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Sample records for serial reversal learning

  1. Effects of stimulus salience on touchscreen serial reversal learning in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Price E.; Corkill, Beau; McKimm, Eric; Miller, Mellessa M.; Calton, Michele A.; Goldowitz, Daniel; Blaha, Charles D.; Mittleman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability in males and the most common genetic cause of autism. Although executive dysfunction is consistently found in humans with FXS, evidence of executive dysfunction in Fmr1 KO mice, a mouse model of FXS, has been inconsistent. One possible explanation for this is that executive dysfunction in Fmr1 KO mice, similar to humans with FXS, is only evident when cognitive demands are high. Using touchscreen operant conditioning chambers, male Fmr1 KO mice and their male wildtype littermates were tested on the acquisition of a pairwise visual discrimination followed by four serial reversals of the response rule. We assessed reversal learning performance under two different conditions. In the first, the correct stimulus was salient and the incorrect stimulus was non-salient. In the second and more challenging condition, the incorrect stimulus was salient and the correct stimulus was non-salient; this increased cognitive load by introducing conflict between sensory-driven (i.e., bottom-up) and task-dependent (i.e., top-down) signals. Fmr1 KOs displayed two distinct impairments relative to wildtype littermates. First, Fmr1 KOs committed significantly more learning-type errors during the second reversal stage, but only under high cognitive load. Second, during the first reversal stage, Fmr1 KOs committed significantly more attempts to collect a reward during the timeout following an incorrect response. These findings indicate that Fmr1 KO mice display executive dysfunction that, in some cases, is only evident under high cognitive load. PMID:23747611

  2. Serial position learning in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolf Menzel

    Full Text Available Learning of stimulus sequences is considered as a characteristic feature of episodic memory since it contains not only a particular item but also the experience of preceding and following events. In sensorimotor tasks resembling navigational performance, the serial order of objects is intimately connected with spatial order. Mammals and birds develop episodic(-like memory in serial spatio-temporal tasks, and the honeybee learns spatio-temporal order when navigating between the nest and a food source. Here I examine the structure of the bees' memory for a combined spatio-temporal task. I ask whether discrimination and generalization are based solely on simple forms of stimulus-reward learning or whether they require sequential configurations. Animals were trained to fly either left or right in a continuous T-maze. The correct choice was signaled by the sequence of colors (blue, yellow at four positions in the access arm. If only one of the possible 4 signals is shown (either blue or yellow, the rank order of position salience is 1, 2 and 3 (numbered from T-junction. No learning is found if the signal appears at position 4. If two signals are shown, differences at positions 1 and 2 are learned best, those at position 3 at a low level, and those at position 4 not at all. If three or more signals are shown these results are corroborated. This salience rank order again appeared in transfer tests, but additional configural phenomena emerged. Most of the results can be explained with a simple model based on the assumption that the four positions are equipped with different salience scores and that these add up independently. However, deviations from the model are interpreted by assuming stimulus configuration of sequential patterns. It is concluded that, under the conditions chosen, bees rely most strongly on memories developed during simple forms of associative reward learning, but memories of configural serial patterns contribute, too.

  3. Serial killers with military experience: applying learning theory to serial murder.

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    Castle, Tammy; Hensley, Christopher

    2002-08-01

    Scholars have endeavored to study the motivation and causality behind serial murder by researching biological, psychological, and sociological variables. Some of these studies have provided support for the relationship between these variables and serial murder. However, the study of serial murder continues to be an exploratory rather than explanatory research topic. This article examines the possible link between serial killers and military service. Citing previous research using social learning theory for the study of murder, this article explores how potential serial killers learn to reinforce violence, aggression, and murder in military boot camps. As with other variables considered in serial killer research, military experience alone cannot account for all cases of serial murder. Future research should continue to examine this possible link.

  4. Serial Entrepreneurship, Learning by Doing and Self-selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    of the person-specific effect, using information on individuals’ past histories in paid employment, confirm that serial entrepreneurs exhibit, on average, a larger person-specific effect than non-serial business owners. Moreover, ignoring serial entrepreneurs’ self-selection overestimates learning by doing......It remains a question whether serial entrepreneurs typically perform better than their novice counterparts owing to learning by doing effects or mostly because they are a selected sample of higher-than-average ability entrepreneurs. This paper tries to unravel these two effects by exploring a novel...... empirical strategy based on continuous time duration models with selection. We use a large longitudinal matched employer-employee dataset that allows us to identify about 220,000 individuals who have left their first entrepreneurial experience, out of which over 35,000 became serial entrepreneurs. We...

  5. Asymmetrical learning between a tactile and visual serial RT task

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    Abrahamse, E.L.; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Verwey, Willem B.

    2007-01-01

    According to many researchers, implicit learning in the serial reaction-time task is predominantly motor based and therefore should be independent of stimulus modality. Previous research on the task, however, has focused almost completely on the visual domain. Here we investigated sequence learning

  6. Serial Learning Process: Test of Chaining, Position, and Dual-Process Hypotheses

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    Giurintano, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The chaining, position, and dual-process hypotheses of serial learning (SL) as well as serial recall, reordering, and relearning of paired-associate learning were examined to establish learning patterns. Results provide evidence for dual-process hypothesis. (DS)

  7. Adjustment to subtle time constraints and power law learning in rapid serial visual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Chakyung Shin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether attention could be modulated through the implicit learning of temporal information in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task. Participants identified two target letters among numeral distractors. The stimulus-onset asynchrony immediately following the first target (SOA1 varied at three levels (70, 98, and 126 ms randomly between trials or fixed within blocks of trials. Practice over three consecutive days resulted in a continuous improvement in the identification rate for both targets and attenuation of the attentional blink (AB, a decrement in target (T2 identification when presented 200-400 ms after another target (T1. Blocked SOA1s led to a faster rate of improvement in RSVP performance and more target order reversals relative to random SOA1s, suggesting that the implicit learning of SOA1 positively affected performance. The results also reveal power law learning curves for individual target identification as well as the reduction in the AB decrement. These learning curves reflect the spontaneous emergence of skill through subtle attentional modulations rather than general attentional distribution. Together, the results indicate that implicit temporal learning could improve high level and rapid cognitive processing and highlights the sensitivity and adaptability of the attentional system to subtle constraints in stimulus timing.

  8. Investigation on cold-drawn gold bonding wire with serial and reverse-direction drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae-Hyung; Rollett, A.D.; Cho, J.-S.; Park, Y.-J.; Park, S.-H.; Oh, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    Gold bonding wires have been manufactured through multiple drawing steps with serial and reverse-direction drawing. The texture and microstructure of the gold bonding wires were characterized with X-ray diffraction and EBSD and compared with the predictions of finite element (FE) simulation. Initial fiber decreases during drawing and is replaced by fiber. The oriented grains are concentrated in the center and surface regions, whereas the oriented grains are located throughout the cross-section of the wire. Regions near the surface often exhibit the complex textures. A simplified forward and backward drawing process was modeled by FE analysis with ABAQUS/Standard TM . The simple two-step drawing process results in severe variation in shear strain under the surface and displays the opposite behavior in the shear components of the deformation gradient. The texture evolution was predicted using the deformation gradient calculated in the FE simulations together with a model of polycrystal plasticity. The and fibers are predicted to develop in the center part of the wire where homogeneous deformation occurs. The regions near the surface that experience repeated shear strain exhibit complex textures that deviate from the standard and fibers. The {1 1 2} and {1 1 1} components are prevalent in the higher shear strain regions. The variations of the anisotropic elastic directional moduli with position were also calculated

  9. Multiple reversal olfactory learning in honeybees

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    Theo Mota

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In multiple reversal learning, animals trained to discriminate a reinforced from a non-reinforced stimulus are subjected to various, successive reversals of stimulus contingencies (e.g. A+ vs. B-, A- vs. B+, A+ vs. B-. This protocol is useful to determine whether or not animals learn to learn and solve successive discriminations faster (or with fewer errors with increasing reversal experience. Here we used the olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex to study how honeybees Apis mellifera perform in a multiple reversal task. Our experiment contemplated four consecutive differential conditioning phases involving the same odors (A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+ to A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+. We show that bees in which the weight of reinforced or non-reinforced stimuli was similar mastered the multiple olfactory reversals. Bees which failed the task exhibited asymmetric responses to reinforced and non-reinforced stimuli, thus being unable to rapidly reverse stimulus contingencies. Efficient reversers did not improve their successive discriminations but rather tended to generalize their choice to both odors at the end of conditioning. As a consequence, both discrimination and reversal efficiency decreasedalong experimental phases. This result invalidates a learning-to-learn effect and indicates that bees do not only respond to the actual stimulus contingencies but rather combine these with an average of past experiences with the same stimuli.  

  10. Reverse hypothesis machine learning a practitioner's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Parag

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces a paradigm of reverse hypothesis machines (RHM), focusing on knowledge innovation and machine learning. Knowledge- acquisition -based learning is constrained by large volumes of data and is time consuming. Hence Knowledge innovation based learning is the need of time. Since under-learning results in cognitive inabilities and over-learning compromises freedom, there is need for optimal machine learning. All existing learning techniques rely on mapping input and output and establishing mathematical relationships between them. Though methods change the paradigm remains the same—the forward hypothesis machine paradigm, which tries to minimize uncertainty. The RHM, on the other hand, makes use of uncertainty for creative learning. The approach uses limited data to help identify new and surprising solutions. It focuses on improving learnability, unlike traditional approaches, which focus on accuracy. The book is useful as a reference book for machine learning researchers and professionals as ...

  11. IFN-γ release assay conversions and reversions. Challenges with serial testing in U.S. health care workers.

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    Joshi, Manish; Monson, Thomas P; Joshi, Anita; Woods, Gail L

    2014-03-01

    IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) including the QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube test (QFT-GIT) are increasingly used in place of the tuberculin skin test (TST) in surveillance programs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the United States. However, data on conversions, reversions, and predictive value of QFT in such programs for health care workers (HCWs) are limited. The purpose of this study is to assess long-term reproducibility and conversion and reversion rates of QFT-GIT among HCWs who underwent serial testing at a tertiary care center in the United States. Retrospective chart review of HCWs at the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System (CAVHS) who underwent serial testing with QFT-GIT as a part of their employee screening between November 1, 2008 and January 31, 2011. A total of 2,303 HCWs had at least 2 QFT-GITs 1 year apart. The initial QFT-GIT was positive for 69 and 2 were indeterminate. Of these 69 HCWs, 31 (45%) reverted on repeat testing, and 25 of 31 (80.6%) HCWs who reverted had a negative look-back TST. Of the 2,232 HCWs with an initial negative QFT-GIT, 71 (3.2%) converted on repeat testing. A third QFT-GIT assay was performed in 41 of the 71 converters and 90% (37 of 41) reverted back to negative. Only two HCWs had TST and QFT-GIT conversion. Poor IGRA reproducibility and a low predictive value of QFT-GIT conversions indicate that QFT-GIT with current interpretation criteria should not be used for serial screening of U.S. HCWs. Negative TSTs have higher reproducibility than QFT-GIT for serial testing of HCWs in low tuberculosis incidence settings.

  12. Improved Software to Browse the Serial Medical Images for Learning.

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    Kwon, Koojoo; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Byeong Seok; Chung, Beom Sun

    2017-07-01

    The thousands of serial images used for medical pedagogy cannot be included in a printed book; they also cannot be efficiently handled by ordinary image viewer software. The purpose of this study was to provide browsing software to grasp serial medical images efficiently. The primary function of the newly programmed software was to select images using 3 types of interfaces: buttons or a horizontal scroll bar, a vertical scroll bar, and a checkbox. The secondary function was to show the names of the structures that had been outlined on the images. To confirm the functions of the software, 3 different types of image data of cadavers (sectioned and outlined images, volume models of the stomach, and photos of the dissected knees) were inputted. The browsing software was downloadable for free from the homepage (anatomy.co.kr) and available off-line. The data sets provided could be replaced by any developers for their educational achievements. We anticipate that the software will contribute to medical education by allowing users to browse a variety of images. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  13. Cerebral activation related to implicit sequence learning in a Double Serial Reaction Time task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, FHCE; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL; de Jong, BM

    2006-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the distribution of cerebral activations related to implicitly learning a series of fixed stimulus-response combinations. In a novel - bimanual - variant of the Serial Reaction Time task (SRT), simultaneous finger movements of the two

  14. Serial-order learning impairment and hypersensitivity-to-interference in dyscalculia.

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    De Visscher, Alice; Szmalec, Arnaud; Van Der Linden, Lize; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2015-11-01

    In the context of heterogeneity, the different profiles of dyscalculia are still hypothetical. This study aims to link features of mathematical difficulties to certain potential etiologies. First, we wanted to test the hypothesis of a serial-order learning deficit in adults with dyscalculia. For this purpose we used a Hebb repetition learning task. Second, we wanted to explore a recent hypothesis according to which hypersensitivity-to-interference hampers the storage of arithmetic facts and leads to a particular profile of dyscalculia. We therefore used interfering and non-interfering repeated sequences in the Hebb paradigm. A final test was used to assess the memory trace of the non-interfering sequence and the capacity to manipulate it. In line with our predictions, we observed that people with dyscalculia who show good conceptual knowledge in mathematics but impaired arithmetic fluency suffer from increased sensitivity-to-interference compared to controls. Secondly, people with dyscalculia who show a deficit in a global mathematical test suffer from a serial-order learning deficit characterized by a slow learning and a quick degradation of the memory trace of the repeated sequence. A serial-order learning impairment could be one of the explanations for a basic numerical deficit, since it is necessary for the number-word sequence acquisition. Among the different profiles of dyscalculia, this study provides new evidence and refinement for two particular profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Memory formation in reversal learning of the honeybee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravit Hadar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In reversal learning animals are first trained with a differential learning protocol, where they learn to respond to a reinforced odor (CS+ and not to respond to a nonreinforced odor (CS-. Once they respond correctly to this rule, the contingencies of the conditioned stimuli are reversed, and animals learn to adjust their response to the new rule. This study investigated the effect of a protein synthesis inhibitor (emetine on the memory formed after reversal learning in the honeybee Apis mellifera. Two groups of bees were studied: summer bees and winter bees, each yielded different results. Blocking protein synthesis in summer bees inhibits consolidation of the excitatory learning following reversal learning whereas it blocked the consolidation of the inhibitory learning in winter bees. These findings suggest that excitatory and inhibitory learning may involve different molecular processes in bees, which are seasonally dependent.

  16. Learning and memory for sequences of pictures, words, and spatial locations: an exploration of serial position effects.

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    Bonk, William J; Healy, Alice F

    2010-01-01

    A serial reproduction of order with distractors task was developed to make it possible to observe successive snapshots of the learning process at each serial position. The new task was used to explore the effect of several variables on serial memory performance: stimulus content (words, blanks, and pictures), presentation condition (spatial information vs. none), semantically categorized item clustering (grouped vs. ungrouped), and number of distractors relative to targets (none, equal, double). These encoding and retrieval variables, along with learning attempt number, affected both overall performance levels and the shape of the serial position function, although a large and extensive primacy advantage and a small 1-item recency advantage were found in each case. These results were explained well by a version of the scale-independent memory, perception, and learning model that accounted for improved performance by increasing the value of only a single parameter that reflects reduced interference from distant items.

  17. Neural correlates of skill acquisition: decreased cortical activity during a serial interception sequence learning task.

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    Gobel, Eric W; Parrish, Todd B; Reber, Paul J

    2011-10-15

    Learning of complex motor skills requires learning of component movements as well as the sequential structure of their order and timing. Using a Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task, participants learned a sequence of precisely timed interception responses through training with a repeating sequence. Following initial implicit learning of the repeating sequence, functional MRI data were collected during performance of that known sequence and compared with activity evoked during novel sequences of actions, novel timing patterns, or both. Reduced activity was observed during the practiced sequence in a distributed bilateral network including extrastriate occipital, parietal, and premotor cortical regions. These reductions in evoked activity likely reflect improved efficiency in visuospatial processing, spatio-motor integration, motor planning, and motor execution for the trained sequence, which is likely supported by nondeclarative skill learning. In addition, the practiced sequence evoked increased activity in the left ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, while the posterior cingulate was more active during periods of better performance. Many prior studies of perceptual-motor skill learning have found increased activity in motor areas of the frontal cortex (e.g., motor and premotor cortex, SMA) and striatal areas (e.g., the putamen). The change in activity observed here (i.e., decreased activity across a cortical network) may reflect skill learning that is predominantly expressed through more accurate performance rather than decreased reaction time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Learning of serial digits leads to frontal activation in functional MR imaging.

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    Karakaş, Hakki Muammer; Karakaş, Sirel

    2006-03-01

    Clinical studies have shown that performance on the serial digit learning test (SDLT) is dependent upon the mesial temporal lobes, which are responsible for learning and its consolidation. However, an effective SDLT performance is also dependent upon sequencing, temporal ordering, and the utilization of mnemonic strategies. All of these processes are among the functions of the frontal lobes; in spite of this, the relationship between SDLT performance and the frontal lobes has not been demonstrated with previously used mapping techniques. The aim of this study was to investigate the areas of the brain that are activated by SDLT performance. Ten healthy, right handed volunteers (mean age, 20.1 years; SD: 3.3) who had 12 years of education were studied with a 1.0 T MR imaging scanner. BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) contrast and a modified SDLT were used. Activated loci were automatically mapped using a proportional grid. In learning, the most consistent activation was observed in B-a-7 of the right (80%) and the left hemispheres (50%). In recall, the most consistent activation was observed in B-a-7 of the right hemisphere (60%). Activations were observed in 2.5+/-0.97 Talairach volumes in learning, whereas they encompassed 1.7+/-0.95 volumes in recall. The difference between both phases (learning and recall) regarding total activated volume was significant (p SDLT performance was not related to learning or to recall, but to a function that is common to both of these cognitive processes. A candidate for this common factor may be the executive functions, which also include serial position processing and temporal ordering.

  19. Lexical Learning in Bilingual Adults: The Relative Importance of Short-Term Memory for Serial Order and Phonological Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of monolingual speakers have shown a strong association between lexical learning and short-term memory (STM) capacity, especially STM for serial order information. At the same time, studies of bilingual speakers suggest that phonological knowledge is the main factor that drives lexical learning. This study tested these two hypotheses…

  20. Motivational Classroom Climate for Learning Mathematics: A Reversal Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a case is made that affect is central in determining students' experience of learning or not learning mathematics. I show how reversal theory (Apter, 2001), and particularly its taxonomy of motivations and emotions, provides a basis for a thick description of students' experiences of learning in a mathematics classroom. Using data…

  1. Spatial reversal learning in preclinical scrapie-inoculated mice.

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    Lysons, A M; Woollard, S J

    1996-04-10

    Acquisition and reversal of a two-choice spatial discrimination were tested in scrapie-inoculated mice. Both acquisition and reversal were normal in mice tested 138 and 103 days prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. At 65 days before onset of clinical symptoms, scrapie-inoculated mice required more trails to criterion in reversal learning, but this effect was not significant in a second experiment (68 days preclinical) and was transient: no effect was seen 33 days before symptoms. However, the course of reversal learning was abnormal in all three late preclinical groups (68, 65 and 33 days before symptoms). Reversal learning in these three groups was characterized by a rapid extinction of the original discrimination, followed by a period, absent in controls, during which performance showed no further improvement. This effect corresponds in time of onset to the appearance of characteristic neuropathological features.

  2. Serial position learning effects in patients with aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery.

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    Stefanova, Elka; Kostic, Vladimir S; Ziropadja, Ljubomir; Markovic, Milan; Ocic, Gordana

    2002-08-01

    Ruptured and repaired Anterior Communicating Artery (ACoA) aneurysm can result in devastating impairments involving memory, executive function, confabulation, and personality changes. This study tested serial position learning effects (SPEs) in patients following repaired and ruptured ACoA aneurysm, using results on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Thirty patients with ruptured aneurysms of the ACoA and 31 matched controls were included in the study. The primacy-recency effects were maintained during five learning trials in ACoA group, albeit at an overall lower level than in the controls. There was no difference in primacy-recency relation across five learning trials in ACoA group. On the delayed recall trial the patient group demonstrated neither a primacy, nor a recency phenomenon, reflecting a lack of recall of any parts of the word list. This kind of primacy-recency profile across learning trials in ACoA group has no similarity with SPE results in frontal lesion groups, or with SPE distributions in other amnesic disorders, despite the fact that memory and executive deficits were evident in our ACoA group.

  3. The neural basis of reversal learning: An updated perspective

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    Izquierdo, Alicia; Brigman, Jonathan L.; Radke, Anna K.; Rudebeck, Peter H.; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Reversal learning paradigms are among the most widely used tests of cognitive flexibility and have been used as assays, across species, for altered cognitive processes in a host of neuropsychiatric conditions. Based on recent studies in humans, non-human primates, and rodents, the notion that reversal learning tasks primarily measure response inhibition, has been revised. In this review, we describe how cognitive flexibility is measured by reversal learning and discuss new definitions of the construct validity of the task that are serving as an heuristic to guide future research in this field. We also provide an update on the available evidence implicating certain cortical and subcortical brain regions in the mediation of reversal learning, and an overview of the principle neurotransmitter systems involved. PMID:26979052

  4. New learning following reactivation in the human brain: targeting emotional memories through rapid serial visual presentation.

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    Wirkner, Janine; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2015-03-01

    Once reactivated, previously consolidated memories destabilize and have to be reconsolidated to persist, a process that might be altered non-invasively by interfering learning immediately after reactivation. Here, we investigated the influence of interference on brain correlates of reactivated episodic memories for emotional and neutral scenes using event-related potentials (ERPs). To selectively target emotional memories we applied a new reactivation method: rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). RSVP leads to enhanced implicit processing (pop out) of the most salient memories making them vulnerable to disruption. In line, interference after reactivation of previously encoded pictures disrupted recollection particularly for emotional events. Furthermore, memory impairments were reflected in a reduced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference during retrieval of emotional pictures. These results provide neural evidence that emotional episodic memories in humans can be selectively altered through behavioral interference after reactivation, a finding with further clinical implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. "At Sea": Reversibility in Teaching and Learning

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    Cavicchi, Elizabeth Mary

    2018-01-01

    An equal-armed balance at equilibrium--the bar is horizontal--tips into disequilibrium upon displacing a weight. Equilibrium is restored by reversing that move--putting the weight back where it was, or doing the same on the other side. Piaget adopted the idea of equilibration to describe how the intellect, in relating to the world, develops.…

  6. Genetic dissection of behavioral flexibility: reversal learning in mice.

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    Laughlin, Rick E; Grant, Tara L; Williams, Robert W; Jentsch, J David

    2011-06-01

    Behavioral inflexibility is a feature of schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and behavior addictions that likely results from heritable deficits in the inhibitory control over behavior. Here, we investigate the genetic basis of individual differences in flexibility, measured using an operant reversal learning task. We quantified discrimination acquisition and subsequent reversal learning in a cohort of 51 BXD strains of mice (2-5 mice/strain, n = 176) for which we have matched data on sequence, gene expression in key central nervous system regions, and neuroreceptor levels. Strain variation in trials to criterion on acquisition and reversal was high, with moderate heritability (∼.3). Acquisition and reversal learning phenotypes did not covary at the strain level, suggesting that these traits are effectively under independent genetic control. Reversal performance did covary with dopamine D2 receptor levels in the ventral midbrain, consistent with a similar observed relationship between impulsivity and D2 receptors in humans. Reversal, but not acquisition, is linked to a locus on mouse chromosome 10 with a peak likelihood ratio statistic at 86.2 megabase (p work demonstrates the clear trait independence between, and genetic control of, discrimination acquisition and reversal and illustrates how globally coherent data sets for a single panel of highly related strains can be interrogated and integrated to uncover genetic sources and molecular and neuropharmacological candidates of complex behavioral traits relevant to human psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved Neural Signal Classification in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Task Using Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Amar R; Lawhern, Vernon J; Wu, Dongrui; Slayback, David; Lance, Brent J

    2016-03-01

    The application space for brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies is rapidly expanding with improvements in technology. However, most real-time BCIs require extensive individualized calibration prior to use, and systems often have to be recalibrated to account for changes in the neural signals due to a variety of factors including changes in human state, the surrounding environment, and task conditions. Novel approaches to reduce calibration time or effort will dramatically improve the usability of BCI systems. Active Learning (AL) is an iterative semi-supervised learning technique for learning in situations in which data may be abundant, but labels for the data are difficult or expensive to obtain. In this paper, we apply AL to a simulated BCI system for target identification using data from a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm to minimize the amount of training samples needed to initially calibrate a neural classifier. Our results show AL can produce similar overall classification accuracy with significantly less labeled data (in some cases less than 20%) when compared to alternative calibration approaches. In fact, AL classification performance matches performance of 10-fold cross-validation (CV) in over 70% of subjects when training with less than 50% of the data. To our knowledge, this is the first work to demonstrate the use of AL for offline electroencephalography (EEG) calibration in a simulated BCI paradigm. While AL itself is not often amenable for use in real-time systems, this work opens the door to alternative AL-like systems that are more amenable for BCI applications and thus enables future efforts for developing highly adaptive BCI systems.

