1) after 24-h incubation at 41.5 °C in this medium. All the experimentally inoculated cheeses were found positive by the immunological method in the enrichment broth selected. Optimized E. coli O26 enrichment and rapid detection constitute the first steps of a complete procedure that could be used in routine to detect E. coli O26 in raw milk cheeses. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Prevalent serogroups and antibiotic sensitivity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal S

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and thirty two cases clinically labeled as acute gonorrhoea were investigated for gonococcal etiology. Smears were positive in 110 (83.3% cases and among these N. gonorrhoeae could be identified in 102 (77.3% cases by culture method. Strains were examined for serogrouping by monoclonal GC test which utilizes the principle of co-agglutination and detects the antigens of outer membrane protein. 96(94.1% strains belonged to serogroup W II/III, showing it to be the major serogroup circulating in the community. The strains were tested for sensitivity against 7 antibiotics. The largest proportion (30.4% of strains were resistant to penicillin (MIC>O. 125 IU/ml. Resistance to cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, cephalaxin and tetracycline was noted as 18.6, 17.6, 7.8 and 5.8 percent respectively. Strains showing resistance concurrently to two or more drugs were observed. All restrains were sensitive to gentamicin and norfloxacin. None of the strains was penicillinase producer.

  1. Distribution of Leptospira serogroups in cattle herds and dogs in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayral, Florence C; Bicout, Dominique J; Pereira, Helena; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli

    2014-10-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to identify and describe the distribution pattern of Leptospira serogroups in domestic animals in France. The population consisted of cattle herds and dogs with clinically suspected leptospirosis that were tested at the "Laboratoire des Leptospires" between 2008 and 2011. The laboratory database was queried for records of cattle and dogs in which seroreactivity in Leptospira microagglutination tests was consistent with a recent or current infection, excluding vaccine serogroups in dogs. A total of 394 cattle herds and 232 dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis, and the results suggested infection by the Leptospira serogroup Australis in 43% and 63%, respectively; by the Leptospira serogroup Grippotyphosa in 17% and 9%, respectively; and by the Leptospira serogroup Sejroe in 33% and 6%, respectively. This inventory of infecting Leptospira serogroups revealed that current vaccines in France are not fully capable of preventing the clinical form of the disease. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. A meningococcal NOMV-FHbp vaccine for Africa elicits broader serum bactericidal antibody responses against serogroup B and non-B strains than a licensed serogroup B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajon, Rolando; Lujan, Eduardo; Granoff, Dan M

    2016-01-27

    Meningococcal epidemics in Sub-Sahara caused by serogroup A strains are controlled by a group A polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. Strains with serogroups C, W and X continue to cause epidemics. Protein antigens in licensed serogroup B vaccines are shared among serogroup B and non-B strains. Compare serum bactericidal antibody responses elicited by an investigational native outer membrane vesicle vaccine with over-expressed Factor H binding protein (NOMV-FHbp) and a licensed serogroup B vaccine (MenB-4C) against African serogroup A, B, C, W and X strains. Human Factor H (FH) transgenic mice were immunized with NOMV-FHbp prepared from a mutant African meningococcal strain containing genetically attenuated endotoxin and a mutant sub-family B FHbp antigen with low FH binding, or with MenB-4C, which contains a recombinant sub-family B FHbp antigen that binds human FH, and three other antigens, NHba, NadA and PorA P1.4, capable of eliciting bactericidal antibody. The NOMV-FHbp elicited serum bactericidal activity against 12 of 13 serogroup A, B, W or X strains from Africa, and four isogenic serogroup B mutants with sub-family B FHbp sequence variants. There was no activity against a serogroup B mutant with sub-family A FHbp, or two serogroup C isolates from a recent outbreak in Northern Nigeria, which were mismatched for both PorA and sub-family of the FHbp vaccine antigen. For MenB-4C, NHba was expressed by all 16 African isolates tested, FHbp sub-family B in 13, and NadA in five. However, MenB-4C elicited titers ≥ 1:10 against only one isolate, and against only two of four serogroup B mutant strains with sub-family B FHbp sequence variants. NOMV-FHbp has greater potential to confer serogroup-independent protection in Africa than the licensed MenB-4C vaccine. However, the NOMV-FHbp vaccine will require inclusion of sub-family A FHbp for coverage against recent serogroup C strains causing outbreaks in Northern Nigeria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Epidemiology of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease in Ontario, Canada, 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Vica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD caused by serogroup B is the last major serogroup in Canada to become vaccine-preventable. The anticipated availability of vaccines targeting this serogroup prompted an assessment of the epidemiology of serogroup B disease in Ontario, Canada. Methods We retrieved information on confirmed IMD cases reported to Ontario’s reportable disease database between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 and probabilistically-linked these cases to Public Health Ontario Laboratory records. Rates were calculated with denominator data obtained from Statistics Canada. We calculated a crude number needed to vaccinate using the inverse of the infant ( Results A total of 259 serogroup B IMD cases were identified in Ontario over the 11-year period. Serogroup B was the most common cause of IMD. Incidence ranged from 0.11 to 0.27/100,000/year, and fluctuated over time. Cases ranged in age from 13 days to 101 years; 21.4% occurred in infants, of which 72.7% were Conclusions Although rare, the proportion of IMD caused by serogroup B has increased and currently causes most IMD in Ontario, with infants having the highest risk of disease. Although serogroup B meningococcal vaccines are highly anticipated, our findings suggest that decisions regarding publicly funding serogroup B meningococcal vaccines will be difficult and may not be based on disease burden alone.

  4. A tool based on Ligation Detection Reaction-Universal Array (LDR-UA) for the characterization of VTEC by identification of virulence-associated and serogroup-specific genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, Andrea; Castiglioni, Bianca; Morabito, Stefano; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Consolandi, Clarissa; Mariani, Paola

    2011-02-01

    Verocytoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are zoonotic pathogens whose natural reservoir is represented by ruminants, particularly cattle. Infections are mainly acquired by consumption of undercooked contaminated food of animal origin, contact with infected animals and contaminated environment. VTEC O157 is the most frequently isolated serogroup from cases of human disease, however, other VTEC serogroups, such as O26, O111, O145 and O103, are increasingly reported as causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) worldwide. The identification of VTEC is troublesome, hindering the development of effective prevention strategies. In fact, VTEC are morphologically indistinguishable from harmless E. coli and their pathogenic potential is not strictly dependent on the serogroup, but relies on the presence of a collection of virulence genes. We developed a diagnostic tool for VTEC based on the Ligation Detection Reaction coupled to Universal Array (LDR-UA) for the simultaneous identification of virulence factors and serogroup-associated genes. The method includes the investigation of 40 sites located in 13 fragments from 12 genes (sodCF1/F2, adfO, terB, ehxA, eae, vtx1, vtx2, ihp1, wzx, wbdI, rfbE, dnaK) and was evaluated by performing a trial on a collection of 67 E. coli strains, both VTEC and VT-negative E. coli, as well as on 25 isolates belonging to other related species. Results of this study showed that the LDR-UA technique was specific in identifying the target microorganism. Moreover, due to its higher throughput, the LDR-UA can be a valid and cheaper alternative to real time PCR-based (rt-PCR) methods for VTEC identification. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathogenic Potential to Humans of Bovine Escherichia coli O26, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Tracy; Allison, Lesley J.; Courcier, Emily; Evans, Judith; McKendrick, Iain J.; Pearce, Michael C.; Handel, Ian; Caprioli, Alfredo; Karch, Helge; Hanson, Mary F.; Pollock, Kevin G.J.; Locking, Mary E.; Woolhouse, Mark E.J.; Matthews, Louise; Low, J. Chris; Gally, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli O26 and O157 have similar overall prevalences in cattle in Scotland, but in humans, Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O26 infections are fewer and clinically less severe than E. coli O157 infections. To investigate this discrepancy, we genotyped E. coli O26 isolates from cattle and humans in Scotland and continental Europe. The genetic background of some strains from Scotland was closely related to that of strains causing severe infections in Europe. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling found an association between hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and multilocus sequence type 21 strains and confirmed the role of stx2 in severe human disease. Although the prevalences of E. coli O26 and O157 on cattle farms in Scotland are equivalent, prevalence of more virulent strains is low, reducing human infection risk. However, new data on E. coli O26–associated HUS in humans highlight the need for surveillance of non-O157 enterohemorrhagic E. coli and for understanding stx2 phage acquisition. PMID:22377426

  6. Nasopharyngeal Carriage Rate and Serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis in Turkish recruits upon entry to the military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Basustaoglu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine nasopharyngeal carriage rate and serogroup of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from Turkish recruits upon entry to the military. Material and Methods: Nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from 1995 soldiers and were inoculated immediately on BBL-modified Thayer-Martin medium plates. The plates were examined for the presence of colonies showing the typical morphology of N. meningitidis. Suspect colonies were screened for oxidase reactivity, and positive colonies were Gram stained. If Gram-negative diplococci were present, a biochemical profile by the API NH system was used for confirmation. Serogrouping of the meningococcal isolates was performed by a slide agglutination technique. Findings: The nasopharyngeal carriage rate of N. meningitidis was found to be 4.2% (n=83. Of these meningococci, 15.6% (n=13 were serogroup Y, 10.8% (n=9 were serogroup W-135, 9.6% (n=8 were serogroup C, 6.1% (n=5 were serogroup B, 2.4% (n=2 were serogroup A. The 46 isolates (55.4% were detected as nonserogroupable. Conclusion: Since serogroup Y and W-135 are predominant in this study population, it was suggest that Turkish recruits should be vaccinated by quadrivalent vaccine (A,C,Y, and W-135 upon the military instead of A+C polysaccharide vaccine and now quadrivalent vaccine has been carried out. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 447-450

  7. Global epidemiology of serogroup B meningococcal disease and opportunities for prevention with novel recombinant protein vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Rodolfo; Safadi, Marco Aurelio P; Valenzuela, María Teresa; Torres, Juan P; Finn, Adam; O'Ryan, Miguel

    2018-04-18

    Meningococcal disease (MD) is a major cause of meningitis and sepsis worldwide, with a high case fatality rate and frequent sequelae. Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, W, X and Y are responsible for most of these life-threatening infections, and its unpredictable epidemiology can cause outbreaks in communities, with significant health, social and economic impact. Currently, serogroup B is the main cause of MD in Europe and North America and one of the most prevalent serogroups in Latin America. Mass vaccination strategies using polysaccharide vaccines have been deployed since the 1970s and the use of conjugate vaccines has controlled endemic and epidemic disease caused by serogroups A, C, W and Y and more recently serogroup B using geographically-specific outer membrane vesicle based vaccines. Two novel protein-based vaccines are a significant addition to our armamentarium against N. meningitidis as they provide broad coverage against highly diverse strains in serogroup B and other groups. Early safety, effectiveness and impact data of these vaccines are encouraging. These novel serogroup B vaccines should be actively considered for individuals at increased risk of disease and to control serogroup B outbreaks occurring in institutions or specific regions, as they are likely to save lives and prevent severe sequelae. Incorporation into national programs will require thorough country-specific analysis.

  8. A first meningococcal meningitis case caused by serogroup Ⅹ Neisseria meningitidis strains in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chao; UANG Ying-chun; ZHANG Tie-gang; HE Jing-guo; WU Jiang; CHEN Li-juan; LIU Jun-feng; PANG Xing-huo; YANG Jie; SHAO Zhu-jun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis and classified into 13 serogroups based on the immunological reactivity of the capsular polysaccharide.1 Serogroups A,B,C,W135 and Y are the most common causes of meningitis.2

  9. Whole-Genome Characterization of Epidemic Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C and Resurgence of Serogroup W, Niger, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretz, Cecilia B.; Retchless, Adam C.; Sidikou, Fati; Issaka, Bassira; Ousmane, Sani; Schwartz, Stephanie; Tate, Ashley H.; Pana, Assimawè; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Nzeyimana, Innocent; Nse, Ricardo Obama; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Hong, Eva; Brynildsrud, Ola Brønstad; Novak, Ryan T.; Meyer, Sarah A.; Oukem-Boyer, Odile Ouwe Missi; Ronveaux, Olivier; Caugant, Dominique A.; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, Niger reported the largest epidemic of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (NmC) meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. The NmC epidemic coincided with serogroup W (NmW) cases during the epidemic season, resulting in a total of 9,367 meningococcal cases through June 2015. To clarify the phylogenetic association, genetic evolution, and antibiotic determinants of the meningococcal strains in Niger, we sequenced the genomes of 102 isolates from this epidemic, comprising 81 NmC and 21 NmW isolates. The genomes of 82 isolates were completed, and all 102 were included in the analysis. All NmC isolates had sequence type 10217, which caused the outbreaks in Nigeria during 2013–2014 and for which a clonal complex has not yet been defined. The NmC isolates from Niger were substantially different from other NmC isolates collected globally. All NmW isolates belonged to clonal complex 11 and were closely related to the isolates causing recent outbreaks in Africa. PMID:27649262

  10. Mathematical modeling and numerical analysis of the growth of Non-O157 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in spinach leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in spinach leaves and to develop kinetic models to describe the bacterial growth. Six serogroups of non-O157 STEC, including O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, were used in the growth stu...

  11. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time PCR method for detecting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef and comparison to the FSIS microbiology laboratory guidebook method

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “top-six” non-O157 STEC (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) most frequently associated with outbreaks and cases of food-borne illnesses have been declared as adulterants in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), and regulatory testing for these serogroups in beef began in...

  12. Nosocomial infection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and 8 in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, G; Bornstein, N; Rayet, I; Pozzetto, B; Lenormand, P H

    1990-01-01

    A case of pneumonia related to 2 serogroups (1 and 8) of Legionella pneumophila (Lp) in a 10-day-old boy is described together with the epidemiological survey in the maternity ward which made it possible to establish its nosocomial origin. Rodshaped bacteria reacting with an Lp genus-specific monoclonal antibody and serogroup 1 and 8 polyclonal sera were detected in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) collected on day 13. Serogroups 1 and 8 were recovered from cultures of BAL collected on days 12 and 13. Fourfold or more antibody rises to serogroups 1, 5, 8 and 10 of Lp were observed in sequential serum specimens. Water samples collected from the tank and mixer of the maternity ward grew serogroups 1 and 8 of Lp. Serogroup 1 was detected in large amounts in water samples taken at several points of the hot water supply system and from the oxygen nebulizers and the feeding-bottle heater. Analysis of the Lp serogroup 1 strains isolated from the water by subgroup-specific monoclonal antibodies revealed the presence of 4 different subgroups, one of which was identical to the Lp 1 subgroup isolated from the neonate's BAL. This latter subgroup, reactive with McKinney monoclonal antibody Mab 2, has been described as highly virulent. No other case of legionellosis was recorded in the maternity ward.

  13. Standardization of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B Colorimetric Serum Bactericida Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Tamara; Lastre, Miriam; Cedré, Barbara; Campo, Judith del; Bracho, Gustavo; Zayas, Caridad; Taboada, Carlos; Díaz, Miriam; Sierra, Gustavo; Pérez, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    The correlate of protection for serogroup B meningococci is not currently known, but for serogroup C it is believed to be the serum bactericidal assay (SBA). The current SBAs are labor intensive and the variations in protocols among different laboratories make interpretation of results difficult. A colorimetric SBA (cSBA), based on the ability of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B to consume glucose, leading to acid production, was standardized by using group B strain Cu385-83 as the target. The cSBA results were compared to those obtained for a traditional colony-counting microassay (mSBA). Glucose and bromocresol purple pH indicator were added to the medium in order to estimate growth of cSBA target cell survivors through color change. Different variants of the assay parameters were optimized: growth of target cells (Mueller Hinton agar plates), target cell number (100 CFU/per well), and human complement source used at a final concentration of 25%. After the optimization, three other group B strains (H44/76, 490/91, and 511/91) were used as targets for the cSBA. The selection of the assay parameters and the standardization of cSBA were done with 13 sera from vaccinated volunteers. The titers were determined as the higher serum dilution that totally inhibited the bacterial growth marked by the color invariability of the pH indicator. This was detected visually as well as spectrophotometrically and was closely related to a significant difference in the growth of target cell survivors determined using Student’s t test. Intralaboratory reproducibility was ±1 dilution. The correlation between bactericidal median titers and specific immunoglobulin G serum concentration by enzyme immunoassay was high (r = 0.910, P < 0.01). The bactericidal titers generated by the cSBA and the mSBA were nearly identical, and there was a high correlation between the two assays (r = 0.974, P < 0.01). The standardized cSBA allows easy, fast, and efficient evaluation of samples. PMID

  14. Identification and characterization of serogroup M Dichelobacter nodosus from sheep with virulent footrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungyel, Om; Schiller, Natalie; Whittington, Richard

    2015-04-17

    As part of an outbreak-specific footrot vaccination field trial a total of 1282 footrot lesion samples were collected from 2 sheep flocks on King Island, Tasmania. Breeding rams were shared between the two flocks, suggesting a common source of infection. All samples were tested for Dichelobacter nodosus. A total of 1047 D. nodosus isolates were obtained in pure culture (490 from 670 lesion samples from flock 1, and 557 from 612 lesion samples from flock 2) were tested by agglutination and PCR tests for the 9 common Australian serogroups A to I. After the first rounds of a specific vaccination program, a significant proportion of the isolates of D. nodosus from these flocks were found to be negative in the serogrouping tests and the prevalence of the disease remained high in both. Those isolates were tested retrospectively against New Zealand and Nepal serogroup M antisera and found to be positive. Fimbrial gene (fimA) sequences of three isolates collected over three years were identical indicating that these strains belonged to one serogroup and were most closely related to New Zealand and Nepal serogroup M sequences. More than 40% of the D. nodosus isolates from these flocks belonged to serogroup M and were virulent in tests for protease activity. The next most prevalent serogroup was A (23%). This study reports the identification and characterization of serogroup M isolates of D. nodosus from Australia, and led to routine testing for serogroup M in flocks where specific vaccination will be applied for control, treatment and eradication of the virulent footrot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Genomic DNA fingerprints of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2 strains as an epidemiologic marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender-Beck, L; Mühlenberg, W; Lück, P C; Ott, M; Horbach, I; Fehrenbach, F J; Wewalka, G; Hacker, J

    1995-08-01

    Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, DNA fingerprints of eleven Legionella pneumophila isolates of serogroup 2 were generated. It was shown that two strains from a patient suffering from pneumonia as well as three environmental strains isolated from the shower in the hotel where the patient stayed 5 days before his illness were identical. Six strains of the same serogroup isolated from other sources were clearly separated. Thus, DNA fingerprints by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis are excellent epidemiological markers for the rarely occurring serogroup 2 of Legionella pneumophila.

  16. A multicenter evaluation of genotypic methods for the epidemiologic typing of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fry, Norman K.; Alexiou-Daniel, Stella; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare genotypic methods for epidemiologic typing of Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1, in order to determine the best available method within Europe for implementation and standardization by members of the European Working Group on Legionella Infections. METHODS: Coded...

  17. Impact of the conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac, on carriage of serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis and disease transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Paul Arne

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nm), also referred to as meningococcus, is a human commensal colonising the oropharynx, transmittable by close contact between healthy people. The bacterium can act as an opportunistic pathogen and cause bacterial meningitis and septicaemia. Meningococci are classified into 12 serogroups based on the composition of their polysaccharide (Ps) capsule. Six of these serogroups, serogroups A, B, C, W, X and Y cause meningococcal disease worldwide. The populations most affec...

  18. Pros and cons of vaccination against serogroup B meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Rodríguez, Miguel; Domínguez García, Ángela

    2018-02-09

    A vaccine has recently been approved in the EU against meningococcal serogroup B, the main cause of meningococcal disease. There is a fierce debate about the decision regarding a universal vaccination in infants older than 2 months, as recommended by the majority of scientific societies. In western Europe the only country to have included the universal vaccination is the United Kingdom, with a lower incidence of the disease than Ireland. Other countries have also adopted it, such as the Czech Republic, Cuba and certain regions of Italy. Numerous cost-effectiveness studies have been published regarding the vaccination with different assumptions, which have supported the decision not to implant the universal vaccination because it exceeds the will to pay for a health benefit. We discuss the pros and cons of the universal vaccination against meningococcal B, recommended by the Sociedad Española de Pediatría (Spanish Society of Paediatrics), which as yet has not been implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Erwinia carotovora contamination of Finnish seed potatoes and the prevalence of bacterial subspecies and serogroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirkko Harju

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Symptomless contamination with the rot-inducing bacterium Erwinia carotovora was detectable by the tuber incubation method in 82% of the commercial seed potato stocks surveyed. E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca was more common than E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc among the tuber contaminants. In a four-year survey of ten meristem-based seed stocks, recontamination with both Eca and Ecc occurred typically during the second field generation, but three stocks remained free of detectable contamination throughout the survey period. The first blackleg symptoms occurred typically during the third field generation. The serogroup distribution of Finnish Eca isolates was different from that reported from other countries. The predominant serogroup, I, constituted only 74% of all Eca isolates, since serogroups XXXV and XLI occurred relatively frequently. Serogroup I was more common among isolates from diseased stems than among those from latently contaminated tubers. The results also suggest that serogroup I is more dominant in the southern than in the northern parts of the country.

  20. The Mobilome; A Major Contributor to Escherichia coli stx2-Positive O26:H11 Strains Intra-Serotype Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Delannoy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of serotype O26:H11/H- constitute a diverse group of strains and several clones with distinct genetic characteristics have been identified and characterized. Whole genome sequencing was performed using Illumina and PacBio technologies on eight stx2-positive O26:H11 strains circulating in France. Comparative analyses of the whole genome of the stx2-positive O26:H11 strains indicate that several clones of EHEC O26:H11 are co-circulating in France. Phylogenetic analysis of the French strains together with stx2-positive and stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 genomes obtained from Genbank indicates the existence of four clonal complexes (SNP-CCs separated in two distinct lineages, one of which comprises the “new French clone” (SNP-CC1 that appears genetically closely related to stx-negative attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC strains. Interestingly, the whole genome SNP (wgSNP phylogeny is summarized in the cas gene phylogeny, and a simple qPCR assay targeting the CRISPR array specific to SNP-CC1 (SP_O26-E can distinguish between the two main lineages. The PacBio sequencing allowed a detailed analysis of the mobile genetic elements (MGEs of the strains. Numerous MGEs were identified in each strain, including a large number of prophages and up to four large plasmids, representing overall 8.7–19.8% of the total genome size. Analysis of the prophage pool of the strains shows a considerable diversity with a complex history of recombination. Each clonal complex (SNP-CC is characterized by a unique set of plasmids and phages, including stx-prophages, suggesting evolution through separate acquisition events. Overall, the MGEs appear to play a major role in O26:H11 intra-serotype clonal diversification.

  1. The Mobilome; A Major Contributor to Escherichia coli stx2-Positive O26:H11 Strains Intra-Serotype Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Sabine; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Webb, Hattie E; Bonacorsi, Stephane; Fach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of serotype O26:H11/H- constitute a diverse group of strains and several clones with distinct genetic characteristics have been identified and characterized. Whole genome sequencing was performed using Illumina and PacBio technologies on eight stx2 -positive O26:H11 strains circulating in France. Comparative analyses of the whole genome of the stx2 -positive O26:H11 strains indicate that several clones of EHEC O26:H11 are co-circulating in France. Phylogenetic analysis of the French strains together with stx2 -positive and stx -negative E. coli O26:H11 genomes obtained from Genbank indicates the existence of four clonal complexes (SNP-CCs) separated in two distinct lineages, one of which comprises the "new French clone" (SNP-CC1) that appears genetically closely related to stx -negative attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) strains. Interestingly, the whole genome SNP (wgSNP) phylogeny is summarized in the cas gene phylogeny, and a simple qPCR assay targeting the CRISPR array specific to SNP-CC1 (SP_O26-E) can distinguish between the two main lineages. The PacBio sequencing allowed a detailed analysis of the mobile genetic elements (MGEs) of the strains. Numerous MGEs were identified in each strain, including a large number of prophages and up to four large plasmids, representing overall 8.7-19.8% of the total genome size. Analysis of the prophage pool of the strains shows a considerable diversity with a complex history of recombination. Each clonal complex (SNP-CC) is characterized by a unique set of plasmids and phages, including stx -prophages, suggesting evolution through separate acquisition events. Overall, the MGEs appear to play a major role in O26:H11 intra-serotype clonal diversification.

  2. Genomic Epidemiology of Hypervirulent Serogroup W, ST-11 Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Marsh, Jane W; Krauland, Mary G; Fernandez, Jorge O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hiller, N Luisa; Harrison, Lee H

    2015-10-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading bacterial cause of sepsis and meningitis globally with dynamic strain distribution over time. Beginning with an epidemic among Hajj pilgrims in 2000, serogroup W (W) sequence type (ST) 11 emerged as a leading cause of epidemic meningitis in the African 'meningitis belt' and endemic cases in South America, Europe, Middle East and China. Previous genotyping studies were unable to reliably discriminate sporadic W ST-11 strains in circulation since 1970 from the Hajj outbreak strain (Hajj clone). It is also unclear what proportion of more recent W ST-11 disease clusters are caused by direct descendants of the Hajj clone. Whole genome sequences of 270 meningococcal strains isolated from patients with invasive meningococcal disease globally from 1970 to 2013 were compared using whole genome phylogenetic and major antigen-encoding gene sequence analyses. We found that all W ST-11 strains were descendants of an ancestral strain that had undergone unique capsular switching events. The Hajj clone and its descendants were distinct from other W ST-11 strains in that they shared a common antigen gene profile and had undergone recombination involving virulence genes encoding factor H binding protein, nitric oxide reductase, and nitrite reductase. These data demonstrate that recent acquisition of a distinct antigen-encoding gene profile and variations in meningococcal virulence genes was associated with the emergence of the Hajj clone. Importantly, W ST-11 strains unrelated to the Hajj outbreak contribute a significant proportion of W ST-11 cases globally. This study helps illuminate genomic factors associated with meningococcal strain emergence and evolution.

  3. Comparative genomic analysis of Brazilian Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Z Moreno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospira kirschneri is one of the pathogenic species of the Leptospira genus. Human and animal infection from L. kirschneri gained further attention over the last few decades. Here we present the isolation and characterisation of Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strain M36/05 and the comparative genomic analysis with Brazilian human strain 61H. The M36/05 strain caused pulmonary hemorrhagic lesions in the hamster model, showing high virulence. The studied genomes presented high symmetrical identity and the in silico multilocus sequence typing analysis resulted in a new allelic profile (ST101 that so far has only been associated with the Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok strains. Considering the environmental conditions and high genomic similarity observed between strains, we suggest the existence of a Brazilian L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok lineage that could represent a high public health risk; further studies are necessary to confirm the lineage significance and distribution.

  4. [Epidemiology of the meningococcal disease in Catalonia before and after vaccination against serogroup C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ana I; Domínguez, Angela; Oviedo, Manuel; Minguell, Sofía; Jansà, Josep M; Codina, Gemma; Vázquez, Julio A

    2009-01-01

    Meningococcal disease remains a serious public health problem worldwide. In Catalonia, after implementing the vaccination program, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by meningococcus C. Reported cases of meningococcal disease between 1997 and 2008 were analyzed to determine the evolution after the introduction of a conjugated vaccine in Catalonia. In case-fatality-rate increased only in serogroup B (3% and 7.4%). Serosubtype P1.15was the most frequent in serogroup B (31%), mainly associated with serotype 4 (80%), and in serogroup C subtype P1.5 (36%), with serotype 2a (86%). During 2008, 5 apparently unrelated cases of B:2a:P1.5 were identified in the same geographic area, with a case-fatality-rate of 80%. Exhaustive surveillance of circulating meningococcal strains is essential.

  5. Meningococcal serogroup A, C, W₁₃₅ and Y conjugated vaccine: a cost-effectiveness analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hepkema, Hiltsje; Pouwels, Koen B.; van der Ende, Arie; Westra, Tjalke A.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, vaccination with a serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenC) was introduced in the Netherlands for all children aged 14 months. Despite its success, herd immunity may wane over time. Recently, a serogroup A,C,W135,Y meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) was licensed for use in

  6. Meningococcal Serogroup A, C, W-135 and Y Conjugated Vaccine : A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hepkema, Hiltsje; Pouwels, Koen B.; van der Ende, Arie; Westra, Tjalke A.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2002, vaccination with a serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenC) was introduced in the Netherlands for all children aged 14 months. Despite its success, herd immunity may wane over time. Recently, a serogroup A,C,W-135, Y meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) was

  7. Effect of a serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) on serogroup A meningococcal meningitis and carriage in Chad: a community study [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugla, D M; Gami, J P; Gamougam, K; Naibei, N; Mbainadji, L; Narbé, M; Toralta, J; Kodbesse, B; Ngadoua, C; Coldiron, M E; Fermon, F; Page, A-L; Djingarey, M H; Hugonnet, S; Harrison, O B; Rebbetts, L S; Tekletsion, Y; Watkins, E R; Hill, D; Caugant, D A; Chandramohan, D; Hassan-King, M; Manigart, O; Nascimento, M; Woukeu, A; Trotter, C; Stuart, J M; Maiden, McJ; Greenwood, B M

    2014-01-04

    A serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) was licensed in India in 2009, and pre-qualified by WHO in 2010, on the basis of its safety and immunogenicity. This vaccine is now being deployed across the African meningitis belt. We studied the effect of PsA-TT on meningococcal meningitis and carriage in Chad during a serogroup A meningococcal meningitis epidemic. We obtained data for the incidence of meningitis before and after vaccination from national records between January, 2009, and June, 2012. In 2012, surveillance was enhanced in regions where vaccination with PsA-TT had been undertaken in 2011, and in one district where a reactive vaccination campaign in response to an outbreak of meningitis was undertaken. Meningococcal carriage was studied in an age-stratified sample of residents aged 1-29 years of a rural area roughly 13-15 and 2-4 months before and 4-6 months after vaccination. Meningococci obtained from cerebrospinal fluid or oropharyngeal swabs were characterised by conventional microbiological and molecular methods. Roughly 1·8 million individuals aged 1-29 years received one dose of PsA-TT during a vaccination campaign in three regions of Chad in and around the capital N'Djamena during 10 days in December, 2011. The incidence of meningitis during the 2012 meningitis season in these three regions was 2·48 per 100,000 (57 cases in the 2·3 million population), whereas in regions without mass vaccination, incidence was 43·8 per 100,000 (3809 cases per 8·7 million population), a 94% difference in crude incidence (pvaccinated regions. 32 serogroup A carriers were identified in 4278 age-stratified individuals (0·75%) living in a rural area near the capital 2-4 months before vaccination, whereas only one serogroup A meningococcus was isolated in 5001 people living in the same community 4-6 months after vaccination (adjusted odds ratio 0·019, 95% CI 0·002-0·138; p<0·0001). PSA-TT was highly

  8. Host Response in Rabbits to Infection with Pasteurella multocida Serogroup F Strains Originating from Fowl Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of two avian Pasteurella multocida serogroup F strains to induce disease in rabbits was investigated in this study. Two groups of 18 Pasteurella-free rabbits each were intranasally challenged with strains isolated from chicken and turkey, respectively. Half the animals in each challenge ...

  9. Widespread molecular detection of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in cold water taps across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States 3,522 cases of legionellosis were reported to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009. Of these reports, it is estimated that 84% are caused by the microorganism Legionella pneumophila Serogroup (Sg) 1. Legionella spp. have been isolated and r...

  10. A Seroepidemiological Study of Serogroup A Meningococcal Infection in the African Meningitis Belt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Manigart

    Full Text Available The pattern of epidemic meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt may be influenced by the background level of population immunity but this has been measured infrequently. A standardised enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measuring meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibodies was established at five centres within the meningitis belt. Antibody concentrations were then measured in 3930 individuals stratified by age and residence from six countries. Seroprevalence by age was used in a catalytic model to determine the force of infection. Meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high in each country but showed heterogeneity across the meningitis belt. The geometric mean concentration (GMC was highest in Ghana (9.09 μg/mL [95% CI 8.29, 9.97] and lowest in Ethiopia (1.43 μg/mL [95% CI 1.31, 1.57] on the margins of the belt. The force of infection was lowest in Ethiopia (λ = 0.028. Variables associated with a concentration above the putative protective level of 2 μg/mL were age, urban residence and a history of recent vaccination with a meningococcal vaccine. Prior to vaccination with the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high across the African meningitis belt and yet the region remained susceptible to epidemics.

  11. Comparison of commercial diagnostic tests for identification of serogroup antigens of Neisseria meningitidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, A.; Schuurman, I. G.; Hopman, C. T.; Fijen, C. A.; Dankert, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the study that is described the sensitivities and specificities of three commercial tests and the standard Reference Laboratory test, used since 1961, to identify Neisseria meningitidis serogroups were compared. The tests marketed by Difco, Murex/Wellcome, and Sanofi/Pasteur showed overall

  12. Immunochemical studies and genetic background of two Neisseria meningitidis isolates expressing unusual capsule polysaccharide antigens with specificities of both serogroup Y and W135.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Raymond S W; Tsai, Chao Ming; Henderson, Averil M; Tyler, Shaun; Law, Dennis K S; Zollinger, Wendell; Jamieson, Frances

    2008-03-01

    We described 2 unusual Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from epidemiologically unrelated invasive meningococcal disease cases in Ontario, Canada. Both isolates have features typical of serogroup Y N. meningitidis: are of serotype 2c, are of the multi-locus sequence types typical of the serogroup Y strains in Canada, and are genotyped as serogroup Y based on a previously described PCR-ELISA method that detects the serogroup-Y-specific siaD gene. However, both strains were poly-agglutinable in both anti-Y and anti-W135 antisera. Further studies on 1 of these 2 isolates showed the presence of glucose and galactose as well as sialic acids in its purified capsular polysaccharide, suggesting the presence of both serogroup Y and serogroup W135 polysaccharides. Rabbit antisera produced to this strain contained antibodies to both purified serogroup Y and serogroup W135 capsular polysaccharides. Absorption experiments with either serogroup Y or serogroup W135 bacteria confirmed the presence of antibodies to these 2 different polysaccharides. DNA sequencing of the cps operon from both isolates revealed a siaD gene with 99.7% homology to the published siaD sequence from a serogroup Y strain but with 3 point mutations that all resulted in amino acid changes. How these strains may affect results of routine surveillance, PCR diagnosis, and immuno-protection by vaccination are discussed.

  13. Travel-associated infections caused by unusual serogroups of Legionella pneumophila identified using Legionella BIOCHIP slides in Turkey and Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocazeybek, Bekir S; Yuksel, Pelin; Keskin, Dilek; Sheikh, Suhail; Habip, Zafer; Yavuzer, Serap Sahin; Caliskan, Reyhan; Altun, Yagız Meric; Kuskucu, Mert; Cengiz, Mahir; Dinc, Harika Oyku; Karakullukcu, Asiye; Ergin, Sevgi; Saribas, Suat; Yilmaz, Nail; Tokman, Hrisi Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Although Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is the common disease causing serogroup, rare serogroups can also may cause legionellosis. A 54-year-old male patient (index case) reported that he had been on a religious trip (for visiting, tomb of Ali, which is important for Shias) to Iraq with a large group (50 shia pilgrims from Kars city of Turkey) two weeks prior to admission. Due to civil war, the hotel where the patient stayed in Iraq lacked proper hygiene. A large number of people in the travel group were experiencing the same symptoms. Other five cases were 2 males (ages; 50, 45) and 3 females including the wife of the index case (ages; 50, 28, 27). The detection of L. pneumophila IgG and IgM was performed by anti-L. pneumophila Indirect Immunofluorescent IgM, IgG kit. Legionella 1 biochip/verification BIOCHIP slides were used for serogrouping in Euroimmun AG, Leubeck, Germany. In index case, L. pneumophila IgM was positive with a titer of 1/32 titer. IgG was negative with a 1/100 titer. Another case (28 year old female), had clinical symptoms identical to the index case. L. pneumophila IgM and IgG were positive with titers of 1/64 and 1/100, respectively. These two cases were diagnosed with Legionnaires' disease caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 12 (index case) and female (28-year-old) by serogroup 11. The other 4 cases were diagnosed with possible Pontiac fever caused by L. pneumophila serogroups 14 (wife of the index case), 4, and 6 whereas the serogroup of L. pneumophila detected in 27 years old female case could not be identified. A major limitation of this work is the absence of genotyping and the serogroup difference between index case and his wife who shared the same hotel. We suggest that this serogroup difference may be caused by (for men and women) sitting separately in Islamic rules. On the other hand, the movement of people in the context of mutual visits between countries or neighboring countries for tourism-related (i.e., for religious events

  14. [Macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae on the islands of Gran Canaria and Lanzarote (Spain): molecular mechanisms and serogroup relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiles, Fernando; Horcajada-Herrera, Iballa; Noguera-Catalán, Javier; Alamo-Antúnez, Isabel; Bordes-Benítez, Ana; Lafarga-Capuz, Bernardo

    2007-11-01

    Macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is coded by the ermB and mefA/E genes. The aim of this study was to determine the status of macrolide-resistance, the molecular mechanisms involved, the serogroup relationships, and the level of co-resistance in S. pneumoniae isolates from Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, in the Canary Islands, Spain. Macrolide resistance phenotypes were investigated in 261 S. pneumoniae clinical isolates over a two-year period (2004 and 2005). Genotypes were determined by PCR (detection of ermB and mefA/E genes). Overall macrolide resistance was 40.6% (106 isolates); 79.2% (84) of resistant isolates presented the MLSB phenotype (98.8% harbored the ermB gene), with a predominance of serogroup 19, and 20.8% (22) presented the M phenotype (77.3% displayed the mefA/E gene), all associated with serogroup 14. Worthy of note, the M phenotype was found in 8 invasive isolates from Lanzarote (80%) all from serogroup 14. The ermB and mefA/E genes were detected in 7 isolates belonging to serogroup 19. Absence of co-resistance was observed most frequently in serogroup 14 (66.7%). Co-resistance with penicillin G, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with serogroup 19 (36.8%). Two isolates (0.8%) were resistant to telithromycin. The frequency of macrolide resistance mechanisms in the Canary Islands is different from that observed in the rest of Spain, particularly in Lanzarote, where 80% of isolates harbored the mefA/E gene and belonged to serogroup 14.

  15. [Surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis in Argentina, 1993-2005: distribution of serogroups, serotypes and serosubtypes isolated from invasive disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiávetta, L; Chávez, E; Ruzic, A; Mollerach, M; Regueira, M

    2007-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is an important cause of meningitis, bacteremia and septic shock syndrome. We herein present the distribution of serogroups, serotypes and serosubtypes of 2244 isolates of N. meningitidis from patients with meningitis or meningococcemia, received within the period 1993-2005, in the National Reference Laboratory, INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán", from 33 Argentine hospitals that are included in a National Network devoted to for the study of bacterial meningitis. Between 1993-1995, serogroup B was prevalent (66%) whereas in the period from 1995-2001, serogroup C prevailed (65%). However, following but after that period, the prevalence of serogroup B was recovered. In the last 5 years of the studied period, the serogroups Y and W135 represented as a whole a 15.6% as a whole whereas up to the year 2000 during the first 6 years they accounted for it was of 4.7%. Higher diversity in the distribution of serotypes and serosubtypes was observed within serogroup B. The nonsubtypable isolates throughout the period of study represented the 52.8%, this high percentage demonstrates the limited capacity of the serotyping for the determination of meningococcal/meningococcus subtypes. of meningococco.

  16. Resurgence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W ST-11 (cc11) in Madagascar, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoanandrasana, Saïda; Raberahona, Mihaja; Milenkov, Milen; Rakotomahefa Narison, Mbolanirina Lala; Ranaivo Rabetokotany, Felana; Rakotovao, Luc; Randria, Mamy Jean de Dieu; Hong, Eva; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mala

    2017-02-01

    The resurgence of invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W with sequence type ST-11 (cc11) was observed in Madagascar in 2015-2016. Three cases were investigated in this study. Molecular characterization of the strains suggests the local transmission of a single genotype that may have been circulating for years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Meningococcal genetic variation mechanisms viewed through comparative analysis of serogroup C strain FAM18.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Bentley

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Neisseria meningitidis is commonly found harmlessly colonising the mucosal surfaces of the human nasopharynx. Occasionally strains can invade host tissues causing septicaemia and meningitis, making the bacterium a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both the developed and developing world. The species is known to be diverse in many ways, as a product of its natural transformability and of a range of recombination and mutation-based systems. Previous work on pathogenic Neisseria has identified several mechanisms for the generation of diversity of surface structures, including phase variation based on slippage-like mechanisms and sequence conversion of expressed genes using information from silent loci. Comparison of the genome sequences of two N. meningitidis strains, serogroup B MC58 and serogroup A Z2491, suggested further mechanisms of variation, including C-terminal exchange in specific genes and enhanced localised recombination and variation related to repeat arrays. We have sequenced the genome of N. meningitidis strain FAM18, a representative of the ST-11/ET-37 complex, providing the first genome sequence for the disease-causing serogroup C meningococci; it has 1,976 predicted genes, of which 60 do not have orthologues in the previously sequenced serogroup A or B strains. Through genome comparison with Z2491 and MC58 we have further characterised specific mechanisms of genetic variation in N. meningitidis, describing specialised loci for generation of cell surface protein variants and measuring the association between noncoding repeat arrays and sequence variation in flanking genes. Here we provide a detailed view of novel genetic diversification mechanisms in N. meningitidis. Our analysis provides evidence for the hypothesis that the noncoding repeat arrays in neisserial genomes (neisserial intergenic mosaic elements provide a crucial mechanism for the generation of surface antigen variants. Such variation will have an

  18. Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia Due to Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yu Chen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a common cause of sporadic community-acquired pneumonia, but culture-proven legionellosis is rarely diagnosed. There is no laboratory test for Legionnaires' disease that can detect all patients with the disease. Culture is the standard diagnostic method and should be initiated as soon as possible in suspected cases. We describe a rare case of community-acquired pneumonia caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 6. A 77-year-old man was admitted to a tertiary care hospital because of high fever, productive cough, and progressive dyspnea. Chest radiography showed bilateral pneumonia, which led to respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilatory support. Despite antibiotic therapy, his condition continued to deteriorate and acute renal failure also developed. Urine was negative for L. pneumophila. Culture of the sputum yielded L. pneumophila serogroup 6, although there was no elevation of the serum antibody titer. Pneumonia resolved gradually and he was extubated after treatment with levofloxacin followed by erythromycin. L. pneumophila other than serogroup 1 should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspected atypical community-acquired pneumonia.

  19. Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility among Escherichia coli isolated from farmed mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriel, M.

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli is commonly found in outbreaks of diarrhoea in mink during the production season although its role as a primary causal organism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates from healthy and diar......Escherichia coli is commonly found in outbreaks of diarrhoea in mink during the production season although its role as a primary causal organism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates from healthy...... diseased. All isolates were serotyped and MICs were determined for nine antimicrobial compounds. Non-haemolytic isolates numbered 147, whereas 63 were haemolytic. Both haemolytic and non-haemolytic isolates were isolated from both healthy and diseased animals. A wide range of serogroups was detected...... among the six mink farms, for tetracycline (0-16.4%. average 21.9), ampicillin (2.9-50.0%. average 23.3), spectinomycin (8.0-35.7%. average 21.9), sulfamethoxazole (8.6-57.7%. average 30.0) and trimethoprim (0-35.7%. average 9.5). Resistance to tetracycline was statistically more prevalent among...

  20. Lipoprotein NMB0928 from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B as a novel vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Maité; Yero, Daniel; Niebla, Olivia; González, Sonia; Climent, Yanet; Pérez, Yusleydis; Cobas, Karem; Caballero, Evelín; García, Darien; Pajón, Rolando

    2007-12-05

    Polysaccharide-based vaccines for serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis have failed to induce protective immunity. As a result, efforts to develop vaccines for serogroup B meningococcal disease have mostly focused on outer membrane proteins (OMP). Vaccine candidates based on meningococcal OMP have emerged in the form of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) or, more recently, purified recombinant proteins, as alternative strategies for serogroup B vaccine development. In our group, the protein composition of the Cuban OMVs-based vaccine VA-MENGOC-BC was elucidated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The proteomic map of this product allowed the identification of new putative protective proteins not previously reported as components of an antimeningococcal vaccine. In the present study, we have determined the immunogenicity and protective capacity of NMB0928, one of those proteins present in the OMVs. The antigen was obtained as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, purified and used to immunize mice. The antiserum produced against the protein was capable to recognize the natural protein in different meningococcal strains by whole-cell ELISA and Western blotting. After immunization, recombinant NMB0928 induced bactericidal antibodies, and when the protein was administered inserted into liposomes, the elicited antibodies were protective in the infant rat model. These results suggest that NMB0928 is a novel antigen worth to be included in a broadly protective meningococcal vaccine.

  1. [Detection of putative polysaccharide biosynthesis genes in Azospirillum brasilense strains from serogroups I and II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, L P; Prilipov, A G; Katsy, E I

    2017-01-01

    It is known that in Azospirillum brasilense strains Sp245 and SR75 included in serogroup I, the repeat units of their O-polysaccharides consist of five residues of D-rhamnose, and in strain SR15, of four; and the heteropolymeric O-polysaccharide of A. brasilense type strain Sp7 from serogroup II contains not less than five types of repeat units. In the present work, a complex of nondegenerate primers to the genes of A. brasilense Sp245 plasmids AZOBR_p6, AZOBR_p3, and AZOBR_p2, which encode putative enzymes for the biosynthesis of core oligosaccharide and O-polysaccharide of lipopolysaccharide, capsular polysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides, was proposed. By using the designed primers, products of the expected sizes were synthesized in polymerase chain reactions on genomic DNA of A. brasilense Sp245, SR75, SR15, and Sp7 in 36, 29, 23, and 12 cases, respectively. As a result of sequencing of a number of amplicons, a high (86–99%) level of identity of the corresponding putative polysaccharide biosynthesis genes in three A. brasilense strains from serogroup I was detected. In a blotting-hybridization reaction with the biotin-labeled DNA of the A. brasilense gene AZOBR_p60122 coding for putative permease of the ABC transporter of polysaccharides, localization of the homologous gene in ~120-MDa plasmids of the bacteria A. brasilense SR15 and SR75 was revealed.

  2. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 in raw water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk products in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Vanessa; Dambrosio, Angela; Quaglia, Nicoletta Cristiana; Parisi, Antonio; La Salandra, Giovanna; Lucifora, Giuseppe; Mula, Giuseppina; Virgilio, Sebastiano; Carosielli, Leonardo; Rella, Addolorata; Dario, Marco; Normanno, Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    Escherichia coli 026 is known as a verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) organism that causes severe foodborne diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Although cattle are the most important reservoir of VTEC, only a few reports on the role of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as a reservoir of VTEC and on the presence of these organisms in their milk are available. However, in Southern Italy, where water buffalo are intensively reared, an outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome due to E. coli 026 has recently been reported, in which the consumption of typical dairy products was considered to be a common risk factor. The aims of this work were to assess the prevalence of E. coli O26 in raw water buffalo milk, to characterize the virulence gene profiles of the isolates, and to evaluate their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance pattern. Of 160 analyzed samples, 1 (0.6%) tested positive for E. coli O26, and the isolate showed the stx1+/stx2+/eae-/hlyA+ genotypic profile. The strain showed resistance against glycopeptides, macrolides, and penicillins. The presence of VTEC organisms in raw water buffalo milk could be considered to be a potential threat to consumers; however, the strict adherence to the processes used in the preparation of the most common buffalo dairy products could strongly mitigate the foodborne risk. To our knowledge, this article reports the first isolation and characterization of E. coli O26 VTEC in raw water buffalo milk.

  3. Inactivation of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in lean ground beef by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-O157 serovars of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are now responsible for over 60% of STEC induced illnesses. The majority of illnesses caused by non-O157:H7 STEC have been due to serogroups O26, O121, O103, O45, O111, and O145, “the big/top six”, which are now considered adulterant...

  4. Detection and isolation of the "Top 7" Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef: comparison of the Rapidfinder kits to the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 and serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are often referred to as the “top 7” STEC, and these have been declared as adulterants in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The aim of this work was to compare the methods des...

  5. Recombinant outer membrane secretin PilQ(406-770) as a vaccine candidate for serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghi, Fakhri; Peerayeh, Shahin Najar; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Zeighami, Habib

    2012-02-21

    Secretin PilQ is an antigenically conserved outer membrane protein which is present on most meningococci. This protein naturally expressed at high levels and is essential for meningococcal pilus expression at the cell surface. A 1095 bp fragment of C-terminal of secretin pilQ from serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a. Recombinant protein was overexpressed with IPTG and affinity-purified by Ni-NTA agarose. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPilQ(406-770) mixed with Freund's adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups A and B N. meningitidis whole cells or purified rPilQ(406-770) and functional activity of antibodies were determined by ELISA and SBA, respectively. The output of rPilQ(406-770) was approximately 50% of the total bacterial proteins. Serum IgG responses were significantly increased in immunized group with PilQ(406-770) mixed with Freund's adjuvant in comparison with control groups. Antisera produced against rPilQ(406-770) demonstrated strong surface reactivity to serogroups A and B N. meningitidis tested by whole-cell ELISA. Surface reactivity to serogroup B N. meningitidis was higher than serogroup A. The sera from PilQ(406-770) immunized animals were strongly bactericidal against serogroups A and B. These results suggest that rPilQ(406-770) is a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N. meningitidis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26:H11 Strains Examined via stx Subtypes and Insertion Sites of Stx and EspK Bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Ludivine; Loukiadis, Estelle; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Oswald, Eric; Garnier, Lucille; Michel, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a food-borne pathogen that may be responsible for severe human infections. Only a limited number of serotypes, including O26:H11, are involved in the majority of serious cases and outbreaks. The main virulence factors, Shiga toxins (Stx), are encoded by bacteriophages. Seventy-four STEC O26:H11 strains of various origins (including human, dairy, and cattle) were characterized for their stx subtypes and Stx phage chromosomal insertion sites. The majority of food and cattle strains possessed the stx1a subtype, while human strains carried mainly stx1a or stx2a. The wrbA and yehV genes were the main Stx phage insertion sites in STEC O26:H11, followed distantly by yecE and sbcB. Interestingly, the occurrence of Stx phages inserted in the yecE gene was low in dairy strains. In most of the 29 stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 strains also studied here, these bacterial insertion sites were vacant. Multilocus sequence typing of 20 stx-positive or stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 strains showed that they were distributed into two phylogenetic groups defined by sequence type 21 (ST21) and ST29. Finally, an EspK-carrying phage was found inserted in the ssrA gene in the majority of the STEC O26:H11 strains but in only a minority of the stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 strains. The differences in the stx subtypes and Stx phage insertion sites observed in STEC O26:H11 according to their origin might reflect that strains circulating in cattle and foods are clonally distinct from those isolated from human patients. PMID:25819955

  7. Identification of new meningococcal serogroup B surface antigens through a systematic analysis of neisserial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajon, Rolando; Yero, Daniel; Niebla, Olivia; Climent, Yanet; Sardiñas, Gretel; García, Darién; Perera, Yasser; Llanes, Alejandro; Delgado, Maité; Cobas, Karem; Caballero, Evelin; Taylor, Stephen; Brookes, Charlotte; Gorringe, Andrew

    2009-12-11

    The difficulty of inducing an effective immune response against the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B capsular polysaccharide has lead to the search for vaccines for this serogroup based on outer membrane proteins. The availability of the first meningococcal genome (MC58 strain) allowed the expansion of high-throughput methods to explore the protein profile displayed by N. meningitidis. By combining a pan-genome analysis with an extensive experimental validation to identify new potential vaccine candidates, genes coding for antigens likely to be exposed on the surface of the meningococcus were selected after a multistep comparative analysis of entire Neisseria genomes. Eleven novel putative ORF annotations were reported for serogroup B strain MC58. Furthermore, a total of 20 new predicted potential pan-neisserial vaccine candidates were produced as recombinant proteins and evaluated using immunological assays. Potential vaccine candidate coding genes were PCR-amplified from a panel of representative strains and their variability analyzed using maximum likelihood approaches for detecting positive selection. Finally, five proteins all capable of inducing a functional antibody response vs N. meningitidis strain CU385 were identified as new attractive vaccine candidates: NMB0606 a potential YajC orthologue, NMB0928 the neisserial NlpB (BamC), NMB0873 a LolB orthologue, NMB1163 a protein belonging to a curli-like assembly machinery, and NMB0938 (a neisserial specific antigen) with evidence of positive selection appreciated for NMB0928. The new set of vaccine candidates and the novel proposed functions will open a new wave of research in the search for the elusive neisserial vaccine.

  8. Molecular Typing of Pathogenic Leptospira Serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae Strains Circulating in China during the Past 50 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuicai; Yang, Huimian; Li, Xiuwen; Cao, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Haijian; Zeng, Linzi; Xu, Jianmin; Xu, Yinghua; Chang, Yung-Fu; Guo, Xiaokui; Zhu, Yongzhang; Jiang, Xiugao

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is one of the most important neglected tropical infectious diseases worldwide. Icterohaemorrhagiae has been throughout recent history, and still is, the predominant serogroup of this pathogen in China. However, very little in detail is known about the serovars or genotypes of this serogroup. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 120 epidemic strains from five geographically diverse regions in China collected over a 50 year period (1958~2008), and 8 international reference strains characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing and MLST analysis. 115, 11 and 2 strains were identified as L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, and L. kirschneri, respectively. 17 different STs were identified including 69 ST1 strains, 18 ST17, 18 ST128, 9 ST143 and 2 ST209. The remaining 12 strains belonged to 12 different STs. eBURST analysis demonstrated that, among the clonal complexes isolated (CCs), CC1 accounted for 73.3% (88/120) strains representing three STs: ST1, ST128 and ST98. ST1 was the most likely ancestral strain of this CC, followed by singleton CC17 (17/120) and CC143 (11/120). Further analysis of adding 116 serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae strains in the MLST database and studies previously described using global eBURST analysis and MST dendrogram revealed relatively similar ST clustering patterns with five main CCs and 8 singletons among these 244 strains. CC17 was found to be the most prevalent clone of pathogenic Leptospira circulating worldwide. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that ST1 and ST17 strains were distributed among 4 distinct serovars, indicating a highly complicated relationship between serovars and STs. Conclusions/Significance Our studies demonstrated a high level of genetic diversity in the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae strains. Distinct from ST17 or ST37 circulating elsewhere, ST1 included in CC1, has over the past 50 years or so, proven to be the most prevalent ST of pathogenic leptospires isolated in China. Moreover, the

  9. Serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis invasive infection: analysis of the possible vaccination strategies for a mass campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Elena; Venturini, Elisabetta; Bonsignori, Francesca; Galli, Luisa; de Martino, Maurizio

    2010-11-01

    The serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine is available since 1999. In the absence of randomized controlled trials that support a specific schedule, each country has adopted different vaccination programmes. Hereby, we analyse positive and negative aspects of the different vaccination strategies. While waiting for the introduction of other antimeningococcal vaccines, covering also for the Group B meningococci, further studies on effectiveness of an optimal schedule to be adopted in European countries are needed. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  10. Adolescent meningococcal serogroup A, W and Y immune responses following immunization with quadrivalent meningococcal A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine: Optimal age for vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenhorst, Mariëtte B; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2017-01-01

    Recently the incidence of meningococcal serogroup Y (MenY) and in particular serogroup W (MenW) invasive disease has risen in several European countries, including the Netherlands. Adolescents are a target group for primary prevention through vaccination to protect against disease and reduce

  11. Adolescent meningococcal serogroup A, W and Y immune responses following immunization with quadrivalent meningococcal A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine : Optimal age for vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenhorst, Mariëtte B.; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M.; Berbers, Guy A M

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently the incidence of meningococcal serogroup Y (MenY) and in particular serogroup W (MenW) invasive disease has risen in several European countries, including the Netherlands. Adolescents are a target group for primary prevention through vaccination to protect against disease and

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of investigational vaccine formulations against meningococcal serogroups A, B, C, W, and Y in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez-Llorens, Xavier; Aguilera Vaca, Diana Catalina; Abarca, Katia; Maho, Emmanuelle; Graña, Maria Gabriela; Heijnen, Esther; Smolenov, Igor; Dull, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    This phase 2 study assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of investigational formulations of meningococcal ABCWY vaccines, consisting of recombinant proteins (rMenB) and outer membrane vesicle (OMV) components of a licensed serogroup B vaccine, combined with components of a licensed quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM). A total of 495 healthy adolescents were randomized to 6 groups to receive 2 doses (Months 0, 2) of one of 4 formulations of rMenB antigens, with or without OMV, combined with MenACWY-CRM, or 2 doses of rMenB alone or one dose of MenACWY-CRM then a placebo. Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal assay with human complement (hSBA) against serogroups ACWY and serogroup B test strains; solicited reactions and any adverse events (AEs) were assessed. Two MenABCWY vaccinations elicited robust ACWY immune responses, with higher seroresponse rates than one dose of MenACWY-CRM. Bactericidal antibody responses against the rMenB antigens and OMV components were highest in subjects who received 2 doses of OMV-containing MenABCWY formulations, with ≥68% of subjects achieving hSBA titers ≥5 against each of the serogroup B test strains. After the first dose, solicited local reaction rates were higher in the MenABCWY or rMenB groups than the MenACWY-CRM group, but similar across groups after the second dose, consisting mainly of transient injection site pain. Fever (≥38.0°C) was rare and there were no vaccine-related serious AEs. In conclusion, investigational MenABCWY formulations containing OMV components elicited highly immunogenic responses against meningococcal serogroups ACWY, as well as serogroup B test strains, with an acceptable safety profile. [NCT01210885].

  13. Evidence of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in the feces of meat goats at a U.S. slaughter plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M E; Foster, D M; Rogers, A T; Balcomb, C C; Shi, X; Nagaraja, T G

    2013-09-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important human pathogens, and attention to non-O157 serogroups has increased in recent years. Although cattle are normally considered the primary reservoir for STEC, recent illnesses associated with goat contact have indicated that these animals are important potential reservoirs for the organisms. The prevalence of STEC, particularly non-O157 serogroups, in U.S. goats has not been well described. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of six major non-O157 STEC serogroups in the feces of meat goats. Rectal contents from 296 goats were collected postevisceration at a slaughter plant in the southeastern United States over 9 days during a 12-week period from August through October 2012. Samples were enriched in E. coli broth, and DNA was extracted and used as template in an 11-gene multiplex PCR that detected six non-O157 serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O121, O111, and O145) and virulence genes. Samples were considered positive when at least one non-O157 STEC serotype was present with either stx₁ or stx₂. All six non-O157 serogroups were detected by PCR in our samples, and 14.5% of samples were positive for at least one serogroup. Prevalence of O26 was highest, with 6.4% of goat fecal samples positive. The prevalence of O45 was 3.4%, O103 was 4.4%, O111 was 4.1%, O121 was 1.4%, and O145 was 3.0%. Twenty-two (7.4%) of 296 fecal samples had more than one non-O157 serogroup detected in the feces. Two samples had evidence of three non-O157 STEC serogroups. Goats appear to be an important reservoir for non-O157 STEC, and further work to understand the characteristics, epidemiology, and ecology of STEC in these animals is warranted.

  14. Multiplex real-time PCR assays for detection of eight Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food samples by melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Mustapha, Azlin

    2015-12-23

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are pathogenic strains of E. coli that can cause bloody diarrhea and kidney failure. Seven STEC serogroups, O157, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 are responsible for more than 71% of the total infections caused by this group of pathogens. All seven serogroups are currently considered as adulterants in non-intact beef products in the U.S. In this study, two multiplex melt curve real-time PCR assays with internal amplification controls (IACs) were standardized for the detection of eight STEC serogroups. The first multiplex assay targeted E. coli serogroups O145, O121, O104, and O157; while the second set detected E. coli serogroups O26, O45, O103 and O111. The applicability of the assays was tested using 11 different meat and produce samples. For food samples spiked with a cocktail of four STEC serogroups with a combined count of 10 CFU/25 g food, all targets of the multiplex assays were detected after an enrichment period of 6h. The assays also worked efficiently when 325 g of food samples were spiked with 10 CFU of STECs. The assays are not dependent on fluorescent-labeled probes or immunomagnetic beads, and can be used for the detection of eight STEC serogroups in less than 11h. Routine preliminary screening of STECs in food samples is performed by testing for the presence of STEC virulence genes. The assays developed in this study can be useful as a first- or second-tier test for the identification of the eight O serogroup-specific genes in suspected food samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Rapid Laboratory Identification of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C as the Cause of an Outbreak - Liberia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jaymin C; George, Josiah; Vuong, Jeni; Potts, Caelin C; Bozio, Catherine; Clark, Thomas A; Thomas, Jerry; Schier, Joshua; Chang, Arthur; Waller, Jessica L; Diaz, Maureen H; Whaley, Melissa; Jenkins, Laurel T; Fuller, Serena; Williams, Desmond E; Redd, John T; Arthur, Ray R; Taweh, Fahn; Vera Walker, Yatta; Hardy, Patrick; Freeman, Maxwell; Katawera, Victoria; Gwesa, Gulu; Gbanya, Miatta Z; Clement, Peter; Kohar, Henry; Stone, Mardia; Fallah, Mosoka; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Winchell, Jonas M; Wang, Xin; McNamara, Lucy A; Dokubo, E Kainne; Fox, LeAnne M

    2017-10-27

    On April 25, 2017, a cluster of unexplained illness and deaths among persons who had attended a funeral during April 21-22 was reported in Sinoe County, Liberia (1). Using a broad initial case definition, 31 cases were identified, including 13 (42%) deaths. Twenty-seven cases were from Sinoe County (1), and two cases each were from Grand Bassa and Monsterrado counties, respectively. On May 5, 2017, initial multipathogen testing of specimens from four fatal cases using the Taqman Array Card (TAC) assay identified Neisseria meningitidis in all specimens. Subsequent testing using direct real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed N. meningitidis in 14 (58%) of 24 patients with available specimens and identified N. meningitidis serogroup C (NmC) in 13 (54%) patients. N. meningitidis was detected in specimens from 11 of the 13 patients who died; no specimens were available from the other two fatal cases. On May 16, 2017, the National Public Health Institute of Liberia and the Ministry of Health of Liberia issued a press release confirming serogroup C meningococcal disease as the cause of this outbreak in Liberia.

  16. Characterization of Leptospira santarosai Serogroup Grippotyphosa Serovar Bananal Isolated from Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Marvulo, Maria F V; Silva, Jean C R; Paula, Catia D; Costa, Barbara L P; Morais, Zenaide M; Ferreira, Fernando; Neto, José S Ferreira; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Rodents appear to be the most important reservoirs of infection. They contaminate the environment and food and can transmit the pathogen when they are consumed by carnivores. Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) are efficient reservoirs of Leptospira, and because they are in close contact with farm animals and are found in semiurban areas, they represent a risk to public health. We isolated five Leptospira strains from capybara kidneys in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in 2001 and typed them using serologic and molecular techniques. These strains include the Leptospira santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis resulted in a unique pattern distinct from the reference strains, and the isolates clustered with greater than 85% similarity. The isolates also presented higher growth rates than other Leptospira serovars, with high minimal inhibitory concentration values for most of the tested antibiotics, with the exception of penicillin and ampicillin. This isolation and characterization of the L. santarosai serogroup Grippotyphosa serovar Bananal from capybara, highlights the importance of wild and sinantropic rodents as carriers of pathogenic leptospires.

  17. Pneumococcal serotypes and serogroups causing invasive disease in Pakistan, 2005-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Shakoor

    Full Text Available While pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been implemented in most countries worldwide, use in Asia has lagged in part because of a lack of data on the amount of disease that is vaccine preventable in the region. We describe pneumococcal serotypes elicited from 111 episodes of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD from 2005 to 2013 among children and adults in Pakistan. Seventy-three percent (n = 81 of 111 IPD episodes were cases of meningitis (n = 76 in children 0-15 years and n = 5 among adults. Serotypes were determined by target amplification of DNA extracted from pneumococcal isolates (n = 52 or CSF specimens (n = 59. Serogroup 18 was the most common serogroup causing meningitis in children <5 years, accounting for 21% of cases (n = 13. The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 10 or PCV10- related serotypes were found in 61% (n = 47 of childhood (age 0-15 years meningitis episodes. PCV-13 increased this coverage to 63% (one additional serotype 19A; n = 48. Our data indicate that use of PCVs would prevent a large proportion of serious pneumococcal disease.

  18. Genetic characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 strains isolated from animal, food, and clinical samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Alejandra; Lucchesi, Paula M. A.; Sanso, A. Mariel; Etcheverría, Analía I.; Bustamante, Ana V.; Burgán, Julia; Fernández, Luciana; Fernández, Daniel; Leotta, Gerardo; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Padola, Nora L.; Rossen, John W. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) may cause serious illness in human. Here we analyze O26:H11 strains known to be among the most reported STEC strains causing human infections. Genetic characterization of strains isolated from animal, food, and clinical specimens in Argentina showed that most carried either stx1a or stx2a subtypes. Interestingly, stx2a-positive O26:H11 rarely isolated from cattle in other countries showed to be an important proportion of O26:H11 strains circulating in cattle and food in our region. Seventeen percent of the isolates harbored more than one gene associated with antimicrobial resistance. In addition to stx, all strains contained the virulence genes eae-β, tir, efa, iha, espB, cif, espA, espF, espJ, nleA, nleB, nleC, and iss; and all except one contained ehxA, espP, and cba genes. On the other hand, toxB and espI genes were exclusively observed in stx2-positive isolates, whereas katP was only found in stx1a-positive isolates. Our results show that O26:H11 STEC strains circulating in Argentina, including those isolated from humans, cattle, and meat products, present a high pathogenic potential, and evidence that cattle can be a reservoir of O26:H11 strains harboring stx2a. PMID:26539413

  19. Differentiating non-0157:H7 STEC serogroups from ground beef plated on agar media by hyperspetral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The development of an assay to detect and confirm a positive non-O157:H7 isolate is challenging when mixed morphologically results are obtained from the serogroups growing on Rainbow agar. Rainbow agar is only claimed by the manufacturer to be very specific for E.coli O157:H7 strain...

  20. Pathogenicity of Vibrio anguillarum serogroup O1 strains compared to plasmids, outer membrane protein profiles and siderophore production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K.; Gram, Lone; Austin, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    The virulence of 18 strains of Vibrio anguillarum serogroup 01 was compared to plasmid content, expression of siderophores and outer membrane proteins. All strains, irrespective of plasmid content, produced siderophores and inducible outer membrane proteins under iron-limited conditions. Only str...

  1. Could the multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) control Neisseria meningitidis capsular group X outbreaks in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eva; Giuliani, Marzia Monica; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Comanducci, Maurizio; Brunelli, Brunella; Dull, Peter; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2013-02-04

    A new vaccine, 4CMenB, is composed of surface proteins of Neisseria meningitidis and is aimed to target serogroup B (MenB) isolates. The vaccine components are present in meningococcal isolates of other serogroups allowing potential use against meningococcal isolates belonging to non-B serogroups. Isolates of serogroup X (MenX) have been emerged in countries of the African meningitis belt. 4CMenB may offer a vaccine strategy against these isolates as there is no available capsule-based vaccine against MenX. We used the Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) to determine presence, diversity and levels of expression of 4CMenB antigens among 9 MenX isolates from several African countries in order to estimate the potential coverage of MenX by the 4CMenB vaccine. We performed bactericidal assays against these isolates, using pooled sera from 4CMenB-vaccinated infants, adolescents and adults. The African MenX isolates belonged to the same genotype but showed variation in the vaccine antigens. MATS data and bactericidal assays suggest coverage of the 9 African MenX isolates by 4CMenB but not of two unrelated MenX isolates from France. 4CMenB vaccine can be considered for further investigation to control MenX outbreaks in Africa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biofilm formation, antimicrobial susceptibility, serogroups and virulence genes of uropathogenic E. coli isolated from clinical samples in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Tajbakhsh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uropathogenic Escherichia coli O- Serogroups with their virulence factors are the most prevalent causes of UTIs. The present research performed to track common uropathogenic E.coli serogroups, antibiotic resistance pattern of strains and prevalence of virulence genes in isolations having the ability to constitute biofilm. Methods In this research 130 E.coli isolation from patients having UTI symptoms were collected and antimicrobial resistance pattern was performed by Kirby-Bauer method. Polymerase chain reaction was done using primer pairs to identify common serogroups of uropathogenic E.coli and studying virulence genes in isolations creating biofilm. Results Among 130 E.coli isolates, 80 (61.53 % were able to make biofilm that 15 isolates (18.75 % indicated strong reaction, 20 (25 % of medium and 45 (56.25 % of weak biofilm reaction. Among isolations creating biofilm, the highest resistance reported to Ampicillin (87.5 % and the lowest to Nitrofurantoin (3.75 %. The frequency of fimH, pap, sfa and afa genes in isolations having the ability to create strong biofilm reported 93.33 %, 86.66 %, 86.66 % and 66.66 %, respectively. Conclusions The findings indicated the importance of virulence genes in serogroups producing uropathogenic E.coli biofilm. It is recommended that strains producing biofilm before antibiotic use should be studied.

  3. Meningococcal Disease Caused by Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B Serotype 4 in São Paulo, Brazil, 1990 to 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi Claudio Tavares

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A large epidemic of serogroup B meningococcal disease (MD, has been occurring in greater São Paulo, Brazil, since 1988.21 A Cuban-produced vaccine, based on outer-membrane-protein (OMP from serogroup B: serotype 4: serosubtype P1.15 (B:4:P1.15 Neisseria meningitidis, was given to about 2.4 million children aged from 3 months to 6 years during 1989 and 1990. The administration of vaccine had little or no measurable effects on this outbreak. In order to detect clonal changes that could explain the continued increase in the incidence of disease after the vaccination, we serotyped isolates recovered between 1990 and 1996 from 834 patients with systemic disease. Strains B:4:P1.15, which was detected in the area as early as 1977, has been the most prevalent phenotype since 1988. These strains are still prevalent in the area and were responsible for about 68% of 834 serogroup B cases in the last 7 years. We analyzed 438 (52% of these strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs of rRNA genes (ribotyping. The most frequent pattern obtained was referred to as Rb1 (68%. We concluded that the same clone of B:4:P1.15-Rb1 strains was the most prevalent strain and responsible for the continued increase of incidence of serogroup B MD cases in greater São Paulo during the last 7 years in spite of the vaccination trial.

  4. Utilization of a novel autologous killed tri-vaccine (serogroups B [Typhimurium], C [Mbandaka] and E [Orion]) for Salmonella control in commercial poultry breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavic, Anthony; Groves, Peter J; Cox, Julian M

    2010-02-01

    An autologous killed trivalent vaccine (3x10(8) colony-forming units [CFU]), based on three Salmonella serovars (Typhimurium - serogroup B, Mbandaka - serogroup C, and Orion - serogroup E) prevalent in the flocks of Australian poultry companies, was developed using Salenvac techniques. At 20 weeks, hens vaccinated at 12 and 17 weeks as well as non-vaccinated hens were challenged (250 microl of 10(7) CFU) with autologous and heterologous serovars belonging to serogroup B (Typhimurium and Agona), serogroup C (Mbandaka and Infantis) and serogroup E (Orion and Zanzibar). Overall, vaccination resulted in a significant difference in carriage of Salmonella between non-vaccinated and vaccinated commercial Cobb hens (P 0.05) could be determined for serogroup E. All vaccinated flocks produced a significant antibody response (P<0.001) to the S. Typhimurium vaccine strain, measured using a S. Typhimurium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Guildhay), which peaked at 20 weeks of age, with 39% of the hens positive. Maternal antibodies were detected in 16% of the yolks from eggs produced by these flocks. There was a significant difference after challenge with Salmonella (P <0.05) among 1-day-old chicks from vaccinated versus non-vaccinated parents, when challenged using 10(4) CFU but not when challenged with 10(8) CFU. The success of this trial resulted in the incorporation of this vaccine into a Salmonella control system in commercial broiler breeder production.

  5. Serogrupos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en cepas de Shigella Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility in Shigella strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Díaz Rigau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Shigella spp. es uno de los agentes causales más importantes de diarrea aguda en los niños. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer la frecuencia de serogrupos y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a los fármacos de elección y a los alternativos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo entre enero de 2004 y diciembre de 2006 a partir de 34 cepas de Shigella spp. aisladas en heces de niños menores de 5 años ingresados en el Hospital «Aleida Fernández Chardiet» (Municipio Güines a causa de enfermedad diarreica aguda. RESULTADOS. Los serogrupos encontrados fueron S. sonnei (70,5 % y S. flexneri (29,5 %. Ambos serogrupos mostraron altos niveles de resistencia al trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol y a la ampicilina, además en las cepas de S. sonnei se encontró resistencia al ácido nalidíxico y en las de S. flexneri al cloranfenicol. Todas las cepas mostraron altos porcentajes de sensibilidad a la ceftriaxona, norfloxacina y ciprofloxacina. El 70 % de las cepas de S. sonnei fueron multirresistentes. El patrón de multirresistencia (ampicilina, trimetoprim-sulfamtetoxazol y ácido nalidíxico se encontró en ambos serogrupos. CONCLUSIONES. La determinación y vigilancia de los patrones de resistencia facilita el control de la política de uso de antibióticos en la región estudiada y previene el surgimiento de cepas resistentes a fármacos de nueva generación.INTRODUCTION: Shigella ssp. is one of the more important causal agents of acute diarrhea in children. Present research has as aim to know serogroups frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility to choice drugs, and to its alternatives. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out between January 2004 and December 2006 of 34 strains of Shigella isolated from children lower than 5 years admitted in "Aleida Fernández Chardiet" Hospital in Güines Municipality by acute diarrheic disease. RESULTS: Serogroups included S. sonnei (70

  6. Proteus mirabilis RMS 203 as a new representative of the O13 Proteus serogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palusiak, Agata; Siwińska, Małgorzata; Zabłotni, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The unique feature of some Proteus O-polysaccharides is occurrence of an amide of galacturonic acid with N(ε)-[(S/R)-1-Carboxyethyl]-L-lysine, GalA6(2S,8S/R-AlaLys). The results of the serological studies presented here, with reference to known O-antigens structures suggest that GalA6(2S,8S/R-AlaLys) or 2S,8R-AlaLys contribute to cross-reactions of O13 Proteus antisera, and Proteeae LPSs. It was also revealed that the Proteus mirabilis RMS 203 strain can be classified into the O13 serogroup, represented so far by two strains: Proteus mirabilis 26/57 and Proteus vulgaris 8344. The O13 LPS is a serologically important antigen with a fragment common to LPSs of different species in the Proteeae tribe.

  7. Genomic characterization of a large outbreak of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in Quebec City, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lévesque

    Full Text Available During the summer of 2012, a major Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 outbreak occurred in Quebec City, Canada, which caused 182 declared cases of Legionnaire's disease and included 13 fatalities. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from 23 patients as well as from 32 cooling towers located in the vicinity of the outbreak were recovered for analysis. In addition, 6 isolates from the 1996 Quebec City outbreak and 4 isolates from patients unrelated to both outbreaks were added to allow comparison. We characterized the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, sequence-based typing, and whole genome sequencing. The comparison of patients-isolated strains to cooling tower isolates allowed the identification of the tower that was the source of the outbreak. Legionella pneumophila strain Quebec 2012 was identified as a ST-62 by sequence-based typing methodology. Two new Legionellaceae plasmids were found only in the epidemic strain. The LVH type IV secretion system was found in the 2012 outbreak isolates but not in the ones from the 1996 outbreak and only in half of the contemporary human isolates. The epidemic strains replicated more efficiently and were more cytotoxic to human macrophages than the environmental strains tested. At least four Icm/Dot effectors in the epidemic strains were absent in the environmental strains suggesting that some effectors could impact the intracellular replication in human macrophages. Sequence-based typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis combined with whole genome sequencing allowed the identification and the analysis of the causative strain including its likely environmental source.

  8. [Sequences and expression pattern of mce gene in Leptospira interrogans of different serogroups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Xue, Feng; Yan, Jie; Mao, Ya-fei; Li, Li-wei

    2008-11-01

    To determine the frequency of mce gene in Leptospira interrogans, and to investigate the gene transcription levels of L. interrogans before and after infecting cells. The segments of entire mce genes from 13 L.interrogans strains and 1 L.biflexa strain were amplified by PCR and then sequenced after T-A cloning. A prokaryotic expression system of mce gene was constructed; the expression and output of the target recombinant protein rMce were examined by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot assay. Rabbits were intradermally immunized with rMce to prepare the antiserum, the titer of antiserum was measured by immunodiffusion test. The transcription levels of mce gene in L.interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar lai strain 56601 before and after infecting J774A.1 cells were monitored by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. mce gene was carried in all tested L.interrogans strains, but not in L.biflexa serogroup Semaranga serovar patoc strain Patoc I. The similarities of nucleotide and putative amino acid sequences of the cloned mce genes to the reported sequences (GenBank accession No: NP712236) were 99.02%-100% and 97.91%-100%, respectively. The constructed prokaryotic expression system of mce gene expressed rMce and the output of rMce was about 5% of the total bacterial proteins. The antiserum against whole cell of L.interrogans strain 56601 efficiently recognized rMce. After infecting J774A.1 cells, transcription levels of the mce gene in L.interrogans strain 56601 were remarkably up-regulated. The constructed prokaryotic expression system of mce gene and the prepared antiserum against rMce provide useful tools for further study of the gene function.

  9. Meningococcal serogroup C immunogenicity, antibody persistence and memory B-cells induced by the monovalent meningococcal serogroup C versus quadrivalent meningococcal serogroup ACWY conjugate booster vaccine: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ravenhorst, Mariëtte B; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Knol, Mirjam J; Stoof, Susanne P; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2017-08-24

    Adolescents are considered the key transmitters of meningococci in the population. Meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) antibody levels wane rapidly after MenC conjugate vaccination in young children, leaving adolescents with low antibody levels. In this study, we compared MenC immune responses after booster vaccination in adolescence with either tetanus toxoid conjugated MenC (MenC-TT) or MenACWY (MenACWY-TT) vaccine, and aimed to establish an optimal age for this booster. Healthy 10-, 12-, and 15-year-olds, who received a single dose of MenC-TT vaccine in early childhood, were randomized to receive MenC-TT or MenACWY-TT vaccine. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (rSBA) titers, MenC polysaccharide (PS) specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 and MenC-specific IgG and IgA memory B-cells were determined before, one month and one year after the booster. Non-inferiority was tested by comparing geometric mean titers (GMTs) between vaccinees at one year. Of 501 participants, 464 (92.6%) were included in the 'according to protocol' cohort analysis. At one month, all participants developed high MenC rSBA titers (>24,000 in all groups) and MenC-PS-specific IgG levels. Non-inferiority was not demonstrated one year after the booster with higher MenC GMTs after the monovalent vaccine, but 462/464 (99.6%) participants maintained protective MenC rSBA titers. IgG levels mainly consisted of IgG1, but similar levels of increase were observed for IgG1 and IgG2. Both vaccines induced a clear increase in the number of circulating MenC-PS specific IgG and IgA memory B-cells. Between one month and one year, the highest antibody decay rate was observed in the 10-year-olds. Both MenC-TT and MenACWY-TT vaccines induced robust protective MenC immune responses after the booster vaccination, although non-inferiority could not be demonstrated for the MenACWY-TT vaccine after one year. Our results underline the importance of optimal timing of a meningococcal booster vaccination to protect against MenC disease

  10. Potential Capsule Switching from Serogroup Y to B: The Characterization of Three such Neisseria meningitidis Isolates Causing Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond SW Tsang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Three group B Neisseria meningitidis isolates, recovered from meningococcal disease cases in Canada and typed as B:2c:P1.5, were characterized. Multilocus sequence typing showed that all three isolates were related because of an identical sequence type (ST 573. Isolates typed as 2c:P1.5 are common in serogroup Y meningococci but rare in isolates from serogroups B or C. Although no serogroup Y isolates have been typed as ST-573, eight isolates showed five to six housekeeping gene alleles that were identical to that of ST-573. This suggested that the B:2c:P1.5 isolates may have originated from serogroup Y organisms, possibly by capsule switching.

  11. Temporal associations between national outbreaks of meningococcal serogroup W and C disease in the Netherlands and England: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knol, Mirjam J; Hahné, Susan J M; Lucidarme, Jay; Campbell, Helen; de Melker, Hester E; Gray, Stephen J; Borrow, Ray; Ladhani, Shamez N; Ramsay, Mary E; van der Ende, Arie

    2017-10-01

    Since 2009, the incidence of meningococcal serogroup W disease has increased rapidly in the UK because of a single strain (the so-called original UK strain) belonging to the hypervirulent sequence type-11 clonal complex (cc11), with a variant outbreak strain (the so-called 2013 strain) emerging in 2013. Subsequently, the Netherlands has had an increase in the incidence of meningococcal serogroup W disease. We assessed the temporal and phylogenetic associations between the serogroup W outbreaks in the Netherlands and England, and the historical serogroup C outbreaks in both countries. For this observational cohort study, we used national surveillance data for meningococcal serogroup W and serogroup C disease in the Netherlands and England for the epidemiological years (July to June) 1992-93 to 2015-16. We also did whole genome sequencing and core genome multilocus sequence typing (1546 loci) on serogroup W disease isolates from both countries for surveillance years 2008-09 to 2015-16. We used Poisson regression to compare the annual relative increase in the incidence of serogroup W and serogroup C between both countries. In the Netherlands, the incidence of meningococcal serogroup W disease increased substantially in 2015-16 compared with 2014-15, with an incidence rate ratio of 5·2 (95% CI 2·0-13·5) and 11% case fatality. In England, the incidence increased substantially in 2012-13 compared with 2011-12, with an incidence rate ratio of 1·8 (1·2-2·8). The relative increase in the Netherlands from 2014-15 to 2015-16 was 418% (95% CI 99-1248), which was significantly higher than the annual relative increase of 79% (61-99) per year in England from 2011-12 to 2014-15 (p=0·03). Cases due to meningococcal serogroup W cc11 (MenW:cc11) emerged in 2012-13 in the Netherlands. Of 29 MenW:cc11 cases found up to 2015-16, 26 (90%) were caused by the 2013 strain. For both the current serogroup W outbreak and the historical serogroup C outbreak, the increase in incidence

  12. Prevalence of serogroups and virulence genes in Escherichia coli associated with postweaning diarrhoea and edema disease in pigs and a comparison of diagnostic approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendahl, K.

    2002-01-01

    Identification of Escherichia coli causing porcine postweaning diarrhoea (PWD) or edema disease (ED) requires knowledge regarding the prevalent pathotypes within a given region. This study was undertaken to determine the present distribution of serogroups. hemolytic activity and virulence factor...

  13. Assessment of intercentre reproducibility and epidemiological concordance of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 genotyping by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fry, N K; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Bernander, S

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this work were to assess (i) the intercentre reproducibility and epidemiological concordance of amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis for epidemiological typing of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, and (ii) the suitability of the method for standardisation and implementation...... by members of the European Working Group on Legionella Infections. Fifty coded isolates comprising two panels of well-characterised strains, a "reproducibility" panel (n=20) and an "epidemiologically related" panel (n=30), were sent to 13 centres in 12 European countries. Analysis was undertaken in each...... using gel analysis software yielded R=1.00 and E=1.00, with 12, 13 or 14 types. This method can be used as a simple, rapid screening tool for epidemiological typing of isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Results demonstrate that the method can be highly reproducible (R=1...

  14. Antigen sequence typing of outer membrane protein (fetA gene of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A from Delhi & adjoining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dwivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a fatal disease. Meningococcal meningitis is an endemic disease in Delhi and irregular pattern of outbreaks has been reported in India. All these outbreaks were associated with serogroup A. Detailed molecular characterization of N. meningitidis is required for the management of this fatal disease. In this study, we characterized antigenic diversity of surface exposed outer membrane protein (OMP FetA antigen of N. meningitidis serogroup A isolates obtained from cases of invasive meningococcal meningitis in Delhi, India. Methods: Eight isolates of N. meningitidis were collected from cerebrospinal fluid during October 2008 to May 2011 from occasional cases of meningococcal meningitis. Seven isolates were from outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis in 2005-2006 in Delhi and its adjoining areas. These were subjected to molecular typing of fetA gene, an outer membrane protein gene. Results: All 15 N. meningitides isolates studied were serogroup A. This surface exposed porin is putatively under immune pressure. Hence as a part of molecular characterization, genotyping was carried out to find out the diversity in outer membrane protein (FetA gene among the circulating isolates of N. meningitidis. All 15 isolates proved to be of the same existing allele type of FetA variable region (VR when matched with global database. The allele found was F3-1 for all the isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: There was no diversity reported in the outer membrane protein FetA in the present study and hence this protein appeared to be a stable molecule. More studies on molecular characterization of FetA antigen are required from different serogroups circulating in different parts of the world.

  15. IncA/C plasmids harboured in serious multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 strains in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruibai; Yu, Dong; Zhu, Lianhui; Li, Jie; Yue, Junjie; Kan, Biao

    2015-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 emerged in 1992 and is one of two major serogroups to have caused cholera epidemics. After 1998, serious multidrug-resistant (MDR) O139 strains quickly became common in China, showing a multidrug resistance profile to eight antibiotics. It is a great threat to public health, and elucidation of its mechanisms of resistance will provide a helpful guide for the clinical treatment and prevention of cholera. In this study, mega-plasmids from MDR V. cholerae O139 strains were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) without enzyme digestion. One plasmid was isolated and sequenced, belonging to the IncA/C family. Ten antibiotic resistance genes were found in the MDR regions, including a blaTEM-20 gene, and these genes endowed the host with resistance to seven antibiotics. This kind of plasmid was positive in 71.2% (198/278) of toxigenic O139 strains, and the rate of plasmid positivity was consistent with the yearly change in MDR rates of these strains. This study reveals an important role of the IncA/C family plasmid in the spread of multiple antibiotic resistance of epidemic V. cholerae serogroup O139 strains, which has recombined with plasmids from different bacterial species and transferred among V. cholerae strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Legionella species and serogroups in Malaysian water cooling towers: identification by latex agglutination and PCR-DNA sequencing of isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Stacey Foong Yee; Goh, Fen-Ning; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of Legionella species in water cooling towers located in different parts of Malaysia to obtain information that may inform public health policies for the prevention of legionellosis. A total of 20 water samples were collected from 11 cooling towers located in three different states in east, west and south Malaysia. The samples were concentrated by filtration and treated with an acid buffer before plating on to BCYE agar. Legionella viable counts in these samples ranged from 100 to 2,000 CFU ml(-1); 28 isolates from the 24 samples were examined by latex agglutination as well as 16S rRNA and rpoB PCR-DNA sequencing. These isolates were identified as Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (35.7%), L. pneumophila serogroup 2-14 (39%), L. pneumophila non-groupable (10.7%), L. busanensis, L. gormanii, L. anisa and L. gresilensis. L. pneumophila was clearly the predominant species at all sampling sites. Repeat sampling from the same cooling tower and testing different colonies from the same water sample showed concurrent colonization by different serogroups and different species of Legionella in some of the cooling towers.

  17. Biochemical characteristics, serogroups, and virulence factors of aeromonas species isolated from cases of diarrhoea and domestic water samples in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavandi S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas species with respect to their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping and virulence factors, in order to find a phenotypic marker of enteropathogenicity. METHODS: A total of 55 Aeromonas spp. inclusive of 19 isolates from cases of diarrhoea, and 36 from water samples comprising, 10 isolates of A. hydrophila, 21 isolates each of A. sobria, and A. caviae, two isolates of A. jandaei and one isolate of A. veronii were subjected to analysis of their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping, and virulence factors. RESULTS: Among the differences recorded in the biochemical characteristics in the three major species, the most striking characteristic was fermentation of lactose, which was observed in all the 11 A. caviae isolates recovered from water samples. None of the 10 clinical isolates of A. caviae tested fermented lactose. The clinical Aeromonas isolates belonged to seven typable serogroups, O:13, O:14, O:16, O:21, O:27, O:32 and O:35. The environmental isolates belonged to eight different serogroups, such as, O:3, O:11, O:14, O:16, O:18, O:28, O:64 and O:78 and were predominated by serotypes O:18 and O:64. Among the virulence factors tested, 89% of the environmental isolates produced b haemolysin, while only 62.3% of clinical isolates were able to do so. There was no significant difference between the clinical and environmental aeromonads with respect to their enterotoxigenicity in suckling mice in vivo, cytotoxicity in vitro in Vero cell monolayers, and ability to produce siderophores. CONCLUSION: Efforts to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. did not reveal significant difference between them. However, difference was observed with respect to their ability to produce b haemolysin, wherein, higher percentage of environmental isolates was haemolytic. The results also suggest

  18. Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae O1 serogroup in Assam, India: A hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajanta; Dutta, Bornali Sarmah; Rasul, Elmy Samsun; Barkataki, Dipa; Saikia, Anjanamoyee; Hazarika, Naba Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Although cholera remains to be an important public health problem, studies on reliable population-based estimates of laboratory confirmed cholera in endemic areas are limited worldwide. The aim of this hospital-based study was to evaluate the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae serogroup in Assam, India, during 2003-2013. Stool samples/rectal swabs were collected from acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) cases during 2003-2013 and processed by standard microbiological procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Year-wise epidemiological trend of cholera was analyzed. Cholera contributed to 3.93 per cent of AWD cases. In Assam, cholera was found to be more prevalent in the rural areas (6.7%) followed by the tea gardens (5.06%), urban slum (1.9%) and urban areas (1.4%). Highest proportion of cholera (13.7%) was observed in 0-10 yr age group. Of them, 11.5 per cent belonged to 0-5 yr age group. V. cholerae O1 El Tor serotype Ogawa was the predominant isolate. Multiple drug-resistant isolates of V. cholerae O1 Ogawa were reported in the study. Emergence of resistance amongst V. cholerae towards many antibiotics is a matter of concern. Hence, continuous surveillance for diarrhoeal disorders is necessary to control the future outbreaks of cholera in this region.

  19. Cross-protection in Neisseria meningitidis serogroups Y and W polysaccharides: A comparative conformational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttel, Michelle M; Timol, Zaheer; Ravenscroft, Neil

    2017-06-29

    The capsular polysaccharide is the main virulence factor in meningococcus. The capsular polysaccharides for meningococcal serogroups Y and W are almost identical polymers of hexose-sialic acid, suggesting the possibility of cross-protection between group Y and W vaccines. However, early studies indicated that they elicit different levels of cross-protection. Here we explore the conformations of the meningococcal Y and W polysaccharides with molecular dynamics simulations of three repeating unit oligosaccharide strands. We find differences in Y and W antigen conformation: the Y polysaccharide has a single dominant conformation, whereas W exhibits a family of conformations including the Y conformation. This result is supported by our NMR NOESY analysis, which indicates key close contacts for W that are not present in Y. These conformational differences provide an explanation for the different levels of cross-protection measured for the Y and W monovalent vaccines and the high group W responses observed in HibMenCY-TT vaccinees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross neutralizing antibodies in hamsters vaccinated with leptospiral bacterins produced with three serovars of serogroup Sejroe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Tabata

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Three leptospiral bacterins, produced with different serovars of Serogroup Sejroe, namely the hardjo (bacterin A, wolffi (bacterin B and guaricura (bacterin C, were evaluated in male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus by comparing the agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies titers using microscopic agglutination (MAT and in vitro growth inhibition (GIT tests. The immunization schedule was based on two 1.0 mL doses of non-diluted formalininactivated whole culture bacterin given through subcutaneous route with 10-day interval. The challenge was performed ten days after the second vaccine dose, when the animals were inoculated with 0.2 mL of non-inactivated cultures of each serovar through intraperitoneal route. On the 21st post-challenge day (PCD, all animals were bled and their sera were joined in pools (n=8 and tested by MAT and GIT. All vaccinated and control animals presented no clinical signs of leptospirosis after the challenge, but the serovar guaricura was isolated from the kidneys of control animals on the 21st PCD. The MAT results showed cross agglutinins between serovars hardjo and wolffi, and between wolffi and guaricura. The GIT results revealed the presence of cross neutralizing antibodies between serovars wolffi or guaricura against hardjo, wolffi and guaricura. It was found that the tested strain of serovar hardjo did not produce detectable levels of neutralizing antibodies, indicating its poor immunogenicity.

  1. Typing of O26 enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from humans and cattle with IS621 multiplex PCR-based fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainil, J G; Bardiau, M; Ooka, T; Ogura, Y; Murase, K; Etoh, Y; Ichihara, S; Horikawa, K; Buvens, G; Piérard, D; Itoh, T; Hayashi, T

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated a typing method of O26:H11 enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC) based on the variation in genomic location and copy numbers of IS621. Two multiplex PCRs, targeting either the left (5') or right (3') IS/chromosome junction of 12 IS621 insertion sites and one PCR specific of another truncated copy, were developed. Thirty-eight amplification profiles were observed amongst a collection of 69 human and bovine O26:H11 EHEC and EPEC. Seventy-one per cent of the 45 EHEC and EPEC with identical IS621 fingerprints within groups of two, three or four isolates had >85% pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile similarity, including four groups of epidemiologically related EHEC or EPEC, while most of the groups had identical IS621 fingerprints and PFGE profiles. The IS621 fingerprinting and the PFGE are complementary typing assays of EHEC and EPEC; though, the former is less discriminatory. The IS621 printing method represents a rapid (24 h) first-line surveillance and typing assay, to compare and trace back O26:H11 EHEC and EPEC during surveys in farms, multiple human cases and outbreaks. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Belgian Government works.

  2. Fate of Escherichia coli O26 in Corn Silage Experimentally Contaminated at Ensiling, at Silo Opening, or after Aerobic Exposure, and Protective Effect of Various Bacterial Inoculants▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunière, Lysiane; Gleizal, Audrey; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Chevallier, Isabelle; Thévenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for human illness. Ruminants are recognized as a major reservoir of STEC, and animal feeds, such as silages, have been pointed out as a possible vehicle for the spread of STEC. The present study aimed to monitor the fate of pathogenic E. coli O26 strains in corn material experimentally inoculated (105 CFU/g) during ensiling, just after silo opening, and after several days of aerobic exposure. The addition of 3 bacterial inoculants, Propionibacterium sp., Lactobacillus buchneri, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (106 CFU/g), was evaluated for their abilities to control these pathogens. The results showed that E. coli O26 could not survive in corn silage 5 days postensiling, and the 3 inoculants tested did not modify the fate of pathogen survival during ensiling. In the case of direct contamination at silo opening, E. coli O26 could be totally eradicated from corn silage previously inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The combination of proper ensiling techniques and the utilization of selected bacterial inoculants appears to represent a good strategy to guarantee nutritional qualities of cattle feed while at the same time limiting the entry of pathogenic E. coli into the epidemiological cycle to improve the microbial safety of the food chain. PMID:21984243

  3. Shifts in the Antibiotic Susceptibility, Serogroups, and Clonal Complexes of Neisseria meningitidis in Shanghai, China: A Time Trend Analysis of the Pre-Quinolone and Quinolone Eras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingliang; Guo, Qinglan; Wang, Ye; Zou, Ying; Wang, Gangyi; Zhang, Xi; Xu, Xiaogang; Zhao, Miao; Hu, Fupin; Qu, Di; Chen, Min; Wang, Minggui

    2015-06-01

    Fluoroquinolones have been used broadly since the end of the 1980s and have been recommended for Neisseria meningitidis prophylaxis since 2005 in China. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how N. meningitidis antimicrobial susceptibility, serogroup prevalence, and clonal complex (CC) prevalence shifted in association with the introduction and expanding use of quinolones in Shanghai, a region with a traditionally high incidence of invasive disease due to N. meningitidis. A total of 374 N. meningitidis isolates collected by the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention between 1965 and 2013 were studied. Shifts in the serogroups and CCs were observed, from predominantly serogroup A CC5 (84%) in 1965-1973 to serogroup A CC1 (58%) in 1974-1985, then to serogroup C or B CC4821 (62%) in 2005-2013. The rates of ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility in N. meningitidis disease isolates increased from 0% in 1965-1985 to 84% (31/37) in 2005-2013 (p convenience isolates from 1965-1985 were available. The increasing prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance since 2005 in Shanghai was associated with the spread of hypervirulent lineages CC4821 and CC5. Two resistant meningococcal clones ChinaCC4821-R1-C/B and ChinaCC5-R14-A have emerged in Shanghai during the quinolone era. Ciprofloxacin should be utilized with caution for the chemoprophylaxis of N. meningitidis in China.

  4. A phase 2 randomized controlled trial of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prymula, Roman; Esposito, Susanna; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Xie, Fang; Toneatto, Daniela; Kohl, Igor; Dull, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    The novel meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB, Bexsero(®)), recently approved in Europe and Australia, may soon be included in routine infant immunization schedules, subject to guidance from national or regional recommending bodies. In the development of 4CMenB and consistent with other newly introduced vaccines, clinical studies have shown concomitant administration with routine infant vaccines induces an incremental increase in some reactions, including fever. As this may hinder acceptability, we examined the impact of prophylactic paracetamol on the occurrence of fever and other solicited reactions, as well as the immune responses to study vaccines, in a prospectively designed study. 4CMenB was administered as a 4-dose series at 2, 3, 4, and 12 months of age concomitantly with routine infant vaccines: DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib and PCV7, with or without prophylactic paracetamol; a third group received MenC vaccine. Immune responses to 4CMenB were not decreased by the use of paracetamol prophylaxis and there were no clinically relevant effects on immune responses to routine vaccines. Occurrence of fever was higher in infants co-administered with 4CMenB compared with those given MenC vaccine, but was significantly decreased by prophylactic paracetamol, as were other solicited reactions to vaccination, both local and systemic. Co-administration of 4CMenB had an acceptable tolerability profile, with no withdrawals due to vaccination-related adverse events. Inclusion of 4CMenB in routine infant immunization schedules will be a major advance in the control of meningococcal disease, and our study indicates that by using paracetamol prophylaxis, post-vaccination reactions are reduced without clinically relevant negative consequences on vaccine immunogenicity.

  5. An outbreak of serogroup C (ST-11) meningococcal disease in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Cruz, Enrique; Espinosa-De Los Monteros, Luz Elena; Navarro-Alvarez, Samuel; Aranda-Lozano, Jose Luis; Volker-Soberanes, Maria Luisa; Rivas-Landeros, Rosa Maria; Alvelais-Arzamendi, Ariadna Annete; Vazquez, Julio Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) has been reported to be endemic in children from Tijuana, Mexico and the risk of an outbreak was always a threat. To describe all clinical, epidemiological and microbiological features of a meningococcal outbreak that occurred in Tijuana, Mexico. All cases with IMD were admitted at different emergency departments within the city and diagnosed by culture and agglutination tests. Further restriction fragment length polymorphism pulse field gel electrophoresis (RFLP-PFGE) and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. All clinical and epidemiological characteristics and interventions were evaluated, as well as risk factors associated with mortality. From 30 January 2013 to 30 March 2013 there were 19 cases of IMD all caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C. The median age was 16 years (2-47), with higher frequency among individuals at least 13 years old (73.7%). At admission, meningitis was the main clinical presentation (94.7%), followed by purpura (78.9%), septic shock (42.1%) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, 36.8%). Overall mortality was seven (36.8%). Variables associated with higher mortality were, at admission, presence of septic shock, DIC and thrombocytopenia less than 70,000. All 19 cases had no identifiable site or cluster as the source of the outbreak. RFLP-PFGE showed a discriminatory power for only one profile on all N. meningitidis strains analyzed and a clone ST-11 was identified in all strains. Public health interventions were continuous case reporting of all suspected cases of IMD, an increase in active surveillance in all hospitals, training of medical and laboratory personnel, massive and rapid chemoprophylaxis to all close contacts as indicated, and promotion of good health habits. An outbreak with high mortality of IMD occurred in Tijuana, Mexico. This event and evidence of endemicity should encourage health authorities to evaluate meningococcal vaccination in the region.

  6. [Community-acquired pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Study of 97 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, José Ramón; Montejo, José Miguel; Cancelo, Laura; Zalacaín, Rafael; López, Leyre; Fernández Gil de Pareja, Joaquín; Alonso, Eva; Oñate, Javier

    2003-10-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the causal agent of 5% to 12% of sporadic community-acquired pneumonia cases, though rates are changing with the use of new diagnostic methods. This is a retrospective study of all patients admitted to our hospital with community-acquired pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophila between 1997 and 2001. Diagnostic criteria included either a positive Legionella serogroup 1 urinary antigen test or seroconversion and a chest radiograph consistent with pneumonia. A total of 97 patients were studied. Ninety cases (92.8%) were community-acquired and 7 (7.2%) were associated with travelling. In 82 cases (84.5%) the presentation was sporadic. Seventy-five patients were smokers (77.3%). The most common symptoms were fever in 91 patients (93.8%) and cough in 67 (68.1%). In five patients (5.2%) creatine phosphokinase concentrations were over 5 times their baseline values (in two over 100 times); four of these patients presented acute renal failure. Seroconversion was observed in 23/42 patients (54.8%). There were no statistically significant differences between the administration of erythromycin or clarithromycin in monotherapy, or in combination with rifampin. Nineteen patients (19.6%) presented acute renal failure and mechanical ventilation was necessary in 22 (22.7%). Twelve patients died (12.5%). Independent prognostic factors associated with death included respiratory rate > 30 breaths/min, urea > 60 mg/dL and PaO2 scale scores and the presence of complications or mortality. The Legionella urinary antigen test permits early diagnosis and treatment of this disease. The severity scale is an indicator of complications or death.

  7. Prevalence of Infection-Competent Serogroup 6 Legionella pneumophila within Premise Plumbing in Southeast Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda G. Byrne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coinciding with major changes to its municipal water system, Flint, MI, endured Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks in 2014 and 2015. By sampling premise plumbing in Flint in the fall of 2016, we found that 12% of homes harbored legionellae, a frequency similar to that in residences in neighboring areas. To evaluate the genetic diversity of Legionella pneumophila in Southeast Michigan, we determined the sequence type (ST and serogroup (SG of the 18 residential isolates from Flint and Detroit, MI, and the 33 clinical isolates submitted by hospitals in three area counties in 2013 to 2016. Common to one environmental and four clinical samples were strains of L. pneumophila SG1 and ST1, the most prevalent ST worldwide. Among the Flint premise plumbing isolates, 14 of 16 strains were of ST367 and ST461, two closely related SG6 strain types isolated previously from patients and corresponding environmental samples. Each of the representative SG1 clinical strains and SG6 environmental isolates from Southeast Michigan infected and survived within macrophage cultures at least as well as a virulent laboratory strain, as judged by microscopy and by enumerating CFU. Likewise, 72 h after infection, the yield of viable-cell counts increased >100-fold for each of the representative SG1 clinical isolates, Flint premise plumbing SG6 ST367 and -461 isolates, and two Detroit residential isolates. We verified by immunostaining that SG1-specific antibody does not cross-react with the SG6 L. pneumophila environmental strains. Because the widely used urinary antigen diagnostic test does not readily detect non-SG1 L. pneumophila, Legionnaires’ disease caused by SG6 L. pneumophila is likely underreported worldwide.

  8. Effectiveness of a mass immunization campaign against serogroup C meningococci in children in the Federal State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupek Emil

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to vaccine efficacy studies, there is a pressing need to evaluate vaccine effectiveness in a way that takes into account the limitations of health care systems in certain settings. An attempt to reach this objective was exemplified by a vaccination campaign against serogroup C meningococci in the federal state of Santa Catarina, in Brazil. A polysaccharide vaccine against serogroup C meningococci was administered to all individuals between 6 months and 14 years of age in March, 1996, in the municipalities that had the highest incidence of meningococcal disease in the previous year. All cases of the disease due to this serogroup observed in Santa Catarina during a 1-year period before and after the vaccination were included in the analysis. The cumulative incidence rate ratio was calculated for the unvaccinated compared to the vaccinated area. As a second step, the ratio of this quantity for the period before and after the vaccination, i.e. the ratio of the rate ratios (RRR, was calculated. One minus RRR was used to estimate the vaccine effectiveness. In the general population, the vaccine effectiveness was 74.3% (95% confidence intervals 52.7% to 99.6%. In children 6 months to 14 years, vaccine effectiveness was 93.1% (85.2% to 100%. Vaccine effectiveness could not be confirmed within more specific age bands, probably due to the lack of statistical power. It is concluded that group C meningococcal vaccine is effective in reducing the occurrence of meningococcal disease in children 6 months to 14 years of age, and that the ratio of rate ratios (RRR in a useful method to evaluate vaccine effectiveness.

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine in healthy adolescents in Korea--A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoan Jong; Choe, Young June; Hong, Young-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Park, Su Eun; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Oh, Chi-Eun; Lee, Hyunju; Song, Hyoyoung; Bock, Hans; Casula, Daniela; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-02-24

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is a significant cause of septicaemia and meningitis worldwide. This phase 3 randomised, controlled study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine, 4CMenB, in healthy Korean adolescents. 264 adolescents (11-17 years old) were randomised to receive two doses, one month apart, of 4CMenB or control vaccines [placebo followed by one dose of a quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY glycoconjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM)]. Immunogenicity was evaluated by serum bactericidal assay with human complement (hSBA) against three serogroup B test strains specific for individual vaccine antigens (fHbp, NadA or PorA P1.4), and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the NHBA antigen. Solicited reactions and adverse events (AEs) were assessed. One month post-second vaccination, 98%, 97%, and 97% of subjects in the 4CMenB group achieved hSBA titres ≥ 4 against the fHbp, NadA and PorA test strains, respectively, while percentages in the Control group were comparable to baseline (27%, 16%, and 17%, respectively). Geometric mean ELISA concentrations (GMCs) against NHBA increased 52-fold relative to baseline in the 4CMenB group, while there was no substantial increase in GMCs in the Control group (1.05-fold). Frequencies of solicited reactions after any vaccination were higher in the 4CMenB group than in the Control group, although most reactions were of short duration and mild to moderate intensity. There were no vaccine-related serious AEs. Two doses of 4CMenB induced robust immune responses against the vaccine antigens and were well tolerated, with no safety concerns identified, in Korean adolescents (NCT01973218). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of a mass immunization campaign against serogroup C meningococci in children in the Federal State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Kupek

    Full Text Available In addition to vaccine efficacy studies, there is a pressing need to evaluate vaccine effectiveness in a way that takes into account the limitations of health care systems in certain settings. An attempt to reach this objective was exemplified by a vaccination campaign against serogroup C meningococci in the federal state of Santa Catarina, in Brazil. A polysaccharide vaccine against serogroup C meningococci was administered to all individuals between 6 months and 14 years of age in March, 1996, in the municipalities that had the highest incidence of meningococcal disease in the previous year. All cases of the disease due to this serogroup observed in Santa Catarina during a 1-year period before and after the vaccination were included in the analysis. The cumulative incidence rate ratio was calculated for the unvaccinated compared to the vaccinated area. As a second step, the ratio of this quantity for the period before and after the vaccination, i.e. the ratio of the rate ratios (RRR, was calculated. One minus RRR was used to estimate the vaccine effectiveness. In the general population, the vaccine effectiveness was 74.3% (95% confidence intervals 52.7% to 99.6%. In children 6 months to 14 years, vaccine effectiveness was 93.1% (85.2% to 100%. Vaccine effectiveness could not be confirmed within more specific age bands, probably due to the lack of statistical power. It is concluded that group C meningococcal vaccine is effective in reducing the occurrence of meningococcal disease in children 6 months to 14 years of age, and that the ratio of rate ratios (RRR in a useful method to evaluate vaccine effectiveness.

  11. Molecular and serological characterization of Leptospira kirschneri serogroup Pomona isolated from a human case in a Brazilian rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Teruszkin Balassiano

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is an important health concern in Brazil. Currently, information on the epidemiology of the disease in the rural areas of the country is lacking. METHODS: Serological and molecular techniques were used to characterize a clinical isolate of Leptospira. RESULTS: The strain CLEP 00060, isolated from a 59-year-old man in a rural area of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, was identified as belonging to L. kirschneri serogroup Pomona serovar Mozdok. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the local epidemiological knowledge of leptospirosis, prevention of the disease by vaccines, and improvements in its diagnosis.

  12. Meningococcal serogroup A, C, W₁₃₅ and Y conjugated vaccine: a cost-effectiveness analysis in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiltsje Hepkema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2002, vaccination with a serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenC was introduced in the Netherlands for all children aged 14 months. Despite its success, herd immunity may wane over time. Recently, a serogroup A,C,W135,Y meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY was licensed for use in subjects of 12 months of age and above. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of meningococcal vaccination at 14 months and an additional vaccination at the age of 12 years, both with the MenACWY vaccine. METHODS: A decision analysis cohort model, with 185,000 Dutch newborns, was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different immunization strategies. For strategies including a vaccination at 12 years of age, an additional cohort with adolescents aged 12 years was followed. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was estimated for the current disease incidence and for a scenario when herd immunity is lost. RESULTS: Vaccination with MenACWY at 14 months is cost-saving. Vaccinating with MenACWY at 14 months and at 12 years would prevent 7 additional cases of meningococcal serogroup A,C,W135,Y disease in the birth cohort and adolescent cohort followed for 99 years compared to the current vaccine schedule of a single vaccination with MenC at 14 months. With the current incidence, this strategy resulted in an ICER of €635,334 per quality adjusted life year. When serogroup C disease incidence returns to pre-vaccination levels due to a loss of vaccine-induced herd-immunity, vaccination with MenACWY at 14 months and at 12 years would be cost-saving. CONCLUSIONS: Routine vaccination with MenACWY is cost-saving. With the current epidemiology, a booster-dose with MenACWY is not likely cost-effective. When herd immunity is lost, a booster-dose has the potential of being cost-effective. A dynamic model should be developed for more precise estimation of the cost-effectiveness of the prevention of disappearance of herd immunity.

  13. Viruses in the Anopheles A, Anopheles B, and Tete serogroups in the Orthobunyavirus genus (family Bunyaviridae) do not encode an NSs protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Maizan; McLees, Angela; Elliott, Richard M

    2009-08-01

    Viruses in the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, have a genome comprising three segments (called L, M, and S) of negative-sense RNA. Serological studies have classified the >170 named virus isolates into 18 serogroups, with a few additional as yet ungrouped viruses. Until now, molecular studies and full-length S-segment nucleotide sequences were available for representatives of eight serogroups; in all cases, the S segment encodes two proteins, N (nucleocapsid) and NSs (nonstructural), in overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) that are translated from the same mRNA. The NSs proteins of Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) and California serogroup viruses have been shown to play a role in inhibiting host cell mRNA and protein synthesis, thereby preventing induction of interferon (IFN). We have determined full-length sequences of the S segments of representative viruses in the Anopheles A, Anopheles B, and Tete serogroups, and we report here that these viruses do not show evidence of having an NSs ORF. In addition, these viruses have rather longer N proteins than those in the other serogroups. Most of the naturally occurring viruses that lack the NSs protein behaved like a recombinant BUNV with the NSs gene deleted in that they failed to prevent induction of IFN-beta mRNA. However, Tacaiuma virus (TCMV) in the Anopheles A serogroup inhibited IFN induction in a manner similar to that of wild-type BUNV, suggesting that TCMV has evolved an alternative mechanism, not involving a typical NSs protein, to antagonize the host innate immune response.

  14. Changing emergence of Shigella sero-groups in Bangladesh: observation from four different diarrheal disease hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumon Kumar Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shigellosis continues to be a public health challenge for developing countries, including Bangladesh. The aim of the study is to demonstrate recent changes in Shigella sero-groups and their geographical diversity. METHODS: Data were extracted from data archive of four diarrheal disease surveillance systems. A 2% sub sample from urban Dhaka Hospital (2008-2011; n = 10,650, and 10% from urban Mirpur Treatment Centre (2009-2011; n = 3,585, were enrolled systematically; whereas, all patients coming from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System area in rural Matlab (2008-2011; n = 6,399 and rural Mirzapur (2010-2011; n = 2,812 were included irrespective of age, sex, and disease severity. A fresh stool specimen was collected for identification of Shigella spp. Of them, 315 (3% were positive for Shigella in Dhaka, 490 (8% from Matlab, 109 (3% from Mirpur and 369 (13% from Mirzapur and considered as analyzable sample size. RESULTS: Among all Shigella isolates regardless of age, significant decreases in percentage of S. flexneri over time was observed in Mirpur (55→29%; p value of χ(2-for trend = 0.019 and Mirzapur (59→47%; p = 0.025. A non-significant decrease was also seen in Dhaka (58→48%, while in Matlab there was a non-significant increase (73→81%. Similar patterns were observed among under-5 children at all sites. Emergence of S. sonnei was found in Dhaka (8→25%; p<0.001 and Mirpur (10→33%; p = 0.015, whereas it decreased in Mirzapur (32→23%; p = 0.056. The emergence of S. boydii was seen in all ages in Mirzapur [(3→28%; p<0.001; (3→27%; p<0.001]. On the other hand, we saw non-significant percent reductions in S. boydii in Dhaka [overall (25→16%; under-5 (16→9%]. Decreasing rates of Shigella dysenteriae were observed in Matlab, Mirpur and Mirzapur; whereas, in Dhaka it remained unchanged. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Emergence of S. sonnei and S. boydii as important infectious

  15. Changing Emergence of Shigella Sero-Groups in Bangladesh: Observation from Four Different Diarrheal Disease Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Ferdous, Farzana; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Leung, Daniel T.; Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Talukder, Kaisar Ali; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Raqib, Rubhana

    2013-01-01

    Background Shigellosis continues to be a public health challenge for developing countries, including Bangladesh. The aim of the study is to demonstrate recent changes in Shigella sero-groups and their geographical diversity. Methods Data were extracted from data archive of four diarrheal disease surveillance systems. A 2% sub sample from urban Dhaka Hospital (2008–2011; n = 10,650), and 10% from urban Mirpur Treatment Centre (2009–2011; n = 3,585), were enrolled systematically; whereas, all patients coming from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System area in rural Matlab (2008–2011; n = 6,399) and rural Mirzapur (2010–2011; n = 2,812) were included irrespective of age, sex, and disease severity. A fresh stool specimen was collected for identification of Shigella spp. Of them, 315 (3%) were positive for Shigella in Dhaka, 490 (8%) from Matlab, 109 (3%) from Mirpur and 369 (13%) from Mirzapur and considered as analyzable sample size. Results Among all Shigella isolates regardless of age, significant decreases in percentage of S. flexneri over time was observed in Mirpur (55→29%; p value of χ2-for trend = 0.019) and Mirzapur (59→47%; p = 0.025). A non-significant decrease was also seen in Dhaka (58→48%), while in Matlab there was a non-significant increase (73→81%). Similar patterns were observed among under-5 children at all sites. Emergence of S. sonnei was found in Dhaka (8→25%; pp = 0.015), whereas it decreased in Mirzapur (32→23%; p = 0.056). The emergence of S. boydii was seen in all ages in Mirzapur [(3→28%; pp<0.001)]. On the other hand, we saw non-significant percent reductions in S. boydii in Dhaka [overall (25→16%); under-5 (16→9%)]. Decreasing rates of Shigella dysenteriae were observed in Matlab, Mirpur and Mirzapur; whereas, in Dhaka it remained unchanged. Conclusion and Significance Emergence of S. sonnei and S. boydii as important infectious diarrhea etiologies and variations in

  16. Identifying optimal vaccination strategies for serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis conjugate vaccine in the African meningitis belt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tartof

    Full Text Available The optimal long-term vaccination strategies to provide population-level protection against serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (MenA are unknown. We developed an age-structured mathematical model of MenA transmission, colonization, and disease in the African meningitis belt, and used this model to explore the impact of various vaccination strategies.The model stratifies the simulated population into groups based on age, infection status, and MenA antibody levels. We defined the model parameters (such as birth and death rates, age-specific incidence rates, and age-specific duration of protection using published data and maximum likelihood estimation. We assessed the validity of the model by comparing simulated incidence of invasive MenA and prevalence of MenA carriage to observed incidence and carriage data.The model fit well to observed age- and season-specific prevalence of carriage (mean pseudo-R2 0.84 and incidence of invasive disease (mean R2 0.89. The model is able to reproduce the observed dynamics of MenA epidemics in the African meningitis belt, including seasonal increases in incidence, with large epidemics occurring every eight to twelve years. Following a mass vaccination campaign of all persons 1-29 years of age, the most effective modeled vaccination strategy is to conduct mass vaccination campaigns every 5 years for children 1-5 years of age. Less frequent campaigns covering broader age groups would also be effective, although somewhat less so. Introducing conjugate MenA vaccine into the EPI vaccination schedule at 9 months of age results in higher predicted incidence than periodic mass campaigns.We have developed the first mathematical model of MenA in Africa to incorporate age structures and progressively waning protection over time. Our model accurately reproduces key features of MenA epidemiology in the African meningitis belt. This model can help policy makers consider vaccine program effectiveness when determining the

  17. Genomic characterisation of Leptospira inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rat in Brazil and comparative analysis with human reference strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Loureiro, Ana P; Kremer, Frederico S; Eslabao, Marcus R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lilenbaum, Walter; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Heinemann, Marcos B; Moreno, Andrea M

    2018-01-01

    Leptospira inadai is classified as a species of the Leptospira intermediate group that has been poorly studied due to its apparent insignificance to human and animal health. Nevertheless, over the last two decades the species has been described in human cases in India and in carrier animals in Ecuador. Here, we present the first identification and genomic characterisation of L. inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rodent in Brazil. Even though the M34/99 strain was not pathogenic for hamsters, it was able to establish renal colonisation. The M34/99 strain presented high similarity with L. inadai serogroup Lyme human reference indicating that animal strain could also infect humans, although it does not represent high risk of severe disease. An extrachromosomal sequence was also identified in M34/99 strain and presented high identity with previously described L. inadai phage LinZ_10, suggesting that phage-like extrachromosomal sequence may be another feature of this understudied species. PMID:29538491

  18. Genomic characterisation of Leptospira inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rat in Brazil and comparative analysis with human reference strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Loureiro, Ana P; Kremer, Frederico S; Eslabao, Marcus R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lilenbaum, Walter; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Heinemann, Marcos B; Moreno, Andrea M

    2018-03-12

    Leptospira inadai is classified as a species of the Leptospira intermediate group that has been poorly studied due to its apparent insignificance to human and animal health. Nevertheless, over the last two decades the species has been described in human cases in India and in carrier animals in Ecuador. Here, we present the first identification and genomic characterisation of L. inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rodent in Brazil. Even though the M34/99 strain was not pathogenic for hamsters, it was able to establish renal colonisation. The M34/99 strain presented high similarity with L. inadai serogroup Lyme human reference indicating that animal strain could also infect humans, although it does not represent high risk of severe disease. An extrachromosomal sequence was also identified in M34/99 strain and presented high identity with previously described L. inadai phage LinZ_10, suggesting that phage-like extrachromosomal sequence may be another feature of this understudied species.

  19. Adverse events following immunisation with a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine: report from post-marketing surveillance, Germany, 2013 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Dirk; Oberle, Doris; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2018-04-01

    Background and aimIn January 2013, a novel vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, the multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB), was approved by the European Medicines Agency. We aimed to evaluate the safety profile of this vaccine. Methods: All adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) reported from Germany since the vaccine's launch in Germany in November 2013 through December 2016 were reviewed and analysed. Results: Through December 2016, a total of 664 individual case safety reports (ICSR) notifying 1,960 AEFI were received. A majority of vaccinees for whom AEFI were reported were children 2 to 11 years of age (n = 280; 42.2%) followed by infants and toddlers aged 28 days to 23 months (n = 170; 25.6%). General disorders and administration site conditions was the System Organ Class (SOC) with the majority of AEFI (n = 977; 49.8%), followed by nervous system disorders (n = 249; 12.7%), and skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders (n = 191; 9.7%). Screening of patient records for immune-mediated and neurological diseases did not raise any safety signal in terms of an increased proportional reporting ratio (PRR). Conclusions: The safety profile described in the Summary of Product Characteristics, in general, is confirmed by data from spontaneous reporting. No safety concerns were identified.

  20. Genomic characterisation of Leptospira inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rat in Brazil and comparative analysis with human reference strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Z Moreno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leptospira inadai is classified as a species of the Leptospira intermediate group that has been poorly studied due to its apparent insignificance to human and animal health. Nevertheless, over the last two decades the species has been described in human cases in India and in carrier animals in Ecuador. Here, we present the first identification and genomic characterisation of L. inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rodent in Brazil. Even though the M34/99 strain was not pathogenic for hamsters, it was able to establish renal colonisation. The M34/99 strain presented high similarity with L. inadai serogroup Lyme human reference indicating that animal strain could also infect humans, although it does not represent high risk of severe disease. An extrachromosomal sequence was also identified in M34/99 strain and presented high identity with previously described L. inadai phage LinZ_10, suggesting that phage-like extrachromosomal sequence may be another feature of this understudied species.

  1. Characteristics of Disease Spectrum in relation to Species, Serogroups, and Adhesion Ability of Motile Aeromonads in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Kozińska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to delineate the relationship between of Aeromonas species and/or serogroups and specific disease symptoms in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum. The adhesion of Aeromonas strains to various tissues in relation to disease spectrum was also tested. All strains of A. hydrophila caused skin ulcers as well as septicaemia in both carp and trout while the other strains were able to cause only skin ulcers or some specific internal lesions with or without septicaemia depending on which species and/or serogroup they represented. Disease symptoms depended also on fish species. It was found that adhesion intensity of Aeromonas strains tested was significantly higher to tissues, which were susceptible to infection with these strains. The results indicate that adhesion to various cells of the fish organism is principal marker to detect virulent Aeromonas strains. The findings presented in this study may be helpful in the appraisal of aeromonads disease risk and kind of the infection in particular fish farms by epizootiological studies or/and during routine fish examinations. They will also be useful to improve and facilitate diagnosis of bacterial fish disease.

  2. Molecular characterisation of human Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 strains: results of an outbreak investigation, Romania, February to August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usein, Codruţa-Romaniţa; Ciontea, Adriana Simona; Militaru, Cornelia Mãdãlina; Condei, Maria; Dinu, Sorin; Oprea, Mihaela; Cristea, Daniela; Michelacci, Valeria; Scavia, Gaia; Zota, Lavinia Cipriana; Zaharia, Alina; Morabito, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    IntroductionAt the beginning of 2016, an increase in paediatric haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) cases was observed in Romania. The microbiological investigations allowed isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 as the causative agent from most cases. Methods: An enhanced national surveillance of HUS and severe diarrhoea was established across the country following the identification of the first cases and was carried out until August 2016. A total of 15 strains were isolated from 10 HUS and five diarrhoea cases. Strains were characterised by virulence markers (i.e. stx type/subtype, eae , ehxA genes), phylogroup, genetic relatedness and clonality using PCR-based assays, PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The first six strains were further characterised by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Results: Five PCR-defined genotypes were distinguished. All strains from HUS cases harboured stx2a and eae , with or without stx1a , while strains from diarrhoea cases carried exclusively stx1a and eae genes. PFGE resolved strains into multiple pulsotypes, compatible with a certain geographic segregation of the cases, and strains were assigned to phylogroup B1 and sequence type (ST) 21. WGS confirmed the results of conventional molecular methods, brought evidence of O26:H11 serotype, and complemented the virulence profiles. Discussion/conclusion: This first description of STEC O26 strains from cases in Romania showed that the isolates belonged to a diverse population. The virulence content of most strains highlighted a high risk for severe outcome in infected patients. Improving the national surveillance strategy for STEC infections in Romania needs to be further considered.

  3. Survival of Antibiotic Resistant and Antibiotic Sensitive Strains of E. coli O157 and E. coli O26 in Food Matrices.

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Ciara; Duffy, Geraldine; Blair, I. S.; McDowell, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 or E. coli O26, which were AS (antibiotic sensitive), AR (laboratory created antibiotic resistant mutants), or naturally MAR (multi-antibiotic resistant), were inoculated into laboratory media, yoghurt or orange juice and their growth/survival monitored during enrichment at 37 °C or storage at 4 °C. The strains were also inoculated into minced beef and their thermal inactivation (D-values) examined at 55 °C, with and without a prior heat shock at 48 °C. The growth kin...

  4. Cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli on hides of market beef cows at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L G; Stromberg, Z R; Lewis, G L; Moxley, R A; Smith, D R

    2018-03-25

    Cattle hides are an important source of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) carcass contamination at slaughter. Seven EHEC serogroups are adulterants in raw, non-intact beef: EHEC O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157. The objective of this study was to estimate the probability for hide contamination with EHEC among US market beef cows at slaughter and to test the effects of season and geographic region on prevalence of hide contamination. Hides (n = 800) of market cows were swabbed at slaughter immediately after exsanguination, prior to hide removal. Cows were sampled from two geographically distinct beef packing plants during four seasons of 2015. Cattle source was categorized by northern or southern region. Samples were tested for EHEC by a molecular screening assay. The effects of region, season and their interaction on the probability of hide contamination by each EHEC serogroup were tested in separate multilevel multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for the random effect of clustering by plant. Statistical significance was set α = .05. Of 800 total samples, at least one EHEC was detected on 630 (79%) hides. Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O26 was detected on 129 (16%) of all hides sampled, EHEC O45 on 437 (55%), EHEC O103 on 289 (36%), EHEC O111 on 189 (24%), EHEC O121 on 140 (18%), EHEC O145 on 171 (21%) and EHEC O157 on 89 (11%). Detection of EHEC O26 and EHEC O121 was associated with season. Season and region were associated with detecting EHEC O45 and EHEC O157. Season-by-region interactions were associated with the outcome of detecting EHEC O103, EHEC O111 and EHEC O145. Season, region of origin and the interaction of these factors affect hide contamination of market beef cattle at slaughter by EHEC, and each serogroup responds to these factors uniquely. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Risk Factors for Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease during Outbreak among Men who Have Sex with Men, New York City, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Alison; Greene, Sharon K; Robinson, Byron F; Weiss, Don

    2015-08-01

    Risk factors for illness during a serogroup C meningococcal disease outbreak among men who have sex with men in New York City, New York, USA, in 2012-2013 included methamphetamine and cocaine use and sexually transmitted infections. Outbreak investigations should consider routinely capturing information regarding drug use and sex-related risk factors.

  6. Kinetics of antibody responses after primary immunization with meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine or secondary immunization with either conjugate or polysaccharide vaccine in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voer, Richarda M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Engels, Carla W. A. M.; Schepp, Rutger M.; van de Kassteele, Jan; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Rijkers, Ger T.; Berbers, Guy A. M.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenCC) vaccine is administered as a single dose at 14 months. We evaluated the kinetics of isotype-specific antibodies in adults (n = 21) after primary immunization with MenCC or secondary immunization with MenCC or plain MenC

  7. Clinical Application of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Legionella Species, Legionella pneumophila, and Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1

    OpenAIRE

    Benitez, Alvaro J.; Winchell, Jonas M.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a single-tube multiplex real-time PCR assay capable of simultaneously detecting and discriminating Legionella spp., Legionella pneumophila, and Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 in primary specimens. Evaluation of 21 clinical specimens and 115 clinical isolates demonstrated this assay to be a rapid, high-throughput diagnostic test with 100% specificity that may aid during legionellosis outbreaks and epidemiologic investigations.

  8. Progressive decrease in the potential usefulness of meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB, Bexsero® in Gipuzkoa, Northern Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Pérez-Trallero

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a vaccine is determined not only by the immunogenicity of its components, but especially by how widely it covers the disease-causing strains circulating in a given region. Because vaccine coverage varies over time, this study aimed to detect possible changes that could affect vaccine protection during a specific period in a southern European region. The 4CMenB vaccine is licensed for use in Europe, Canada, and Australia and is mainly directed against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. This vaccine contains four main immunogenic components: three recombinant proteins, FHbp, Nhba and NadA, and an outer membrane vesicle [PorA P1.4]. The allelic distribution of FHbp, Nhba, NadA, and PorA antigens in 82 invasive isolates (B and non-B serogroups isolated from January 2008 to December 2013 were analyzed. 4CMenB was likely protective against 61.8% and 50% of serogroup B and non-B meningococci, respectively, in the entire period, but between 2012 and 2013, the predicted protection fell below 45% (42.1% for serogroup B isolates.The observed decreasing trend in the predicted protection during the 6 years of the study (Χ2 for trend  = 4.68, p = 0.03 coincided with a progressive decrease of several clonal complexes (e.g., cc11, cc32 and cc41/44, which had one or more antigens against which the vaccine would offer protection.

  9. Absence of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C-Specific Antibodies during the First Year of Life in The Netherlands : an Age Group at Risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voer, Richarda M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Niers, Laetitia E. M.; Rijkers, Ger T.; Berbers, Guy A. M.

    2009-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a single meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenCC) vaccination is administered to children at the age of 14 months. Here, we report the levels of MenC polysaccharide-specific antibodies in children at birth and at 3, 11, and 12 months of age and the presence of functional

  10. Necrotising fasciitis as atypical presentation of infection with emerging Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W (MenW) clonal complex 11, the Netherlands, March 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russcher, Anne; Fanoy, Ewout; van Olden, Ger D. J.; Graafland, Antonie D.; van der Ende, Arie; Knol, Mirjam J.

    2017-01-01

    In March 2017, a patient with necrotising fasciitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W (MenW) clonal complex 11 was diagnosed in the Netherlands. Unusual and severe presentations of MenW infections are common in the current European epidemic. In the Netherlands, the incidence of MenW

  11. Direct synthesis of La9.33Si6O26 ultrafine powder via sol-gel self-combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Changan; Liu Junliang; Cai Jun; Zeng Yanwei

    2008-01-01

    Single phase La 9.33 Si 6 O 26 ultrafine powder, as a kind of highly activated precursor to prepare medium-to-low temperature electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), has been successfully synthesized via a non-aqueous sol-gel and self-combustion approach from the starting materials: lanthanum nitrate (La(NO 3 ) 3 .6H 2 O), citric acid, ethylene glycol (EG), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and ammonium nitrate. The details of gel's self-combustion were investigated by DTA-TG and the structural characterization of as-synthesized powder from self-combustion was performed by XRD and SEM. The results show that La 9.33 Si 6 O 26 single phase of apatite-type crystal structure can be directly synthesized by sol-gel self-combustion method without further calcinations on the condition that the molar ratio (R) of NO 3 - to citric acid and ethylene glycol being 6:1. Such powders composed of well-dispersed particles with an average size of 200 nm and a specific surface area of 5.54 m 2 /g. It can be sintered to 90% of its theoretical density at 1500 deg. C for 10 h, about 200 deg. C lower than the sintering temperature for the powder derived from traditional solid reactions. The sintered material has a thermal expansion coefficient of 9.2 x 10 -6 K -1 between room temperature and 800 deg. C

  12. Two new hybrid molybdenum arsenate derivative constructed from [As2Mo6O26]6- building: Synthesis, structural characterization and photocatalysis property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Luo, Xuan; Duan, Yuanling; Huang, Yanping; Zhang, Nanxi; Zhao, Liyan; Wu, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Two new inorganic-organic hybrid materials [Cu(enMe)2]2{(As2Mo6O26) [Cu(enMe)2]}·4H2O (1) and [As2Mo6(OH)2O24][Cu(H2O)2(phen)]2 (2) (enMe = 1,2'-propanediamine, phen = 1,10'-phenanthroline) based on [As2Mo6O26]6- building blocks, denoted as [As2Mo6], have been obtained by hydrothermal methods. 1 shows a 1-D straight chain structure constructed form [As2Mo6] building blocks and [Cu(enMe)2] complexes, and then extended to 3-D supramolecular network by lattice water via hydrogen bonds interactions. 2 exhibits a new 1-D covalent ribbon with large rectangular grids formed from [As2Mo6] building blocks connected by [Cu(H2O)2(phen)] complexes, then extended into 3-D supramolecular network via hydrogen bonds and π···π interactions. In additional, the photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation under visible-light irradiation of 2 was investigated.

  13. Study of 24Mg(18O,16O)26Mg reaction at Esub(180)=50MeV including scattering in entrance and exit channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernas, M.; Pougheon, F.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Berg, G.P.A.; Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H.; Berthier, B.; Le Fevre, J.P.; Wildenthal, B.H.

    1980-01-01

    Cross section angular distributions of 24 Mg( 18 O, 16 O) 26 Mg reaction at 50 MeV incident energy leading to the first four excited states in 26 Mg and the elastic and inelastic scattering for 18 O + 24 Mg at 50 MeV and 16 O + 26 Mg at 56 MeV have been measured in order to investigate the reaction mechanism of the two-nucleon transfer reaction including the analysis of incident and exit channels. The measured angular distributions were analyzed in the framework of the EFR-DWBA. Two neutron transfer amplitudes were determined using the 2s-1d shell model amplitudes calculated by Chung and Wildenthal. The large experimental cross section in contrast to the smallness of the direct transfer amplitude and the peculiar shape of the measured angular distribution of the lowest 2 1 + state suggests that this level is mainly excited by two-step processes. It is shown that a CCBA calculation describes successfully the angular distributions of the ground state and the 2 1 + state in 26 Mg

  14. Development of a pan-Simbu real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for the detection of Simbu serogroup viruses and comparison with SBV diagnostic PCR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melina; Schirrmeier, Horst; Wernike, Kerstin; Wegelt, Anne; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2013-11-05

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was first identified in October 2011 in dairy cattle in Germany, where it caused fever, diarrhea and a drop in milk yield. Since then, SBV additionally has been detected in adult sheep and goats. Although symptoms of acute infection were not observed, infection during a vulnerable phase of pregnancy caused congenital malformations and stillbirths. In view of the current situation and the possible emergence of further Simbu serogroup members, a pan-Simbu real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR system for the reliable detection of Simbu serogroup viruses should be developed. In this study a pan-Simbu real-time RT-PCR system was established and compared to several SBV real-time RT-PCR assays. All PCR-systems were tested using a panel of different Simbu serogroup viruses as well as several field samples from diseased cattle, sheep and goats originating from all over Germany. Several pan-Simbu real-time RT-PCR products were sequenced via Sanger sequencing. Furthermore, in silico analyses were performed to investigate suitability for the detection of further orthobunyaviruses. All tested members of the Simbu serogroup (n = 14) as well as most of the field samples were successfully detected by the pan-Simbu real-time RT-PCR system. The comparison of this intercalating dye assay with different TaqMan probe-based assays developed for SBV diagnostics confirmed the functionality of the pan-Simbu assay for screening purposes. However, the SBV-TaqMan-assay SBV-S3 delivered the highest analytical sensitivity of less than ten copies per reaction for duplex systems including an internal control. In addition, for confirmation of SBV-genome detection the highly specific SBV-M1 assay was established. The pan-Simbu real-time RT-PCR system was able to detect all tested members of the Simbu serogroup, most of the SBV field samples as well as three tested Bunyamwera serogroup viruses with a suitable

  15. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat in Iran: serogroups, virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Hassan; Jamshidi, Alireza

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the virulence factors, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat samples. A total of 422 chicken meat samples were collected from 5 townships of Iran. Specimens were immediately transferred to the laboratory in a cooler with an ice pack. Samples were cultured, and the positive culture samples were analyzed by PCR assays. Finally, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar. According to the results, out of 422 samples, 146 (34.59%) were confirmed to be E. coli positive and among E. coli-positive samples, 51 (34.93%) and 31 (21.23%) were from attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) subgroups, respectively. All of the EHEC-positive samples had all stx1, eaeA, and ehly virulence genes, whereas only 5 (9.80%) of AEEC subgroup had all stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes. As the data revealed, O157 was the most prevalent and O111 was the least prevalent strains in the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) population. Among STEC strains, sulI and blaSHV had the highest and lowest incidence rate, respectively. There was a high resistance to tetracycline (76.82%), followed by chloramphenicol (73.17%) and nitrofurantoin (63.41%), but there was low resistance to cephalotine (7.31%) antibiotics in isolated strains. Results shows that the PCR technique has a high performance for detection of serogroups, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance genes in STEC strains. This study is the first prevalence report of detection of virulence genes, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from chicken meat samples in Iran. Based on the results, chicken meat is one of the main sources of STEC strains and its virulence factors in Iran, so an accurate meat inspection would reduce disease outbreaks.