  8. Greater mindful eating practice is associated with better reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Lieneke K.; Duif, Iris; Loon, Van Ilke; Vries, De Jeanne H.M.; Speckens, Anne E.M.; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther

    2018-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are thought to reduce compulsive behavior such as overeating by promoting behavioral flexibility. Here the main aim was to provide support for mindfulness-mediated improvements in reversal learning, a direct measure of behavioral flexibility. We investigated

  9. Learning course adjustments during arm movements with reversed sensitivity derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tweed Douglas B

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To learn, a motor system needs to know its sensitivity derivatives, which quantify how its neural commands affect motor error. But are these derivatives themselves learned, or are they known solely innately? Here we test a recent theory that the brain's estimates of sensitivity derivatives are revisable based on sensory feedback. In its simplest form, the theory says that each control system has a single, adjustable estimate of its sensitivity derivatives which affects all aspects of its task, e.g. if you learn to reach to mirror-reversed targets then your revised estimate should reverse not only your initial aiming but also your online course adjustments when the target jumps in mid-movement. Methods Human subjects bent a joystick to move a cursor to a target on a computer screen, but the cursor's motion was reversed relative to the joystick's. The target jumped once during each movement. Subjects had up to 4000 trials to practice aiming and responding to target jumps. Results All subjects learned to reverse both initial aiming and course adjustments. Conclusions Our study confirms that sensitivity derivatives can be relearned. It is consistent with the idea of a single, all-purpose estimate of those derivatives; and it suggests that the estimate is a function of context, as one would expect given that the true sensitivity derivatives may vary with the state of the controlled system, the target, and the motor commands.

  10. Glutamine/glutamate (Glx) concentration in prefrontal cortex predicts reversal learning performance in the marmoset.

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    Lacreuse, Agnès; Moore, Constance M; LaClair, Matthew; Payne, Laurellee; King, Jean A

    2018-07-02

    This study used Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to identify potential neurometabolitic markers of cognitive performance in male (n = 7) and female (n = 8) middle-aged (∼5 years old) common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Anesthetized marmosets were scanned with a 4.7 T/40 cm horizontal magnet equipped with 450 mT/m magnetic field gradients and a 20 G/cm magnetic field gradient insert, within 3 months of completing the CANTAB serial Reversal Learning task. Neurometabolite concentrations of N-Acetyl Asparate, Myo-Inositol, Choline, Phosphocreatine + creatine, Glutamate and Glutamine were acquired from a 3 mm 3 voxel positioned in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC). Males acquired the reversals (but not simple discriminations) faster than the females. Higher PFC Glx (glutamate + glutamine) concentration was associated with faster acquisition of the reversals. Interestingly, the correlation between cognitive performance and Glx was significant in males, but not in females. These results suggest that MRS is a useful tool to identify biochemical markers of cognitive performance in the healthy nonhuman primate brain and that biological sex modulates the relationship between neurochemical composition and cognition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Procedural learning is impaired in dyslexia: Evidence from a meta-analysis of serial reaction time studies☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Ullman, Michael T.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated procedural learning in dyslexia using serial reaction time (SRT) tasks. Overall, the results have been mixed, with evidence of both impaired and intact learning reported. We undertook a systematic search of studies that examined procedural learning using SRT tasks, and synthesized the data using meta-analysis. A total of 14 studies were identified, representing data from 314 individuals with dyslexia and 317 typically developing control participants. The results indicate that, on average, individuals with dyslexia have worse procedural learning abilities than controls, as indexed by sequence learning on the SRT task. The average weighted standardized mean difference (the effect size) was found to be 0.449 (CI95: .204, .693), and was significant (p dyslexia. PMID:23920029

  12. Reversal learning enhanced by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.R.; Martin, I.L.; Arabella Melville, K.

    1974-01-01

    1 Small doses of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (12.5-50 μg/kg) consistently facilitated learning of a brightness discrimination reversal. 2 2-Bromo-lysergic acid diethylamide (BOL-148), a structural analogue of LSD, with similar peripheral anti-5-hydroxytrypamine activity but no psychotomimetic properties, had no effect in this learning situation at a similar dose (25 μg/kg). 3 LSD, but not BOL-148, caused a small but significant increase in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, but had no effect on the levels of catecholamines in the brain at 25 μg/kg. PMID:4458849

  13. Mutual learning and reverse innovation–where next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    There is a clear and evident need for mutual learning in global health systems. It is increasingly recognized that innovation needs to be sourced globally and that we need to think in terms of co-development as ideas are developed and spread from richer to poorer countries and vice versa. The Globalization and Health journal’s ongoing thematic series, “Reverse innovation in global health systems: learning from low-income countries” illustrates how mutual learning and ideas about so-called "reverse innovation" or "frugal innovation" are being developed and utilized by researchers and practitioners around the world. The knowledge emerging from the series is already catalyzing change and challenging the status quo in global health. The path to truly “global innovation flow”, although not fully established, is now well under way. Mobilization of knowledge and resources through continuous communication and awareness raising can help sustain this movement. Global health learning laboratories, where partners can support each other in generating and sharing lessons, have the potential to construct solutions for the world. At the heart of this dialogue is a focus on creating practical local solutions and, simultaneously, drawing out the lessons for the whole world. PMID:24673828

  14. Mutual learning and reverse innovation--where next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Nigel

    2014-03-28

    There is a clear and evident need for mutual learning in global health systems. It is increasingly recognized that innovation needs to be sourced globally and that we need to think in terms of co-development as ideas are developed and spread from richer to poorer countries and vice versa. The Globalization and Health journal's ongoing thematic series, "Reverse innovation in global health systems: learning from low-income countries" illustrates how mutual learning and ideas about so-called "reverse innovation" or "frugal innovation" are being developed and utilized by researchers and practitioners around the world. The knowledge emerging from the series is already catalyzing change and challenging the status quo in global health. The path to truly "global innovation flow", although not fully established, is now well under way. Mobilization of knowledge and resources through continuous communication and awareness raising can help sustain this movement. Global health learning laboratories, where partners can support each other in generating and sharing lessons, have the potential to construct solutions for the world. At the heart of this dialogue is a focus on creating practical local solutions and, simultaneously, drawing out the lessons for the whole world.

  15. Reward/Punishment reversal learning in older suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y; Clark, Luke; Siegle, Greg J; Butters, Meryl A; Ichikawa, Naho; Sahakian, Barbara J; Szanto, Katalin

    2010-06-01

    Suicide rates are high in old age, and the contribution of cognitive risk factors remains poorly understood. Suicide may be viewed as an outcome of an altered decision process. The authors hypothesized that impairment in reward/punishment-based learning, a component of affective decision making, is associated with attempted suicide in late-life depression. They expected that suicide attempters would discount past reward/punishment history, focusing excessively on the most recent rewards and punishments. The authors further hypothesized that this impairment could be dissociated from executive abilities, such as forward planning. The authors assessed reward/punishment-based learning using the probabilistic reversal learning task in 65 individuals age 60 and older: suicide attempters, suicide ideators, nonsuicidal depressed elderly, and nondepressed comparison subjects. The authors used a reinforcement learning computational model to decompose reward/punishment processing over time. The Stockings of Cambridge test served as a control measure of executive function. Suicide attempters but not suicide ideators showed impaired probabilistic reversal learning compared to both nonsuicidal depressed elderly and nondepressed comparison subjects, after controlling for effects of education, global cognitive function, and substance use. Model-based analyses revealed that suicide attempters discounted previous history to a higher degree relative to comparison subjects, basing their choice largely on reward/punishment received on the last trial. Groups did not differ in their performance on the Stockings of Cambridge test. Older suicide attempters display impaired reward/punishment-based learning. The authors propose a hypothesis that older suicide attempters make overly present-focused decisions, ignoring past experiences. Modification of this "myopia for the past" may have therapeutic potential.

  16. Effect of lesion site on serial position during list learning: a study with the CVLT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Luisa; Loureiro, Clara; Martins, Isabel Pavao

    2008-07-01

    Successful learning of supraspan word lists such as the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) relies more on clustering strategies than rote learning, subserved by the frontal and temporal lobes. The authors studied the effect of word sequence in CVLT learning, in 15 patients with frontal (FLL) and 15 temporal (TLL) lesions, and 33 controls. Experimental measures were: number of clusters, number of first (FI), middle (MI) and last items (LI), in learning trials and in total immediate recall. FLL disclosed significantly lower FI along learning. Clusters were similar among groups. This difficulty is discussed according to the role of frontal lobes in learning and memory.

  17. Autism: Too eager to learn? Event related potential findings of increased dependency on intentional learning in a serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Fenny S; Vissers, Constance Th W M; van der Meij, Roemer; Kessels, Roy P C; Maes, Joseph H R

    2017-09-01

    It has been suggested that people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased tendency to use explicit (or intentional) learning strategies. This altered learning may play a role in the development of the social communication difficulties characterizing ASD. In the current study, we investigated incidental and intentional sequence learning using a Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task in an adult ASD population. Response times and event related potentials (ERP) components (N2b and P3) were assessed as indicators of learning and knowledge. Findings showed that behaviorally, sequence learning and ensuing explicit knowledge were similar in ASD and typically developing (TD) controls. However, ERP findings showed that learning in the TD group was characterized by an enhanced N2b, while learning in the ASD group was characterized by an enhanced P3. These findings suggest that learning in the TD group might be more incidental in nature, whereas learning in the ASD group is more intentional or effortful. Increased intentional learning might serve as a strategy for individuals with ASD to control an overwhelming environment. Although this led to similar behavioral performances on the SRT task, it is very plausible that this intentional learning has adverse effects in more complex social situations, and hence contributes to the social impairments found in ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1533-1543. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Reversal Learning in Humans and Gerbils: Dynamic Control Network Facilitates Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvers, Christian; Brosch, Tobias; Brechmann, André; Woldeit, Marie L; Schulz, Andreas L; Ohl, Frank W; Lommerzheim, Marcel; Neumann, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears. Motivated by recurrent mechanisms of learning and memory for object categories, we propose a network architecture which involves reinforcement learning to steer an orienting system that monitors the success in reward acquisition. We suggest that a model sensory system provides feature representations which are further processed by category-related subnetworks which constitute a neural analog of expert networks. Categories are selected dynamically in a competitive field and predict the expected reward. Learning occurs in sequentialized phases to selectively focus the weight adaptation to synapses in the hierarchical network and modulate their weight changes by a global modulator signal. The orienting subsystem itself learns to bias the competition in the presence of continuous monotonic reward accumulation. In case of sudden changes in the discrepancy of predicted and acquired reward the activated motor category can be switched. We suggest that this subsystem is composed of a hierarchically organized network of dis-inhibitory mechanisms, dubbed a dynamic control network (DCN), which resembles components of the basal ganglia. The DCN selectively activates an expert network, corresponding to the current behavioral strategy. The trace of the accumulated reward is monitored such that large sudden

  19. Serial QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay and tuberculin skin test to diagnose latent tuberculosis in household Mexican contacts: conversion and reversion rates and associated factors using conventional and borderline zone definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Monárrez-Espino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A cohort of 123 adult contacts was followed for 18‐24 months (86 completed the follow-up to compare conversion and reversion rates based on two serial measures of QuantiFERON (QFT and tuberculin skin test (TST (PPD from TUBERSOL, Aventis Pasteur, Canada for diagnosing latent tuberculosis (TB in household contacts of TB patients using conventional (C and borderline zone (BZ definitions. Questionnaires were used to obtain information regarding TB exposure, TB risk factors and socio-demographic data. QFT (IU/mL conversion was defined as 0.70 (BZ and reversion was defined as ≥0.35 to 10 (BZ and reversion was defined as ≥5 to <5 (C. The QFT conversion and reversion rates were 10.5% and 7% with C and 8.1% and 4.7% with the BZ definitions, respectively. The TST rates were higher compared with QFT, especially with the C definitions (conversion 23.3%, reversion 9.3%. The QFT conversion and reversion rates were higher for TST ≥5; for TST, both rates were lower for QFT <0.35. No risk factors were associated with the probability of converting or reverting. The inconsistency and apparent randomness of serial testing is confusing and adds to the limitations of these tests and definitions to follow-up close TB contacts.

  20. Therapeutic modulation of the natural history of coronary atherosclerosis: lessons learned from serial imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jordan; Puri, Rishi; Kataoka, Yu; Nicholls, Stephen J; Psaltis, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Despite advances in risk prediction, preventive and therapeutic strategies, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains a major public health challenge worldwide, carrying considerable morbidity, mortality and health economic burden. There continues to be a need to better understand the natural history of this disease to guide the development of more effective treatment, integral to which is the rapidly evolving field of coronary artery imaging. Various imaging modalities have been refined to enable detailed visualization of the pathological substrate of atherosclerosis, providing accurate and reproducible measures of coronary plaque burden and composition, including the presence of high-risk characteristics. The serial application of such techniques, including coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have uncovered important insights into the progression of coronary plaque over time in patients with stable and unstable coronary artery disease (CAD), and its responsiveness to therapeutic interventions. Here we review the use of different imaging modalities for the surveillance of coronary atherosclerosis and the lessons they have provided about the modulation of CAD by both traditional and experimental therapies.

  1. The GABAergic Anterior Paired Lateral Neurons Facilitate Olfactory Reversal Learning in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanying; Ren, Qingzhong; Li, Hao; Guo, Aike

    2012-01-01

    Reversal learning has been widely used to probe the implementation of cognitive flexibility in the brain. Previous studies in monkeys identified an essential role of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in reversal learning. However, the underlying circuits and molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we use the T-maze to investigate the neural…

  2. No trade-off between learning speed and associative flexibility in bumblebees: a reversal learning test with multiple colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel E Raine

    Full Text Available Potential trade-offs between learning speed and memory-related performance could be important factors in the evolution of learning. Here, we test whether rapid learning interferes with the acquisition of new information using a reversal learning paradigm. Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris were trained to associate yellow with a floral reward. Subsequently the association between colour and reward was reversed, meaning bees then had to learn to visit blue flowers. We demonstrate that individuals that were fast to learn yellow as a predictor of reward were also quick to reverse this association. Furthermore, overnight memory retention tests suggest that faster learning individuals are also better at retaining previously learned information. There is also an effect of relatedness: colonies whose workers were fast to learn the association between yellow and reward also reversed this association rapidly. These results are inconsistent with a trade-off between learning speed and the reversal of a previously made association. On the contrary, they suggest that differences in learning performance and cognitive (behavioural flexibility could reflect more general differences in colony learning ability. Hence, this study provides additional evidence to support the idea that rapid learning and behavioural flexibility have adaptive value.

  3. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that serial entrepreneurs outperform de novo entrepreneurs. But is this positive association between prior experience and performance the result of learning by doing or of selection on ability? This paper proposes a strategy that combines the fixed-effects model and IV...... when the analysis focuses on founding new startups in sectors closely related to entrepreneurs' previous ventures....

  4. Selection and Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been broadly evidenced that entrepreneurial experience plays a substantial role in the emergence of serial entrepreneurship, the debate is still going on about whether this relationship should be attributed to learning by doing or instead be explained by selection on ability. This...

  5. The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel selectively impairs reversal learning while sparing prior learning, new learning and episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoz-Brown, Danielle; Carey, Lawrence M; Smith, Alexandra E; Gentry, Meredith; Sluka, Christina M; Corbin, Hannah E; Wu, Jie-En; Hohmann, Andrea G; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2017-10-01

    Chemotherapy is widely used to treat patients with systemic cancer. The efficacy of cancer therapies is frequently undermined by adverse side effects that have a negative impact on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Cancer patients who receive chemotherapy often experience chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment across a variety of domains including memory, learning, and attention. In the current study, the impact of paclitaxel, a taxane derived chemotherapeutic agent, on episodic memory, prior learning, new learning, and reversal learning were evaluated in rats. Neurogenesis was quantified post-treatment in the dentate gyrus of the same rats using immunostaining for 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and Ki67. Paclitaxel treatment selectively impaired reversal learning while sparing episodic memory, prior learning, and new learning. Furthermore, paclitaxel-treated rats showed decreases in markers of hippocampal cell proliferation, as measured by markers of cell proliferation assessed using immunostaining for Ki67 and BrdU. This work highlights the importance of using multiple measures of learning and memory to identify the pattern of impaired and spared aspects of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cocaine impairs serial-feature negative learning and blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Terry L; Hargrave, Sara L; Kearns, David N; Clasen, Matthew M; Jones, Sabrina; Wakeford, Alison G P; Sample, Camille H; Riley, Anthony L

    2018-05-10

    Previous research has shown that diets high in fat and sugar [a.k.a., Western diets (WD)] can impair performance of rats on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory problems, an effect that is accompanied by selective increases in hippocampal blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Based on these types of findings, it has been proposed that overeating of a WD (and its resulting obesity) may be, in part, a consequence of impairments in these anatomical substrates and cognitive processes. Given that drug use (and addiction) represents another behavioral excess, the present experiments assessed if similar outcomes might occur with drug exposure by evaluating the effects of cocaine administration on hippocampal-dependent memory and on the integrity of the BBB. Experiment 1 of the present series of studies found that systemic cocaine administration in rats also appears to have disruptive effects on the same hippocampal-dependent learning and memory mechanism that has been proposed to underlie the inhibition of food intake. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the same regimen of cocaine exposure that produced disruptions in learning and memory in Experiment 1 also produced increased BBB permeability in the hippocampus, but not in the striatum. Although the predominant focus of previous research investigating the etiologies of substance use and abuse has been on the brain circuits that underlie the motivational properties of drugs, the current investigation implicates the possible involvement of hippocampal memory systems in such behaviors. It is important to note that these positions are not mutually exclusive and that neuroadaptations in these two circuits might occur in parallel that generate dysregulated drug use in a manner similar to that of excessive eating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reversal learning as a measure of impulsive and compulsive behavior in addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Jentsch, J David

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to measure the cognitive components of complex decision-making across species has greatly facilitated our understanding of its neurobiological mechanisms. One task in particular, reversal learning, has proven valuable in assessing the inhibitory processes that are central to executive control. Reversal learning measures the ability to actively suppress reward-related responding and to disengage from ongoing behavior, phenomena that are biologically and descriptively related to impulsivity and compulsivity. Consequently, reversal learning could index vulnerability for disorders characterized by impulsivity such as proclivity for initial substance abuse as well as the compulsive aspects of dependence. Though we describe common variants and similar tasks, we pay particular attention to discrimination reversal learning, its supporting neural circuitry, neuropharmacology and genetic determinants. We also review the utility of this task in measuring impulsivity and compulsivity in addictions. We restrict our review to instrumental, reward-related reversal learning studies as they are most germane to addiction. The research reviewed here suggests that discrimination reversal learning may be used as a diagnostic tool for investigating the neural mechanisms that mediate impulsive and compulsive aspects of pathological reward-seeking and -taking behaviors. Two interrelated mechanisms are posited for the neuroadaptations in addiction that often translate to poor reversal learning: frontocorticostriatal circuitry dysregulation and poor dopamine (D2 receptor) modulation of this circuitry. These data suggest new approaches to targeting inhibitory control mechanisms in addictions.

  8. Post-training depletions of basolateral amygdala serotonin fail to disrupt discrimination, retention, or reversal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jesus eOchoa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In goal-directed pursuits, the basolateral amygdala (BLA is critical in learning about changes in the value of rewards. BLA-lesioned rats show enhanced reversal learning, a task employed to measure the flexibility of response to changes in reward. Similarly, there is a trend for enhanced discrimination learning, suggesting that BLA may modulate formation of stimulus-reward associations. There is a parallel literature on the importance of serotonin (5HT in new stimulus-reward and reversal learning. Recent postulations implicate 5HT in learning from punishment. Whereas dopaminergic involvement is critical in behavioral activation and reinforcement, 5HT may be most critical for aversive processing and behavioral inhibition, complementary cognitive processes. Given these findings, a 5HT-mediated mechanism in BLA may mediate the facilitated learning observed previously. The present study investigated the effects of selective 5HT lesions in BLA using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT versus infusions of saline (Sham on discrimination, retention, and deterministic reversal learning. Rats were required to reach an 85% correct pairwise discrimination and single reversal criterion prior to surgery. Postoperatively, rats were then tested on the 1 retention of the pretreatment discrimination pair 2 discrimination of a novel pair and 3 reversal learning performance. We found statistically comparable preoperative learning rates between groups, intact postoperative retention, and unaltered novel discrimination and reversal learning in 5,7-DHT rats. These findings suggest that 5HT in BLA is not required for formation and flexible adjustment of new stimulus-reward associations when the strategy to efficiently solve the task has already been learned. Given the complementary role of orbitofrontal cortex in reward learning and its interconnectivity with BLA, these findings add to the list of dissociable mechanisms for BLA and orbitofrontal cortex in reward learning.