  16. Prevalence of Infection-Competent Serogroup 6 Legionella pneumophila within Premise Plumbing in Southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Brenda G; McColm, Sarah; McElmurry, Shawn P; Kilgore, Paul E; Sobeck, Joanne; Sadler, Rick; Love, Nancy G; Swanson, Michele S

    2018-02-06

    Coinciding with major changes to its municipal water system, Flint, MI, endured Legionnaires' disease outbreaks in 2014 and 2015. By sampling premise plumbing in Flint in the fall of 2016, we found that 12% of homes harbored legionellae, a frequency similar to that in residences in neighboring areas. To evaluate the genetic diversity of Legionella pneumophila in Southeast Michigan, we determined the sequence type (ST) and serogroup (SG) of the 18 residential isolates from Flint and Detroit, MI, and the 33 clinical isolates submitted by hospitals in three area counties in 2013 to 2016. Common to one environmental and four clinical samples were strains of L. pneumophila SG1 and ST1, the most prevalent ST worldwide. Among the Flint premise plumbing isolates, 14 of 16 strains were of ST367 and ST461, two closely related SG6 strain types isolated previously from patients and corresponding environmental samples. Each of the representative SG1 clinical strains and SG6 environmental isolates from Southeast Michigan infected and survived within macrophage cultures at least as well as a virulent laboratory strain, as judged by microscopy and by enumerating CFU. Likewise, 72 h after infection, the yield of viable-cell counts increased >100-fold for each of the representative SG1 clinical isolates, Flint premise plumbing SG6 ST367 and -461 isolates, and two Detroit residential isolates. We verified by immunostaining that SG1-specific antibody does not cross-react with the SG6 L. pneumophila environmental strains. Because the widely used urinary antigen diagnostic test does not readily detect non-SG1 L. pneumophila , Legionnaires' disease caused by SG6 L. pneumophila is likely underreported worldwide. IMPORTANCE L. pneumophila is the leading cause of disease outbreaks associated with drinking water in the United States. Compared to what is known of the established risks of colonization within hospitals and hotels, relatively little is known about residential exposure to

  17. Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor strain--La Huasteca Region, Mexico, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Quiñonez, Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; Montes-Colima, Norma; Moreno-Pérez, Asunción; Galicia-Nicolás, Adriana; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Carmona-Ramos, Concepción; Sánchez-Mendoza, Miroslava; Rodríguez-Martínez, José Cruz; Suárez-Idueta, Lorena; Jiménez-Corona, María Eugenia; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo

    2014-06-27

    On September 2 and 6, 2013, Mexico's National System of Epidemiological Surveillance identified two cases of cholera in Mexico City. Rectal swab cultures from both patients were confirmed as toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and virulence gene amplification (ctxA, ctxB, zot, and ace) demonstrated that the strains were identical to one another but different from strains circulating in Mexico previously. The strains were indistinguishable from the strain that has caused outbreaks in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba. The strain was susceptible to doxycycline, had intermediate susceptibility to ampicillin and chloramphenicol, was less than fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and was resistant to furazolidone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. An investigation failed to identify a common source of infection, additional cases, or any epidemiologic link between the cases. Both patients were treated with a single, 300-mg dose of doxycycline, and their symptoms resolved.

  18. Update on the use of meningococcal serogroup C CRM₁₉₇-conjugate vaccine (Meningitec) against meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badahdah, Al-Mamoon; Rashid, Harunor; Khatami, Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    Meningitec is a CRM197-conjugated meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) vaccine, first licensed in 1999. It has been used as a primary and booster vaccine in infants, toddlers, older children and adults, and has been shown to be immunogenic and well-tolerated in all age groups, including premature infants. Vaccine effectiveness has been demonstrated using combined data on all three licensed MenC conjugate vaccines. Evidence from clinical trials, however, suggests that the different MenC conjugate vaccines behave differently with respect to the induction and persistence of bactericidal antibody and generation of immune memory. It appears that Meningitec has a less favorable immunologic profile compared particularly to tetanus toxoid (TT) MenC conjugate vaccines. Data from comparative trials have raised interesting questions on priming of the immune system by conjugate vaccines, particularly in infants. The results from these and other studies are reviewed here with specific focus on Meningitec.

  19. Meningococcal Serogroup B Bivalent rLP2086 Vaccine Elicits Broad and Robust Serum Bactericidal Responses in Healthy Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesikari, Timo; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Diez-Domingo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MnB) is a leading cause of invasive meningococcal disease in adolescents and young adults. A recombinant factor H binding protein (fHBP) vaccine (Trumenba(®); bivalent rLP2086) was recently approved in the United States in individuals aged 10-25 years....... Immunogenicity and safety of 2- or 3-dose schedules of bivalent rLP2086 were assessed in adolescents. METHODS: Healthy adolescents (11 to ... bactericidal antibody assay using human complement (hSBA). Safety assessments included local and systemic reactions and adverse events. RESULTS: Bivalent rLP2086 was immunogenic when administered as 2 or 3 doses; the most robust hSBA responses occurred with 3 doses. The proportion of subjects with hSBA titers...

  20. YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS, SEROGROUP O:1A, INFECTION IN TWO AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA AESTIVA AND AMAZONA ORATRIX) WITH HEPATIC HEMOSIDEROSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galosi, Livio; Farneti, Silvana; Rossi, Giacomo; Cork, Susan Catherine; Ferraro, Stefano; Magi, Gian Enrico; Petrini, Stefano; Valiani, Andrea; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Attili, Anna-Rita

    2015-09-01

    Necropsies were conducted on a female blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and a female yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) that died after depression, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, and biliverdin in the urine. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed multifocal necrosis in the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, intestines, and heart caused by acute bacteremia. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, serogroup O:1a, was isolated by culturing from the visceral lesions in the liver, intestines, and spleen. Virulence gene analysis showed the presence of the inv gene and the complete pathogenicity island: IS100, psn, yptE, irp1, irp2 ybtP-ybtQ, ybtX-ybtS, and int asnT-Int. Histopathologic findings and chemical analysis also demonstrated hepatic hemosiderosis. As has been demonstrated in other species, hemosiderosis may predispose Amazona spp. to systemic infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis after enteric disease.

  1. Bacteriophage SP6 encodes a second tailspike protein that recognizes Salmonella enterica serogroups C2 and C3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhart, Dana; Williams, Steven R.; Scholl, Dean

    2017-01-01

    SP6 is a salmonella phage closely related to coliphage K1-5. K1-5 is notable in that it encodes two polysaccharide-degrading tailspike proteins, an endosialidase that allows it to infect E. coli K1, and a lyase that enables it to infect K5 strains. SP6 is similar to K1-5 except that it encodes a P22-like endorhamnosidase tailspike, gp46, allowing it to infect group B Salmonella. We show here that SP6 can also infect Salmonella serogroups C 2 and C 3 and that a mutation in a putative second tailspike, gp47, eliminates this specificity. Gene 47 was fused to the coding region of the N-terminal portion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa R2 pyocin tail fiber and expressed in trans such that the fusion protein becomes incorporated into pyocin particles. These pyocins, termed AvR2-SP47, killed serogroups C 2 and C 3 Salmonella. We conclude that SP6 encodes two tail proteins providing it a broad host range among Salmonella enterica. - Highlights: • SP6 is a “dual specificity” bacteriophage that encodes two different receptor binding proteins giving it a broad host range. • These receptor binding proteins can be used to re-target the spectrum of R-type bacteriocins to Salmonella enterica. • Both SP6 and the engineered R-type bacteriocins can kill the Salmonella serovars most associated with human disease making them attractive for development as antimicrobial agents.

  2. Is a single dose of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine sufficient for protection? experience from the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaaijk Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first meningococcal serogroup C (MenC conjugate vaccine was licensed in 1999 and introduced in the United Kingdom. Countries that have implemented the MenC vaccine since then in their national immunisation programmes use different schedules. Nevertheless, all involved countries seem to experience substantial declines in the incidence of MenC disease. Discussion Since 2001, the MenC conjugate vaccine has been implemented in the Netherlands by offering a single dose to all children aged 14 months. Prior to the introduction of the vaccine into the national immunisation programme, a catch-up vaccination campaign was initiated in which a single dose of the MenC conjugate vaccine was offered to all children aged from 14 months up to and including 18 years. Since then, there has been no report of any case of MenC disease among immunocompetent vaccinees. Administration of a single dose of MenC conjugate vaccine after infancy could be beneficial considering the already complex immunisation schedules with large numbers of vaccinations in the first year of life. The present paper deals with the advantages and critical aspects of a single dose of the MenC conjugate vaccine. Summary A single dose of MenC conjugate vaccine at the age of 14 months in combination with a catch up vaccine campaign appeared to be a successful strategy to prevent MenC disease in the Netherlands, thereby confirming that a single dose of the vaccine could sufficiently protect against disease. Nevertheless, this approach can only be justified in countries with a relatively low incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the first year of life. Furthermore, a good surveillance programme is recommended for timely detection of vaccine breakthroughs and outbreaks among non-vaccinees, since long-term protection after a single dose in the second year of life cannot currently be guaranteed.

  3. Characterization of biofilm-forming capacity and resistance to sanitizers of a range of E. coli O26 pathotypes from clinical cases and cattle in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajhar, Salma A; Brownlie, Jeremy; Barlow, Robert

    2018-05-08

    The formation of biofilms and subsequent encasement of bacterial cells in a complex matrix can enhance resistance to antimicrobials and sterilizing agents making these organisms difficult to eradicate and control. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the capacity of 40 E. coli O26 isolates of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, n = 27), potential EHEC (pEHEC, n = 3), atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC, n = 8) and non-toxigenic E. coli (NTEC, n = 2) from human and cattle sources to form biofilms on different surfaces, and determine whether extracellular matrix (ECM) components (cellulose, curli), motility, prophage insertion in mlrA and cell surface hydrophobicity could influence biofilm formation. Finally, the influence of biofilm formation on the sensitivity of isolates to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs; Profoam, Kwiksan 22) and peracetic acid-based sanitizer (Topactive Des.) for 2 min on polystyrene plate were also evaluated. Biofilm production on one surface may not indicate biofilm formation on a different surface. Biofilm was formed by different pathotypes on polystyrene (70%), stainless steel (87.5%) and glass slides (95%), however only 50% demonstrated pellicle formation. EHEC isolates were significantly more likely to form a pellicle at the air-liquid interface and biofilms on polystyrene surface at 48 h than aEPEC. Strains that don't produce ECM (curli or cellulose), harbor a prophage insertion in mlrA, and are non-motile have lower biofilm forming capacities than those isolates possessing combinations of these attributes. Hydrophobicity had no impact on biofilm formation. After 2 min exposure, none of the disinfectants tested were able to completely inactivate all cells within a biofilm regardless of pathotypes and the amount of biofilm formed. Pathotypes of E. coli O26 showed varying capacities to form biofilms, however, most EHEC strains had the capacity to form biofilm on all surfaces and at the air

  4. Optimization of Molecular Approaches to Genogroup Neisseria meningitidis Carriage Isolates and Implications for Monitoring the Impact of New Serogroup B Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rojas

    Full Text Available The reservoir for Neisseria meningitidis (Nm is the human oropharynx. Implementation of Nm serogroup C (NmC glycoconjugate vaccines directly reduced NmC carriage. Prophylactic vaccines are now available to prevent disease caused by the five major Nm disease causing serogroups (ABCWY. Nm serogroup B (NmB vaccines are composed of antigens that are conserved across Nm serogroups and therefore have the potential to impact all Nm carriage. To assess the effect of these vaccines on carriage, standardized approaches to identify and group Nm are required. Real-time PCR (rt-PCR capsule grouping assays that were internally controlled to confirm Nm species were developed for eight serogroups associated with carriage (A, B, C, E, W, X, Y and Z. The grouping scheme was validated using diverse bacterial species associated with carriage and then used to evaluate a collection of diverse Nm carriage isolates (n=234. A scheme that also included porA and ctrA probes was able to speciate the isolates, while ctrA also provided insights on the integrity of the polysaccharide loci. Isolates were typed for the Nm vaccine antigen factor H binding protein (fHbp, and were found to represent the known diversity of this antigen. The porA rt-PCR yielded positive results with all 234 of the Nm carriage isolates. Genogrouping assays classified 76.5% (179/234 of these isolates to a group, categorized 53 as nongenogroupable (NGG and two as mixed results. Thirty seven NGG isolates evidenced a disrupted capsular polysaccharide operon judged by a ctrA negative result. Only 28.6% (67/234 of the isolates were serogrouped by slide agglutination (SASG, highlighting the reduced capability of carriage strains to express capsular polysaccharide. These rt-PCR assays provide a comprehensive means to identify and genogroup N. meningitidis in carriage studies used to guide vaccination strategies and to assess the impact of novel fHbp containing vaccines on meningococcal carriage.

  5. Detection of cell-associated or soluble antigens of Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6, Legionella bozemanii, Legionella dumoffii, Legionella gormanii, and Legionella micdadei by staphylococcal coagglutination tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, H W; Fikes, B J

    1981-01-01

    Current methods used for the detection of whole-cell isolates of Legionella or for the detection of Legionella soluble antigens are technically impractical for many clinical laboratories. The purpose of this study was to explore practical alternatives. The results showed that whole cell isolates of Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6, Legionella bozemanii, Legionella dumoffii, Legionella gormanii, and Legionella micdadei were identified specifically by a simple slide agglutination test o...

  6. Distribution of sequence-based types of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains isolated from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tian; Zhou, Haijian; Ren, Hongyu; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Zhu, Bingqing; Shao, Zhujun

    2014-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 causes Legionnaires' disease. Water systems contaminated with Legionella are the implicated sources of Legionnaires' disease. This study analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in China using sequence-based typing. Strains were isolated from cooling towers (n = 96), hot springs (n = 42), and potable water systems (n = 26). Isolates from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems were divided into 25 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD], 0.711), 19 STs (IOD, 0.934), and 3 STs (IOD, 0.151), respectively. The genetic variation among the potable water isolates was lower than that among cooling tower and hot spring isolates. ST1 was the predominant type, accounting for 49.4% of analyzed strains (n = 81), followed by ST154. With the exception of two strains, all potable water isolates (92.3%) belonged to ST1. In contrast, 53.1% (51/96) and only 14.3% (6/42) of cooling tower and hot spring, respectively, isolates belonged to ST1. There were differences in the distributions of clone groups among the water sources. The comparisons among L. pneumophila strains isolated in China, Japan, and South Korea revealed that similar clones (ST1 complex and ST154 complex) exist in these countries. In conclusion, in China, STs had several unique allelic profiles, and ST1 was the most prevalent sequence type of environmental L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates, similar to its prevalence in Japan and South Korea.

  7. The evolutionary divergence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is reflected in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) spacer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuang; Jensen, Mark A; Bai, Jiawei; Debroy, Chitrita; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Dudley, Edward G

    2013-09-01

    The Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, including those of O157:H7 and the "big six" serogroups (i.e., serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145), are a group of pathogens designated food adulterants in the United States. The relatively conserved nature of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) in phylogenetically related E. coli strains makes them potential subtyping markers for STEC detection, and a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based assay was previously developed for O26:H11, O45:H2, O103:H2, O111:H8, O121:H19, O145:H28, and O157:H7 isolates. To better evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this qPCR method, the CRISPR loci of 252 O157 and big-six STEC isolates were sequenced and analyzed along with 563 CRISPR1 and 624 CRISPR2 sequences available in GenBank. General conservation of spacer content and order was observed within each O157 and big-six serogroup, validating the qPCR method. Meanwhile, it was found that spacer deletion, the presence of an insertion sequence, and distinct alleles within a serogroup are sources of false-negative reactions. Conservation of CRISPR arrays among isolates expressing the same flagellar antigen, specifically, H7, H2, and H11, suggested that these isolates share an ancestor and provided an explanation for the false positives previously observed in the qPCR results. An analysis of spacer distribution across E. coli strains provided limited evidence for temporal spacer acquisition. Conversely, comparison of CRISPR sequences between strains along the stepwise evolution of O157:H7 from its O55:H7 ancestor revealed that, over this ∼7,000-year span, spacer deletion was the primary force generating CRISPR diversity.

  8. Blue and green emissions with high color purity from nanocrystalline Ca2Gd8Si6O26:Ln (Ln = Tm or Er) phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeta Rama Raju, G.; Park, Jin Young; Jung, Hong Chae; Pavitra, E.; Moon, Byung Kee; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Yu, Jae Su; Kim, Jung Hwan; Choi, Haeyoung

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → Nanocrystalline Ca 2 Gd 8 Si 6 O 26 (CGS):Tm 3+ and CGS:Er 3+ phosphors were prepared by solvothermal reaction method. → The visible luminescence properties of phosphors were investigated by exciting with ultraviolet (UV) or near-UV light and low voltage electron beam (0.5-5 kV). → The photoluminescence spectra of CGS:Tm 3+ under 359 nm excitation and CGS:Er 3+ under 380 nm excitation showed the strong blue ( 1 D 2 → 3 F 4 at 456 nm) and green ( 4 S 3/2 → 4 I 15/2 at 550 nm) colors with the color purity 87% and 96%, respectively → The low accelerating voltage cathodoluminescence spectra of CGS:Tm 3+ and CGS:Er 3+ showed the strong blue and green emissions with the high color purity 95% and 96%, respectively. → The obtained results are hint at the promising applications to produce high quality LEDs and FED devices. - Abstract: Blue and green light emissive nanocrystalline Ca 2 Gd 8 Si 6 O 26 (CGS):Tm 3+ and CGS:Er 3+ phosphors with high color purity were prepared by solvothermal reaction method. The structural and morphological properties of these phosphors were evaluated by the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. From the XRD results, Tm 3+ :CGS and Er 3+ :CGS phosphors had the characteristic peaks of oxyapatite in the hexagonal lattice structure. The visible luminescence properties of phosphors were obtained by ultraviolet (UV) or near-UV light and low voltage electron beam (0.5-5 kV) excitation. The photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties were investigated by changing the variation of Tm 3+ or Er 3+ concentrations and the acceleration voltage, respectively. The CGS:Tm 3+ phosphors exhibited the blue emission due to 1 D 2 → 3 F 4 transition, while the CGS:Er 3+ phosphors showed the green emission due to 4 S 3/2 → 4 I 15/2 transition. The color purity and chromaticity coordinates of the fabricated phosphors are comparable to or better than those of standard

  9. Detection and Serogrouping of Dichelobacter nodosus Infection by Use of Direct PCR from Lesion Swabs To Support Outbreak-Specific Vaccination for Virulent Footrot in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Andrew S; Dhungyel, Om P; Whittington, Richard J

    2018-04-01

    Virulent footrot is an economically significant disease in most sheep-rearing countries. The disease can be controlled with vaccine targeting the fimbriae of virulent strains of the essential causative agent, Dichelobacter nodosus However, the bacterium is immunologically heterogeneous, and 10 distinct fimbrial serogroups have been identified. Ideally, in each outbreak the infecting strains would be cultured and serogrouped so that the appropriate serogroup-specific mono- or bivalent vaccine could be administered, because multivalent vaccines lack efficacy due to antigenic competition. If clinical disease expression is suspected to be incomplete, culture-based virulence tests are required to confirm the diagnosis, because control of benign footrot is economically unjustifiable. Both diagnosis and vaccination are conducted at the flock level. The aims of this study were to develop a PCR-based procedure for detecting and serogrouping D. nodosus directly from foot swabs and to determine whether this could be done accurately from the same cultured swab. A total of 269 swabs from the active margins of foot lesions of 261 sheep in 12 Merino sheep flocks in southeastern Australia were evaluated. DNA extracts taken from putative pure cultures of D. nodosus and directly from the swabs were evaluated in PCR assays for the 16S rRNA and fimA genes of D. nodosus Pure cultures were tested also by the slide agglutination test. Direct PCR using extracts from swabs was more sensitive than culture for detecting and serogrouping D. nodosus strains. Using the most sensitive sample collection method of the use of swabs in lysis buffer, D. nodosus was more likely to be detected by PCR in active than in inactive lesions, and in lesions with low levels of fecal contamination, but lesion score was not a significant factor. PCR conducted on extracts from swabs in modified Stuart's transport medium that had already been used to inoculate culture plates had lower sensitivity. Therefore, if

  10. Shifts in the Antibiotic Susceptibility, Serogroups, and Clonal Complexes of Neisseria meningitidis in Shanghai, China: A Time Trend Analysis of the Pre-Quinolone and Quinolone Eras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolones have been used broadly since the end of the 1980s and have been recommended for Neisseria meningitidis prophylaxis since 2005 in China. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how N. meningitidis antimicrobial susceptibility, serogroup prevalence, and clonal complex (CC prevalence shifted in association with the introduction and expanding use of quinolones in Shanghai, a region with a traditionally high incidence of invasive disease due to N. meningitidis.A total of 374 N. meningitidis isolates collected by the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention between 1965 and 2013 were studied. Shifts in the serogroups and CCs were observed, from predominantly serogroup A CC5 (84% in 1965-1973 to serogroup A CC1 (58% in 1974-1985, then to serogroup C or B CC4821 (62% in 2005-2013. The rates of ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility in N. meningitidis disease isolates increased from 0% in 1965-1985 to 84% (31/37 in 2005-2013 (p < 0.001. Among the ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible isolates, 87% (27/31 were assigned to either CC4821 (n = 20 or CC5 (n = 7. The two predominant ciprofloxacin-resistant clones were designated ChinaCC4821-R1-C/B and ChinaCC5-R14-A. The ChinaCC4821-R1-C/B clone acquired ciprofloxacin resistance by a point mutation, and was present in 52% (16/31 of the ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible disease isolates. The ChinaCC5-R14-A clone acquired ciprofloxacin resistance by horizontal gene transfer, and was found in 23% (7/31 of the ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible disease isolates. The ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility rate was 47% (7/15 among isolates from asymptomatic carriers, and nonsusceptibility was associated with diverse multi-locus sequence typing profiles and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. As detected after 2005, ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible strains were shared between some of the patients and their close contacts. A limitation of this study is that isolates from 1986-2004 were not available

  11. The prevalence of O serogroups of Escherichia coli strains causing acute urinary tract infection in children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Emamghorashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of O serogroups of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains that cause community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI in children. In this study, 96 children with UTI referred to two Jahrom University-affiliated Hospitals in Iran were enrolled, during the period from August 2005 to August 2006. Drug sensitivity was tested by disk diffusion method and serotyping done by slide agglutination method. A total of 96 E. coli strains were isolated from urine samples of the study children whose age ranged from one month to 14 years. Cystitis was diagnosed in 49.2% and pyelonephritis in 50.8% of the study patients. Maximum drug resistance was seen with ampicilin (80.2% and the least with imipenem (1.1%. The most common type of O antigen was O1 (12.2%. There was significant correlation between the presence of O antigens and sensitivity to nalidixic acid and gentamicin (P < 0.05. This is the first report of E. coli serotyping in children with UTI from the south of Iran and their relation to antibiotic resistance and clinical presentation. Further studies from other parts of Iran and on other serotypes are recommended.

  12. Changing epidemiology of Infant Meningococcal Disease after the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C vaccine in Italy, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanelli, P; Fazio, C; Neri, A; Boros, S; Renna, G; Pompa, M G

    2015-07-17

    In Italy, the incidence of Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) was around 0.28 per 100,000 over the last years. Since the risk IMD is usually high among infants aged less than 1 year, we decided to evaluate the trend of IMD cases reported between 2006 and 2014 in this age group. In particular, the study aim was to describe the main characteristics of IMD cases in infants following the introduction of MCC vaccine (2005) and to estimate the number of cases which are potentially preventable through early vaccination. The National Surveillance System of Bacterial Meningitis was established in 1994 and in 2007 was extended to all invasive bacterial diseases. Clinical data and isolates and/or clinical samples are collected from hospitalized patients throughout the country. IMD cases are reported by clinicians to the local health authorities, and samples are sent to the Reference Laboratory at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità for further characterization and storage at -80°C. In particular, serogroup identification is obtained by agglutination with commercial antisera or by multiplex PCR. The annual incidence for infants B was more frequently detected among infants aged B was the most commonly detected over time. The long-term impact of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine and the effect of the introduction of meningococcal B vaccination among infants need to be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dy3+-doped nano-glass ceramics comprising NaAlSiO4 and NaY9Si6O26 nanocrystals for white light generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagga, Ruchika; Achanta, Venu Gopal; Goel, Ashutosh; Ferreira, José M.F.; Singh, Narinder Pal; Singh, Davinder Paul; Falconieri, Mauro; Sharma, Gopi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Environment safe glass ceramics were fabricated via heat treatment. ► Optical and structural properties were studied before and after heat treatment. ► White light generation with single RE 3+ ion-doping was observed under UV excitation. ► Emission color temperature was between fluorescent tube and daylight values. - Abstract: The radiative emission properties of the Dy 3+ ions in oxyfluoride glasses and glass ceramics have been investigated for the generation of white light. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the glass ceramics reveals the presence of NaAlSiO 4 nanocrystals along with secondary phase of NaY 9 Si 6 O 26 in the glass matrix after a suitable thermal treatment of the pristine glasses. Intense white light emission has been observed when the samples are excited with 350 nm light. Yellow to blue emission intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates have been determined from the visible luminescence spectra. All color coordinates are found to lie in the white region of the chromaticity color diagram proposing the suitability of the present studied materials for color display devices.

  14. Real-time genomic investigation underlying the public health response to a Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 outbreak in a nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Gilad, J; Rokney, A; Danino, D; Ferdous, M; Alsana, F; Baum, M; Dukhan, L; Agmon, V; Anuka, E; Valinsky, L; Yishay, R; Grotto, I; Rossen, J W A; Gdalevich, M

    2017-10-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a significant cause of gastrointestinal infection and the haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). STEC outbreaks are commonly associated with food but animal contact is increasingly being implicated in its transmission. We report an outbreak of STEC affecting young infants at a nursery in a rural community (three HUS cases, one definite case, one probable case, three possible cases and five carriers, based on the combination of clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data) identified using culture-based and molecular techniques. The investigation identified repeated animal contact (animal farming and petting) as a likely source of STEC introduction followed by horizontal transmission. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used for real-time investigation of the incident and revealed a unique strain of STEC O26:H11 carrying stx2a and intimin. Following a public health intervention, no additional cases have occurred. This is the first STEC outbreak reported from Israel. WGS proved as a useful tool for rapid laboratory characterization and typing of the outbreak strain and informed the public health response at an early stage of this unusual outbreak.

  15. Heterogeneity in Induction Level, Infection Ability, and Morphology of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Phages (Stx Phages) from Dairy and Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Ludivine; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Loukiadis, Estelle; Michel, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are foodborne pathogens responsible for diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin, the main STEC virulence factor, is encoded by the stx gene located in the genome of a bacteriophage inserted into the bacterial chromosome. The O26:H11 serotype is considered to be the second-most-significant HUS-causing serotype worldwide after O157:H7. STEC O26:H11 bacteria and their stx-negative counterparts have been detected in dairy products. They may convert from the one form to the other by loss or acquisition of Stx phages, potentially confounding food microbiological diagnostic methods based on stx gene detection. Here we investigated the diversity and mobility of Stx phages from human and dairy STEC O26:H11 strains. Evaluation of their rate of in vitro induction, occurring either spontaneously or in the presence of mitomycin C, showed that the Stx2 phages were more inducible overall than Stx1 phages. However, no correlation was found between the Stx phage levels produced and the origin of the strains tested or the phage insertion sites. Morphological analysis by electron microscopy showed that Stx phages from STEC O26:H11 displayed various shapes that were unrelated to Stx1 or Stx2 types. Finally, the levels of sensitivity of stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 to six Stx phages differed among the 17 strains tested and our attempts to convert them into STEC were unsuccessful, indicating that their lysogenization was a rare event. PMID:26826235

  16. California serogroup GC (G1) glycoprotein is the principal determinant of pH-dependent cell fusion and entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plassmeyer, Matthew L.; Soldan, Samantha S.; Stachelek, Karen M.; Martin-Garcia, Julio; Gonzalez-Scarano, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Members of the California serogroup of orthobunyaviruses, particularly La Crosse (LAC) and Tahyna (TAH) viruses, are significant human pathogens in areas where their mosquito vectors are endemic. Previous studies using wild-type LAC and TAH181/57, a highly neurovirulent strain with low neuroinvasiveness (Janssen, R., Gonzalez-Scarano, F., Nathanson, N., 1984. Mechanisms of bunyavirus virulence. Comparative pathogenesis of a virulent strain of La Crosse and an avirulent strain of Tahyna virus. Lab. Invest. 50 (4), 447-455), have demonstrated that the neuroinvasive phenotype maps to the M segment, the segment that encodes the two viral glycoproteins GN (G2) and GC (G1), as well as a non-structural protein NSm. To further define the role of GN and GC in fusion and entry, we prepared a panel of recombinant M segment constructs using LAC, TAH181/57, and V22F, a monoclonal-resistant variant of LAC with deficient fusion function. These M segment constructs were then tested in two surrogate assays for virus entry: a cell-to-cell fusion assay based on T7-luciferase expression, and a pseudotype transduction assay based on the incorporation of the bunyavirus glycoproteins on an MLV backbone. Both assays demonstrated that GC is the principal determinant of virus fusion and cell entry, and furthermore that the region delineated by amino acids 860-1442, corresponding to the membrane proximal two-thirds of GC, is key to these processes. These results, coupled with structural modeling suggesting homologies between the carboxy region of GC and Sindbis virus E1, suggest that the LAC GC functions as a type II fusion protein

  17. Identification of Common Epitopes on a Conserved Region of NSs Proteins Among Tospoviruses of Watermelon silver mottle virus Serogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Huang, Ching-Wen; Kuo, Yan-Wen; Liu, Fang-Lin; Yuan, Chao-Hsiu Hsuan; Hsu, Hei-Ti; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT The NSs protein of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) was expressed by a Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) vector in squash. The expressed NSs protein with a histidine tag and an additional NIa protease cleavage sequence was isolated by Ni(2+)-NTA resins as a free-form protein and further eluted after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for production of rabbit antiserum and mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The rabbit antiserum strongly reacted with the NSs crude antigen of WSMoV and weakly reacted with that of a high-temperature-recovered gloxinia isolate (HT-1) of Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), but not with that of Calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV). In contrast, the MAbs reacted strongly with all crude NSs antigens of WSMoV, CaCV, and CCSV. Various deletions of the NSs open reading frame were constructed and expressed by ZYMV vector. Results indicate that all three MAbs target the 89- to 125-amino-acid (aa) region of WSMoV NSs protein. Two indispensable residues of cysteine and lysine were essential for MAbs recognition. Sequence comparison of the deduced MAbs-recognized region with the reported tospoviral NSs proteins revealed the presence of a consensus sequence VRKPGVKNTGCKFTMHNQIFNPN (denoted WNSscon), at the 98- to 120-aa position of NSs proteins, sharing 86 to 100% identities among those of WSMoV, CaCV, CCSV, and Peanut bud necrosis virus. A synthetic WNSscon peptide reacted with the MAbs and verified that the epitopes are present in the 98- to 120-aa region of WSMoV NSs protein. The WSMoV sero-group-specific NSs MAbs provide a means for reliable identification of tospoviruses in this large serogroup.

  18. Mucosal immunization using proteoliposome and cochleate structures from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B induce mucosal and systemic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Judith Del; Zayas, Caridad; Romeu, Belkis; Acevedo, Reinaldo; González, Elizabeth; Bracho, Gustavo; Cuello, Maribel; Cabrera, Osmir; Balboa, Julio; Lastre, Miriam

    2009-12-01

    Most pathogens either invade the body or establish infection in mucosal tissues and represent an enormous challenge for vaccine development by the absence of good mucosal adjuvants. A proteoliposome-derived adjuvant from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (AFPL1, Adjuvant Finlay Proteoliposome 1) and its derived cochleate form (Co, AFCo1) contain multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns as immunopotentiators, and can also serve as delivery systems to elicit a Th1-type immune response. The present studies demonstrate the ability of AFPL1and AFCo1 to induce mucosal and systemic immune responses by different mucosal immunizations routes and significant adjuvant activity for antibody responses of both structures: a microparticle and a nanoparticle with a heterologous antigen. Therefore, we used female mice immunized by intragastric, intravaginal, intranasal or intramuscular routes with both structures alone or incorporated with ovalbumin (OVA). High levels of specific IgG antibody were detected in all sera and in vaginal washes, but specific IgA antibody in external secretions was only detected in mucosally immunized mice. Furthermore, antigen specific IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes were all induced. AFPL1 and AFCo1 are capable of inducing IFN-gamma responses, and chemokine secretions, like MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta. However, AFCo1 is a better alternative to induce immune responses at mucosal level. Even when we use a heterologous antigen, the AFCo1 response was better than with AFPL1 in inducing mucosal and systemic immune responses. These results support the use of AFCo1 as a potent Th1 inducing adjuvant particularly suitable for mucosal immunization.

  19. Background Paper for the update of meningococcal vaccination recommendations in Germany: use of the serogroup B vaccine in persons at increased risk for meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellenbrand, Wiebke; Koch, Judith; Harder, Thomas; Bogdan, Christian; Heininger, Ulrich; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Terhardt, Martin; Vogel, Ulrich; Wichmann, Ole; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2015-11-01

    In December 2013 Bexsero® became available in Germany for vaccination against serogroup B meningococci (MenB). In August 2015 the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) endorsed a recommendation for use of this vaccine in persons at increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). This background paper summarizes the evidence underlying the recommendation. Bexsero® is based on surface protein antigens expressed by about 80% of circulating serogroup B meningococci in Germany. The paper reviews available data on immunogenicity and safety of Bexsero® in healthy children and adolescents; data in persons with underlying illness and on the effectiveness in preventing clinical outcomes are thus far unavailable.STIKO recommends MenB vaccination for the following persons based on an individual risk assessment: (1) Persons with congenital or acquired immune deficiency or suppression. Among these, persons with terminal complement defects and properdin deficiency, including those under eculizumab therapy, are at highest risk with reported invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) incidences up 10,000-fold higher than in the general population. Persons with asplenia were estimated to have a ~ 20-30-fold increased risk of IMD, while the risk in individuals with other immune defects such as HIV infection or hypogammaglobulinaemia was estimated at no more than 5-10-fold higher than the background risk. (2) Laboratory staff with a risk of exposure to N. meningitidis aerosols, for whom an up to 271-fold increased risk for IMD has been reported. (3) Unvaccinated household (-like) contacts of a MenB IMD index case, who have a roughly 100-200-fold increased IMD risk in the year after the contact despite chemoprophylaxis. Because the risk is highest in the first 3 months and full protective immunity requires more than one dose (particularly in infants and toddlers), MenB vaccine should be administered as soon as possible following identification of the serogroup of the

  20. A Western-blot assay for the detection of antibodies against pathogenic Leptospira serogroups with recombinant outer membrane protein LipL32

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-yuan DUAN; Zhi-guo LIU; Shao-fu QIU; Bin HE; Hai ZHAO; Li-hua SONG; Hong ZHU; Qing DUAN

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide a possible antigen for rapid serodiagnosis of leptospirosis,the present study focused on the activity of immune-reaction and cross-reaction between outer membrane protein LipL32 and multi-serogroup anti-pathogenic Leptospira antibodies.Methods Based on the given sequence of LipL32 gene of Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae strain 56601,the primer pair was designed and the DNA fragment was amplified by PCR.The amplified product was inserted into vector pET-28a-(c) to construct...

  1. A randomized study to assess the immunogenicity, antibody persistence and safety of a tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in children aged 2–10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Forstén, Aino; Boutriau, Dominique; Bianco, Véronique; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of meningococcal diseases is high in children, and effective vaccines are needed for this age group. In this phase II, open, controlled study, 309 children aged 2–10 y from Finland were randomized (3:1) into two parallel groups to receive one dose of meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT group; n = 231) or a licensed meningococcal ACWY polysaccharide vaccine (Men-PS group; n = 78). Serum bactericidal activity using rabbit complement (rSBA) was evaluated up to three years post-vaccination. Exploratory comparisons suggested that rSBA vaccine response rates and geometric mean titers (GMTs) for each serogroup at one month post-vaccination and rSBA GMTs for serogroups A, W-135 and Y up to three years post-vaccination were higher in the ACWY-TT compared with Men-PS group, but did not detect any difference between groups in terms of rSBA-MenC GMTs at three years post-vaccination; this is explained by the higher proportion of children from the Men-PS group who were excluded because they were re-vaccinated with a monovalent meningococcal serogroup C vaccine due to loss of protective antibody levels against this serogroup. Although there was a higher incidence of local reactogenicity in the ACWY-TT group, general and unsolicited symptoms reporting rates were comparable in both groups. This study showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic with a clinically acceptable safety profile in children aged 2–10 y. MenACWY-TT induced higher functional antibody titers for all serogroups, which persisted longer for serogroups A, W-135 and Y, than the MenACWY polysaccharide vaccine. This study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00427908. PMID:23032168

  2. House Flies in the Confined Cattle Environment Carry Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri-Giri, R; Ghosh, A; Thomson, J L; Zurek, L

    2017-05-01

    Cattle manure is one of the primary larval developmental habitats of house flies, Musca domestica (L.). Cattle serve as asymptomatic reservoirs of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and bacteria are released into the environment in cattle feces. The USDA-FSIS declared seven STEC serogroups (O157, O26, O45, O103, O145, O121, and O111) as adulterants in beef products. In addition, the serogroup O104 was a culprit of a large outbreak in Germany in 2011. Our study aimed to assess the prevalence of seven non-O157 STEC (O26, O45, O145, O103, O121, O111, and O104) serogroups in adult house flies. Flies (n = 463) were collected from nine feedlots and three dairy farms in six states in the United States and individually processed. This involved a culturing approach with immunomagnetic separation followed by multiplex polymerase chain reactions for detection of individual serogroups and virulence traits. The concentration of bacteria on modified Possé agar ranged between 1.0 × 101 and 7.0 × 107 (mean: 1.5 ± 0.3 × 106) CFU/fly. Out of 463 house flies, 159 (34.3%) carried one or more of six E. coli serogroups of interest. However, STEC was found in 1.5% of house flies from feedlots only. These were E. coli O103 and O104 harboring stx1 and ehxA and E. coli O45 with stx1, eae, and ehxA. This is the first study reporting the isolation of non-O157 STEC in house flies from the confined cattle environment and indicating a potential role of this insect as a vector and reservoir of non-O157 STEC in confined beef cattle. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Genetic diversity of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C ST-4821 in China based on multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Shan

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis sequence type (ST-4821 was first reported in China in 2003, and a new hyper-virulent lineage has been designated as the ST-4821 complex. A large number of N. meningitidis ST-4821 strains have been identified in China since 2003; however, the microevolution characteristics of this complex are unclear. Different combinations of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR loci were used in multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA to analyze 118 N. meningitidis serogroup C ST-4821 strains isolated from seventeen provinces between 2003 and 2012. Additionally, MLVA with five VNTR loci was performed due to its high discriminatory power. One hundred and eighteen isolates were found to comprise 112 subtypes based on MLVA, and 16 outbreak-associated strains were clustered into one group. These data indicate a high level of diversity for N. meningitidis ST-4821 due to microevolution in the last decade. In addition, the results revealed high similarity between isolates from the same geographic origins, which is helpful when monitoring the spread of N. meningitidis serogroup C ST-4821 and will provide valuable information for the control and prevention of bacterial meningitis in China.

  4. Fatal case of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in an adult due to a rare serogroup O91 Entero hemorrhagic Escherichia coli associated with a Clostridium difficile infection. More than meets the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Guillard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemolytic-uremic syndrome due to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, belonging to serogroup O91 has rarely been described. We report here a case of post-diarrheal HUS due to EHEC O91 in an elderly patient for whom diagnosis was delayed given a previously diagnosed C. difficile infection. This case highlights the usefulness of Shiga-toxin detection.

  5. Medio EMJH modificado para el cultivo de Leptospira interrogans serogrupo Ballum Modified EMJH medium for cultivation of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Ballum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. González

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El serogrupo Ballum agrupa cepas de crecimiento fastidioso, con requerimientos nutricionales más exigentes que otras cepas patógenas de Leptospira. Fue evaluada la influencia de 37 compuestos nutricionales sobre el crecimiento de Leptospira interrogans serogrupo Ballum, tomando como base para el estudio al medio sintético EMJH. El crecimiento microbiano fue estimado espectrofotométricamente y por conteo directo en cámara de Petroff-Hausser. La estabilidad de la virulencia fue evaluada en hamsters mediante el cálculo de la dosis letal media. La estabilidad de la antigenicidad fue evaluada mediante Western blotting con antisuero policlonal específico. Bajo condiciones de cultivo controladas se logró triplicar los rendimientos de biomasa comúnmente obtenidos en el medio EMJH sin afectación de la virulencia y antigenicidad tras el incremento de la concentración de Tween 80 y la incorporación de acetato de sodio y extracto de carne. El incremento de la concentración de al menos 6 componentes del EMJH o la incorporación de una variedad de nuevos nutrientes no estimularon apreciablemente los rendimientos de biomasa o la velocidad específica de crecimiento del microorganismo. Los resultados obtenidos permiten disponer de un medio de cultivo enriquecido capaz de sustentar elevados rendimientos de biomasa de este serogrupo exigente de mayor circulación en humanos en Cuba.Strains within the Ballum serogroup of spirochete Leptospira show fastidious growth with more exigent nutritional requirements than those of other Leptospira pathogenic strains. The influence of 37 nutritional compounds on the growth of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Ballum was investigated employing the synthetic EMJH medium as the base for the study. Microbial growth was estimated spectrophotometrically and direct counts were performed with a Petroff-Hausser counting chamber. Virulence stability was evaluated by calculating the mean lethal dose in hamsters

  6. Effect of a quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY glycoconjugate or a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine on meningococcal carriage: an observer-blind, phase 3 randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Robert C; Baxter, David; Chadwick, David R; Faust, Saul N; Finn, Adam; Gordon, Stephen B; Heath, Paul T; Lewis, David J M; Pollard, Andrew J; Turner, David P J; Bazaz, Rohit; Ganguli, Amitava; Havelock, Tom; Neal, Keith R; Okike, Ifeanyichukwu O; Morales-Aza, Begonia; Patel, Kamlesh; Snape, Matthew D; Williams, John; Gilchrist, Stefanie; Gray, Steve J; Maiden, Martin C J; Toneatto, Daniela; Wang, Huajun; McCarthy, Maggie; Dull, Peter M; Borrow, Ray

    2014-12-13

    Meningococcal conjugate vaccines protect individuals directly, but can also confer herd protection by interrupting carriage transmission. We assessed the effects of meningococcal quadrivalent glycoconjugate (MenACWY-CRM) or serogroup B (4CMenB) vaccination on meningococcal carriage rates in 18-24-year-olds. In this phase 3, observer-blind, randomised controlled trial, university students aged 18-24 years from ten sites in England were randomly assigned (1:1:1, block size of three) to receive two doses 1 month apart of Japanese Encephalitis vaccine (controls), 4CMenB, or one dose of MenACWY-CRM then placebo. Participants were randomised with a validated computer-generated random allocation list. Participants and outcome-assessors were masked to the treatment group. Meningococci were isolated from oropharyngeal swabs collected before vaccination and at five scheduled intervals over 1 year. Primary outcomes were cross-sectional carriage 1 month after each vaccine course. Secondary outcomes included comparisons of carriage at any timepoint after primary analysis until study termination. Reactogenicity and adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Analysis was done on the modified intention-to-treat population, which included all enrolled participants who received a study vaccination and provided at least one assessable swab after baseline. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number NCT01214850. Between Sept 21 and Dec 21, 2010, 2954 participants were randomly assigned (987 assigned to control [984 analysed], 979 assigned to 4CMenB [974 analysed], 988 assigned to MenACWY-CRM [983 analysed]); 33% of the 4CMenB group, 34% of the MenACWY-CRM group, and 31% of the control group were positive for meningococcal carriage at study entry. By 1 month, there was no significant difference in carriage between controls and 4CMenB (odds ratio 1·2, 95% CI 0·8-1·7) or MenACWY-CRM (0·9, [0·6-1·3]) groups. From 3 months after dose two, 4CMen

  7. Bacteriophage SP6 encodes a second tailspike protein that recognizes Salmonella enterica serogroups C{sub 2} and C{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhart, Dana; Williams, Steven R.; Scholl, Dean, E-mail: dean@avidbiotics.com

    2017-07-15

    SP6 is a salmonella phage closely related to coliphage K1-5. K1-5 is notable in that it encodes two polysaccharide-degrading tailspike proteins, an endosialidase that allows it to infect E. coli K1, and a lyase that enables it to infect K5 strains. SP6 is similar to K1-5 except that it encodes a P22-like endorhamnosidase tailspike, gp46, allowing it to infect group B Salmonella. We show here that SP6 can also infect Salmonella serogroups C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} and that a mutation in a putative second tailspike, gp47, eliminates this specificity. Gene 47 was fused to the coding region of the N-terminal portion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa R2 pyocin tail fiber and expressed in trans such that the fusion protein becomes incorporated into pyocin particles. These pyocins, termed AvR2-SP47, killed serogroups C{sub 2} and C{sub 3}Salmonella. We conclude that SP6 encodes two tail proteins providing it a broad host range among Salmonella enterica. - Highlights: • SP6 is a “dual specificity” bacteriophage that encodes two different receptor binding proteins giving it a broad host range. • These receptor binding proteins can be used to re-target the spectrum of R-type bacteriocins to Salmonella enterica. • Both SP6 and the engineered R-type bacteriocins can kill the Salmonella serovars most associated with human disease making them attractive for development as antimicrobial agents.

  8. Effect of complement Factor H on anti-FHbp serum bactericidal antibody responses of infant rhesus macaques boosted with a licensed meningococcal serogroup B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, Serena; Beernink, Peter T; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-12-16

    FHbp is a major serogroup B meningococcal vaccine antigen. Binding of complement Factor H (FH) to FHbp is specific for human and some non-human primate FH. In previous studies, FH binding to FHbp vaccines impaired protective anti-FHbp antibody responses. In this study we investigated anti-FHbp antibody responses to a third dose of a licensed serogroup B vaccine (MenB-4C) in infant macaques vaccinated in a previous study with MenB-4C. Six macaques with high binding of FH to FHbp (FH(high)), and six with FH(low) baseline phenotypes, were immunized three months after dose 2. After dose 2, macaques with the FH(low) baseline phenotype had serum anti-FHbp antibodies that enhanced FH binding to FHbp (functionally converting them to a FH(high) phenotype). In this group, activation of the classical complement pathway (C4b deposition) by serum anti-FHbp antibody, and anti-FHbp serum bactericidal titers were lower after dose 3 than after dose 2 (pb deposition and bactericidal titers were similar after doses 2 and 3. Two macaques developed serum anti-FH autoantibodies after dose 2, which were not detected after dose 3. In conclusion, in macaques with the FH(low) baseline phenotype whose post-dose 2 serum anti-FHbp antibodies had converted them to FH(high), the anti-FHbp antibody repertoire to dose 3 was skewed to less protective epitopes than after dose 2. Mutant FHbp vaccines that eliminate FH binding may avoid eliciting anti-FHbp antibodies that enhance FH binding, and confer greater protection with less risk of inducing anti-FH autoantibodies than FHbp vaccines that bind FH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Persistence of bactericidal antibodies following early infant vaccination with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine and immunogenicity of a preschool booster dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Matthew D; Saroey, Praveen; John, Tessa M; Robinson, Hannah; Kelly, Sarah; Gossger, Nicoletta; Yu, Ly-Mee; Wang, Huajun; Toneatto, Daniela; Dull, Peter M; Pollard, Andrew J

    2013-10-15

    The multicomponent serogroup B meningococcal (4CMenB) vaccine was recently licensed for use in Europe. There are currently no data on the persistence of bactericidal antibodies induced by use of this vaccine in infants. Our objective was to evaluate serogroup B-specific bactericidal antibodies in children aged 40-44 months previously vaccinated at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Participants given 4 doses of 4CMenB as infants received a fifth dose of the vaccine at 40-44 months of age. Age-matched participants who were MenB vaccine-naive received 4CMenB and formed the control group. We evaluated human complement serum bactericidal activity (hSBA) titres at baseline and 1 month after each dose of 4CMenB. Before a booster dose at enrolment, 41%-76% of 17 participants previously vaccinated with 4CMenB in infancy had hSBA titres of 4 or greater against 4 reference strains. Before vaccination in the control group (n = 40) these proportions were similar for strains 44/76-SL (63%) and M10713 (68%) but low for strains NZ98/254 (0%) and 5/99 (3%). A booster dose in the 4CMenB-primed participants generated greater increases in hSBA titres than in controls. As has been observed with other meningococcal vaccines, bactericidal antibodies waned after vaccination with 4CMenB administered according to an approved infant vaccination schedule of 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age, but there was an anamnestic response to a booster dose at 40-44 months of age. If 4CMenB were introduced into routine vaccination schedules, assessment of the need for a booster dose would require data on the impact of these declining titres on vaccine effectiveness. ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01027351.

  10. Impact of an Immunization Campaign to Control an Increased Incidence of Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease in One Region of Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wals, Philippe; Deceuninck, Geneviève; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tsang, Raymond; Law, Dennis; De Serres, Gaston; Gilca, Vladimir; Gilca, Rodica; Boulianne, Nicole

    2017-05-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) incidence increased in Quebec, starting in 2003, and was caused by a serogroup B sequence type 269 clone. The Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (SLSJ) region was particularly affected with a rate of 3.4 per 100000 person-years in 2006-2013. In May 2014, an immunization campaign was launched in SLSJ, using the 4-component protein-based meningococcal vaccine (MenB-4C). We aimed to evaluate the impact of the campaign 2 years after its initiation. Immunization registry data and serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease (B-IMD) cases notified to public health authorities and confirmed by culture or polymerase chain reaction from July 1996 to December 2016 were analyzed, including a multivariate Poisson regression model of incidence rates. By the end of the campaign, 82% of the 59000 targeted SLSJ residents between 2 months and 20 years of age had been immunized. Following the initiation of the campaign, no B-IMD case occurred among vaccinees, whereas 2 cases were reported among unvaccinated adult SLSJ residents, and a third case in an unvaccinated child who had stayed in the region during the week prior to disease onset, in 2015. B-IMD incidence decreased in all other regions in the years 2015-2016 but sporadic cases continued to occur. A multivariate analysis showed a significant effect of the campaign in the SLSJ region (relative B-IMD risk: 0.22; P = .04). Results suggest a high level of protection provided by MenB-4C following mass vaccination at regional level. This, along with reassuring safety data, supports the current recommendations for MenB-4C use for controlling outbreaks caused by clones covered by the vaccine. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Safety, immunogenicity, and tolerability of meningococcal serogroup B bivalent recombinant lipoprotein 2086 vaccine in healthy adolescents: a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter C; Marshall, Helen S; Nissen, Michael D; Jiang, Qin; Jansen, Kathrin U; Garcés-Sánchez, Maria; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Beeslaar, Johannes; Szenborn, Leszek; Wysocki, Jacek; Eiden, Joseph; Harris, Shannon L; Jones, Thomas R; Perez, John L

    2012-08-01

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease, but a broadly protective vaccine is not currently licensed. A bivalent recombinant factor H-binding protein vaccine (recombinant lipoprotein 2086) has been developed to provide broad coverage against diverse invasive meningococcus serogroup B strains. Our aim was to test the immune response of this vaccine. This randomised, placebo-controlled trial enrolled healthy adolescents from 25 sites in Australia, Poland, and Spain. Exclusion criteria were previous invasive meningococcal disease or serogroup B vaccination, previous adverse reaction or known hypersensitivity to the vaccine, any significant comorbidities, and immunosuppressive therapy or receipt of blood products in the past 6 months. Participants were randomly assigned with a computerised block randomisation scheme to receive ascending doses of vaccine (60, 120, or 200 μg) or placebo at 0, 2, and 6 months. Principal investigators, participants and their guardians, and laboratory personnel were masked to the allocation; dispensing staff were not. Immunogenicity was measured by serum bactericidal assays using human complement (hSBA) against eight diverse meningococcus serogroup B strains. The co-primary endpoints were seroconversion for the two indicator strains (PMB1745 and PMB17) analysed by the Clopper-Pearson method. Local and systemic reactions and adverse events were recorded. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00808028. 539 participants were enrolled and 511 received all three study vaccinations--116 in the placebo group, 21 in the 60 μg group, 191 in the 120 μg group, and 183 in the 200 μg group. The proportion of participants responding with an hSBA titre equal to or greater than the lower limit of quantitation of the hSBA assays (reciprcocal titres of 7 to 18, depending on test strain) was similar for the two largest doses and ranged from 75·6 to 100·0% for the 120 μg dose and 67·9 to

  12. Inmunogenicidad y capacidad protectora en hamsters de vacunas antileptospirósicas monovalentes de células enteras del serogrupo Ballum Immunogenicity and protective capacity of leptospiral whole-cell monovalent serogroup Ballum vaccines in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. González

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El serogrupo Ballum de Leptospira constituye en la actualidad la primera causa de leptospirosis humana en Cuba. Vacunas de células enteras químicamente inactivadas fueron formuladas a partir de dos cepas clínicas de Leptospira interrogans serogrupo Ballum empleando como adyuvante hidróxido de aluminio. Los niveles de aglutininas inducidos en hamsters por una u otra preparación vacunal fueron estimados mediante aglutinación microscópica y la actividad IgG específica fue cuantificada mediante ELISA. La capacidad de protección homóloga y heteróloga contra la infección letal y subletal se determinó mediante el desafío con 100 y 10 000 DL50 de cinco cepas virulentas pertenecientes a los serogrupos Ballum, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae y Pomona. Las evaluaciones realizadas demostraron que ambas vacunas fueron inmunogénicas e indujeron una completa protección homóloga en el modelo animal empleado. La protección cruzada frente a serogrupos heterólogos solo fue significativa en una de las preparaciones monovalentes frente al desafío con 100 DL50 de Canicola. Como resultado de este estudio se pudo comprobar la alta inmunogenicidad y capacidad protectora en hamsters de vacunas monovalentes de células enteras formuladas a partir de dos cepas candidatas vacunales del serogrupo de Leptospira de mayor circulación en humanos en Cuba no incluido en la vacuna actualmente disponible.Leptospira serogroup Ballum is at present the first cause of human leptospirosis in Cuba. Killed whole-cell vaccines were formulated with two clinical isolates of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Ballum using aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant. Agglutinins levels induced by each vaccine in hamsters were estimated by microscopic agglutination test and specific IgG activities were quantified by a whole cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Homologous and cross protective capacity against lethal and sublethal infection were determined in vaccinated animals by

  13. Persistence of immune responses after a single dose of Novartis meningococcal serogroup A, C, W-135 and Y CRM-197 conjugate vaccine (Menveo®) or Menactra® among healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher J; Baxter, Roger; Anemona, Alessandra; Ciavarro, Giuseppe; Dull, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The persistence of human bactericidal activity (hSBA) responses in adolescents was assessed 22 months after vaccination with one dose of Menveo® (MenACWY-CRM; Novartis) or Menactra® (MCV4) (sanofi pasteur). The proportion of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 was significantly higher among recipients of MenACWY-CRM than MCV4 for serogroups A, W-135 and Y.

  14. Designation of the European Working Group on Legionella Infection (EWGLI) amplified fragment length polymorphism types of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and results of intercentre proficiency testing Using a standard protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fry, N K; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Bergmans, A

    2002-01-01

    The utility of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis as a genotyping method for the epidemiological typing of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 has been previously demonstrated. This study (i). reports recommendations for the designation of the European Working Group on Legionella...... centres), and 92% (7 centres) to 100% (7 centres). The AFLP method as described is robust and rapid and allows the genotypic comparison of isolates of Legionella pneumophila between different testing centres without the need for exchange of the strains studied....

  15. Safety and Immunogenicity of Coadministering a Combined Meningococcal Serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine with 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine at 12 Months of Age ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Elizabeth; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Findlow, Helen; Ashton, Lindsey; England, Anna; Stanford, Elaine; Matheson, Mary; Southern, Joanna; Sheasby, Elizabeth; Goldblatt, David; Borrow, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The coadministration of the combined meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC)/Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine at 12 months of age was investigated to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this regimen compared with separate administration of the conjugate vaccines. Children were randomized to receive MCC/Hib vaccine alone followed 1 month later by PCV7 with MMR vaccine or to receive all thr...

  16. O Serogroup-Specific Touchdown-Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection and Identification of Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, and Non-O1/Non-O139

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, sensitive locus-specific touchdown-multiplex polymerase chain reaction (TMPCR, which is based on two-stage amplification pertaining to multiplex PCR and conditional touchdown strategy, was used in detecting and differentiating Vibrio cholerae serogroups. A panel of molecular marker-based TMPCR method generates reproducible profiles of V. cholerae-specific (588 bp amplicons derived from ompW gene encoding the outer membrane protein and serogroup-specific amplicons, 364 bp for the O1 and 256 bp for the O139, authentically copied from rfb genes responsible for the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. The TMPCR amplification efficiency yields either equally or unequally detectable duplex DNA bands of the O1 (588 and 364 bp and O139 (588 and 256 bp or a DNA fragment of non-O1/non-O139 (588 bp while providing no false positive identifications using the genomic DNA templates of the other vibrios and Enterobacteriaceae. The reciprocal analysis of two-template combinations demonstrated that, using V. cholerae O1, O139, or equally mixed O1 and O139, the TMPCR had a detection limit of as low as 100 pg of the O1, O139, or non-O1/non-O139 in reactions containing unequally or equally mixed gDNAs. In addition, the O serogroup-specific TMPCR method had 100% agreement with the serotyping method when examined for the serotyped V. cholerae reference strains and those recovered from clinical samples. The potential benefit of using this TMPCR tool would augment the serotyping method used in epidemiological surveillance and monitoring of V. cholerae serogroups, O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 present in clinical and environmental samples.

  17. Comparative analysis of virulence determinants, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and serogrouping of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli versus typical enteropathogenic E. coli in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvi, Supriya; Appannanavar, Suma; Mohan, Balvinder; Kaur, Harsimran; Gautam, Neha; Bharti, Bhavneet; Kumar, Yashwant; Taneja, Neelam

    2015-10-01

    The epidemiology of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and the significance of isolation of atypical EPEC (aEPEC) in childhood diarrhoea have not been well studied in an Indian context. A comparative study was undertaken to investigate virulence determinants, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and serogrouping of typical EPEC (tEPEC) versus aEPEC causing diarrhoea in children. A total of 400 prospective and 500 retrospective E. coli isolates were included. PCR was performed for eae, bfpA, efa, nleB, nleE, cdt, ehxA and paa genes. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute's disc diffusion test was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility. Phenotypic screening of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) production, and molecular detection of bla(NDM-1), bla(VIM), bla(CTX-M-15), bla(IMP) and bla(KPC) were performed. aEPEC (57.6 %) were more common as compared with tEPEC (42.3 %). The occurrence of virulence genes was observed to be three times higher in aEPEC as compared with tEPEC, efa1 (14.7 % of aEPEC, 4 % of tEPEC) being the most common. Most of the isolates did not belong to the classical EPEC O-serogroups. The highest resistance was observed against amoxicillin (93.22 %) followed by quinolones (83 %), cephalosporins (37.28 %), cotrimoxazole (35.59 %) and carbapenems (30.5 %). Overall equal numbers of aEPEC (41.17 %) and tEPEC (40 %) were observed to be multidrug-resistant. Fifteen EPEC strains demonstrated presence of ESBLs, five produced AmpC and four each produced metallo-β-lactamases and KPC-type carbapenemases; eight, seven and one isolate(s) each were positive for bla(VIM), bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(NDM-1), respectively. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time on carbapenem resistance and the presence of bla(NDM-1) and bla(CTX-M-15) in EPEC isolates from India.

  18. Indigenous lactobacilli strains of food and human sources reverse enteropathogenic E. coli O26:H11-induced damage in intestinal epithelial cell lines: effect on redistribution of tight junction proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariwala, Ruchi; Mandal, Hemanti; Bagchi, Tamishraha

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the neutralizing effect of lactobacilli isolated from indigenous food and human sources on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) O26 : H11-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction in vitro. This was assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability assays using intestinal cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2. Furthermore, the expression and distribution of tight junction (TJ) proteins were analysed by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence assay, respectively. The nine strains used in the study were from different species viz. Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillushelveticus, Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum. All strains were able to reverse the decrease in TEER and corresponding increase in permeability across E. coli-infected monolayers. Maximum reversal was observed after 18 h [up to 93.8±2.0 % by L. rhamnosus GG followed by L. fermentum IIs11.2 (92.6±2.2 %) and L. plantarum GRI-2 (91.9±0.9 %)] of lactobacilli exposure following EPEC O26 : H11 infection. All strains were able to redistribute the TJ proteins to the cell periphery either partially or completely. Moreover, L. helveticus FA-7 was also able to significantly increase the mRNA expression of ZO-1 and claudin-1 (2.5-fold and 3.0-fold, respectively; PGRI-2 were good in all the aspects studied, and the other strains were good in some aspects. L. helveticus FA-7, L. fermentum FA-1 and L. plantarum GRI-2 can therefore be used for potential therapeutic purpose against intestinal epithelial dysfunction.

  19. Genomic Investigation Reveals Highly Conserved, Mosaic, Recombination Events Associated with Capsular Switching among Invasive Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W Sequence Type (ST)-11 Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Marsh, Jane W; Krauland, Mary G; Fernandez, Jorge O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hiller, N Luisa; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-07-03

    Neisseria meningitidis is an important cause of meningococcal disease globally. Sequence type (ST)-11 clonal complex (cc11) is a hypervirulent meningococcal lineage historically associated with serogroup C capsule and is believed to have acquired the W capsule through a C to W capsular switching event. We studied the sequence of capsule gene cluster (cps) and adjoining genomic regions of 524 invasive W cc11 strains isolated globally. We identified recombination breakpoints corresponding to two distinct recombination events within W cc11: A 8.4-kb recombinant region likely acquired from W cc22 including the sialic acid/glycosyl-transferase gene, csw resulted in a C→W change in capsular phenotype and a 13.7-kb recombinant segment likely acquired from Y cc23 lineage includes 4.5 kb of cps genes and 8.2 kb downstream of the cps cluster resulting in allelic changes in capsule translocation genes. A vast majority of W cc11 strains (497/524, 94.8%) retain both recombination events as evidenced by sharing identical or very closely related capsular allelic profiles. These data suggest that the W cc11 capsular switch involved two separate recombination events and that current global W cc11 meningococcal disease is caused by strains bearing this mosaic capsular switch. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Distribution of monoclonal antibody subgroups and sequence-based types among Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates derived from cooling tower water, bathwater, and soil in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kikukawa, Kiyomi; Helbig, Jürgen H; Kaneko, Satoko; Suzuki-Hashimoto, Atsuko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Chang, Bin; Murai, Miyo; Ichinose, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Makoto; Kura, Fumiaki

    2012-06-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup (SG) 1 is the most frequent cause of legionellosis. This study analyzed environmental isolates of L. pneumophila SG 1 in Japan using monoclonal antibody (MAb) typing and sequence-based typing (SBT). Samples were analyzed from bathwater (BW; n = 50), cooling tower water (CT; n = 50), and soil (SO; n = 35). The distribution of MAb types varied by source, with the most prevalent types being Bellingham (42%), Oxford (72%), and OLDA (51%) in BW, CT, and SO, respectively. The ratios of MAb 3/1 positive isolates were 26, 2, and 14% from BW, CT, and SO, respectively. The environmental isolates from BW, CT, and SO were divided into 34 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD] = 0.973), 8 STs (IOD = 0.448), and 11 STs (IOD = 0.879), respectively. Genetic variation among CT isolates was smaller than seen in BW and SO. ST1 accounted for 74% of the CT isolates. The only common STs between (i) BW and CT, (ii) BW and SO, and (iii) CT and SO were ST1, ST129, and ST48, respectively, suggesting that each environment constitutes an independent habitat.

  1. Effect of severe weather events on the shedding of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli in slaughter cattle and phenotype of serogroup O157 isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Kim; Reuter, Tim; Bach, Susan J; Chui, Linda; Ma, Angela; Conrad, Cheyenne C; Tostes, Renata; McAllister, Tim A

    2017-09-01

    High-event periods (HEPs) occur sporadically when beef carcasses and meat have episodes of acute contamination with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In this study, severe weather events were investigated as catalysts for HEPs based on PCR and isolate prevalence of seven E. coli serogroups in slaughter cattle feces. Winter ambient temperatures with daily means 10.5oC warmer or 12.3°C colder than seasonal norms (-10.4°C) most altered STEC shedding. Fecal samples yielded increased proportions (P  10 min and one also had strong biofilm-forming potential. However, this isolate lacked eae and stx genes. Severe weather can influence STEC shedding, particularly of O157, and could possibly trigger HEPs. However, our data suggest that it is unlikely for isolates to carry virulence genes and possess phenotypes capable of evading post-harvest microbiological interventions. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Interactions of proteoliposomes from serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and macrophages: adjuvant effects and antigen delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Tamara; Pérez, Oliver; Ménager, Nathalie; Ugrinovic, Sanja; Bracho, Gustavo; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2005-01-26

    Exposure to proteoliposomes from serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (PL) induced up-regulation of MHC-II, MHC-I, CD40, CD80 and CD86 expression on the surface of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC). CD40, CD80 and CD86 were up-regulated on bone marrow-derived macrophages (MPhi) upon stimulation with PL. Both DC and MPhi released TNFalpha, but only DC produced IL12(p70) in response to PL. A small increase in the expression of MHC-II, CD40 and CD86, as well as production of IL12(p70), was observed on the cell surface of DC, but not MPhi from LPS-non-responder C3H/HeJ after exposure to PL. DC, but not MPhi, incubated with PL containing ovalbumin (PL-OVA) presented OVA-specific peptides to CD4+ and CD8+ OVA-specific T-cell hybridomas. These data clearly indicate that PL exert an immunomodulatory effect on DC and MPhi, with some contribution of non-LPS components besides the main role of LPS. The work also shows the potential of PL as a general system to deliver antigens to DC for presentation to CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells.

  3. Close genetic relationship between Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from sputum specimens and puddles on roads, as determined by sequence-based typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatani, Jun-ichi; Isobe, Junko; Kimata, Keiko; Shima, Tomoko; Shimizu, Miwako; Kura, Fumiaki; Sata, Tetsutaro; Watahiki, Masanori

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Legionella species isolated from puddles on asphalt roads. In addition, we carried out sequence-based typing (SBT) analysis on the genetic relationship between L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (SG 1) isolates from puddles and from stock strains previously obtained from sputum specimens and public baths. Sixty-nine water samples were collected from puddles on roads at 6 fixed locations. Legionella species were detected in 33 samples (47.8%) regardless of season. Among the 325 isolates from puddles, strains of L. pneumophila SG 1, a major causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, were the most frequently isolated (n = 62, 19.1%). Sixty-two isolates of L. pneumophila SG 1 from puddles were classified into 36 sequence types (STs) by SBT. ST120 and ST48 were identified as major STs. Environmental ST120 strains from puddles were found for the first time in this study. Among the 14 STs of the clinical isolates (n = 19), 4 STs (n = 6, 31.6%), including ST120, were also detected in isolates from puddles on roads, and the sources of infection in these cases remained unclear. The lag-1 gene, a tentative marker for clinical isolates, was prevalent in puddle isolates (61.3%). Our findings suggest that puddles on asphalt roads serve as potential reservoirs for L. pneumophila in the environment.

  4. Parents’ and Adolescents’ Willingness to be Vaccinated Against Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease during a Mass Vaccination in Saguenay–Lac-St-Jean (Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Dubé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mass vaccination campaign with the 4CMenB vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis Pharmaceutical Canada Inc was launched in a serogroup B endemic area in Quebec. A telephone survey was conducted to assess parental and adolescent opinions about the acceptability of the vaccine. Intent to receive the vaccine or vaccine receipt was reported by the majority of parents (93% and adolescents (75%. Meningitis was perceived as being a dangerous disease by the majority of parents and adolescents. The majority of respondents also considered the 4CMenB vaccine to be safe and effective. The main reason for positive vaccination intention or behaviour was self-protection, while a negative attitude toward vaccination in general was the main reason mentioned by parents who did not intend to have their child vaccinated. Adolescents mainly reported lack of interest, time or information, and low perceived susceptibility and disease severity as the main reasons for not intending to be vaccinated or not being vaccinated.

  5. Whole genome typing of the recently emerged Canadian serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis sequence type 11 clonal complex isolates associated with invasive meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Raymond S W; Ahmad, Tauqeer; Tyler, Shaun; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Deeks, Shelley L; Gilca, Rodica; Hoang, Linda; Tyrrell, Gregory; Van Caeseele, Paul; Van Domselaar, Gary; Jamieson, Frances B

    2018-04-01

    This study was performed to analyze the Canadian invasive serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis (MenW) sequence type 11 (ST-11) clonal complex (CC) isolates by whole genome typing and to compare Canadian isolates with similar isolates from elsewhere. Whole genome typing of 30 MenW ST-11 CC, 20 meningococcal group C (MenC) ST-11 CC, and 31 MenW ST-22 CC isolates was performed on the Bacterial Isolate Genome Sequence database platform. Canadian MenW ST-11 CC isolates were compared with the 2000 MenW Hajj outbreak strain, as well as with MenW ST-11 CC from other countries. Whole genome typing showed that the Canadian MenW ST-11 CC isolates were distinct from the traditional MenW ST-22 CC; they were not capsule-switched contemporary MenC strains that incorporated MenW capsules. While some recent MenW disease cases in Canada were caused by MenW ST-11 CC isolates showing relatedness to the 2000 MenW Hajj strain, many were non-Hajj isolates similar to current MenW ST-11 isolates found globally. Geographical and temporal variations in genotypes and surface protein antigen genes were found among the MenW ST-11 CC isolates. The current MenW ST-11 isolates did not arise by capsule switching from contemporary MenC ST-11 isolates. Both the Hajj-related and non-Hajj MenW ST-11 CC strains were associated with invasive meningococcal disease in Canada. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Combined Haemophilus Influenzae type B-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C vaccine is immunogenic and well tolerated in preterm infants when coadministered with other routinely recommended vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeñaca, Félix; Arístegui, Javier; Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Moreno-Perez, David; Ruiz-Contreras, Jésus; Merino, Jose Manuel; Muro Brussi, Marta; Sánchez-Tamayo, Tomás; Castro Fernandez, Javier; Cabanillas, Lucia; Peddiraju, Kavitha; Mesaros, Narcisa; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2011-11-01

    Preterm infants are at greater risk of morbidity from vaccine-preventable diseases. Therefore, their responses to vaccination are of particular interest. In this open, controlled, Spanish multicenter study, we assessed immunogenicity and safety following primary vaccination of 163 preterm infants (n = 56, 36 weeks' gestation), with Haemophilus Influenzae type B (Hib)-MenC-TT, DTaP(diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine)-HepB-IPV, and PCV7 at 2 to 4-6 months of age followed by booster vaccination at 16 to 18 months of age. Serum bactericidal activity (rabbit complement) against MenC, and antibodies to Hib and hepatitis b (anti-HBs) were determined. Local/general symptoms were assessed after each vaccination via diary cards. Serious adverse events were recorded throughout the study. There were no statistically significant differences between preterm and full-term infants in either Hib or MenC seroprotection rates or geometric mean concentrations at 1 month postdose 3, before or 1 month postbooster. Postdose 3, >99% of participants had seroprotective anti-HBs antibody concentrations. Anti-HBs geometric mean concentrations was significantly lower in the group compared with other groups and this difference persisted until 16 to 18 months of age. Hib-MenC-TT vaccine was well tolerated at all ages. There was one death caused by meningococcal serogroup-B sepsis (full term). No serious adverse events were assessed by the investigator as being vaccine related. Hib-MenC-TT vaccine had a similar immunogenicity and safety profile in preterm and full-term infants. These results demonstrate that preterm infants can be safely vaccinated with Hib-MenC-TT at the recommended chronologic age without impacting the responses to the Hib and MenC antigens.

  7. Whole genome typing of the recently emerged Canadian serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis sequence type 11 clonal complex isolates associated with invasive meningococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond S.W. Tsang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the Canadian invasive serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis (MenW sequence type 11 (ST-11 clonal complex (CC isolates by whole genome typing and to compare Canadian isolates with similar isolates from elsewhere. Methods: Whole genome typing of 30 MenW ST-11 CC, 20 meningococcal group C (MenC ST-11 CC, and 31 MenW ST-22 CC isolates was performed on the Bacterial Isolate Genome Sequence database platform. Canadian MenW ST-11 CC isolates were compared with the 2000 MenW Hajj outbreak strain, as well as with MenW ST-11 CC from other countries. Results: Whole genome typing showed that the Canadian MenW ST-11 CC isolates were distinct from the traditional MenW ST-22 CC; they were not capsule-switched contemporary MenC strains that incorporated MenW capsules. While some recent MenW disease cases in Canada were caused by MenW ST-11 CC isolates showing relatedness to the 2000 MenW Hajj strain, many were non-Hajj isolates similar to current MenW ST-11 isolates found globally. Geographical and temporal variations in genotypes and surface protein antigen genes were found among the MenW ST-11 CC isolates. Conclusions: The current MenW ST-11 isolates did not arise by capsule switching from contemporary MenC ST-11 isolates. Both the Hajj-related and non-Hajj MenW ST-11 CC strains were associated with invasive meningococcal disease in Canada. Keywords: Neisseria meningitidis, Invasive meningococcal disease, Whole genome typing

  8. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of a P1.7b,4 strain-specific serogroup B meningococcal vaccine given to preteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Jamie; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Mow, Florina Chan; Jackson, Catherine; Martin, Diana; O'Hallahan, Jane; Oster, Philipp; Ypma, Ellen; Reid, Stewart; Aaberge, Ingeborg; Crengle, Sue; Stewart, Joanna; Lennon, Diana

    2007-11-01

    New Zealand (NZ) has experienced a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemic since 1991. MeNZB, a strain-specific outer membrane vesicle vaccine made using an NZ epidemic strain isolate, NZ98/254 (B:4:P1.7b,4), from two manufacturing sites, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) and Chiron Vaccines (CV; now Novartis), was evaluated for safety, immunogenicity, and reactogenicity in this observer-blind trial with 8- to 12-year-old children. In year 1, cohort A (n = 302) was randomized 4:1 for receipt of NIPH-MeNZB or MenBvac (Norwegian parent vaccine strain 44/76; B:15:P1.7,16). In year 2, cohort B (n = 313) was randomized 4:1 for receipt of CV-MeNZB or NIPH-MeNZB. Participants all received three vaccinations 6 weeks apart. Local and systemic reactions were monitored for 7 days. Seroresponse was defined as a fourfold or greater rise in the serum bactericidal antibody titer from the baseline titer as measured by a serum bactericidal assay. Those with baseline titers of /=1:8 to serorespond. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses are presented. In cohort A, 74% (ITT) and 73% (PP) of NIPH-MeNZB recipients demonstrated seroresponses against NZ98/254 after three doses, versus 32% (ITT and PP) of MenBvac recipients. In cohort B, seroresponses against NZ98/254 after three doses occurred in 79% (ITT and PP) of CV-MeNZB versus 75% (ITT) and 76% (PP) of NIPH-MeNZB recipients. Vaccines were tolerable, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. In conclusion, the NZ strain meningococcal B vaccine (MeNZB) from either manufacturing site was immunogenic against New Zealand epidemic vaccine strain meningococci with no safety concerns when given in three doses to these 8- to 12-year-old children.

  9. Plasma and memory B-cell kinetics in infants following a primary schedule of CRM 197-conjugated serogroup C meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Dominic F; Snape, Matthew D; Perrett, Kirsten P; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Lewis, Susan; Blanchard Rohner, Geraldine; Jones, Meryl; Yu, Ly-Mee; Pollard, Andrew J

    2009-05-01

    The induction of persistent protective levels of pathogen-specific antibody is an important goal of immunization against childhood infections. However, antibody persistence is poor after immunization in infancy versus later in life. Serogroup C meningococci (MenC) are an important cause of bacteraemia and meningitis in children. The use of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against MenC has been associated with a significant decline in the incidence of invasive disease. However, vaccine effectiveness is negligible by more than 1 year after a three-dose priming series in infancy and corresponds to a rapid decline in antibody following an initial immune response. The cellular mechanisms underlying the generation of persistent antibody in this age group are unclear. An essential prelude to larger studies of peripheral blood B cells is an understanding of B-cell kinetics following immunization. We measured MenC- and diphtheria-specific plasma and memory B-cell kinetics in infants receiving a CRM(197) (cross-reactive material; mutant diphtheria toxoid)-conjugated MenC vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. Plasma cell responses were more delayed after the first dose when compared with the rapid appearance of plasma cells after the third dose. Memory B cells were detectable at all time-points following the third dose as opposed to the low frequency seen following a first dose. This study provides data on B-cell kinetics following a primary schedule of immunization in young infants upon which to base further studies of the underlying cellular mechanism of humoral immunity.

  10. Emergence and genomic diversification of a virulent serogroup W:ST-2881(CC175) Neisseria meningitidis clone in the African meningitis belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamelas, Araceli; Hauser, Julia; Dangy, Jean-Pierre; Hamid, Abdul-Wahab M; Röltgen, Katharina; Abdul Sater, Mohamad R; Hodgson, Abraham; Sie, Ali; Junghanss, Thomas; Harris, Simon R; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D; Pluschke, Gerd

    2017-08-01

    Countries of the African 'meningitis belt' are susceptible to meningococcal meningitis outbreaks. While in the past major epidemics have been primarily caused by serogroup A meningococci, W strains are currently responsible for most of the cases. After an epidemic in Mecca in 2000, W:ST-11 strains have caused many outbreaks worldwide. An unrelated W:ST-2881 clone was described for the first time in 2002, with the first meningitis cases caused by these bacteria reported in 2003. Here we describe results of a comparative whole-genome analysis of 74 W:ST-2881 strains isolated within the framework of two longitudinal colonization and disease studies conducted in Ghana and Burkina Faso. Genomic data indicate that the W:ST-2881 clone has emerged from Y:ST-175(CC175) bacteria by capsule switching. The circulating W:ST-2881 populations were composed of a variety of closely related but distinct genomic variants with no systematic differences between colonization and disease isolates. Two distinct and geographically clustered phylogenetic clonal variants were identified in Burkina Faso and a third in Ghana. On the basis of the presence or absence of 17 recombination fragments, the Ghanaian variant could be differentiated into five clusters. All 25 Ghanaian disease isolates clustered together with 23 out of 40 Ghanaian isolates associated with carriage within one cluster, indicating that W:ST-2881 clusters differ in virulence. More than half of the genes affected by horizontal gene transfer encoded proteins of the 'cell envelope' and the 'transport/binding protein' categories, which indicates that exchange of non-capsular antigens plays an important role in immune evasion.

  11. Randomized Trial to Compare the Immunogenicity and Safety of a CRM or TT Conjugated Quadrivalent Meningococcal Vaccine in Teenagers who Received a CRM or TT Conjugated Serogroup C Vaccine at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, David A; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Yung, Chee-Fu; Southern, Jo; Bai, Xilian; Findlow, Helen; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Hallis, Bassam; Findlow, Jamie; Borrow, Ray; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Protection after meningococcal C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccination in early childhood is short-lived. Boosting with a quadrivalent vaccine in teenage years, a high-risk period for MenC disease, should protect against additional serogroups but might compromise MenC response. The carrier protein in the primary MCC vaccine determines the response to MCC booster in toddlers, but the relationship between primary vaccine and booster given later is unclear. This study compared responses to a CRM-conjugated or tetanus toxoid (TT)-conjugated MenACWY vaccine in teenagers primed with different MCC vaccines at preschool age. Ninety-three teenagers (16-19 years), who were previously randomized at age 3-6 years to receive single-dose MCC-CRM or MCC-TT, were randomized to receive either MenACWY-CRM or MenACWY-TT booster. Serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA, protective titer ≥ 8) were measured before, 1 month and 6 or 9 months after boosting. Preboosting, MCC-TT-primed teenagers had significantly higher MenC SBA titers than those MCC-CRM-primed (P = 0.02). Postboosting, both MenACWY vaccines induced protective SBA titers to all 4 serogroups in most participants (≥ 98% at 1 month and ≥ 90% by 9 months postboost). The highest MenC SBA titers were seen in those MCC-TT-primed and MenACWY-TT-boosted [geometric mean titer (GMT) ~ 22,000] followed by those boosted with MenACWY-CRM irrespective of priming (GMT ~ 12,000) and then those MCC-CRM-primed and MenACWY-TT-boosted (GMT ~ 5500). The estimated postbooster MenC SBA decline beyond 1 month was ~40% as time since booster doubles. Both vaccines were well tolerated with no attributable serious adverse events. Both MenACWY vaccines safely induced protective sustained antibody responses against all targeted serogroups in MCC-primed teenagers.

  12. Safety of Combination of a Tetravalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Serogroups A, C, Y, W-135 With Other Vaccine Preparations: a Prospective Study of a Series of Cases Among Healthy Children and Children With Various Health Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla S. Namazova-Baranova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal infection is an acute disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis, which proceeds with a diverse clinical aspect from nasopharyngitis to meningococcal meningitis and meningococcemia. Since 2014, a tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine has been registered in Russia. This vaccine creates protection against serogroups A, C, W-135, Y and can be used from the age of nine months to 55 years. The actual issue is a vaccine tolerability, including when combined with other vaccine preparations.Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the safety of a tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine against serogroups A, C, Y and W-135 when it is combined with other vaccine preparations.Methods. A prospective full-design study assessed the tolerability of immunization with a meningococcal conjugate vaccine, both in case of monovaccination and in combination with a pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine, measles-mumps-rubella, viral hepatitis A, influenza, and chicken pox vaccines.Results. 97 children aged from 9 months to 18 years were vaccinated, 20 of them were healthy and 77 had medical issues (with allergic pathology, ENT diseases, cardiovascular and nervous system diseases, lung diseases as well as orphan diseases. Among vaccinated children, general reactions were observed in 3/97 (3.1% children, local reactions — in 5 (5.2%. The post-vaccination period passed asymptomatically and uneventfully in the prevailing majority of children vaccinated with a tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (in 91, 93.8%.Conclusion. The immunization with a tetravalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine against serogroups A, C, Y, W-135 is well tolerated, both in case of monovaccination and in combination with other vaccine preparations, in healthy children of different age groups and in patients with different health status.

  13. Evaluation of the induction of immune memory following infant immunisation with serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis conjugate vaccines--exploratory analyses within a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khatami

    Full Text Available We measured meningococcal serogroup C (MenC-specific memory B-cell responses in infants by Enzyme-Linked Immunospot (ELISpot following different MenC conjugate vaccine schedules to investigate the impact of priming on immune memory.Infants aged 2 months were randomised to receive 1 or 2 doses of MenC-CRM197 at 3 or 3 and 4 months, 1 dose of MenC-TT at 3 months, or no primary MenC doses. All children received a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib-MenC booster at 12 months. Blood was drawn at 5, 12, 12 months +6 days and 13 months of age.Results were available for 110, 103, 76 and 44 children from each group respectively. Following primary immunisations, and prior to the 12-month booster, there were no significant differences between 1- or 2-dose primed children in the number of MenC memory B-cells detected. One month following the booster, children primed with 1 dose MenC-TT had more memory B-cells than children primed with either 1-dose (p = 0.001 or 2-dose (p<0.0001 MenC-CRM197. There were no differences in MenC memory B-cells detected in children who received 1 or 2 doses of MenC-CRM197 in infancy and un-primed children.MenC-specific memory B-cell production may be more dependent on the type of primary vaccine used than the number of doses administered. Although the mechanistic differences between MenC-CRM197 and MenC-TT priming are unclear, it is possible that structural differences, including the carrier proteins, may underlie differential interactions with B- and T-cell populations, and thus different effects on various memory B-cell subsets. A MenC-TT/Hib-MenC-TT combination for priming/boosting may offer an advantage in inducing more persistent antibody.EU Clinical Trials Register 2009-016579-31 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01129518.

  14. Concomitant administration of a fully liquid, ready-to-use DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T hexavalent vaccine with a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Borrow, Ray; Da Costa, Xavier; Richard, Patrick; Eymin, Cécile; Boisnard, Florence; Lockhart, Stephen

    2017-01-11

    DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or hexavalent vaccines are indicated for primary and booster vaccination of infants and toddlers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). The present study evaluates the safety and immunogenicity of a ready-to-use hexavalent vaccine when co-administered with a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenC) vaccine in infants. This was a phase III, open-label, randomised, multicentre study conducted in Finland. Healthy infants, aged 46-74days (n=350), were randomised in a ratio of 1:1 to receive DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine at two, three and four months, either with a MenC vaccine co-administered at two and four months (Group 1; n=175) or without MenC vaccine (Group 2; n=175). All infants also received routine rotavirus and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The proportion of participants with an anti-HBs concentration ⩾10mIU/mL assessed one month after the third dose of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine was 97.5% [95%CI: 93.1-99.3] in the coadministration group and 96.1% [95%CI: 91.8-98.6] in the group without MenC vaccine. The proportion of participants with an anti-MenC SBA titre ⩾8 assessed one month after the second dose of MenC vaccine was 100% in the coadministration group. Both primary objectives were achieved. Secondary immunogenicity and safety analyses showed that co-administration of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T and MenC vaccines did not impact the immune response to the antigens of each of the two vaccines. All vaccines were well tolerated and the safety profile of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine was similar in both groups. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01839175; EudraCT number: 2012-005547-24. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunogenicity and tolerability of recombinant serogroup B meningococcal vaccine administered with or without routine infant vaccinations according to different immunization schedules: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossger, Nicoletta; Snape, Matthew D; Yu, Ly-Mee; Finn, Adam; Bona, Gianni; Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola; Diez-Domingo, Javier; Sokal, Etienne; Becker, Birgitta; Kieninger, Dorothee; Prymula, Roman; Dull, Peter; Ypma, Ellen; Toneatto, Daniela; Kimura, Alan; Pollard, Andrew J

    2012-02-08

    In the absence of an effective vaccine, serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) remains a major cause of invasive disease in early childhood in developed countries. To determine the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a multicomponent MenB vaccine (4CMenB) and routine infant vaccines when given either concomitantly or separately. Phase 2b, multicenter, open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled study of 1885 infants enrolled at age 2 months from August 2008 to July 2010 in Europe. Participants were randomized 2:2:1:1 to receive (1) 4CMenB at 2, 4, and 6 months with routine vaccines (7-valent pneumococcal and combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines); (2) 4CMenB at 2, 4, and 6 months and routine vaccines at 3, 5, and 7 months; (3) 4CMenB with routine vaccines at 2, 3, and 4 months; or (4) routine vaccines alone at 2, 3, and 4 months. Percentage of participants with human complement serum bactericidal activity (hSBA) titer of 1:5 or greater against 3 MenB strains specific for vaccine antigens (NZ98/254, 44/76-SL, and 5/99). After three 4CMenB vaccinations, 99% or more of infants developed hSBA titers of 1:5 or greater against strains 44/76-SL and 5/99. For NZ98/254, this proportion was 79% (95% CI, 75.2%-82.4%) for vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months with routine vaccines, 86.1% (95% CI, 82.9%-89.0%) for vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months without routine vaccines, and 81.7% (95% CI, 76.6%-86.2%) for vaccination at 2, 3, and 4 months with routine vaccines. Responses to routine vaccines given with 4CMenB were noninferior to routine vaccines alone for all antigens, except for the responses to pertactin and serotype 6B pneumococcal polysaccharide. Fever was seen following 26% (158/602) to 41% (247/607) of 4CMenB doses when administered alone, compared with 23% (69/304) to 36% (109/306) after routine vaccines given alone and 51% (306/605) to 61% (380/624) after 4CMenB and routine

  16. Critical appraisal of a quadrivalent CRM197 conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroups A, C W-135 and Y (Menveo®) in the context of treatment and prevention of invasive disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Michael; Cooper, Brian; DeTora, Lisa M; Stoddard, Jeffrey J

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, invasive meningococcal disease affects about 500,000 people annually. Case fatality in developed countries averages 10%, and higher rates are reported in less prosperous regions. According to the World Health Organization, the most important pathogenic serogroups are A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y. Clinical features of invasive meningococcal disease make diagnosis and management difficult. Antibiotic measures are recommended for prophylaxis after exposure and for treatment of invasive meningococcal disease cases; however, resistant strains may be emerging. Vaccines are generally regarded as the best preventative measure for invasive meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y using protein conjugation technology have clear advantages over older plain polysaccharide formulations without a protein component. The first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D) was licensed in the US in 2005. More recently, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo®) was licensed in Europe, the US, the Middle East, and Latin America. MenACWY-CRM uses cross-reactive material 197, a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, as the carrier protein. MenACWY-CRM offers robust immunogenicity in all age groups, with a tolerability profile similar to that of a plain polysaccharide vaccine. Given its potential for protecting persons from infancy to old age, MenACWY-CRM offers the opportunity to protect broad populations against invasive meningococcal disease. The most optimal strategy for use of the vaccine has to be assessed country by country on the basis of local epidemiology, individual health care systems, and need. PMID:21904459

  17. Critical appraisal of a quadrivalent CRM(197) conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroups A, C W-135 and Y (Menveo) in the context of treatment and prevention of invasive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Michael; Cooper, Brian; Detora, Lisa M; Stoddard, Jeffrey J

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, invasive meningococcal disease affects about 500,000 people annually. Case fatality in developed countries averages 10%, and higher rates are reported in less prosperous regions. According to the World Health Organization, the most important pathogenic serogroups are A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y. Clinical features of invasive meningococcal disease make diagnosis and management difficult. Antibiotic measures are recommended for prophylaxis after exposure and for treatment of invasive meningococcal disease cases; however, resistant strains may be emerging. Vaccines are generally regarded as the best preventative measure for invasive meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y using protein conjugation technology have clear advantages over older plain polysaccharide formulations without a protein component. The first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D) was licensed in the US in 2005. More recently, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo(®)) was licensed in Europe, the US, the Middle East, and Latin America. MenACWY-CRM uses cross-reactive material 197, a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, as the carrier protein. MenACWY-CRM offers robust immunogenicity in all age groups, with a tolerability profile similar to that of a plain polysaccharide vaccine. Given its potential for protecting persons from infancy to old age, MenACWY-CRM offers the opportunity to protect broad populations against invasive meningococcal disease. The most optimal strategy for use of the vaccine has to be assessed country by country on the basis of local epidemiology, individual health care systems, and need.

  18. Genetic structure of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C epidemic strains in South Brazil Estrutura genética de cepas epidêmicas de Neisseria meningitidis sorogrupo C do Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tavares Sacchi

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we report the results of an analysis, based on serotyping, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE, and ribotyping of N. meningitidis serogroup C strains isolated from patients with meningococcal disease (MD in Rio Grande do Sul (RS and Santa Catarina (SC States, Brazil, as the Center of Epidemiology Control of Ministry of Health detected an increasing of MD cases due to this serogroup in the last two years (1992-1993. We have demonstrated that the MD due to N.meningitidis serogroup C strains in RS and SC States occurring in the last 4 years were caused mainly by one clone of strains (ET 40, with isolates indistinguishable by serogroup, serotype, subtype and even by ribotyping. One small number of cases that were not due to an ET 40 strains, represent closely related clones that probably are new lineages generated from the ET 40 clone referred as ET 11A complex. We have also analyzed N.meningitidis serogroup C strains isolated in the greater São Paulo in 1976 as representative of the first post epidemic year in that region. The ribotyping method, as well as MEE, could provide useful information about the clonal characteristics of those isolates and also of strains isolated in south Brazil. The strains from 1976 have more similarity with the actual endemic than epidemic strains, by the ribotyping, sulfonamide sensitivity, and MEE results. In conclusion, serotyping with monoclonal antibodies (C:2b:P1.3, MEE (ET 11 and ET 11A complex, and ribotyping by using ClaI restriction enzyme (Rb2, were useful to characterize these epidemic strains of N.meningitidis related to the increased incidence of MD in different States of south Brazil. It is mostly probable that these N.meningitidis serogroup C strains have poor or no genetic corelation with 1971-1975 epidemic serogroup C strains. The genetic similarity of members of the ET 11 and ET 11A complex were confirmed by the ribotyping method by using three restriction endonucleases

  19. Seroprevalence and placental transmission of maternal antibodies specific for Neisseria meningitidis Serogroups A, C, Y and W135 and influence of maternal antibodies on the immune response to a primary course of MenACWY-CRM vaccine in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Snape, Matthew D; Kelly, Dominic F; O'Connor, Daniel; John, Tessa; Kibwana, Elizabeth; Parks, Hannah; Ford, Karen; Dull, Peter M; Pollard, Andrew J

    2013-07-01

    Maternal antibodies give neonates some protection against bacterial infection. We measured antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y and W135 in mothers and their 2-month-old infants at study enrollment. We also assessed the impact of maternal antibody present at 2 months of age on the immune response to a primary course of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM197) given at 2 and 4 months of age. This was a single-center, open-label, randomized study undertaken in Oxford, United Kingdom. Two hundred sixteen healthy infants were enrolled in the study and vaccinated with MenACWY-CRM197 at 2 and 4 months of age. Blood was obtained from all mothers, in a subset of infants at 2 months and all infants at 5 months. Antibody and memory B-cell responses at 5 months were correlated with maternal antibodies. Mothers had low IgG antibodies against serogroups C, W135 and Y polysaccharides, but high serogroup A antibody, whereas 61-78% had protective human complement serum bactericidal activity (hSBA) (≥1:4) for serogroups C, W135 and Y but only 31% for serogroup A. Only 9%, 32%, 45% and 19% of 2-month-old infants had hSBA ≥1:4 for serogroups A, C, W135 and Y, respectively. Maternal antibody had little association on responses to MenACWY-CRM197, except a moderate negative association between MenC-specific bactericidal antibody at 2 and 5 months (r = -0.5, P = 0.006, n = 28) and between carrier-specific IgG antibody at 2 months and MenC-specific hSBA/IgG antibody at 5 months (r = -0.4, P = 0.02 and 0.04, n = 32 and 23). Nonetheless, 90% of infants achieved protective MenC-hSBA titers after vaccination at 2 and 4 months of age. The levels of serogroup-specific meningococcal antibodies were low in mothers and 2-month-old infants. Immunizing mothers before or during pregnancy with meningococcal conjugate vaccines might increase antibody levels in early infancy and provide protection against infection due to N. meningitidis.

  20. Effect of carvacrol on O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Stratakos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin Escherichia coli (STEC strains are important foodborne bacteria linked to diarrhea, enteritis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome and in some cases death. E. coli O157:H7 is the most common strain amongst STECs however non-O157 STECs have been connected with several outbreaks on an international level.  The use of natural plant extracts to reduce the risk from foodborne pathogens is gaining increasing importance. Therefore in this study, we tested the antibacterial effect of carvacrol, a major component of oregano essential oil, on E. coli serogroups O157, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 as well as serogroup O104 responsible for the massive outbreak in Germany in 2011. Carvacrol showed antibacterial effect on all strains tested. The relative electric conductivity was assessed in order to investigate the changes in membrane permeability and thus to investigate the antimicrobial mechanism of carvacrol. Results showed that the relative conductivity increased with increasing concentrations of carvacrol which showed that there was an increasing leakage of electrolytes due to disruption of the cell membrane. The data presented here revealed that carvacrol has the potential to be used as a natural antimicrobial against STECs.

  1. Towards a Molecular Definition of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC): Detection of Genes Located on O Island 57 as Markers To Distinguish EHEC from Closely Related Enteropathogenic E. coli Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Sabine; Beutin, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Among strains of Shiga-toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (STEC), seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) are associated with severe clinical illness in humans. These strains are also called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and the development of methods for their reliable detection from food has been challenging thus far. PCR detection of major EHEC virulence genes stx1, stx2, eae, and O-serogroup-specific genes is useful but does not identify EHEC strains specifically. Searching for the presence of additional genes issued from E. coli O157:H7 genomic islands OI-122 and OI-71 increases the specificity but does not clearly discriminate EHEC from enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains. Here, we identified two putative genes, called Z2098 and Z2099, from the genomic island OI-57 that were closely associated with EHEC and their stx-negative derivative strains (87% for Z2098 and 91% for Z2099). Z2098 and Z2099 were rarely found in EPEC (10% for Z2098 and 12% for Z2099), STEC (2 and 15%), and apathogenic E. coli (1% each) strains. Our findings indicate that Z2098 and Z2099 are useful genetic markers for a more targeted diagnosis of typical EHEC and new emerging EHEC strains. PMID:23325824

  2. Improved traceability of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli using CRISPRs for detection and typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Sabine; Beutin, Lothar; Fach, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Among strains of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) are frequently associated with severe clinical illness in humans. The development of methods for their reliable detection from complex samples such as food has been challenging thus far, and is currently based on the PCR detection of the major virulence genes stx1, stx2, and eae, and O-serogroup-specific genes. However, this approach lacks resolution. Moreover, new STEC serotypes are continuously emerging worldwide. For example, in May 2011, strains belonging to the hitherto rarely detected STEC serotype O104:H4 were identified as causative agents of one of the world's largest outbreak of disease with a high incidence of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in the infected patients. Discriminant typing of pathogens is crucial for epidemiological surveillance and investigations of outbreaks, and especially for tracking and tracing in case of accidental and deliberate contamination of food and water samples. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are composed of short, highly conserved DNA repeats separated by unique sequences of similar length. This distinctive sequence signature of CRISPRs can be used for strain typing in several bacterial species including STEC. This review discusses how CRISPRs have recently been used for STEC identification and typing.

  3. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time PCR method for detecting shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef and comparison to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology laboratory guidebook method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratamico, Pina M; Wasilenko, Jamie L; Garman, Bradley; Demarco, Daniel R; Varkey, Stephen; Jensen, Mark; Rhoden, Kyle; Tice, George

    2014-02-01

    The "top-six" non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) most frequently associated with outbreaks and cases of foodborne illnesses have been declared as adulterants in beef by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Regulatory testing in beef began in June 2012. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DuPont BAX System method for detecting these top six STEC strains and strains of E. coli O157:H7. For STEC, the BAX System real-time STEC suite was evaluated, including a screening assay for the stx and eae virulence genes and two panel assays to identify the target serogroups: panel 1 detects O26, O111, and O121, and panel 2 detects O45, O103, O145. For E. coli O157:H7, the BAX System real-time PCR assay for this specific serotype was used. Sensitivity of each assay for the PCR targets was ≥1.23 × 10(3) CFU/ml in pure culture. Each assay was 100% inclusive for the strains tested (20 to 50 per assay), and no cross-reactivity with closely related strains was observed in any of the assays. The performance of the BAX System methods was compared with that of the FSIS Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in ground beef and beef trim. Generally, results of the BAX System method were similar to those of the MLG methods for detecting non-O157 STEC and E. coli O157:H7. Reducing or eliminating novobiocin in modified tryptic soy broth (mTSB) may improve the detection of STEC O111 strains; one beef trim sample inoculated with STEC O111 produced a negative result when enriched in mTSB with 8 mg/liter novobiocin but was positive when enriched in mTSB without novobiocin. The results of this study indicate the feasibility of deploying a panel of real-time PCR assay configurations for the detection and monitoring of the top six STEC and E. coli O157:H7 strains in beef. The approach could easily be adapted

  4. Susceptibility of Meningococcal Strains Responsible for Two Serogroup B Outbreaks on U.S. University Campuses to Serum Bactericidal Activity Elicited by the MenB-4C Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Raffaella; Beernink, Peter T; Giuntini, Serena; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-12-01

    In 2013 and 2014, two U.S. universities had meningococcal serogroup B outbreaks (a total of 14 cases) caused by strains from two different clonal complexes. To control the outbreaks, students were immunized with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine (Novartis) that was not yet licensed in the United States. The vaccine (referred to as MenB-4C) contains four components capable of eliciting bactericidal activity. Both outbreak strains had high expression levels of two of the vaccine antigens (subfamily B factor H binding protein [FHbp] and neisserial heparin binding antigen [NHba]); the university B outbreak strain also had moderate expression of a third antigen, NadA. We investigated the bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with FHbp, NHba, or NadA and sera from MenB-4C-immunized infant macaques and an adult human. The postimmunization bactericidal activity of the macaque or human serum against isolates from university B with FHbp identification (ID) 1 that exactly matched the vaccine FHbp sequence variant was 8- to 21-fold higher than that against isolates from university A with FHbp ID 276 (96% identity to the vaccine antigen). Based on the bactericidal activity of mouse antisera to FHbp, NadA, or NHba and macaque or human postimmunization serum that had been depleted of anti-FHbp antibody, the bactericidal activity against both outbreak strains largely or entirely resulted from antibodies to FHbp. Thus, despite the high level of strain expression of FHbp from a subfamily that matched the vaccine antigen, there can be large differences in anti-FHbp bactericidal activity induced by MenB-4C vaccination. Further, strains with moderate to high NadA and/or NHba expression can be resistant to anti-NadA or anti-NHba bactericidal activity elicited by MenB-4C vaccination. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Critical appraisal of a quadrivalent CRM197 conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroups A, C W-135 and Y (Menveo® in the context of treatment and prevention of invasive disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bröker M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Bröker, Brian Cooper, Lisa M DeTora, Jeffrey J StoddardGlobal Medical Affairs, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Marburg, Germany, and Cambridge, MA, USAAbstract: Worldwide, invasive meningococcal disease affects about 500,000 people annually. Case fatality in developed countries averages 10%, and higher rates are reported in less prosperous regions. According to the World Health Organization, the most important pathogenic serogroups are A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y. Clinical features of invasive meningococcal disease make diagnosis and management difficult. Antibiotic measures are recommended for prophylaxis after exposure and for treatment of invasive meningococcal disease cases; however, resistant strains may be emerging. Vaccines are generally regarded as the best preventative measure for invasive meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y using protein conjugation technology have clear advantages over older plain polysaccharide formulations without a protein component. The first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D was licensed in the US in 2005. More recently, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo® was licensed in Europe, the US, the Middle East, and Latin America. MenACWY-CRM uses cross-reactive material 197, a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, as the carrier protein. MenACWY-CRM offers robust immunogenicity in all age groups, with a tolerability profile similar to that of a plain polysaccharide vaccine. Given its potential for protecting persons from infancy to old age, MenACWY-CRM offers the opportunity to protect broad populations against invasive meningococcal disease. The most optimal strategy for use of the vaccine has to be assessed country by country on the basis of local epidemiology, individual health care systems, and need.Keywords: invasive meningococcal disease, quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Neisseria meningitidis

  6. Immunogenicity and tolerability of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB) vaccine in healthy adolescents in Chile: a phase 2b/3 randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, María Elena; O'Ryan, Miguel L; Valenzuela, María Teresa; Prado, Valeria; Vergara, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Alma; Toneatto, Daniela; Graña, Gabriela; Wang, Huajun; Clemens, Ralf; Dull, Peter M

    2012-02-18

    Effective glycoconjugate vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y have been developed, but serogroup B remains a major cause of severe invasive disease in infants and adolescents worldwide. We assessed immunogenicity and tolerability of a four-component vaccine (4CMenB) in adolescents. We did a randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled, study at 12 sites in Santiago and Valparaíso, Chile. Adolescents aged 11-17 years received one, two, or three doses of 4CMenB at 1 month, 2 month, or 6 month intervals. Immunogenicity was assessed as serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) against three reference strains for individual vaccine antigens, and assessed by ELISA against the fourth strain. Local and systemic reactions were recorded 7 days after each vaccination, and adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Participants were initially randomised to five groups (3:3:3:3:1) during the primary phase to receive either one dose, two doses 1 or 2 months apart, or three doses of 4CMenB, or three doses of placebo, with an additional three groups generated for the booster phase. All subjects received at least one dose of 4CMenB. Geometric mean titres, proportions of participants with serum bactericidal antibody titres of 4 or more, and Clopper-Pearson 95% CIs were calculated. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00661713. Overall, 1631 adolescents (mean age 13·8 [SD 1·9] years) received at least one dose of 4CMenB. After two or three doses, 99-100% of recipients had hSBA titres of 4 or more against test strains, compared with 92-97% after one dose (pvaccine-related serious adverse events were reported and no significant safety signals were identified. On the basis of immunogenicity responses this study provides evidence for an adolescent 4CMenB vaccine schedule of two doses, 1-6 months apart, to provide protection against meningococcal B infection. The extent of this protection against

  7. Meningococcal serogroup B strain coverage of the multicomponent 4CMenB vaccine with corresponding regional distribution and clinical characteristics in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, 2007-08 and 2014-15: a qualitative and quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sydel R; Newbold, Lynne; Slater, Stephanie; Stella, Maria; Moschioni, Monica; Lucidarme, Jay; De Paola, Rosita; Giuliani, Maria; Serino, Laura; Gray, Stephen J; Clark, Stephen A; Findlow, Jamie; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Ramsay, Mary E; Ladhani, Shamez N; Borrow, Ray

    2017-07-01

    The UK introduced 4CMenB-a multicomponent vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease-into the national infant immunisation programme in September, 2015. The Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) was used to estimate coverage by 4CMenB of invasive meningococcal group B isolates obtained during 2007-08 in England and Wales (MATS coverage). We aimed to repeat the MATS survey for invasive meningococcal group B isolates obtained during 2014-15, before 4CMenB introduction; compare strain coverage between 2007-08 and 2014-15; and investigate associations between MATS coverage, age, region, and disease outcomes. Invasive serogroup B meningococcal isolates from cases in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland during 2014-15 were assayed using MATS and compared with 2007-08 data. MATS coverage was assessed by geographical region and age group. Clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes were assessed according to MATS coverage for 2014-15 English cases. In 2014-15, 165 of 251 (66%; 95% CI 52-80) meningococcal group B isolates were estimated by MATS to be covered by 4CMenB, compared with 391 of 535 (73%; 95% CI 57-87) in 2007-08. The proportion of MATS-positive isolates with one vaccine antigen increased from 23% (122 of 535) in 2007-08 to 31% (78 of 251) in 2014-15, whereas the proportion with more than one antigen fell from 50% (269 of 535) to 35% (87 of 251). This effect reflected changes in circulating strains, particularly ST-269 clonal complex strains. MATS coverage increased with age, varied by geographical region, and was associated with more severe disease. In 2014-15, two-thirds of meningococcal group B isolates were predicted to be covered by 4CMenB. Temporal changes in MATS coverage underscore the need for continued monitoring of antigen expression and diversity, particularly in countries with 4CMenB programmes. Public Health England, GlaxoSmithKline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Protection by meningococcal outer membrane protein PorA-specific antibodies and a serogroup B capsular polysaccharide-specific antibody in complement-sufficient and C6-deficient infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropainen, Maija; Saarinen, Leena; Vidarsson, Gestur; Käyhty, Helena

    2006-05-01

    The relative contributions of antibody-induced complement-mediated bacterial lysis and antibody/complement-mediated phagocytosis to host immunity against meningococcal infections are currently unclear. Further, the in vivo effector functions of antibodies may vary depending on their specificity and Fc heavy-chain isotype. In this study, a mouse immunoglobulin G2a (mIgG2a) monoclonal antibody (MN12H2) to meningococcal outer membrane protein PorA (P1.16), its human IgG subclass derivatives (hIgG1 to hIgG4), and an mIgG2a monoclonal antibody (Nmb735) to serogroup B capsular polysaccharide (B-PS) were evaluated for passive protection against meningococcal serogroup B strain 44/76-SL (B:15:P1.7,16) in an infant rat infection model. Complement component C6-deficient (PVG/c-) rats were used to assess the importance of complement-mediated bacterial lysis for protection. The PorA-specific parental mIgG2a and the hIgG1 to hIgG3 derivatives all induced efficient bactericidal activity in vitro in the presence of human or infant rat complement and augmented bacterial clearance in complement-sufficient HsdBrlHan:WIST rats, while the hIgG4 was unable to do so. In C6-deficient PVG/c- rats, lacking complement-mediated bacterial lysis, the augmentation of bacterial clearance by PorA-specific mIgG2a and hIgG1 antibodies was impaired compared to that in the syngeneic complement-sufficient PVG/c+ rat strain. This was in contrast to the case for B-PS-specific mIgG2a, which conferred similar protective activity in both rat strains. These data suggest that while anti-B-PS antibody can provide protection in the infant rats without membrane attack complex formation, the protection afforded by anti-PorA antibody is more dependent on the activation of the whole complement pathway and subsequent bacterial lysis.

  9. Synthesis of ceramic powders of La9,56 (SiO4)6O2,34 and La9,8Si5,7MgO,3O26,4 by modified sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, Sabrina Lopes; Paiva, Mayara Rafaela Soares; Misso, Agatha Matos; Elias, Daniel Ricco; Yamagata, Chieko

    2012-01-01

    Lanthanum silicate oxyapatite materials are promising for application as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells because of high ionic conductivity at temperatures between 600 deg C and 800 deg C. In this work, oxyapatites with the composition La 9,56 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2,34 , and La 9,8 Si 5,7 Mg 0,3 O 26,4 were synthesized by using the sol-gel method, followed by precipitation. Initially, the gel of silica was synthesized from sodium silicate solution, by acid catalysis using lanthanum and magnesium chloride solution. Then, the La and Mg hydroxides were precipitated with NaOH in the gel. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and measurements of specific surface area. The crystalline oxyapatite phase of La 9,56 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2,34 , and was La 9,8 Si 5,7 Mg 0,3 O 26,4 obtained by calcination at 900 deg C for 2 and 1h respectively (author)

  10. Meningococcal serogroup B-specific responses after vaccination with bivalent rLP2086: 4 year follow-up of a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Helen S; Richmond, Peter C; Beeslaar, Johannes; Jiang, Qin; Jansen, Kathrin U; Garcés-Sánchez, Maria; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Szenborn, Leszek; Wysocki, Jacek; Eiden, Joseph; Harris, Shannon L; Jones, Thomas R; Lee, Su-San; Perez, John L

    2017-01-01

    Bivalent rLP2086 is a recombinant factor H binding protein-based vaccine approved in the USA for prevention of meningococcal serogroup B disease in 10-25-year-olds. We aimed to assess the persistence of bactericidal antibodies up to 4 years after a three-dose schedule of bivalent rLP2086. We did this randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial at 25 sites in Australia, Poland, and Spain. In stage 1 of the study (February, 2009-May, 2010), healthy adolescents (aged 11-18 years) were randomly assigned, via an interactive voice and web-response system with computer-generated sequential random numbers, to receive either ascending doses of vaccine (60 μg, 120 μg, and 200 μg) or placebo at months 0, 2, and 6. Dispensing staff were not masked to group allocation, but allocation was concealed from principal investigators, participants and their guardians, and laboratory personnel. In stage 2 of the study (reported here), we enrolled healthy adolescents who had received three doses of 120 μg bivalent rLP2086 (the optimum dose level identified in stage 1) or saline. Immunogenicity was determined in serum bactericidal antibody assay using human complement (hSBA) by use of four meningococcal serogroup B test strains expressing vaccine-heterologous factor H binding protein variants: PMB80 (A22), PMB2001 (A56), PMB2948 (B24), and PMB2707 (B44). Immunogenicity in stage 2 was assessed at months 6, 12, 24, and 48 post-vaccination. We did analysis by intention to treat. This trial is registered as ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00808028. Between March 17, 2010, and Feb 8, 2011, 170 participants who received 120 μg of bivalent rLP2086 and 80 participants who received placebo in stage 1 of the study were entered into stage 2; 210 participants completed stage 2 up to 48 months. 1 month after the third vaccination, 93% (n=139/149) to 100% (n=48/48) of vaccine recipients achieved protective hSBA titres equal to or greater than the lower limit of quantification to each

  11. Comparison of the sensitivity of the Legionella urinary antigen EIA kits from Binax and Biotest with urine from patients with infections caused by less common serogroups and subgroups of Legionella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, C W; Elverdal, P; Jørgensen, C S; Uldum, S A

    2009-07-01

    The detection of urinary antigen is the most widely used method to diagnose Legionnaires' disease (LD), so it is important that these assays have a high sensitivity for the disease. In this study, we compare two kits for their ability to detect urinary antigen in urine samples from patients infected with Legionella species and L. pneumophila sero- and subgroups not considered as the most common causes of LD. Urine samples (n = 33) from 30 culture-proven cases of L. pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1, subgroup non-Pontiac infection, and urine samples (n = 35) from 32 cases of non-L. pneumophila species or non-sg 1 infection were examined using the Binax EIA and Biotest EIA kits. For both groups, the overall diagnostic sensitivity of the Binax kit was significantly better than the sensitivity of the Biotest kits (P < 0.0001). For the non-Pontiac group, the sensitivity was 81.8 and 42.4%, respectively, and for the non-sg1 group, it was 51.4 and 28.6%, respectively. It was concluded that the Binax kit was more suitable for the general diagnosis of LD than the Biotest kit, but we still need urinary antigen detection methods with higher sensitivity for non-sg1 LD.

  12. A randomized study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a heptavalent diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, haemophilus influenzae b, and meningococcal serogroup C combination vaccine administered to infants at 2, 4 and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thollot, Franck; Scheifele, David; Pankow-Culot, Heidemarie; Cheuvart, Brigitte; Leyssen, Maarten; Ulianov, Liliana; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2014-12-01

    The immunogenicity and safety of the investigational diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) heptavalent combination vaccine were compared with those of licensed control vaccines. In this open, phase II, randomized study (NCT01090453), 480 infants from Germany, France and Canada received the heptavalent vaccine (Hepta group) or hexavalent and monovalent MenC control vaccines (HexaMenC group) co-administered with a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2, 4 and 12 months of age. Immunogenicity was measured 1 month after the second primary dose, and before and 1 month after the booster dose. Safety and reactogenicity were also evaluated. Non-inferiority of immune responses to MenC and Hib induced by 2-dose primary vaccination with the heptavalent vaccine versus control vaccines was demonstrated. In exploratory analyses, postprimary and postbooster functional antibody geometric mean titers against MenC tended to be lower (1119.5 vs. 3200.5; 2653.8 vs. 6028.4) and antibody geometric mean concentrations against Hib higher (1.594 vs. 0.671 μg/mL; 17.678 vs. 13.737 μg/mL) in the Hepta versus the HexaMenC group. The heptavalent and control vaccines were immunogenic to all other antigens, although immune responses to poliovirus were lower than expected in both groups. No differences in safety and reactogenicity profiles were detected between groups. The heptavalent vaccine induced non-inferior MenC and Hib responses compared with control vaccines. Both vaccination regimens, when administered at 2, 4 and 12 months of age, had comparable safety profiles and were immunogenic to all antigens, with lower-than-expected responses to poliomyelitis.

  13. Safety and immunogenicity of coadministering a combined meningococcal serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Findlow, Helen; Ashton, Lindsey; England, Anna; Stanford, Elaine; Matheson, Mary; Southern, Joanna; Sheasby, Elizabeth; Goldblatt, David; Borrow, Ray

    2011-03-01

    The coadministration of the combined meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC)/Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine at 12 months of age was investigated to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this regimen compared with separate administration of the conjugate vaccines. Children were randomized to receive MCC/Hib vaccine alone followed 1 month later by PCV7 with MMR vaccine or to receive all three vaccines concomitantly. Immunogenicity endpoints were MCC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers of ≥8, Hib-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) IgG antibody concentrations of ≥0.15 μg/ml, PCV serotype-specific IgG concentrations of ≥0.35 μg/ml, measles and mumps IgG concentrations of >120 arbitrary units (AU)/ml, and rubella IgG concentrations of ≥11 AU/ml. For safety assessment, the proportions of children with erythema, swelling, or tenderness at site of injection or fever or other systemic symptoms for 7 days after immunization were compared between regimens. No adverse consequences for either safety or immunogenicity were demonstrated when MCC/Hib vaccine was given concomitantly with PCV and MMR vaccine at 12 months of age or separately at 12 and 13 months of age. Any small differences in immunogenicity were largely in the direction of a higher response when all three vaccines were given concomitantly. For systemic symptoms, there was no evidence of an additive effect; rather, any differences between schedules showed benefit from the concomitant administration of all three vaccines, such as lower overall proportions with postvaccination fevers. The United Kingdom infant immunization schedule now recommends that these three vaccines may be offered at one visit at between 12 and 13 months of age.

  14. Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6-23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2-5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6-23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2-5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases.

  15. Vigilancia de Neisseria meningitidis en Argentina, 1993-2005: distribución de serogrupos, serotipos y serosubtipos causantes de enfermedad invasiva Surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis in Argentina, 1993-2005: Distribution of serogroups, serotypes and serosubtypes isolated from invasive disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chiavetta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis es agente causal de enfermedades severas como meningitis, bacteriemia y síndrome de shock séptico. Se presenta la distribución en serogrupos, serotipos y serosubtipos de 2244 aislamientos de N. meningitidis obtenidos de cuadros de meningitis y/o meningococcemia durante el período 1993-2005 y analizados en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Estos aislamientos eran provenientes de 33 hospitales de todo el país, conformados en una red nacional de laboratorios para el estudio de meningitis bacteriana. Durante el período 1993-1995 prevaleció el serogrupo B (66%, mientras que entre los años 1995 y 2001 prevaleció el serogrupo C (65%; a partir de esta fecha se restableció la prevalencia de B. En los últimos 5 años los serogrupos Y y W135 representaron en su conjunto el 15,6%, mientras que hasta el año 2000 no superaron el 4,7%. Se registró mayor diversidad en la distribución de serotipos y serosubtipos dentro del serogrupo B que dentro del serogrupo C. Los aislamientos no subtipables durante todo el período de estudio representaron el 52,8%; este elevado porcentaje evidencia la limitada capacidad de la serología para la determinación de subtipos de meningococo.Neisseria meningitidis is an important cause of meningitis, bacteremia and septic shock syndrome. We herein present the distribution of serogroups, serotypes and serosubtypes of 2244 isolates of N. meningitidis from patients with meningitis or meningococcemia, received within the period 1993-2005, in the National Reference Laboratory, INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán", from 33 Argentine hospitals that are included in a National Network devoted to for the study of bacterial meningitis. Between 1993-1995, serogroup B was prevalent (66% whereas in the period from 1995-2001, serogroup C prevailed (65%. However, following but after that period, the prevalence of serogroup B was recovered. In the last 5 years of the

  16. Immune responses to a recombinant, four-component, meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) in adolescents: a phase III, randomized, multicentre, lot-to-lot consistency study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, Kirsten P; McVernon, Jodie; Richmond, Peter C; Marshall, Helen; Nissen, Michael; August, Allison; Percell, Sandra; Toneatto, Daniela; Nolan, Terry

    2015-09-22

    For decades, a broadly effective vaccine against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has remained elusive. Recently, a four-component recombinant vaccine (4CMenB) has been developed and is now approved in Europe, Canada, Australia and some Latin American countries. This phase III, randomized study evaluated the lot consistency, early immune responses and the safety profile of 4CMenB in 11 to 17-year-old adolescents in Australia and Canada (NCT01423084). In total, 344 adolescents received two doses of one of 2 lots of 4CMenB, 1-month apart. Immunogenicity was assessed before, 2-weeks and 1-month following the second vaccination. Serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) was measured against three reference strains 44/76-SL, 5/99 and NZ98/254, selected to express one of the vaccine antigens; Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), factor H binding protein (fHbp) and porin A (PorA) containing outer membrane vesicle (OMV), respectively. Responses to the Neisseria heparin binding antigen (NHBA) were assessed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Local and systemic reactions were recorded for 7 days following each vaccination; unsolicited adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Immunological equivalence of the two lots of 4CMenB was established at 1-month. At baseline, ≤7% of participants had hSBA titers ≥5 to all three reference strains. Two weeks following the second dose of 4CMenB, all participants had hSBA titers ≥5 against fHbp and NadA compared with 84-96% against the PorA reference strains. At 1-month, corresponding proportions were 99%, 100% and 70-79%, respectively. Both lots were generally well tolerated and had similar adverse event profiles. Two doses of 4CMenB had an acceptable safety profile and induced a robust immune response in adolescents. Peak antibody responses were observed at 14 days following vaccination. While a substantial non-uniform antigen-dependent early decline in antibody titers was seen thereafter, a

  17. Hyperspectral image reconstruction using RGB color for foodborne pathogen detection on agar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung-Chul; Shin, Tae-Sung; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the latest development of a color vision technique for detecting colonies of foodborne pathogens grown on agar plates with a hyperspectral image classification model that was developed using full hyperspectral data. The hyperspectral classification model depended on reflectance spectra measured in the visible and near-infrared spectral range from 400 and 1,000 nm (473 narrow spectral bands). Multivariate regression methods were used to estimate and predict hyperspectral data from RGB color values. The six representative non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing Eschetichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) were grown on Rainbow agar plates. A line-scan pushbroom hyperspectral image sensor was used to scan 36 agar plates grown with pure STEC colonies at each plate. The 36 hyperspectral images of the agar plates were divided in half to create training and test sets. The mean Rsquared value for hyperspectral image estimation was about 0.98 in the spectral range between 400 and 700 nm for linear, quadratic and cubic polynomial regression models and the detection accuracy of the hyperspectral image classification model with the principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbors for the test set was up to 92% (99% with the original hyperspectral images). Thus, the results of the study suggested that color-based detection may be viable as a multispectral imaging solution without much loss of prediction accuracy compared to hyperspectral imaging.

  18. Consumer preferences, internal color and reduction of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli in cooked hamburgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røssvoll, Elin; Sørheim, Oddvin; Heir, Even; Møretrø, Trond; Olsen, Nina Veflen; Langsrud, Solveig

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to relate consumer preferences and preparation of hamburgers to color change, internal temperature and reduction of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups O157 and the "Big Six" (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145) under two ground beef packaging scenarios: 75% O2 MAP and vacuum. 75% O2 MAP hamburgers cooked to 60 °C core temperature appeared done and showed less internal red color (lower a*) than corresponding vacuum hamburgers. Similar STEC reduction (<4 log10) was found for both hamburgers at core temperatures ≤ 66 °C. In a representative survey (N=1046) most consumers reported to judge hamburger doneness by the color and many preferred undercooked hamburgers. Premature browning of 75% O2 MAP hamburgers represents a risk of foodborne illness, when considering consumers' food handling practices. The risk is even greater if such ground beef is prepared by consumers who prefer undercooked hamburgers and judge doneness by color. © 2013.

  19. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus Characterization and antigenic relationship of three new Bunyavirus in the Anopheles A serogroup (Bunyaviridae of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.The isolation and characterization of three new viruses obtained from the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam region is repeated. These three agents belong to the Anopheles A serogroup, genus Bunyavirus, Bunyaviridae. The Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipe (CPE and Arumateua (ART viruses have close relationships with each other and with Trombetas (TBT virus, an Anopheles A virus previously isolated in the Amazon Region of Brazil. These viruses form the "Trombetas complex". TUC, CPE and ART viruses were obtained from pools of

  20. Nitrogen consumption during batch cultivation of Neisseria meningitidis (serogroup C in Frantz medium Consumo de nitrogênio durante cultivo descontínuo de Neisseria meningitidis (sorogrupo C em meio de Frantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Baruque-Ramos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Capsular polysaccharide, extracted from microorganism cultivations, is the principal antigen for elaboration of vaccine against the disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C. The final protein content allowed in this vaccine is 1%. In order to find a relationship between nitrogen consumption and cell growth, including polysaccharide production, and cell nitrogen content, cultivations were carried out in an 80 liters bioreactor (total capacity, under the following conditions: Frantz medium; temperature of 35ºC; air flow of 5 L/min (0.125 vvm; agitation frequency of 120 rpm and vessel pressure of 6 psi (kLa = 0.07 min-1. Concentrations of biomass, total polysaccharide, cellular nitrogen, residual organic and inorganic nitrogen in the medium were measured during cultivation. From five cultivations carried out under the same conditions, a mean cell nitrogen percentage of 12.6% (w/w in respect to the dry biomass was found. The inorganic nitrogen in the medium did not change significantly along the cultivation time, whereas the organic nitrogen consumption was linearly related to cell growth, with constant yield factors (average of 8.44. Polysaccharide production kinetics followed the cell growth kinetics until the beginning of the stationary growth phase. A supplemental polysaccharide production was observed until the end of cultivation, but without cell nitrogen absorption. Thus, the results indicate that polysaccharide is produced in two phases, being the first one biomass formation followed by non-associated to growth.Polissacarídeo capsular, extraído de cultivos microbianos, é o principal antígeno para o preparo da vacina contra a doença causada por Neisseria meningitidis sorogrupo C. O conteúdo final de proteína permitido nessa vacina é de 1%. De modo a encontrar uma relação entre o consumo de nitrogênio, o crescimento microbiano (incluindo a produção de polissacarídeo e o conteúdo de nitrogênio celular, cultivos

  1. Mathematical modeling of growth of non-O157 Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC, including serogroups O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in raw ground beef and to develop mathematical models to describe the bacterial growth under different temperature conditions. Three prima...

  2. Hyperspectral imaging using a color camera and its application for pathogen detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung-Chul; Shin, Tae-Sung; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Park, Bosoon; Gamble, Gary

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports the results of a feasibility study for the development of a hyperspectral image recovery (reconstruction) technique using a RGB color camera and regression analysis in order to detect and classify colonies of foodborne pathogens. The target bacterial pathogens were the six representative non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) grown in Petri dishes of Rainbow agar. The purpose of the feasibility study was to evaluate whether a DSLR camera (Nikon D700) could be used to predict hyperspectral images in the wavelength range from 400 to 1,000 nm and even to predict the types of pathogens using a hyperspectral STEC classification algorithm that was previously developed. Unlike many other studies using color charts with known and noise-free spectra for training reconstruction models, this work used hyperspectral and color images, separately measured by a hyperspectral imaging spectrometer and the DSLR color camera. The color images were calibrated (i.e. normalized) to relative reflectance, subsampled and spatially registered to match with counterpart pixels in hyperspectral images that were also calibrated to relative reflectance. Polynomial multivariate least-squares regression (PMLR) was previously developed with simulated color images. In this study, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was also evaluated as a spectral recovery technique to minimize multicollinearity and overfitting. The two spectral recovery models (PMLR and PLSR) and their parameters were evaluated by cross-validation. The QR decomposition was used to find a numerically more stable solution of the regression equation. The preliminary results showed that PLSR was more effective especially with higher order polynomial regressions than PMLR. The best classification accuracy measured with an independent test set was about 90%. The results suggest the potential of cost-effective color imaging using hyperspectral image

  3. Feedlot- and Pen-Level Prevalence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Feces of Commercial Feedlot Cattle in Two Major U.S. Cattle Feeding Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Charley A; Renter, David G; Dewsbury, Diana M; Noll, Lance W; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Ives, Samuel E; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Cernicchiaro, Natalia

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine feedlot- and pen-level fecal prevalence of seven enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) belonging to serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157, or EHEC-7) in feces of feedlot cattle in two feeding areas in the United States. Cattle pens from four commercial feedlots in each of the two major U.S. beef cattle areas were sampled. Up to 16 pen-floor fecal samples were collected from each of 4-6 pens per feedlot, monthly, for a total of three visits per feedlot, from June to August, 2014. Culture procedures including fecal enrichment in E. coli broth, immunomagnetic separation, and plating on selective media, followed by confirmation through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, were conducted. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to estimate feedlot-, pen-, and sample-level fecal prevalence of EHEC-7 and to evaluate associations between potential demographic and management risk factors with feedlot and within-pen prevalence of EHEC-7. All study feedlots and 31.0% of the study pens had at least one non-O157 EHEC-positive fecal sample, whereas 62.4% of pens tested positive for EHEC O157; sample-level prevalence estimates ranged from 0.0% for EHEC O121 to 18.7% for EHEC O157. Within-pen prevalence of EHEC O157 varied significantly by sampling month; similarly within-pen prevalence of non-O157 EHEC varied significantly by month and by the sex composition of the pen (heifer, steer, or mixed). Feedlot management factors, however, were not significantly associated with fecal prevalence of EHEC-7. Intraclass correlation coefficients for EHEC-7 models indicated that most of the variation occurred between pens, rather than within pens, or between feedlots. Hence, the potential combination of preharvest interventions and pen-level management strategies may have positive food safety impacts downstream along the beef chain.

  4. Isolation and characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from beef carcasses, cuts and trimmings of abattoirs in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusa, Victoria; Restovich, Viviana; Galli, Lucía; Teitelbaum, David; Signorini, Marcelo; Brasesco, Hebe; Londero, Alejandra; García, Diego; Padola, Nora Lía; Superno, Valeria; Sanz, Marcelo; Petroli, Sandra; Costa, Magdalena; Bruzzone, Mariana; Sucari, Adriana; Ferreghini, Marcela; Linares, Luciano; Suberbie, Germán; Rodríguez, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Several foods contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are associated with human diseases. Some countries have established microbiological criteria for non-O157 STEC, thus, the absence of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 in sprouts from the European Union or ground beef and beef trimmings from the United States is mandatory. While in Argentina screening for O26, O103, O111, O145 and O121 in ground beef, ready-to-eat food, sausages and vegetables is mandatory, other countries have zero-tolerance for all STEC in chilled beef. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of non-O157 STEC isolated from beef processed in eight Argentinean cattle slaughterhouses producing beef for export and local markets, and to know the non-O157 STEC profiles through strain characterization and genotypic analysis. Samples (n = 15,965) from 3,205 beef carcasses, 9,570 cuts and 3,190 trimmings collected between March and September 2014 were processed in pools of five samples each. Pools of samples (n = 3,193) from 641 carcasses, 1,914 cuts and 638 trimming were analyzed for non-O157 STEC isolation according to ISO/CEN 13136:2012. Of these, 37 pools of carcasses (5.8%), 111 pools of cuts (5.8%) and 45 pools of trimmings (7.0%) were positive for non-O157 STEC. STEC strains (n = 200) were isolated from 193 pools of samples. The most prevalent serotypes were O174:H21, O185:H7, O8:H19, O178:H19 and O130:H11, and the most prevalent genotypes were stx2c(vh-b) and stx2a/saa/ehxA. O103:H21 strain was eae-positive and one O178:H19 strain was aggR/aaiC-positive. The prevalence of non-O157 STEC in beef carcasses reported here was low. None of the non-O157 STEC strains isolated corresponded to the non-O157 STEC serotypes and virulence profiles isolated from human cases in Argentina in the same study period. The application of microbiological criteria for each foodstuff should be determined by risk analysis in order to have a stringent

  5. Isolation and characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from beef carcasses, cuts and trimmings of abattoirs in Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Brusa

    Full Text Available Several foods contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are associated with human diseases. Some countries have established microbiological criteria for non-O157 STEC, thus, the absence of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 in sprouts from the European Union or ground beef and beef trimmings from the United States is mandatory. While in Argentina screening for O26, O103, O111, O145 and O121 in ground beef, ready-to-eat food, sausages and vegetables is mandatory, other countries have zero-tolerance for all STEC in chilled beef. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of non-O157 STEC isolated from beef processed in eight Argentinean cattle slaughterhouses producing beef for export and local markets, and to know the non-O157 STEC profiles through strain characterization and genotypic analysis. Samples (n = 15,965 from 3,205 beef carcasses, 9,570 cuts and 3,190 trimmings collected between March and September 2014 were processed in pools of five samples each. Pools of samples (n = 3,193 from 641 carcasses, 1,914 cuts and 638 trimming were analyzed for non-O157 STEC isolation according to ISO/CEN 13136:2012. Of these, 37 pools of carcasses (5.8%, 111 pools of cuts (5.8% and 45 pools of trimmings (7.0% were positive for non-O157 STEC. STEC strains (n = 200 were isolated from 193 pools of samples. The most prevalent serotypes were O174:H21, O185:H7, O8:H19, O178:H19 and O130:H11, and the most prevalent genotypes were stx2c(vh-b and stx2a/saa/ehxA. O103:H21 strain was eae-positive and one O178:H19 strain was aggR/aaiC-positive. The prevalence of non-O157 STEC in beef carcasses reported here was low. None of the non-O157 STEC strains isolated corresponded to the non-O157 STEC serotypes and virulence profiles isolated from human cases in Argentina in the same study period. The application of microbiological criteria for each foodstuff should be determined by risk analysis in order to have a

  6. Critical analysis of old and new vaccines against N. meningitidis serogroup C, considering the meningococcal disease epidemiology in Brazil Análise crítica das antigas e novas vacinas contra a N. meningitidis do sorogrupo C, considerando a epidemiologia da doença meningocócica no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the impact of meningococcal disease is substantial, and the potential for the introduction and spread of more virulent strains of N. meningitidis or strains with increased resistance to current antibiotics causes concern, making prevention essential. OBJECTIVES: Review the indications for meningococcal disease vaccines, considering the epidemiological status in Brazil. METHODS: A critical literature review on this issue using the Medline and Lilacs databases. RESULTS: In Brazil, MenB and MenC were the most important serogroups identified in the 1990s. Polysaccharide vaccines available against those serogroups can offer only limited protection for infants, the group at highest risk for meningococcal disease. Additionally, polysaccharide vaccines may induce a hypo-responsive state to MenC. New meningococcal C conjugate vaccines could partially solve these problems, but it is unlikely that in the next few years a vaccine against MenB that can promote good protection against multiple strains of MenB responsible for endemic and epidemic diseases will become available. CONCLUSIONS: In order to make the best decision about recommendations on immunization practices, better quality surveillance data are required. In Brazil, MenC was responsible for about 2,000 cases per year during the last 10 years. New conjugate vaccines against MenC are very effective and immunogenic, and they should be recommended, especially for children less than 5 years old. Polysaccharide vaccines should be indicated only in epidemic situations and for high-risk groups. Until new vaccines against MenC and MenB are available for routine immunization programs, the most important measure for controlling meningococcal disease is early diagnosis of these infections in order to treat patients and to offer chemoprophylaxis to contacts.Em todo o mundo, o impacto das doenças meningocócicas é enorme e o potencial para a introdução e disseminação de cepas da N

  7. Evaluation of the performance of the IQ-check kits and the USDA microbiology laboratory guidebook methods for detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) and STEC and Salmonella simultaneously in ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the performance of the IQ-Check kits and the USDA Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) methods for detection of the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in ground beef and both STEC and Salmonella in co-inoculated samples. M...

  8. Classification of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes with hyperspectral microscope imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains such as O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 are recognized as serious outbreak to cause human illness due to their toxicity. Since a conventional microbiological method for cell counting is laborious and time-consuming process, optica...

  9. Classification of non-O157 shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli(STEC) serotypes with hyperspectral microscope imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains such as O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 are recognized as serious outbreak to cause human illness due to their toxicity. A conventional microbiological method for cell counting is laborious and needs long time for the results. Since ...