  9. Ageing and spatial reversal learning in humans: findings from a virtual water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, R; Foreman, N; Leplow, B

    2014-08-15

    Deterioration in spatial memory with normal ageing is well accepted. Animal research has shown spatial reversal learning to be most vulnerable to pathological changes in the brain, but this has never been tested in humans. We studied ninety participants (52% females, 20-80 yrs) in a virtual water maze with a reversal learning procedure. Neuropsychological functioning, mood and personality were assessed to control moderator effects. For data analysis, participants were subdivided post hoc into groups aged 20-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-64 and 65-80 yrs. Initial spatial learning occurred in all age groups but 65-80-yrs-olds never reached the level of younger participants. When tested for delayed recall of spatial memory, younger people frequented the target area but those over 65 yrs did not. In spatial reversal learning, age groups over 45 yrs were deficient and the 65-80-yrs-olds showed no evidence of reversal. Spatial measures were associated with neuropsychological functioning. Extraversion and measures of depression moderated the age effect on the learning index with older introverted and non-depressed individuals showing better results. Measures of anxiety moderated the age effect on reversal learning with older people having higher anxiety scores showing a preserved reversal learning capability. Results confirmed age to be a major factor in spatial tasks but further showed neuropsychological functioning, psycho-affective determinants and personality traits to be significant predictors of individual differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Interactions between estradiol and haloperidol on perseveration and reversal learning in amphetamine-sensitized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almey, Anne; Arena, Lauren; Oliel, Joshua; Shams, Waqqas M; Hafez, Nada; Mancinelli, Cynthia; Henning, Lukas; Tsanev, Aleks; Brake, Wayne G

    2017-03-01

    There are sex differences associated with schizophrenia, as women exhibit later onset of the disorder, less severe symptomatology, and better response to antipsychotic medications. Estrogens are thought to play a role in these sex differences; estrogens facilitate the effects of antipsychotic medications to reduce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but it remains unclear whether estrogens protect against the cognitive symptoms of this disorder. Amphetamine sensitization is used to model some symptoms of schizophrenia in rats, including cognitive deficits like excessive perseveration and slower reversal learning. In this experiment female rats were administered a sensitizing regimen of amphetamine to mimic these cognitive symptoms. They were ovariectomized and administered either low or high estradiol replacement as well as chronic administration of the antipsychotic haloperidol, and were assessed in tests of perseveration and reversal learning. Results of these experiments demonstrated that, in amphetamine-sensitized rats, estradiol alone does not affect perseveration or reversal learning. However, low estradiol facilitates a 0.25mg/day dose of haloperidol to reduce perseveration and improve reversal learning. Combined high estradiol and 0.25mg/day haloperidol has no effect on perseveration or reversal learning, but high estradiol facilitates the effects of 0.13mg/day haloperidol to reduce perseveration and improve reversal learning. Thus, in amphetamine-sensitized female rats, 0.25mg/day haloperidol only improved perseveration and reversal learning when estradiol was low, while 0.13mg/day haloperidol only improved these cognitive processes when estradiol was high. These findings suggest that estradiol facilitates the effects of haloperidol to improve perseveration and reversal learning in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dissociable effects of 5-HT2C receptor antagonism and genetic inactivation on perseverance and learned non-reward in an egocentric spatial reversal task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R O Nilsson

    Full Text Available Cognitive flexibility can be assessed in reversal learning tests, which are sensitive to modulation of 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR function. Successful performance in these tests depends on at least two dissociable cognitive mechanisms which may separately dissipate associations of previous positive and negative valence. The first is opposed by perseverance and the second by learned non-reward. The current experiments explored the effect of reducing function of the 5-HT2CR on the cognitive mechanisms underlying egocentric reversal learning in the mouse. Experiment 1 used the 5-HT2CR antagonist SB242084 (0.5 mg/kg in a between-groups serial design and Experiment 2 used 5-HT2CR KO mice in a repeated measures design. Animals initially learned to discriminate between two egocentric turning directions, only one of which was food rewarded (denoted CS+, CS-, in a T- or Y-maze configuration. This was followed by three conditions; (1 Full reversal, where contingencies reversed; (2 Perseverance, where the previous CS+ became CS- and the previous CS- was replaced by a novel CS+; (3 Learned non-reward, where the previous CS- became CS+ and the previous CS+ was replaced by a novel CS-. SB242084 reduced perseverance, observed as a decrease in trials and incorrect responses to criterion, but increased learned non-reward, observed as an increase in trials to criterion. In contrast, 5-HT2CR KO mice showed increased perseverance. 5-HT2CR KO mice also showed retarded egocentric discrimination learning. Neither manipulation of 5-HT2CR function affected performance in the full reversal test. These results are unlikely to be accounted for by increased novelty attraction, as SB242084 failed to affect performance in an unrewarded novelty task. In conclusion, acute 5-HT2CR antagonism and constitutive loss of the 5-HT2CR have opposing effects on perseverance in egocentric reversal learning in mice. It is likely that this difference reflects the broader impact of 5HT2CR loss

  12. Searching for the Hebb effect in Down syndrome: evidence for a dissociation between verbal short-term memory and domain-general learning of serial order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, E K; Jarrold, C

    2010-04-01

    The Hebb effect is a form of repetition-driven long-term learning that is thought to provide an analogue for the processes involved in new word learning. Other evidence suggests that verbal short-term memory also constrains now vocabulary acquisition, but if the Hebb effect is independent of short-term memory, then it may be possible to demonstrate its preservation in a sample of individuals with Down syndrome, who typically show a verbal short-term memory deficit alongside surprising relative strengths in vocabulary. In two experiments, individuals both with and without Down syndrome (matched for receptive vocabulary) completed immediate serial recall tasks incorporating a Hebb repetition paradigm in either verbal or visuospatial conditions. Both groups demonstrated equivalent benefit from Hebb repetition, despite individuals with Down syndrome showing significantly lower verbal short-term memory spans. The resultant Hebb effect was equivalent across verbal and visuospatial domains. These studies suggest that the Hebb effect is essentially preserved within Down syndrome, implying that explicit verbal short-term memory is dissociable from potentially more implicit Hebb learning. The relative strength in receptive vocabulary observed in Down syndrome may therefore be supported by largely intact long-term as opposed to short-term serial order learning. This in turn may have implications for teaching methods and interventions that present new phonological material to individuals with Down syndrome.

  13. Neural correlates of a reversal learning task with an affectively neutral baseline: an event-related fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remijnse, Peter L.; Nielen, Marjan M. A.; Uylings, Harry B. M.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2005-01-01

    Reversal learning may conceptually be dissected into acquiring stimulus-reinforcement associations and subsequently altering behavior by switching to new associations as stimulus-reinforcement contingencies reverse (i.e., affective switching). Previous imaging studies have found regions of the

  14. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, escitalopram, enhances inhibition of prepotent responding and spatial reversal learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Holden D.; Amodeo, Dionisio A.; Sweeney, John A.; Ragozzino, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous findings indicate treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) facilitates behavioral flexibility when conditions require inhibition of a learned response pattern. The present experiment investigated whether acute treatment with the SSRI, escitalopram, affects behavioral flexibility when conditions require inhibition of a naturally-biased response pattern (elevated conflict test) and/or reversal of a learned response pattern (spatial reversal learning). An additional experiment was carried out to determine whether escitalopram, at doses that affected behavioral flexibility, also reduced anxiety as tested in the elevated plus-maze. In each experiment, Long-Evans rats received an intraperitoneal injection of either saline or escitalopram (0.03, 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg) 30 minutes prior to behavioral testing. Escitalopram, at all doses tested, enhanced acquisition in the elevated conflict test, but did not affect performance in the elevated plus-maze. Escitalopram (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) did not alter acquisition of the spatial discrimination, but facilitated reversal learning. In the elevated conflict and spatial reversal learning test, escitalopram enhanced the ability to maintain the relevant strategy after being initially selected. The present findings suggest that enhancing serotonin transmission with a SSRI facilitates inhibitory processes when conditions require a shift away from either a naturally-biased response pattern or a learned choice pattern. PMID:22219222

  15. Mirror reversal and visual rotation are learned and consolidated via separate mechanisms: recalibrating or learning de novo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgen, Sebastian; Parvin, Darius; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2014-10-08

    Motor learning tasks are often classified into adaptation tasks, which involve the recalibration of an existing control policy (the mapping that determines both feedforward and feedback commands), and skill-learning tasks, requiring the acquisition of new control policies. We show here that this distinction also applies to two different visuomotor transformations during reaching in humans: Mirror-reversal (left-right reversal over a mid-sagittal axis) of visual feedback versus rotation of visual feedback around the movement origin. During mirror-reversal learning, correct movement initiation (feedforward commands) and online corrections (feedback responses) were only generated at longer latencies. The earliest responses were directed into a nonmirrored direction, even after two training sessions. In contrast, for visual rotation learning, no dependency of directional error on reaction time emerged, and fast feedback responses to visual displacements of the cursor were immediately adapted. These results suggest that the motor system acquires a new control policy for mirror reversal, which initially requires extra processing time, while it recalibrates an existing control policy for visual rotations, exploiting established fast computational processes. Importantly, memory for visual rotation decayed between sessions, whereas memory for mirror reversals showed offline gains, leading to better performance at the beginning of the second session than in the end of the first. With shifts in time-accuracy tradeoff and offline gains, mirror-reversal learning shares common features with other skill-learning tasks. We suggest that different neuronal mechanisms underlie the recalibration of an existing versus acquisition of a new control policy and that offline gains between sessions are a characteristic of latter. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413768-12$15.00/0.

  16. Effect of haptic assistance on learning vehicle reverse parking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Masakazu; Uesugi, Naohisa; Furugori, Satoru; Kitagawa, Tomoko; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Compared to conventional visual- and auditory-based assisted driving technologies, haptic modality promises to be more effective and less disturbing assistance to the driver. However, in most previous studies, haptic assistance systems were evaluated from safety and stability viewpoints. Moreover, the effect of haptic assistance on human driving behavior has not been sufficiently discussed. In this paper, we introduce an assisted driving method based on haptic assistance for driver training in reverse parking, which is considered as an uncertain factor in conventional assisted driving systems. The proposed system assists the driver by applying a torque on the steering wheel to guide proper and well-timed steering. To design the appropriate assistance method, we conducted a measurement experiment to determine the qualitative reverse parking driver characteristics. Based on the determined characteristics, we propose a haptic assistance calculation method that utilizes the receding horizon control algorithm. For a simulation environment to assess the proposed assistance method, we also developed a scaled car simulator comprising a 1/10 scaled robot car and an omnidirectional camera. We used the scaled car simulator to conduct comparative experiments on subjects, and observed that the driving skills of the assisted subjects were significantly better than those of the control subjects.

  17. Selective bilateral amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys fail to disrupt object reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2007-01-31

    Neuropsychological studies in nonhuman primates have led to the view that the amygdala plays an essential role in stimulus-reward association. The main evidence in support of this idea is that bilateral aspirative or radiofrequency lesions of the amygdala yield severe impairments on object reversal learning, a task that assesses the ability to shift choices of objects based on the presence or absence of food reward (i.e., reward contingency). The behavioral effects of different lesion techniques, however, can vary. The present study therefore evaluated the effects of selective, excitotoxic lesions of the amygdala in rhesus monkeys on object reversal learning. For comparison, we tested the same monkeys on a task known to be sensitive to amygdala damage, the reinforcer devaluation task. Contrary to previous results based on less selective lesion techniques, monkeys with complete excitotoxic amygdala lesions performed object reversal learning as quickly as controls. As predicted, however, the same operated monkeys were impaired in making object choices after devaluation of the associated food reinforcer. The results suggest two conclusions. First, the results demonstrate that the amygdala makes a selective contribution to stimulus-reward association; the amygdala is critical for guiding object choices after changes in reward value but not after changes in reward contingency. Second, the results implicate a critical contribution to object reversal learning of structures nearby the amygdala, perhaps the subjacent rhinal cortex.

  18. Measuring Discrimination- and Reversal Learning in Mouse Models within 4 Days and without Prior Food Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmelink, Esther; Smit, August B.; Verhage, Matthijs; Loos, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological and psychiatric disorders are characterized by deficits in cognitive flexibility. Modeling cognitive flexibility in mice enables the investigation of mechanisms underlying these deficits. The majority of currently available behavioral tests targeting this cognitive domain are reversal learning tasks that require scheduled food…

  19. That's not how the learning works - the paradox of Reverse Innovation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew; Weisberger, Emily; Silver, Diana; Dadwal, Viva; Macinko, James

    2016-07-05

    There are significant differences in the meaning and use of the term 'Reverse Innovation' between industry circles, where the term originated, and health policy circles where the term has gained traction. It is often conflated with other popularized terms such as Frugal Innovation, Co-development and Trickle-up Innovation. Compared to its use in the industrial sector, this conceptualization of Reverse Innovation describes a more complex, fragmented process, and one with no particular institution in charge. It follows that the way in which the term 'Reverse Innovation', specifically, is understood and used in the healthcare space is worthy of examination. Between September and December 2014, we conducted eleven in-depth face-to-face or telephone interviews with key informants from innovation, health and social policy circles, experts in international comparative policy research and leaders in the Reverse Innovation space in the United States. Interviews were open-ended with guiding probes into the barriers and enablers to Reverse Innovation in the US context, specifically also informants' experience and understanding of the term Reverse Innovation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically using the process of constant comparison. We describe three main themes derived from the interviews. First, 'Reverse Innovation,' the term, has marketing currency to convince policy-makers that may be wary of learning from or adopting innovations from unexpected sources, in this case Low-Income Countries. Second, the term can have the opposite effect - by connoting frugality, or innovation arising from necessity as opposed to good leadership, the proposed innovation may be associated with poor quality, undermining potential translation into other contexts. Finally, the term 'Reverse Innovation' is a paradox - it breaks down preconceptions of the directionality of knowledge and learning, whilst simultaneously reinforcing it. We conclude that this term means

  20. Acute effects of cocaine and cannabis on reversal learning as a function of COMT and DRD2 genotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spronk, D.B.; Schaaf, M.E. van der; Cools, R.; Bruijn, E.R. De; Franke, B.; Wel, J.H. van; Ramaekers, J.G.; Verkes, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Long-term cannabis and cocaine use has been associated with impairments in reversal learning. However, how acute cannabis and cocaine administration affect reversal learning in humans is not known. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to establish the acute effects of administration of

  1. Observing others stay or switch - How social prediction errors are integrated into reward reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihssen, Niklas; Mussweiler, Thomas; Linden, David E J

    2016-08-01

    Reward properties of stimuli can undergo sudden changes, and the detection of these 'reversals' is often made difficult by the probabilistic nature of rewards/punishments. Here we tested whether and how humans use social information (someone else's choices) to overcome uncertainty during reversal learning. We show a substantial social influence during reversal learning, which was modulated by the type of observed behavior. Participants frequently followed observed conservative choices (no switches after punishment) made by the (fictitious) other player but ignored impulsive choices (switches), even though the experiment was set up so that both types of response behavior would be similarly beneficial/detrimental (Study 1). Computational modeling showed that participants integrated the observed choices as a 'social prediction error' instead of ignoring or blindly following the other player. Modeling also confirmed higher learning rates for 'conservative' versus 'impulsive' social prediction errors. Importantly, this 'conservative bias' was boosted by interpersonal similarity, which in conjunction with the lack of effects observed in a non-social control experiment (Study 2) confirmed its social nature. A third study suggested that relative weighting of observed impulsive responses increased with increased volatility (frequency of reversals). Finally, simulations showed that in the present paradigm integrating social and reward information was not necessarily more adaptive to maximize earnings than learning from reward alone. Moreover, integrating social information increased accuracy only when conservative and impulsive choices were weighted similarly during learning. These findings suggest that to guide decisions in choice contexts that involve reward reversals humans utilize social cues conforming with their preconceptions more strongly than cues conflicting with them, especially when the other is similar. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B

  2. Sex reversal of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by 17α-methyltestosterone exposure: A serial experimental approach to determine optimal timing and delivery regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Shafaq; Adams, Mark; Wilkinson, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    Commercial culture of Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Tasmania was partly abandoned due to sexual maturation of male fish early on during the estuarine rearing phase. Maturation adversely affects body mass, flesh quality and immunocompetency effectively. Sex reversal techniques such as the in-feed addition of a synthetic androgen have proven difficult to adapt in brook trout. An appropriate timing, duration and delivery vehicle for administration of 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) to produce phenotypic males (neomales) from genotypically female brook trout required further investigation. In this study, groups of brook trout eggs (n=1000) maintained at 9.5±0.15-10±0.14°C, were immersed in MT (400μgL -1 ) for four hours on two alternate days (two immersions/group) staggered over a two week period surrounding the hatch of embryos (control groups excluded). The groups were then split and half received MT-supplemented feed for 60days and the other a standard diet. Following an 11 month on-growing period sex phenotypes were determined by gross & histological gonad morphology. The highest proportion of male phenotypes (75%) was found in fish immersed six and four days pre-hatch and subsequently fed a normal diet. Fish fed a MT supplemented diet and immersed in MT showed significantly higher proportions of sterile fish. These data indicate that a pre-hatch immersion-only regime (4-6days pre-hatch at 9.5°C) should be pursued as a target for optimization studies to further refine the effective concentration and duration of exposure to MT for the successful production of neo-male brook trout. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reversal of long-term potentiation-like plasticity processes after motor learning disrupts skill retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Gabriela; Lloyd, Ashley; Celnik, Pablo

    2013-07-31

    Plasticity of synaptic connections in the primary motor cortex (M1) is thought to play an essential role in learning and memory. Human and animal studies have shown that motor learning results in long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity processes, namely potentiation of M1 and a temporary occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. Moreover, biochemical processes essential for LTP are also crucial for certain types of motor learning and memory. Thus, it has been speculated that the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity after learning, indicative of how much LTP was used to learn, is essential for retention. Here we provide supporting evidence of it in humans. Induction of LTP-like plasticity can be abolished using a depotentiation protocol (DePo) consisting of brief continuous theta burst stimulation. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess whether application of DePo over M1 after motor learning affected (1) occlusion of LTP-like plasticity and (2) retention of motor skill learning. We found that the magnitude of motor memory retention is proportional to the magnitude of occlusion of LTP-like plasticity. Moreover, DePo stimulation over M1, but not over a control site, reversed the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity induced by motor learning and disrupted skill retention relative to control subjects. Altogether, these results provide evidence of a link between occlusion of LTP-like plasticity and retention and that this measure could be used as a biomarker to predict retention. Importantly, attempts to reverse the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity after motor learning comes with the cost of reducing retention of motor learning.

  4. Age-related similarities and differences in brain activity underlying reversal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru eNashiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to update associative memory is an important aspect of episodic memory and a critical skill for social adaptation. Previous research with younger adults suggests that emotional arousal alters brain mechanisms underlying memory updating; however, it is unclear whether this applies to older adults. Given that the ability to update associative information declines with age, it is important to understand how emotion modulates the brain processes underlying memory updating in older adults. The current study investigated this question using reversal learning tasks, where younger and older participants (age ranges 19-35 and 61-78 respectively learn a stimulus–outcome association and then update their response when contingencies change. We found that younger and older adults showed similar patterns of activation in the frontopolar OFC and the amygdala during emotional reversal learning. In contrast, when reversal learning did not involve emotion, older adults showed greater parietal cortex activity than did younger adults. Thus, younger and older adults show more similarities in brain activity during memory updating involving emotional stimuli than during memory updating not involving emotional stimuli.

  5. Effects of acute sleep deprivation on motor and reversal learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W; Kang, Mihwa; Ramesh, Priyanka V; Klann, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Sleep supports the formation of a variety of declarative and non-declarative memories, and sleep deprivation often impairs these types of memories. In human subjects, natural sleep either during a nap or overnight leads to long-lasting improvements in visuomotor and fine motor tasks, but rodent models recapitulating these findings have been scarce. Here we present evidence that 5h of acute sleep deprivation impairs mouse skilled reach learning compared to a matched period of ad libitum sleep. In sleeping mice, the duration of total sleep time during the 5h of sleep opportunity or during the first bout of sleep did not correlate with ultimate gain in motor performance. In addition, we observed that reversal learning during the skilled reaching task was also affected by sleep deprivation. Consistent with this observation, 5h of sleep deprivation also impaired reversal learning in the water-based Y-maze. In conclusion, acute sleep deprivation negatively impacts subsequent motor and reversal learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Incoherent dictionary learning for reducing crosstalk noise in least-squares reverse time migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Bai, Min

    2018-05-01

    We propose to apply a novel incoherent dictionary learning (IDL) algorithm for regularizing the least-squares inversion in seismic imaging. The IDL is proposed to overcome the drawback of traditional dictionary learning algorithm in losing partial texture information. Firstly, the noisy image is divided into overlapped image patches, and some random patches are extracted for dictionary learning. Then, we apply the IDL technology to minimize the coherency between atoms during dictionary learning. Finally, the sparse representation problem is solved by a sparse coding algorithm, and image is restored by those sparse coefficients. By reducing the correlation among atoms, it is possible to preserve most of the small-scale features in the image while removing much of the long-wavelength noise. The application of the IDL method to regularization of seismic images from least-squares reverse time migration shows successful performance.

  7. Reversal learning enhanced by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): concomitant rise in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A R; Martin, I L; Melville, K A

    1974-11-01

    1 Small doses of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (12.5-50 mug/kg) consistently facilitated learning of a brightness discrimination reversal.2 2-Bromo-lysergic acid diethylamide (BOL-148), a structural analogue of LSD, with similar peripheral anti-5-hydroxytrypamine activity but no psychotomimetic properties, had no effect in this learning situation at a similar dose (25 mug/kg).3 LSD, but not BOL-148, caused a small but significant increase in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, but had no effect on the levels of catecholamines in the brain at 25 mug/kg.

  8. An improved clustering algorithm based on reverse learning in intelligent transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guoqing; Kou, Qianqian; Niu, Ting

    2017-05-01

    With the development of artificial intelligence and data mining technology, big data has gradually entered people's field of vision. In the process of dealing with large data, clustering is an important processing method. By introducing the reverse learning method in the clustering process of PAM clustering algorithm, to further improve the limitations of one-time clustering in unsupervised clustering learning, and increase the diversity of clustering clusters, so as to improve the quality of clustering. The algorithm analysis and experimental results show that the algorithm is feasible.

  9. The performance of cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, in a reversal learning task varies across experimental paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gingins

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter “cleaners”. Using two-alternative forced-choice tests, fish had to learn to associate a food reward with a side (left or right in their holding aquarium. Individuals were tested in one of four experimental treatments that differed slightly in procedure and/or physical set-up. Cleaners from all four treatment groups were equally able to solve the initial spatial task. However, groups differed in their ability to solve the reversal learning task: no individuals solved the reversal task when tested in small tanks with a transparent partition separating the two options, whereas over 50% of individuals solved the task when performed in a larger tank, or with an opaque partition. These results clearly show that seemingly insignificant details to the experimental set-up matter when testing performance in a spatial task and might significantly influence the outcome of experiments. These results echo previous calls for researchers to exercise caution when designing methodologies for cognition tasks to avoid misinterpretations.

  10. A functional polymorphism in the prodynorphin gene affects cognitive flexibility and brain activation during reversal learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail eVotinov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether the opioid system plays a role in the ability to flexibly adapt behavior is still unclear. We used fMRI to investigate the effect of a nucleotide tandem repeat (68-bp VNTR functional polymorphism of the prodynorphin gene on cerebral activation during a reversal learning task in which participants had to flexibly adapt stimulus-response associations. Past studies suggested that alleles with 3 or 4 repeats (HH genotype of this polymorphism are associated with higher levels of dynorphin peptides than alleles with 1 or 2 repeats (LL genotype. On the behavioral level, the HH group made more perseverative errors than the LL group. On the neural level, the HH group demonstrated less engagement of left orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC and cortico-striatal circuitry, and lower effective connectivity of lOFC with anterior midcingulate cortex and anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during reversal learning and processing negative feedback. This points to a lower ability of the HH genotype to monitor or adapt to changes in reward contingencies. These findings provide first evidence that dynorphins may contribute to individual differences in reversal learning, and that considering the opioid system may shed new light on the neurochemical correlates of decision-making and behavioral regulation.

  11. Reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Mizutani, Yuto; Cançado, Carlos R X; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    Zebrafish are used extensively as vertebrate animal models in biomedical research for having such features as a fully sequenced genome and transparent embryo. Yet, operant-conditioning studies with this species are scarce. The present study investigated reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish. A target response (approaching a sensor) was reinforced in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the target response was extinguished while reinforcing an alternative response (approaching a different sensor). In Phase 3, extinction was in effect for the target and alternative responses. Reversal learning was demonstrated when responding tracked contingency changes between Phases 1 and 2. Moreover, resurgence occurred in 10 of 13 fish in Phase 3: Target response rates increased transiently and exceeded rates of an unreinforced control response. The present study provides the first evidence with zebrafish supporting reversal learning between discrete operant responses and a laboratory model of relapse. These findings open the possibility to assessing genetic influences of operant behavior generally and in models of relapse (e.g., resurgence, renewal, reinstatement). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The performance of cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, in a reversal learning task varies across experimental paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingins, Simon; Marcadier, Fanny; Wismer, Sharon; Krattinger, Océane; Quattrini, Fausto; Bshary, Redouan; Binning, Sandra A

    2018-01-01

    Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaners"). Using two-alternative forced-choice tests, fish had to learn to associate a food reward with a side (left or right) in their holding aquarium. Individuals were tested in one of four experimental treatments that differed slightly in procedure and/or physical set-up. Cleaners from all four treatment groups were equally able to solve the initial spatial task. However, groups differed in their ability to solve the reversal learning task: no individuals solved the reversal task when tested in small tanks with a transparent partition separating the two options, whereas over 50% of individuals solved the task when performed in a larger tank, or with an opaque partition. These results clearly show that seemingly insignificant details to the experimental set-up matter when testing performance in a spatial task and might significantly influence the outcome of experiments. These results echo previous calls for researchers to exercise caution when designing methodologies for cognition tasks to avoid misinterpretations.