  10. Polysaccharide production in batch process of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C comparing Frantz, modified Frantz and Cartlin 6 cultivation media Produção de polissacarídeo em processo de cultivo descontínuo de Neisseria meningitidis sorogrupo C comparando os meios de cultivo Frantz, Frantz modificado e Catlin 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fossa da Paz

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide of N. meningitidis serogroup C constitutes the antigen for the vaccine against meningitis. The goal of this work was to compare three cultivation media for production of this polysaccharide: Frantz, modified Frantz medium (with replacement of glucose by glycerol, and Catlin 6 (a synthetic medium with glucose. The comparative criteria were based on the final polysaccharide concentrations and the yield coefficient cell/polysaccharide (Y P/X. The kinetic parameters: pH, substrate consumption and cell growth were also determined. For this purpose, 9 cultivation runs were carried out in a 80 L New Brunswick bioreactor, under the following conditions: 42 L of culture medium, temperature 35ºC, air flow 5 L/min, agitation frequency 120 rpm and vessel pressure 6 psi, without dissolved oxygen or pH controls. The cultivation runs were divided in three groups, with 3 repetitions each. The cultivation using the Frantz medium presented the best results: average of final polysaccharide concentration = 0.134 g/L and Y P/X=0.121, followed by Catlin 6 medium, with results of 0.095 g/L and 0.067 respectively. Considering the principal advantages in the use of the synthetic medium, i.e. facilitation of a cultivation and purification steps of the polysaccharide production process, there is a possibility that in the near future, Catlin 6 will replace the traditional Frantz medium.O polissacarídeo de N. meningitidis sorogrupo C constitui o antígeno para a elaboração da vacina contra a meningite C. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar três meios de cultivo para produção desse polissacarídeo: Frantz, Frantz modificado (com a substituição de glicose por glicerol e Catlin 6 (meio sintético com glicose. Os critérios comparativos foram baseados nas concentrações finais de polissacarídeo e o fator de conversão célula/polissacarídeo (Y P/X. Também foram determinados os parâmetros cinéticos de pH, consumo de substrato e crescimento

  11. Immunomagnetic separation of Escherichia coli O26, O111 and O157 from vegetables

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2001), s. 36-39 ISSN 0266-8254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/1145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : immunomagnetic * E. coli Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology , Virology Impact factor: 1.151, year: 2001

  12. Rapid and simple method by combining FTA™ card DNA extraction with two set multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains and virulence genes in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Park, S H; Lee, S I; Ricke, S C

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this research was to optimize two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that could simultaneously detect six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) as well as the three virulence genes. We also investigated the potential of combining the FTA™ card-based DNA extraction with the multiplex PCR assays. Two multiplex PCR assays were optimized using six primer pairs for each non-O157 STEC serogroup and three primer pairs for virulence genes respectively. Each STEC strain specific primer pair only amplified 155, 238, 321, 438, 587 and 750 bp product for O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 respectively. Three virulence genes were successfully multiplexed: 375 bp for eae, 655 bp for stx1 and 477 bp for stx2. When two multiplex PCR assays were validated with ground beef samples, distinctive bands were also successfully produced. Since the two multiplex PCR examined here can be conducted under the same PCR conditions, the six non-O157 STEC and their virulence genes could be concurrently detected with one run on the thermocycler. In addition, all bands clearly appeared to be amplified by FTA card DNA extraction in the multiplex PCR assay from the ground beef sample, suggesting that an FTA card could be a viable sampling approach for rapid and simple DNA extraction to reduce time and labour and therefore may have practical use for the food industry. Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were optimized for discrimination of six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and identification of their major virulence genes within a single reaction, simultaneously. This study also determined the successful ability of the FTA™ card as an alternative to commercial DNA extraction method for conducting multiplex STEC PCR assays. The FTA™ card combined with multiplex PCR holds promise for the food industry by offering a simple and rapid DNA sample method for reducing time, cost and labour for detection of STEC in

  13. Discrimination of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) from Non-EHEC Strains Based on Detection of Various Combinations of Type III Effector Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Sabine; Beutin, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains comprise a subgroup of Shiga-toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) and are characterized by a few serotypes. Among these, seven priority STEC serotypes (O26:H11, O45:H2, O103:H2, O111:H8, O121:H19, O145:H28, and O157:H7) are most frequently implicated in severe clinical illness worldwide. Currently, standard methods using stx, eae, and O-serogroup-specific gene sequences for detecting the top 7 EHEC serotypes bear the disadvantage that these genes can be found in non-EHEC strains as well. Here, we explored the suitability of ureD, espV, espK, espN, Z2098, and espM1 genes and combinations thereof as candidates for a more targeted EHEC screening assay. For a very large panel of E. coli strains (n = 1,100), which comprised EHEC (n = 340), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (n = 392), STEC (n = 193), and apathogenic strains (n = 175), we showed that these genetic markers were more prevalent in EHEC (67.1% to 92.4%) than in EPEC (13.3% to 45.2%), STEC (0.5% to 3.6%), and apathogenic E. coli strains (0 to 2.9%). It is noteworthy that 38.5% of the EPEC strains that tested positive for at least one of these genetic markers belonged to the top 7 EHEC serotypes, suggesting that such isolates might be Stx-negative derivatives of EHEC. The associations of espK with either espV, ureD, or Z2098 were the best combinations for more specific and sensitive detection of the top 7 EHEC strains, allowing detection of 99.3% to 100% of these strains. In addition, detection of 93.7% of the EHEC strains belonging to other serotypes than the top 7 offers a possibility for identifying new emerging EHEC strains. PMID:23884997

  14. Study of some direct reactions at 00 in 18O+26Mg and 18O+12C systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payet, J.

    1984-01-01

    Direct transfer reactions induced by a 18 O beam on 12 C and 26 Mg targets, have been studied at the MP tandem (Orsay) with an experimental set up giving the possibility to have angular distributions up to 0 0 . Transfer reactions to discrete levels were analysed in the D.W.B.A. framework. This analysis confirms the interest as a spectroscopic tool of this 0 0 measurements. The ( 18 O, 16 O) and ( 18 O, 20 Ne) reactions were observed up to 40 MeV excitation energy. A diffractionnal model, including the one step direct transfer hypothesis, gives a qualitative agreement with the angular distributions and the energy spectra. A parametrization of a specific small angles development of the transfer amplitudes does not give good results with physical values for the parameters. 32 refs [fr

  15. Capsular Polysaccharide Interferes with Biofilm Formation by Pasteurella multocida Serogroup A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana Petruzzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is an important multihost animal and zoonotic pathogen that is capable of causing respiratory and multisystemic diseases, bacteremia, and bite wound infections. The glycosaminoglycan capsule of P. multocida is an essential virulence factor that protects the bacterium from host defenses. However, chronic infections (such as swine atrophic rhinitis and the carrier state in birds and other animals may be associated with biofilm formation, which has not been characterized in P. multocida. Biofilm formation by clinical isolates was inversely related to capsule production and was confirmed with capsule-deficient mutants of highly encapsulated strains. Capsule-deficient mutants formed biofilms with a larger biomass that was thicker and smoother than the biofilm of encapsulated strains. Passage of a highly encapsulated, poor-biofilm-forming strain under conditions that favored biofilm formation resulted in the production of less capsular polysaccharide and a more robust biofilm, as did addition of hyaluronidase to the growth medium of all of the strains tested. The matrix material of the biofilm was composed predominately of a glycogen exopolysaccharide (EPS, as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and enzymatic digestion. However, a putative glycogen synthesis locus was not differentially regulated when the bacteria were grown as a biofilm or planktonically, as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Therefore, the negatively charged capsule may interfere with biofilm formation by blocking adherence to a surface or by preventing the EPS matrix from encasing large numbers of bacterial cells. This is the first detailed description of biofilm formation and a glycogen EPS by P. multocida.

  16. New Leptospira serovar Sokoine of serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae from cattle in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mgode, G. F.; Machang'u, R. S.; Goris, M. G.; Engelbert, M.; Sondij, S.; Hartskeerl, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of leptospirosis is generally high in domestic animals and rodents in Tanzania. Identification of Leptospira isolates from cattle was carried out to establish prevalent Leptospira serovars. Serological typing was done based on monoclonal antibodies and the standard cross-agglutination

  17. Introducing vaccination against serogroup B meningococcal disease: an economic and mathematical modelling study of potential impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Hannah; Hickman, Matthew; Edmunds, W John; Trotter, Caroline L

    2013-05-28

    Meningococcal disease remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The first broadly effective vaccine against group B disease (which causes considerable meningococcal disease in Europe, the Americas and Australasia) was licensed in the EU in January 2013; our objective was to estimate the potential impact of introducing such a vaccine in England. We developed two models to estimate the impact of introducing a new 'MenB' vaccine. The cohort model assumes the vaccine protects against disease only; the transmission dynamic model also allows the vaccine to protect against carriage (accounting for herd effects). We used these, and economic models, to estimate the case reduction and cost-effectiveness of a number of different vaccine strategies. We estimate 27% of meningococcal disease cases could be prevented over the lifetime of an English birth cohort by vaccinating infants at 2,3,4 and 12 months of age with a vaccine that prevents disease only; this strategy could be cost-effective at £9 per vaccine dose. Substantial reductions in disease (71%) can be produced after 10 years by routinely vaccinating infants in combination with a large-scale catch-up campaign, using a vaccine which protects against carriage as well as disease; this could be cost-effective at £17 per vaccine dose. New 'MenB' vaccines could substantially reduce disease in England and be cost-effective if competitively priced, particularly if the vaccines can prevent carriage as well as disease. These results are relevant to other countries, with a similar epidemiology to England, considering the introduction of a new 'MenB' vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Meningococcal serogroup B vaccine: Knowledge and acceptability among parents in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Teresa; Napolitano, Francesco; Albano, Luciana; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella

    2017-08-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes about Meningococcal meningitis B and the relative vaccine for children among a sample of parents in Italy. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted from October to December 2015 among a sample of 910 parents in the geographic area of Naples and Salerno (Italy). In total, 543 of 910 parents returned a completed questionnaire for a response rate of 59.7%. Almost all parents had heard about meningitis (95.8%), 79.8% of these knew the mode of transmission (through respiratory droplets) and 62.5% knew the susceptible population (infants, children and adolescents). Moreover, a large percentage (86%) knew that the vaccine is a preventive measure. Parents who were married, those who had one child, those who did not have information about the MenB vaccine by physicians and those who needed additional information about the MenB vaccine were more likely to know the vaccine as a preventive measure of meningitis. Regarding attitudes toward the MenB vaccine, approximately two thirds of parents considered the vaccine useful (67.2%) and said that they would vaccinate their children (64.1%). Parents who had administered at least one recommended vaccination to their children, those who considered the vaccine useful, those with need for additional information about the vaccine and those who knew that the vaccine was a preventive measure of meningitis were more likely to have a positive attitude to vaccinating their children. Considering the results of our study, it looks appropriate that the knowledge of the population about meningitis and its related vaccinations is improved through correct health education and effective vaccine strategies that are implemented by policy makers.

  19. Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae O1 serogroup in Assam, India: A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajanta Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Emergence of resistance amongst V. cholerae towards many antibiotics is a matter of concern. Hence, continuous surveillance for diarrhoeal disorders is necessary to control the future outbreaks of cholera in this region.

  20. Genome sequence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B strain H44/76

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, J. R.; Huis in 't Veld, R. A. G.; van Schaik, B. D. C.; van Kampen, A. H. C.; Baas, F.; van de Beek, D.; Pannekoek, Y.; van der Ende, A.

    2011-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is an obligate human pathogen. While it is a frequent commensal of the upper respiratory tract, in some individuals the bacterium spreads to the bloodstream, causing meningitis and/or sepsis, which are serious conditions with high morbidity and mortality. Here we report the

  1. Clonal replacement and expansion among invasive meningococcal isolates of serogroup W in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eva; Barret, Anne-Sophie; Terrade, Aude; Denizon, Mélanie; Antona, Denise; Aouiti-Trabelsi, Myriam; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Parent du Châtelet, Isabelle; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2018-02-01

    Neisseria meningitidis group W (NmW) belonging to the clonal complex ST-11 (NmW/cc11) spread in Europe and in France in 2000 and declined thereafter. In France, invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) due to NmW increased again in 2012 and thereafter since 2015. Several sub-lineages of NmW/cc11 are circulating worldwide with successive epidemic waves. We aimed to describe recent epidemiological trends of NmW in France and to explore the microbiological and epidemiological characteristics associated with different NmW/cc11 sub-lineages. The epidemiology of NmW was described based on data collected through mandatory notification of IMD and strain typing data for culture-confirmed and PCR-confirmed cases for the period 2000-2016. All culture-confirmed cases due to NmW from the period 2010-2016 were characterised by whole genome sequencing (WGS). A detailed epidemiological analysis was performed for culture-confirmed cases on the basis of WGS data. During the period 2010-2016, genotyping was obtained for 148 cases including all the 132 culture-confirmed cases, among which 127 were matched with epidemiological data, and 16 PCR-confirmed cases (out of a total of 47 PCR-confirmed cases). An increase in IMD was observed in 2012 and was linked to isolates belonging to the "Anglo-French-Hajj" sub-lineage. These isolates have decreased significantly since 2013 and have been replaced by NmW/cc11 isolates related to the "South American - UK" sub-lineage which caused a marked increase in the number of cases of NmW in 2016. In this sub-lineage, the "original UK strain" was first detected in 2012 and increased thereafter, followed by the recently described "UK 2013-strain". Isolates related to the "South American-UK" sub-lineage represented 45% of all NmW cultured isolates from the whole period 2010-2016 but were the most frequent isolates in 2016, representing 76% of the total NmW typed isolates and 94% of the typed NmW/cc11 isolates. A changing pattern in the epidemiology of NmW has been observed in 2015-2016 in relation to the spread of the "UK 2013-strain" with a sharp increase in the number of cases among persons aged 15 years and over and a high case fatality rate (CFR). Among cases due to the "UK 2013-strain", 94% of cases were aged 15 years and over and the CFR was 28%. Our data suggest a recent clonal replacement among NmW/cc11 isolates with the expansion of the "South American-UK" sub-lineage in France and particularly the "UK 2013-strain" which was predominant in 2015 and 2016. A shift in the age-distribution of IMD due to NmW to older ages and the high CFR are consistent with the expansion of a new virulent clone in a naive population. These data may have an impact on tailoring vaccination strategies against NmW. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Update on: Shigella new serogroups/serotypes and their antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, D P; Devanga Ragupathi, N K; Anandan, S; Veeraraghavan, B

    2017-01-01

    Shigellosis represents a major burden of disease in developing countries. A low infectious dose allows the disease to be spread effectively. Although shigellosis is mostly a self-limiting disease, antibiotics are recommended to reduce deaths, disease symptoms and organism-shedding time. However, in India, antimicrobial resistance among the genus Shigella is more common than among any other enteric bacteria. Notably, new serotypes or subserotypes in Shigella are reported from various parts of the world. Identification of new subserotypes of Shigella spp. is becoming a major issue as these strains are nontypeable by conventional serotyping. The commercially available antisera may not cover all possible epitopes of the O lipopolysaccharide antigen of Shigella serotypes. Therefore, molecular methods which most closely approach the resolution of full serotyping are necessary to identify such strains. In addition, the knowledge of a prevalent serotype in various geographic regions may assist in formulating strategies such as the development of a vaccine to prevent infection especially when the immunity to disease is serotype specific, and to understand the disease burden caused by new Shigella serotypes. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Accurate differentiation of Escherichia coli and Shigella serogroups: challenges and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Devanga Ragupathi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. and Escherichia coli are closely related; both belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Phenotypically, Shigella spp. and E. coli share many common characteristics, yet they have separate entities in epidemiology and clinical disease, which poses a diagnostic challenge. We collated information for the best possible approach to differentiate clinically relevant E. coli from Shigella spp. We found that a molecular approach is required for confirmation. High discriminatory potential is seen with whole genome sequencing analysed for k-mers and single nucleotide polymorphism. Among these, identification using single nucleotide polymorphism is easy to perform and analyse, and it thus appears more promising. Among the nonmolecular methods, matrix-assisted desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry may be applicable when data analysis is assisted with advanced analytic tools. Keywords: 16S rRNA, k-mer, MALDI-TOF MS, single nucleotide polymorphism, whole genome sequencing

  4. The iron-regulated transcriptome and proteome of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basler, Marek; Linhartová, Irena; Halada, Petr; Novotná, Jana; Bezoušková, Silvia; Osička, Radim; Weiser, Jaroslav; Vohradský, Jiří; Šebo, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 23 (2006), s. 6194-6206 ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/04/0804; GA MZe 1G46068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : iron regulation * Neisseria meningitidis * proteome Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.735, year: 2006

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella and E. coli in neonatal diarrheic calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. El-Seedy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal calf diarrhea remains one of the most important problems faced by livestock, causing great economic losses. This study investigated the prevalence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli, especially enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, in diarrheic calves. Fecal samples were collected from 127 diarrheic calves up to 3 months of age at 12 farms from different governorates in Egypt. 119 bacterial isolates (93.7% were recovered and the prevalences of Salmonella and E. coli in diarrheic calves were 18.1% and 75.6%, respectively. Serotyping of Salmonella isolates revealed that S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium were the most prevalent serotypes, representing 60.9% and 30.4%, respectively, while S. Dublin was 8.7%. Serogrouping of E. coli isolates showed that 10 O-serogroups were obtained where O26 and O103 were the most prevalent (17.7% of each. Salmonella serotypes showed positive results with PCR test using oligonucleotide primer amplifying 521 bp fragment of invA gene of Salmonella while 70% of E. coli serogroups possessed ETEC virulent gene (K99. The in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that Salmonella serotypes showed high sensitivity against enrofloxacin, spectinomycin and neomycin while E. coli isolates showed high sensitivities against marbofloxacin, spectinomycin and neomycin only.

  6. Validation of the Applied Biosystems RapidFinder Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) Detection Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Matheny, Sharon; Swimley, Michelle; Tebbs, Robert; Burrell, Angelia; Flannery, Jonathan; Bastin, Benjamin; Bird, Patrick; Benzinger, M Joseph; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Salfinger, Yvonne; Brodsky, Michael; Fernandez, Maria Cristina

    2016-11-01

    The Applied Biosystems™ RapidFinder™ STEC Detection Workflow (Thermo Fisher Scientific) is a complete protocol for the rapid qualitative detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 and the "Big 6" non-O157 Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes (defined as serogroups: O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). The RapidFinder STEC Detection Workflow makes use of either the automated preparation of PCR-ready DNA using the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ™ Nucleic Acid Extraction Kit in conjunction with the Applied Biosystems MagMAX™ Express 96-well magnetic particle processor or the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ Rapid Spin kit for manual preparation of PCR-ready DNA. Two separate assays comprise the RapidFinder STEC Detection Workflow, the Applied Biosystems RapidFinder STEC Screening Assay and the Applied Biosystems RapidFinder STEC Confirmation Assay. The RapidFinder STEC Screening Assay includes primers and probes to detect the presence of stx1 (Shiga toxin 1), stx2 (Shiga toxin 2), eae (intimin), and E. coli O157 gene targets. The RapidFinder STEC Confirmation Assay includes primers and probes for the "Big 6" non-O157 STEC and E. coli O157:H7. The use of these two assays in tandem allows a user to detect accurately the presence of the "Big 6" STECs and E. coli O157:H7. The performance of the RapidFinder STEC Detection Workflow was evaluated in a method comparison study, in inclusivity and exclusivity studies, and in a robustness evaluation. The assays were compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) 5.09: Detection, Isolation and Identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Meat Products and Carcass and Environmental Sponges for raw ground beef (73% lean) and USDA/FSIS-MLG 5B.05: Detection, Isolation and Identification of Escherichia coli non-O157:H7 from Meat Products and Carcass and Environmental Sponges for raw beef trim. No statistically significant

  7. Epidemiological importance of humans and domestic animals as reservoirs of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Srđan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. A "new" pathogenic agent, verocytotoxin - producing Escherichia coli (VTEC emerged in the last 20 years, causing an increased number of sporadic cases, as well as of outbreaks of diarrhoeal diseases. Humans and animals can be infected with VTEC, but their epidemiological importance as a reservoir of this agent is not quite clear, especially in the Balkan region. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of isolation of VTEC from the intestinal tract of humans and animals and to determine the serogroups of the isolated strains. Methods. A total of, 3 401 stool samples from humans and 2 660 samples from five different species of domestic animals were tested for the presence of this pathogen. Results. VTEC was isolated from 20 (0.6% humans stools and from 431 (16.2% animal fecal samples (p < 0.001. Only 15 (3.3% VTEC strains belonged to human infection-associated serogroups (O26, O55, O111, O128 and O 157, designated as enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC. The most known serogroup- O157 was identified in 6 (1.3% of the isolated VTEC strains; of them, 1 (5% was of human origin and 5 (1.2% were animal strains. Conclusion. This study revealed that domestic animals were a more important reservoir of VTEC than humans, and that the isolated VTEC strains rarely belonged to O157, as well as to other EHEC serogroups that might explain rare sporadic cases and the absence of epidemic occurrence of diarrhoeal diseases caused by VTEC in this geographic region.

  8. Incidence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in beef, pork, chicken, deer, boar, bison, and rabbit retail meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwedere, Kudakwashe; Dang, Huu Anh; Mills, Edward W; Cutter, Catherine N; Roberts, Elisabeth L; DeBroy, Chitrita

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the incidence of contamination by the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O-groups, responsible for the majority of E. coli infections in human beings, in retail meat from different animal species. Samples from ground beef (n = 51), ground pork (n = 16), ground chicken (n = 16), and game meat (deer, wild boar, bison, and rabbit; n = 55) were collected from retail vendors for the detection of 7 STEC O-groups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157). Meat samples were tested by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the wzx gene of O antigen gene clusters of the 7 STEC O-groups. The positive samples were further tested for Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). Out of a total of 83 ground beef, pork, and chicken samples, 17 (20%) carried O121, 9 (10%) carried O45, 8 (9%) carried O157, 3 (3%) carried O103, and 1 (1%) carried O145. None of the samples were positive for O26, O111, or the stx gene. All 3 white-tailed deer samples (100%) were positive for O45, O103, or both, 2 (10%) out of 20 red deer samples exhibited the presence of O103, and all 3 bison samples were contaminated with either O121, O145, or O157. One sample from ground deer, contaminated with E. coli O45, carried the stx1 gene. This preliminary investigation illustrates the importance of microbiological testing of pathogens in meat products, as well as the recognized need for increased surveillance and research on foodborne pathogens.

  9. Genetic characterization of antibiotic resistance in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli carrying extended-spectrum beta-lactamases recovered from diarrhoeic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, P; Radhouani, H; Gonçalves, A; Figueiredo, N; Carvalho, C; Rodrigues, J; Igrejas, G

    2010-05-01

    A total of 52 Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrhoeic rabbits were investigated for their enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) pathotype by PCR amplification of eae and bfp virulence genes. A total of 22 EPEC isolates were identified, serotyped and studied for antibiotic resistance and screened for the detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). The EPEC isolates belonged to three serogroups (O26, O92 and O103). The most common serogroup (O103:K-:H2) was observed among 17 EPEC strains, the O92:K-serogroup in three isolates (the antibiotic sensitive ones) and the remaining O26:K-serogroup in two isolates (the ESBLs isolates). Resistances to ampicillin and tetracycline were the most frequent and detected followed by resistance to nalidixic acid, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, cefoxitin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. All the isolates were sensitive for amikacin, ceftazidime, aztreonam, imipenem, chloramphenicol, tobramycin and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid. Two isolates recovered from two adult animals showed an intermediate susceptibility to cefotaxime, and a positive screening test for ESBL was demonstrated in both. The bla(TEM) gene was demonstrated in the majority of ampicillin-resistant isolates. The aac(3)-II or aac(3)-IV genes were detected in the four gentamicin-resistant isolates. In addition, the aadA gene was detected in 60% of streptomycin-resistant isolates. The tet(A) or tet(B) genes were identified in all tetracycline-resistant isolates. A total of nine EPEC isolates showed the phenotype SXT-resistant, and the sul1 and/or sul2 and/or sul3 genes were detected in all of them. Our findings showed that the molecular detection by the eae and bfp genes by PCR followed by serotyping is useful for monitoring trends in EPEC infections of rabbits allowing the identification of their possible reservoirs. The detection of genes involved in the resistance to antibiotics of different families in a relatively high proportion of faecal E

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB) and serogroup C (MenC-CRM) vaccines in infants: A phase 3b, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Safadi, Marco Aurelio; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Weckx, Lily Yin; Moreira, Edson Duarte; da Fonseca Lima, Eduardo Jorge; Mensi, Ilhem; Calabresi, Marco; Toneatto, Daniela

    2017-04-11

    After implementation of routine infant MenC vaccination, MenB remains a serious cause of meningococcal disease, yet to be targeted by vaccination programs in several countries. This study (NCT01339923) investigated the immunogenicity and safety of MenC CRM-conjugated vaccine (MenC-CRM) concomitantly administered with MenB vaccine (4CMenB). Infants (N=251) were randomised 1:1 to receive 4CMenB and MenC-CRM (Group 1) or MenC-CRM alone (Group 2) at 3 and 5months (M3, M5) and a booster at 12months of age (M12), and pneumococcal vaccine at M3, M5, M7, M12. Antibody responses to meningococcal vaccines were measured at M3, M6, M12, and M13. Non-inferiority of MenC-CRM response in Group 1 vs Group 2 was demonstrated at M6 and M13, if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (LL95%CI) of the difference in percentage of infants with hSBA titres ≥1:8 was >-10%. Sufficiency of MenB response was achieved if LL95%CI of the percentage of infants with hSBA titres ≥1:4 against fHbp, NadA and PorA strains was ≥70% at M6 or ≥75% at M13. Adverse events (AEs) were collected for 7days post-vaccination, and serious AEs (SAEs) and medically attended AEs throughout the study. Non-inferiority of MenC response in Group 1 vs Group 2 (LL95%CI -6.4% [M6]; -5.2% [M13]) and sufficiency of MenB response in Group 1 (LL95%CI 92%, 90%, 89% [M6]; 97%, 92%, 93% [M13] against fHbp, NadA, PorA, respectively) were demonstrated. Higher rates of mild to moderate solicited AEs were reported in Group 1. Unsolicited AEs and SAEs incidences were similar across groups. Concomitant administration of MenC-CRM and 4CMenB in infants was immunogenic, resulting in non-inferior responses against MenC compared to MenC-CRM alone and demonstration of sufficient immune response to MenB, after primary and booster vaccination. Reactogenicity was higher for concomitant vaccines administration, but no safety concerns were identified. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Full-length genome analysis of Čalovo strains of Batai orthobunyavirus (Bunyamwera serogroup): Implications to taxonomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dufková, L.; Pachler, K.; Kilian, Patrik; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Danielová, V.; Růžek, Daniel; Nowotny, N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, 2014-Oct (2014), s. 96-104 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29256S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Batai virus * Orthobunyavirus * Phylogenetic analysis * Calovo virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.015, year: 2014

  12. Relevant prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum serogroups in HIV-1 infected men without urethritis symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORDOVA Caio Mauricio Mendes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available M. hominis and U. urealyticum are the better-known mycoplasma species pathogenic to the human genitourinary tract, causing mainly urethritis, bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy complications. In HIV-infected patients, the prevalence and role of these species is still not well known. The aim of this work was to determinate the prevalence of these species in this group of male patients (HIV group, in comparison to a group of men with clinical symptoms of urethritis (STD group. M. hominis was isolated from 7.5% patients (8/106 and U. urealyticum from 18.9% patients (20/106 from the HIV group, being among these 62.5% and 85% in significant concentrations, respectively. In the STD group these rates were 0.9% (1/110 for M. hominis and 13.6% (15/110 for U. urealyticum, being 100% and 93.3% in significant concentrations, respectively. We could demonstrate infection rates by these mycoplasma species in the HIV group as high as the one found in the STD one, what may indicate the occurrence of opportunistic infections in our population. This fact is discussed here because in immunosuppressed patients, specially M. hominis has been reported causing severe infections, even systemically.

  13. Endocytosis-inducer adhesins produced by enteropathogenic serogroups of Escherichia coli participate on bacterial attachment to infant enterocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ramos Costa Andrade

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC infection of Hep-2 cells preoceeds through bacterial attachment to cell surface and internalization of adhered bacteria. EPEC attachment is a prerequisite for cell infection and is mediated by adhesins that recognize carbohydrate-containing receptors on cell membrane. Such endocytosis-inducer adhesins (EIA also promote EPEC binding to infant enterocytes, suggesting that EIA may have an important role on EPEC gastroenteritis.A infecção de células Hep-2 por E. coli enteropatogênicas (ECEP implica na aderência bacteriana e posterior interiorização dos microrganismos aderidos por um mecanismo de endocitose. A aderência das ECEP é pré-requisito para a infecção e é mediada por adesinas que reconhecem receptores inibidos por certas oses na membrana celular. Tais "adesinas indutoras da endocitose" (AIE também promovem a ligação bacteriana a enterócitos obtidos do intestino delgado de lactente, sugerindo que as AIE possam desempenhar algum papel nas diarréias causadas por ECEP.

  14. Complete genomic sequences of two salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serogroup C2 (O:6,8) strains from central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enteric subsp. enterica strains RM11060, serotype 6,8:d:-, and RM11065, serotype 6,8:-:e,n,z15, were isolated from environmental sampling in Central California in 2009. We report the complete genome sequences and annotation of these two strains. These genomic sequences are distinct and wi...

  15. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from farm-raised diarrheic sika deer in Northeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    Full Text Available In China, overuse and/or abuse of antimicrobials are common in stockbreeding, which possess high risks of antimicrobial-resistant contaminations. The serogroups, major virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistant patterns of the antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli were investigated in the feces of diarrheic farm-raised sika deer from 50 farms in three Northeastern provinces of China. A total of 220 E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized. Twenty-eight O serogroups were identified from the obtained E. coli isolates with O2, O26, O128, O142 and O154 being dominant. Nearly all the isolates were resistant to at least four of the tested antimicrobials. More than 90% of the E. coli isolates carried at least one of the tested virulence genes. About 85% of the E. coli isolates carried one or more antimicrobial-resistant genes responsible for resistant phenotypes of sulfonamides, streptomycin/spectionomycin or tetracycline. The antimicrobial resistant level and pathogenic group occurrences of the obtained E. coli isolates were higher than that of livestock and wild animals reported in some developed countries. Thus, the fecal-carrying antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from the farm-raised sika deer is potentially a significant contamination source for freshwater systems and food chain, and may pose great health risks for human and animals in Northeastern China.

  16. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in slaughtered pigs and pork products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Bardasi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the years 2015-2016, 83 faecal samples were collected at slaughter from pigs reared in farms located in Central- Northern Italy. During the years 2014-2016 a total of 562 pork products [465 not-ready-to-eat (NRTE and 97 ready-to-eat (RTE products] were collected from retail outlets, large retailers and processing plants. The samples were analysed according to ISO TS 13136:2012. Out of 83 swine faecal samples, 77 (92.8% resulted stx-positive by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, 5 stx2+ and 1 stx1+ Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC strains were isolated. Among the 465 NRTE samples, 65 (14.0% resulted stx-positive by real time PCR and 7 stx2+ STEC strains were isolated. The stx2 gene was detected more frequently than the stx1 gene both in faecal samples (90.4 vs 8.4% and in NRTE pork products (13.3 vs 1.3%. All the RTE samples included in the analysis resulted stxnegative. Among the samples resulted positive for stx and eae genes, serogroup-associated genes were detected at high frequency: O26 resulted the most frequent in faecal samples (81.3% and O145 in pork products (88.1%. The O157 serogroup resulted positive in 83.3 and 78.1% of pork products and faecal samples, respectively. Despite the frequent detection by real time PCR of genes indicating the possible presence of STEC strains belonging to the six serogroups, the bacteriological step did not confirm the isolation of any such strains.

  17. Six new leptospiral serovars isolated from wild animals in Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Liceras de Hidalgo, J L; Sulzer, K R

    1984-01-01

    Six new serovars of Leptospira interrogans were isolated from opossums (Didelphis marsupialis and Philander opossum) trapped in the Peruvian jungle. The proposed names, type strain designation, and serogroup of the serovars, respectively, were: huallaga, strain M-7, Djasiman serogroup; luis, strain M-6, Tarassovi serogroup; machiguenga, strain MMD-3, Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup; rioja, strain MR-12, Bataviae serogroup; rupa rupa, strain M-3, Sejroe serogroup; and tingomaria, strain M-13, Cy...

  18. Synthesis, Magnetism, and X-ray Molecular Structure of the Mixed-Valence Vanadium(IV/V)-Oxygen Cluster [VO(4) subset(V(18)O(45))](9-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Lorenza; Bonamico, Mario; Fares, Vincenzo

    1997-05-07

    Within the transition metal oxide systems, vanadium presents a unique chemistry due to its capacity to form a great number of mixed-valence oxo clusters which often have the peculiarity to incorporate species that function, for size, shape, and charge, as templates. Prismatic, lustrous dark brown crystals of [(n-C(4)H(9))NH(3)](9)[V(19)O(49)].7H(2)O are obtained by reacting (n-C(4)H(9)NH(3))VO(3), VOSO(4), and (n-C(4)H(9))NH(2) in H(2)O. The X-ray crystal structure shows an ellipsoidal metal-oxo cluster formed by 15 VO(5) and 3 VO(4) polyhedra surrounding an almost regular VO(4) tetrahedron located on the 3-fold axis of a trigonal cell of dimensions a = 19.113(5) Å and c = 13.743(5) Å with space group P&thremacr; and Z = 2. Exponentially weighted bond valence sum calculations, manganometric titration of the V(IV) centers, and magnetic measurements are consistent with the presence of three localized and three delocalized electrons. Variable-temperature solid-state susceptibility studies indicate antiferromagnetic coupling between V(IV) centers. Cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile shows a irreversible reduction at -1.24 V and a reversible oxidation at +0.17 V (vs Ag/AgCl). The title compound converts quantitatively to the metal oxide K(2)V(3)O(8) with an extended layered structure as soon as a potassium salt is added to a neutral aqueous solution of the polyoxoanion.

  19. Self-assembly of polyoxometalate clusters into a 3-D heterometallic framework via covalent bonding: synthesis, structure and characterization of Na4[Nd8(dipic)12(H2O)9][Mo8O26].8H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Enhong; Lue Jian; Li Yangguang; Wang Enbo; Hu Changwen; Xu Lin

    2004-01-01

    An unprecedented hybrid solid obtained by self-assembly of octamolybdate clusters into a three-dimensional alkali metal modified neodymium-organic heterometallic framework is described. Crystal data: monoclinic, space group P21/n, a=21.868(4)A, b=13.039(3)A, c=22.479(5)A, β=98.90(3) o ; V=6332(2)A3; Z=2, R (final)=0.0474. The data were collected on a Rigaku R-AXIS RAPID IP diffractometer at 293K using graphite-monochromated MoKα radiation (λ=0.71073A) and oscillation scans technique in the range of 1.98 deg. θ27.48 deg

  20. Effect of chlorine treatment on inhibition of E. coli serogroup O2 incorporation into 7-day-old biofilm on polyvinylchloride surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, P; Dey, S; Huff, G; Zhang, W; Phillips, G K; Watkins, S

    2017-08-01

    Poultry waterlines are constructed using polyvinylchloride (PVC) material on which bacterial biofilm can easily form. Biofilm can harbor pathogens including avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains. An in vitro evaluation was performed to determine if E. coli sero group O2 (avian pathogenic) could attach on a PVC surface that had pre-formed biofilm and if this phenomenon could be affected when water was treated with chlorine. Initially, biofilm growth was induced in PVC test coupons (15.16 cm2) for a 7-day period mimicking the waterline scenario in the first wk of poultry brooding; and then this biofilm was challenged with E. coli O2 seeded water in presence/absence of chlorine treatment. After rinsing, test coupons were sampled for bacterial (APC) and E. coli O2 enumeration at various occasions post seeding the pathogen and chlorine treatment. Day 7 APC recovered from coupons was 4.35 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 1 and 3.66 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 2. E. coli O2 was not recovered from chlorine treated test coupons (P  3 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 1 and > 2 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 2). This study suggests that E. coli O2 can incorporate into pre-formed biofilm on a PVC surface within 24 h if water sanitation is not present, and the attachment time of the pathogen can prolong in the absence of already formed biofilm. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Cholera outbreak caused by drug resistant Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 biotype ElTor serotype Ogawa in Nepal; a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappu Kumar Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in underdeveloped countries including Nepal. Recently drug resistance in Vibrio cholerae has become a serious problem mainly in developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to investigate the occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in stool samples from patients with watery diarrhea and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of V. cholerae isolates. Methods A total of 116 stool samples from patients suffering from watery diarrhea during July to December 2012 were obtained from outbreak areas from all over Nepal. Alkaline peptone water and thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (TCBS were used to isolate the Vibrio cholerae. The isolates were identified with the help of colony morphology, Gram’s staining, conventional biochemical testing, serotyping and biotyping. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC by agar dilution method. Results Vibrio cholerae was isolated from 26.72 % of total samples. All isolated Vibrio cholerae were confirmed to be Vibrio cholerae serogoup O1 biotype El Tor and serotype Ogawa. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Twenty nine isolates were resistant toward two different classes of antibiotics, one strain was resistant to three different classes of antibiotics and one strain was resistant to four different classes of antibiotics. According to the definition of the multidrug resistant bacteria; 6.45 % of the strains of Vibrio cholerae were found to be multidrug resistant. Conclusions Cholera due to multidrug resistant Vibrio cholerae is also possible in Nepal. According to the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Vibrio cholerae in our study we recommend to use any antibiotics among tetracycline, doxycycline, levofloxacin, azithromycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin for preliminary treatment of cholera in Nepal.

  2. Genomic relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus phages of the International Typing Set and detection of serogroup A, B, and F prophages in lysogenic strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doškař, J.; Pallová, P.; Pantůček, R.; Rosypal, S.; Růžičková, V.; Pantůčková, Pavla; Kailerová, J.; Klepárník, Karel; Malá, Zdeňka; Boček, Petr

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 46, - (2000), s. 1066-1076 ISSN 0008-4166 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/97/1192; GA ČR GA203/00/0772; GA AV ČR KSK2055603 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.105, year: 2000

  3. Bactericidal antibody against a representative epidemiological meningococcal serogroup B panel confirms that MATS underestimates 4CMenB vaccine strain coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosi, Giacomo; Biolchi, Alessia; Lo Sapio, Morena; Rigat, Fabio; Gilchrist, Stefanie; Lucidarme, Jay; Findlow, Jamie; Borrow, Ray; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Giuliani, Marzia Monica; Medini, Duccio

    2013-10-09

    4CMenB (Bexsero), a vaccine developed against invasive meningococcal disease caused by capsular group B strains (MenB), was recently licensed for use by the European Medicines Agency. Assessment of 4CMenB strain coverage in specific epidemiologic settings is of primary importance to predict vaccination impact on the burden of disease. The Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) was developed to predict 4CMenB strain coverage, using serum bactericidal antibody assay with human complement (hSBA) data from a diverse panel of strains not representative of any specific epidemiology. To experimentally validate the accuracy of MATS-based predictions against strains representative of a specific epidemiologic setting. We used a stratified sampling method to identify a representative sample from all MenB disease isolates collected from England and Wales in 2007-2008, tested the strains in the hSBA assay with pooled sera from infant and adolescent vaccinees, and compared these results with MATS. MATS predictions and hSBA results were significantly associated (P=0.022). MATS predicted coverage of 70% (95% CI, 55-85%) was largely confirmed by 88% killing in the hSBA (95% CI, 72-95%). MATS had 78% accuracy and 96% positive predictive value against hSBA. MATS is a conservative predictor of strain coverage by the 4CMenB vaccine in infants and adolescents. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of O-serogroup specific positive controls and real-time PCR standards for nine clinically relevant non-O157 STECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Cheyenne C; Gilroyed, Brandon H; McAllister, Tim A; Reuter, Tim

    2012-10-01

    Non-O157 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are gaining recognition as human pathogens, but no standardized method exists to identify them. Sequence analysis revealed that STEC can be classified on the base of variable O antigen regions into different O serotypes. Polymerase chain reaction is a powerful technique for thorough screening and complex diagnosis for these pathogens, but requires a positive control to verify qualitative and/or quantitative DNA-fragment amplification. Due to the pathogenic nature of STEC, controls are not readily available and cell culturing of STEC reference strains requires biosafety conditions of level 2 or higher. In order to bypass this limitation, controls of stacked O-type specific DNA-fragments coding for primer recognition sites were designed to screen for nine STEC serotypes frequently associated with human infection. The synthetic controls were amplified by PCR, cloned into a plasmid vector and transferred into bacteria host cells. Plasmids amplified by bacterial expression were purified, serially diluted and tested as standards for real-time PCR using SYBR Green and TaqMan assays. Utility of synthetic DNA controls was demonstrated in conventional and real-time PCR assays and validated with DNA from natural STEC strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Serogroup-level resolution of the “Super-7” Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli using nanopore single-molecule DNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA sequencing and other DNA-based methods, such as PCR, are now broadly used for detection and identification of bacterial foodborne pathogens. For the identification of foodborne bacterial pathogens, it is important to make taxonomic assignments to the species, or even subspecies level. Long-read ...

  6. Misidentification of Vibrio cholerae O155 isolated from imported shrimp as O serogroup O139 due to cross-agglutination with commercial O139 antisera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, A.; Mazur, J.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2002-01-01

    . The strain contained two plasmids, in contrast to other O139 strains, which normally do not contain plasmids. The characteristics of the strain led to further agglutination testing with other antisera that are not commercially available, and the strain was found to agglutinate O155 antiserum in repeated...... was isolated from imported raw frozen shrimp. The toxigenicity of the strain was analyzed, and the results of a polymerase chain reaction showed that the V. cholerae strain did not contain the virulence genes ctx, tcp9, and zot, which are normally found in V. cholerae O1 and O139. The strain was resistant...... to colistin and spectinomycin. The high susceptibility of the strain to antimicrobial agents was confirmed by the lack of an SXT element, a self-transmissible, chromosomal genetic element that is normally present in O139 strains and encodes resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and streptomycin...

  7. Complement activation and formation of the membrane attack complex on serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis in the presence or absence of serum bactericidal activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drogari-Apiranthitou, M.; Kuijper, E. J.; Dekker, N. [=Nick; Dankert, J.

    2002-01-01

    Encapsulated meningococci are complement sensitive only in the presence of bactericidal antibodies by yet-unexplored mechanisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of major bacterial surface constituents on complement activation and membrane attack complex (MAC) formation

  8. Subsets of memory CD4+ T cell and bactericidal antibody response to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C after immunization of HIV-infected children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar G Milagres

    Full Text Available Meningococcal disease is endemic in Brazil, with periodic outbreaks and case fatality rates reach as high as 18 to 20% of cases. Conjugate vaccines against meningococci are immunogenic in healthy children. However, we have previously shown a poor bactericidal antibody response to a Men C conjugate vaccine in Brazilian HIV-infected children and adolescents after a single vaccine administration. The goal of the present work was to investigate associations between bactericidal antibody response induced by MenC vaccine and the frequency and activation profile (expression of CD38, HLA-DR and CCR5 molecules of total CD4+ memory T cell sub-populations in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents. Responders to vaccination against MenC had a predominance (about 44% of CD4+ TINTERMEDIATE subset followed by TTRANSITIONAL memory subset (23 to 26%. Importantly, CD4+ TINT frequency was positively associated with bactericidal antibody response induced by vaccination. The positive correlation persisted despite the observation that the frequency TINT CD38+HLA-DR+ was higher in responders. In contrast, CD4+ TCENTRAL MEMORY (TCM subset negatively correlated with bactericidal antibodies. In conclusion, these data indicate that less differentiated CD+ T cells, like TCM may be constantly differentiating into intermediate and later differentiated CD4+ T cell subsets. These include CD4 TINT subset which showed a positive association with bactericidal antibodies.

  9. In vitro adherence patterns of Shigella serogroups to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells are similar to those of Escherichia coli O157

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Shigella species, which are human gastrointestinal pathogens, can adhere to cattle recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells using a recently standardized adherence assay, and to compare their adherence patterns to that of Escherichia coli O15...

  10. Clonal Diversity of Chilean Isolates of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli from Patients with Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome, Asymptomatic Subjects, Animal Reservoirs, and Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Maritza; Prado, Valeria; Trucksis, Michele; Arellano, Carolina; Borie, Consuelo; Alexandre, Marcela; Fica, Alberto; Levine, Myron M.

    1999-01-01

    To determine clonal relationship among Chilean enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains from different sources (clinical infections, animal reservoirs, and food), 54 EHEC isolates (44 of E. coli O157, 5 of E. coli O111, and 5 of E. coli O26) were characterized for virulence genes by colony blot hybridization and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By colony blotting, 12 different genotypes were identified among the 44 E. coli O157 isolates analyzed, of which the genetic profile stx1+ stx2+ hly+ eae+ was the most prevalent. All human O157 strains that were associated with sporadic cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) carried both the stx1 and stx2 toxin-encoding genes and were eaeA positive. Only 9 of 13 isolates from human controls were stx1+ stx2+, and 8 carried the eaeA gene. Comparison of profiles obtained by PFGE of XbaI-digested genomic DNA showed a great diversity among the E. coli O157 isolates, with 37 different profiles among 39 isolates analyzed. Cluster analysis of PFGE profiles showed a wide distribution of clinical isolates obtained from HUS cases and asymptomatic individuals and a clonal relationship among O157 isolates obtained from HUS cases and pigs. Analysis of virulence genes showed that a correlation exists among strains with the genotype stx1+ stx2+ eae+ and pathogenic potential. A larger difference in the PFGE restriction patterns was observed among the EHEC strains of serogroups O26 and O111. These results indicate that several different EHEC clones circulate in Chile and suggest that pigs are an important animal reservoir for human infections by EHEC. Guidelines have been proposed for better practices in the slaughter of animals in Chile. PMID:9986852

  11. Investigation of an outbreak of bloody diarrhea complicated with hemolytic uremic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otar Chokoshvili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In July–August 2009, eight patients with bloody diarrhea complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS were admitted to hospitals in Tbilisi, Georgia. We started active surveillance in two regions for bloody diarrhea and post-diarrheal HUS. Of 25 case-patients who developed HUS, including the initial 8 cases, half were ⩾15 years old, 67% were female and seven (28% died. No common exposures were identified. Among 20 HUS case-patients tested, Shiga toxin was detected in the stools of 2 patients (one with elevated serum IgG titers to several Escherichia coli serogroups, including O111 and O104. Among 56 persons with only bloody diarrhea, we isolated Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC O104:H4 from 2 and Shigella from 10; 2 had serologic evidence of E. coli O26 infection. These cases may indicate a previously unrecognized burden of HUS in Georgia. We recommend national reporting of HUS and improving STEC detection capacity.

  12. Characteristics of Shigatoxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Isolated during 2010–2014 from Human Infections in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fierz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize a collection of 95 Shigatoxin-producing E.coli (STEC isolated from human patients in Switzerland during 2010–2014.Methods: We performed O and H serotyping and molecular subtyping.Results: The five most common serogroups were O157, O145, O26, O103, and O146. Of the 95 strains, 35 (36.8% carried stx1 genes only, 43 strains (45.2% carried stx2 and 17 (17.9% harbored combinations of stx1 and stx2 genes. Stx1a (42 strains and stx2a (32 strains were the most frequently detected stx subtypes. Genes for intimin (eae, hemolysin (hly, iron-regulated adhesion (iha, and the subtilase cytotoxin subtypes subAB1, subAB2-1, subAB2-2, or subAB2-3 were detected in 70.5, 83.2, 74.7, and 20% of the strains, respectively. Multilocus sequence typing assigned the majority (58.9% of the isolates to five different clonal complexes (CC, 11, 32, 29, 20, and 165, respectively. CC11 included all O157:[H7] and O55:[H7] isolates. CC32 comprised O145:[H28] isolates, and O145:[H25] belonged to sequence type (ST 342. CC29 contained isolates of the O26:[H11], O111:[H8] and O118:[Hnt] serogroups, and CC20 encompassed isolates of O51:H49/[Hnt] and O103:[H2]. CC165 included isolates typed O80:[H2]-ST301, all harboring stx2d, eae-ξ, hly, and 66.7% additionally harboring iha. All O80:[H2]-ST301 strains harbored at least 7 genes carried by pS88, a plasmid associated with extraintestinal virulence. Compared to data from Switzerland from the years 2000–2009, an increase of the proportion of non-O157 STEC infections was observed as well as an increase of infections due to STEC O146. By contrast, the prevalence of the highly virulent German clone STEC O26:[H11]-ST29 decreased from 11.3% during 2000–2009 to 1.1% for the time span 2010–2014. The detection of O80:[H2]-ST301 harboring stx2d, eae-ξ, hly, iha, and pS88 related genes suggests an ongoing emergence in Switzerland of an unusual, highly pathogenic STEC serotype

  13. Molecular characterization, serotyping, and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni isolates from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miraglia, Fabiana; Matsuo, Minekazo; Morais, Zenaide Maria; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Freitas, Julio César; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Costa, Bárbara Letícia; Souza, Gisele Oliveira; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2013-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae is the major serogroup infecting humans worldwide, and rodents and dogs are the most significant transmission sources in urban environments. Knowledge of the prevalent serovars and their maintenance hosts is essential to understand the

  14. Laboratory Predictors of Meningococcal Disease And Vaccination in Children: studies on the host immune response against Neisseria meningitidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. Vermont (Clementien)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Neisseria meningitidis is a gram-negative diplococcus which was first identified by Anton Weichselbaum in 1887. Strains of N. meningitidis can be classified into serogroups based upon the different composition of its capsular polysaccharide. Thirteen serogroups

  15. Towards an improved Neisseria meningitidis B vaccine: vesicular PorA formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arigita Maza, C. (Carmen)

    2003-01-01

    There is a great need for vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. This is especially important in Western European countries, were approximately two thirds of the cases of meningococcal disease can be attributed to serogroup B strains. Against this serogroup, traditional vaccines based

  16. Detección y caracterización de Escherichia coli productor de toxina Shiga a partir de casos clínicos y de alimentos en Uruguay Detection and characterization of Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli from clinical cases and food in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Varela

    2008-06-01

    strains harbored the eae subtype g1, O26:H11 and O145:HNT strains, subtype b1 and O111:NM strain, subtype g2/q. The STEC strains of the same serogroup showed high genetic diversity. In Uruguay, STEC is not frequently isolated from cases of bloody diarrhea in children. However, all the recovered STEC strains carried the genes associated with severe disease and 2 out of 3 children infected with STEC developed HUS. Ground beef and other food products might be important vehicles for O157:H7 strains.

  17. Safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) administered with routine infant vaccinations: results of an open-label, randomized, phase 3b controlled study in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnour, Arturo; Silas, Peter E; Lamas, Marta Raquel Valdés; Aragón, Carlos Fernándo Grazioso; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Acuña, Teobaldo Herrera; Castrejón, Tirza De León; Izu, Allen; Odrljin, Tatjana; Smolenov, Igor; Hohenboken, Matthew; Dull, Peter M

    2014-02-12

    The highest risk for invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is in infants aged CRM, a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, concomitantly administered with routine vaccinations to healthy infants. Two-month-old infants were randomized 3:1 to receive MenACWY-CRM with routine vaccines or routine vaccines alone at ages 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. Adverse events (AEs) that were medically attended and serious adverse events (SAEs) were collected from all subjects from enrollment through 18 months of age. In a subset, detailed safety data (local and systemic solicited reactions and all AEs) were collected for 7 days post vaccination. The primary objective was a non-inferiority comparison of the percentages of subjects with ≥1 severe systemic reaction during Days 1-7 after any vaccination of MenACWY-CRM plus routine vaccinations versus routine vaccinations alone (criterion: upper limit of 95% confidence interval [CI] of group difference CRM plus routine vaccines and 13% after routine vaccines alone (group difference 3.0% (95% CI -0.8, 6.4%). Although the non-inferiority criterion was not met, post hoc analysis controlling for significant center and group-by-center differences revealed that MenACWY-CRM plus routine vaccinations was non-inferior to routine vaccinations alone (group difference -0.1% [95% CI -4.9%, 4.7%]). Rates of solicited AEs, medically attended AEs, and SAEs were similar across groups. In a large multinational safety study, a 4-dose series of MenACWY-CRM concomitantly administered with routine vaccines was clinically acceptable with a similar safety profile to routine vaccines given alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Protection by meningococcal outer membrane protein PorA-specific antibodies and a serogroup B capsular polysaccharide-specific antibody in complement-sufficient and C6-deficient infant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toropainen, Maija; Saarinen, Leena; Vidarsson, Gestur; Käyhty, Helena

    2006-01-01

    The relative contributions of antibody-induced complement-mediated bacterial lysis and antibody/complement-mediated phagocytosis to host immunity against meningococcal infections are currently unclear. Further, the in vivo effector functions of antibodies may vary depending on their specificity and

  19. Transplacental transport of IgG antibodies specific for pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, haemophilus influenzae type b, and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C is lower in preterm compared with term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jolice P.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; van Gageldonk, Pieter G. M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal antibodies, transported through the placenta during pregnancy, contribute to the protection of infants from infectious diseases during the first months of life. The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of antibodies against several vaccine-preventable diseases in paired

  20. Evaluation of mericon E. coli O157 Screen Plus and mericon E. coli STEC O-Type Pathogen Detection Assays in Select Foods: Collaborative Study, First Action 2017.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Benzinger, M Joseph; Bastin, Benjamin; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James; Goins, David; Armstrong, Marcia

    2018-05-01

    QIAGEN mericon Escherichia coli O157 Screen Plus and mericon E. coli Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O-Type Pathogen Detection Assays use Real-Time PCR technology for the rapid, accurate detection of E. coli O157 and the "big six" (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145) (non-O157 STEC) in select food types. Using a paired study design, the assays were compared with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook Chapter 5.09 reference method for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 in raw ground beef. Both mericon assays were evaluated using the manual and an automated DNA extraction method. Thirteen technicians from five laboratories located within the continental United States participated in the collaborative study. Three levels of contamination were evaluated. Statistical analysis was conducted according to the probability of detection (POD) statistical model. Results obtained for the low-inoculum level test portions produced a difference between laboratories POD (dLPOD) value with a 95% confidence interval of 0.00 (-0.12, 0.12) for the mericon E. coli O157 Screen Plus with manual and automated extraction and mericon E. coli STEC O-Type with manual extraction and -0.01 (-0.13, 0.10) for the mericon E. coli STEC O-Type with automated extraction. The dLPOD results indicate equivalence between the candidate methods and the reference method.

  1. Epidemiological markers in Neisseria meningitidis: an estimate of the performance of genotyping vs phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, N; Lind, I

    1998-01-01

    In order to estimate the performance of genotypic vs phenotypic characterization of Neisseria meningitidis, 2 methods, DNA fingerprinting and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE), were assessed as regards applicability, reproducibility and discriminating capacity. 50 serogroup B and 52 serogroup...... C Neisseria meningitidis strains from 96 patients with meningococcal disease and 22 serogroup C strains from healthy carriers were investigated. Both methods were 100% applicable to meningococcal strains and results of DNA fingerprinting as well as of MEE were reproducible. The number of types...... defined by DNA fingerprinting and MEE as compared to that defined by phenotypic characteristics (serogroup, serotype, serosubtype and sulphonamide resistance) was as follows: for serogroup B strains from patients, 11 and 12 vs 8; for serogroup C strains from patients, 10 and 15 vs 8; and for serogroup C...

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from surface waters and sediments in a Canadian urban-agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eNadya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A hydrophobic grid membrane filtration – Shiga toxin immunoblot method was used to examine the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC in four watersheds located in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, Canada, a region characterized by rapid urbanization and intensive agricultural activity. STEC were recovered from 21.6, 23.2, 19.5 and 9.2 % of surface water samples collected monthly from five sites in each watershed over a period of one year. Overall prevalence was subject to seasonal variation however, ranging between 13.3 % during fall months and 34.3 % during winter months. STEC were also recovered from 23.8 % of sediment samples collected in one randomly selected site. One hundred distinct STEC isolates distributed among 29 definitive and 4 ambiguous or indeterminate serotypes were recovered from water and sediments, including isolates from Canadian priority serogroups O157 (3, O26 (4, O103 (5 and O111 (7. Forty seven isolates were further characterized by analysis of whole genome sequences to detect Shiga toxin gene (stx 1 and stx 2, intimin gene (eaeA allelic variants and acquired virulence factors. These analyses collectively showed that surface waters from the region support highly diverse STEC populations that include strains with virulence factors commonly associated with human pathotypes. The present work served to characterize the microbiological hazard implied by STEC to support future assessments of risks to public health arising from non-agricultural and agricultural uses of surface water resources in the region.

  3. Towards a pathogenic Escherichia coli detection platform using multiplex SYBR®Green Real-time PCR methods and high resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafni-Maria Kagkli

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a group of bacteria which has raised a lot of safety concerns in recent years. Five major intestinal pathogenic groups have been recognized amongst which the verocytotoxin or shiga-toxin (stx1 and/or stx2 producing E. coli (VTEC or STEC respectively have received a lot of attention recently. Indeed, due to the high number of outbreaks related to VTEC strains, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has requested the monitoring of the "top-five" serogroups (O26, O103, O111, O145 and O157 most often encountered in food borne diseases and addressed the need for validated VTEC detection methods. Here we report the development of a set of intercalating dye Real-time PCR methods capable of rapidly detecting the presence of the toxin genes together with intimin (eae in the case of VTEC, or aggregative protein (aggR, in the case of the O104:H4 strain responsible for the outbreak in Germany in 2011. All reactions were optimized to perform at the same annealing temperature permitting the multiplex application in order to minimize the need of material and to allow for high-throughput analysis. In addition, High Resolution Melting (HRM analysis allowing the discrimination among strains possessing similar virulence traits was established. The development, application to food samples and the flexibility in use of the methods are thoroughly discussed. Together, these Real-time PCR methods facilitate the detection of VTEC in a new highly efficient way and could represent the basis for developing a simple pathogenic E. coli platform.

  4. Real-time PCR and enzyme-linked fluorescent assay methods for detecting Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli in mincemeat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, A; Scaramagli, S; Bergami, R; Mazzini, C; Barbanera, M; Perelle, S; Fach, P

    2007-03-01

    This work aimed to compare real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the commercially available enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA) VIDAS ECOLI O157 for detecting Escherichia coli O157 in mincemeat. In addition, a PCR-based survey on Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in mincemeat collected in Italy is presented. Real-time PCR assays targeting the stx genes and a specific STEC O157 sequence (SILO157, a small inserted locus of STEC O157) were tested for their sensitivity on spiked mincemeat samples. After overnight enrichment, the presence of STEC cells could be clearly determined in the 25 g samples containing 10 bacterial cells, while the addition of five bacteria provided equivocal PCR results with Ct values very close to or above the threshold of 40. The PCR tests proved to be more sensitive than the ELFA-VIDAS ECOLI O157, whose detection level started from 50 bacterial cells/25 g of mincemeat. The occurrence of STEC in 106 mincemeat (bovine, veal) samples collected from September to November 2004 at five different points of sale in Italy (one point of sale in Arezzo, Tuscany, central Italy, two in Mantova, Lombardy, Northern Italy, and two in Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, upper-central Italy) was less than 1%. Contamination by the main STEC O-serogroups representing a major public health concern, including O26, O91, O111, O145, and O157, was not detected. This survey indicates that STEC present in these samples are probably not associated with pathogenesis in humans.

  5. Advances with vaccination against Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, Ray

    2012-12-01

    In the last decade, meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccination programs have been demonstrated to be hugely successful with a truly impressive public health impact. In sub-Saharan Africa, with the implementation of an affordable serogroup A conjugate vaccine, it is hoped that a similar public health impact will be demonstrated. Challenges still remain in the quest to develop and implement broadly protective vaccines against serogroup B disease. New, broad coverage vaccines against serogroup B are for the first time becoming available although little is known about their antibody persistence, effectiveness or effect on nasopharyngeal carriage. Enhanced surveillance following any potential vaccine introduction against serogroup B needs to be thoroughly implemented. The future now holds a distinct possibility, globally, for substantially decreasing meningococcal disease, regardless of infecting serogroup. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Changes in the evolution of meningococcal disease, 2001-2008, Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ana I; Dominguez, Angela; Oviedo, Manuel; Minguell, Sofia; Jansa, Josep M; Codina, Gemma; Vazquez, Julio A

    2009-05-26

    Reported cases of meningococcal disease between 1997 and 2008 were analyzed to determine the evolution after the introduction of a conjugated vaccine. In case-fatality-rate increased only in serogroup B (3% and 7.4%, p=0.026). Serosubtype P1.15 was the most frequent in serogroup B (31%), mainly associated with serotype 4 (80%), and in serogroup C subtype P1.5 (36%), with serosubtype 2a (86%). Exhaustive surveillance of circulating meningococcal strains is essential.

  7. ORF Alignment: NC_003116 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available meningitidis (strain ... Z2491 serogroup A) ... Length = 139 ... Query: 9 ... TPAVRVLRENGIE...FEPFTYAYEEHGGTAQFARLFGKDEHLVIKTIVLQDENGKGLIVLMH 68 ... TPAVRVLRENGIEFEPFTYAYEEHGGT...AQFARLFGKDEHLVIKTIVLQDENGKGLIVLMH Sbjct: 1 ... TPAVRVLRENGIEFEPFTYAYEEHGGTAQFARLFGKDEHLVIKTIVLQDENGKGLIVLMH 60

  8. Genetic relatedness of Legionella longbeachae isolates from human and environmental sources in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanser, J.A.; Doyle, R.; Sangster, N.; Steele, T.W.; Adams, M.

    1990-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of Legionella longbeachae isolated in Australia since 1987 was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and allozyme electrophoresis. Three radiolabeled probes were used in Southern hybridizations for the RFLP studies. They were Escherichia coli 16S and 23S rRNA and cloned fragments of L. longbeachae selected empirically from genomal banks in lambda and a cosmid. The legionellae included in the study comprised 11 Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 organisms isolated form humans, 28 L. longbeachae serogroup 1 isolates from environmental sources, 3 L. longbeachae serogroup 2 environmental isolates. These were compared with the American Type Culture Collection reference strains of both serogroups and some other related Legionella species. Results of allozyme and RFLP analysis showed that all the isolates from humans and all but three of the environmental L. longbeachae serogroup 1 isolates were closely related. They were also closely related to L. longbeachae serogroup 1 ATCC 33462. There was wider variation among the three L. longbeachae serogroup 2 environmental isolates. One of these was closely related to L. longbeachae serogroup 2 ATCC 33484. RFLP studies with the rRNA probe provided the most discrimination among isolates but did not distinguish between the two serogroups

  9. ORF Alignment: NC_002505 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16961 serogroup ... O1) ... Length = 105 ... Query: 1 ... MSDKILQLTDDGFENDVI...KAAGPVLVDFWAEWCGPCKMIAPILDEVADEYAGKLTIGKLN 60 ... MSDKILQLTDDGFENDVIKAAGPVLVDFWAEWCGPCKMIAPILDEVA...DEYAGKLTIGKLN Sbjct: 1 ... MSDKILQLTDDGFENDVIKAAGPVLVDFWAEWCGPCKMIAPILDEVADEYAGKLTIGKLN 60 ...

  10. Prevalence of Legionella strains in cooling towers and legionellosis cases in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Robert; Maqsood, Saadia; Harte, David; Caughley, Brian; Deacon, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Over 3,900 water samples from 688 cooling towers were tested for Legionella in 2008 in New Zealand. Of 80 (2.05% isolation rate) Legionella isolates, 10 (12.5%) were L. pneumophila serogroup 1; 10 (12.5%) were L. anisa; nine (11.2%) were L. pneumophila serogroup 8; and one (1.2%) was L. longbeachae serogroup 2. Forty-one (51.2%) Legionella isolates were L. pneumophila serogroups. Over 3,990 water samples from 606 cooling towers were tested for Legionella in 2009 in New Zealand. Of 51 (1.28% isolation rate) Legionella isolates, 18 (35.3%) were L. pneumophila serogroup 1, and 39 (76.4%) were other L. pneumophila serogroups. L. pneumophila serogroups were significantly associated with legionellosis cases in 2008 and 2009. L. longbeachae serogroups were equally significantly associated with legionellosis cases. This significant association of L. longbeachae with legionellosis particularly of L. longbeachae serogroup 1 is unique in that part of the world. The authors' study also showed that the aqueous environment of the cooling tower is not a natural habitat for pathogenic L. longbeachae. Regular monitoring and maintenance of cooling towers have prevented outbreaks of legionellosis.

  11. Selective and genetic constraints on pneumococcal serotype switching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Croucher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates typically express one of over 90 immunologically distinguishable polysaccharide capsules (serotypes, which can be classified into "serogroups" based on cross-reactivity with certain antibodies. Pneumococci can alter their serotype through recombinations affecting the capsule polysaccharide synthesis (cps locus. Twenty such "serotype switching" events were fully characterised using a collection of 616 whole genome sequences from systematic surveys of pneumococcal carriage. Eleven of these were within-serogroup switches, representing a highly significant (p < 0.0001 enrichment based on the observed serotype distribution. Whereas the recombinations resulting in between-serogroup switches all spanned the entire cps locus, some of those that caused within-serogroup switches did not. However, higher rates of within-serogroup switching could not be fully explained by either more frequent, shorter recombinations, nor by genetic linkage to genes involved in β-lactam resistance. This suggested the observed pattern was a consequence of selection for preserving serogroup. Phenotyping of strains constructed to express different serotypes in common genetic backgrounds was used to test whether genotypes were physiologically adapted to particular serogroups. These data were consistent with epistatic interactions between the cps locus and the rest of the genome that were specific to serotype, but not serogroup, meaning they were unlikely to account for the observed distribution of capsule types. Exclusion of these genetic and physiological hypotheses suggested future work should focus on alternative mechanisms, such as host immunity spanning multiple serotypes within the same serogroup, which might explain the observed pattern.

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_003116 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... - Neisseria meningitidis (strain Z2491 serogroup A) ... Length = 372 ... Query: 1 ... MKIGIPRESLSGETRVACTPAT...VALLGKLGFETVVEXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 60 ... MKIGIPRESLSGETRVACTPATVALLGKLGFETVVE ... ... ... Sbjct: 1 ... MKIGIPRESLSGETRVACTPATVALLGKLGFETVVESGAGLAASLDDAAYQAAGAT

  13. [OVARIAN RESERVE AND EFFECTIVENESS OF IVF IN WOMEN OF VARIOUS AGE GROUPS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayadyan, A; Totoyan, E

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is a comparative assessment of ovarian reserve parameters and the effect of these indices on the features of follicle and oogenesis in women of different age groups. A retrospective analysis of IVF results was conducted in 101 patients aged 21 to 49 years. All patients were divided into 4 groups according to age: I group up to 30 y.o. - 45 women, II group - 31-35 y.o - 14 women, III group - 36-40 y.o. - 26 women, IV Group - 41 or more - 16 women. A low ovarian reserve was found in the majority (84,6%) of women in group III and in all women in group IV. It was found that the lowest total dose of rFSH / hMG was used in women aged 21-30 years and 31-35 years, and in women in the age range of 36-40 years, the consumption of drugs was significantly higher and tended to further increase in the age group 41 аnd more years. A large consumption of rFSH/hMG is necessary to overcome the growing FSH level in the process of aging of the reproductive system and the reduced AMH level. However, at the same time, compared age groups had significant differences in the number of oocytes and embryos obtained. With age, a significant reduction in the number of mature oocytes and embryos obtained after follicle puncture and fertilization has been identified. The most promising in terms of pregnancy were the I and II groups. With age, the frequency of pregnancy decreased. The number of pregnancies was statistically lower in the III age group compared to groups I and II. In the IV group, no cases of pregnancy were recorded. Thus, it can be concluded that age is a statistically significant factor affecting the success of infertility treatment by IVF.

  14. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Neisseria meningitidis yields groupings similar to those obtained by multilocus sequence typing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouls, Leo M; Ende, Arie van der; Damen, Marjolein; Pol, Ingrid van de

    2006-01-01

    We identified many variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci in the genomes of Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, and C and utilized a number of these loci to develop a multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Eighty-five N. meningitidis serogroup B and C isolates obtained

  15. Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline M.; Mesaros, Narcisa; Van Der Wielen, Marie; Baine, Yaela

    2011-01-01

    Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles. PMID:21991444

  16. Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles.

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of meningococcal ACWY CRM197-conjugate vaccine in children, adolescents and adults in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyina, Natalia; Kharit, Susanna; Namazova-Baranova, Leila; Asatryan, Asmik; Benashvili, Mayya; Tkhostova, Elmira; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial invasive infections in people aged safety of the quadrivalent meningococcal CRM197-conjugate vaccine MenACWY when administered to healthy Russian subjects aged 2 years and above. A total of 197 subjects were immunized with a single dose of the vaccine, and serogroup-specific serum bactericidal activity was measured pre and 1-month post-vaccination with human complement (hSBA) serum titers. Regardless of baseline serostatus, 1 month after a single dose of MenACWY-CRM197 85% (95%CI, 79-90%) of subjects showed serologic response against serogroup A, 74% (67-80%) against serogroup C, 60% (53-67%) against serogroup W, and 83% (77-88%) against serogroup Y. The percentage of subjects with hSBA titers ≥ 1:8 1 month after vaccination was 89% (83-93%) against serogroup A, 84% (78-89%) against serogroup C, 97% (93-99%) against serogroup W, and 88% (82-92%) against serogroup Y. Comparable results were obtained across all subjects: children (2 to 10 years), adolescents (11 to 17 years), and adults (≥18 years). The MenACWY-CRM197 vaccine showed an acceptable safety profile and was well tolerated across all age groups, with no serious adverse events or deaths reported during the study. In conclusion, a single dose of meningococcal MenACWY-CRM197 vaccine is immunogenic and has an acceptable safety profile, provides a broad protection against the most frequent epidemic serogroups, and is a suitable alternative to currently available unconjugated monovalent or bivalent polysaccharide vaccines in Russia.

  18. Prevalence and characterization of Shiga Toxin-producing and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in shellfish-harvesting areas and their watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balière eCharlotte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During a two-year study, the presence of Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC was investigated in shellfish (n=238, seawater (n=12 and surface sediment (n=39 collected from three French coastal shellfish-harvesting areas and freshwaters (n=216 in their watersheds. PCR detection of Shiga toxin- (stx1/stx2 and intimin- (eae genes following enrichment from these samples revealed the presence of least one of the stx genes in 30.3% of shellfish batches, 85.9% of freshwater, 41.7% of seawater, and 28.2% of sediment samples, while the eae gene was observed in 74.8%, 100%, 100%, and 43.6% of shellfish batches, freshwater, seawater, and sediment samples, respectively. Twenty-eight STEC and 89 EPEC strains were isolated and analyzed in order to determine their serotype, phylogroup, and genetic relatedness and to evaluate the presence of the saa and ehxA genes encoding the STEC autoagglutinating adhesin and the enterohemolysin A, respectively. Finally, the ability to form biofilms and antimicrobial susceptibility were investigated for a selection of strains. Eighteen serotypes were identified among the STEC isolates and 57 among the EPEC isolates. A high diversity was observed within these strains, as 79 different PFGE patterns and 48 distinguishable sequence types were identified. Strains were found to belong mainly to phylogroups B1 and B2 and virulence was observed to be low as more than 85% of the strains possessed only stx1, stx2 or eae genes. One STEC and several EPEC strains belonged to three of the five highly pathogenic serogroups (i.e., O26, O103, and O145. The subset of strains tested for their capacity to form biofilms was mainly strongly to moderately adherent and more strains formed a strong biofilm at 18°C than at 30°C. Finally, more than 85% of analyzed strains were found to be sensitive to the 16 tested antibiotics. These data suggest the low risk of human infection by STEC if shellfish from these

  19. Occurrence of enteropathogenic bacteria in birds of prey in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, A; Fioretti, A; Russo, T P; Varriale, L; Rampa, L; Paone, S; De Luca Bossa, L M; Raia, P; Dipineto, L

    2018-03-01

    The importance of wild birds as potential vectors of disease has received recent renewed empirical interest, especially regarding human health although information regarding the enteropathogenic bacteria in birds of prey continue to be scant. This study was performed with the aim to evaluate the occurrence of enteropathogenic bacteria (i.e. Campylobacter spp. Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp.) in birds of prey carcasses in Southern Italy. The results of the present study showed a prevalence of 33·1% (49/148) for Campylobacter spp. where all positive isolates (49/49) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni, and among these positive 12/49 were also identified as Campylobacter coli. Thus, 12/49 birds of prey showed mixed infections for both Campylobacter species. Differences in Campylobacter spp. prevalence between diurnal and nocturnal birds were statistically significant (P = 0·016). Escherichia coli showed a prevalence of 6·8% (10/148) and were serogrouped as O26 (n = 3), O55 (n = 2), O145 (n = 5). Salmonella spp. showed a prevalence of 6·8% (10/148) and were serotyped as S. Napoli (n = 4), Salmonella salamae (n = 3) and S. Typhimurium (n = 3). Although wildlife disease outbreaks have often been underreported in the broader context of global epidemiology, results of the present study suggest that birds of prey may serve as a reservoir of pathogens for livestock and human health, acting at the animal-human-ecosystem interface. This study confirms the role of birds of prey as a reservoir of enteropathogenic bacteria (i.e. Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp.). Wild birds can contaminate environment with their faeces and play a crucial role in the transmission of pathogens to poultry and livestock farms and aquifers supplying water to humans. Furthermore, wild birds could disseminate pathogens within rescue and rehabilitation centres where they are admitted. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Characterization and zoonotic impact of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in some wild bird species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Mohamed Fadel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wild birds are considered silent vectors of some zoonotic water and food borne pathogens of public health significance. Owing to the importance of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC as the most pathogenic among the emerging diarrheagenic E. coli groups that can infect man; the present study was designed to detect the occurrence of STEC among wild birds in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 177 intestinal content swab samples originating from five wild bird species were investigated for the presence of E. coli and STEC by standard culture methods. Suspect STEC isolates were further characterized by serotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD PCR, antimicrobial resistance pattern and PCR detection of stx1, stx2, and eae genes. Results: A total of 30 suspect STEC isolates from 30 positive birds' samples were detected and identified on STEC CHROMagar (semi-captive pigeons, 15; house crows, 8; cattle egrets, 3; moorhens, 2; and house teals, 2. 25 isolates were grouped into 13 serogroups (O:20, O:25, O:26, O:27, O:63, O:78, O:111, O:114, O:125, O:128, O:142, O:153, and O:158, while five were rough strains. The distribution of STEC virulence genes among wild birds was as follows: 16 birds carried stx1 gene only (nine pigeons [28.1%], six crows [7.1%], and one cattle egret [5.6%]. stx1 and stx2 genes together were detected in four birds (one cattle egret [5.6%], two moorhens [6.1%], and one house teal, [10%]. Only one pigeon (3.1% possessed the three alleles. Disk diffusion test results showed that cefixime was the most effective against STEC serotypes with (93.3% sensitivity, followed by gentamycin (56.7%, and amoxicillin (50%. On the other hand, all the recovered STEC isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, doxycycline, cephalothin, and sulfisoxazole. RAPD fingerprinting using primers OPA-2 and OPA-9 showed that STEC isolates were heterogeneous; they yielded 30 and 27 different clusters

  1. Epidemiology of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in Australia, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vally Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are an important cause of gastroenteritis in Australia and worldwide and can also result in serious sequelae such as haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS. In this paper we describe the epidemiology of STEC in Australia using the latest available data. Methods National and state notifications data, as well as data on serotypes, hospitalizations, mortality and outbreaks were examined. Results For the 11 year period 2000 to 2010, the overall annual Australian rate of all notified STEC illness was 0.4 cases per 100,000 per year. In total, there were 822 STEC infections notified in Australia over this period, with a low of 1 notification in the Australian Capital Territory (corresponding to a rate of 0.03 cases per 100,000/year and a high of 413 notifications in South Australia (corresponding to a rate of 2.4 cases per 100,000/year, the state with the most comprehensive surveillance for STEC infection in the country. Nationally, 71.2% (504/708 of STEC infections underwent serotype testing between 2001 and 2009, and of these, 58.0% (225/388 were found to be O157 strains, with O111 (13.7% and O26 (11.1% strains also commonly associated with STEC infections. The notification rate for STEC O157 infections Australia wide between 2001-2009 was 0.12 cases per 100,000 per year. Over the same 9 year period there were 11 outbreaks caused by STEC, with these outbreaks generally being small in size and caused by a variety of serogroups. The overall annual rate of notified HUS in Australia between 2000 and 2010 was 0.07 cases per 100,000 per year. Both STEC infections and HUS cases showed a similar seasonal distribution, with a larger proportion of reported cases occurring in the summer months of December to February. Conclusions STEC infections in Australia have remained fairly steady over the past 11 years. Overall, the incidence and burden of disease due to STEC and HUS in Australia appears

  2. Vigilancia de Neisseria meningitidis en Argentina, 1993-2005: distribución de serogrupos, serotipos y serosubtipos causantes de enfermedad invasiva Surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis in Argentina, 1993-2005: Distribution of serogroups, serotypes and serosubtypes isolated from invasive disease

    OpenAIRE

    L. Chiavetta; E. Chávez; A. Ruzic; M. Mollerach; M. Regueira

    2007-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis es agente causal de enfermedades severas como meningitis, bacteriemia y síndrome de shock séptico. Se presenta la distribución en serogrupos, serotipos y serosubtipos de 2244 aislamientos de N. meningitidis obtenidos de cuadros de meningitis y/o meningococcemia durante el período 1993-2005 y analizados en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Estos aislamientos eran provenientes de 33 hospitales de todo el país, conformados en una...

  3. Genetic relatedness of orbiviruses by RNA-RNA blot hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodkin, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    RNA-RNA blot hybridization was developed in order to identify type-specific genes among double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, to assess the genetic relatedness of dsRNA viruses and to classify new strains. Viral dsRNA segments were electrophoresed through 10% polyacrylamide gels, transferred to membranes, and hybridized to [5' 32 P]-pCp labeled genomic RNA from a related strain. Hybridization was performed at 52 0 C, 50% formamide, 5X SSC. Under these conditions heterologous RNA species must share ≥ 74% sequence homology in order to form stable dsRNA hybrids. Cognate genes of nine members of the Palyam serogroup of orbiviruses were identified and their sequence relatedness to the prototype. Palyam virus, was determined. Reciprocal blot hybridizations were performed using radiolabeled genomic RNA of all members of the Palyam serogroup. Unique and variant genes were identified by lack of cross-homology or by weak homology between segments. Since genes 2 and 6 exhibited the highest degree of sequence variability, response to the vertebrate immune system may be a major cause of sequence divergence among members of a single serogroup. Changuinola serogroup isolates were compared by dot-blot hybridization, while Colorado tick fever (CTF) serogroup isolates were compared by the RNA-RNA blot hybridization procedure described for reovirus and Palyam serogroup isolates. Preliminary blot hybridization data were also obtained on the relatedness of members of different Orbivirus serogroups

  4. Determination of Serotypes and Antibiotic Resistance in Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Akgun Karapinar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, the distribution of serogroup/serotype and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains, recovered from pediatric and adult patients were evaluated. Material and Method: A total of 80 clinical isolates recovered from 19 pediatric and 61 adult patients were performed by latex aglutination method and antibiotic susceptibility tests in Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Medical Microbiology Laboratories. Results: Sixty-two strains (76 %, were serogroup/serotyped and 18 (23 % strains couldn%u2019t serogroup/serotyped. The most frequent identified serogroups were 19, 14, 23, 6, 4 in pediatrics, and 3, 19, 23 and 9 in adults. In adults, serogroups 3, 9, 5, 8, 18, 1, 15 were determined, but these serogroups weren%u2019t found in pediatrics. Vaccine serotypes rates were found as 53 % in pediatric and as 85 % in adults. The serogroups 2, 7, 10, 11, 12, 17, 20, 22, 33 were not detected, which are available in vaccine serotypes. Only 1 (1 % strain was found to exhibit low level resistance to penicillin and high level resistance wasn%u2019t found in any strain. Resistant results for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and ofloxacin were found as 45 (56 %, 22 (27.5 %, 7 (9 %, 2 (2.5 %, respectively. All strains were found susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid and levofloxacin. The most resistant serogroups were 19, 23, 9 and 14 in the tested antibiotics. Multidrug resistance was found in 9 (11 % strains and these strains were found as serogroups 19, 23, 9, 6 and 14. Discussion: The epidemiological studies are important that the distribution of serotype and antibiotic resistance vary depending on many factors like age, and geographic region.

  5. The changing epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Quebec, Canada, 1991-2011: potential implications of emergence of new strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Gilca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to inform meningococcal disease prevention strategies, we analysed the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD in the province of Quebec, Canada, 10 years before and 10 years after the introduction of serogroup C conjugate vaccination. METHODOLOGY: IMD cases reported to the provincial notifiable disease registry in 1991-2011 and isolates submitted for laboratory surveillance in 1997-2011 were analysed. Serogrouping, PCR testing and assignment of isolates to sequence types (ST by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST were performed. RESULTS: Yearly overall IMD incidence rates ranged from 2.2-2.3/100,000 in 1991-1992 to 0.49/100,000 in 1999-2000, increasing to 1.04/100,000 in 2011. Among the 945 IMD cases identified by laboratory surveillance in 1997-2011, 68%, 20%, 8%, and 3% were due to serogroups B, C, Y, and W135, respectively. Serogroup C IMD almost disappeared following the implementation of universal childhood immunization with monovalent C conjugate vaccines in 2002. Serogroup B has been responsible for 88% of all IMD cases and 61% of all IMD deaths over the last 3 years. The number and proportion of ST-269 clonal complex has been steadily increasing among the identified clonal complexes of serogroup B IMD since its first identification in 2003, representing 65% of serogroup B IMD in 2011. This clonal complex was first introduced in adolescent and young adults, then spread to other age groups. CONCLUSION: Important changes in the epidemiology of IMD have been observed in Quebec during the last two decades. Serogroup C has been virtually eliminated. In recent years, most cases have been caused by the serogroup B ST-269 clonal complex. Although overall burden of IMD is low, the use of a vaccine with potential broad-spectrum coverage could further reduce the burden of disease. Acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness studies coupled with ongoing clinical and molecular surveillance are necessary in

  6. SENSITIVITAS KUMAN NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS YANG DIISOLASI DARI JAMAAH HAJI INDONESIA TERHADAP BEBERAPA ANTIBIOTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muljati Prijanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The meningitis meningococcal disease caused by Neisseriae meningitidis is an infection of meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of the brain and the spinal cord. N. meningitidis is classified into 13 serogroups based on the immunologic reactivity of the capsular polysaccharide. Since 1993 the number of cases and carriers of haj pilgrims from Indonesia have increased. In 1996 the carrier rate was 9,4%, and case fatality rate of Indonesian haj pilgrims in Saudi Arabia was 71,4%. The dominant serogroup was serogroup B. The meningitis vaccine of serogroup B is not available yet. Until now there is not enough information of the laboratory results from the hospital in Saudi Arabia, regarding the strain that caused the infection of haj pilgrims from Indonesia. To prevent transmission of the disease among Haj pilgrims, since 1997, chemoprophylaxis with ciprofloxacine has been given to close contact persons of haj pilgrim patient. The objectives of this study are: First, to know the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin in decreasing the carrier rate of meningitis meningococcus in haj pilgrims. Second, to identify the serogroup of N. meningitidis isolated from carrier or patient and thirdly to know the sensitivity of bacteria to several antibiotics recommended by WHO. Nasofaringeal swabs were taken from 914 haj pilgrims from group of contact person of cases or suspected cases and 311 haj pilgrims from control group at embarkation in Jakarta. Ciprofloxacin was given to the study group in Saudi Arabia. Isolation and serogrouping were carried out for serogroup A, B, C. The result shows that the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin to N. meningitidis in the treated group were 98.58% and control were 85.54%, respectively. The serogroup of N. meningitidis is isolated from 13 carriers of treated group 69,23% could not be classified as serogroup A, B, or C. In the control group, 45 isolated strains from carriers consist of serogroup B 40%, serogroup C 28,9%, serogroup A 20

  7. Molecular epidemiology and emergence of worldwide epidemic clones of Neisseria meningitidis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hsiu-Li

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meningococcal disease is infrequently found in Taiwan, a country with 23 million people. Between 1996 and 2002, 17 to 81 clinical cases of the disease were reported annually. Reported cases dramatically increased in 2001–2002. Our record shows that only serogroup B and W135 meningococci have been isolated from patients with meningococcal disease until 2000. However, serogroup A, C and Y meningococci were detected for the first time in 2001 and continued to cause disease through 2002. Most of serogroup Y meningococcus infections localized in Central Taiwan in 2001, indicating that a small-scale outbreak of meningococcal disease had occurred. The occurrence of a meningococcal disease outbreak and the emergence of new meningococcal strains are of public health concern. Methods Neisseria meningitidis isolates from patients with meningococcal disease from 1996 to 2002 were collected and characterized by serogrouping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. The genetic relatedness and clonal relationship between the isolates were analyzed by using the PFGE patterns and the allelic profiles of the sequence types (STs. Results Serogroups A, B, C, W135, Y, and non-serogroupable Neisseria meningitidis were, respectively, responsible for 2%, 50%, 2%, 35%, 9%, and 2% of 158 culture-confirmed cases of meningococcal disease in 1996–2002. Among 100 N. meningitidis isolates available for PFGE and MLST analyses, 51 different PFGE patterns and 30 STs were identified with discriminatory indices of 0.95 and 0.87, respectively. Of the 30 STs, 21 were newly identified and of which 19 were found in serogroup B isolates. A total of 40 PFGE patterns were identified in 52 serogroup B isolates with the patterns distributed over several distinct clusters. In contrast, the isolates within each of the serogroups A, C, W135, and Y shared high levels of PFGE pattern similarity. Analysis of the allelic profile of the

  8. Epidemiological markers in Neisseria meningitidis: an estimate of the performance of genotyping vs phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, N; Lind, I

    1998-01-01

    In order to estimate the performance of genotypic vs phenotypic characterization of Neisseria meningitidis, 2 methods, DNA fingerprinting and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE), were assessed as regards applicability, reproducibility and discriminating capacity. 50 serogroup B and 52 serogro......, and as applied in the study MEE was superior to DNA fingerprinting. Clusters of invasive strains were reliably identified by phenotyping alone, whereas determination of identity of carrier strains and an invasive strain required genotyping.......In order to estimate the performance of genotypic vs phenotypic characterization of Neisseria meningitidis, 2 methods, DNA fingerprinting and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE), were assessed as regards applicability, reproducibility and discriminating capacity. 50 serogroup B and 52 serogroup...... C Neisseria meningitidis strains from 96 patients with meningococcal disease and 22 serogroup C strains from healthy carriers were investigated. Both methods were 100% applicable to meningococcal strains and results of DNA fingerprinting as well as of MEE were reproducible. The number of types...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 1890 ... Vol 78, No 6 (2001):, Antibiotic resistance and sero-groups of Shigella ... in community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adults, Abstract PDF ... of outpatient therapeutic programme for severe acture malnutrition in three ...

  10. New serovars of Leptospira isolated from patients in Costa Rica: implications for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de los Angeles Valverde, Maria; Goris, M. G. A.; González, V.; Anchia, M. E.; Díaz, P.; Ahmed, A.; Hartskeerl, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Leptospira strains JICH 05 and INCIENSA 04 were isolated from hospitalized leptospirosis patients in the province of Puntarenas, Costa Rica. The isolates produced agglutination titres notably against members of serogroups Pyrogenes and Tarassovi, respectively, but appeared serologically unique in

  11. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDSM

    In this study, the occurrence of culturable Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 and O139 in three selected Tanzanian Estuaries ... INTRODUCTION. Cholera is a waterborne infectious disease ..... Brazil, Peru, Chile, Mexico, India and. United States of ...

  12. Prospects for eradication of meningococcal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nadel, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia remain a serious global health threat. This review focuses on the epidemiology of meningococcal disease following the recent implementation of effective vaccines and the potential utility of a vaccine against serogroup B meningococcus.

  13. ORF Alignment: NC_003116 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Z2491 ... serogroup A) sp|P60654|SPEB_NEIMB Agmatinase (Agmatine ... ureohydrolase) (AUH) sp|...P60653|SPEB_NEIMA Agmatinase ... (Agmatine ureohydrolase) (AUH) ref|NP_273516.1| ... agmatinas

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_003112 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Z2491 ... serogroup A) sp|P60654|SPEB_NEIMB Agmatinase (Agmatine ... ureohydrolase) (AUH) sp|...P60653|SPEB_NEIMA Agmatinase ... (Agmatine ureohydrolase) (AUH) ref|NP_273516.1| ... agmatinas

  15. Prevalence of Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci Groups A, C, and G in Patients with Acute Pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti B Naik

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although rate of pharyngitis associated with GCS and GGS is marginally lower than GAS, their carriage rate among healthy and relative higher drug resistance emphasizes the need for periodic surveillance of infection by the different serogroups of BHS.

  16. An ELISA test for the detection of antibodies to Legionella pneumophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Wreghitt, T G; Nagington, J; Gray, J

    1982-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test has been developed to detect antibodies to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. There is good correlation between indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) and ELISA titres but ELISA is more sensitive.

  17. Meningococcal Vaccines: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines: What You Need to Know (VIS) Page Content ... to help protect against serogroup B . Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines There are two kinds of meningococcal vaccines licensed ...

  18. Next-generation outer membrane vesicle vaccines from concept to clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterbeemd, van de B.

    2013-01-01

    Only vaccines containing outer membrane vesicles (OMV) have successfully stopped Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemics. The OMV vaccines, however, provide limited coverage and are difficult to produce. This is caused by an obligatory detergent treatment, which removes lipopolysaccharide

  19. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Distinct Differences in the Protein Content of Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterbeemd, van de B.; Mommen, G.P.M.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Pol, van der L.A.; Jong, de A.P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    At present, only vaccines containing outer membrane vesicles (OMV) have successfully stopped Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemics. These vaccines however require detergent-extraction to remove endotoxin, which changes immunogenicity and causes production difficulties. To investigate this in

  20. Use of an Electrostatic Spraying System or the Sprayed Lethality in Container Method To Deliver Antimicrobial Agents onto the Surface of Beef Subprimals To Control Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, J Max; Luchansky, John B; Miller, Kelsey; Shoyer, Bradley A; Shane, Laura E; McGeary, Lianna; Osoria, Manuela; Stahler, Laura J; Sevart, Nicholas J; Phebus, Randall K; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Porto-Fett, Anna C S

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy of an electrostatic spraying system (ESS) and/or the sprayed lethality in container (SLIC) method to deliver antimicrobial agents onto the surface of beef subprimals to reduce levels of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was evaluated. Beef subprimals were surface inoculated (lean side; ca. 5.8 log CFU per subprimal) with 2 mL of an eight-strain cocktail comprising single strains of rifampin-resistant (100 μg/mL) STEC (O26:H11, O45:H2, O103:H2, O104:H4, O111:H - , O121:H19, O145:NM, and O157:H7). Next, inoculated subprimals were surface treated with lauric arginate (LAE; 1%), peroxyacetic acid (PAA; 0.025%), or cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC; 0.4%) by passing each subprimal, with the inoculated lean side facing upward, through an ESS cabinet or via SLIC. Subprimals were then vacuum packaged and stored at 4°C. One set of subprimals was sampled after an additional 2 h, 3 days, or 7 days of refrigerated storage, whereas another set was retreated via SLIC after 3 days of storage with a different one of the three antimicrobial agents (e.g., a subprimal treated with LAE on day 0 was then treated with PAA or CPE on day 3). Retreated subprimals were sampled after 2 h or 4 days of additional storage at 4°C. A single initial application of LAE, PAA, or CPC via ESS or SLIC resulted in STEC reductions of ca. 0.3 to 1.3 log CFU per subprimal after 7 days of storage. However, when subprimals were initially treated with LAE, PAA, or CPC via ESS or SLIC and then separately retreated with a different one of these antimicrobial agents via SLIC on day 3, additional STEC reductions of 0.4 to 1.0 log CFU per subprimal were observed after an additional 4 days of storage. Application of LAE, PAA, or CPC, either alone or in combination, via ESS or SLIC is effective for reducing low levels (ca. 0.3 to 1.6 log CFU) of STEC that may be naturally present on the surface of beef subprimals.

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in healthy Korean adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoan Jong; Chung, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Woo Joo; Hong, Young Jin; Choi, Kyong Min; Lee, Jina; Oh, Chi Eun; Welsch, Jo Anne; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Hong, Ki Bae; Dagnew, Alemnew F; Bock, Hans; Dull, Peter M; Odrljin, Tatjana

    2014-11-01

    This phase III placebo-controlled study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of MenACWY-CRM vaccination in healthy Korean adolescents and adults. Serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA) was measured before and 1 month after vaccination against all four meningococcal serogroups. The IgG concentration specific for serogroup W capsular polysaccharide was measured in a subset of subjects in a post-hoc analysis. Adverse reactions were monitored throughout the study. Four hundred and fifty subjects were randomized 2:1 to receive MenACWY-CRM (N=297) or a saline placebo (N=153). MenACWY-CRM induced a good immune response against all four serogroups, with seroprotection rates (hSBA titers ≥8) of 79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. Seroresponse rates were high for serogroups A, C, and Y, i.e. 76%, 86%, and 69%, respectively; the rate for serogroup W was 28%. MenACWY-CRM vaccine induced serum bactericidal antibodies against all four serogroups in a majority of subjects regardless of their baseline hSBA titers. MenACWY-CRM was generally well tolerated with most reactions being transient and mild to moderate in severity. Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects) and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107) against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  2. Legionella detection and subgrouping in water air-conditioning cooling tower systems in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Matawah, Qadreyah; Al-Zenki, Sameer; Al-Azmi, Ahmad; Al-Waalan, Tahani; Al-Salameen, Fadila; Hejji, Ahmad Ben

    2015-07-01

    The main aim of the study was to test for the presence of Legionnaires' disease-causing microorganisms in air-conditioned buildings in Kuwait using molecular technologies. For this purpose, 547 samples were collected from 38 cooling towers for the analysis of Legionella pneumophila. These samples included those from water (n = 178), air (n = 231), and swabs (n = 138). Out of the 547 samples, 226 (41%) samples were presumptive positive for L. pneumophila, with L. pneumophila viable counts in the positive water samples ranging from 1 to 88 CFU/ml. Of the Legionella culture-positive samples, 204 isolates were examined by latex agglutination. These isolates were predominately identified as L. pneumophila serogroup (sg) 2-14. Using the Dresden panel of monoclonal antibodies, 74 representatives isolates were further serogrouped. Results showed that 51% of the isolates belonged to serogroup 7 followed by 1 (18%) and 3 (18%). Serogroups 4 (4%) and 10 (7%) were isolated at a lower frequency, and two isolates could not be assigned to a serogroup. These results indicate the wide prevalence of L. pneumophila serogroup 7 as the predominant serogroup at the selected sampling sites. Furthermore, the 74 L. pneumophila (sg1 = 13; sg3 = 13; sg4 = 3; sg7 = 38; sg10 = 5; sgX = 2) isolates were genotyped using the seven gene protocol sequence-based typing (SBT) scheme developed by the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI). The results show that Legionella isolates were discriminated into nine distinct sequence typing (ST) profiles, five of which were new to the SBT database of EWGLI. Additionally, all of the ST1 serogroup 1 isolates were of the OLDA/Oxford subgroup. These baseline data will form the basis for the development of a Legionella environmental surveillance program and used for future epidemiological investigations.

  3. Molecular Evolution of the dotA Gene in Legionella pneumophila

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Kwan Soo; Hong, Seong Karp; Lee, Hae Kyung; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Kook, Yoon-Hoh

    2003-01-01

    The molecular evolution of dotA, which is related to the virulence of Legionella pneumophila, was investigated by comparing the sequences of 15 reference strains (serogroups 1 to 15). It was found that dotA has a complex mosaic structure. The whole dotA gene of Legionella pneumophila subsp. pneumophila serogroups 2, 6, and 12 has been transferred from Legionella pneumophila subsp. fraseri. A discrepancy was found between the trees inferred from the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences ...

  4. Prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira in wild mammals trapped on livestock farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Samantha E; Ojkic, Davor; Jardine, Claire M

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and diversity of Leptospira serogroups circulating in wildlife on farms in Ontario, we tested samples from 51 raccoons (Procyon lotor), seven skunks (Mephitis mephitis), four rats (Rattus norvegicus), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) that were trapped on 27 livestock (swine [Sus scrofa], cattle [Bos taurus]) farms in 2010. Seventeen of 51 raccoons (33%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 21-48%) sampled were positive for at least one Leptospira serogroup using the microscopic agglutination test. None of the other 14 animals had detectable Leptospira antibodies. On swine farms, 13 of 30 raccoons (43%; 95% CI, 27-61%) were antibody positive, and on cattle farms, four of 21 raccoons (19%; 95% CI, 8-40%) were positive. Leptospira antibody prevalence in raccoons did not differ between swine and cattle farms. Raccoons were positive to serovars representative of serogroups Grippotyphosa, Australis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona and were negative to serovars of serogroups Autumnalis, Canicola, and Sejroe. The prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in raccoons in this study is similar to what has been reported previously; however, the diversity of serogroups was higher in this study than what has been reported in raccoons from an urban area of Ontario, Canada. Understanding the prevalence and distribution of Leptospira serogroups in wildlife in Ontario, Canada, is important for the development and maintenance of appropriate disease management strategies in humans, livestock, and companion animals.

  5. Immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean Military Recruits: Influence of Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoid Vaccination on the Vaccine Response to MenACWY-CRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Wool; Park, In Ho; You, Sooseong; Yu, Hee Tae; Oh, In Soo; Sung, Pil Soo; Shin, Eui Cheol; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2016-11-01

    The quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) has been introduced for military recruits in Korea since 2012. This study was performed to evaluate the immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean military recruits. In addition, the influence of tetanus-diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccination on the vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was analyzed. A total of 75 military recruits were enrolled. Among them, 18 received a dose of MenACWY-CRM only (group 1), and 57 received Td three days before MenACWY-CRM immunization (group 2). The immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM was compared between the two groups. The serum bactericidal activity with baby rabbit complement was measured before and three weeks after immunization against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) against four serogroups were significantly increased in both groups after immunization. Compared to group 2, group 1 exhibited significantly higher vaccine responses in several aspects: post-immune GMTs against serogroup A and C, seroresponse rates against serogroup A, and a fold increases of titers against serogroup A, C, and Y. MenACWY-CRM was immunogenic against all vaccine-serogroups in Korean military recruits. Vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was influenced by Td administered three days earlier.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella from Human and Animal Origins in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagirita, Atek Atwiine; Owalla, Tonny Jimmy; Majalija, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic Salmonella outbreaks with varying clinical presentations have been on the rise in various parts of Uganda. The sources of outbreaks and factors underlying the different clinical manifestation are curtailed by paucity of information on Salmonella genotypes and the associated virulence genes. This study reports molecular diversity of Salmonella enterica and their genetic virulence profiles among human and animal isolates. Characterization was done using Kauffman-White classification scheme and virulence genes analysis using multiplex PCR. Overall, 52% of the isolates belonged to serogroup D, 16% to serogroup E, 15% to poly F, H-S, and 12% to serogroup B. Serogroups A, C1, and C2 each consisted of only one isolate representing 5%. Virulence genes located on SPI-1 [spaN and sipB] and on SPI-2 [spiA] in addition to pagC and msgA were equally distributed in isolates obtained from all sources. Plasmid encoded virulence gene spvB was found in <5% of isolates from both human epidemic and animal origins whereas it occurred in 80% of clinical isolates. This study reveals that serogroup D is the predominant Salmonella serogroup in circulation and it is widely shared among animals and humans and calls for joint and coordinated surveillance for one health implementation in Uganda. PMID:28634597

  7. Study of 138 Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from blood or cerebrospinal fluid in Lombardy between 2007 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Daprai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae type b cause the majority of cases of bacterial septicaemia in children and young adults. Disease epidemiology is evolving rapidly due to the introduction of vaccines and changing in bacterial antibiotic-resistance patterns. (Asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonization with Neisseria meningitides occurs in 5-10% of adult. The aim of this study was to calculate the frequency of each serogroup of this pathogens involved in invasive infection and to study susceptibility to antibiotics of these strains. Between March 2007 and June 2010 we received, from 43 hospitals of Lombardy, 138 strains of Neisseria meningitidis, from 138 patients aged (2-80yrs. The most frequent serogroup was B (58%, followed by serogroup C (34%, serogroup G (4% and W 135 (2%. Serogroup A end X accounted for 1% of invasive infection, each. We observed a decrease in susceptibility towards penicillin in 38% of strains. In addition we studied, by REP- PCR, genotype of 9 strains selected on the basis of epidemiological data.Among these strains, 3 different clusters according to the 3 small epidemic outbreaks occurred between June and September 2009, were recognised. Seven of these strains, although belonged to the same serogroup, brought about two different clusters. The present findings demonstrated that phenotypic data are not sufficient to define epidemic clusters, therefore molecular genotyping is required.

  8. Protective immunity by oral immunization with heat-killed Shigella strains in a guinea pig colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Soumik; Koley, Hemanta; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Chakrabarti, Manoj Kumar; Shinoda, Sumio; Nair, Gopinath Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2013-11-01

    The protective efficacy of and immune response to heat-killed cells of monovalent and hexavalent mixtures of six serogroups/serotypes of Shigella strains (Shigella dysenteriae 1, Shigella flexneri 2a, S. flexneri 3a, S. flexneri 6, Shigella boydii 4, and Shigella sonnei) were examined in a guinea pig colitis model. A monovalent or hexavalent mixture containing 1 × 10(7) of each serogroup/serotype of heat-killed Shigella cells was administered orally on Days 0, 7, 14 and 21. On Day 28, the immunized animals were challenged rectally with 1 × 10(9) live virulent cells of each of the six Shigella serogroups/serotypes. In all immunized groups, significant levels of protection were observed after these challenges. The serum titers of IgG and IgA against the lipopolysaccharide of each of the six Shigella serogroups/serotypes increased exponential during the course of immunization. High IgA titers against the lipopolysaccharide of each of the six Shigella serogroups/serotypes were also observed in intestinal lavage fluid from all immunized animals. These data indicate that a hexavalent mixture of heat-killed cells of the six Shigella serogroups/serotypes studied would be a possible broad-spectrum candidate vaccine against shigellosis. © 2013 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii isolated from small feral and wild mammals in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Nobuo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Mu, Jung-Jung; Arent, Zbigniew; Okano, Shou; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Mizutani Muto, Maki; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Taylor, Kyle R; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Thi Thu Ha, Hoang; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Leptospira spp. are the causative agents of a worldwide zoonosis, leptospirosis, maintained by various mammals. Each Leptospira serovar is frequently associated with a particular maintenance host, and recently, Leptospira genotype-host association has also been suggested to limit serovars to restricted areas. We investigated the molecular characteristics of L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii which were isolated from small feral and wild animals in four East Asian states using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA using 11 loci was performed on 110 L. interrogans serogroups from Japan (79 strains of 5 serogroups from 3 animal species), Philippines (21; 3; 2), Taiwan (7; 2; 3), and Vietnam (3; 1; 1). A MLVA method using 4 loci for L. borgpetersenii was established and performed on 52 isolates from Japan (26; 3; 7), Philippines (13; 1; 2), and Taiwan (13; 1; 3). In L. interrogans, serogroups Autumnalis and Hebdomadis appeared more genetically diverse than serogroups Bataviae, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, or Pyrogenes. The former serogroup strains with the exception of one Hebdomadis strain were isolated from Apodemus speciosus while all the latter serogroup strains with the exception of Grippotyphosa were isolated from Rattus norvegicus. L. borgpetersenii was isolated from at least 11 animal species while L. interrogans was isolated from five species, which might suggest a wider host range for L. borgpetersenii. Broad host preference in a single genotype was also observed, which colonized not only different species of the same genera but also multiple animal genera. This study demonstrates that there may be variability in the range of genetic diversity among different Leptospira serogroups, which may be attributed to maintenance host animals and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. KARIER MENINGITIS MENINGOKOK PADA JEMAAH HAJI INDONESIA TAHUN 1993-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwo Handayani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research and routine survey of meningococcal meningitis on Indonesian hajj pilgrims have been conducted since 1993 until now. This paper consists of several research and routine survey of meningococcal meningitis during 1993 and 2003. The objectives of the test were determining the meningococcal meningitis carrier on hajj pilgrims, determining the serogroup of N. meningitidis and knowing sensitivity of bacteria to several antibiotics. The result showed increasing of meningococcal meningitis carrier in 1993 up to 1996, that was 1.3% - 9,4% respectively. This proportion of meningococcal meningitis carrier in the case groups decreased after given of rifampicin in 1994 and cyprofloxacin in 1997 as a chemoprophilactic. The result of the study in 1997 indiciated that the carrier rate of groups with cyprofloxacin (1.4% was lower than rifampicin group (1.4%. Most of the isolated bacteria of N. meningitidis in 1996 and 1997 were resistant to rifampicin (sensitivity test was 0-33%. Serogroup B of N. meningitidis were found dominantly between 1993 and 1999, it changed to be serogroup W135 from 2000 to 2003. The changes related  with the majority cases of meningococcal meningitis in another countries that caused by serogroup W135. Because  of  that  since 2002, immunization program has given a tetravalen (serogroup ACYW135 meningococcal vaccine to all of Indonesian hajj pilgrims. The carrier of meningococcal meningitis is still found in hajj pilgrims and their contact. More attention must be given, caused of meningococcal meningitis serogroup B vaccine is not available. The further researches are needed especially for subtype of N. meningitidis, effectivity of the drug choice and development of meningococcal meningitis vaccine serogroup B.

  11. Persistence of Meningococcal Antibodies and Response to a Third Dose After a Two-dose Vaccination Series with Investigational MenABCWY Vaccine Formulations in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez-Llorens, Xavier; Aguilera Vaca, Diana Catalina; Abarca, Katia; Maho, Emmanuelle; Han, Linda; Smolenov, Igor; Dull, Peter

    2015-10-01

    In a primary study, healthy adolescents received 2 doses (months 0/2) of 1 of the 4 investigational meningococcal ABCWY vaccine formulations, containing components of licensed quadrivalent glycoconjugate vaccine MenACWY-CRM, combined with different amounts of recombinant proteins (rMenB) and outer membrane vesicles (OMV) from a licensed serogroup B vaccine, or 2 doses of rMenB alone or 1 dose of MenACWY-CRM then a placebo. This phase 2 extension study evaluated antibody persistence up to 10 months after the 2-dose series and the immunogenicity and safety of a third dose (month 6). Immune responses against serogroups ACWY and serogroup B test strains were measured by serum bactericidal assay with human complement. At month 12, antibody persistence against serogroups ACWY in all 2-dose MenABCWY groups was at least comparable with the 1-dose MenACWY-CRM group. Bactericidal antibodies against most serogroup B test strains declined by month 6, then plateaued over the subsequent 6 months, with overall higher antibody persistence associated with OMV-containing formulations. A third MenABCWY vaccine dose induced robust immune responses against vaccine antigens, although antibody levels 6 months later were comparable with those observed 5 months after the 2-dose series. All investigational MenABCWY vaccines were well tolerated. Two or three doses of investigational MenABCWY vaccines elicited immune responses against serogroups ACWY that were at least comparable with those after 1 dose of MenACWY-CRM. After either vaccination series, investigational MenABCWY vaccine formulations containing OMV had the highest immunogenicity against most serogroup B test strains. No safety concerns were identified in this study.

  12. Prevalence, enumeration and pheno- and genotypic characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw foods in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutong eChen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that can cause serious illness in immunocompromised individuals, pregnant women, the elderly, and newborns. The aim of this study was to: (i evaluate the prevalence and contamination level (most probable number, MPN of L. monocytogenes in 567 retail raw foods (fishery products, n=154; raw/fresh meat, n=123; frozen foods, n=110; edible fungi, n=108; vegetables, n=72 collected from South China and (ii to gain further knowledge on the phenotype and genotype distributions of this important foodborne pathogen. Approximately 22% of the samples were positive for L. monocytogenes. The contamination levels were between 0.3 and 10 MPN/g in 75.0%, between 10 and 100 MPN/g in 11.0% and less than 100 MPN/g in 14.0% of the countable samples. Five serogroups were identified among the177 foodborne L. monocytogenes isolates, with1/2a-3a (42.4% and1/2b-3b (26.0% serogroups being the most dominant. Serogroup I.1 and II.2 were only found in the edible mushrooms, while serogroup III was dominant in the fishery products, suggesting that specific serogroups of L. monocytogenes may have distinct ecological niches. Ten (5.6% L. monocytogenes isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. Genetic relatedness analysis revealed the absence of distinct associations between specific food types, antibiotic resistance, serogroups, and genetic diversity. The present study provided the first baseline data on the prevalence, contamination level, and characteristics of L. monocytogenes isolated from raw foods in South China. Some multidrug resistant strains belonged to the epidemiologically important serogroups (I.1 and II.1, implying a potential public health risk. In addition, these findings also provide basic information for the Chinese food safety associated authorities to draft appropriate standards to control L. monocytogenes contamination and improve microbiological safety of raw foods.

  13. The B-cell response to a primary and booster course of MenACWY-CRM₁₉₇ vaccine administered at 2, 4 and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Snape, Matthew D; Kelly, Dominic F; O'Connor, Daniel; John, Tessa; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Ohene-Kena, Brigitte; Klinger, Chaam L; Odrljin, Tatjana; Pollard, Andrew J

    2013-05-07

    A quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to CRM197 (MenACWY-CRM197) is immunogenic in young infants. We assessed the memory B-cell and antibody responses after a primary and booster course of MenACWY-CRM197 in children. At 5 months of age, following primary immunisation, serogroup-specific memory B-cells were detectable in fewer than 25% of children, although protective antibody titres (hSBA ≥ 4) were detectable in 69% of children against serogroup A and more than 95% against the other serogroups. At 12 months, before booster immunisation the percentages with hSBA ≥ 4 were 5% for serogroup A, and between 44 and 70% for the other serogroups. One month after booster immunisation with MenACWY-CRM197 over 50% of children had detectable memory B-cells, and 91% had hSBA ≥ 4 against serogroup A and more than 99% against the other serogroups. These data show that few antigen-specific anticapsular memory B-cells can be detected after two-doses priming with MenACWY-CRM197. For MenC and CRM197, the antigens with the highest number of B-cells at 5 months, there was a definite (p ≤0 .02) but weak correlation with antibody persistence at 12 months. Although previous studies suggest that measuring memory B-cell responses after priming immunisations in infancy can be used to predict antibody persistence and memory responses, this may not be suitable for all antigens in young children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of class 5 antigens by meningococcal strains obtained from patients in Brazil and evaluation of two new monoclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth N. De Gaspari

    Full Text Available Determining the profile of antigen expression among meningococci is important for epidemiologic surveillance and vaccine development. To this end, two new mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs have been derived against Neisseria meningitidis proteins (class 5. The MAbs were reactive against outer membrane antigens and were bactericidal. Selected anti-class 5 MAbs [(5.1-3E6-2; (5.3-3BH4-C7; (5.4-1BG11-C7; (5.5-3DH-F5G9 also 5F1F4-T3(5.c], and the two new monoclonal antibodies C14F10Br2 (5.8 and 7F11B5Br3 (5.9, were then tested against different meningococcal strains, (63 strains of serogroup A, 60 strains of serogroup C (from 1972 to 1974; and 136 strains of serogroup B (from 1992 meningococci. Our results demonstrated that the expression of class 5 proteins in the N. meningitidis B Brazilian strains studied is highly heterogeneous. The serotypes and subtypes of B:4:P1.15, B:4:P1.9, B:4:P1.7, B:4:P1.3, B:4:P1.14, B:4:P1.16, B:4:NT, and B:NT:NT were detected in N. meningitidis B serogroups.The strains C:2a:P1.2 and A:4.21:P1.9 were dominant in the C and A serogroups, respectively. Serogroup B organisms expressed the class 5 epitopes 5.4 (18%, 5.5 (22%, 5.8 (3.6%, 5.9 (8.0% and 5c (38%. Serogroup C expressed class 5 epitopes 5.1 (81%, 5.4 (35%, 5.5 (33% and 5.9 (5.0%; and serogroup A showed reactivity directed at the class 5 protein 5c (47%; and reactivity was present with the new monoclonal antibody, 5.9 (5.5%. We conclude that the two new MAbs are useful in detecting important group B, class 5 antigens, and that a broad selection of serogroup B, class 5 proteins would be required for an effective vaccine based on the class 5 proteins.

  15. Immunogenicity of fractional doses of tetravalent a/c/y/w135 meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine: results from a randomized non-inferiority controlled trial in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe J Guerin

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A is the main causative pathogen of meningitis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. In recent years, serogroup W135 has also been the cause of epidemics. Mass vaccination campaigns with polysaccharide vaccines are key elements in controlling these epidemics. Facing global vaccine shortage, we explored the use of fractional doses of a licensed A/C/Y/W135 polysaccharide meningococcal vaccine.We conducted a randomized, non-inferiority trial in 750 healthy volunteers 2-19 years old in Mbarara, Uganda, to compare the immune response of the full dose of the vaccine versus fractional doses (1/5 or 1/10. Safety and tolerability data were collected for all subjects during the 4 weeks following the injection. Pre- and post-vaccination sera were analyzed by measuring serum bactericidal activity (SBA with baby rabbit complement. A responder was defined as a subject with a > or =4-fold increase in SBA against a target strain from each serogroup and SBA titer > or =128. For serogroup W135, 94% and 97% of the vaccinees in the 1/5- and 1/10-dose arms, respectively, were responders, versus 94% in the full-dose arm; for serogroup A, 92% and 88% were responders, respectively, versus 95%. Non-inferiority was demonstrated between the full dose and both fractional doses in SBA seroresponse against serogroups W135 and Y, in total population analysis. Non-inferiority was shown between the full and 1/5 doses for serogroup A in the population non-immune prior to vaccination. Non-inferiority was not shown for any of the fractionate doses for serogroup C. Safety and tolerability data were favourable, as observed in other studies.While the advent of conjugate A vaccine is anticipated to largely contribute to control serogroup A outbreaks in Africa, the scale-up of its production will not cover the entire "Meningitis Belt" target population for at least the next 3 to 5 years. In view of the current shortage of meningococcal vaccines for Africa

  16. Profiling of Leptospira interrogans, L. santarosai, L. meyeri and L. borgpetersenii by SE-AFLP, PFGE and susceptibility testing--a continuous attempt at species and serovar differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Lilenbaum, Walter; Neto, José S F; Freitas, Julio C; Morais, Zenaide M; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; da Costa, Barbara L P; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-03-09

    Leptospirosis is a widespread systemic zoonosis, considered as reemerging in certain developing countries. Although the cross agglutinin absorption test is still considered the standard method for Leptospira identification, it presents several disadvantages. The aim of this study was to characterize Leptospira spp. isolated from various hosts by genotyping and broth microdilution susceptibility testing in an attempt to differentiate Leptospira species, serogroups and serovars. Forty-seven isolates were studied. They were previously serotyped, and species confirmation was performed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism (SE-AFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis enabled the distinction of L. interrogans from L. santarosai, L. meyeri and L. borgpetersenii in two main clusters. Among L. interrogans, it was possible to differentiate into two new clusters the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae from the serogroups Canicola and Pomona. L. santarosai isolates presented higher genetic variation than the other species in both techniques. Interestingly, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) cluster analysis also provided Leptospira serogroup differentiation. Further studies are necessary regarding serovar Bananal isolates, as they presented the highest MIC values for most of the antimicrobials tested. All studied techniques successfully distinguished Leptospira species and serogroups. Despite being library-dependent methods, these approaches are less labor intensive and more economically viable, particularly SE-AFLP, and can be implemented in most reference laboratories worldwide to enable faster Leptospira typing.

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, compared with licensed vaccines in adults in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamboulian, D; Lopardo, G; Lopez, P; Cortes-Barbosa, C; Valencia, A; Bedell, L; Karsten, A; Dull, P M

    2010-10-01

    This study compared the investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM₁₉₇ conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, with licensed quadrivalent polysaccharide (MPSV4) and conjugate (MenACWY-D) meningococcal vaccines. In this phase III multicenter study, 2505 adults (aged 19-55 years) were randomized to receive either MenACWY-CRM or MenACWY-D, and 326 adults (aged 56-65 years) were randomized to receive either MenACWY-CRM or MPSV4. Sera obtained pre-vaccination and at 1-month post-vaccination were tested for serogroup-specific serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) for immunogenicity non-inferiority and superiority analyses. The vaccines in all groups were well tolerated. In the 19-55 years age group, post-vaccination geometric mean titers (GMTs) were consistently higher for MenACWY-CRM than for MenACWY-D for all four serogroups. MenACWY-CRM was non-inferior to MenACWY-D for all serogroups, and superior for serogroup Y. In the 56-65 years age group, post-vaccination GMTs were 1.2- to 5.4-fold higher for MenACWY-CRM than for MPSV4 for the four serogroups. MenACWY-CRM is well tolerated and immunogenic in adults aged 19-65 years, with at least non-inferior immunogenicity compared with the currently licensed meningococcal vaccines. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Meningococcal Disease in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujun Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitides is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis. The epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease varies in different countries and regions. This review summarizes the available data from China describing the burden of meningococcal disease, N. meningitidis serogroups, and vaccination programs. Meningococcal serogroup A (MenA was predominant for several decades in China. However, since 2000, invasive meningococcal disease caused by MenC, MenW, or MenB has increased. MenC, belonging to a hyperinvasive clonal sequence type ST-4821 (CC4821, emerged in Anhui Province and was subsequently disseminated over two-thirds of all Chinese provinces. Serogroup W (CC11 is endemic and causes death. Serogroup B (CC4821 originated from serogroup C (CC4821 via a capsular switching mechanism. Polysaccharide A and C meningococcal vaccines have been introduced into national routine immunization programs and have effectively reduced invasive meningococcal disease. However, the vaccination strategy must be revised based on the epidemic trends in meningococcal disease in China.

  19. Legionella contamination in hot water of Italian hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Paola; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Stampi, Serena; Stancanelli, Giovanna; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo; Triassi, Maria; Marchesi, Isabella; Bargellini, Annalisa; Tatò, Daniela; Napoli, Christian; Zanetti, Franca; Leoni, Erica; Moro, Matteo; Scaltriti, Stefania; Ribera D'Alcalà, Gabriella; Santarpia, Rosalba; Boccia, Stefania

    2005-10-01

    A cross-sectional multicenter survey of Italian hotels was conducted to investigate Legionella spp. contamination of hot water. Chemical parameters (hardness, free chlorine concentration, and trace element concentrations), water systems, and building characteristics were evaluated to study risk factors for colonization. The hot water systems of Italian hotels were strongly colonized by Legionella; 75% of the buildings examined and 60% of the water samples were contaminated, mainly at levels of > or =10(3) CFU liter(-1), and Legionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (87%). L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from 45.8% of the contaminated sites and from 32.5% of the hotels examined. When a multivariate logistic model was used, only hotel age was associated with contamination, but the risk factors differed depending on the contaminating species and serogroup. Soft water with higher chlorine levels and higher temperatures were associated with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 colonization, whereas the opposite was observed for serogroups 2 to 14. In conclusion, Italian hotels, particularly those located in old buildings, represent a major source of risk for Legionnaires' disease due to the high frequency of Legionella contamination, high germ concentration, and major L. pneumophila serogroup 1 colonization. The possible role of chlorine in favoring the survival of Legionella species is discussed.

  20. [The isolation and differentiation of leptospires from cattle drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyven, G; Schönberg, A

    1989-08-01

    The cultural isolation and identification of leptospires from three water samples of farm wells were described. All three strains isolated belong to the apathogenic species L. biflexa. The cattle stock of these farms (A, B, C) had reacted serologically to serovars hardjo and grippotyphosa. The strain isolated from farm A is a new serovar called krefeldi and belongs to serogroup Doberdo. The strain isolated from farm B belongs to serovar montefiascone of serogroup Botanica and the strain from farm C to serovar bessemans of serogroup Bessemans. It is remarkable that serovar krefeldi with all the sera of farm A (titre up to 1:40) and only with part of the sera of farm B reacted.

  1. Characterization and genetic variation of vibrio cholerae isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siriphap, Achiraya; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Kaas, Rolf Sommer

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is still an important public health problem in several countries, including Thailand. In this study, a collection of clinical and environmental V. cholerae serogroup O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 strains originating from Thailand (1983 to 2013) was characterized to determine phenotypic...... and genotypic traits and to investigate the genetic relatedness. Using a combination of conventional methods and whole genome sequencing (WGS), 78 V. cholerae strains were identified. WGS was used to determine the serogroup, biotype, virulence, mobile genetic elements, and antimicrobial resistance genes using...... online bioinformatics tools. In addition, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance was determined by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. The 78 V. cholerae strains belonged to the following serogroups O1: (n = 44), O139 (n = 16) and non-O1/non-O139 (n = 18). Interestingly, we found...

  2. Legionnaires' Disease acquired within the homes of two patients: link to the home water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, J.E.; Yu, V.L.; Muraca, P.

    1987-01-01

    Two patients with sporadic community-acquired legionnaires' disease are described. Legionella pneumophila was isolated from sputum specimens, and seroconversion of antibody titers was demonstrated for both patients. Legionella pneumophila was also recovered from the residential water supply of both patients. In each case, the serogroup of the environmental organism matched that of the infecting organism. In one patient, serogroup 3 was isolated - a rare cause of legionnaires' disease, and in the second case, monoclonal antibody testing confirmed that the serogroup 1 organisms isolated from sputum and residential water supply samples were identical. The incubation period of legionnaires' disease is presumed to be up to two weeks. Because of medical problems, both patients had been confined to their homes for the entire two weeks before the onset of symptoms. This is the first report that links acquisition of community-acquired legionnaires' disease to contaminated water supplies within the homes of susceptible patients

  3. Meningococcal B Vaccination (4CMenB in Infants and Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Esposito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a Gram-negative pathogen that actively invades its human host and leads to the development of life-threatening pathologies. One of the leading causes of death in the world, N. meningitidis can be responsible for nearly 1,000 new infections per 100,000 subjects during an epidemic period. The bacterial species are classified into 12 serogroups, five of which (A, B, C, W, and Y cause the majority of meningitides. The three purified protein conjugate vaccines currently available target serogroups A, C, W, and Y. Serogroup B has long been a challenge but the discovery of the complete genome sequence of an MenB strain has allowed the development of a specific four-component vaccine (4CMenB. This review describes the pathogenetic role of N. meningitidis and the recent literature concerning the new meningococcal vaccine.

  4. [Serological study of leptospirosis in equids, camelids and bovids from Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqueplo, C; Davoust, B; Mulot, B; Lafrance, B; Kodjo, A

    2011-10-01

    Sera obtained from 31 domestic and feral animals in Djibouti were assayed for leptospiral antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test. Antibodies were detected in 26 samples (84%), corresponding to 116 positive reactions. The most common antigen serogroups were Icterohaemorrhagiae and Australis. The highest titre was recorded for serovar Munchen (1:1280) in sera from Somalian wild asses and goats. This study shows a broad dispersion and high prevalence of the different Leptospira serogroups tested. High biodiversity has been previously reported in tropical countries and is thought to be linked to the wide range of reservoir mammals. Additional study will be needed to identify the reservoirs of the different serogroups in this part of Africa.

  5. Prevalence of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC Clone Harboring sfa Gene in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Knöbl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli sfa+ strains isolated from poultry were serotyped and characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP. Isolates collected from 12 Brazilian poultry farms mostly belonged to serogroup O6, followed by serogroups O2, O8, O21, O46, O78, O88, O106, O111, and O143. Virulence genes associated were: iuc 90%, fim 86% neuS 60%, hly 34%, tsh 28%, crl/csg 26%, iss 26%, pap 18%, and 14% cnf. Strains from the same farm presented more than one genotypic pattern belonging to different profiles in AFLP. AFLP showed a clonal relation between Escherichia coli sfa+ serogroup O6. The virulence genes found in these strains reveal some similarity with extraintestinal E. coli (ExPEC, thus alerting for potential zoonotic risk.

  6. New versus old meningococcal group B vaccines: how the new ones may benefit infants & toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, D; Amicizia, D; Lai, P L; Cristina, M L; Domnich, A; Gasparini, R

    2013-12-01

    Invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis is associated with high mortality and high disability rates and mainly affects children under one year of age. Vaccination is the best way to prevent meningococcal disease, especially in infants and toddlers. The introduction of massive meningococcal serogroup C vaccination has drastically reduced the incidence of disease caused by this serogroup, and serogroup B has now become the main causative agent in several industrialized countries. The first serogroup B vaccines, which were used for more than two decades, were based on outer membrane vesicles and proved to be protective only against specific epidemic strains in Cuba, Norway, Brazil and New Zealand. Moreover, these often elicited a scant immune response in young children. Innovative genomics-based reverse vaccinology subsequently enabled researchers to identify genes encoding for surface proteins that are able to elicit a strong immune response against several B strains. This important discovery led to the development and recent approval in Europe of the four-component meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB) vaccine. Large clinical trials have shown high immunogenicity and tolerability and acceptable safety levels of 4CMenB in infants and toddlers. This vaccine is expected to cover a large number of circulating invasive strains and may also be efficacious against other serogroups. Young children are particularly vulnerable to the devastating consequences of meningococcal disease. Given the high performance of 4CMenB and its non-interference with routine vaccinations, this age-group will be the first to benefit from the introduction of this vaccine.

  7. Two Legionnaires' disease cases associated with industrial waste water treatment plants: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putus Tuula

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finnish and Swedish waste water systems used by the forest industry were found to be exceptionally heavily contaminated with legionellae in 2005. Case presentation We report two cases of severe pneumonia in employees working at two separate mills in Finland in 2006. Legionella serological and urinary antigen tests were used to diagnose Legionnaires' disease in the symptomatic employees, who had worked at, or close to, waste water treatment plants. Since the findings indicated a Legionella infection, the waste water and home water systems were studied in more detail. The antibody response and Legionella urinary antigen finding of Case A indicated that the infection had been caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Case A had been exposed to legionellae while installing a pump into a post-clarification basin at the waste water treatment plant of mill A. Both the water and sludge in the basin contained high concentrations of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, in addition to serogroups 3 and 13. Case B was working 200 meters downwind from a waste water treatment plant, which had an active sludge basin and cooling towers. The antibody response indicated that his disease was due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2. The cooling tower was the only site at the waste water treatment plant yielding that serogroup, though water in the active sludge basin yielded abundant growth of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 and Legionella rubrilucens. Both workers recovered from the disease. Conclusion These are the first reported cases of Legionnaires' disease in Finland associated with industrial waste water systems.

  8. Application of WGS data for O-specific antigen analysis and in silico serotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Sandra Wingaard; Taylor, Véronique L.; Lund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    aeruginosa serotyper (PAst) program, which enabled in silico serotyping of P. aeruginosa isolates using WGS data. PAst has been made publically available as a web-service, and aptly facilitate high-throughput serotyping analysis. The program overcomes critical issues such as the loss of in vitro typeability...... often associated with P. aeruginosa isolates from chronic infections, and quickly determines the serogroup of an isolate based on the sequence of the O-specific antigen (OSA) gene cluster. Here, PAst analysis of 1649 genomes resulted in successful serogroup assignments in 99.27% of the cases...

  9. Leptospirosis-Associated Severe Pulmonary Hemorrhagic Syndrome with Lower Back Pain as an Initial Symptom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mads Madsen; tursunovic, Amela; Thye-Roenn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leptospirosis is a zoonosis transmitted through urine of infected animals. Symptoms range from mild influenza-like symptoms to severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome (SPHS); the latter are often fatal. The serogroup distribution in Denmark has changed from 1988 to 2012, with Icterohaemo......BACKGROUND Leptospirosis is a zoonosis transmitted through urine of infected animals. Symptoms range from mild influenza-like symptoms to severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome (SPHS); the latter are often fatal. The serogroup distribution in Denmark has changed from 1988 to 2012......, the patient died a few hours after hospital admission....

  10. Serotypes of E. coli isolated from avian species in Lombardia and Emilia Romagna (North Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario D'Incau

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the results of n.105 E. coli strains serotyping, isolated during the period 2000-2004 in Lombardia and Emilia Romagna (North Italy from avian species (poultry and turkeys, starting from cloacal swabs. The most frequently identified serogroup was O78 both in poultry and turkeys, with a large prevalence over the other detected serogroups. Remarkable was the non typeable percentage among the examined strains, datum which is in accordance with our and other authors’ previous studies.

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella and Shigella spp. among children with gastroenteritis in an Iranian referral hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Shima; Pourakbari, Babak; Moradzadeh, Mina; Eshaghi, Hamid; Ramezani, Amitis; Haghi Ashtiani, Mohammad Taghi; Keshavarz Valian, Sepideh; Mamishi, Setareh

    2017-08-01

    Gastroenteritis is one of the leading cause of illnesses through the world, especially in developing countries.Salmonella and Shigella infections are considered as the main public health problems in children. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella and Shigella spp. among children with gastroenteritis in an Iranian referral hospital. During April 2013 to April 2014, all medical records of children with gastroenteritis admitted to a pediatric medical center were evaluated. Positive stool cultures of children were evaluated and frequency of Salmonella and Shigella spp. and their antimicrobial susceptibility were detected. In this study, 676 patients with the mean age of 24.94 months were enrolled. Eighty-eight (42%) Salmonella spp., 85 (40%) Shigella spp., 33 (16%) E. coli and 5(2%) candida albicans were isolated from 211 positive stool cultures. Among 85 Shigella spp. isolates, S. sonnei, S. flexneri and other Shigella spp. were isolated from 39 (46%) isolates, 36(42%) and 10(12%), respectively. Among 88 isolated Salmonella spp., 36 (41%) isolates were Salmonella Serogroup D, 26 (30%) were Salmonella Serogroup B, 20 (23%) isolates were Salmonella Serogroup C and 6 (7%) were other Salmonella spp. isolates. Thirty-eight percent of Salmonella serogroup B were resistant to nalidixic acid, while higher frequency of nalidixic acid resistant was found in Salmonella serogroup C and Salmonella serogroup D. The higher frequency of ampicillin resistant was found in Shigella spp. than Salmonella spp. High frequency of cefotaxime resistant was seen in S. sonei and S. flexneri (77% and 56%, respectively), whereas more than 90% of Salmonella serogroup B, C and D were susceptible to this antibiotic. In conclusion, Shigella and Salmonella serogroups can be considered as important etiological agents of acute diarrhea in children. Since the prevalence of antibiotic resistance is increasing in recent years in Iran, further

  12. Emergence and control of epidemic meningococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Idris; Iliyasu, Garba; Habib, Abdulrazaq Garba

    2017-02-01

    For more than a century, meningitis epidemics have regularly recurred across sub-Saharan Africa, involving 19 contiguous countries that constitute a 'meningitis belt' where historically the causative agent has been serogroup A meningococcus. Attempts to control epidemic meningococcal meningitis in Africa by vaccination with meningococcal polysaccharide (PS) vaccines have not been successful. This is largely because PS vaccines are poorly immunogenic in young children, do not induce immunological memory, and have little or no effect on the pharyngeal carriage. Meningococcal PS-protein conjugate vaccines overcome these deficiencies. Conjugate meningococcal vaccine against serotype A (MenAfriVac) was developed between 2001 and 2009 and deployed in 2010. So far, 262 million individuals have been immunized across the meningitis belt. The public health benefits of MenAfriVac have already been demonstrated by a sharp decline in reported cases of meningococcal disease in the countries where it has been introduced. However, serogroup replacement following mass meningitis vaccination has been noted, and in 2015 an epidemic with a novel strain of serogroup C was recorded in Niger and Nigeria for the first time since 1975. This has posed a serious challenge toward elimination of meningococcal meningitis epidemics in the African. For an effective control of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt, there is a need for an effective surveillance system, provision of rapid antigen detection kits as well as affordable vaccine that provides protection against the main serogroups causing meningitis in the sub-region.

  13. Inhibition of Binding of the AB5-Type Enterotoxins LT-I and Cholera Toxin to Ganglioside GM1 by Galactose-Rich Dietary Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Widjaja-Greefkes, H.C.A.; Wikselaar, van P.G.

    2010-01-01

    Cholera, travelers' diarrhea, or colibacillosis in pigs can possibly be prevented or attenuated by dietary provision of competitive inhibitors that react with the GM1-binding sites of the enterotoxins cholera toxin (CT), human Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin of serogroup I (LTh-I), and

  14. [Clinical features and prognostic factors of meningococcal disease: a case series study in Chile during the 2012-2013 outbreak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Isabel; Olea, Andrea; López, Darío; Loayza, Sergio; Nájera, Manuel; González, Claudia; Poffald, Lucy; Hirmas, Macarena; Delgado, Iris; Pedroni, Elena; Alfaro, Tania; Gormaz, Ana María; Sanhueza, Gabriel; Vial, Pablo; Dabanch, Jeannette; Gallegos, Doris; Aguilera, Ximena

    2015-10-01

    Meningococcal disease (MD) is a major global problem because of its case fatality rate and sequels. Since 2012 cases of serogroup W have increased in Chile, with nonspecific clinical presentation, high case fatality rate and serious consequences. To characterize the evolution and outcome of MD cases between January 2012 and March 2013 in Chile. Case series considering 149 MD cases of 7 regions. A questionnaire was applied and clinical records were reviewed, including individual, agent, clinical course and healthcare process variables. The analysis allowed to obtain estimates of the OR as likelihood of dying. 51.5% was meningococcemia, the case fatality rate reached 27%, prevailing serogroup W (46.6%). Factors that increased the probability of dying: > age, belonging to indigenous people, having lived a stressful event, having diarrhea, impaired consciousness, cardiovascular symptoms, low oxygen saturation and low Glasgow coma scale score. The case fatality rate exceeded normal levels and was higher in serogroup W. Increasing in this serogroup, associated to the increased presence of nonspecific symptoms or rapid progression to septicemia, hit a health system accustomed to more classic meningococcal disease presentation, which could partly explain the observed increased fatality rate.

  15. Arboviruses pathogenic for domestic and wild animals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Rudolf, Ivo; Nowotny, N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 5 (2014), s. 201-275 ISSN 0065-3527 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West-Nile virus * Tick-borne encephalitis * Louping-ill virus * Cache-Valley virus * African-swine-fever * California serogroup virus * Kyasanur-forest-disease * sparrows Passer domesticus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.571, year: 2014

  16. Multilocus Sequence Analysis for Typing Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira kirschneri▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Albertine; Pronost, Stéphane; Fortier, Guillaume; Andre-Fontaine, Geneviève; Leclercq, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-three strains belonging to the pathogenic species Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira kirschneri were analyzed by multilocus sequence analysis. The species formed two distinct branches. In the L. interrogans branch, the phylogenetic tree clustered the strains into three subgroups. Genogroups and serogroups were superimposed but not strictly. PMID:19955271

  17. Multilocus Sequence Analysis for Typing Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira kirschneri▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Albertine; Pronost, Stéphane; Fortier, Guillaume; Andre-Fontaine, Geneviève; Leclercq, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-three strains belonging to the pathogenic species Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira kirschneri were analyzed by multilocus sequence analysis. The species formed two distinct branches. In the L. interrogans branch, the phylogenetic tree clustered the strains into three subgroups. Genogroups and serogroups were superimposed but not strictly.

  18. 'Atypical' bacteria are a common cause of community-acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective serological study was carried out on consecutive adult pneumonia patients from July 1987 to July 1988. Acute and convalescent sera were tested in batches for antibodies against Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, C. pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Coxiella burnetii (phase-2 antigen) and Mycoplasma ...