  13. Developments in Serials: 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses issues and developments relating to several aspects of serials, including economics and acquisitions; bibliographic control; automation; education; serials literature and bibliographies; and copyrights. A bibliography is included. (Author/MBR)

  14. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  15. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  16. Learning feedback and feedforward control in a mirror-reversed visual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Shoko; Telgen, Sebastian; Ushiba, Junichi; Nozaki, Daichi; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2015-10-01

    When we learn a novel task, the motor system needs to acquire both feedforward and feedback control. Currently, little is known about how the learning of these two mechanisms relate to each other. In the present study, we tested whether feedforward and feedback control need to be learned separately, or whether they are learned as common mechanism when a new control policy is acquired. Participants were trained to reach to two lateral and one central target in an environment with mirror (left-right)-reversed visual feedback. One group was allowed to make online movement corrections, whereas the other group only received visual information after the end of the movement. Learning of feedforward control was assessed by measuring the accuracy of the initial movement direction to lateral targets. Feedback control was measured in the responses to sudden visual perturbations of the cursor when reaching to the central target. Although feedforward control improved in both groups, it was significantly better when online corrections were not allowed. In contrast, feedback control only adaptively changed in participants who received online feedback and remained unchanged in the group without online corrections. Our findings suggest that when a new control policy is acquired, feedforward and feedback control are learned separately, and that there may be a trade-off in learning between feedback and feedforward controllers. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Automated quantification of cerebral edema following hemispheric infarction: Application of a machine-learning algorithm to evaluate CSF shifts on serial head CTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasheng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cerebral edema is a major cause of death and deterioration following hemispheric stroke, there remains no validated biomarker that captures the full spectrum of this critical complication. We recently demonstrated that reduction in intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF volume (∆CSF on serial computed tomography (CT scans provides an accurate measure of cerebral edema severity, which may aid in early triaging of stroke patients for craniectomy. However, application of such a volumetric approach would be too cumbersome to perform manually on serial scans in a real-world setting. We developed and validated an automated technique for CSF segmentation via integration of random forest (RF based machine learning with geodesic active contour (GAC segmentation. The proposed RF + GAC approach was compared to conventional Hounsfield Unit (HU thresholding and RF segmentation methods using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC and the correlation of volumetric measurements, with manual delineation serving as the ground truth. CSF spaces were outlined on scans performed at baseline (<6 h after stroke onset and early follow-up (FU (closest to 24 h in 38 acute ischemic stroke patients. RF performed significantly better than optimized HU thresholding (p < 10−4 in baseline and p < 10−5 in FU and RF + GAC performed significantly better than RF (p < 10−3 in baseline and p < 10−5 in FU. Pearson correlation coefficients between the automatically detected ∆CSF and the ground truth were r = 0.178 (p = 0.285, r = 0.876 (p < 10−6 and r = 0.879 (p < 10−6 for thresholding, RF and RF + GAC, respectively, with a slope closer to the line of identity in RF + GAC. When we applied the algorithm trained from images of one stroke center to segment CTs from another center, similar findings held. In conclusion, we have developed and validated an accurate automated approach to segment CSF and calculate its shifts on serial CT scans

  18. Reverse inference of memory retrieval processes underlying metacognitive monitoring of learning using multivariate pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiers, Peter; Falbo, Luciana; Goulas, Alexandros; van Gog, Tamara; de Bruin, Anique

    2016-05-15

    Monitoring of learning is only accurate at some time after learning. It is thought that immediate monitoring is based on working memory, whereas later monitoring requires re-activation of stored items, yielding accurate judgements. Such interpretations are difficult to test because they require reverse inference, which presupposes specificity of brain activity for the hidden cognitive processes. We investigated whether multivariate pattern classification can provide this specificity. We used a word recall task to create single trial examples of immediate and long term retrieval and trained a learning algorithm to discriminate them. Next, participants performed a similar task involving monitoring instead of recall. The recall-trained classifier recognized the retrieval patterns underlying immediate and long term monitoring and classified delayed monitoring examples as long-term retrieval. This result demonstrates the feasibility of decoding cognitive processes, instead of their content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of orbitofrontal cortex lesions on autoshaped lever pressing and reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E

    2014-10-15

    A cue associated with a rewarding event can trigger behavior towards the cue itself due to the cue acquiring incentive value through its pairing with the rewarding outcome (i.e., sign-tracking). For example, rats will approach, press, and attempt to "consume" a retractable lever conditioned stimulus (CS) that signals delivery of a food unconditioned stimulus (US). Attending to food-predictive CSs is important when seeking out food, and it is just as important to be able to modify one's behavior when the relationships between CSs and USs are changed. Using a discriminative autoshaping procedure with lever CSs, the present study investigated the effects of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) lesions on sign-tracking and reversal learning. Insertion of one lever was followed by sucrose delivery upon retraction, and insertion of another lever was followed by nothing. After the acquisition phase, the contingencies between the levers and outcomes were reversed. Bilateral OFC lesions had no effect on the acquisition of sign-tracking. However, OFC-lesioned rats showed substantial deficits in acquiring sign-tracking compared to sham-lesioned rats once the stimulus-outcome contingencies were reversed. Over the course of reversal learning, OFC-lesioned rats were able to reach comparable levels of sign-tracking as sham-lesioned rats. These findings suggest that OFC is not necessary for the ability of a CS to acquire incentive value and provide more evidence that OFC is critical for modifying behavior appropriately following a change in stimulus-outcome contingencies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Independent effects of age and levodopa on reversal learning in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N; MacDonald, Penny A

    2018-05-18

    The dopamine overdose hypothesis has provided an important theoretical framework for understanding cognition in Parkinson's disease. It posits that effects of dopaminergic therapy on cognition in Parkinson's disease depend on baseline dopamine levels in brain regions that support different functions. Although functions performed by more severely dopamine-depleted brain regions improve with medication, those associated with less dopamine deficient areas are actually worsened. It is presumed that medication-related worsening of cognition owes to dopamine overdose. We investigated whether age-related changes in baseline dopamine levels would modulate effects of dopaminergic therapy on reward learning in healthy volunteers. In a double-blind, crossover design, healthy younger and older adults completed a probabilistic reversal learning task after treatment with 100/25 mg of levodopa/carbidopa versus placebo. Older adults learned more poorly than younger adults at baseline, being more likely to shift responses after misleading punishment. Levodopa worsened stimulus-reward learning relative to placebo to the same extent in both groups, irrespective of differences in baseline performance and expected dopamine levels. When order effects were eliminated, levodopa induced response shifts after reward more often than placebo. Our results reveal independent deleterious effects of age group and exogenous dopamine on reward learning, suggesting a more complex scenario than predicted by the dopamine overdose hypothesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of MK-801 on vicarious trial-and-error and reversal of olfactory discrimination learning in weanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, G S; Hu, D; Amsel, A

    1998-12-01

    The effects of dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) on vicarious trial-and-error (VTE), and on simultaneous olfactory discrimination learning and its reversal, were observed in weanling rats. The term VTE was used by Tolman (The determiners of behavior at a choice point. Psychol. Rev. 1938;46:318-336), who described it as conflict-like behavior at a choice-point in simultaneous discrimination learning. It takes the form of head movements from one stimulus to the other, and has recently been proposed by Amsel (Hippocampal function in the rat: cognitive mapping or vicarious trial-and-error? Hippocampus, 1993;3:251-256) as related to hippocampal, nonspatial function during this learning. Weanling male rats received systemic MK-801 either 30 min before the onset of olfactory discrimination training and its reversal, or only before its reversal. The MK-801-treated animals needed significantly more sessions to acquire the discrimination and showed significantly fewer VTEs in the acquisition phase of learning. Impaired reversal learning was shown only when MK-801 was administered during the reversal-learning phase, itself, and not when it was administered throughout both phases.

  2. Aprendizagem de uma habilidade motora seriada em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento Learning of a motor serial skill in different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Brito Diniz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou a aprendizagem de uma tarefa motora seriada em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento. Quinze crianças, 14 adultos e 13 idosos praticaram a tarefa de rastrear uma sequência de seis estímulos luminosos durante 10 blocos de tentativas ou até descobrir a sequência, constituindo a fase de estabilização e mais dois blocos de tentativas, referentes as fases de adaptação I e II. O desempenho foi mensurado por meio das respostas funcionais e não-funcionais e das sequências funcionais. Os resultados indicaram que os adultos foram superiores aos demais participantes, e idosos apresentaram melhor desempenho que crianças apenas no início da prática, sugerindo que o estágio de desenvolvimento interage com o processo de aprendizagem motora.This study investigated the learning of a serial tracking task in different developmental stages. Fifteen children, fourteen adults and thirteen elderly practiced the task of tracking a sequence of six light stimuli for ten blocks of trial or until discover the sequence, during the stabilization phase, and two blocks of trial at the adaptation tests I and II. Performance was measured by the functional and non-functional responses and functional sequences. The results showed that adults were superior to the other participants, and elderly participants performed better than children only in the early practice, suggesting that the development stage interacts with the process of motor learning.

  3. Reversal learning in gonadectomized marmosets with and without hormone replacement: are males more sensitive to punishment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaClair, Matthew; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2016-05-01

    This study examined sex differences in executive function in middle-aged gonadectomized marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) with or without hormonal replacement. We tested ten castrated male (mean age 5.5 years) marmosets treated with testosterone cypionate (T, n = 5) or vehicle (n = 5) on Reversal Learning, which contributes to cognitive flexibility, and the Delayed Response task, measuring working memory. Their performance was compared to that of 11 ovariectomized females (mean age = 3.7 years) treated with Silastic capsules filled with 17-β estradiol (E2, n = 6) or empty capsules (n = 5), previously tested on the same tasks (Lacreuse et al. in J Neuroendocrinol 26:296-309, 2014. doi: 10.1111/jne.12147). Behavioral observations were conducted daily. Females exhibited more locomotor behaviors than males. Males and females did not differ in the number of trials taken to reach criterion on the reversals, but males had significantly longer response latencies, regardless of hormone replacement. They also had a greater number of refusals than females. Additionally, both control and T-treated males, but not females, had slower responses on incorrect trials, suggesting that males were making errors due to distraction, lack of motivation or uncertainty. Furthermore, although both males and females had slower responding following an incorrect compared to a correct trial, the sex difference in response latencies was disproportionally large following an incorrect trial. No sex difference was found in the Delayed Response task. Overall, slower response latencies in males than females during Reversal Learning, especially during and following an incorrect trial, may reflect greater sensitivity to punishment (omission of reward) and greater performance monitoring in males, compared to females. Because these differences occurred in gonadectomized animals and regardless of hormone replacement, they may be organized early in life.

  4. From animal cruelty to serial murder: applying the graduation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeremy; Hensley, Christopher

    2003-02-01

    Although serial murder has been recorded for centuries, limited academic attention has been given to this important topic. Scholars have attempted to examine the causality and motivations behind the rare phenomenon of serial murder. However, scant research exists which delves into the childhood characteristics of serial murderers. Using social learning theory, some of these studies present supporting evidence for a link between childhood animal cruelty and adult aggression toward humans. Based on five case studies of serial murderers, we contribute to the existing literature by exploring the possible link between childhood cruelty toward animals and serial murder with the application of the graduation hypothesis.

  5. CRNL library serials list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alburger, T.P.

    1982-04-01

    A list of 1900 serial publications (periodicals, society transactions and proceedings, annuals and directories, indexes, newspapers, etc.) is presented with volumes and years held by the Main Library. This library is the largest in AECL as well as one of the largest scientific and technical libraries in North America, and functions as a Canadian resource for nuclear information. A main alphabetical list is followed by broad subject field lists representing research interests, and lists of abstract and index serials, general bibliographic serials, conference indexes, press releases, English translations, and original language journals

  6. Reversible Watermarking Using Prediction-Error Expansion and Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyong Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the research for reversible watermarking focuses on the decreasing of image distortion. Aiming at this issue, this paper presents an improvement method to lower the embedding distortion based on the prediction-error expansion (PE technique. Firstly, the extreme learning machine (ELM with good generalization ability is utilized to enhance the prediction accuracy for image pixel value during the watermarking embedding, and the lower prediction error results in the reduction of image distortion. Moreover, an optimization operation for strengthening the performance of ELM is taken to further lessen the embedding distortion. With two popular predictors, that is, median edge detector (MED predictor and gradient-adjusted predictor (GAP, the experimental results for the classical images and Kodak image set indicate that the proposed scheme achieves improvement for the lowering of image distortion compared with the classical PE scheme proposed by Thodi et al. and outperforms the improvement method presented by Coltuc and other existing approaches.

  7. Altered brain activation in a reversal learning task unmasks adaptive changes in cognitive control in writer's cramp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuner, Kirsten E; Knutzen, Arne; Granert, Oliver; Sablowsky, Simone; Götz, Julia; Wolff, Stephan; Jansen, Olav; Dressler, Dirk; Schneider, Susanne A; Klein, Christine; Deuschl, Günther; van Eimeren, Thilo; Witt, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Previous receptor binding studies suggest dopamine function is altered in the basal ganglia circuitry in task-specific dystonia, a condition characterized by contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles while performing specific tasks. Dopamine plays a role in reward-based learning. Using fMRI, this study compared 31 right-handed writer's cramp patients to 35 controls in reward-based learning of a probabilistic reversal-learning task. All subjects chose between two stimuli and indicated their response with their left or right index finger. One stimulus response was rewarded 80%, the other 20%. After contingencies reversal, the second stimulus response was rewarded in 80%. We further linked the DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIa polymorphism, which is associated with 30% reduction of the striatal dopamine receptor density with reward-based learning and assumed impaired reversal learning in A + subjects. Feedback learning in patients was normal. Blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in controls increased with negative feedback in the insula, rostral cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus and parietal cortex (pFWE based learning. The dACC is connected with the basal ganglia-thalamo-loop modulated by dopaminergic signaling. This finding suggests disturbed integration of reinforcement history in decision making and implicate that the reward system might contribute to the pathogenesis in writer's cramp.

  8. Spatial and reversal learning in the Morris water maze are largely resistant to six hours of REM sleep deprivation following training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair both hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and learning a new target location within a familiar environment: reversal learning. A 6-d protocol was divided into the initial spatial learning phase (3.5 d) immediately followed by the reversal phase (2.5 d). During the 6 h following four or 12 training trials/day of initial or reversal learning phases, REM sleep was eliminated and non-REM sleep left intact using the multiple inverted flowerpot method. Contrary to our hypotheses, REM sleep deprivation during four or 12 trials/day of initial spatial or reversal learning did not affect training performance. However, some probe trial measures indicated REM sleep-deprivation–associated impairment in initial spatial learning with four trials/day and enhancement of subsequent reversal learning. In naive animals, REM sleep deprivation during normal initial spatial learning was followed by a lack of preference for the subsequent reversal platform location during the probe. Our findings contradict reports that REM sleep is essential for spatial learning in the Morris water maze and newly reveal that short periods of REM sleep deprivation do not impair concurrent reversal learning. Effects on subsequent reversal learning are consistent with the idea that REM sleep serves the consolidation of incompletely learned items. PMID:21677190

  9. Playing at Serial Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); T. Moraitis (Thras)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral biases can result in suboptimal acquisition decisions-with the potential for errors exacerbated in consolidating industries, where consolidators design serial acquisition strategies and fight escalating takeover battles for platform companies that may determine their future

  10. Classifying serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promish, D I; Lester, D

    1999-11-08

    We attempted to match the appearance and demeanor of 27 serial killers to the postmortem 'signatures' found on their victims' bodies. Our results suggest that a link may exist between postmortem signatures and two complementary appearance-demeanor types.

  11. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borries, A K L; Verkes, R J; Bulten, B H; Cools, R; de Bruijn, E R A

    2013-12-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures--that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model predicts an FRN on negative prediction errors, as well as implying a role for the FRN in learning and the adaptation of behavior. However, these predictions have recently been challenged. Notably, studies so far have used tasks in which the outcomes have been contingent on the response. In these paradigms, the need to adapt behavioral responses is present only for negative, not for positive feedback. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of positive as well as negative violations of expectancy on FRN amplitudes, without the usual confound of behavioral adjustments. A reversal-learning task was employed in which outcome value and outcome expectancy were orthogonalized; that is, both positive and negative outcomes were equally unexpected. The results revealed a double dissociation, with effects of valence but not expectancy on the FRN and, conversely, effects of expectancy but not valence on the P300. While FRN amplitudes were largest for negative-outcome trials, irrespective of outcome expectancy, P300 amplitudes were largest for unexpected-outcome trials, irrespective of outcome valence. These FRN effects were interpreted to reflect an evaluation along a good-bad dimension, rather than reflecting a negative prediction error or a role in behavioral adaptation. By contrast, the P300 reflects the updating of information relevant for behavior in a changing context.

  12. The Windows serial port programming handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Ying

    2004-01-01

    The fundamentals of serial port communications. Serial port programming in ANSI C and Assembly languages for MS-DOS. Serial ports interface developed in VC++ 6.0. Serial port programming in Visual Basic. Serial port programming in LabVIEW. Serial port programming in MATLAB. Serial port programming in Smalltalk. Serial port programming in Java.

  13. The effect of ethanol on reversal learning in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica): Response inhibition in a social insect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur; Varnon, Christopher A; Wells, Harrington

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effects of ethanol on reversal learning in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica). The rationale behind the present experiment was to determine the species generality of the effect of ethanol on response inhibition. Subjects were originally trained to associate either a cinnamon or lavender odor with a sucrose feeding before a reversal of the conditioned stimuli. We administered 15 μL of ethanol at varying doses (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, or 20%) according to group assignment. Ethanol was either administered 5 min before original discrimination training or 5 min before the stimuli reversal. We analyzed the effects of these three manipulations via a recently developed individual analysis that eschews aggregate assessments in favor of a model that conceptualizes learning as occurring in individual organisms. We measured responding in the presence of conditioned stimuli associated with a sucrose feeding, responding in the presence of conditioned stimuli associated with distilled water, and responding in the presence of the unconditioned stimulus (sucrose). Our analyses revealed the ethanol dose manipulation lowered responding for all three measures at increasingly higher doses, which suggests ethanol served as a general behavioral suppressor. Consistent with previous ethanol reversal literature, we found administering ethanol before the original discrimination phase or before the reversal produced inconsistent patterns of responding at varying ethanol doses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Serial interprocessor communications system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labiak, W.; Siemens, P.; Bailey, C.

    1980-01-01

    A serial communications system based on the EIA RS232-C standard with modem control lines has been developed. The DLV11-E interface is used for this purpose. All handshaking is done with the modem control lines. This allows totally independent full duplex communication. The message format consists of eight bit data with odd parity and a sixteen bit checksum on the whole message. All communications are fully interrupt driven. A program was written to load a program into a remote LSI-11 using the serial line without bootstrap ROM

  15. Serial position markers in space: visuospatial priming of serial order working memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya De Belder

    Full Text Available Most general theories on serial order working memory (WM assume the existence of position markers that are bound to the to-be-remembered items to keep track of the serial order. So far, the exact cognitive/neural characteristics of these markers have remained largely underspecified, while direct empirical evidence for their existence is mostly lacking. In the current study we demonstrate that retrieval from verbal serial order WM can be facilitated or hindered by spatial cuing: begin elements of a verbal WM sequence are retrieved faster after cuing the left side of space, while end elements are retrieved faster after cuing the right side of space. In direct complement to our previous work--where we showed the reversed impact of WM retrieval on spatial processing--we argue that the current findings provide us with a crucial piece of evidence suggesting a direct and functional involvement of space in verbal serial order WM. We outline the idea that serial order in verbal WM is coded within a spatial coordinate system with spatial attention being involved when searching through WM, and we discuss how this account can explain several hallmark observations related to serial order WM.

  16. Selective activation of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors reverses MK-801-induced behavioral impairments and enhances associative learning in rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Dencker, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801....... VU0467154 produced a robust dose-dependent reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in preclinical models of associative learning and memory functions, including the touchscreen pairwise visual discrimination task in wild-type mice, but failed to reverse these stimulant...

  17. Effects of MDMA on olfactory memory and reversal learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkey, Andrew; April, L Brooke; Galizio, Mark

    2014-10-01

    The effects of acute and sub-chronic MDMA were assessed using a procedure designed to test rodent working memory capacity: the odor span task (OST). Rats were trained to select an odor that they had not previously encountered within the current session, and the number of odors to remember was incremented up to 24 during the course of each session. In order to separate drug effects on the OST from more general performance impairment, a simple olfactory discrimination was also assessed in each session. In Experiment 1, acute doses of MDMA were administered prior to select sessions. MDMA impaired memory span in a dose-dependent fashion, but impairment was seen only at doses (1.8 and 3.0 mg/kg) that also increased response omissions on both the simple discrimination and the OST. In Experiment 2, a sub-chronic regimen of MDMA (10.0 mg/kg, twice daily over four days) was administered after OST training. There was no evidence of reduced memory span following sub-chronic MDMA, but a temporary increase in omission errors on the OST was observed. In addition, rats exposed to sub-chronic MDMA showed delayed learning when the simple discrimination was reversed. Overall, the disruptive effects of both acute and sub-chronic MDMA appeared to be due to non-mnemonic processes, rather than effects on specific memory functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancing the Biological Relevance of Machine Learning Classifiers for Reverse Vaccinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley I. Heinson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reverse vaccinology (RV is a bioinformatics approach that can predict antigens with protective potential from the protein coding genomes of bacterial pathogens for subunit vaccine design. RV has become firmly established following the development of the BEXSERO® vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. RV studies have begun to incorporate machine learning (ML techniques to distinguish bacterial protective antigens (BPAs from non-BPAs. This research contributes significantly to the RV field by using permutation analysis to demonstrate that a signal for protective antigens can be curated from published data. Furthermore, the effects of the following on an ML approach to RV were also assessed: nested cross-validation, balancing selection of non-BPAs for subcellular localization, increasing the training data, and incorporating greater numbers of protein annotation tools for feature generation. These enhancements yielded a support vector machine (SVM classifier that could discriminate BPAs (n = 200 from non-BPAs (n = 200 with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.787. In addition, hierarchical clustering of BPAs revealed that intracellular BPAs clustered separately from extracellular BPAs. However, no immediate benefit was derived when training SVM classifiers on data sets exclusively containing intra- or extracellular BPAs. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that ML classifiers have great utility in RV approaches and will lead to new subunit vaccines in the future.

  19. Enhancing the Biological Relevance of Machine Learning Classifiers for Reverse Vaccinology

    KAUST Repository

    Heinson, Ashley

    2017-02-01

    Reverse vaccinology (RV) is a bioinformatics approach that can predict antigens with protective potential from the protein coding genomes of bacterial pathogens for subunit vaccine design. RV has become firmly established following the development of the BEXSERO® vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. RV studies have begun to incorporate machine learning (ML) techniques to distinguish bacterial protective antigens (BPAs) from non-BPAs. This research contributes significantly to the RV field by using permutation analysis to demonstrate that a signal for protective antigens can be curated from published data. Furthermore, the effects of the following on an ML approach to RV were also assessed: nested cross-validation, balancing selection of non-BPAs for subcellular localization, increasing the training data, and incorporating greater numbers of protein annotation tools for feature generation. These enhancements yielded a support vector machine (SVM) classifier that could discriminate BPAs (n = 200) from non-BPAs (n = 200) with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.787. In addition, hierarchical clustering of BPAs revealed that intracellular BPAs clustered separately from extracellular BPAs. However, no immediate benefit was derived when training SVM classifiers on data sets exclusively containing intra- or extracellular BPAs. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that ML classifiers have great utility in RV approaches and will lead to new subunit vaccines in the future.

  20. Maternal obesity caused by overnutrition exposure leads to reversal learning deficits and striatal disturbance in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity caused by overnutrition during pregnancy increases susceptibility to metabolic risks in adulthood, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes; however, whether and how it affects the cognitive system associated with the brain remains elusive. Here, we report that pregnant obesity induced by exposure to excessive high fatty or highly palatable food specifically impaired reversal learning, a kind of adaptive behavior, while leaving serum metabolic metrics intact in the offspring of rats, suggesting a much earlier functional and structural defects possibly occurred in the central nervous system than in the metabolic system in the offspring born in unfavorable intrauterine nutritional environment. Mechanically, we found that above mentioned cognitive inflexibility might be associated with significant striatal disturbance including impaired dopamine homeostasis and disrupted leptin signaling in the adult offspring. These collective data add a novel perspective of understanding the adverse postnatal sequelae in central nervous system induced by developmental programming and the related molecular mechanism through which priming of risk for developmental disorders may occur during early life.

  1. Enhancing the Biological Relevance of Machine Learning Classifiers for Reverse Vaccinology

    KAUST Repository

    Heinson, Ashley; Gunawardana, Yawwani; Moesker, Bastiaan; Hume, Carmen; Vataga, Elena; Hall, Yper; Stylianou, Elena; McShane, Helen; Williams, Ann; Niranjan, Mahesan; Woelk, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Reverse vaccinology (RV) is a bioinformatics approach that can predict antigens with protective potential from the protein coding genomes of bacterial pathogens for subunit vaccine design. RV has become firmly established following the development of the BEXSERO® vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. RV studies have begun to incorporate machine learning (ML) techniques to distinguish bacterial protective antigens (BPAs) from non-BPAs. This research contributes significantly to the RV field by using permutation analysis to demonstrate that a signal for protective antigens can be curated from published data. Furthermore, the effects of the following on an ML approach to RV were also assessed: nested cross-validation, balancing selection of non-BPAs for subcellular localization, increasing the training data, and incorporating greater numbers of protein annotation tools for feature generation. These enhancements yielded a support vector machine (SVM) classifier that could discriminate BPAs (n = 200) from non-BPAs (n = 200) with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.787. In addition, hierarchical clustering of BPAs revealed that intracellular BPAs clustered separately from extracellular BPAs. However, no immediate benefit was derived when training SVM classifiers on data sets exclusively containing intra- or extracellular BPAs. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that ML classifiers have great utility in RV approaches and will lead to new subunit vaccines in the future.

  2. Fullrmc, a rigid body Reverse Monte Carlo modeling package enabled with machine learning and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Bachir

    2016-05-05

    A new Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) package "fullrmc" for atomic or rigid body and molecular, amorphous, or crystalline materials is presented. fullrmc main purpose is to provide a fully modular, fast and flexible software, thoroughly documented, complex molecules enabled, written in a modern programming language (python, cython, C and C++ when performance is needed) and complying to modern programming practices. fullrmc approach in solving an atomic or molecular structure is different from existing RMC algorithms and software. In a nutshell, traditional RMC methods and software randomly adjust atom positions until the whole system has the greatest consistency with a set of experimental data. In contrast, fullrmc applies smart moves endorsed with reinforcement machine learning to groups of atoms. While fullrmc allows running traditional RMC modeling, the uniqueness of this approach resides in its ability to customize grouping atoms in any convenient way with no additional programming efforts and to apply smart and more physically meaningful moves to the defined groups of atoms. In addition, fullrmc provides a unique way with almost no additional computational cost to recur a group's selection, allowing the system to go out of local minimas by refining a group's position or exploring through and beyond not allowed positions and energy barriers the unrestricted three dimensional space around a group. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Handbook of serial communications interfaces a comprehensive compendium of serial digital input/output (I/O) standards

    CERN Document Server

    Frenzel, Louis

    2015-01-01

    This book catalogs the most popular and commonly used serial-port interfaces and provides details on the specifications and the latest standards, enabling you to select an interface for a new design or verify that an interface is working correctly. Each chapter is based on a different interface and is written in an easy to follow, standard format. With this book you will learn: The most widely used serial interfacesHow to select the best serial interface for a specific application or designThe trade-offs between data rate and distance (length or range)The operation and benefits of serial

  4. Vascular Risk Factors and Diseases Modulate Deficits of Reward-Based Reversal Learning in Acute Basal Ganglia Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla K Seidel

    Full Text Available Besides motor function, the basal ganglia have been implicated in feedback learning. In patients with chronic basal ganglia infarcts, deficits in reward-based reversal learning have previously been described.We re-examined the acquisition and reversal of stimulus-stimulus-reward associations and acquired equivalence in eleven patients with acute basal ganglia stroke (8 men, 3 women; 57.8±13.3 years, whose performance was compared eleven healthy subjects of comparable age, sex distribution and education, who were recruited outside the hospital. Eleven hospitalized patients with a similar vascular risk profile as the stroke patients but without stroke history served as clinical control group.In a neuropsychological assessment 7±3 days post-stroke, verbal and spatial short-term and working memory and inhibition control did not differ between groups. Compared with healthy subjects, control patients with vascular risk factors exhibited significantly reduced performance in the reversal phase (F[2,30] = 3.47; p = 0.044; post-hoc comparison between risk factor controls and healthy controls: p = 0.030, but not the acquisition phase (F[2,30] = 1.01; p = 0.376 and the acquired equivalence (F[2,30] = 1.04; p = 0.367 tasks. In all tasks, the performance of vascular risk factor patients closely resembled that of basal ganglia stroke patients. Correlation studies revealed a significant association of the number of vascular risk factors with reversal learning (r = -0.33, p = 0.012, but not acquisition learning (r = -0.20, p = 0.121 or acquired equivalence (r = -0.22, p = 0.096.The previously reported impairment of reward-based learning may be attributed to vascular risk factors and associated diseases, which are enriched in stroke patients. This study emphasizes the necessity of appropriate control subjects in cognition studies.

  5. Serial private infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, V.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates private supply of two congestible infrastructures that are serial, where the consumer has to use both in order to consume. Four market structures are analysed: a monopoly and 3 duopolies that differ in how firms interact. It is well known that private supply leads too high

  6. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  7. Suicide in serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; White, John

    2010-02-01

    In a sample of 248 killers of two victims in America from 1900 to 2005, obtained from an encyclopedia of serial killers by Newton (2006), those completing suicide did not differ in sex, race, or the motive for the killing from those who were arrested.

  8. Automated quantification of cerebral edema following hemispheric infarction: Application of a machine-learning algorithm to evaluate CSF shifts on serial head CTs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yasheng; Dhar, Rajat; Heitsch, Laura; Ford, Andria; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Carrera, Caty; Montaner, Joan; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang; An, Hongyu; Lee, Jin-Moo

    2016-01-01

    Although cerebral edema is a major cause of death and deterioration following hemispheric stroke, there remains no validated biomarker that captures the full spectrum of this critical complication. We recently demonstrated that reduction in intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume (??CSF) on serial computed tomography (CT) scans provides an accurate measure of cerebral edema severity, which may aid in early triaging of stroke patients for craniectomy. However, application of such a volum...

  9. Sex-Dependent Effects of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Sodium Valproate, on Reversal Learning After Developmental Arsenic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R. Steadman Tyler

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that exposure to arsenic in drinking water adversely affects brain development and cognitive function in adulthood. While the mechanism by which arsenic induces adverse neurological outcomes remains elusive, studies suggest a link between reduced levels of histone acetylation and impaired performance on a variety of behavioral tasks following arsenic exposure. Using our developmental arsenic exposure (DAE paradigm, we have previously reported reduced histone acetylation and associated histone acetyltransferase enzyme expression in the frontal cortex of C57BL/6J adult male mice, with no changes observed in the female frontal cortex. In the present study, we sought to determine if DAE produced sex-dependent deficits in frontal cortical executive function using the Y-maze acquisition and reversal learning tasks, which are specific for assessing cognitive flexibility. Further, we tested whether the administration of valproic acid, a class I–IIa histone deacetylase inhibitor, was able to mitigate behavioral and biochemical changes resulting from DAE. As anticipated, DAE inhibited acquisition and reversal learning performance in adult male, but not female, mice. Valproate treatment for 2 weeks restored reversal performance in the male arsenic-exposed offspring, while not affecting female performance. Protein levels of HDACs 1, 2, and 5 were elevated following behavioral assessment but only in DAE male mice; restoration of appropriate HDAC levels occurred after valproate treatment and was concurrent with improved behavioral performance, particularly during reversal learning. Female frontal cortical levels of HDAC enzymes were not impacted by DAE or valproate treatment. Finally, mRNA expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Bdnf, which has been implicated in the control of frontal cortical flexibility and is regulated by HDAC5, were elevated in DAE male mice and restored to normal levels following HDACi

  10. Whole brain radiation-induced impairments in learning and memory are time-sensitive and reversible by systemic hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junie P Warrington

    Full Text Available Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT is commonly used for treatment of primary and metastatic brain tumors; however, cognitive impairment occurs in 40-50% of brain tumor survivors. The etiology of the cognitive impairment following WBRT remains elusive. We recently reported that radiation-induced cerebrovascular rarefaction within hippocampal subregions could be completely reversed by systemic hypoxia. However, the effects of this intervention on learning and memory have not been reported. In this study, we assessed the time-course for WBRT-induced impairments in contextual and spatial learning and the capacity of systemic hypoxia to reverse WBRT-induced deficits in spatial memory. A clinical fractionated series of 4.5Gy WBRT was administered to mice twice weekly for 4 weeks, and after various periods of recovery, behavioral analyses were performed. To study the effects of systemic hypoxia, mice were subjected to 11% (hypoxia or 21% oxygen (normoxia for 28 days, initiated 1 month after the completion of WBRT. Our results indicate that WBRT induces a transient deficit in contextual learning, disruption of working memory, and progressive impairment of spatial learning. Additionally, systemic hypoxia completely reversed WBRT-induced impairments in learning and these behavioral effects as well as increased vessel density persisted for at least 2 months following hypoxia treatment. Our results provide critical support for the hypothesis that cerebrovascular rarefaction is a key component of cognitive impairment post-WBRT and indicate that processes of learning and memory, once thought to be permanently impaired after WBRT, can be restored.

  11. Jordan-3: measuring visual reversals in children as symptoms of learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Brian T; Martin, Nancy; Austin, J Sue

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish new norms for the Jordan-3 for children ages 5 to 18 years. The research also investigated the frequency of visual reversals in children previously identified as having reading disability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and broader learning disabilities. Participants were regular education students, ages 5 through 18 years, and special education students previously diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, reading disability, or broader learning disability. Jordan-3 Accuracy and Error raw scores were compared to assess if there was a significant difference between the two groups. Mean Accuracy and Error scores were compared for males and females. Children with learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder had higher reversals when compared to regular education children, which lends continued support to the Jordan-3 as a valid and reliable measure of visual reversals in children and adolescents. This study illustrates the utility of the Jordan-3 when assessing children who may require remediation to reach their academic potential.

  12. Malaysian Serials: Issues and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Che Norma

    This paper analyzes the issues and problems while looking at the trends and developments of serials publishing in Malaysia. The first section provides background; topics addressed include the country and people of Malaysia, the history of serials publishing in Malaysia, categories and formats of serials publishing, academic publications,…

  13. Delaware's first serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  14. Meta-Analytic Evidence for a Reversal Learning Effect on the Iowa Gambling Task in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, Rita; Gonçalves, Ana R; Fernandes, Carina; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2017-01-01

    Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is one of the most widely used tools to assess economic decision-making. However, the research tradition on aging and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been mainly focused on the overall performance of older adults in relation to younger or clinical groups, remaining unclear whether older adults are capable of learning along the task. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine older adults' decision-making on the IGT, to test the effects of aging on reversal learning (45 studies) and to provide normative data on total and block net scores (55 studies). From the accumulated empirical evidence, we found an average total net score of 7.55 (±25.9). We also observed a significant reversal learning effect along the blocks of the IGT, indicating that older adults inhibit the prepotent response toward immediately attractive options associated with high losses, in favor of initially less attractive options associated with long-run profit. During block 1, decisions of older adults led to a negative gambling net score, reflecting the expected initial pattern of risk-taking. However, the shift toward more safe options occurred between block 2 (small-to-medium effect size) and blocks 3, 4, 5 (medium-to-large effect size). These main findings highlight that older adults are able to move from the initial uncertainty, when the possible outcomes are unknown, to decisions based on risk, when the outcomes are learned and may be used to guide future adaptive decision-making.

  15. Chemogenetic locus coeruleus activation restores reversal learning in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, Jacki M; Chalermpalanupap, Termpanit; Botz-Zapp, Christian A; Fu, Vanessa M; Lembeck, Natalie A; Cohen, Robert M; Weinshenker, David

    2017-11-01

    See Grinberg and Heinsen (doi:10.1093/brain/awx261) for a scientific commentary on this article. Clinical evidence suggests that aberrant tau accumulation in the locus coeruleus and noradrenergic dysfunction may be a critical early step in Alzheimer’s disease progression. Yet, an accurate preclinical model of these phenotypes that includes early pretangle tau accrual in the locus coeruleus, loss of locus coeruleus innervation and deficits locus coeruleus/norepinephrine modulated behaviours, does not exist, hampering the identification of underlying mechanisms and the development of locus coeruleus-based therapies. Here, a transgenic rat (TgF344-AD) expressing disease-causing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APPsw) and presenilin-1 (PS1ΔE9) was characterized for histological and behavioural signs of locus coeruleus dysfunction reminiscent of mild cognitive impairment/early Alzheimer’s disease. In TgF344-AD rats, hyperphosphorylated tau was detected in the locus coeruleus prior to accrual in the medial entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, and tau pathology in the locus coeruleus was negatively correlated with noradrenergic innervation in the medial entorhinal cortex. Likewise, TgF344-AD rats displayed progressive loss of hippocampal norepinephrine levels and locus coeruleus fibres in the medial entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus, with no frank noradrenergic cell body loss. Cultured mouse locus coeruleus neurons expressing hyperphosphorylation-prone mutant human tau had shorter neurites than control neurons, but similar cell viability, suggesting a causal link between pretangle tau accrual and altered locus coeruleus fibre morphology. TgF344-AD rats had impaired reversal learning in the Morris water maze compared to their wild-type littermates, which was rescued by chemogenetic locus coeruleus activation via designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). Our results indicate that TgF344-AD rats uniquely meet several key criteria for a

  16. Dopamine D2 receptors mediate two-odor discrimination and reversal learning in C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandy David K

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopamine modulation of neuronal signaling in the frontal cortex, midbrain, and striatum is essential for processing and integrating diverse external sensory stimuli and attaching salience to environmental cues that signal causal relationships, thereby guiding goal-directed, adaptable behaviors. At the cellular level, dopamine signaling is mediated through D1-like or D2-like receptors. Although a role for D1-like receptors in a variety of goal-directed behaviors has been identified, an explicit involvement of D2 receptors has not been clearly established. To determine whether dopamine D2 receptor-mediated signaling contributes to associative and reversal learning, we compared C57Bl/6J mice that completely lack functional dopamine D2 receptors to wild-type mice with respect to their ability to attach appropriate salience to external stimuli (stimulus discrimination and disengage from inappropriate behavioral strategies when reinforcement contingencies change (e.g. reversal learning. Results Mildly food-deprived female wild-type and dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice rapidly learned to retrieve and consume visible food reinforcers from a small plastic dish. Furthermore, both genotypes readily learned to dig through the same dish filled with sterile sand in order to locate a buried food pellet. However, the dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice required significantly more trials than wild-type mice to discriminate between two dishes, each filled with a different scented sand, and to associate one of the two odors with the presence of a reinforcer (food. In addition, the dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice repeatedly fail to alter their response patterns during reversal trials where the reinforcement rules were inverted. Conclusions Inbred C57Bl/6J mice that develop in the complete absence of functional dopamine D2 receptors are capable of olfaction but display an impaired ability to acquire odor-driven reinforcement contingencies

  17. Learning Curve for Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants: Capital Cost Trend of the Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldera, Upeksha; Breyer, Christian

    2017-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination is expected to play a pivotal role in helping to secure future global water supply. While the global reliance on SWRO plants for water security increases, there is no consensus on how the capital costs of SWRO plants will vary in the future. The aim of this paper is to analyze the past trends of the SWRO capital expenditures (capex) as the historic global cumulative online SWRO capacity increases, based on the learning curve concept. The SWRO capex learning curve is found based on 4,237 plants that came online from 1977 to 2015. A learning rate of 15% is determined, implying that the SWRO capex reduced by 15% when the cumulative capacity was doubled. Based on SWRO capacity annual growth rates of 10% and 20%, by 2030, the global average capex of SWRO plants is found to fall to 1,580 USD/(m3/d) and 1,340 USD/(m3/d), respectively. A learning curve for SWRO capital costs has not been presented previously. This research highlights the potential for decrease in SWRO capex with the increase in installation of SWRO plants and the value of the learning curve approach to estimate future SWRO capex.

  18. Spatial and Reversal Learning in the Morris Water Maze Are Largely Resistant to Six Hours of REM Sleep Deprivation Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair…

  19. Searching for the Hebb Effect in down Syndrome: Evidence for a Dissociation between Verbal Short-Term Memory and Domain-General Learning of Serial Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, E. K.; Jarrold, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Hebb effect is a form of repetition-driven long-term learning that is thought to provide an analogue for the processes involved in new word learning. Other evidence suggests that verbal short-term memory also constrains now vocabulary acquisition, but if the Hebb effect is independent of short-term memory, then it may be possible…

  20. Spatial midsession reversal learning in rats: Effects of egocentric Cue use and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca M; Moore, Mary K; Smith, Thea E; Crafton, Daniel A; Marden, Kelly L

    2018-07-01

    The midsession reversal task has been used to investigate behavioral flexibility and cue use in non-human animals, with results indicating differences in the degree of control by environmental cues across species. For example, time-based control has been found in rats only when tested in a T-maze apparatus and under specific conditions in which position and orientation (i.e., egocentric) cues during the intertrial interval could not be used to aid performance. Other research in an operant setting has shown that rats often produce minimal errors around the reversal location, demonstrating response patterns similar to patterns exhibited by humans and primates in this task. The current study aimed to reduce, but not eliminate, the ability for rats to utilize egocentric cues by placing the response levers on the opposite wall of the chamber in relation to the pellet dispenser. Results showed that rats made minimal errors prior to the reversal, suggesting time-based cues were not controlling responses, and that they switched to the second correct stimulus within a few trials after the reversal event. Video recordings also revealed highly structured patterns of behavior by the majority of rats, which often differed depending on which response was reinforced. We interpret these findings as evidence that rats are adept at utilizing their own egocentric cues and that these cues, along with memory for the recent response-reinforcement contingencies, aid in maximizing reinforcement over the session. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Meta-Analytic Evidence for a Reversal Learning Effect on the Iowa Gambling Task in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Pasion

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Iowa Gambling Task (IGT is one of the most widely used tools to assess economic decision-making. However, the research tradition on aging and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT has been mainly focused on the overall performance of older adults in relation to younger or clinical groups, remaining unclear whether older adults are capable of learning along the task. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine older adults' decision-making on the IGT, to test the effects of aging on reversal learning (45 studies and to provide normative data on total and block net scores (55 studies. From the accumulated empirical evidence, we found an average total net score of 7.55 (±25.9. We also observed a significant reversal learning effect along the blocks of the IGT, indicating that older adults inhibit the prepotent response toward immediately attractive options associated with high losses, in favor of initially less attractive options associated with long-run profit. During block 1, decisions of older adults led to a negative gambling net score, reflecting the expected initial pattern of risk-taking. However, the shift toward more safe options occurred between block 2 (small-to-medium effect size and blocks 3, 4, 5 (medium-to-large effect size. These main findings highlight that older adults are able to move from the initial uncertainty, when the possible outcomes are unknown, to decisions based on risk, when the outcomes are learned and may be used to guide future adaptive decision-making.

  2. Reverse inference of memory retrieval processes underlying metacognitive monitoring of learning using multivariate pattern analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiers, Peter; Falbo, Luciana; Goulas, Alexandros; van Gog, Tamara; de Bruin, Anique

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of learning is only accurate at some time after learning. It is thought that immediate monitoring is based on working memory, whereas later monitoring requires re-activation of stored items, yielding accurate judgements. Such interpretations are difficult to test because they require

  3. Rapid Association Learning in the Primate Prefrontal Cortex in the Absence of Behavioral Reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Jason A.; Machon, Michelle; Miller, Earl K.

    2011-01-01

    The PFC plays a central role in our ability to learn arbitrary rules, such as "green means go." Previous experiments from our laboratory have used conditional association learning to show that slow, gradual changes in PFC neural activity mirror monkeys' slow acquisition of associations. These previous experiments required monkeys to repeatedly…

  4. Malingering, coaching, and the serial position effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Julie A

    2002-01-01

    The normal pattern of performance on list-learning tasks is to recall more words from the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of the list. This pattern is also seen in patients with closed head injury, but malingerers tend to recall less words from the beginning of word lists, leading to a suppressed primacy effect. The present study examined this pattern on both learning trials and delayed recall of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) in 34 persons performing with normal effort, 38 naive malingerers, 33 warned malingerers, and 29 head-injured patients. Both malingering groups had lower scores on the primacy portion of the list during learning trials, while normals and head-injured patients had normal serial position curves. During delayed recall, normals and head-injured patients did better than the two malingering groups on middle and recency portions of the list. Findings suggest that the serial position effect during learning trials may be a useful pattern of performance to watch for when suspicious of malingering.

  5. Adolescent Corticosterone and TrkB Pharmaco-Manipulations Sex-Dependently Impact Instrumental Reversal Learning Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T. Barfield

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Early-life trauma can increase the risk for, and severity of, several psychiatric illnesses. These include drug use disorders, and some correlations appear to be stronger in women. Understanding the long-term consequences of developmental stressor or stress hormone exposure and possible sex differences is critically important. So-called “reversal learning” tasks are commonly used in rodents to model cognitive deficits in stress- and addiction-related illnesses in humans. Here, we exposed mice to the primary stress hormone corticosterone (CORT during early adolescence (postnatal days 31–42, then tested behavioral flexibility in adulthood using an instrumental reversal learning task. CORT-exposed female, but not male, mice developed perseverative errors. Despite resilience to subchronic CORT exposure, males developed reversal performance impairments following exposure to physical stressors. Administration of a putative tyrosine kinase receptor B (trkB agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF, during adolescence blocked CORT-induced errors in females and improved performance in males. Conversely, blockade of trkB by ANA-12 impaired performance. These data suggest that trkB-based interventions could have certain protective benefits in the context of early-life stressor exposure. We consider the implications of our findings in an extended “Discussion” section.

  6. Repeated Blockade of NMDA Receptors during Adolescence Impairs Reversal Learning and Disrupts GABAergic Interneurons in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitao eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is of particular significance to schizophrenia, since psychosis onset typically occurs in this critical period. Based on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia, in this study, we investigated whether and how repeated NMDA receptor blockade during adolescence would affect GABAergic interneurons in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and mPFC-mediated cognitive functions. Specifically, adolescent rats were subjected to intraperitoneal administration of MK-801 (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, for 14 days and then tested for reference memory and reversal learning in the water maze. The density of parvabumin (PV-, calbindin (CB- and calretinin (CR-positive neurons in mPFC were analyzed at either 24 hours or 7 days after drug cessation. We found that MK-801 treatment delayed reversal learning in the water maze without affecting initial acquisition. Strikingly, MK-801 treatment also significantly reduced the density of PV+ and CB+ neurons, and this effect persisted for 7 days after drug cessation at the dose of 0.2 mg/kg. We further demonstrated that the reduction in PV+ and CB+ neuron densities was ascribed to a downregulation of the expression levels of PV and CB, but not to neuronal death. These results parallel the behavioral and neuropathological changes of schizophrenia and provide evidence that adolescent NMDA receptors antagonism offers a useful tool for unraveling the etiology of the disease.