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, P; Delgado, G; Navarro, A; Trujillo, F; Selander, R K; Cravioto, A

    1999-03-01

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) of 397 Vibrio cholerae isolates, including 143 serogroup reference strains and 244 strains from Mexico and Guatemala, identified 279 electrophoretic types (ETs) distributed in two major divisions (I and II). Linkage disequilibrium was demonstrated in both divisions and in subdivision Ic of division I but not in subdivision Ia, which includes 76% of the ETs. Despite this evidence of relatively frequent recombination, clonal lineages may persist for periods of time measured in at least decades. In addition to the pandemic clones of serogroups O1 and O139, which form a tight cluster of four ETs in subdivision Ia, MLEE analysis identified numerous apparent clonal lineages of non-O1 strains with intercontinental distributions. A clone of serogroup O37 that demonstrated epidemic potential in the 1960s is closely related to the pandemic O1/O139 clones, but the nontoxigenic O1 Inaba El Tor reference strain is not. A strain of serogroup O22, which has been identified as the most likely donor of exogenous rfb region DNA to the O1 progenitor of the O139 clone, is distantly related to the O1/O139 clones. The close evolutionary relationships of the O1, O139, and O37 epidemic clones indicates that new cholera clones are likely to arise by the modification of a lineage that is already epidemic or is closely related to such a clone.

  20. Characteristics of pathogenic Neisseria meningitidis in Moscow: prevalence of 'non-European' strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koroleva, Irina S.; Platonov, Alexander E.; van der Ende, Arie; Kuijper, Ed; Dankert, Jacob

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of serogroups, serotypes and subtypes, and susceptibility to antibiotics, of 75 strains isolated from patients with systemic meningococcal disease in Moscow in 1993--95. RESULTS: In contrast to the situation in most European countries, 21% of group A

  1. Association of meningococcal serotypes with the course of disease: serotypes 2a and 2b in the Netherlands, 1959-1981

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjaard, L.; Bol, P.; de Marie, S.; Zanen, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    Case histories of 692 patients with meningococcal disease due to serogroup B, C, or W (W-135) were reviewed to study the association of the serotypes 2a and 2b with the course of disease. The case-fatality rate in group B disease was significantly associated with serotype 2b (B:2b) strains (P =

  2. Persistence of the immune response after MenACWY-CRM vaccination and response to a booster dose, in adolescents, children and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Roger; Keshavan, Pavitra; Welsch, Jo Anne; Han, Linda; Smolenov, Igor

    2016-05-03

    Persistence of bactericidal antibodies following vaccination is extremely important for protection against invasive meningococcal disease, given the epidemiology and rapid progression of meningococcal infection. We present an analysis of antibody persistence and booster response to MenACWY-CRM, in adolescents, children and infants, from 7 clinical studies. Immunogenicity was assessed using the serum bactericidal assay with both human and rabbit complement. Post-vaccination hSBA titers were high, with an age- and serogroup-specific decline in titers up to 1 y and stable levels up to 5 y The waning of hSBA titers over time was more pronounced among infants and toddlers and the greatest for serogroup A. However, rSBA titers against serogroup A were consistently higher and showed little decline over time, suggesting that protection against this serogroup may be sustained. A single booster dose of MenACWY-CRM administered at 3 to 5 y induced a robust immune response in all age groups.

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of an investigational meningococcal ACWY conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in healthy Indian subjects aged 2 to 75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Sanjay; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Gogtay, Nithya; Palkar, Sonali; Agarkhedkar, Shalaka; Thatte, Urmila; Vakil, Hoshang; Jonnalagedda, Rekha; Pedotti, Paola; Hoyle, Margaret; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani

    2015-09-01

    This phase 3, multi-center, open-label study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM, Menveo(®); Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics S.r.l., Siena, Italy) in healthy Indian subjects aged 2-75 years, to provide data for licensure in India. A total of 180 subjects were enrolled (60 subjects 2-10 years, 60 subjects 11-18 years, and 60 subjects 19-75 years) and received one dose of MenACWY-CRM. Serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA) was measured before and 1 month after vaccination. Adverse events were collected throughout the 29-day study period. Percentages of subjects with post-vaccination hSBA ≥8 were 72%, 95%, 94%, and 90% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. Geometric mean titers rose 7-fold to 42-fold against the four serogroups. Similar immune responses were observed for the age subgroups 2-10 years, 11-18 years, and 19-75 years. Seroresponse rates at 1 month following vaccination were 72%, 88%, 55%, and 71% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. The vaccine was well tolerated with no safety concerns. A single dose of MenACWY-CRM induced a robust immune response against all four meningococcal serogroups and was well tolerated in an Indian population 2-75 years of age. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved OMV vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis using genetically engineered strains and a detergent-free purification process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterbeemd, van de B.; Streefland, M.; Ley, de P.; Zomer, B.; Dijken, van H.; Martens, D.E.; Wijffels, R.H.; Pol, van der L.A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of detergent-extracted outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is an established approach for development of a multivalent PorA vaccine against N. meningitidis serogroup B. Selective removal of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) decreases toxicity, but promotes aggregation and narrows the immune response.

  5. OmpU as a biomarker for rapid discrimination between toxigenic and epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 and non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae in a modified MALDI-TOF MS assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paauw, A.; Trip, H.; Niemcewicz, M.; Sellek, R.; Heng, J.M.E.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Jong, A.L. de; Majchrzykiewicz-Koehorst, J.A.; Olsen, J.S.; Tsivtsivadze, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae. Outbreaks are caused by a genetically homogenous group of strains from serogroup O1 or O139 that are able to produce the cholera toxin. Rapid detection and identification of these epidemic strains is essential for an

  6. Ervaringen met bijwerkingen van de eenmalige Meningokokken C vaccinatie-campagne in 2002. Meldingen bij gestimuleerde passieve veiligheidsbewaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer-de Bondt PE; Dzaferagic A; Maas NAT van der; Wesselo C; Phaff TAJ; LTR

    2004-01-01

    RIVM monitored the safety of the national vaccination campaign against meningococcal serogroup C disease. The reporting rate of adverse events was quite high (5.1/10,000 or 1/1960 vaccinations) and professionals of the Community Health Services showed great compliance. A very small number of reports

  7. Neisseria meningitidis. Lipopolysakkariders patofysiologiske rolle ved meningokoksygdom og septisk shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mie Østergaard; Pedersen, Dan Sonne; Pedersen, Michael

    2008-01-01

    increased the likelihood of developing an anti-meningococcal immunization strategy based upon the virulence of LPS which may lead to a vaccination against this important pathogen including serogroup B disease. This review summarizes recent findings that may provide a safe, effective prophylaxis and therapy...

  8. Isolation of Leptospira santarosai, serovar guaricura from buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos Silvio A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 1998 urine samples from adult female buffaloes were collected in a farm located in Registro, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, Brazil. The urine samples obtained after furosemide injection were immediately transported to the laboratory in liquid modified EMJH medium and seeded, by the serial dilution technique, into Fletcher's or modified EMJH-0.2% agar, both of them with 5-fluorouracil 100mg/mL. The intraperitoneoum inoculation of 0.5 mL was also performed with each urine sample in young, adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. All samples seeded directly in culture medium were contaminated. The hamsters did not show any sign of disease and were killed at the 21st post inoculation day. At this time kidney cultures of these animals were performed and from one of them, one leptospira strain (M04-98 was isolated, identified as belonging to serogroup Sejroe by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT with a panel of 36 rabbit sera against serovars representative for the pathogenic serogroups. Subsequently, MAT was carried out with antisera against the 19 reference strains of serogroup Sejroe, revealing a close relationship with serovar guaricura. Afterwards the MAT was done with a panel of 18 monoclonal antibodies representative for serovars of serogroup Sejroe. The histogram closely resembled that of serovar guaricura. So Cross Agglutination Absorption Test (CAAT was carried out with the buffalo isolate and serovar guaricura, supporting the relationship between the buffalo isolate and serovar guaricura.

  9. Detection of eight different tospovirus species by a monoclonal antibody against the common epitope of NSs protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.C.; Lu, Y.Y.; Kang, Y.C.; Li, J.T.; Yeh, Y.C.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Yeh, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Rabbit antisera against the nucleocapsid protein (NP) have been commonly used for detection of tospoviruses and classification into serogroups or serotypes. Mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with high specificity to the NPs have also been widely used to identify tospovirus species. Recently, a

  10. Meningitis caused by Neisseria Meningitidis, Hemophilus Influenzae Type B and Streptococcus Pneumoniae during 2005–2012 in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Gürler, Nezahat; Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Keser, Melike; Aycan, Ahmet Emre; Gurbuz, Venhar; Salman, Nuran; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Ozkan, Sengul; Sensoy, Gulnar; Belet, Nursen; Alhan, Emre; Hacimustafaoglu, Mustafa; Celebi, Solmaz; Uzun, Hakan; Faik Oner, Ahmet; Kurugol, Zafer; Ali Tas, Mehmet; Aygun, Denizmen; Oncel, Eda Karadag; Celik, Melda; Yasa, Olcay; Akin, Fatih; Coşkun, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    Successful vaccination policies for protection from bacterial meningitis are dependent on determination of the etiology of bacterial meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were obtained prospectively from children from 1 month to ≤ 18 years of age hospitalized with suspected meningitis, in order to determine the etiology of meningitis in Turkey. DNA evidence of Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), and Hemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In total, 1452 CSF samples were evaluated and bacterial etiology was determined in 645 (44.4%) cases between 2005 and 2012; N. meningitidis was detected in 333 (51.6%), S. pneumoniae in 195 (30.2%), and Hib in 117 (18.1%) of the PCR positive samples. Of the 333 N. meningitidis positive samples 127 (38.1%) were identified as serogroup W-135, 87 (26.1%) serogroup B, 28 (8.4%) serogroup A and 3 (0.9%) serogroup Y; 88 (26.4%) were non-groupable. As vaccines against the most frequent bacterial isolates in this study are available and licensed, these results highlight the need for broad based protection against meningococcal disease in Turkey. PMID:25483487

  11. Prevalence of Salmonella and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and four strains (104) were isolated and fifteen distinct serotypes identified: Derby (18.9 %), Budapest (17%), Essen and S. Kentucky (11.3%), Hadar (9.4%), Agona (7.5%), Chester, Ruiru, Schwarzengrund (3.8%), Aoto, Bargny, Elisabethville, Fortune, Poeslderf and Santiago (1.9%). Serogroup O:4 was the ...

  12. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples at Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Dharmendra K; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Durg V; Dubey, Suresh K

    2013-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, serotype identification, detection of virulence genes and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. All isolates were uniformly resistant to ampicillin, except two isolates, and showed variable resistance to gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline. Of the 20 isolates found positive for pathogens, seven (four human and three water isolates) belong to serogroups 4b, 4d and 4e; six (one human and five water isolates) belong to serogroups 1/2c and 3c; four milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2b and 3b; and three milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2a and 3a. Two water isolates, all human isolates, except one (Pb1) lacking inlJ gene, and three milk isolates possess inlA, inlC, plcA, prfA, actA, hlyA and iap genes. The remaining water and milk isolates showed variable presence of inlJ, plcA, prfA, and iap genes. ERIC- and REP-PCR based analyses collectively indicated that isolates of human clinical samples belong to identical or similar clone and isolates of water and milk samples belong to different clones. Overall study demonstrates the prevalence of pathogenic L. monocytogenes species in the environmental and clinical samples. Most of the isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genomic investigation of a suspected outbreak of legionella pneumophila st82 reveals undetected heterogeneity by the present gold-standard methods, denmark, july to november 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjørring, Susanne; Stegger, M.; Kjelsø, C.

    2017-01-01

    Between July and November 2014, 15 communityacquired cases of Legionnaires’ disease (LD), including four with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 sequence type (ST) 82, were diagnosed in Northern Zealand, Denmark. An outbreak was suspected. No ST82 isolates were found in environmental samples and ...

  14. Legionella-uitbraak in Amsterdam: koeltoren als bron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, J A R van den; IJzerman, E P F; Coutinho, Roel A

    2006-01-01

    During the period 6-28 July 2006, 30 confirmed cases of Legionella infection were identified in Amsterdam, 2 of which were fatal. All had a positive urinary antigen test, by which Legionella pneumophila serogroup I could be demonstrated. Consultations between the parties involved in the control of

  15. Zika and Spondweni Viruses: Historic Evidence of Misidentification, Misdiagnosis and Serious Clinical Disease Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    isolations of 153 Zika virus from Aedes (Stegomyia) africanus (Theobald) taken in and above a Uganda Forest. 154 Bulletin of the World Health...1 Zika and Spondweni viruses : Historic evidence of misidentification, misdiagnosis, and serious clinical disease manifestations Andrew D...serogroup (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) consists of two members: Zika 3 and Spondweni viruses . Both viruses have been historically misidentified

  16. The role of economic evaluation in vaccine decision making : Focus on meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, R.; Trotter, C.L.; Edmunds, W.J.; Postma, Maarten; Beutels, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several countries have experienced increases in the incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease. It can be controlled with older polysaccharide vaccines and particularly the recently developed conjugate vaccines. For 21 developed countries, we investigated the role that economic

  17. Cross-reactive Legionella antigens and the antibody response during infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Shand, G; Pearlman, E

    1991-01-01

    In order to define cross-reactive Legionella antigens suitable for diagnostic purposes, we investigated sonicate antigens from two Legionella species, including two serogroups of L. pneumophila. The antigens were reacted with heterologous and homologous rabbit antisera in Western blot. Sera from ...

  18. Characterization of free lytic bacteriophages isolated from compost against O145 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) as a potential biocontrol agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), one of the most prevalent foodborne pathogens, are notorious for hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and causing high mortality among children and the elder population after infection. Besides O157 STEC, non-O157 STEC—particularly serogroup O145—is commonly associat...

  19. Isolation and characterization of new Leptospira genotypes from patients in Mayotte (Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Bourhy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis has been implicated as a severe and fatal form of disease in Mayotte, a French-administrated territory located in the Comoros archipelago (southwestern Indian Ocean. To date, Leptospira isolates have never been isolated in this endemic region. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Leptospires were isolated from blood samples from 22 patients with febrile illness during a 17-month period after a PCR-based screening test was positive. Strains were typed using hyper-immune antisera raised against the major Leptospira serogroups: 20 of 22 clinical isolates were assigned to serogroup Mini; the other two strains belonged to serogroups Grippotyphosa and Pyrogenes, respectively. These isolates were further characterized using partial sequencing of 16S rRNA and ligB gene, Multi Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Of the 22 isolates, 14 were L. borgpetersenii strains, 7 L. kirschneri strains, and 1, belonging to serogoup Pyrogenes, was L. interrogans. Results of the genotyping methods were consistent. MLVA defined five genotypes, whereas PFGE allowed the recognition of additional subgroups within the genotypes. PFGE fingerprint patterns of clinical strains did not match any of the patterns in the reference strains belonging to the same serogroup, suggesting that the strains were novel serovars. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary PCR screening of blood specimen allowed a high isolation frequency of leptospires among patients with febrile illness. Typing of leptospiral isolates showed that causative agents of leptospirosis in Mayotte have unique molecular features.

  20. Fit genotypes and escape variants of subgroup III Neisseria meningitidis during three pandemics of epidemic meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, P.; van der Ende, A.; Falush, D.; Brieske, N.; Morelli, G.; Linz, B.; Popovic, T.; Schuurman, I. G.; Adegbola, R. A.; Zurth, K.; Gagneux, S.; Platonov, A. E.; Riou, J. Y.; Caugant, D. A.; Nicolas, P.; Achtman, M.

    2001-01-01

    The genetic variability at six polymorphic loci was examined within a global collection of 502 isolates of subgroup III, serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis. Nine "genoclouds" were identified, consisting of genotypes that were isolated repeatedly plus 48 descendent genotypes that were isolated

  1. Molecular analysis of the emergence of pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, EF; Cohen, AL; Naughton, LM

    2008-01-01

    Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is abundant in the aquatic environment particularly in warmer waters and is the leading cause of seafood borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Prior to 1995, numerous V. parahaemolyticus serogroups were associated with disease, however, in that year an O3:K6 serogrou...

  2. Serological survey on Leptospira infection in slaughtered swine in North-Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, F; Turchi, B; Vattiata, E; Viola, P; Pardini, S; Cerri, D; Fratini, F

    2018-05-30

    Swine can act as asymptomatic carriers of some Leptospira serovars. In this study, 1194 sera from 61 farms located in five different Regions of North-West Italy were collected from slaughtered healthy pigs. Presence of antibody against four Leptospira serovars was evaluated. Overall, 52.5% of analysed farms presented at least one positive animal and 34.4% presented at least one positive swine with titre ⩾1:400. A percentage of 16.6% sera was positive and 5.9% samples presented a positive titre ⩾1:400. Tuscany and Lombardy showed the highest percentage of positive farms (64.3% and 54.6%, respectively) and sera (28.5% and 13.3%, respectively), probably due to environmental conditions and potential risk factors, which promote maintenance and spreading of Leptospira in these areas. The main represented serogroups were Australis (21.3% positive farms, 8.2% positive sera) and Pomona (18.0% positive farms, 8.1% positive sera). In swine, these serogroups are the most detected worldwide; however, our results seem to highlight a reemerging of serogroup Pomona in pigs in investigated areas. A low percentage of sera (0.6%) scored positive to Canicola, leaving an open question on the role of pigs in the epidemiology of this serovar. Higher antibody titres were detected for serogroups Australis and Pomona. Swine leptospirosis is probably underestimated in Italy and could represent a potential risk for animal and human health.

  3. Identification of mip-like genes in the genus Legionella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianciotto, N P; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Eisenstein, B I

    1990-01-01

    The mip gene of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strain AA100 encodes a 24-kilodalton surface protein (Mip) and enhances the abilities of L. pneumophila to parasitize human macrophages and to cause pneumonia in experimental animals. To determine whether this virulence factor is conserved in the...

  4. A highly sensitive, multiplex broad-spectrum PCR-DNA-enzyme immunoassay and reverse hybridization assay for rapid detection and identification of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quint, K.D.; Doorn, L.J. van; Kleter, B.; Koning, M.N. de; Munckhof, H.A. van den; Morre, S.A.; Harmsel, B. ter; Weiderpass, E.; Harbers, G.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Quint, W.G.V.

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) comprises distinct serogroups and serovars. The present study evaluates a novel Ct amplification, detection, and genotyping method (Ct-DT assay). The Ct-DT amplification step is a multiplex broad-spectrum PCR for the cryptic plasmid and the VD2-region of ompl. The Ct-DT

  5. Porin A-specific antibody avidity in patients who are convalescing from meningococcal B disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermont, C.L.; Dijken, H.H. van; Groot, R. de; Dobbelsteen, G.P. van den

    2005-01-01

    Porin A (PorA), which determines the serosubtype of Neisseria meningitidis, is the main antigen of a candidate vaccine against serogroup B meningococci, which has been shown to induce high-avidity antibodies in children. We characterized the immune response of children after convalescing from

  6. Antigenic variation of the class I outer membrane protein in hyperendemic Neisseria meningitidis strains in the netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, A.; Dankert, J.; van der Ende, A.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of cases of meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B isolates with the P1.4 serosubtype has greatly increased in The Netherlands. Screening for this serosubtype in the strain collection of The Netherlands Reference Laboratory for Bacterial Meningitis revealed that a low

  7. Crystal structure of an Anti-meningococcal subtype P1.4 PorA antibody provides basis for peptide-vaccine design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, Clasien J.; Hoogerhout, Peter; Kuipers, Betsy; Vidarsson, Gestur; van Alphen, Loek; Gros, Piet

    2005-01-01

    In various western countries, subtype P1.4 of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B causes the greatest incidence of meningococcal disease. To investigate the molecular recognition of this subtype, we crystallised a peptide (P1HVVVNNKVATH(P11)), corresponding to the subtype P1.4 epitope sequence of

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 2005 ... Vol 78, No 6 (2001):, Antibiotic resistance and sero-groups of ... bacterial pathogens in urinary tract infections at Gondar Hospital, ... Vol 92, No 5 (2015), Anti-Malarial Prescription Practices for Children with Negative ...

  9. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 59 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutational analysis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Sarfraz A Tunio, Neil J Oldfield, Karl G Wooldridge, David PJ Turner, 12269-12276 ...

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic changes in a new clone complex of Neisseria meningitidis causing disease in The Netherlands, 1958-1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R. J.; Poolman, J. T.; Valkenburg, H. A.; Bijlmer, H. A.; Dankert, J.; Caugant, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the phenotypic and genotypic changes that occurred in a new clone lineage of Neisseria meningitidis (lineage III) in the Netherlands, the electrophoretic type (ET) was determined for 79 serogroup B isolates of serotype 4 or subtype P1.4 (or both) obtained between 1958 and 1990 from

  11. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from hospital cooling towers in Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Samad, B H; Suhaili, M R; Baba, N; Rajasekaran, G

    2004-08-01

    Water-based cooling towers and their water supply at two hospitals in Johor were surveyed for the presence Legionella pneumophila. L. pneumophila were grown from 19 (76%) out of 25 collected water samples. One hospital cooling tower was contaminated with L. pneumophila serogroup 1.

  12. Investigation of Different Water Sources as a Possible Cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vibrio cholerae, 01 serogroup, Ogawa serotype and EI-Tor biotype was isolated from 20.8% of the water samples tested. These isolates showed multiple resistance to antibiotics particularly tetracycline but were susceptible to the cephalosporins. Eleven other water samples (45.8%) showed growth of Enterococcus faecalis ...

  13. Epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in the Netherlands, 1960-2012: an analysis of national surveillance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Merijn W.; Bekker, Vincent; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; van de Beek, Diederik; van der Ende, Arie

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data for invasive meningococcal disease is essential for public health policy and vaccine development. We analysed national surveillance data from the Netherlands for PorA coverage of two PorA-based meningococcal serogroup B vaccines to describe the epidemiology of invasive

  14. Genotyping of F-RNA coliphages isolated from wastewater and river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal contamination of water sources can only be managed if the sources of pollution are identified and thus tools to distinguish between human and animal faecal sources are needed. Male-specific F-RNA coliphages have been classified into four sero-groups and evidence has been presented that two of these ...

  15. Cross-infection of virulent Dichelobacter nodosus between sheep and co-grazing cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knappe-Poindecker, Maren; Gilhuus, Marianne; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2014-01-01

    the footrot scores recorded. On each farm, the same ten ewes and ten cows were chosen for bacterial analyses. Swabs were analysed for D. nodosus by PCR and culturing. D. nodosus isolates were virulence-tested and assigned to serogroups by fimA variant determination. Biopsies were evaluated histopathologically...

  16. Field inversion gel electrophoretic analysis of Legionella pneumophila strains associated with nosocomial legionellosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Wald, E R; Dashefsky, B; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1996-01-01

    Two nosocomial cases of Legionnaires' disease occurred in children. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from both patients and 30 of 39 plumbing system sites in the hospital. The patient and hospital environmental isolates yielded identical field inversion gel electrophoretic patterns which differed from patterns observed with epidemiologically unrelated strains.

  17. Satellite growth of Legionella pneumophila with an environmental isolate of Flavobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Yee, R B

    1983-12-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was observed to satellite around colonies of Flavobacterium breve on an L-cysteine-deficient medium which did not support growth of legionellae. Both isolates were recovered from the hot water tanks of hospitals. Ferric PPi stimulated satellite growth between 0.01 and 0.1%.

  18. Satellite growth of Legionella pneumophila with an environmental isolate of Flavobacterium breve.

    OpenAIRE

    Wadowsky, R M; Yee, R B

    1983-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was observed to satellite around colonies of Flavobacterium breve on an L-cysteine-deficient medium which did not support growth of legionellae. Both isolates were recovered from the hot water tanks of hospitals. Ferric PPi stimulated satellite growth between 0.01 and 0.1%.

  19. [Detection of anti-Leptospira antibodies in sera of patients in the latex agglutination test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volina, E G; Sarukhanova, L E; Iashina, N V; Prokopov, N I; Shkarlat, P E; Barysheva, I V

    2001-01-01

    The results of the preliminary evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed diagnostic test based on the determination of genus-specific antibodies to leptospires in the latex agglutination test, are presented. This test makes it possible to detect anti-Leptospira antibodies of any serogroup. The advantages of the developed test have been determined.

  20. Development of Vaccines to Prevent Wound Infections due to Anaerobic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    containing an inoculum that included anaerobes ( Eubacterium , Clostridium, Bacteroides, Peptococcus, and Fusobacterium) and aerobes (E. coli, enterococcus) in a...serogroups of the Bacteroides spp . based on 0-antigens have been described. (11-13) Type-specific antisera raised in rabbits against twenty distinct

  1. HIV and NCDs: inevitable interaction in resource limited settings.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    us a beautiful article on evaluation and improvement of. LAMP assays for analysis of Escherichia coli serogroups. They assert that LAMP assays are highly susceptible to non-specific amplication by primer divers.8. Does anyone worry about hepatitis E? Well, you should! One in every 8 pig abattoir worker in Kampala tested.

  2. Vaccine Preventability of Meningococcal Clone, Greater Aachen Region, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, Johannes; Schouls, Leo M.; van de Pol, Ingrid; Keijzers, Wendy C.; Martin, Diana R.; Glennie, Anne; Oster, Philipp; Frosch, Matthias; Vogel, Ulrich; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-01-01

    Emergence of serogroup B meningococci of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 41/44 can cause high levels of disease, as exemplified by a recent epidemic in New Zealand. Multiplication of annual incidence rates (3.1 cases/100,000 population) of meningococcal disease in a defined German region, the city

  3. A longitudinal study of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle of a Dutch dairy farm and in the farm environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, J.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Frankena, K.; Giessen, van de A.W.; Zwaluw, van der W.K.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    From July 1999 till November 2000, a longitudinal study was conducted on a dairy farm in The Netherlands to study within herd prevalence and types of verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) of serogroup O157 over time, and determine environmental reservoirs and possible transmission routes.

  4. Assessing the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in poultry hatcheries by using hatched eggshell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, M-R; Hsien, C-H; Yeh, C-M; Chou, S-J; Chu, C; Su, Y-C; Yu, C-Y

    2007-08-01

    Salmonella enterica causes a number of significant poultry diseases and is also a major pathogen in humans. Most poultry infected by Salmonella become carriers; infection may also be fatal, depending on the particular serovar and the age of the bird at infection. Younger birds are more susceptible to infection by Salmonella, so it is critical that hatcheries monitor birds. We developed a method to use hatched eggshell membranes (HEM) to assess contamination by Salmonella in poultry hatching cabinets and to evaluate the prevalence of Salmonella in a goose hatchery and rearing farm. Comparison of the Salmonella isolation rate in hatching cabinets using 3 sampling methods showed that the highest Salmonella contamination was detected in HEM, and that these results differed significantly from those obtained from fluff samples and cabinet swab samples (P chicken, and duck hatcheries. The lowest Salmonella-positive rate was found for the chicken hatchery, followed by the goose and the duck hatcheries (P hatcheries: A, B, C1, C2, D, and E. The distribution of these serogroups differed among the hatcheries. Salmonella serogroup C1 was the major serogroup found in geese, compared with serogroup B in chickens and ducks. However, Salmonella Typhimurium was dominant in 1 goose hatchery and also in geese from this hatchery that had been transferred to a farm. Antibiotic susceptibility analysis showed that Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from the farm geese with diarrhea showed significantly higher resistance to doxycycline, colistin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprin, and cephalothin than those isolated from the hatchery (P hatcheries and rearing farms.

  5. The cost-effectiveness of alternative vaccination strategies for polyvalent meningococcal vaccines in Burkina Faso: A transmission dynamic modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaesoubi, Reza; Trotter, Caroline; Colijn, Caroline; Yaesoubi, Maziar; Colombini, Anaïs; Resch, Stephen; Kristiansen, Paul A; LaForce, F Marc; Cohen, Ted

    2018-01-01

    The introduction of a conjugate vaccine for serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis has dramatically reduced disease in the African meningitis belt. In this context, important questions remain about the performance of different vaccine policies that target remaining serogroups. Here, we estimate the health impact and cost associated with several alternative vaccination policies in Burkina Faso. We developed and calibrated a mathematical model of meningococcal transmission to project the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted and costs associated with the current Base policy (serogroup A conjugate vaccination at 9 months, as part of the Expanded Program on Immunization [EPI], plus district-specific reactive vaccination campaigns using polyvalent meningococcal polysaccharide [PMP] vaccine in response to outbreaks) and three alternative policies: (1) Base Prime: novel polyvalent meningococcal conjugate (PMC) vaccine replaces the serogroup A conjugate in EPI and is also used in reactive campaigns; (2) Prevention 1: PMC used in EPI and in a nationwide catch-up campaign for 1-18-year-olds; and (3) Prevention 2: Prevention 1, except the nationwide campaign includes individuals up to 29 years old. Over a 30-year simulation period, Prevention 2 would avert 78% of the meningococcal cases (95% prediction interval: 63%-90%) expected under the Base policy if serogroup A is not replaced by remaining serogroups after elimination, and would avert 87% (77%-93%) of meningococcal cases if complete strain replacement occurs. Compared to the Base policy and at the PMC vaccine price of US$4 per dose, strategies that use PMC vaccine (i.e., Base Prime and Preventions 1 and 2) are expected to be cost saving if strain replacement occurs, and would cost US$51 (-US$236, US$490), US$188 (-US$97, US$626), and US$246 (-US$53, US$703) per DALY averted, respectively, if strain replacement does not occur. An important potential limitation of our study is the simplifying assumption that all

  6. Meningococcal Carriage among College Freshmen in Kashmir, North India- A Single Centre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis K Bali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Data on the community carriage of meningococci in developing countries are sparse. Knowledge about the same would help identify demographic and socio-behavioural risk factors, the need for infection control strategies and the composition of the relevant serogroup for locally effective meningococcal vaccine. Aim: To assess the meningococcal carriage and the major serotypes among fresh college hostellers. Materials and Methods: Charcoal-impregnated nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 274 consenting fresh college recruits (first year students residing in the college hostel and plated on to Thayer-Martin medium. Oxidase-positive diplococci were taken as presumptive Neisseria species. DNA was extracted from the isolates and Sanger sequencing was performed on the amplified PCR product. Blast analysis of all sequenced samples was performed against the retrieved Neisseria meningitidis sequences from whole NCBI-nr/nt database and within the dataset. Phylogentic analysis was done by Mega-6 professional package comparing published sequences of serogroups against the detected Neisseria meningitidis. Results: Ten (3.6% samples grew oxidase-positive diplococci suggestive of Neisseria. On molecular testing and sequence analysis, 4 samples were found to be N.meningitidis, one (Neisseria spp had close similarity to N.meningitidis and the others included N.perflava (n= 3, N.pharyngis (n=1 and N. flavescens (n=1. N.meningitidis isolates on blast and phylogenetic analysis bore molecular homology to serogroup B. Conclusion: Nasal carriage of N. meningitis (serogroup B was found in about 1.5% (n=4 of the fresh college recruits in the present study. Close proximity amongst the hostellers is likely to result in transmission and such preventive strategies for infection control are desirable. Further, studies of similar kind are mandated to determine the appropriate serogroups required for inclusion in the vaccine.

  7. Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccination of adults: phase III comparison of an investigational conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, with the licensed vaccine, Menactra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Keith S; Baxter, Roger; Block, Stanley L; Shah, Jina; Bedell, Lisa; Dull, Peter M

    2009-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in the United States, with the highest case fatality rates reported for individuals > or = 15 years of age. This study compares the safety and immunogenicity of the Novartis Vaccines investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, to those of the licensed meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Menactra, when administered to healthy adults. In this phase III multicenter study, 1,359 adults 19 to 55 years of age were randomly assigned to one of four groups (1:1:1:1 ratio) to receive a single dose of one of three lots of MenACWY-CRM or a single dose of Menactra. Serum samples obtained at baseline and 1 month postvaccination were tested for serogroup-specific serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA). The hSBA titers following vaccination with MenACWY-CRM and Menactra were compared in noninferiority and prespecified superiority analyses. Reactogenicity was similar in the MenACWY-CRM and Menactra groups, and neither vaccine was associated with a serious adverse event. When compared with Menactra, MenACWY-CRM met the superiority criteria for the proportions of recipients achieving a seroresponse against serogroups C, W-135, and Y and the proportion of subjects achieving postvaccination titers of > or = 1:8 for serogroups C and Y. MenACWY-CRM's immunogenicity was statistically noninferior (the lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval was more than -10%) to that of Menactra for all four serogroups, with the postvaccination hSBA geometric mean titers being consistently higher for MenACWY-CRM than for Menactra. MenACWY-CRM is well tolerated in adults 19 to 55 years of age, with immune responses to each of the serogroups noninferior and, in some cases, statistically superior to those to Menactra.

  8. Recent epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae in nasopharynxes of Korean children with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Beom; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kang, Jin Han; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Kim, Hwang Min; Choi, Young Youn

    2017-03-01

    This prospective study was performed to evaluate serotype distribution, multilocus sequence typing, and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae identified in Korean children with acute otitis media (AOM) after the introduction of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children diagnosed with AOM in seven hospitals in Korea. The bacteria identified in these samples and the serotypes, sequence types (STs), and antibiotic susceptibilities of S. pneumoniae isolates were evaluated. A total of 390 children were enrolled, and bacteria were identified in 376 (96.4%) children. S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were identified in 155 (39.7%), 127 (32.6%) and 86 (22.1%) children, respectively. Serotype 19A (22.4%) was the most common S. pneumoniae serotype, with serogroups 11 (14.7%) and 15 (13.5%) following. ST320 (23.5%) was the most common ST; ST166 (17.0%) and ST83 (8.5%) followed. The overall susceptibility rates of S. pneumoniae to oral penicillin V and amoxicillin/clavulanate were 2.6% and 53.2%, respectively. The susceptibility rate to cefditoren was 91.0%; however, the rates for other cephalosporins were less than 10.0%. Compared with other serogroups, S. pneumoniae serogroups 19, 11, and 15 showed significantly lower susceptibility rates to all the antibiotics tested. S. pneumoniae serotype 19A, serogroups 11 and 15 were the major nasopharyngeal-colonizing bacteria in Korean children with AOM after the introduction of PCV7. These relatively prevalent serotype/serogroups showed lower antibiotic susceptibility rates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli pathogenicity islands and other ExPEC virulence genes may contribute to the genome variability of enteroinvasive E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Laís Cristina; de Mello Santos, Ana Carolina; Silva, Rosa Maria

    2017-03-16

    Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) may be the causative agent of part of those million cases of diarrhea illness reported worldwide every year and attributable to Shigella. That is because both enteropathogens have many common characteristics that difficult their identification either by traditional microbiological methods or by molecular tools used in the clinical laboratory settings. While Shigella has been extensively studied, EIEC remains barely characterized at the molecular level. Recent EIEC important outbreaks, apparently generating more life-threatening cases, have prompted us to screen EIEC for virulence traits usually related to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). That could explain the appearance of EIEC strains presenting higher virulence potential. EIEC strains were distributed mainly in three phylogroups in a serogroup-dependent manner. Serogroups O124, O136, O144, and O152 were exclusively classified in phylogroup A; O143 in group E; and O28ac and O29 in group B1. Only two serogroups showed diverse phylogenetic origin as follows: O164 was assigned to groups A, B1, C, and B2 (one strain each), and O167 in groups E (five strains), and A (one strain) (Table 1). Eleven of 20 virulence genes (VGs) searched were detected, and the majority of the 19 different VGs combinations found were serogroup-specific. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) PAI genetic markers were detected in all EIEC strains. PAIs I J96 and II CFT073 were the most frequent (92.1 and 80.4%, respectively). PAI IV 536 was restricted to some serogroups from phylogroups A, B1 and E. PAI I CFT073 was uniquely detected in phylogroups B2 and E. A total of 45 (88%) strains presented multiple PAI markers (two to four). PAIs I J96 and II CFT073 were found together in 80% of strains. EIEC is a DEC pathovar that presents VGs and pathogenicity island genetic markers typically associated with ExPEC, especially UPEC. These features are distributed in a phylogenetic and serogroup-dependent manner

  10. Meningococcal factor H binding proteins in epidemic strains from Africa: implications for vaccine development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Pajon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Factor H binding protein (fHbp is an important antigen for vaccines against meningococcal serogroup B disease. The protein binds human factor H (fH, which enables the bacteria to resist serum bactericidal activity. Little is known about the vaccine-potential of fHbp for control of meningococcal epidemics in Africa, which typically are caused by non-group B strains.We investigated genes encoding fHbp in 106 serogroup A, W-135 and X case isolates from 17 African countries. We determined complement-mediated bactericidal activity of antisera from mice immunized with recombinant fHbp vaccines, or a prototype native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV vaccine from a serogroup B mutant strain with over-expressed fHbp. Eighty-six of the isolates (81% had one of four prevalent fHbp sequence variants, ID 4/5 (serogroup A isolates, 9 (W-135, or 74 (X in variant group 1, or ID 22/23 (W-135 in variant group 2. More than one-third of serogroup A isolates and two-thirds of W-135 isolates tested had low fHbp expression while all X isolates tested had intermediate or high expression. Antisera to the recombinant fHbp vaccines were generally bactericidal only against isolates with fHbp sequence variants that closely matched the respective vaccine ID. Low fHbp expression also contributed to resistance to anti-fHbp bactericidal activity. In contrast to the recombinant vaccines, the NOMV fHbp ID 1 vaccine elicited broad anti-fHbp bactericidal activity, and the antibodies had greater ability to inhibit binding of fH to fHbp than antibodies elicited by the control recombinant fHbp ID 1 vaccine.NOMV vaccines from mutants with increased fHbp expression elicit an antibody repertoire with greater bactericidal activity than recombinant fHbp vaccines. NOMV vaccines are promising for prevention of meningococcal disease in Africa and could be used to supplement coverage conferred by a serogroup A polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine recently introduced in some sub

  11. Comparative Assessment of a Single Dose and a 2-dose Vaccination Series of a Quadrivalent Meningococcal CRM-conjugate Vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in Children 2-10 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William; Essink, Brandon; Kirstein, Judith; Forleo-Neto, Eduardo; Percell, Sandra; Han, Linda; Keshavan, Pavitra; Smolenov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    We compared the immunogenicity, safety and 1-year antibody persistence of a single-dose and a 2-dose series of a licensed meningococcal ACWY-CRM conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in 2- to 10-year-old children. In this phase III, multicenter, observer-blind study, children aged 2-5 years (n = 359) and 6-10 years (n = 356) were randomized 1:1 to receive 2 doses of MenACWY-CRM (ACWY2) or 1 dose of placebo followed by 1 dose of MenACWY-CRM (ACWY1), 2 months apart. Immunogenicity was measured using serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA). Primary outcomes were to assess the immunologic noninferiority and superiority of ACWY2 versus ACWY1. One-month after the second dose, the hSBA seroresponse in ACWY2 was noninferior to ACWY1 for all 4 serogroups, in both age cohorts, and was superior for serogroups C and Y in the 2- to 5-year-old age cohort and for serogroup Y in the 6- to 10-year-old age cohort. Overall, 90%-99% of subjects in ACWY2 and 65%-96% in ACWY1 had hSBA titers ≥ 8; geometric mean titers were 1.8- to 6.4-fold higher in ACWY2 than ACWY1 across serogroups. At 1 year postvaccination, geometric mean titers declined, and the differences between ACWY2 and ACWY1 remained significant for serogroups A and C in the 2- to 5-year-old age cohort and for serogroups C and Y in the 6- to 10-year-old age cohort. The safety profile of MenACWY-CRM was similar in both groups. The single dose and 2-dose MenACWY-CRM series were immunogenic and well tolerated. Although antibody responses were greater after 2 doses, especially in the 2- to 5-year-old age cohort, this difference was less pronounced at 1 year postvaccination.

  12. New recombinant vaccines for the prevention of meningococcal B disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha MK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Ala-Eddine DeghmaneInstitut Pasteur, Unit of Invasive Bacterial Infections and National Reference Center for Meningococci, Paris, FranceAbstract: Meningococcal disease is a life-threatening invasive infection (mainly septicemia and meningitis that occurs as epidemic or sporadic cases. The causative agent, Neisseria meningitidis or meningococcus, is a capsulated Gram-negative bacterium. Current vaccines are prepared from the capsular polysaccharides (that also determine serogroups and are available against strains of serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 that show variable distribution worldwide. Plain polysaccharide vaccines were first used and subsequently conjugate vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity were introduced. The capsular polysaccharide of meningococcal serogroup B is poorly immunogenic due to similarity to the human neural cells adhesion molecule. Tailor-made, strain-specific vaccines have been developed to control localized and clonal outbreaks due to meningococci of serogroup B but no “universal” vaccine is yet available. This unmet medical need was recently overcome using several subcapsular proteins to allow broad range coverage of strains and to reduce the risk of escape variants due to genetic diversity of the meningococcus. Several vaccines are under development that target major or minor surface proteins. One vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis, under registration, is a multicomponent recombinant vaccine that showed an acceptable safety profile and covers around 80% of the currently circulating serogroup B isolates. However, its reactogenicity in infants seems to be high and the long term persistence of the immune response needs to be determined. Its activity on carriage, and therefore transmission, is under evaluation. Indirect protection is expected through restricting strain circulation and acquisition. This vaccine covers the circulating strains according to the presence of the targeted antigens in the

  13. Luminescent properties of complexly substituted oxides Ме2Ln8 (XO46O2 (Me=Sr, Ca; Ln=La, Gd, Eu; X= Si, P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vasin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the current work it is established that the maximum intensity of a luminescence of crystalline phosphors with structure silicate-apatite of general formulae: Ca2Eu8Si6(1-xP6xO26, Sr2Gd7.2Eu0.8Si6(1-xP6xO26 and Ca2La8(1-xEu8xSi6O26 is reached at concentration of europium equal 0,15. The maximum intensity of a luminescence of these substances, at replacement in an anion sublattice of tetrahedrons [SiO4]4- on tetrahedrons [PO4]3- takes place at concentration of phosphorus 0,05.

  14. Usefulness of the DNA-fingerprinting pattern and the multilocus enzyme electrophoresis profile in the assessment of outbreaks of meningococcal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, N; Lind, I

    1996-01-01

    cases were identical to the outbreak strain. None of the local serogroup C carrier strains isolated during the outbreak of serogroup C disease were identical to the outbreak strain. Both DNA-fingerprinting and MEE improved the differentiation of meningococci when compared with phenotypic......The objective of the study was to assess whether genotypic characterization by means of DNA-fingerprinting pattern (DFP) and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) profile as compared to phenotypic characterization would improve the differentiation of Neisseria meningitidis strains associated...... in each outbreak were designated the index strains. Among the remaining 55 outbreak strains 52 were either DFP-identical or DFP-indistinguishable when compared with the one relevant out of the 4 index strains. This was only the case for 17 of the 37 strains isolated from sporadic cases caused by the same...

  15. Production of neutralizing antisera against viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) virus by intravenous injections of rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    Rabbit antisera against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) produced by two immunization procedures were compared for neutralization and immunochemical properties against homologous and heterologous strains. The VHSV isolate used as the immunogen was a member of a serogroup not neutralized...... by previously available antisera. The results from this study suggested that frequent intravenous (IV) injections of rabbits with viral antigens were superior to adjuvant-mediated, combined subcutaneous and intraperitoneal (SC/IP) injections for the production of neutralizing antisera. All IV injected rabbits...... produced high neutralization titers against the homologous VHSV isolate but not against an isolate from a different serogroup. The SC/IP injected rabbits had no significant neutralization titers against either the homologous VHSV strain or two isolates of a heterologous VHSV strain. Sera from all injected...

  16. Epidemiologic investigation of a Yersinia camp outbreak linked to a food handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D L; Shayegani, M; Gallo, R J

    1984-06-01

    In July 1981, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a summer diet camp. Of the 455 campers and staff, 35 per cent developed an illness characterized by abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, and/or nausea and vomiting. A total of 53 per cent experienced abdominal pain. Seven persons were hospitalized, five of whom had appendectomies. Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup 0:8 was isolated from 37 (54 per cent) of 69 persons examined, including the camp cook and three assistants. An epidemiologic investigation demonstrated that illness was associated with consumption of reconstituted powdered milk and/or chow mein . Y. enterocolitica serogroup 0:8 was subsequently isolated from milk, the milk dispenser, and leftover chow mein . Information obtained during the investigation suggested that the Yersinia had been introduced by a food handler during food-processing procedures.

  17. Ledantevirus: a proposed new genus in the Rhabdoviridae has a strong ecological association with bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasdell, Kim R; Guzman, Hilda; Widen, Steven G; Firth, Cadhla; Wood, Thomas G; Holmes, Edward C; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikos; Walker, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    The Le Dantec serogroup of rhabdoviruses comprises Le Dantec virus from a human with encephalitis and Keuriliba virus from rodents, each isolated in Senegal. The Kern Canyon serogroup comprises a loosely connected set of rhabdoviruses many of which have been isolated from bats, including Kern Canyon virus from California, Nkolbisson virus from Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Cote d'Ivoire, Kolente virus from Guinea, Mount Elgon bat and Fikirini viruses from Kenya, and Oita virus from Japan. Fukuoka virus isolated from mosquitoes, midges, and cattle in Japan, Barur virus from a rodent in India and Nishimuro virus from pigs in Japan have also been linked genetically or serologically to this group. Here, we analyze the genome sequences and phylogenetic relationships of this set of viruses. We show that they form three subgroups within a monophyletic group, which we propose should constitute the new genus Ledantevirus. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Ledantevirus: A Proposed New Genus in the Rhabdoviridae Has A Strong Ecological Association with Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasdell, Kim R.; Guzman, Hilda; Widen, Steven G.; Firth, Cadhla; Wood, Thomas G.; Holmes, Edward C.; Tesh, Robert B.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Walker, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The Le Dantec serogroup of rhabdoviruses comprises Le Dantec virus from a human with encephalitis and Keuriliba virus from rodents, each isolated in Senegal. The Kern Canyon serogroup comprises a loosely connected set of rhabdoviruses many of which have been isolated from bats, including Kern Canyon virus from California, Nkolbisson virus from Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Cote d'Ivoire, Kolente virus from Guinea, Mount Elgon bat and Fikirini viruses from Kenya, and Oita virus from Japan. Fukuoka virus isolated from mosquitoes, midges, and cattle in Japan, Barur virus from a rodent in India and Nishimuro virus from pigs in Japan have also been linked genetically or serologically to this group. Here, we analyze the genome sequences and phylogenetic relationships of this set of viruses. We show that they form three subgroups within a monophyletic group, which we propose should constitute the new genus Ledantevirus. PMID:25487727

  19. Hospital-acquired legionellosis originating from a cooling tower during a period of thermal inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, Steffen; Pleischl, Stefan; Lück, Christian; Marklein, Günter; Fischnaller, Edith; Martin, Sybille; Simon, Arne; Exner, Martin

    2008-07-01

    A case of hospital-acquired legionellosis occurred in a 75-year-old male patient who underwent surgery due to malignant melanoma. Legionellosis was proven by culture of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Being a chronic smoker the patient used to visit the sickroom balcony that was located about 90 m to the west of a hospital cooling tower. Routine cooling tower water samples drawn during the presumed incubation period revealed 1.0x10(4) CFU/100 ml (L. pneumophila serogroup 1). One of three isolates from the cooling tower water matched the patient's isolate by monoclonal antibody (mab)- and genotyping (sequence-based typing). Horizontal transport of cooling tower aerosols probably was favoured by meteorological conditions with thermal inversion. The case report stresses the importance of routine maintenance and microbiological control of hospital cooling towers.

  20. A PCR-based strategy for simple and rapid identification of rough presumptive Salmonella isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Porting, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the application of ready-to-go Salmonella PCR tests, based on dry chemistry, for final identification of rough presumptive Salmonella isolates. The results were compared with two different biotyping methods performed at two different laboratories......, which did not result in any DNA band. A total of 32 out of the 36 rough presumptive isolates were positive in the PCR. All but one isolate were also identified as Salmonella by the two biochemical methods. All 80 Salmonella strains were also tested in the two multiplex serogroup tests based on PCR beads....... The sensitivity of the BAX Salmonella PCR test was assessed by testing a total of 80 Salmonella isolates, covering most serogroups, which correctly identified all the Salmonella strains by resulting in one 800-bp band in the sample tubes. The specificity of the PCR was assessed using 20 non-Salmonella strains...

  1. Identification of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) Sequences in Legionella pneumophila and Development of an Optimized Multiple-Locus VNTR Analysis Typing Scheme▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourcel, Christine; Visca, Paolo; Afshar, Baharak; D'Arezzo, Silvia; Vergnaud, Gilles; Fry, Norman K.

    2007-01-01

    The utility of a genotypic typing assay for Legionella pneumophila was investigated. A multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) scheme using PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis is proposed based on eight minisatellite markers. Panels of well-characterized strains were examined in a multicenter analysis to validate the assay and to compare its performance to that of other genotyping assays. Excellent typeability, reproducibility, stability, and epidemiological concordance were observed. The MLVA type or profile is composed of a string of allele numbers, corresponding to the number of repeats at each VNTR locus, separated by commas, in a predetermined order. A database containing information from 99 L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains and four strains of other serogroups and their MLVA profiles, which can be queried online, is available from http://bacterial-genotyping.igmors.u-psud.fr/. PMID:17251393

  2. Structural and functional peculiarities of the lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense SR55, isolated from the roots of Triticum durum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Alevtina S; Konnova, Svetlana A; Fedonenko, Yulia P; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Smol'kina, Olga N; Kachala, Vadim V; Ignatov, Vladimir V

    2011-10-20

    Azospirillum brasilense SR55, isolated from the rhizosphere of Triticum durum, was classified as serogroup II on the basis of serological tests. Such serogroup affiliation is uncharacteristic of wheat-associated Azospirillum species. The lipid A of A. brasilense SR55 lipopolysaccharide contained 3-hydroxytetradecanoic, 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic, hexadecanoic and octadecenoic fatty acids. The structure of the lipopolysaccharide's O polysaccharide was established, with the branched octasaccharide repeating unit being represented by l-rhamnose, l-3-O-Me-rhamnose, d-galactose and d-glucuronic acid. The SR55 lipopolysaccharide induced deformations of wheat root hairs. The lipopolysaccharide was not involved in bacterial cell aggregation, but its use to pretreat wheat roots was conducive to cell adsorption. This study shows that Azospirillum bacteria can utilise their own lipopolysaccharide as a carbon source, which may give them an advantage in competitive natural environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Consensus recommendation for meningococcal disease prevention for Hajj and Umra pilgrimage/travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibl, A; Tufenkeji, H; Khalil, M; Memish, Z

    2013-04-01

    The Islamic Hajj to Makkah (Mecca) has been associated with outbreaks of invasive meningococcal disease and the global spread of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W-135. For Hajj pilgrims the quadrivalent vaccination against serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y is a mandatory requirement. Novel conjugate vaccines may provide benefits for the community by reduction of carriage. With the introduction of the new generation of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (Menveo, Menactra, and others pending license) and their recent implementation in Saudi Arabia, experts from 11 countries in the Middle East region met at a Meningococcal Leadership Forum (MLF), in Dubai in May 2010 to exchange opinions on meningococcal disease and prevention strategies. These experts discussed the importance of introducing conjugate vaccines for pilgrims and travellers, and elaborated a consensus recommendation to support healthcare professionals and decision-makers.

  4. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica to UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, R.C.; Lund, V.; Carlson, D.A.

    1987-02-01

    Two enteric pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:3, together with Escherichia coli, were investigated for susceptibility to UV radiation at 254 nm. The UV dose required for a 3-log reduction (99.9% inactivation) of C. jejuni, Y. enterocolitica, and E. coli was 1.8, 2.7, and 5.0 mWs/cm2, respectively. Using E. coli as the basis for comparison, it appears that C. jejuni and Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:3 are more sensitive to UV than many of the pathogens associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and can be easily inactivated in most commercially available UV reactors. No association was found between the sensitivity of Y. enterocolitica to UV and the presence of a 40- to 50-megadalton virulence plasmid.

  5. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica to UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, R.C.; Lund, V.; Carlson, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Two enteric pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:3, together with Escherichia coli, were investigated for susceptibility to UV radiation at 254 nm. The UV dose required for a 3-log reduction (99.9% inactivation) of C. jejuni, Y. enterocolitica, and E. coli was 1.8, 2.7, and 5.0 mWs/cm2, respectively. Using E. coli as the basis for comparison, it appears that C. jejuni and Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:3 are more sensitive to UV than many of the pathogens associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and can be easily inactivated in most commercially available UV reactors. No association was found between the sensitivity of Y. enterocolitica to UV and the presence of a 40- to 50-megadalton virulence plasmid

  6. Geotemporal analysis of Neisseria meningitidis clones in the United States: 2000-2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Wiringa

    Full Text Available The detection of meningococcal outbreaks relies on serogrouping and epidemiologic definitions. Advances in molecular epidemiology have improved the ability to distinguish unique Neisseria meningitidis strains, enabling the classification of isolates into clones. Around 98% of meningococcal cases in the United States are believed to be sporadic.Meningococcal isolates from 9 Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites throughout the United States from 2000 through 2005 were classified according to serogroup, multilocus sequence typing, and outer membrane protein (porA, porB, and fetA genotyping. Clones were defined as isolates that were indistinguishable according to this characterization. Case data were aggregated to the census tract level and all non-singleton clones were assessed for non-random spatial and temporal clustering using retrospective space-time analyses with a discrete Poisson probability model.Among 1,062 geocoded cases with available isolates, 438 unique clones were identified, 78 of which had ≥2 isolates. 702 cases were attributable to non-singleton clones, accounting for 66.0% of all geocoded cases. 32 statistically significant clusters comprised of 107 cases (10.1% of all geocoded cases were identified. Clusters had the following attributes: included 2 to 11 cases; 1 day to 33 months duration; radius of 0 to 61.7 km; and attack rate of 0.7 to 57.8 cases per 100,000 population. Serogroups represented among the clusters were: B (n = 12 clusters, 45 cases, C (n = 11 clusters, 27 cases, and Y (n = 9 clusters, 35 cases; 20 clusters (62.5% were caused by serogroups represented in meningococcal vaccines that are commercially available in the United States.Around 10% of meningococcal disease cases in the U.S. could be assigned to a geotemporal cluster. Molecular characterization of isolates, combined with geotemporal analysis, is a useful tool for understanding the spread of virulent meningococcal clones and patterns of

  7. Leptospira Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Health Centre Patients in Hoima District, Western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anou Dreyfus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda.359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2-40.3% defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9-24.4%. The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800 was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9-4.2% and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes. Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048. Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6 with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4-108.6; p = 0.024 of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229 had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2-3.1; p = 0.009 of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby.The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup. Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and "smear-negative malaria" in rural East Africa.

  8. Epidemiology of culture-confirmed infections of Streptococcus pneumoniae (2012-2015) and nasopharyngeal carriage in children and households in Taiwan (2014-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janapatla, Rajendra Prasad; Su, Lin-Hui; Chen, Hsin-Hang; Chang, Hsin-Ju; Tsai, Tian-Chi; Chen, Po-Yen; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2017-06-01

    An observational study was performed to investigate the carriage rate and serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) era in Taiwan. From March 2014 to March 2015 a total of 500 healthy children and their households (631 adults) were enrolled from two large medical centres for nasopharyngeal carriage survey. Clinical isolates were prospectively collected from June 2012 to May 2015 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. We applied a multiplex polymerase chain reaction in addition to culture to detect S. pneumoniae. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 12.0 % of the children and 3.6 % of the households. In the children's cohort only 23.3 % of the isolates could be assigned to PCV13 serotypes; non-vaccine serotypes were predominant (76.6 %) and the most frequently detected non-vaccine serotypes were 15A/F and 15B/C (both 13.3 %), followed by 23A (6.7 %). In the household cohort, 21.7 % belonged to PCV13 serotypes, and 78.3 % to non-vaccine serotypes. Clinical analysis of culture-confirmed pneumococcal infection showed that infection caused by PCV13 serotypes decreased by 47 % from 83 % in 2012-2013 to 44 % in 2014-2015, while infection caused by non-PCV13 serotypes increased from 17 to 56 %. Among the carriage isolates a significantly higher percentage belonged to serogroup 15 compared to serogroup 19 (26.6 vs 6.66 %, 2014-2015; P=0.003). Therefore, clinical isolates belonging to serogroup 15 were more prevalent than those belonging to serogroup 19 (44.1 vs 32.3 %, 2014-2015; P=0.318). The isolation of non-vaccine serotypes and unknown serotypes after the introduction of PCV13 in children highlights the importance of continued surveillance for emerging serotypes.

  9. Identification by PCR of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars associated with invasive infections among febrile patients in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Tennant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS are emerging as a prominent cause of invasive disease (bacteremia and focal infections such as meningitis in infants and young children. Importantly, including data from Mali, three serovars, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin, account for the majority of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from these patients.We have extended a previously developed series of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs based on O serogrouping and H typing to identify Salmonella Typhimurium and variants (mostly I 4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin. We also designed primers to detect Salmonella Stanleyville, a serovar found in West Africa. Another PCR was used to differentiate diphasic Salmonella Typhimurium and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium from other O serogroup B, H:i serovars. We used these PCRs to blind-test 327 Salmonella serogroup B and D isolates that were obtained from the blood cultures of febrile patients in Bamako, Mali.We have shown that when used in conjunction with our previously described O-serogrouping PCR, our PCRs are 100% sensitive and specific in identifying Salmonella Typhimurium and variants, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Stanleyville. When we attempted to differentiate 171 Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[ 5],12:i:1,2 strains from 52 monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[5],12:i:- strains, we were able to correctly identify 170 of the Salmonella Typhimurium and 51 of the Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- strains.We have described a simple yet effective PCR method to support surveillance of the incidence of invasive disease caused by NTS in developing countries.

  10. Tracking Listeria monocytogenes contamination and virulence-associated characteristics in the ready-to-eat meat-based food products industry according to the hygiene level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, A R; Gama, L T; Fraqueza, M J

    2017-02-02

    Listeria monocytogenes isolates collected from final products and food contact surfaces of 10 ready-to-eat meat-based food products (RTEMP) producing industries were analyzed to relate their virulence-associated characteristics and genetic profiles with the hygiene assessment of those industries. Together with sample collection, an audit was performed to evaluate the implemented food safety management system and to investigate the specific audit requisites more associated to the occurrence of those L. monocytogenes serogroups frequently related with human disease. L. monocytogenes was present in 18% of the samples. The isolates (n=62) were serogrouped and detection of virulence-associated genes inlA, inlB, inlC and inlJ, and also plcA, hlyA, actA and iap was done by multiplex PCR. After this initial characterization, selected isolates (n=31) were submitted to antibiotic resistance testing by the disk diffusion method for the currently most used human and veterinary antibiotics and resistance was low. These isolates were also subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Genotyping and serogrouping of L. monocytogenes isolates revealed a genetically diverse population. Our data indicate that contamination of final products does not seem to be uniquely related to the sampled food surfaces. The occurrence of those L. monocytogenes serogroups more commonly associated with human disease in industries with a high hygienic audit classification could be the result of a previous identification of the pathogen, with an enforcement of the hygiene program without recognizing the real source of contamination. This reinforces the importance of a conjoined diagnosis using audit data and microbiological testing. Food safety management systems of those industries need improvement, particularly in cleaning and sanitizing operations, analytical control, preventive maintenance, personal hygiene and root cause analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. An outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis in an urban jail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcabes, P; O'Sullivan, B; Nadal, E; Mouzon, M

    1988-12-01

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis in New York City's largest jail involved 145 cases over a two-month period. The outbreak was unusual in that two Salmonella strains (serogroups B and D) were involved. Management of the outbreak involved screening kitchen workers by culture of stool samples, and education regarding personal hygiene. Obstacles to investigation and management of the outbreak arose out of the special nature of the jail environment; these included jurisdictional problems and high turnover of the inmate population.

  12. Leptospira Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Health Centre Patients in Hoima District, Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Anou; Dyal, Jonathan W; Pearson, Raewynne; Kankya, Clovice; Kajura, Charles; Alinaitwe, Lordrick; Kakooza, Steven; Pelican, Katharine M; Travis, Dominic A; Mahero, Michael; Boulware, David R; Mugisha, Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda. 359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2-40.3%) defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes) at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9-24.4%). The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800) was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9-4.2%) and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes). Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048). Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6) with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4-108.6; p = 0.024) of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229) had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2-3.1; p = 0.009) of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby. The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup). Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and "smear-negative malaria" in rural East Africa.

  13. A decade of invasive meningococcal disease surveillance in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoczyńska

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a leading etiologic agent of severe invasive disease. The objective of the study was to characterise invasive meningococcal disease (IMD epidemiology in Poland during the last decade, based on laboratory confirmed cases.The study encompassed all invasive meningococci collected between 2002 and 2011 in the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. The isolates were re-identified and characterised by susceptibility testing, MLST analysis, porA and fetA sequencing. A PCR technique was used for meningococcal identification directly from clinical materials.In the period studied, 1936 cases of IMD were confirmed, including 75.6% identified by culture. Seven IMD outbreaks, affecting mostly adolescents, were reported; all were caused by serogroup C meningococci of ST-11. The highest incidence was observed among children under one year of age (15.71/100,000 in 2011. The general case fatality rate in the years 2010-2011 was 10.0%. Meningococci of serogroup B, C, Y and W-135 were responsible for 48.8%, 36.6%, 1.2% and 1.2% of cases, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and 84.2% were susceptible to penicillin. MLST analysis (2009-2011 revealed that among serogroup B isolates the most represented were clonal complexes (CC ST-32CC, ST-18CC, ST-41/44CC, ST-213CC and ST-269CC, and among serogroup C: ST-103CC, ST-41/44CC and ST-11CC.The detection of IMD in Poland has changed over time, but observed increase in the incidence of the disease was mostly attributed to changes in the surveillance system including an expanded case definition and inclusion of data from non-culture diagnostics.

  14. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences and the PCR to generate fingerprints of genomic DNAs from Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, and non-O1 strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, I G; Chowdhury, M A; Huq, A; Jacobs, D; Martins, M T; Colwell, R R

    1995-01-01

    Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence polymorphism was studied in Vibrio Cholerae strains isolated before and after the cholera epidemic in Brazil (in 1991), along with epidemic strains from Peru, Mexico, and India, by PCR. A total of 17 fingerprint patterns (FPs) were detected in the V. cholerae strains examined; 96.7% of the toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains and 100% of the O139 serogroup strains were found to belong to the same FP group comprising four fragments (F...

  15. The use of heteroduplex analysis of polymerase chain reaction products to support the possible transmission of Legionella pneumophila from a malfunctioning automobile air conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Ahmet; Ramirez, Julio A; Schindler, Laura L; Miller, Richard D; Summersgill, James T

    2002-03-01

    Air conditioner condensates have not been previously associated with cases of Legionnaires' disease. We report the possible transmission of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from a malfunctioning automobile air conditioning system's leaking water onto the floorboard of a car driven for a long distance by the patient. Heteroduplex analysis of polymerase chain reaction products was used to help establish an epidemiologic link between the water specimen and the patient.

  16. Identification and DNA fingerprinting of Legionella strains by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, N S; McDonell, F

    1997-01-01

    The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used in the development of a fingerprinting (typing) and identification protocol for Legionella strains. Twenty decamer random oligonucleotide primers were screened for their discriminatory abilities. Two candidate primers were selected. By using a combination of these primers, RAPD analysis allowed for the differentiation between all different species, between the serogroups, and further differentiation between subtypes of the same ...

  17. Immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of a CRM-conjugated meningococcal ACWY vaccine in children and adolescents aged 2-18 years in Taiwan: results of an open label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Min; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Yeh, Shu-Jen; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-09-08

    MenACWY-CRM (Menveo®, Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy) is a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine developed to help prevent invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W, and Y. It is approved within the European Union in persons >2 years of age and in persons from 2 months to 55 years of age in the United States, among other countries. Little is known about the immunogenicity and safety of this vaccine in Taiwanese children >2 years and adolescents. This study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a single injection of MenACWY-CRM vaccine in Taiwanese subjects aged 2-18 years old. In this phase III, multicentre, open-label study 341 subjects received one dose of MenACWY-CRM. Immunogenicity measures were rates of seroresponse (defined as the proportion of subjects with a postvaccination hSBA ≥1:8 if the prevaccination (baseline) titre was CRM vaccination at Day 29 for the serogroups A, C, W, and Y were 83%, 93%, 50%, and 65%, respectively. At Day 29 the percentages of subjects with hSBA ≥1:8 against all four serogroups A, C, W and Y were: 83%, 96%, 96% and 82%, respectively. GMTs against all serogroups rose by ≥7-fold from baseline to Day 29. The vaccine was well tolerated. A single dose of MenACWY-CRM demonstrated a robust immune response, and an acceptable safety profile in Taiwanese children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibody persistence 5 years after vaccination at 2 to 10 years of age with Quadrivalent MenACWY-CRM conjugate vaccine, and responses to a booster vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Stan L; Christensen, Shane; Verma, Bikash; Xie, Fang; Keshavan, Pavitra; Dull, Peter M; Smolenov, Igor

    2015-04-27

    In a multi-center extension study, children 2-10 years of age, initially vaccinated with one or two doses (2-5 year-olds) or one dose (6-10 year-olds) of quadrivalent meningococcal CRM197-conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM), were assessed five years later for antibody persistence and booster response using serum bactericidal assay with human complement (hSBA). Children 7-10 and 11-15 years of age, who received MenACWY-CRM in the original study, and age-matched vaccine-naïve children, were enrolled in this extension study. After an initial blood draw, children received one dose of MenACWY-CRM as booster or primary dose, with a second blood draw 28 days later. hSBA titers decreased five years after primary vaccination, but were higher than in non-vaccinated controls against serogroups C, W and Y, with substantial proportions having titers ≥8: 7-22% for A, 32-57% for C, 74-83% for W, and 48-54% for Y. Previously-vaccinated children demonstrated booster responses to revaccination against all four serogroups. Responses to primary vaccination in vaccine-naïve controls were lower and similar to primary responses observed in the original study. All vaccinations were generally well tolerated, with no safety concern raised. Approximately half the children vaccinated as 2-10 year-olds maintained protective antibodies against serogroups C, W and Y five years later, but fewer did against serogroup A. Declining titers five years after vaccination and robust booster responses suggest that five years may be an appropriate interval to revaccinate children, subject to epidemiology and delivery considerations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety and immunogenicity of a CRM or TT conjugated meningococcal vaccine in healthy toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Gianni; Castiglia, Paolo; Zoppi, Giorgio; de Martino, Maurizio; Tasciotti, Annaelisa; D'Agostino, Diego; Han, Linda; Smolenov, Igor

    2016-06-17

    MenACWY-CRM (Menveo(®); GlaxoSmithKline) and MenACWY-TT (Nimenrix(®); Pfizer) are two meningococcal vaccines licensed in the European Union for use in both children and adults. While both vaccines target meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y, immunogenicity and reactogenicity of these quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines may differ due to differences in formulation processes and chemical structure. Yet data on the comparability of these two vaccines are limited. The reactogenicity and immunogenicity of one dose of either MenACWY-CRM or MenACWY-TT were evaluated in healthy toddlers aged 12-15 months. Immunogenicity was assessed using serum bactericidal antibody assays (SBA) with human (hSBA) and rabbit (rSBA) complement. A total of 202 children aged 12-15 months were enrolled to receive one dose of MenACWY-CRM or MenACWY-TT. Similar numbers of subjects reported solicited reactions within 7 days following either vaccination. Tenderness at the injection site was the most common local reaction. Systemic reactions reported were similar for both vaccines and mostly mild to moderate in severity: irritability, sleepiness and change in eating habits were most commonly reported. Immunogenicity at 1 month post-vaccination was generally comparable for both vaccines across serogroups. At 6 months post-vaccination antibody persistence against serogroups C, W, and Y was substantial for both vaccines, as measured by both assay methodologies. For serogroup A, hSBA titers declined in both groups, while rSBA titers remained high. Despite differences in composition, the MenACWY-CRM and MenACWY-TT vaccines have comparable reactogenicity and immunogenicity profiles. Immediate immune responses and short-term antibody persistence were largely similar between groups. Both vaccines were well-tolerated and no safety concerns were identified. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring the Legionella pneumophila positivity rate in hotel water samples from Antalya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepin Özen, Nevgün; Tuğlu Ataman, Şenay; Emek, Mestan

    2017-05-01

    The genus Legionella is a fastidious Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in natural waters and man made water supply systems. Legionella pneumophila is the aetiological agent of approximately 90% of reported Legionellosis cases, and serogroup 1 is the most frequent cause of infections. Legionnaires' disease is often associated with travel and continues to be a public health concern at present. The correct water management quality practices and rapid methods for analyzing Legionella species in environmental water is a key point for the prevention of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks. This study aimed to evaluate the positivity rates and serotyping of Legionella species from water samples in the region of Antalya, Turkey, which is an important tourism center. During January-December 2010, a total of 1403 samples of water that were collected from various hotels (n = 56) located in Antalya were investigated for Legionella pneumophila. All samples were screened for L. pneumophila by culture method according to "ISO 11731-2" criteria. The culture positive Legionella strains were serologically identified by latex agglutination test. A total of 142 Legionella pneumophila isolates were recovered from 21 (37.5%) of 56 hotels. The total frequency of L. pneumophila isolation from water samples was found as 10.1%. Serological typing of 142 Legionella isolates by latex agglutination test revealed that strains belonging to L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 predominated in the examined samples (85%), while strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 were less numerous (15%). According to our knowledge, our study with the greatest number of water samples from Turkey demonstrates that L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 is the most common isolate. Rapid isolation of L. pneumophila from environmental water samples is essential for the investigation of travel related outbreaks and the possible resources. Further studies are needed to have epidemiological data and to determine the types of L

  1. In vitro antimycobacterial and antilegionella activity of licochalcone A from Chinese licorice roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Chen, Ming; Fuursted, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    Licochalcone A, extracted and purified from Chinese licorice roots, showed in vitro inhibitory effect on human pathogenic Mycobacteria species and Legionella species. M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and BCG were inhibited by ... resistant to > 20 mg/l Legionella pneumophila (serogroups 1 - 7) and L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. feelei, L. longbeacheae and L. wadsworthii were inhibited by licochalcone A 1 - 4 mg/l, whereas L. gormanii and L. micdadei were inhibited by licochalcone A 500 - 1000 mg/l. These data indicate...