  7. Using a multi-state Learning Community as an implementation strategy for immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, Carla L; Estrich, Cameron; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Goodman, David A; Pliska, Ellen; Mackie, Christine N; Waddell, Lisa F; Rankin, Kristin M

    2017-11-21

    Implementation strategies are imperative for the successful adoption and sustainability of complex evidence-based public health practices. Creating a learning collaborative is one strategy that was part of a recently published compilation of implementation strategy terms and definitions. In partnership with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other partner agencies, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials recently convened a multi-state Learning Community to support cross-state collaboration and provide technical assistance for improving state capacity to increase access to long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) in the immediate postpartum period, an evidence-based practice with the potential for reducing unintended pregnancy and improving maternal and child health outcomes. During 2015-2016, the Learning Community included multi-disciplinary, multi-agency teams of state health officials, payers, clinicians, and health department staff from 13 states. This qualitative study was conducted to better understand the successes, challenges, and strategies that the 13 US states in the Learning Community used for increasing access to immediate postpartum LARC. We conducted telephone interviews with each team in the Learning Community. Interviews were semi-structured and organized by the eight domains of the Learning Community. We coded transcribed interviews for facilitators, barriers, and implementation strategies, using a recent compilation of expert-defined implementation strategies as a foundation for coding the latter. Data analysis showed three ways that the activities of the Learning Community helped in policy implementation work: structure and accountability, validity, and preparing for potential challenges and opportunities. Further, the qualitative data demonstrated that the Learning Community integrated six other implementation strategies from the literature: organize clinician implementation team meetings, conduct

  8. Dissociable contributions of the orbitofrontal and infralimbic cortex to pavlovian autoshaping and discrimination reversal learning: further evidence for the functional heterogeneity of the rodent frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudasama, Y; Robbins, Trevor W

    2003-09-24

    To examine possible heterogeneity of function within the ventral regions of the rodent frontal cortex, the present study compared the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the infralimbic cortex (ILC) on pavlovian autoshaping and discrimination reversal learning. During the pavlovian autoshaping task, in which rats learn to approach a stimulus predictive of reward [conditional stimulus (CS+)], only the OFC group failed to acquire discriminated approach but was unimpaired when preoperatively trained. In the visual discrimination learning and reversal task, rats were initially required to discriminate a stimulus positively associated with reward. There was no effect of either OFC or ILC lesions on discrimination learning. When the stimulus-reward contingencies were reversed, both groups of animals committed more errors, but only the OFC-lesioned animals were unable to suppress the previously rewarded stimulus-reward association, committing more "stimulus perseverative" errors. In contrast, the ILC group showed a pattern of errors that was more attributable to "learning" than perseveration. These findings suggest two types of dissociation between the effects of OFC and ILC lesions: (1) OFC lesions impaired the learning processes implicated in pavlovian autoshaping but not instrumental simultaneous discrimination learning, whereas ILC lesions were unimpaired at autoshaping and their reversal learning deficit did not reflect perseveration, and (2) OFC lesions induced perseverative responding in reversal learning but did not disinhibit responses to pavlovian CS-. In contrast, the ILC lesion had no effect on response inhibitory control in either of these settings. The findings are discussed in the context of dissociable executive functions in ventral sectors of the rat prefrontal cortex.

  9. Central structure preservation of the reversal sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    We report serial changes of central structure preservation of the reversal sign in a case of child abuse. The serial CT images show that the relatively spared attenuation at the basal ganglia, thalami, and posterior fossa develops before the occurrence of transtentorial herniation. This finding makes the theory that central preservation of the reversal sign is due to pressure relief after transtentorial herniation less convincible. (orig.)

  10. Central structure preservation of the reversal sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    1999-12-01

    We report serial changes of central structure preservation of the reversal sign in a case of child abuse. The serial CT images show that the relatively spared attenuation at the basal ganglia, thalami, and posterior fossa develops before the occurrence of transtentorial herniation. This finding makes the theory that central preservation of the reversal sign is due to pressure relief after transtentorial herniation less convincible. (orig.)

  11. Adult neurogenesis reduction by a cytostatic treatment improves spatial reversal learning in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožka, Hana; Pištíková, Adéla; Radostová, Dominika; Valeš, Karel; Svoboda, Jan; Grzyb, A. N.; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 141, May (2017), s. 93-100 ISSN 1074-7427 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14053 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : active avoidance * hippocampus * adult neurogenesis * discrimination * generalization * reversal Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.543, year: 2016

  12. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  13. The Development of a Virtual 3D Model of the Renal Corpuscle from Serial Histological Sections for E-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jeremy A.; Wilson, Timothy D.; Sandig, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a core subject in the anatomical sciences where learners are challenged to interpret two-dimensional (2D) information (gained from histological sections) to extrapolate and understand the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of cells, tissues, and organs. In gross anatomical education 3D models and learning tools have been associated…

  14. An Evaluation of Active Learning Causal Discovery Methods for Reverse-Engineering Local Causal Pathways of Gene Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sisi; Kemmeren, Patrick; Aliferis, Constantin F.; Statnikov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Reverse-engineering of causal pathways that implicate diseases and vital cellular functions is a fundamental problem in biomedicine. Discovery of the local causal pathway of a target variable (that consists of its direct causes and direct effects) is essential for effective intervention and can facilitate accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Recent research has provided several active learning methods that can leverage passively observed high-throughput data to draft causal pathways and then refine the inferred relations with a limited number of experiments. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of active learning methods for local causal pathway discovery in real biological data. Specifically, 54 active learning methods/variants from 3 families of algorithms were applied for local causal pathways reconstruction of gene regulation for 5 transcription factors in S. cerevisiae. Four aspects of the methods’ performance were assessed, including adjacency discovery quality, edge orientation accuracy, complete pathway discovery quality, and experimental cost. The results of this study show that some methods provide significant performance benefits over others and therefore should be routinely used for local causal pathway discovery tasks. This study also demonstrates the feasibility of local causal pathway reconstruction in real biological systems with significant quality and low experimental cost. PMID:26939894

  15. Depression-biased reverse plasticity rule is required for stable learning at top-down connections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra S Burbank

    Full Text Available Top-down synapses are ubiquitous throughout neocortex and play a central role in cognition, yet little is known about their development and specificity. During sensory experience, lower neocortical areas are activated before higher ones, causing top-down synapses to experience a preponderance of post-synaptic activity preceding pre-synaptic activity. This timing pattern is the opposite of that experienced by bottom-up synapses, which suggests that different versions of spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP rules may be required at top-down synapses. We consider a two-layer neural network model and investigate which STDP rules can lead to a distribution of top-down synaptic weights that is stable, diverse and avoids strong loops. We introduce a temporally reversed rule (rSTDP where top-down synapses are potentiated if post-synaptic activity precedes pre-synaptic activity. Combining analytical work and integrate-and-fire simulations, we show that only depression-biased rSTDP (and not classical STDP produces stable and diverse top-down weights. The conclusions did not change upon addition of homeostatic mechanisms, multiplicative STDP rules or weak external input to the top neurons. Our prediction for rSTDP at top-down synapses, which are distally located, is supported by recent neurophysiological evidence showing the existence of temporally reversed STDP in synapses that are distal to the post-synaptic cell body.

  16. Depression-Biased Reverse Plasticity Rule Is Required for Stable Learning at Top-Down Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Kendra S.; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Top-down synapses are ubiquitous throughout neocortex and play a central role in cognition, yet little is known about their development and specificity. During sensory experience, lower neocortical areas are activated before higher ones, causing top-down synapses to experience a preponderance of post-synaptic activity preceding pre-synaptic activity. This timing pattern is the opposite of that experienced by bottom-up synapses, which suggests that different versions of spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) rules may be required at top-down synapses. We consider a two-layer neural network model and investigate which STDP rules can lead to a distribution of top-down synaptic weights that is stable, diverse and avoids strong loops. We introduce a temporally reversed rule (rSTDP) where top-down synapses are potentiated if post-synaptic activity precedes pre-synaptic activity. Combining analytical work and integrate-and-fire simulations, we show that only depression-biased rSTDP (and not classical STDP) produces stable and diverse top-down weights. The conclusions did not change upon addition of homeostatic mechanisms, multiplicative STDP rules or weak external input to the top neurons. Our prediction for rSTDP at top-down synapses, which are distally located, is supported by recent neurophysiological evidence showing the existence of temporally reversed STDP in synapses that are distal to the post-synaptic cell body. PMID:22396630

  17. Fusing a Reversed and Informal Learning Scheme and Space: Student Perceptions of Active Learning in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Julie; Hernández, Florencio E.

    2018-01-01

    Physical chemistry students often have negative perceptions and low expectations for success in physical chemistry, attitudes that likely affect their performance in the course. Despite the results of several studies indicating increased positive perception of physical chemistry when active learning strategies are used, a recent survey of faculty…

  18. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures-that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  19. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures--that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  20. 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl pyridine (MPEP reverses maze learning and PSD-95 deficits in Fmr1 knock-out mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réno Michelle Gandhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by the lack of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, which results in intellectual disability and other debilitating symptoms including impairment of visual-spatial functioning. FXS is the only single-gene disorder that is highly co-morbid with autism spectrum disorder and can therefore provide insight into its pathophysiology. Lack of FMRP results in altered group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR signalling, which is a target for putative treatments. The Hebb-Williams (H-W mazes are a set of increasingly complex spatial navigation problems that depend on intact hippocampal and thus mGluR-5 functioning. In the present investigation, we examined whether an antagonist of mGluR-5 would reverse previously described behavioural deficits in Fmr1 KO mice. Mice were trained on a subset of the H-W mazes and then treated with either 20 mg/kg of an mGluR-5 antagonist, 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl pyridine (MPEP; n = 11 or an equivalent dose of saline (n = 11 prior to running test mazes. Latency and errors were dependent variables recorded during the test phase. Immediately after completing each test, marble-burying behavior was assessed which confirmed that the drug treatment was pharmacologically active during maze learning. Although latency was not statistically different between the groups, MPEP treated Fmr1 KO mice made significantly fewer errors on mazes deemed more difficult suggesting a reversal of the behavioural deficit. MPEP treated mice were also less perseverative and impulsive when navigating mazes. Furthermore, MPEP treatment reversed PSD-95 protein deficits in Fmr1 KO treated mice, whereas levels of a control protein (β-tubulin remained unchanged. These data further validate MPEP as a potentially beneficial treatment for FXS. Our findings also suggest that adapted H-W mazes may be a useful tool to document alterations in behavioural functioning following pharmacological

  1. Selective Activation of M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Reverses MK-801-Induced Behavioral Impairments and Enhances Associative Learning in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) represent a novel approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently reported that the selective M4 PAM VU0152100 produced an antipsychotic drug-like profile in rodents after amphetamine challenge. Previous studies suggest that enhanced cholinergic activity may also improve cognitive function and reverse deficits observed with reduced signaling through the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of the glutamate receptor (NMDAR) in the central nervous system. Prior to this study, the M1 mAChR subtype was viewed as the primary candidate for these actions relative to the other mAChR subtypes. Here we describe the discovery of a novel M4 PAM, VU0467154, with enhanced in vitro potency and improved pharmacokinetic properties relative to other M4 PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801. VU0467154 produced a robust dose-dependent reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in preclinical models of associative learning and memory functions, including the touchscreen pairwise visual discrimination task in wild-type mice, but failed to reverse these stimulant-induced deficits in M4 KO mice. VU0467154 also enhanced the acquisition of both contextual and cue-mediated fear conditioning when administered alone in wild-type mice. These novel findings suggest that M4 PAMs may provide a strategy for addressing the more complex affective and cognitive disruptions associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25137629

  2. Alteration of a motor learning rule under mirror-reversal transformation does not depend on the amplitude of visual error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Shoko; Kurata, Makiko; Liu, Meigen; Ushiba, Junichi

    2015-05-01

    Human's sophisticated motor learning system paradoxically interferes with motor performance when visual information is mirror-reversed (MR), because normal movement error correction further aggravates the error. This error-increasing mechanism makes performing even a simple reaching task difficult, but is overcome by alterations in the error correction rule during the trials. To isolate factors that trigger learners to change the error correction rule, we manipulated the gain of visual angular errors when participants made arm-reaching movements with mirror-reversed visual feedback, and compared the rule alteration timing between groups with normal or reduced gain. Trial-by-trial changes in the visual angular error was tracked to explain the timing of the change in the error correction rule. Under both gain conditions, visual angular errors increased under the MR transformation, and suddenly decreased after 3-5 trials with increase. The increase became degressive at different amplitude between the two groups, nearly proportional to the visual gain. The findings suggest that the alteration of the error-correction rule is not dependent on the amplitude of visual angular errors, and possibly determined by the number of trials over which the errors increased or statistical property of the environment. The current results encourage future intensive studies focusing on the exact rule-change mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid tryptophan depletion improves decision-making cognition in healthy humans without affecting reversal learning or set shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Peter S; Watson, David R; Barrett, Suzanne L; Cooper, Stephen J

    2006-07-01

    Rapid tryptophan (Trp) depletion (RTD) has been reported to cause deterioration in the quality of decision making and impaired reversal learning, while leaving attentional set shifting relatively unimpaired. These findings have been attributed to a more powerful neuromodulatory effect of reduced 5-HT on ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC) than on dorsolateral PFC. In view of the limited number of reports, the aim of this study was to independently replicate these findings using the same test paradigms. Healthy human subjects without a personal or family history of affective disorder were assessed using a computerized decision making/gambling task and the CANTAB ID/ED attentional set-shifting task under Trp-depleted (n=17; nine males and eight females) or control (n=15; seven males and eight females) conditions, in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group design. There was no significant effect of RTD on set shifting, reversal learning, risk taking, impulsivity, or subjective mood. However, RTD significantly altered decision making such that depleted subjects chose the more likely of two possible outcomes significantly more often than controls. This is in direct contrast to the previous report that subjects chose the more likely outcome significantly less often following RTD. In the terminology of that report, our result may be interpreted as improvement in the quality of decision making following RTD. This contrast between studies highlights the variability in the cognitive effects of RTD between apparently similar groups of healthy subjects, and suggests the need for future RTD studies to control for a range of personality, family history, and genetic factors that may be associated with 5-HT function.

  4. Cognitive aspects of congenital learned helplessness and its reversal by the monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor deprenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela; Mirrione, Martine M; Henn, Fritz A

    2010-02-01

    Cognitive processes are assumed to change with learned helplessness, an animal model of depression, but little is known about such deficits. Here we investigated the role of cognitive and related functions in selectively bred helpless (cLH, n=10), non-helpless (cNLH, n=12) and wild type (WT, n=8) Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were exposed to an open field for 10min on each of two test days. On the third day, an object exploration paradigm was carried out. The animals were later tested for helplessness. Both cLH and cNLH rats were more active than WTs on the first day in the open field. Over trials, cNLH and WT rats lowered their activity less than cLH rats. This resistance-to-habituation co-varied with a resistance to develop helplessness. In cLH rats, higher 'anxiety' or less time spent in the center of the open field co-varied with severe helplessness. In WTs, a greater reactivity to novel objects and to a spatially relocated object predicted lower levels of helplessness. In cLH rats (n=4-5 per group), chronic treatment with a high dose of the monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor deprenyl (10mg/kg; i.p.), an anti-Parkinson, nootropic and antidepressant drug, attenuated helplessness. Remarkably, helplessness reversal required the experience of repeated test trials, reminiscent of a learning process. Chronic deprenyl (10mg/kg; i.p.) did not alter locomotion/exploration or 'anxiety' in the open field. In conclusion, helplessness may be related to altered mechanisms of reinforcement learning and working memory, and to abnormalities in MAO-A and/or MAO-B functioning. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preservation of Essential Odor-Guided Behaviors and Odor-Based Reversal Learning after Targeting Adult Brain Serotonin Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kaitlin S; Whitney, Meredith S; Gadziola, Marie A; Deneris, Evan S; Wesson, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is considered a powerful modulator of sensory system organization and function in a wide range of animals. The olfactory system is innervated by midbrain 5-HT neurons into both its primary and secondary odor-processing stages. Facilitated by this circuitry, 5-HT and its receptors modulate olfactory system function, including odor information input to the olfactory bulb. It is unknown, however, whether the olfactory system requires 5-HT for even its most basic behavioral functions. To address this question, we established a conditional genetic approach to specifically target adult brain tryptophan hydroxylase 2 ( Tph2 ), encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in brain 5-HT synthesis, and nearly eliminate 5-HT from the mouse forebrain. Using this novel model, we investigated the behavior of 5-HT-depleted mice during performance in an olfactory go/no-go task. Surprisingly, the near elimination of 5-HT from the forebrain, including the olfactory bulbs, had no detectable effect on the ability of mice to perform the odor-based task. Tph2 -targeted mice not only were able to learn the task, but also had levels of odor acuity similar to those of control mice when performing coarse odor discrimination. Both groups of mice spent similar amounts of time sampling odors during decision-making. Furthermore, odor reversal learning was identical between 5-HT-depleted and control mice. These results suggest that 5-HT neurotransmission is not necessary for the most essential aspects of olfaction, including odor learning, discrimination, and certain forms of cognitive flexibility.

  6. Edaravone injection reverses learning and memory deficits in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Lu, Fen; Li, Wei; Qin, Lingzhi; Yao, Yong; Ge, Xuerong; Yu, Qingkai; Liang, Xinliang; Zhao, Dongmei; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jiewen

    2017-01-01

    Edaravone is a novel free radical scavenger that exerts neuroprotective effects by inhibiting endothelial injury and by ameliorating neuronal damage in brain ischemia. Recently, it was reported that edaravone could alleviate the pathology and cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease patients. However, its relevance to vascular dementia (VaD) is not clear. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries of rats surgically to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a well-known rat model of VaD. Water maze and step-down inhibitory test were used to evaluate the memory deficit. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total reactive oxygen species were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress level. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the synaptic protein expression. It was found that treatment with edaravone for a 5-week period was able to reverse both spatial and fear-memory deficits in rats with CCH. Edaravone significantly reduced the level of oxidative stress in the brains of rats with CCH by increasing SOD activity and decreasing the content of MDA, LDH, and total reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, edaravone treatment also restored the levels of multiple synaptic proteins in the hippocampi of rats with CCH. Our data provide direct evidence supporting the neuroprotective effects of edaravone in VaD. We propose that the alleviation of oxidative stress and restoration of synaptic proteins play important roles in neuroprotection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Union Listing via OCLC's Serials Control Subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Terrence J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes library use of Conversion of Serials Project's (CONSER) online national machine-readable database for serials to create online union lists of serials via OCLC's Serial Control Subsystem. Problems in selection of appropriate, accurate, and authenticated records and prospects for the future are discussed. Twenty sources and sample records…

  8. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  9. Reversal of Trimethyltin-Induced Learning and Memory Deficits by 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yong Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiamnesic effect of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA as the main phenolic compound in Artemisia argyi H. extract on cognitive dysfunction induced by trimethyltin (TMT (7.1 μg/kg of body weight; intraperitoneal injection was investigated in order to assess its ameliorating function in mice. In several behavioral tests, namely, the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze (MWM test, 3,5-diCQA significantly ameliorated learning and memory deficits. After the behavioral tests, brain tissues from the mice were analyzed to characterize the basis of the neuroprotective effect. Acetylcholine (ACh levels increased, whereas the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE decreased upon administration of 3,5-diCQA. In addition, 3,5-diCQA effectively protected against an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content, an increase in the oxidized glutathione (GSH ratio, and a decline of total superoxide dismutase (SOD level. 3,5-diCQA may prevent neuronal apoptosis through the protection of mitochondrial activities and the repression of apoptotic signaling molecules such as p-Akt, BAX, and p-tau (Ser 404.

  10. PENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR PKN KELAS V MELALUI MODEL ACTIVE LEARNING (TIPE ROLE REVERSAL QUESTION SDN 4 DOPLANG KECAMATAN JATI KABUPATEN BLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Susilo Murti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitution No. 20 of 2003, concerning Citizenship Education (PKN is a compulsory subject for primary education, secondary, and compulsory subjects for higher education. The purpose of this study is to improve learning outcomes Civics using Active Learning Model Type Question Role Reversal in Class V SDN 4 Doplang Jati district of  Blora. This research was a class action (classroom action research. The stages as follows: (1 planning, (2 implementation, (3 observation and (4 reflection. The result of research indicating that students who received grades ≥70 the first cycle increased by 25%  from the initial 44% to 69%. Then students who scored ≥70 on the second cycle increased 28% to 97%. The average value of the first cycle increased by 8.75% from 66.53 into 75.28 early in the first cycle and then the second cycle of the average value increased again by 10.97% to 86.25. Researchers suggest teachers should encourage students to be more daring in expressing opinions, questions and ideas that are not held only in Civics alone but on other subjects. In addition, teachers are expected to use active learning model of the type of role reversal question in improving student learning outcomes in other subjects. As for the school is expected to provide training to teachers on implementing learning activities are innovative and creative. Keywords: active learning, civic education, learning outcomes.

  11. Lack of Pannexin 1 Alters Synaptic GluN2 Subunit Composition and Spatial Reversal Learning in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo, Ivana; Salazar, Claudia S; Lopez-Espíndola, Daniela; Estay, Carolina; Flores-Muñoz, Carolina; Elgueta, Claudio; Gonzalez-Jamett, Arlek M; Martínez, Agustín D; Muñoz, Pablo; Ardiles, Álvaro O

    2018-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are two forms of synaptic plasticity that have been considered as the cellular substrate of memory formation. Although LTP has received considerable more attention, recent evidences indicate that LTD plays also important roles in the acquisition and storage of novel information in the brain. Pannexin 1 (Panx1) is a membrane protein that forms non-selective channels which have been shown to modulate the induction of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Animals lacking Panx1 or blockade of Pannexin 1 channels precludes the induction of LTD and facilitates LTP. To evaluate if the absence of Panx1 also affects the acquisition of rapidly changing information we trained Panx1 knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates in a visual and hidden version of the Morris water maze (MWM). We found that KO mice find the hidden platform similarly although slightly quicker than WT animals, nonetheless, when the hidden platform was located in the opposite quadrant (OQ) to the previous learned location, KO mice spent significantly more time in the previous quadrant than in the new location indicating that the absence of Panx1 affects the reversion of a previously acquired spatial memory. Consistently, we observed changes in the content of synaptic proteins critical to LTD, such as GluN2 subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which changed their contribution to synaptic plasticity in conditions of Panx1 ablation. Our findings give further support to the role of Panx1 channels on the modulation of synaptic plasticity induction, learning and memory processes.

  12. Lack of Pannexin 1 Alters Synaptic GluN2 Subunit Composition and Spatial Reversal Learning in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo, Ivana; Salazar, Claudia S.; Lopez-Espíndola, Daniela; Estay, Carolina; Flores-Muñoz, Carolina; Elgueta, Claudio; Gonzalez-Jamett, Arlek M.; Martínez, Agustín D.; Muñoz, Pablo; Ardiles, Álvaro O.

    2018-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are two forms of synaptic plasticity that have been considered as the cellular substrate of memory formation. Although LTP has received considerable more attention, recent evidences indicate that LTD plays also important roles in the acquisition and storage of novel information in the brain. Pannexin 1 (Panx1) is a membrane protein that forms non-selective channels which have been shown to modulate the induction of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Animals lacking Panx1 or blockade of Pannexin 1 channels precludes the induction of LTD and facilitates LTP. To evaluate if the absence of Panx1 also affects the acquisition of rapidly changing information we trained Panx1 knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates in a visual and hidden version of the Morris water maze (MWM). We found that KO mice find the hidden platform similarly although slightly quicker than WT animals, nonetheless, when the hidden platform was located in the opposite quadrant (OQ) to the previous learned location, KO mice spent significantly more time in the previous quadrant than in the new location indicating that the absence of Panx1 affects the reversion of a previously acquired spatial memory. Consistently, we observed changes in the content of synaptic proteins critical to LTD, such as GluN2 subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which changed their contribution to synaptic plasticity in conditions of Panx1 ablation. Our findings give further support to the role of Panx1 channels on the modulation of synaptic plasticity induction, learning and memory processes. PMID:29692709

  13. Lack of Pannexin 1 Alters Synaptic GluN2 Subunit Composition and Spatial Reversal Learning in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Gajardo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD are two forms of synaptic plasticity that have been considered as the cellular substrate of memory formation. Although LTP has received considerable more attention, recent evidences indicate that LTD plays also important roles in the acquisition and storage of novel information in the brain. Pannexin 1 (Panx1 is a membrane protein that forms non-selective channels which have been shown to modulate the induction of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Animals lacking Panx1 or blockade of Pannexin 1 channels precludes the induction of LTD and facilitates LTP. To evaluate if the absence of Panx1 also affects the acquisition of rapidly changing information we trained Panx1 knockout (KO mice and wild type (WT littermates in a visual and hidden version of the Morris water maze (MWM. We found that KO mice find the hidden platform similarly although slightly quicker than WT animals, nonetheless, when the hidden platform was located in the opposite quadrant (OQ to the previous learned location, KO mice spent significantly more time in the previous quadrant than in the new location indicating that the absence of Panx1 affects the reversion of a previously acquired spatial memory. Consistently, we observed changes in the content of synaptic proteins critical to LTD, such as GluN2 subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs, which changed their contribution to synaptic plasticity in conditions of Panx1 ablation. Our findings give further support to the role of Panx1 channels on the modulation of synaptic plasticity induction, learning and memory processes.

  14. Serial murder: An unusual stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Mandar R; Mugadlimath, Anand B; Farooqui, Jamebaseer M; Janagond, Anand B; Mishra, Pradeep K

    2017-12-01

    Serial murders attract attention from the media, mental health experts, academia, and the general public. We present a case of serial murders that took place in a limited area and which caused public anxiety and anguish in central India. All the victims were homeless beggars, who were bludgeoned to death (crush injury). Individual murders were initially investigated by different police stations; fortunately, since they sent all the bodies to a common autopsy centre, a forensic pathologist was able to link all the cases, the first person to do so. This emphasises the need for sharing information among police stations and autopsy centres.

  15. The involvement of long-term serial-order memory in reading development: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; De Maeyer, Marjolijn; Page, Mike P A; Duyck, Wouter

    2016-05-01

    Recent findings suggest that Hebb repetition learning-a paradigmatic example of long-term serial-order learning-is impaired in adults with dyslexia. The current study further investigated the link between serial-order learning and reading using a longitudinal developmental design. With this aim, verbal and visual Hebb repetition learning performance and reading skills were assessed in 96 Dutch-speaking children who we followed from first through second grade of primary school. We observed a positive association between order learning capacities and reading ability as well as weaker Hebb learning performance in early readers with poor reading skills even at the onset of reading instruction. Hebb learning further predicted individual differences in later (nonword) reading skills. Finally, Hebb learning was shown to explain a significant part of the variance in reading performance above and beyond phonological awareness. These findings highlight the role of serial-order memory in reading ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Serial rotatostereography - A new diagnostic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottomo, Michinori; Nakanishi, Takeshi.

    1986-01-01

    In the previous study using cine, a cine film stereoprojector showed the adjacent two frames of cine film simultaneously, such as frames 1 and 2, 2 and 3, 3 and 4, and so on, consecutively. Because some intracranial lesions require emergency surgery immediately after angiography, a real time display method of serial rotatostereography was necessary. In order to show the consecutive adjacent two frames of a video disc simultaneously, using the same method as with the cine stereoprojector, a video disc recorder (VDR) (VM-1000M) and two video memories (Image Σ) were required. This VDR has the ability of advancing, stopping, and reversing the display of memories. A control unit was manufactured in order to display these memories advancing and reversing continuously. As a result of this continuous semirotation stereo display, the anteroposterior projection was reversed, showing the posteroanterior view during ''reversing mode''. Thus a lead relay circuit was manufactured to prevent this phenomenon. Recording was done using a memory disc recorder (FOM 2200F), which has the ability of recording 10,000 frames per disc. Each frame can also be recorded on imaging film using O · X Multi Camera 400X. Finally, stereoscopic views of cerebral circulation, using a single injection of contrast media and rapid rotation of the gantry, were obtained using two cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) and a stereoviewer (Continuous Semi-rotation Classical Stereo Display Method). Stereoscopic views were also obtained using a single CRT, which displayed the images in a semirotating fashion similar to a oscillating fan head (Continuous Semi-rotation New Stereo Display Method). (J.P.N.)

  17. Serial-order short-term memory predicts vocabulary development: evidence from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve

    2010-03-01

    Serial-order short-term memory (STM), as opposed to item STM, has been shown to be very consistently associated with lexical learning abilities in cross-sectional study designs. This study investigated longitudinal predictions between serial-order STM and vocabulary development. Tasks maximizing the temporary retention of either serial-order or item information were administered to kindergarten children aged 4 and 5. At age 4, age 5, and from age 4 to age 5, serial-order STM capacities, but not item STM capacities, were specifically associated with vocabulary development. Moreover, the increase of serial-order STM capacity from age 4 to age 5 predicted the increase of vocabulary knowledge over the same time period. These results support a theoretical position that assumes an important role for serial-order STM capacities in vocabulary acquisition.

  18. Prefrontal cortex or basolateral amygdala lesions blocked the stress-induced inversion of serial memory retrieval pattern in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, F; Piérard, C; Coutan, M; Drouet, I; Liscia, P; Béracochéa, D

    2008-09-01

    Previous data from our team have shown that pre-test stress in mice reversed the pattern of memory retrieval in a contextual serial spatial task (CSD; Celerier, A., Pierard, C., Rachbauer, D., Sarrieau, A., & Beracochea, D. (2004). Contextual and serial discriminations: A new learning paradigm to assess simultaneously the effects of acute stress on retrieval of flexible or stable information in mice. Learning and Memory, 11, 196-204). The present study is aimed at determining brain areas which might be critically involved in mediating the stress effect on memory retrieval in the CSD task. For that purpose, we studied hereby the effects of ibotenic acid lesions of either the prefrontal cortex (PFC) or the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in Stressed or Non-Stressed Balb/c mice on memory retrieval in the CSD task. In that task, mice learned two successive spatial discriminations (D1 and D2) within two different internal contexts in a four-hole board. The stressor (electric footshocks) was delivered 5 min before test, occurring 24 h after acquisition. During test, mice were relocated either on the floor of the first or of the second discrimination. Results showed that (i) spatial memory was substantial and remained unaffected both by lesions and stress; (ii) Non-Stressed controls as well as Non-Stressed or Stressed PFC and BLA-lesioned mice remembered accurately D1 but not D2; and (iii) in contrast, Stressed controls accurately remembered D2 but not D1. In parallel to behavioral experiments, we also showed that PFC and BLA lesions did not affect the stress-induced increase of plasma corticosterone levels. All together, PFC and BLA integrity are not necessary for retrieval processes per se; in contrast, the PFC and BLA are critically involved in the mediation of the deleterious stress effects on serial order memory retrieval.

  19. Learning strategy refinement reverses early sensory cortical map expansion but not behavior: Support for a theory of directed cortical substrates of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Gabriel A; Bieszczad, Kasia M; Weinberger, Norman M

    2015-12-01

    Primary sensory cortical fields develop highly specific associative representational plasticity, notably enlarged area of representation of reinforced signal stimuli within their topographic maps. However, overtraining subjects after they have solved an instrumental task can reduce or eliminate the expansion while the successful behavior remains. As the development of this plasticity depends on the learning strategy used to solve a task, we asked whether the loss of expansion is due to the strategy used during overtraining. Adult male rats were trained in a three-tone auditory discrimination task to bar-press to the CS+ for water reward and refrain from doing so during the CS- tones and silent intertrial intervals; errors were punished by a flashing light and time-out penalty. Groups acquired this task to a criterion within seven training sessions by relying on a strategy that was "bar-press from tone-onset-to-error signal" ("TOTE"). Three groups then received different levels of overtraining: Group ST, none; Group RT, one week; Group OT, three weeks. Post-training mapping of their primary auditory fields (A1) showed that Groups ST and RT had developed significantly expanded representational areas, specifically restricted to the frequency band of the CS+ tone. In contrast, the A1 of Group OT was no different from naïve controls. Analysis of learning strategy revealed this group had shifted strategy to a refinement of TOTE in which they self-terminated bar-presses before making an error ("iTOTE"). Across all animals, the greater the use of iTOTE, the smaller was the representation of the CS+ in A1. Thus, the loss of cortical expansion is attributable to a shift or refinement in strategy. This reversal of expansion was considered in light of a novel theoretical framework (CONCERTO) highlighting four basic principles of brain function that resolve anomalous findings and explaining why even a minor change in strategy would involve concomitant shifts of involved brain

  20. LEARNING STRATEGY REFINEMENT REVERSES EARLY SENSORY CORTICAL MAP EXPANSION BUT NOT BEHAVIOR: SUPPORT FOR A THEORY OF DIRECTED CORTICAL SUBSTRATES OF LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Gabriel A.; Bieszczad, Kasia M.; Weinberger, Norman M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary sensory cortical fields develop highly specific associative representational plasticity, notably enlarged area of representation of reinforced signal stimuli within their topographic maps. However, overtraining subjects after they have solved an instrumental task can reduce or eliminate the expansion while the successful behavior remains. As the development of this plasticity depends on the learning strategy used to solve a task, we asked whether the loss of expansion is due to the strategy used during overtraining. Adult male rats were trained in a three-tone auditory discrimination task to bar-press to the CS+ for water reward and refrain from doing so during the CS− tones and silent intertrial intervals; errors were punished by a flashing light and time-out penalty. Groups acquired this task to a criterion within seven training sessions by relying on a strategy that was “bar-press from tone-onset-to-error signal” (“TOTE”). Three groups then received different levels of overtraining: Group ST, none; Group RT, one week; Group OT, three weeks. Post-training mapping of their primary auditory fields (A1) showed that Groups ST and RT had developed significantly expanded representational areas, specifically restricted to the frequency band of the CS+ tone. In contrast, the A1 of Group OT was no different from naïve controls. Analysis of learning strategy revealed this group had shifted strategy to a refinement of TOTE in which they self-terminated bar-presses before making an error (“iTOTE”). Across all animals, the greater the use of iTOTE, the smaller was the representation of the CS+ in A1. Thus, the loss of cortical expansion is attributable to a shift or refinement in strategy. This reversal of expansion was considered in light of a novel theoretical framework (CONCERTO) highlighting four basic principles of brain function that resolve anomalous findings and explaining why even a minor change in strategy would involve concomitant shifts of

  1. Lessons Learned as a Serial Technology Entrepreneur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Nicholas

    2009-03-01

    Starting a new technology company can be an exciting experience, and can, on occasion, be financially lucrative as well. Aside from the obvious requirement to have some new technology to offer, the main impediment to making the leap is usually fear of unknown. This arises from several real issues: a) you don't know how to do it; b) you assume the new situation will be less secure; c) you have to give up progress along your current career path; d) you fear failure itself, and how it will reflect on you as a person. There is no easy way to resolve these concerns, and although talking with others who have done it is helpful, the final decision is always difficult and very personal. Assuming you decide to go forward, there are some simple rules that will help along the way: 1. Have a PRODUCT idea, not just an innovative technology: it's a business, not a way to continue interesting research. 2. Team up with experienced people in certain (not all) key jobs. The specifics depend on what your own skills are. 3. Make sure you have adequate funding at the outset to achieve some significant milestones. 4. Be selective about who funds you; they will be your business partners and will have a lot to say about what happens. 5. Start thinking about the liquidity/exit strategy from day one. The stories of how other companies were started and developed are good background information. Several of these from my own experiences will be discussed. They include a company that struggled for many years but ultimately went public and was successful, one that was quickly a success and was acquired, one that was an outright failure and two that continue on but with dubious prospects of success. Some thoughts on what went right or wrong, and what could have been done better will be presented.

  2. Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kovácsová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial (femtosecond crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates – gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydrogels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new

  3. Tevatron serial data repeater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A ten megabit per second serial data repeater system has been developed for the 6.28km Tevatron accelerator. The repeaters are positioned at each of the thirty service buildings and accommodate control and abort system communications as well as distribution of the Tevatron time and energy clocks. The repeaters are transparent to the particular protocol of the transmissions. Serial data are encoded locally as unipolar two volt signals employing the self-clocking Manchester Bi-Phase code. The repeaters modulate the local signals to low-power bursts of 50 MHz rf carrier for the 260m transmission between service buildings. The repeaters also demodulate the transmission and restructure the data for local utilization. The employment of frequency discrimination techniques yields high immunity to the characteristic noise spectrum

  4. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kern, Jan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Alonso-Mori, Roberto [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia [Technische Universität Berlin, Strasse des 17 Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Schafer, Donald W. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sellberg, Jonas [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); McQueen, Trevor A. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025 (United States); Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Zwart, Petrus H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glatzel, Pieter [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Zouni, Athina [Technische Universität Berlin, Strasse des 17 Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Messinger, Johannes [Umeå Universitet, Umeå (Sweden); Sauter, Nicholas K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bergmann, Uwe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bogan, Michael J., E-mail: mbogan@slac.stanford.edu [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    A low flow rate liquid microjet method for delivery of hydrated protein crystals to X-ray lasers is presented. Linac Coherent Light Source data demonstrates serial femtosecond protein crystallography with micrograms, a reduction of sample consumption by orders of magnitude. An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1 µl min{sup −1} to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min{sup −1} and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption.

  5. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kern, Jan; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Schafer, Donald W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Sellberg, Jonas; McQueen, Trevor A.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zwart, Petrus H.; Glatzel, Pieter; Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Bogan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A low flow rate liquid microjet method for delivery of hydrated protein crystals to X-ray lasers is presented. Linac Coherent Light Source data demonstrates serial femtosecond protein crystallography with micrograms, a reduction of sample consumption by orders of magnitude. An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1 µl min −1 to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min −1 and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption

  6. Serial killer: il database mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano parente

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The complex and multisided study of serial killers is partly made difficult by the current level of progress that has led these deviant people to evolve in relation to the aspects of shrewdness (concerning the staging and mobility. Despite the important work of some scholars who proposed important theories, all this shows that, concerning serial murders, it is still particularly frequent not to pay attention to links among homicides committed by the same person but in different parts of the world. It is therefore crucial to develop a worldwide database that allows all police forces to access information collected on crime scenes of murders which are particularly absurd and committed without any apparent reason. It will then be up to the profiler, through ad hoc and technologically advanced tools, to collect this information on the crime scene that would be made available to all police forces thanks to the worldwide database.

  7. Serial Austen. Mashingups with Zombies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Federici

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jane Austen sells. She sells in all possible ways, her novels have been adapted for the cinema and the stage, they have been rewritten as comics and graphic novels. Jane austen is a cultural icon. The interest in her life is so strong that many biographies have been written in order to recover new facts and details. The places where she has lived and the places depicted in her novels have become tourist sites for literary pilgrims. Austen is a cross-over phenomenon, with regency costume balls recreated in her name and an endless proliferation of her works in all media. My essay will investigate Jane Austen and Seth Grahame-Smith’s Pride and Prejudice and Zombies (2009, a mash-up novel which has become a real cultural phenomenon of the last decade and will demonstrate how it can be considered a serial narrative. If as Henry Jenkins asserts, seriality implies the unfolding of a story over time through a process of “chunking” (that is creating meaningful parts of the same story and of “dispersal” (that is breaking the story into more parts and in more genres and media, mash-ups seems to do this.  Austen’s story remains as a “story hook” which pushes the reader to come back to different products for a continuation of the same story. So, if on the one hand, seriality occurs within the same text, the story-telling of Austen’s stories across genres and media is part of a seriality process.

  8. Notorious Cases of Serial Killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosub Elena-Cătălina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of a death scene provides an overall picture of the crime and will indicate the murder as an event or one of a series of events and also the criminal. But when the criminal is declared a serial killer, many questions are raised up. How could a person kill some else without a reason or why people react in such a disorganized way and become so brutal or what made them act like that and so many questions with also so many answers. This project explains the psychology of a murderer, his own way of thinking and acting by presuming that we may accurately discover what is in their minds when they kill. It is about a very complex issue regarding murder investigations, biological factors and psychological profile of a serial killer. Dealing with this problem we will at last reach to the question that could solve finally the puzzle: ―Are serial murderers distorted reflections of society's own values?

  9. Serial murder by healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorker, Beatrice Crofts; Kizer, Kenneth W; Lampe, Paula; Forrest, A R W; Lannan, Jacquetta M; Russell, Donna A

    2008-01-01

    The prosecution of Charles Cullen, a nurse who killed at least 40 patients over a 16-year period, highlights the need to better understand the phenomenon of serial murder by healthcare professionals. The authors conducted a LexisNexis search which yielded 90 criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers that met inclusion criteria for serial murder of patients. In addition we reviewed epidemiologic studies, toxicology evidence, and court transcripts, to provide data on healthcare professionals who have been prosecuted between 1970 and 2006. Fifty-four of the 90 have been convicted; 45 for serial murder, four for attempted murder, and five pled guilty to lesser charges. Twenty-four more have been indicted and are either awaiting trial or the outcome has not been published. The other 12 prosecutions had a variety of legal outcomes. Injection was the main method used by healthcare killers followed by suffocation, poisoning, and tampering with equipment. Prosecutions were reported from 20 countries with 40% taking place in the United States. Nursing personnel comprised 86% of the healthcare providers prosecuted; physicians 12%, and 2% were allied health professionals. The number of patient deaths that resulted in a murder conviction is 317 and the number of suspicious patient deaths attributed to the 54 convicted caregivers is 2113. These numbers are disturbing and demand that systemic changes in tracking adverse patient incidents associated with presence of a specific healthcare provider be implemented. Hiring practices must shift away from preventing wrongful discharge or denial of employment lawsuits to protecting patients from employees who kill.

  10. The Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, James R.

    2003-01-01

    By modifying the IGRF it is possible to learn what may happen to the geomagnetic field during a geomagnetic reversal. If the entire IGRF reverses then the declination and inclination only reverse when the field strength is zero. If only the dipole component of the IGRF reverses a large geomagnetic field remains when the dipole component is zero and he direction of the field at the end of the reversal is not exactly reversed from the directions at the beginning of the reversal.

  11. Effects of subchronic phencyclidine (PCP treatment on social behaviors, and operant discrimination and reversal learning in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Brigman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Subchronic treatment with the psychotomimetic phencyclidine (PCP has been proposed as a rodent model of the negative and cognitive/executive symptoms of schizophrenia. There has, however, been a paucity of studies on this model in mice, despite the growing use of the mouse as a subject in genetic and molecular studies of schizophrenia. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of subchronic PCP treatment (5 mg/kg twice daily x 7 days, followed by 7 days withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice on 1 social behaviors using a sociability/social novelty-preference paradigm, and 2 pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning using a touchscreen-based operant system. Results showed that mice subchronically treated with PCP made more visits to (but did not spend more time with a social stimulus relative to an inanimate one, and made more visits and spent more time investigating a novel social stimulus over a familiar one. Subchronic PCP treatment did not significantly affect behavior in either the discrimination or reversal learning tasks. These data encourage further analysis of the potential utility of mouse subchronic PCP treatment for modeling the social withdrawal component of schizophrenia. They also indicate that the treatment regimen employed was insufficient to impair our measures of discrimination and reversal learning in the C57BL/6J strain. Further work will be needed to identify alternative methods (e.g., repeated cycles of subchronic PCP treatment, use of different mouse strains that produce discrimination and/or reversal impairment, as well as other cognitive/executive measures that are sensitive to chronic PCP treatment in mice.

  12. Reverse Algols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Reverse Algols, binary systems with a semidetached configuration in which the more massive component is in contact with the critical equipotential surface, are examined. Observational evidence for reverse Algols is presented and the parameters of seven reverse Algols are listed. The evolution of Algols and reverse Algols is discussed. It is suggested that, because reverse Algols represent the premass-reversal semidetached phase of close binary evolution, the evolutionary time scale between regular and reverse Algols is the ratio of the number of confirmed systems of these two Algol types.

  13. Awake, long-term intranasal insulin treatment does not affect object memory, odor discrimination, or reversal learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Genevieve A; Fadool, Debra Ann

    2017-05-15

    Intranasal insulin delivery is currently being used in clinical trials to test for improvement in human memory and cognition, and in particular, for lessening memory loss attributed to neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have reported the effects of short-term intranasal insulin treatment on various behaviors, but less have examined long-term effects. The olfactory bulb contains the highest density of insulin receptors in conjunction with the highest level of insulin transport within the brain. Previous research from our laboratory has demonstrated that acute insulin intranasal delivery (IND) enhanced both short- and long-term memory as well as increased two-odor discrimination in a two-choice paradigm. Herein, we investigated the behavioral and physiological effects of chronic insulin IND. Adult, male C57BL6/J mice were intranasally treated with 5μg/μl of insulin twice daily for 30 and 60days. Metabolic assessment indicated no change in body weight, caloric intake, or energy expenditure following chronic insulin IND, but an increase in the frequency of meal bouts selectively in the dark cycle. Unlike acute insulin IND, which has been shown to cause enhanced performance in odor habituation/dishabituation and two-odor discrimination tasks in mice, chronic insulin IND did not enhance olfactometry-based odorant discrimination or olfactory reversal learning. In an object memory recognition task, insulin IND-treated mice did not perform differently than controls, regardless of task duration. Biochemical analyses of the olfactory bulb revealed a modest 1.3 fold increase in IR kinase phosphorylation but no significant increase in Kv1.3 phosphorylation. Substrate phosphorylation of IR kinase downstream effectors (MAPK/ERK and Akt signaling) proved to be highly variable. These data indicate that chronic administration of insulin IND in mice fails to enhance olfactory ability, object memory recognition, or a majority of systems physiology metabolic factors - as reported to

  14. Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was focused on the analysis of the concept of reverse logistics and actual reverse processes which are implemented in mining industry and finding solutions for the optimization of reverse logistics in this sphere. The objective of this paper was the assessment of the development of reverse logistics in mining industry on the example of potash production. The theoretical part was based on reverse logistics and mining waste related literature and provided foundations for further...

  15. Nanoflow electrospinning serial femtosecond crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kern, Jan; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Schafer, Donald W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Gildea, Richard J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Sellberg, Jonas; McQueen, Trevor A.; Fry, Alan R.; Messerschmidt, Marc M.; Miahnahri, Alan; Seibert, M. Marvin; Hampton, Christina Y.; Starodub, Dmitri; Loh, N. Duane; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Zwart, Petrus H.; Glatzel, Pieter; Milathianaki, Despina; White, William E.; Adams, Paul D.; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Bogan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    An electrospun liquid microjet has been developed that delivers protein microcrystal suspensions at flow rates of 0.14–3.1 µl min−1 to perform serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies with X-ray lasers. Thermolysin microcrystals flowed at 0.17 µl min−1 and diffracted to beyond 4 Å resolution, producing 14 000 indexable diffraction patterns, or four per second, from 140 µg of protein. Nanoflow electrospinning extends SFX to biological samples that necessitate minimal sample consumption. PMID:23090408

  16. Comparison of the efficacy of two anticonvulsants, phenytoin and valproate to improve PCP and d-amphetamine induced deficits in a reversal learning task in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagi F Idris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in our laboratory have shown that PCP (phencyclidine and d-amphetamine induce a cognitive deficit in rats, in a paradigm of potential relevance for the pathology of schizophrenia. Atypical, but not classical antipsychotics and the anticonvulsant, lamotrigine have been shown to prevent a selective reversal learning deficit induced by PCP. In contrast, only haloperidol reversed the d-amphetamine-induced deficit. The present study aimed to explore the ability of two anticonvulsants with differing mechanism of action, valproate and phenytoin to attenuate the cognitive deficits induced by PCP and d-amphetamine in the reversal learning paradigm. PCP at 1.5mg/kg and d-amphetamine at 0.5mg/kg both produced a selective and significant reduction in performance of the reversal phase with no effect on the initial phase of the task in female-hooded Lister rats. Valproate (25-200mg/kg and phenytoin (25-50mg/kg had no effect on performance when administered alone. Valproate (100-200mg/kg, whose principle action is thought to be the enhancement of GABA transmission, was unable to prevent the cognitive deficit induced by either PCP or d-amphetamine. Conversely, phenytoin (50mg/kg, a use-dependent sodium channel inhibitor, significantly prevented the deficit induced by PCP, but not d-amphetamine. These results add to our earlier work with lamotrigine, and suggest that sodium channel blockade may be a mechanism by which some anticonvulsant drugs can prevent the PCP-induced deficit. These data have implications for the use of anticonvulsant drugs in the treatment of cognitive or psychotic disorders.