  2. Legionella contamination in hot water systems of hospitals, nursing homes, hotels, factories and spas in Tuscany-Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Lo Nostro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract Following the report of many cases of Legionnaires’ disease associated with accommodation facilities such as hotels, spas, workplaces, hospitals and nursing homes, we verified if Legionella pneumophila and Legionella spp. were present in some of those structures in Tuscany, in order to estimate the species and serogroups in circulation. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (30.9% was the most frequently isolated species along with serogroups 3 (16.1% and 6 (13.3%; these three serogroups are identified, in literature, as those most responsible for Legionnaires’ disease (LD. Studying all analyzed structures, we found some parts of the water system where Legionella concentration was higher than 103CFU/L, indicated, in Italy, as the maximum admitted concentration value above which a decontamination treatment is necessary when one or more cases of healthcare-acquired Legionnaires’ disease are observed. Moreover disinfection is recommended in any case when counts exceed 104CFU/L.
    Consequently, in order to prevent cases of Legionnaires’ disease, a continuous surveillance of the water
    systems of all accommodation facilities is necessary, with particular attention to hospitals and nursing
    homes where immunocompromised patients lodge, so as to promptly estimate the presence of the pathogen and consequently plan the most suitable intervention activities. We concluded that, in any structure, a continuous surveillance and disinfecting treatment of water systems is necessary. Moreover, after any disinfection treatment the temperature of the hot water flowing in the system must be necessarily maintained near 51°C in order to minimize the probability of recontamination from Legionella and limit the
    risk of LD in consumers.

  3. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat seafood marketed in Thessaloniki (Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Soultos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the current study, a contribution to the knowledge on the prevalence and level of contamination of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE seafood marketed in Thessaloniki (Northern Greece was provided; the serovar identity of the L. monocytogenes isolates was also determined. Materials and Methods: A total of 132 RTE seafood samples consisting of 74 smoked fish products, 18 salted fish products, 16 dried fish products, 9 raw marinated fish products, 10 cooked marinated cephalopods and 5 surimi crab stick products were analyzed. L. monocytogenes were isolated and enumerated based on ISO 11290-1/A1 and ISO 11290-2/A1 protocols, respectively, and identified using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR system utilizing genus and species specific primers. For the identification of serotypes a second multiplex PCR assay was used which clusters L. monocytogenes strains into four major serogroups. Results: Of the samples examined, 11 (8.3% proved positive for Listeria spp. with 8 (6.1% yielding L. monocytogenes. Only in one sample of smoked mackerel the level of L. monocytogenes exceeded the legal safety limit of 100 cfu/g set out in Commission Regulation (EC No. 1441/2007. Serotyping showed higher percentages of isolates belonging to PCR serogroup 3:1/2b, 3b, 7 (46.7% and serogroup 1:1/2a, 3a (40% followed by serogroup 4:4b, 4d, 4e (13.3%. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that L. monocytogenes can be isolated from processed RTE seafood products at retail in Thessaloniki (Northern Greece in low concentrations. However, the presence of this human pathogen in RTE seafood should not be overlooked, but it should be considered as having significance public health implications, particularly among the persons who are at greater risk. Therefore, RTE seafood should be produced under appropriate hygienic and technological conditions since the product does not undergo any treatment before consumption.

  4. Increase of Neisseria meningitidis W:cc11 invasive disease in Chile has no correlation with carriage in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina S Rubilar

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a human exclusive pathogen that can lead to invasive meningococcal disease or may be carried in the upper respiratory tract without symptoms. The relationship between carriage and disease remains poorly understood but it is widely accepted that decreasing carriage by immunization should lead to a reduction of invasive cases. Latin America has experienced an increased incidence of serogroup W invasive cases of Neisseria meningitidis in the last decade. Specifically in Chile, despite low total incidence of invasive cases, serogroup W has become predominant since 2011 and has been associated with elevated mortality. Expecting to gain insight into the epidemiology of this disease, this study has used molecular typing schemes to compare Neisseria meningitidis isolates causing invasive disease with those isolates collected from adolescent carriers during the same period in Chile. A lower carriage of the serogroup W clonal complex ST-11/ET37 than expected was found; whereas, the same clonal complex accounted for 66% of total invasive meningococcal disease cases in the country that year. A high diversity of PorA variable regions and fHbp peptides was also ascertained in the carrier isolates compared to the invasive ones. According to the results shown here, the elevated number of serogroup W invasive cases in our country cannot be explained by a rise of carriage of pathogenic isolates. Overall, this study supports the idea that some strains, as W:cc11 found in Chile, possess an enhanced virulence to invade the host. Notwithstanding hypervirulence, this strain has not caused an epidemic in Chile. Finally, as genetic transfer occurs often, close surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis strains causing disease, and particularly hypervirulent W:cc11, should be kept as a priority in our country, in order to prepare the best response to face genetic changes that could lead to enhanced fitness of this pathogen.

  5. Within-Flock Population Dynamics of Dichelobacter nodosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Green

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Footrot causes 70–90% of lameness in sheep in Great Britain. With approximately 5% of 18 million adult sheep lame at any one time, it costs the UK sheep industry £24–84 million per year. The Gram-negative anaerobe Dichelobacter nodosus is the causative agent, with disease severity influenced by bacterial load, virulence, and climate. The aim of the current study was to characterize strains of D. nodosus isolated by culture of swabs from healthy and diseased feet of 99 ewes kept as a closed flock over a 10-month period and investigate persistence and transmission of strains within feet, sheep, and the flock. Overall 268 isolates were characterized into strains by serogroup, proline–glycine repeat (pgr status, and multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA. The culture collection contained 87 unique MLVA profiles and two major MLVA complexes that persisted over time. A subset of 189 isolates tested for the virulence marker aprV2 were all positive. The two MLVA complexes (76 and 114 comprised 62 and 22 MLVA types and 237 and 28 isolates, respectively. Serogroups B, and I, and pgrB were associated with MLVA complex 76, whereas serogroups D and H were associated with MLVA complex 114. We conclude that within-flock D. nodosus evolution appeared to be driven by clonal diversification. There was no association (P > 0.05 between serogroup, pgr, or MLVA type and disease state of feet. Strains of D. nodosus clustered within sheep and were transmitted between ewes over time. D. nodosus was isolated at more than one time point from 21 feet, including 5 feet where the same strain was isolated on two occasions at an interval of 1–33 weeks. Collectively, our results indicate that D. nodosus strains persisted in the flock, spread between sheep, and possibly persisted on feet over time.

  6. An unusual case of Legionellosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prior, A R

    2011-03-01

    Legionella species is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. However disease due to L. pneumophila serogroup 13 is rare and has not previously been reported in Ireland. It may not be detected by routine Legionella antigen and antibody kits. Due to these limitations, early culture should be considered when legionellosis is suspected. The potential therapeutic benefit of quinolones in the management of this disease is also illustrated.

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM in healthy Korean adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoan Jong Lee

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107 against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  8. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from hotels of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, S D; Antoniadis, A; Papapaganagiotou, J; Stefanou, T

    1989-03-01

    Twenty water samples collected from 6 hotels situated in various areas of Greece were examined for the presence of Legionella pneumophila and Legionella-like organisms. Five of the six hotels included in this investigation were associated with cases of legionellosis. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 and 8 were isolated from four of six hotels, mainly from the hot water supply system. This is the first isolation and identification of L. pneumophila in Greece.

  9. Immunochemical characterization of the O antigens of two Proteus strains, O8-related antigen of Proteus mirabilis 12 B-r and O2-related antigen of Proteus genomospecies 5/6 12 B-k, infecting a hospitalized patient in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecka, Dominika; Shashkov, Alexander S; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-05-01

    A hospitalized 73-year-old woman was infected with a Proteus mirabilis strain, 12 B-r, isolated from the place of injection of a blood catheter. Another strain, 12 B-k, recognized as Proteus genomospecies 5 or 6, was isolated from the patient's faeces, which was an example of a nosocomial infection rather than an auto-infection. Serological investigation using ELISA and Western blotting showed that strain 12 B-k from faeces belonged to the Proteus O2 serogroup. Strain 12 B-r from the wound displayed cross-reactions with several Proteus O serogroups due to common epitopes on the core or O-specific parts of the lipopolysaccharide. Studies of the isolated 12 B-r O-specific polysaccharide by NMR spectroscopy revealed its close structural similarity to that of Proteus O8. The only difference in 12 B-r was the presence of an additional GlcNAc-linked phosphoethanolamine residue, which creates a putative epitope responsible for the cross-reactivity with Pt. mirabilis O16. The new O-antigen form could appear as a result of adaptation of the bacterium to a changing environment. On the basis of the data obtained, we suggest division of the O8 serogroup into two subgroups: O8a for strains of various Proteus species that have been previously classified into the O8 serogroup, and O8a,b for Pt. mirabilis 12 B-r, where 'a' is a common epitope and 'b' is a phosphoethanolamine-associated epitope. These findings further confirm serological and structural heterogeneity of O antigens of Proteus strains isolated lately from patients in Poland.

  10. Replacement of Neisseria meningitidis C cc11/ET-15 variant by a cc103 hypervirulent clone, Brazil 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha, Guilherme; Cordeiro, Soraia; Gomes, Erica; Romanelli, Cinthia; Andrade, Claudia; Reis, Joice; de Filippis, Ivano

    2013-08-01

    Outbreaks caused by serogroup C meningococci in the northeast region of Brazil from 2005 to 2011 were associated to the emergence of variant ET-15 of cc11, which has been replaced by cc103 from 2006 to date. The increase of cc103 should be closely monitored to prevent the spread of this clone to neighbouring regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic diversity of penicillin-binding protein 2B and 2X genes from Streptococcus pneumoniae in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, A M; Klugman, K P; Coffey, T J; Spratt, B G

    1993-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is believed to have developed resistance to penicillin by the production of altered forms of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that have decreased affinity for penicillin. Sixty-eight clinical isolates of serogroup 6 and 19 pneumococci (MICs, < 0.015 to 8 micrograms/ml) were randomly selected from hospitals across South Africa which are at substantial geographic distance from each other. The polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate the penicil...

  12. Increased Frequency of ColV Plasmids and Mannose-Resistant Hemagglutinating Activity in an Escherichia coli K1 Population

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The expression of traits linked to pathogenicity was studied in a population of Escherichia coli K1 strains. It was found that E. coli K1 strains isolated from extraintestinal infection harbor the ColV plasmid and express mannose-resistant hemagglutinating activity type VI with a high frequency. The presence of these properties may play a role in the ability of some E. coli K1 serogroups to invade.

  13. Revalidation and genetic characterization of new members of Group C (Orthobunyavirus genus, Peribunyaviridae family) isolated in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; de Souza, William Marciel; Acrani, Gustavo Olszanski; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Badra, Soraya Jabur; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2018-01-01

    Group C serogroup includes members of the Orthobunyavirus genus (family Peribunyaviridae) and comprises 15 arboviruses that can be associated with febrile illness in humans. Although previous studies described the genome characterization of Group C orthobunyavirus, there is a gap in genomic information about the other viruses in this group. Therefore, in this study, complete genomes of members of Group C serogroup were sequenced or re-sequenced and used for genetic characterization, as well as to understand their phylogenetic and evolutionary aspects. Thus, our study reported the genomes of three new members in Group C virus (Apeu strain BeAn848, Itaqui strain BeAn12797 and Nepuyo strain BeAn10709), as well as re-sequencing of original strains of five members: Caraparu (strain BeAn3994), Madrid (strain BT4075), Murucutu (strain BeAn974), Oriboca (strain BeAn17), and Marituba (strain BeAn15). These viruses presented a typical genomic organization related to members of the Orthobunyavirus genus. Interestingly, all viruses of this serogroup showed an open reading frame (ORF) that encodes the putative nonstructural NSs protein that precedes the nucleoprotein ORF, an unprecedented fact in Group C virus. Also, we confirmed the presence of natural reassortment events. This study expands the genomic information of Group C viruses, as well as revalidates the genomic organization of viruses that were previously reported.

  14. Meningococcal disease, a clinical and epidemiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Rodrigo Siqueira; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Dutra Gazineo, Jorge Luiz; Balbino Miguel, Paulo Sérgio; Santana, Luiz Alberto; Oliveira, Lisa; Geller, Mauro

    2017-11-01

    Meningococcal disease is the acute infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis, which has humans as the only natural host. The disease is widespread around the globe and is known for its epidemical potential and high rates of lethality and morbidity. The highest number of cases of the disease is registered in the semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa. In Brazil, it is endemic with occasional outbreaks, epidemics and sporadic cases occurring throughout the year, especially in the winter. The major epidemics of the disease occurred in Brazil in the 70's caused by serogroups A and C. Serogroups B, C and Y represent the majority of cases in Europe, the Americas and Australia. However, there has been a growing increase in serogroup W in some areas. The pathogen transmission happens for respiratory route (droplets) and clinically can lead to meningitis and sepsis (meningococcemia). The treatment is made with antimicrobial and supportive care. For successful prevention, we have some measures like vaccination, chemoprophylaxis and droplets' precautions. In this review, we have described and clarify clinical features of the disease caused by N. meningitidis regarding its relevance for healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Leptospira Serovars for Diagnosis of Leptospirosis in Humans and Animals in Africa: Common Leptospira Isolates and Reservoir Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgode, Georgies F; Machang'u, Robert S; Mhamphi, Ginethon G; Katakweba, Abdul; Mulungu, Loth S; Durnez, Lies; Leirs, Herwig; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Belmain, Steven R

    2015-12-01

    The burden of leptospirosis in humans and animals in Africa is higher than that reported from other parts of the world. However, the disease is not routinely diagnosed in the continent. One of major factors limiting diagnosis is the poor availability of live isolates of locally circulating Leptospira serovars for inclusion in the antigen panel of the gold standard microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for detecting antibodies against leptospirosis. To gain insight in Leptospira serovars and their natural hosts occurring in Tanzania, concomitantly enabling the improvement of the MAT by inclusion of fresh local isolates, a total of 52 Leptospira isolates were obtained from fresh urine and kidney homogenates, collected between 1996 and 2006 from small mammals, cattle and pigs. Isolates were identified by serogrouping, cross agglutination absorption test (CAAT), and molecular typing. Common Leptospira serovars with their respective animal hosts were: Sokoine (cattle and rodents); Kenya (rodents and shrews); Mwogolo (rodents); Lora (rodents); Qunjian (rodent); serogroup Grippotyphosa (cattle); and an unknown serogroup from pigs. Inclusion of local serovars particularly serovar Sokoine in MAT revealed a 10-fold increase in leptospirosis prevalence in Tanzania from 1.9% to 16.9% in rodents and 0.26% to 10.75% in humans. This indicates that local serovars are useful for diagnosis of human and animal leptospirosis in Tanzania and other African countries.

  16. Serological investigation of Leptospira infection and its circulation in one intensive-type water buffalo farm in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N; Gloriani, Nina G; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Isoda, Norikazu; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Nobuo

    2016-02-01

    Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n = 21), and water buffaloes (n = 170) from different groups and locations in one intensive-type buffalo farm in the Philippines. Serum was analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Anti-Leptospira antibodies reacting with serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were found in sera of 30% tested rats, and 48% of water buffalo sera tested positive for at least one Leptospira strain, in which serogroups Mini, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Pyrogenes were predominantly agglutinated. The number of seropositive young water buffaloes (Leptospira strains with variable MAT titers. In addition, antibodies against serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were detected in both animals. Finally, Leptospira infection was found associated with age and animal grouping, highlighting the impact of management in the persistence of leptospirosis at intensive-type buffalo farm settings in the Philippines. Further investigation and appropriate control strategies are required to prevent leptospirosis from causing risks to public health and economic losses to the water buffalo farming industry.

  17. Global practices of meningococcal vaccine use and impact on invasive disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asad; Jafri, Rabab Zehra; Messonnier, Nancy; Tevi-Benissan, Carol; Durrheim, David; Eskola, Juhani; Fermon, Florence; Klugman, Keith P; Ramsay, Mary; Sow, Samba; Zhujun, Shao; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Abramson, Jon

    2014-01-01

    A number of countries now include meningococcal vaccines in their routine immunization programs. This review focuses on different approaches to including meningococcal vaccines in country programs across the world and their effect on the burden of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) as reflected by pre and post-vaccine incidence rates in the last 20 years. Mass campaigns using conjugated meningococcal vaccines have lead to control of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the UK, Canada, Australia, Spain, Belgium, Ireland, and Iceland. Serogroup B disease, predominant in New Zealand, has been dramatically decreased, partly due to the introduction of an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine. Polysaccharide vaccines were used in high risk people in Saudi Arabia and Syria and in routine immunization in China and Egypt. The highest incidence region of the meningitis belt initiated vaccination with the serogroup A conjugate vaccine in 2010 and catch-up vaccination is ongoing. Overall results of this vaccine introduction are encouraging especially in countries with a moderate to high level of endemic disease. Continued surveillance is required to monitor effectiveness in countries that recently implemented these programs. PMID:24548156

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of one dose of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, when administered to adolescents concomitantly or sequentially with Tdap and HPV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguedas, A; Soley, C; Loaiza, C; Rincon, G; Guevara, S; Perez, A; Porras, W; Alvarado, O; Aguilar, L; Abdelnour, A; Grunwald, U; Bedell, L; Anemona, A; Dull, P M

    2010-04-19

    This Phase III study evaluates an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM (Novartis Vaccines), when administered concomitantly or sequentially with two other recommended adolescent vaccines; combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. In this single-centre study, 1620 subjects 11-18 years of age, were randomized to three groups (1:1:1) to receive MenACWY-CRM concomitantly or sequentially with Tdap and HPV. Meningococcal serogroup-specific serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA), and antibodies to Tdap antigens and HPV virus-like particles were determined before and 1 month after study vaccinations. Proportions of subjects with hSBA titres > or =1:8 for all four meningococcal serogroups (A, C, W-135, Y) were non-inferior for both concomitant and sequential administration. Immune responses to Tdap and HPV antigens were comparable when these vaccines were given alone or concomitantly with MenACWY-CRM. All vaccines were well tolerated; concomitant or sequential administration did not increase reactogenicity. MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic in subjects 11-18 years of age, with comparable immune responses to the four serogroups when given alone or concomitantly with Tdap or HPV antigens. This is the first demonstration that these currently recommended adolescent vaccines could be administered concomitantly without causing increased reactogenicity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early diagnosis of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Babic-Erceg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 25-years old man from Zagreb, Croatia, was admitted to the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases four days after the onset of symptoms such as fever, intense pain in the calves and anuria. The patient owned a rabbit and, before the onset of the disease, repaired some rubber pipes damaged by rodents. At admission, he had a severe clinical picture with fever, hypotension, jaundice, immobility, and pain in leg muscles. Treatment with ceftriaxone was initiated in combination with volume restitution. Renal failure soon ensued. Consequently continuous venovenous hemodiaphiltration therapy was performed. Due to acute respiratory distress syndrome, the patient was mechanically ventilated. The patient’s condition gradually improved and he recovered fully from multi-organ failure. Diagnosis was confirmed by a microscopic agglutination test (MAT covering 15 leptospira serovars and real-time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR. The first serum sample taken on day 6 tested negative for leptospira, while PCR showed positive results for leptospiral DNA. The second serum sample taken on day 13 tested positive for serovar Canicola serogroup Canicola, serovar Patoc, serovar Grippotyphosa serogroup Grippotyphosa and serovar Tarassovi serogroup Tarassovi (titre 4000, 4000, 1000 and 2000, respectively, while PCR was negative. This report highlights the benefits of combining MAT and PCR methods in early diagnosis of leptospirosis.

  20. Experimental mouse lethality of Escherichia coli strains isolated from free ranging Tibetan yaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yajing; Mehmood, Khalid; Huang, Shucheng; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Li, Jiakui

    2017-08-01

    The present study has examined the virulence potential of Escherichia coli isolates harboring at least one virulence gene (associated with ExPEC or InPEC pathotype and belonging to different phylogenetic groups: A, B1, B2 or D), isolated from free ranging Tibetan yak feces. The E. coli isolates (n = 87) were characterized for different serogroups and a mouse model of subcutaneous-infection was used to envisage the virulence within these E. coli strains. Of the 87 E. coli isolates examined, 23% of the E. coli isolates caused lethal infections in a mouse model of subcutaneous infection and were classified as killer. Moreover, the majority of the killer strains belonged to phylogroup A (65%) and serogroup O 60 or O 101 (35%). Phylogroup B1, serogroups O 60 and O 101 were statistically associated with the killer status (P 1) were observed between the killer status isolates and all other bacterial virulence traits. This study comprises the first report on the virulence potential of E. coli strains isolated from free-ranging Tibetan yaks feces. Our findings suggest that pathogenic E. coli of free ranging yaks is highly worrisome, as these feces are used as manures by farmers and therewith pose a health risk to humans upon exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of sorbitol non-fermenting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Black Bengal goats on smallholdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, M; Das, A; Islam, M Z; Biswas, P K

    2016-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Bangladesh with the sampling of 514 Black Bengal goats on smallholdings to determine the presence of sorbitol non-fermenting (SNF) Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Swab samples collected from the recto-anal junction were plated onto cefixime and potassium tellurite added sorbitol MacConkey (CT-SMAC) agar, a selective medium for STEC O157 serogroup, where this serogroup and other SNF STEC produce colourless colonies. The SNF E. coli (SNF EC) isolates obtained from the survey were investigated by PCR for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing genes, stx1 and stx2, and two other virulence genes, eae and hlyA that code for adherence factor (intimin protein) and pore-forming cytolysin, respectively. The SNF EC isolates were also assessed for the presence of the rfbO157 gene to verify their identity to O157 serogroup. The results revealed that the proportions of goats carrying SNF EC isolates and stx1 and stx2 genes were 6·2% (32/514) [95% confidence interval (CI) 4·4-8·7)], 1·2% (95% CI 0·5-2·6) and 1·2% (95% CI 0·5-2·6), respectively. All the SNF STEC tested negative for rfbO157, hlyA and eae genes. The risk for transmission of STEC from Black Bengal goats to humans is low.

  2. Meningococcal disease in the Asia-Pacific region: Findings and recommendations from the Global Meningococcal Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, Ray; Lee, Jin-Soo; Vázquez, Julio A; Enwere, Godwin; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Kamiya, Hajime; Kim, Hwang Min; Jo, Dae Sun

    2016-11-21

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is a global expert group that includes scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with a wide range of specialties. The purpose of the Initiative is to promote the global prevention of meningococcal disease (MD) through education, research, and cooperation. The first Asia-Pacific regional meeting was held in November 2014. The GMI reviewed the epidemiology of MD, surveillance, and prevention strategies, and outbreak control practices from participating countries in the Asia-Pacific region.Although, in general, MD is underreported in this region, serogroup A disease is most prominent in low-income countries such as India and the Philippines, while Taiwan, Japan, and Korea reported disease from serogroups C, W, and Y. China has a mixed epidemiology of serogroups A, B, C, and W. Perspectives from countries outside of the region were also provided to provide insight into lessons learnt. Based on the available data and meeting discussions, a number of challenges and data gaps were identified and, as a consequence, several recommendations were formulated: strengthen surveillance; improve diagnosis, typing and case reporting; standardize case definitions; develop guidelines for outbreak management; and promote awareness of MD among healthcare professionals, public health officials, and the general public. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. [Algorithm of toxigenic genetically altered Vibrio cholerae El Tor biovar strain identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, N I; Agafonov, D A; Zadnova, S P; Cherkasov, A V; Kutyrev, V V

    2014-01-01

    Development of an algorithm of genetically altered Vibrio cholerae biovar El Tor strai identification that ensures determination of serogroup, serovar and biovar of the studied isolate based on pheno- and genotypic properties, detection of genetically altered cholera El Tor causative agents, their differentiation by epidemic potential as well as evaluation of variability of key pathogenicity genes. Complex analysis of 28 natural V. cholerae strains was carried out by using traditional microbiological methods, PCR and fragmentary sequencing. An algorithm of toxigenic genetically altered V. cholerae biovar El Tor strain identification was developed that includes 4 stages: determination of serogroup, serovar and biovar based on phenotypic properties, confirmation of serogroup and biovar based on molecular-genetic properties determination of strains as genetically altered, differentiation of genetically altered strains by their epidemic potential and detection of ctxB and tcpA key pathogenicity gene polymorphism. The algorithm is based on the use of traditional microbiological methods, PCR and sequencing of gene fragments. The use of the developed algorithm will increase the effectiveness of detection of genetically altered variants of the cholera El Tor causative agent, their differentiation by epidemic potential and will ensure establishment of polymorphism of genes that code key pathogenicity factors for determination of origins of the strains and possible routes of introduction of the infection.

  4. Evaluation of mice infected to Salmonella Spp in Poultry farms of Tehran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hadadian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, 290 mice and rats fecal samples from commercial layer and broiler poultry houses were tested for Salmonella sp. presence. All samples were cultured on Selenite F broth media and passaged on SS agar and McConkey agar. The suspected colonies were cultured on Urea and TSI agars to be confirmed as Salmonella sp.. Finally, Salmonella isolates were identified genetically and biochemically by PCR and conventional methods, respectively. Serogrouping and Antibiotic resistance profiling were done for further differentiation of isolates. Twenty eight (9.65% Salmonellas were isolated from (out of 290 samples. Eight (28.6%, seven (25%, four (14.3%, and two (7.2% isolates were located in serogroups C, D, B and E, respectively. Seven isolates (25% belonged to Arizona subspecies and just one non-motile serogroup D Salmonella was isolated. All isolates were sensitive to enrofloxacin, difloxacin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol and florfenicol, but they were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and neomycin in decreasing order. In addition to former surveys, this study confirmed the role of mice and rats in spreading of Salmonella spp. in poultry farms. In conclusion it is essential to take appropriate measurements (measures for pest management in poultry houses to approach the prevention of some bacterial infection like  (such as salmonellosis.

  5. Clonal Distribution of Disease-Associated and Healthy Carrier Isolates of Neisseria meningitidis between 1983 and 2005 in Cuba ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, Yanet; Yero, Daniel; Martinez, Isabel; Martín, Alejandro; Jolley, Keith A.; Sotolongo, Franklin; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Urwin, Rachel; Pajón, Rolando

    2010-01-01

    In response to epidemic levels of serogroup B meningococcal disease in Cuba during the 1980s, the VA-MENGOC-BC vaccine was developed and introduced into the National Infant Immunization Program in 1991. Since then the incidence of meningococcal disease in Cuba has returned to the low levels recorded before the epidemic. A total of 420 Neisseria meningitidis strains collected between 1983 and 2005 in Cuba were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The set of strains comprised 167 isolated from disease cases and 253 obtained from healthy carriers. By MLST analysis, 63 sequence types (STs) were identified, and 32 of these were reported to be a new ST. The Cuban isolates were associated with 12 clonal complexes; and the most common were ST-32 (246 isolates), ST-53 (86 isolates), and ST-41/44 (36 isolates). This study also showed that the application of VA-MENGOC-BC, the Cuban serogroup B and C vaccine, reduced the frequency and diversity of hypervirulent clonal complexes ST-32 (vaccine serogroup B type-strain) and ST-41/44 and also affected other lineages. Lineages ST-8 and ST-11 were no longer found during the postvaccination period. The vaccine also affected the genetic composition of the carrier-associated meningococcal isolates. The number of carrier isolates belonging to hypervirulent lineages decreased significantly after vaccination, and ST-53, a sequence type common in carriers, became the predominant ST. PMID:20042619

  6. Serological and molecular characterization of Syrian Tomato spotted wilt virus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz ISMAEIL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty four Syrian isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV collected from tomato and pepper were tested against five specific monoclonal antibodies using TAS-ELISA. The isolates were in two serogroups. Fourteen tomato and sixteen pepper isolates were similar in their reaction with MAb-2, MAb-4, MAb-5 and MAb-6, but did not react with MAb-7 (Serogroup 1. Meanwhile, four isolates collected from pepper reacted with all the MAbs used (Serogroup 2. The expected 620 bp DNA fragment was obtained by RT-PCR from six samples using a specific primer pair designed to amplify the nucleocapsid protein (NP gene of TSWV. The PCR products were sequenced and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Sequence analysis revealed that the Syrian TSWV isolates were very similar at the nucleotide (97.74 to 99.84% identity and amino acid (96.17 to 99.03% identity sequences levels. The phylogenetic tree showed high similarity of Syrian TSWV isolates with many other representative isolates from different countries.

  7. Epidemiology of invasive meningococcal B disease in Australia, 1999-2015: priority populations for vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Brett N; Chiu, Clayton K; Jayasinghe, Sanjay H; Richmond, Peter C; McVernon, Jodie; Lahra, Monica M; Andrews, Ross M; McIntyre, Peter B

    2017-11-06

    To describe trends in the age-specific incidence of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Australia, 1999-2015. Analysis in February 2017 of de-identified notification data from the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System of all notifications of IMD in Australia with a recorded diagnosis date during 1999-2015.Major outcomes: IMD notification rates in Australia, 1999-2015, by age, serogroup, Indigenous status, and region. The incidence of meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) disease declined progressively from 1.52 cases per 100 000 population in 2001 to 0.47 per 100 000 in 2015. During 2006-2015, MenB accounted for 81% of IMD cases with a known serogroup; its highest incidence was among infants under 12 months of age (11.1 [95% CI, 9.81-12.2] per 100 000), children aged 1-4 years (2.82 [95% CI, 2.52-3.15] per 100 000), and adolescents aged 15-19 years (2.40 [95% CI, 2.16-2.67] per 100 000). Among the 473 infants under 2 years of age with MenB, 43% were under 7 months and 69% under 12 months of age. The incidence of meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) disease prior to the introduction of the MenC vaccine in 2003 was much lower in infants than for MenB (2.60 cases per 100 000), the rate peaking in people aged 15-19 years (3.32 per 100 000); the overall case fatality rate was also higher (MenC, 8%; MenB, 4%). The incidence of MenB disease was significantly higher among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australians during 2006-2015 (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 3.8; 95% CI, 3.3-4.5). Based on disease incidence at its current low endemic levels, priority at risk age/population groups for MenB vaccination include all children between 2 months and 5 years of age, Indigenous children under 10 years of age, and all adolescents aged 15-19 years. Given marked variation in meningococcal disease trends over time, close scrutiny of current epidemiologic data is essential.

  8. Quadrivalent meningococcal (MenACWY-TT) conjugate vaccine or a fourth dose of H. influenzae-N. meningitidis C/Y conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT) is immunogenic in toddlers who previously received three doses of HibMenCY-TT in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Michael; Latiolais, Thomas; Sarpong, Kwabena; Simon, Michael; Twiggs, Jerry; Lei, Paul; Rinderknecht, Stephen; Blatter, Mark; Bianco, Veronique; Baine, Yaela; Friedland, Leonard R; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2015-02-11

    Immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of MenACWY-TT or a fourth dose of HibMenCY-TT were evaluated in the second year of life in HibMenCY-TT-primed toddlers. Healthy infants were randomized (5:1) and primed at 2, 4 and 6 months of age with HibMenCY-TT and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus (DTaP-HBV-IPV) vaccine; or Hib-TT and DTaP-HBV-IPV (control). Recipients of HibMenCY-TT+DTaP-HBV-IPV were re-randomized (2:2:1) to receive MenACWY-TT at 12-15 months and DTaP at 15-18 months; MenACWY-TT co-administered with DTaP at 15-18 months; or HibMenCY-TT at 12-15 months and DTaP at 15-18 months. Controls received DTaP only at 15-18 months due to Hib conjugate vaccine shortage. Serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) and safety were assessed one month after meningococcal vaccination. After vaccination with MenACWY-TT at 12-15 months or MenACWY-TT+DTaP at 15-18 months, all subjects previously primed for serogroups C/Y had hSBA ≥1:8 for these serogroups. At least 96.1% also had hSBA ≥1:8 for serogroups A/W. All subjects in the HibMenCY-TT group had hSBA ≥1:8 for serogroups C/Y. All pre-defined statistical criteria for meningococcal immunogenicity were satisfied. All vaccination regimens had acceptable safety profiles. Children primed with three doses of HibMenCY-TT who then received a single dose of MenACWY-TT or a fourth dose of HibMenCY-TT had robust increases in hSBA titers for serogroups C/Y. These data provide support that MenACWY-TT, given with or without the fourth scheduled dose of DTaP could be administered as an alternative to a fourth dose of HibMenCY-TT in the second year of life. This study (110870/110871) is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00614614. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Enfoques mucosales en vacunologia de Neisseria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez O

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal B strains accounts for some 72% and 28% of meningococcal diseases in infants and toddlers in Europe and the USA, respectively. Nevertheless, meningococcal diseases are rare in Cuba owing to the wide spread program on antimeningococcal vaccination in the country. Finlay Institute is one of the pioneering organizations in Neisseria Vaccinology mainly by its contribution to N. meningitidis serogroup B outer membrane-based bivalent vaccine, VA-MENGOC-BC™. This vaccine was given intramuscularly in more than 60 million doses corresponding 10.7 millions of them to Cuban young adults, children, and infants. However, most dangerous or commensally Neisseria strains enter and establish in the mucosa, where the secretory (S IgA is the main specific guardian and is mainly induced by mucosal routes. However, few mucosal vaccines exist principally due to the absent of mucosal adjuvants. We develop a Finlay Adjuvant (AF platform based in outer membrane vesicles (Proteoliposome, PL and its derivate Cochleate (Co. AFPL1 derived from serogroup B N. meningitidis is a potent Th1/CTL driving parenteral adjuvant. AFCo1 is a potent mucosal adjuvant. Therefore, we sought to go deeper in the possible mucosal cross recognition between N. meningitidis serogroups and Neisseria species and explore a concurrent mucosal and parenteral immunization strategy (SinTimVaS in order to develop suitable mucosal vaccines. Experiments were conducted in Balb/c or C57Bl6 mice with mucosal and systemic immunization using AFCo1 and AFPL1. Human sera and saliva were also analyzed for cross cognition. Mucosal cross recognition at SIgA level in human saliva between N. meningitidis serogroups B, A, C, Y, and W135 were observed. This SIgA cross recognition response was also observed between pathogenic (N. meningitidis serogroup B, N. gonorrhoeae and non-pathogenic strains (N. flava, N. lactamica. The possible influence of meningococcal vaccination against Gonorrhea was also

  10. Outbreak of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection from Consumption of Beef Sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Smith, B.; Torpdahl, M.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26: H11 infection in 20 patients (median age, 2 years). The source of the infection was an organic fermented beef sausage. The source was discovered by using credit card information to obtain and compare customer transaction records...

  11. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 10. Synthesis and structural characterization of (C14H16N2)3 (C14H17N2)2 [-Mo8 O26]. Ikram Zebiri Sihem Boufas Salima Mosbah Leïla Bencharif Mustapha Bencharif. Volume 127 Issue 10 October 2015 pp 1769-1775 ...

  12. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three kaempferol glycosides were isolated from the methanolic extract of the stem bark of Albizia versicolor and identified as kaempferol-3-neohesperidoside, kaempferol-3-O-(26-a-rhamnopyranosyl)-rutinoside and mauritianin on the basis of NMR studies. These glycosides are all new to the genus. INTRODUCTION.

  13. HYDRO-GEOELCTRICAL STUDY IN JALINGO METROPOLIS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences ... The area falls within Latitudes 8o 50'- 8o 58' N and Longitudes 11o 18'-11o 26' E. From the study, 72% of the VES data indicate a three electro-stratigraphic earth model. The first ... KEY WORDS: Geology and hydrogeology of Jalingo and environs and interpretation of resistivity data.

  14. Investigation of multimodal forward scatter phenotyping from bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Huisung

    the 2-D spatial density map from the ICMA. The MS-BARDOT can measure multispectral elastic-light-scatter patterns of the bacterial colony and its spectral OD to overcome the inherent limits of the single-wavelength BARDOT. A theoretical model for spectral forward scatter patterns from a bacterial colony based on elastic light scatter is presented. The spectral forward scatter patterns are computed by scalar diffraction theory, and compared with experimental results of three discrete wavelengths (405 nm, 635 nm, and 904 nm). Both model and experiment results show an excellent agreement; a longer wavelength induces a wider ring width, a wider ring gap, a smaller pattern size, and smaller numbers of rings. Further analysis using spatial fast Fourier transform (SFFT) shows a good agreement; the spatial frequencies are increasing towards the inward direction, and the slope is inversely proportional to the incoming wavelength. Four major pathogenic bacterial genera (Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933, Listeria monocytogenes F4244, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT21, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) and the seven major Escherichia coli serovar (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) with 3-4 strains each are measured and analyzed with the proposed instrument and algorithm. The MM-BARDOT can measure six different modalities: 1) light microscopy, 2) 3D morphology map from confocal microscopy, 3) 3D optical density map, 4) spectral forward scattering pattern, 5) spectral OD, 6) surface backward reflection pattern, and 7) fluorescence of a bacterial colony without moving the specimen. A custom-built confocal microscope with a controller which can be easily attached to an infinity-corrected commercial microscope is designed and built. Since the current BARDOT needs additional information from a bacterial colony to enhance the identification/classification ratio for a lower hierarchy of bacterial taxonomy such as serovar or strain level, the approach can offer a

  15. Influence of the mass asymmetry on the incomplete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Pachouri, Dipti; Afzal Ansari, M.; Rashid, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, a ratio of the incomplete fusion cross-section to the total cross-section (CF + ICF) has been measured, fraction for the 16 O + 45 Sc, 16 O + 74 Ge, 20 Ne + 59 Co and 20 Ne + 165 Ho systems at ≅ 3-8 MeV/ nucleon

  16. Copper-organic/octamolybdates: structures, bandgap sizes, and photocatalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lan; Lin, Haisheng; Li, Le; Smirnova, Tatyana I; Maggard, Paul A

    2014-04-07

    The structures, optical bandgap sizes, and photocatalytic activities are described for three copper-octamolybdate hybrid solids prepared using hydrothermal methods, [Cu(pda)]4[β-Mo8O26] (I; pda = pyridazine), [Cu(en)2]2[γ-Mo8O26] (II; en = ethylenediamine), and [Cu(o-phen)2]2[α-Mo8O26] (III; o-phen = o-phenanthroline). The structure of I consists of a [Cu(pda)]4(4+) tetramer that bridges to neighboring [β-Mo8O26](4-) octamolybdate clusters to form two-dimensional layers that stack along the a axis. The previously reported structures of II and III are constructed from [Cu2(en)4Mo8O26] and [Cu2(o-phen)4Mo8O26] clusters. The optical bandgap sizes were measured by UV-vis diffuse reflectance techniques to be ∼1.8 eV for I, ∼3.1 eV for II, and ∼3.0 eV for III. Electronic structure calculations show that the smaller bandgap size of I originates primarily from an electronic transition between the valence and conduction band edges comprised of filled 3d(10) orbitals on Cu(I) and empty 4d(0) orbitals on Mo(VI). Both II and III contain Cu(II) and exhibit larger bandgap sizes. Accordingly, aqueous suspensions of I exhibit visible-light photocatalytic activity for the production of oxygen at a rate of ∼90 μmol O2 g(-1) h(-1) (10 mg samples; radiant power density of ∼1 W/cm(2)) and a turnover frequency per calculated surface [Mo8O26](4-) cluster of ∼36 h(-1). Under combined ultraviolet and visible-light irradiation, I also exhibits photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production in 20% aqueous methanol of ∼316 μmol H2 g(-1) h(-1). By contrast, II decomposed during the photocatalysis measurements. The molecular [Cu2(o-phen)4(α-Mo8O26)] clusters of III dissolve into the aqueous methanol solution under ultraviolet irradiation and exhibit homogeneous photocatalytic rates for hydrogen production of up to ∼8670 μmol H2·g(-1) h(-1) and a turnover frequency of 17 h(-1). The clusters of III can be precipitated out by evaporation and redispersed into solution with

  17. A phase II, randomized study on an investigational DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC conjugate vaccine administered to infants in Northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Hodgson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combining meningococcal vaccination with routine immunization in infancy may reduce the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially in the meningitis belt of Africa. We have evaluated the immunogenicity, persistence of immune response, immune memory and safety of an investigational DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC conjugate vaccine given to infants in Northern Ghana. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this phase II, double blind, randomized, controlled study, 280 infants were primed with DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC or DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. At 12 months of age, children in each group received a challenge dose of serogroup A+C polysaccharides. Antibody responses were assessed pre, and one month-post dose 3 of the priming schedule and pre and 1 month after administration of the challenge dose. One month post-dose 3, 87.8% and 88.2% of subjects in the study group had bactericidal meningococcal serogroup A (SBA-MenA and meningococcal serogroup C (SBA-MenC antibody titres > or = 1:8 respectively. Seroprotection/seropositivity rates to the 5 antigens administered in the routine EPI schedule were non-inferior in children in the study group compared to those in the control group. The percentages of subjects in the study group with persisting SBA-MenA titres > or = 1:8 or SBA-MenC titres > or = 1:8 at the age of 12 months prior to challenge were significantly higher than in control group (47.7% vs 25.7% and 56.4% vs 5.1% respectively. The administration of 10 microg of serogroup A polysaccharide increased the SBA-MenA GMT by 14.0-fold in the DTPW-HBV/HibMenAC-group compared to a 3.8 fold increase in the control-group. Corresponding fold-increases in SBA-MenC titres following challenge with 10 microg of group C polysaccharide were 18.8 and 1.9 respectively. Reactogenicity following primary vaccination or the administration of the challenge dose was similar in both groups, except for swelling (Grade 3 after primary vaccination which was more

  18. Preliminary Investigations on the Distribution of Leptospira Serovars in Domestic Animals in North-west Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkirane, A; Noury, S; Hartskeerl, R A; Goris, M G A; Ahmed, A; Nally, J E

    2016-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance with a complex epidemiology that affects humans, domestic and wild mammals. However, due to the diversity of clinical signs and difficulties of establishing a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, the disease remains poorly investigated, particularly in the developing world. In Morocco, a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Leptospira infection in animals has never been undertaken. To fill this gap, the current study was conducted on a subset of animals in north-west Morocco as a preliminary step towards understanding the epidemiological patterns of animal leptospirosis in the country. The study was conducted on 289 serum samples collected between January and April 2012 from dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and donkeys in the areas of Rabat-Temara, Sidi Kacem and Oulmes. All serum samples were tested by the MAT with 14 reference strains of the most prevalent pathogenic serovars of Leptospira and two serovars of non-pathogenic Leptospira. The overall seroprevalence of Leptospira in cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and donkeys was 15%, 18%, 20%, 21% and 20%, respectively. The most prevalent serogroups found in each species were Ballum, Sejroe, and Australis in cattle, Ballum, Australis and Sejroe in sheep, Australis and Ballum in goats, Javanica and Australis in donkey and Australis, Ballum and Canicola in dogs. Of all the serogroups tested in this study, Icterohaemorrhagiae, the only serogroup which has been previously reported in humans in Morocco, was rarely reactive. The majority of reactive sera were collected from low land areas. A large number of sera samples classified as seronegative when tested against pathogenic leptospires were positive when tested against non-pathogenic leptospires; this is suggestive of possible novel, as yet unclassified, Leptospira serovars in Morocco. Eleven of thirteen sheep urine samples were positive by real-time PCR confirming their role as Leptospira carriers in Morocco. © 2014

  19. Molecular Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Isolated From Clinical Samples in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Rouhi, Samaneh; Shakib, Pegah; Shahbazi, Babak; Bidarpour, Farzam; Karimi, Mohammad

    2015-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae causes diarrhoeal disease that afflicts thousands of people annually. V. cholerae is classified on the basis of somatic antigens into serovars or serogroups and there are at least 200 known serogroup. Two serogroups, O1 and O139 have been associated with epidemic diseases. Virulence genes of these bacteria are OmpW, ctxA and tcpA. Due to the importance of V. cholerae infection and developing molecular diagnostics of this organism in medical and microbiology sciences, this study aimed to describe molecular characterization of V. cholerae isolated from clinical samples using a molecular method. In this study, 48 samples were provided during summer 2013 (late August and early September) by reference laboratory. Samples were assessed using biochemical tests initially. The primer of OmpW, ctxA and tcpA genes was used in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) protocols. Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic (REP)-PCR methods were used to subtype V. cholerae. In this study, from a total of 48 clinical stool samples 39 (81.2 %) were positive for V. cholerae in biochemical tests and bacteria culture tests. The PCR results showed that of 39 positive isolates 35 (89.7%), 34 (87.1%) and 37 (94.8%) were positive for ctxA, tcpA and OmpW gene, respectively. Also, in the REP-PCR method with ERIC primer strains were divided into 10 groups. In the REP-PCR method with REP primer, strains were divided into 13 groups. Polymerase chain reaction has specificity and accuracy for identification of the organism and is able to differentiate biotypes. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence is one of the informative and discriminative methods for the analysis of V. cholerae diversity. The REP-PCR is a less informative and discriminative method compared to other methods for the analysis of V. cholerae diversity.

  20. Comparison of the Estimated Incidence of Acute Leptospirosis in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania between 2007-08 and 2012-14.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Maze

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sole report of annual leptospirosis incidence in continental Africa of 75-102 cases per 100,000 population is from a study performed in August 2007 through September 2008 in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. To evaluate the stability of this estimate over time, we estimated the incidence of acute leptospirosis in Kilimanjaro Region, northern Tanzania for the time period 2012-2014.Leptospirosis cases were identified among febrile patients at two sentinel hospitals in the Kilimanjaro Region. Leptospirosis was diagnosed by serum microscopic agglutination testing using a panel of 20 Leptospira serovars belonging to 17 separate serogroups. Serum was taken at enrolment and patients were asked to return 4-6 weeks later to provide convalescent serum. Confirmed cases required a 4-fold rise in titre and probable cases required a single titre of ≥800. Findings from a healthcare utilisation survey were used to estimate multipliers to adjust for cases not seen at sentinel hospitals. We identified 19 (1.7% confirmed or probable cases among 1,115 patients who presented with a febrile illness. Of cases, the predominant reactive serogroups were Australis 8 (42.1%, Sejroe 3 (15.8%, Grippotyphosa 2 (10.5%, Icterohaemorrhagiae 2 (10.5%, Pyrogenes 2 (10.5%, Djasiman 1 (5.3%, Tarassovi 1 (5.3%. We estimated that the annual incidence of leptospirosis was 11-18 cases per 100,000 population. This was a significantly lower incidence than 2007-08 (p<0.001.We estimated a much lower incidence of acute leptospirosis than previously, with a notable absence of cases due to the previously predominant serogroup Mini. Our findings indicate a dynamic epidemiology of leptospirosis in this area and highlight the value of multi-year surveillance to understand leptospirosis epidemiology.

  1. Reassessment of MLST schemes for Leptospira spp. typing worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, Vanina; Ruybal, Paula; Lauthier, Juan José; Tomasini, Nicolás; Brihuega, Bibiana; Koval, Ariel; Caimi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance. Several multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods have been developed for Leptospira spp., the causative agent of leptospirosis. In this study we reassessed the most commonly used MLST schemes in a set of worldwide isolates, in order to select the loci that achieve the maximum power of discrimination for typing Leptospira spp. Global eBURST algorithm was used to detect clonal complexes among STs and phylogenetic relationships among concatenated and individual sequences were inferred through maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. The evaluation of 12 loci combined to type a subset of strains rendered 57 different STs. Seven of these loci were selected into a final scheme upon studying the number of alleles and polymorphisms, the typing efficiency, the discriminatory power and the ratio dN/dS per nucleotide site for each locus. This new 7-locus scheme was applied to a wider collection of worldwide strains. The ML tree constructed from concatenated sequences of the 7 loci identified 6 major clusters corresponding to 6 Leptospira species. Global eBURST established 8 CCs, which showed that genotypes were clearly related by geographic origin and host. ST52 and ST47, represented mostly by Argentinian isolates, grouped the higher number of isolates. These isolates were serotyped as serogroups Pomona and Icterohaemorrhagiae, showing a unidirectional correlation in which the isolates with the same ST belong to the same serogroup. In summary, this scheme combines the best loci from the most widely used MLST schemes for Leptospira spp. and supports worldwide strains classification. The Argentinian isolates exhibited congruence between allelic profile and serogroup, providing an alternative to serological methods. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present study reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. METHODS: Since the 1970s, the (currently named Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. RESULTS: The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and varicella zoster virus (VZV prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  3. Meningococcal disease in children in Merseyside, England: a 31 year descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Stanton

    Full Text Available Meningococcal disease (MCD is the leading infectious cause of death in early childhood in the United Kingdom, making it a public health priority. MCD most commonly presents as meningococcal meningitis (MM, septicaemia (MS, or as a combination of the two syndromes (MM/MS. We describe the changing epidemiology and clinical presentation of MCD, and explore associations with socioeconomic status and other risk factors. A hospital-based study of children admitted to a tertiary children's centre, Alder Hey Children's Foundation Trust, with MCD, was undertaken between 1977 to 2007 (n = 1157. Demographics, clinical presentations, microbiological confirmation and measures of deprivation were described. The majority of cases occurred in the 1-4 year age group and there was a dramatic fall in serogroup C cases observed with the introduction of the meningococcal C conjugate (MCC vaccine. The proportion of MS cases increased over the study period, from 11% in the first quarter to 35% in the final quarter. Presentation with MS (compared to MM and serogroup C disease (compared to serogroup B were demonstrated to be independent risk factors for mortality, with odds ratios of 3.5 (95% CI 1.18 to 10.08 and 2.18 (95% CI 1.26 to 3.80 respectively. Cases admitted to Alder Hey were from a relatively more deprived population (mean Townsend score 1.25, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.41 than the Merseyside reference population. Our findings represent one of the largest single-centre studies of MCD. The presentation of MS is confirmed to be a risk factor of mortality from MCD. Our study supports the association between social deprivation and MCD.

  4. Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide CRM conjugate vaccine in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregnaghi, Miguel; Lopez, Pio; Stamboulian, Daniel; Graña, Gabriela; Odrljin, Tatjana; Bedell, Lisa; Dull, Peter M

    2014-09-01

    This phase III study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, administered with routine vaccines starting at 2 months of age. Healthy infants received MenACWY-CRM in a two- or three-dose primary infant series plus a single toddler dose. In addition, a two-dose toddler catch-up series was evaluated. Immune responses to MenACWY-CRM were assessed for serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA). Reactogenicity and safety results were collected systematically. After a full infant/toddler series or two-dose toddler catch-up series, MenACWY-CRM elicited immune responses against the four serogroups in 94-100% of subjects. Noninferiority of the two- versus three-dose MenACWY-CRM infant dosing regimen was established for geometric mean titers for all serogroups. Following the three-dose infant primary series, 89-98% of subjects achieved an hSBA ≥ 8 across all serogroups. Immune responses to concomitant routine vaccines given with MenACWY-CRM were noninferior to responses to routine vaccines alone, except for pertactin after the two-dose infant series. Noninferiority criteria were met for all concomitant antigens after the three-dose infant series. MenACWY-CRM vaccination regimens in infants and toddlers were immunogenic and well tolerated. No clinically meaningful effects of concomitant administration with routine infant and toddler vaccines were observed. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Serotypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Farm Animals in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zong Hui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. can indirectly infect humans via transfer from animals and animal-derived food products, and thereby cause potentially fatal diseases. Therefore, gaining an understanding of Salmonella infection in farm animals is increasingly important. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of serotypes in Salmonella samples isolated from chickens (n = 837, pigs (n = 930, and dairy cows (n = 418 in central China (Henan, Hubei, and Hunan provinces in 2010–2011, and investigate the susceptibility of strains to antimicrobial agents. Salmonella isolates were identified by PCR amplification of the invA gene, serotypes were determined by using a slide agglutination test for O and H antigens, and susceptibility to 24 antimicrobials was tested using the agar dilution method. In total, 248 Salmonella strains were identified: 105, 105, and 38 from chickens, dairy cows, and pigs, respectively. Additionally, 209 strains were identified in unhealthy pigs from the Huazhong Agricultural University veterinary hospital. Among these 457 strains, the dominant serotypes were Typhimurium in serogroup B, IIIb in serogroup C, and Enteritidis in serogroup D. In antimicrobial susceptibility tests, 41.14% of Salmonella spp. were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents, 48.14% were resistant to at least one, and 34.72% were resistant to more than three classes. Strains were highly resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (39.61%, nalidixic acid (39.17%, doxycycline (28.22%, and tetracycline (27.58%. Resistance to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones ranged from 5.25% to 7.44% and 19.04% to 24.51%, respectively. Among penicillin-resistant and cephalosporin-resistant strains, 25 isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs. The multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing Salmonella strains identified in healthy animals here will present a challenge for veterinary medicine and farm animal husbandry, and could also pose a threat to public health

  6. Comparative analysis of virulence traits between a Legionella feeleii strain implicated in Pontiac fever and a strain that caused Legionnaires' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changle; Saito, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Tamami; Amako, Kazunobu; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    Legionella strains of the same species and serogroup are known to cause Legionnaires' disease (a potentially fatal atypical pneumonia) or Pontiac fever (a mild, flu-like disease), but the bacterial factors that define these dramatic differences in pathology have not been elucidated. To gain a better understanding of these factors, we compared the characteristics of Legionella feeleii strains that were isolated from either a sample of freshwater implicated in an outbreak of Pontiac fever (ATCC 35072, serogroup 1, LfPF), or a patient with Legionnaires' disease (ATCC 38549, serogroup 2, LfLD). Growth of LfPF and LfLD in BYE broth was slower than the positive control, Legionella pneumophila strain JR32. However, LfLD grew faster than LfPF at 42 °C. After in vitro infection to J774 murine or U937 human macrophage cell lines and A549 human lung epithelial cell line, LfLD showed a higher cell infection rate, stronger internalization by host cells, and greater cytotoxicity than that of LfPF. Large amounts of IL-6 and IL-8 were secreted by human host cells after infection with LfLD, but not with LfPF. LfLD possessed mono-polar flagellum while LfPF was unflagellated. When LfLD was cultured at 25, 30 and 37 °C, the bacteria had higher motility rate at lower temperatures. Based on our results, this is the first study that showed distinct characteristics between LfPF and LfLD, which may give important leads in elucidating differences in their virulence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence, identification by a DNA microarray-based assay of human and food isolates Listeria spp. from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmaïed, F; Helel, S; Le Berre, V; François, J-M; Leclercq, A; Lecuit, M; Smaoui, H; Kechrid, A; Boudabous, A; Barkallah, I

    2014-02-01

    We aimed at evaluating the prevalence of Listeria species isolated from food samples and characterizing food and human cases isolates. Between 2005 and 2007, one hundred food samples collected in the markets of Tunis were analysed in our study. Five strains of Listeria monocytogenes responsible for human listeriosis isolated in hospital of Tunis were included. Multiplex PCR serogrouping and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) applying the enzyme AscI and ApaI were used for the characterization of isolates of L. monocytogenes. We have developed a rapid microarray-based assay to a reliable discrimination of species within the Listeria genus. The prevalence of Listeria spp. in food samples was estimated at 14% by using classical biochemical identification. Two samples were assigned to L. monocytogenes and 12 to L. innocua. DNA microarray allowed unambiguous identification of Listeria species. Our results obtained by microarray-based assay were in accordance with the biochemical identification. The two food L. monocytogenes isolates were assigned to the PCR serogroup IIa (serovar 1/2a). Whereas human L. monocytogenes isolates were of PCR serogroup IVb, (serovars 4b). These isolates present a high similarity in PFGE. Food L. monocytogenes isolates were classified into two different pulsotypes. These pulsotypes were different from that of the five strains responsible for the human cases. We confirmed the presence of Listeria spp. in variety of food samples in Tunis. Increased food and clinical surveillance must be taken into consideration in Tunisia to identify putative infections sources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Listeria spp. and Molecular Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Broilers at the Abattoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouayad, Leila; Hamdi, Taha M; Naim, Malek; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lecuit, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Products from three broiler abattoirs were sampled for Listeria species to evaluate the changes in the prevalence and contamination rates at two stages of processing. Sampling was performed at the evisceration stage and at the end of processing after packaging and refrigerating at 4°C for 24 h. A total of 212 samples were collected; 52 were from abattoir A, and 80 samples each were collected from abattoirs B and C. Among all samples, 99 (46.7%) tested positive for Listeria, including L. monocytogenes 19 (8.9%), L. innocua 69 (32.5%), L. grayi 10 (4.7%), and L. welshimeri 1 (0.5%). The L. monocytogenes contamination rate varied from 5% to 11.5% in the 3 abattoirs. L. innocua was the most common species identified and was found in 8.8% of the samples from abattoir A and 33.7% of the samples from both abattoirs B and C. Twenty-six of the L. monocytogenes isolates obtained from positive samples were subjected to serotyping by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and characterization by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method using two cutting enzymes, ApaI and AscI. Three molecular serogroups were identified: IIa, IIb, and IVb. Serogroup IIa was common to all abattoirs, and serogroups IIb and IVb were found only in abattoir C. The 10 different obtained PFGE profiles were grouped into 7 clusters; some of these clusters were common to the 3 abattoirs, and others were specific to the abattoirs in which they were identified. This study revealed a high prevalence of Listeria spp., particularly L. monocytogenes, in raw broilers. This high incidence presents a risk to consumers due to the potential occurrence of cross-contamination with other foods in domestic refrigerators and the ability of these microorganisms to survive in undercooked products.

  9. Isolation and clinical sample typing of human leptospirosis cases in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiani, Yosena; Jacob, Paulina; Varni, Vanina; Landolt, Noelia; Schmeling, María Fernanda; Pujato, Nazarena; Caimi, Karina; Vanasco, Bibiana

    2016-01-01

    Leptospira typing is carried out using isolated strains. Because of difficulties in obtaining them, direct identification of infective Leptospira in clinical samples is a high priority. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) proved highly discriminatory for seven pathogenic species of Leptospira, allowing isolate characterization and robust assignment to species, in addition to phylogenetic evidence for the relatedness between species. In this study we characterized Leptospira strains circulating in Argentina, using typing methods applied to human clinical samples and isolates. Phylogenetic studies based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences enabled typing of 8 isolates (6 Leptospira interrogans, one Leptospira wolffii and one Leptospira broomii) and 58 out of 85 (68.2%) clinical samples (55 L. interrogans, 2 Leptospira meyeri, and one Leptospira kirschneri). MLST results for the L. interrogans isolates indicated that five were probably Canicola serogroup (ST37) and one was probably Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup (ST17). Eleven clinical samples (21.6%), provided MLST interpretable data: five were probably Pyrogenes serogroup (ST13), four Sejroe (ST20), one Autumnalis (ST22) and one Canicola (ST37). To the best of our knowledge this study is the first report of the use of an MLST typing scheme with seven loci to identify Leptospira directly from clinical samples in Argentina. The use of clinical samples presents the advantage of the possibility of knowing the infecting strain without resorting to isolates. This study also allowed, for the first time, the characterization of isolates of intermediate pathogenicity species (L. wolffii and L. broomii) from symptomatic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bovine salmonellosis in northeast of Iran: frequency, genetic fingerprinting and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Hessam A; Seifi, Hesam A; Rad, Mehrnaz

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate serovar and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella spp isolated from healthy, diseased and necropsied cows and calves in this observational study. Nineteen isolates recovered from feces and tissues of salmonellosis-affected animals of two commercial farms in north-east of Iran. In second part of the study, the two farms were sampled 4 times with an interval of 2 month. The samples included calves' feces, adult cows' feces, feeds, water, milk filters, and milk fed to calves. Five Salmonella were isolated from 332 fecal samples collected from calves and peri-parturient cows. No Salmonella was recovered from water, feed, milk filers and milk fed to calves. Salmonella Typhimurium was the most frequently isolate among all sero-groups. S. Dublin was only accounted for 8% (two out of 24) of isolates. Isolated Salmonella strains were used for the ERIC PCR DNA fingerprinting assay. Our results grouped Salmonella isolates into 3 clusters, suggesting that specific genotypes were responsible for each sero-group of Salmonella. The results also revealed diversity among Salmonella isolates in cluster III (sero-group B). Eighteen out of 19 Salmonella spp. were resistant to oxytetracycline. Five isolates out of 19 showed more than one drug resistance. Multi-drug resistance was seen only among Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. Enrofloxacin was the most susceptible antibiotic against all isolates in this study. The emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella Typhimurium should be of great concern to the public. No correlation between ERIC fingerprinting and resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates was found, which indicates resistance to antimicrobial agents was not related to specific genetic background. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Prokaryotic expression of Leptospira interrogans groEL gene and immunoprotection of its products in hamsters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yinhuan; Yan, Jie; Cheng, Dongqing

    2013-03-01

    To construct a prokaryotic expression system of groEL gene of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagia serovar Lai strain Lai, and to determine the immunoprotective effect of recombinant GroEL protein (rGroEL) in LVG hamsters. The groEL gene was amplified by high fidelity PCR and the amplification products were then sequenced. A prokaryotic expression system of groEL gene was constructed using routine genetic engineering technique. SDS-PAGE plus Bio-Rad Gel Image Analyzer was applied to examine the expression and dissolubility of rGroEL protein while Ni-NTA affinity chromatography was used to extract the expressed rGroEL. The immunoprotective rate in rGroEL-immunized LVG hamsters was determined after challenge with L.interrogans strain Lai. The cross agglutination titers of sera from immunized hamsters with different L.interrogans serogroups were detected using MAT. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the cloned groEL gene were the same as those reported in GenBank. The constructed prokaryotic expression system of groEL gene expressed soluble rGroEL. The immunoprotective rates of 100 and 200 μg rGroEL in LVG hamsters were 50.0 % and 75.0%, respectively. The sera from the rGroEL-immunized LVG hamsters agglutinated all the L.interrogans serogroups tested with different levels. The GroEL protein is a genus-specific immunoprotective antigen of L.interrogans and can be used to develop an universal genetically engineering vaccine of Leptospira.

  12. Activity of Six Essential Oils Extracted from Tunisian Plants against Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaftar, Naouel; Girardot, Marion; Quellard, Nathalie; Labanowski, Jérôme; Ghrairi, Tawfik; Hani, Khaled; Frère, Jacques; Imbert, Christine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of six essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants, i.e., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Juniperus phoenicea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L., and Thymus vulgaris L., and to evaluate their activity against Legionella pneumophila (microdilution assays). Eight Legionella pneumophila strains were studied, including the two well-known serogroup 1 Lens and Paris strains as controls and six environmental strains isolated from Tunisian spas belonging to serogroups 1, 4, 5, 6, and 8. The essential oils were generally active against L. pneumophila. The activities of the A. herba-alba, C. sinensis, and R. officinalis essential oils were strain-dependent, whereas those of the J. phoenicea and T. vulgaris oils, showing the highest anti-Legionella activities, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) lower than 0.03 and lower than or equal to 0.07 mg/ml, respectively, were independent of the strains' serogroup. Moreover, the microorganisms treated with T. vulgaris essential oil were shorter, swollen, and less electron-dense compared to the untreated controls. Isoborneol (20.91%), (1S)-α-pinene (18.30%) β-phellandrene (8.08%), α-campholenal (7.91%), and α-phellandrene (7.58%) were the major components isolated from the J. phoenicea oil, while carvacrol (88.50%) was the main compound of the T. vulgaris oil, followed by p-cymene (7.86%). This study highlighted the potential interest of some essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants as biocides to prevent the Legionella risk. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Comparison of the Estimated Incidence of Acute Leptospirosis in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania between 2007–08 and 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maze, Michael J.; Biggs, Holly M.; Rubach, Matthew P.; Galloway, Renee L.; Cash-Goldwasser, Shama; Allan, Kathryn J.; Halliday, Jo E. B.; Hertz, Julian T.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Lwezaula, Bingileki F.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Mmbaga, Blandina T.; Maro, Venance P.; Crump, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The sole report of annual leptospirosis incidence in continental Africa of 75–102 cases per 100,000 population is from a study performed in August 2007 through September 2008 in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. To evaluate the stability of this estimate over time, we estimated the incidence of acute leptospirosis in Kilimanjaro Region, northern Tanzania for the time period 2012–2014. Methodology and Principal Findings Leptospirosis cases were identified among febrile patients at two sentinel hospitals in the Kilimanjaro Region. Leptospirosis was diagnosed by serum microscopic agglutination testing using a panel of 20 Leptospira serovars belonging to 17 separate serogroups. Serum was taken at enrolment and patients were asked to return 4–6 weeks later to provide convalescent serum. Confirmed cases required a 4-fold rise in titre and probable cases required a single titre of ≥800. Findings from a healthcare utilisation survey were used to estimate multipliers to adjust for cases not seen at sentinel hospitals. We identified 19 (1.7%) confirmed or probable cases among 1,115 patients who presented with a febrile illness. Of cases, the predominant reactive serogroups were Australis 8 (42.1%), Sejroe 3 (15.8%), Grippotyphosa 2 (10.5%), Icterohaemorrhagiae 2 (10.5%), Pyrogenes 2 (10.5%), Djasiman 1 (5.3%), Tarassovi 1 (5.3%). We estimated that the annual incidence of leptospirosis was 11–18 cases per 100,000 population. This was a significantly lower incidence than 2007–08 (p<0.001). Conclusions We estimated a much lower incidence of acute leptospirosis than previously, with a notable absence of cases due to the previously predominant serogroup Mini. Our findings indicate a dynamic epidemiology of leptospirosis in this area and highlight the value of multi-year surveillance to understand leptospirosis epidemiology. PMID:27911902

  14. A cross-sectional study assessing the pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in subjects aged 1-24 years in the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckx, Lily Yin; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Machado, Antónia; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Tuboi, Suely; de Barros, Eliana; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo

    Meningococcal carriage is a prerequisite for invasive infection. This cross-sectional study assessed the pharyngeal carriage prevalence in healthy subjects aged 1-24 years in Embu das Artes city, São Paulo, Brazil. Pharyngeal swabs were examined for the presence of Neisseria meningitidis. The isolates were tested for different serogroups using