  17. SMALL SERIAL AND SERIAL PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN UNSTABLE DEMAND ENVIROUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsomaeva I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the methodological approach to production program of the enterprise serial engineering for the current period in the conditions of uncertainty of demand. Here are two problems with this. The first is connected with the formation of the production program of the next quarter, year. Objective could be to stochastic programming, but this task is difficult. Therefore, in this paper we proposed a simple solution. On the basis of statistical historical information about the deviation of actual sales data products from predicted by Monte Carlo generated a lot of production programs. Fixed worst key performance (sales, profit etc. The difference between the values of the planned target and the settlement defines stochastic reserve, to be established at the expense of additional innovations. The second problem is connected with the formation of the production program production in the planned month, taking into account the creation of stocks of production in the conditions when for a short period of time is difficult to build a pattern of change in the quantity demanded by month for serial production, as in some months of the year the products are not produced nor sold. To justify the level of inventories of finished products is information on deviations from the fact plan for past periods. Built function of frequency distribution of the values of deviations. This allows you to further build the methodology for determining the level of production (taking into account the reserves and sales of products that deliver maximum economic effect from the sales in the conditions of a random process of realization of production.

  18. Reverse Osmosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    many applications, one of which is desalination of seawater. The inaugural Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to van 't Hoff for his seminal work in this area. The present article explains the principle of osmosis and reverse osmosis. Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis. As the name suggests, reverse osmosis is the ...

  19. Criminal psychological profiling of serial arson crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W

    2002-12-01

    The practice of criminal psychological profiling is frequently cited as being applicable to serial arson crimes. Despite this claim, there does not appear to be any empirical research that examines serial arson offence behaviors in the context of profiling. This study seeks to develop an empirical model of serial arsonist behaviors that can be systematically associated with probable offender characteristics. Analysis has produced a model of offence behaviors that identify four discrete behavior patterns, all of which share a constellation of common nondiscriminatory behaviors. The inherent behavioral themes of each of these patterns are explored with discussion of their broader implications for our understanding of serial arson and directions for future research.

  20. Spatial reversal learning in chronically sensitized rats and in undrugged sensitized rats with dopamine D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hatalová, Hana; Radostová, Dominika; Pištíková, Adéla; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, APR 11 (2014), s. 122 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : flexibility * reversal * rats * quinpirol * obsessive-compulsive disorder Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  1. Lifelong disturbance of serotonin transporter functioning results in fear learning deficits : Reversal by blockade of CRF1 receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Elisabeth Y; Hendriksen, Hendrikus; Baas, Johanna M P; Millan, Mark J; Groenink, Lucianne

    2015-01-01

    The inability to associate aversive events with relevant cues (i.e. fear learning) may lead to maladaptive anxiety. To further study the role of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in fear learning, classical fear conditioning was studied in SERT knockout rats (SERT(-/-)) using fear potentiation of the

  2. Scientific and Technical Serials Holdings Optimization in an Inefficient Market: A LSU Serials Redesign Project Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensman, Stephen J.; Wilder, Stanley J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the structure of the library market for scientific and technical (ST) serials. Describes an exercise aimed at a theoretical reconstruction of the ST-serials holdings of Louisiana State University (LSU) Libraries. Discusses the set definitions, measures, and algorithms necessary in the design of a computer program to appraise ST serials.…

  3. Serial Position Functions in General Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R.; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age;…

  4. The Serial Murderer's Motivations: An Interdisciplinary Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHart, Dana D.; Mahoney, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Defines serial killer as individual who murders two or more victims over an extended period of time, ranging from days to years, with the crimes often being sexually motivated. Reviews existing motivational theories of serial murder and proposes additional explications from range of disciplines. Presents suggestions for future research and…

  5. Modus operandi of female serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W; Hilton, T

    1998-04-01

    The modus operandi of female serial killers was examined from a chronology of 58 cases in America and 47 cases in 17 other countries, compiled over 25-year intervals. Female serial killers in other countries accounted for a disproportionately greater number of victims, but those in America managed a longer killing career when associated with a low profile modus operandi.

  6. Female serial killing: review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Andreas; Völlm, Birgit; Graf, Marc; Dittmann, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Single homicide committed by women is rare. Serial killing is very infrequent, and the perpetrators are usually white, intelligent males with sadistic tendencies. Serial killing by women has, however, also been described. To conduct a review of published literature on female serial killers and consider its usefulness in assessing a presenting case. A literature review was conducted, after searching EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. The presenting clinical case is described in detail in the context of the literature findings. Results The literature search revealed few relevant publications. Attempts to categorize the phenomenon of female serial killing according to patterns of and motives for the homicides have been made by some authors. The most common motive identified was material gain or similar extrinsic gratification while the 'hedonistic' sadistic or sexual serial killer seems to be extremely rare in women. There is no consistent theory of serial killing by women, but psychopathic personality traits and abusive childhood experiences have consistently been observed. The authors' case did not fit the description of a 'typical' female serial killer. In such unusual circumstances as serial killing by a woman, detailed individual case formulation is required to make sense of the psychopathology in each case. Publication of cases in scientific journals should be encouraged to advance our understanding of this phenomenon. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Reframing Serial Murder Within Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Empirical research on serial murder is limited due to the lack of consensus on a definition, the continued use of primarily descriptive statistics, and linkage to popular culture depictions. These limitations also inhibit our understanding of these offenders and affect credibility in the field of research. Therefore, this comprehensive overview of a sample of 508 cases (738 total offenders, including partnered groups of two or more offenders) provides analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered serial killers to elucidate statistical differences and similarities in offending and adjudication patterns among the three groups. This analysis of serial homicide offenders not only supports previous research on offending patterns present in the serial homicide literature but also reveals that empirically based analyses can enhance our understanding beyond traditional case studies and descriptive statistics. Further research based on these empirical analyses can aid in the development of more accurate classifications and definitions of serial murderers.

  8. Memory for serial order across domains: An overview of the literature and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlstone, Mark J; Hitch, Graham J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2014-03-01

    From vocabulary learning to imitating sequences of motor actions, the ability to plan, represent, and recall a novel sequence of items in the correct order is fundamental for many verbal and nonverbal higher level cognitive activities. Here we review phenomena of serial order documented across the verbal, visual, and spatial short-term memory domains and interpret them with reference to the principles of serial order and ancillary assumptions instantiated in contemporary computational theories of memory for serial order. We propose that functional similarities across domains buttress the notion that verbal, visual, and spatial sequences are planned and controlled by a competitive queuing (CQ) mechanism in which items are simultaneously active in parallel and the strongest item is chosen for output. Within the verbal short-term memory CQ system, evidence suggests that serial order is represented via a primacy gradient, position marking, response suppression, and cumulative matching. Evidence further indicates that output interference operates during recall and that item similarity effects manifest during both serial order encoding and retrieval. By contrast, the principles underlying the representation of serial order in the visual and spatial CQ systems are unclear, largely because the relevant studies have yet to be performed. In the spatial domain, there is some evidence for a primacy gradient and position marking, whereas in the visual domain there is no direct evidence for either of the principles of serial order. We conclude by proposing some directions for future research designed to bridge this and other theoretical gaps in the literature.

  9. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  10. Effect of parental family history of Alzheimer's disease on serial position profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce; Jones, Jana E; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A

    2008-07-01

    An exaggerated recency effect (ie, disproportionate recall of last-presented items) has been consistently observed in the word list learning of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our study sought to determine whether there were similar alterations in serial position learning among asymptomatic persons at risk for AD as a result of parental family history. Subjects included 623 asymptomatic middle-aged children of patients with AD (median, 53 years) and 157 control participants whose parents survived to at least age 70 without AD or other memory disorders. All participants were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, which requires learning and recall of 15 unrelated nouns. There was no significant difference in total words recalled between the AD children and control groups. However, compared with controls, AD children exhibited a significantly greater tendency to recall words from the end (recency) versus beginning (primacy) of the list. Serial position effects were unrelated to apolipoprotein allele epsilon 4 or depressive symptoms. Asymptomatic persons at risk for AD by virtue of family history do not show a difference in total words recalled compared with controls, but they exhibit a distinctly different serial position curve, suggesting greater reliance on immediate as opposed to episodic memory. This is the same serial position pattern observed in mild AD, seen here in reduced severity. Longitudinal follow-up is planned to determine whether changes in serial position patterns are a meaningful marker for preclinical detection of AD.

  11. Serial powering of pixel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Fischer, Peter; Huegging, Fabian; Peric, Ivan; Runolfsson, O.; Wermes, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors for the next generation of high-energy collider experiments like LHC use readout electronics in deep sub-micron technology. Chips in this technology need a low supply voltage of 2-2.5 V alongside high current consumption to achieve the desired performance. The high supply current leads to significant voltage drops in the long and low mass supply cables so that voltage fluctuations at the chips are induced, when the supply current changes. This problem scales with the number of modules when connected in parallel to the power supplies. An alternative powering scheme connects several modules in series resulting in a higher supply voltage but a lower current consumption of the chain and therefore a much lower voltage drop in the cables. In addition the amount of cables needed to supply the detector is vastly reduced. The concept and features of serial powering are presented and studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In particular, it is shown that the potential risk of powering in series can be addressed and eliminated

  12. Serial powering of pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Hügging, Fabian Georg; Peric, I; Runólfsson, O; Wermes, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors for the next generation of high-energy collider experiments like LHC use readout electronics in deep sub- micron technology. Chips in this technology need a low supply voltage of 2-2.5 V alongside high current consumption to achieve the desired performance. The high supply current leads to significant voltage drops in the long and low mass supply cables so that voltage fluctuations at the chips are induced, when the supply current changes. This problem scales with the number of modules when connected in parallel to the power supplies. An alternative powering scheme connects several modules in series resulting in a higher supply voltage but a lower current consumption of the chain and therefore a much lower voltage drop in the cables. In addition the amount of cables needed to supply the detector is vastly reduced. The concept and features of serial powering are presented and studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In par...

  13. Criteria to assess potential reverse innovations: opportunities for shared learning between high- and low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Onil; Wu, Diane; Mossman, Kathryn; Hayden, Leigh; Gill, Pavan; Cheng, Yu-Ling; Daar, Abdallah; Soman, Dilip; Synowiec, Christina; Taylor, Andrea; Wong, Joseph; von Zedtwitz, Max; Zlotkin, Stanley; Mitchell, William; McGahan, Anita

    2017-01-25

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are developing novel approaches to healthcare that may be relevant to high-income countries (HICs). These include products, services, organizational processes, or policies that improve access, cost, or efficiency of healthcare. However, given the challenge of replication, it is difficult to identify innovations that could be successfully adapted to high-income settings. We present a set of criteria for evaluating the potential impact of LMIC innovations in HIC settings. An initial framework was drafted based on a literature review, and revised iteratively by applying it to LMIC examples from the Center for Health Market Innovations (CHMI) program database. The resulting criteria were then reviewed using a modified Delphi process by the Reverse Innovation Working Group, consisting of 31 experts in medicine, engineering, management and political science, as well as representatives from industry and government, all with an expressed interest in reverse innovation. The resulting 8 criteria are divided into two steps with a simple scoring system. First, innovations are assessed according to their success within the LMIC context according to metrics of improving accessibility, cost-effectiveness, scalability, and overall effectiveness. Next, they are scored for their potential for spread to HICs, according to their ability to address an HIC healthcare challenge, compatibility with infrastructure and regulatory requirements, degree of novelty, and degree of current collaboration with HICs. We use examples to illustrate where programs which appear initially promising may be unlikely to succeed in a HIC setting due to feasibility concerns. This study presents a framework for identifying reverse innovations that may be useful to policymakers and funding agencies interested in identifying novel approaches to addressing cost and access to care in HICs. We solicited expert feedback and consensus on an empirically-derived set of criteria

  14. The Productivity Advantage of Serial Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Kathryn L.; Sørensen, Anders

    Serial entrepreneurs, who open more than one business, are found to have higher sales and higher productivity than novice entrepreneurs, who open one business. Using panel data on entrepreneurs and their firms from Denmark for 2001-2013, the serial entrepreneur has 67% higher sales than the novice......, but also opens firms that are larger in terms of the initial capital and labor, and thus is 39% more productive. There are subsets of firms that perform especially well – serial entrepreneurs that hold a portfolio of overlapping ongoing firms perform the best, as do those that open as limited liability...

  15. The American Serialization of Lord Jim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Donovan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the discovery of the American serialization of Joseph Conrad’s Lord Jim in New York’s Evening Telegram in 1903. This ‘lost’ serialization, it argues, invites a new perspective on Conrad’s early career by foregrounding the role of newspaper serialization and syndication in establishing his literary standing. After surveying the principal differences in the respective reading experiences of the periodical versus the book, it concludes by proposing that the prominence of women among Conrad’s first audiences requires us to reassess the basis for his success in North America and elsewhere.

  16. Negative mood reverses devaluation of goal-directed drug-seeking favouring an incentive learning account of drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; He, Zhimin; Chase, Henry W; Wills, Andy J; Troisi, Joseph; Leventhal, Adam M; Mathew, Amanda R; Hitsman, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Two theories explain how negative mood primes smoking behaviour. The stimulus-response (S-R) account argues that in the negative mood state, smoking is experienced as more reinforcing, establishing a direct (automatic) association between the negative mood state and smoking behaviour. By contrast, the incentive learning account argues that in the negative mood state smoking is expected to be more reinforcing, which integrates with instrumental knowledge of the response required to produce that outcome. One differential prediction is that whereas the incentive learning account anticipates that negative mood induction could augment a novel tobacco-seeking response in an extinction test, the S-R account could not explain this effect because the extinction test prevents S-R learning by omitting experience of the reinforcer. To test this, overnight-deprived daily smokers (n = 44) acquired two instrumental responses for tobacco and chocolate points, respectively, before smoking to satiety. Half then received negative mood induction to raise the expected value of tobacco, opposing satiety, whilst the remainder received positive mood induction. Finally, a choice between tobacco and chocolate was measured in extinction to test whether negative mood could augment tobacco choice, opposing satiety, in the absence of direct experience of tobacco reinforcement. Negative mood induction not only abolished the devaluation of tobacco choice, but participants with a significant increase in negative mood increased their tobacco choice in extinction, despite satiety. These findings suggest that negative mood augments drug-seeking by raising the expected value of the drug through incentive learning, rather than through automatic S-R control.

  17. Negative mood reverses devaluation of goal-directed drug-seeking favouring an incentive learning account of drug dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Hogarth, L; Zhimin, H; Chase, HW; Wills, AJ; Troisi II, J; Leventhal, M; Mathew, AR; Hitsman, B

    2015-01-01

    Background Two theories explain how negative mood primes smoking behaviour. The stimulus?response (S-R) account argues that in the negative mood state, smoking is experienced as more reinforcing, establishing a direct (automatic) association between the negative mood state and smoking behaviour. By contrast, the incentive learning account argues that in the negative mood state smoking is expected to be more reinforcing, which integrates with instrumental knowledge of the response required to ...

  18. Some Considerations on Seriality and Synchronicity

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Nechita

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results that have been obtained lately on seriality and synchronicity and their link, in the light of the new theories and within the frame of complexity science.

  19. Some Considerations on Seriality and Synchronicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nechita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the results that have been obtained lately on seriality and synchronicity and their link, in the light of the new theories and within the frame of complexity science.

  20. Pioglitazone improves reversal learning and exerts mixed cerebrovascular effects in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease with combined amyloid-β and cerebrovascular pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayiota Papadopoulos

    Full Text Available Animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD are invaluable in dissecting the pathogenic mechanisms and assessing the efficacy of potential new therapies. Here, we used the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone in an attempt to rescue the pathogenic phenotype in adult (12 months and aged (>18 months bitransgenic A/T mice that overexpress a mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APPSwe,Ind and a constitutively active form of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. A/T mice recapitulate the AD-related cognitive deficits, amyloid beta (Aβ and cerebrovascular pathologies, as well as the altered metabolic and vascular coupling responses to increased neuronal activity. Pioglitazone normalized neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling responses to sensory stimulation, and reduced cortical astroglial and hippocampal microglial activation in both age groups. Spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze were not rescued by pioglitazone, but reversal learning was improved in the adult cohort notwithstanding a progressing Aβ pathology. While pioglitazone preserved the constitutive nitric oxide synthesis in the vessel wall, it unexpectedly failed to restore cerebrovascular reactivity in A/T mice and even exacerbated the dilatory deficits. These data demonstrate pioglitazone's efficacy on selective AD hallmarks in a complex AD mouse model of comorbid amyloidosis and cerebrovascular pathology. They further suggest a potential benefit of pioglitazone in managing neuroinflammation, cerebral perfusion and glucose metabolism in AD patients devoid of cerebrovascular pathology.

  1. The Post-mating Switch in the Pheromone Response of Nasonia Females Is Mediated by Dopamine and Can Be Reversed by Appetitive Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lenschow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory sense is of crucial importance for animals, but their response to chemical stimuli is plastic and depends on their physiological state and prior experience. In many insect species, mating status influences the response to sex pheromones, but the underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. After mating, females of the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis are no longer attracted to the male sex pheromone. Here we show that this post-mating behavioral switch is mediated by dopamine (DA. Females fed a DA-receptor antagonist prior to mating maintained their attraction to the male pheromone after mating while virgin females injected with DA became unresponsive. However, the switch is reversible as mated females regained their pheromone preference after appetitive learning. Feeding mated N. vitripennis females with antagonists of either octopamine- (OA or DA-receptors prevented relearning of the pheromone preference suggesting that both receptors are involved in appetitive learning. Moreover, DA injection into mated females was sufficient to mimic the oviposition reward during odor conditioning with the male pheromone. Our data indicate that DA plays a key role in the plastic pheromone response of N. vitripennis females and reveal some striking parallels between insects and mammals in the neuromodulatory mechanisms underlying olfactory plasticity.

  2. Serial casting for reconstruction of a deformed Charcot foot: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Jonathan I; Weiss, Shmuel; Gazes, Michael; Amit-Kohn, Michal

    2015-05-01

    Charcot neuroarthropathy may occur in patients with peripheral neuropathy who do not notice pain while their bones and joints collapse or breakdown under the constant pressure of body weight. This can lead to ulcerations from severe deformity and potentially limb-threatening and life-threatening infections. Current treatments vary from immobilization to extensive reconstructive surgical interventions. Serial casting, used to correct many pediatric deformities while bones are often more pliable, was used with a 63-year-old male patient who presented with an active phase of Charcot foot with ulceration. The patient previously underwent foot reconstruction and had all hardware removed prior to serial casting. Due to the potential pliability of the bones, serial casting was attempted to reform the shape and position of the foot in a reverse Ponseti-type serial casting to create a more stable structure with less deformity that could lead to epithelial breakdown. The patient regained full ambulation with a plantargrade foot and no wounds, and was followed without complications for 36 months. Serial weekly casting was an effective modality for treatment of this patient's Charcot foot deformity.

  3. Broad ion beam serial section tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, B., E-mail: b.winiarski@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Gholinia, A. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mingard, K.; Gee, M. [Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Here we examine the potential of serial Broad Ion Beam (BIB) Ar{sup +} ion polishing as an advanced serial section tomography (SST) technique for destructive 3D material characterisation for collecting data from volumes with lateral dimensions significantly greater than 100 µm and potentially over millimetre sized areas. Further, the associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. Block face serial sectioning data registration schemes usually assume that the data comprises a series of parallel, planar slices. We quantify the variations in slice thickness and parallelity which can arise when using BIB systems comparing Gatan PECS and Ilion BIB systems for large volume serial sectioning and 3D-EBSD data acquisition. As a test case we obtain 3D morphologies and grain orientations for both phases of a WC-11%wt. Co hardmetal. In our case we have carried out the data acquisition through the manual transfer of the sample between SEM and BIB which is a very slow process (1–2 slice per day), however forthcoming automated procedures will markedly speed up the process. We show that irrespective of the sectioning method raw large area 2D-EBSD maps are affected by distortions and artefacts which affect 3D-EBSD such that quantitative analyses and visualisation can give misleading and erroneous results. Addressing and correcting these issues will offer real benefits when large area (millimetre sized) automated serial section BIBS is developed. - Highlights: • In this work we examine how microstructures can be reconstructed in three-dimensions (3D) by serial argon broad ion beam (BIB) milling, enabling much larger volumes (>250×250×100µm{sup 3}) to be acquired than by serial section focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). • The associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D-EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. • We explore

  4. Role of echocardiography in reducing shock reversal time in pediatric septic shock: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. EL‐Nawawy

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Serial echocardiography provided crucial data for early recognition of septic myocardial dysfunction and hypovolemia that was not apparent on clinical assessment, allowing a timely management and resulting in shock reversal time reduction among children with septic shock.

  5. [The serial murder: a few theoretical perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S; Linkowski, P

    2011-01-01

    Despite numbers of publications and effort to try to establish the definition, the classification, the epidemiology, the clinical aspects and the psychopathology of serial killers, a universal consensus seems to say the least. Crime, though reduced in some countries, appears to impact more and more consistent worldwide, generating controversial ideas and a multitude of possible explanations. The serial killer usually presents as a caucasian man, aged between 20 and 40 years, often embedded socially and in his family, but with serious psychiatric, personal and especially family history. Usually acting alone, the serial killer plans a crime well in advance, but sometimes within the scope of impulsivity for a minority, the victim not being previously selected. In the latter case, an actual mental illness like psychosis is found. It is clear from numerous psychopathological studies conducted so far that most serial killers are defined as psychopathic sexual sadists, whose childhood was difficult, if not flouted, punctuated by physical and psychological violence situations. In addition, pervasive fantasies combined with thoughts of death, sex and violence are as much in common with the original acts of which they are the instigators. Beyond a relentless media that is constantly watering the public with stories and pictures depicting them as such, serial killers remain an enigma. We can therefore attempt to answer the various questions raised by this phenomenon, the way these people operate and how we can curb the rise, thanks to the neurobiological and neurophysiological approaches that science offers us.

  6. Serial position effects scoring in the assessment of memory in Alzheimer's disease and major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Karel Jozef

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to validate serial position effects (SPE’S) scoring in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The RAVLT is a much used clinical method for assessing memory performance, but the method of scoring obfuscates that two memory processes underlie free recall. This

  7. Serial Expression Analysis: a web tool for the analysis of serial gene expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nueda, Maria José; Carbonell, José; Medina, Ignacio; Dopazo, Joaquín; Conesa, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Serial transcriptomics experiments investigate the dynamics of gene expression changes associated with a quantitative variable such as time or dosage. The statistical analysis of these data implies the study of global and gene-specific expression trends, the identification of significant serial changes, the comparison of expression profiles and the assessment of transcriptional changes in terms of cellular processes. We have created the SEA (Serial Expression Analysis) suite to provide a complete web-based resource for the analysis of serial transcriptomics data. SEA offers five different algorithms based on univariate, multivariate and functional profiling strategies framed within a user-friendly interface and a project-oriented architecture to facilitate the analysis of serial gene expression data sets from different perspectives. SEA is available at sea.bioinfo.cipf.es. PMID:20525784

  8. TGF-β Signaling in Dopaminergic Neurons Regulates Dendritic Growth, Excitatory-Inhibitory Synaptic Balance, and Reversal Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah X. Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits involving midbrain dopaminergic (DA neurons regulate reward and goal-directed behaviors. Although local GABAergic input is known to modulate DA circuits, the mechanism that controls excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance in DA neurons remains unclear. Here, we show that DA neurons use autocrine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β signaling to promote the growth of axons and dendrites. Surprisingly, removing TGF-β type II receptor in DA neurons also disrupts the balance in TGF-β1 expression in DA neurons and neighboring GABAergic neurons, which increases inhibitory input, reduces excitatory synaptic input, and alters phasic firing patterns in DA neurons. Mice lacking TGF-β signaling in DA neurons are hyperactive and exhibit inflexibility in relinquishing learned behaviors and re-establishing new stimulus-reward associations. These results support a role for TGF-β in regulating the delicate balance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic input in local microcircuits involving DA and GABAergic neurons and its potential contributions to neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. Stochastic modeling of a serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, M V; Roychowdhury, V P

    2014-08-21

    We analyze the time pattern of the activity of a serial killer, who during 12 years had murdered 53 people. The plot of the cumulative number of murders as a function of time is of "Devil's staircase" type. The distribution of the intervals between murders (step length) follows a power law with the exponent of 1.4. We propose a model according to which the serial killer commits murders when neuronal excitation in his brain exceeds certain threshold. We model this neural activity as a branching process, which in turn is approximated by a random walk. As the distribution of the random walk return times is a power law with the exponent 1.5, the distribution of the inter-murder intervals is thus explained. We illustrate analytical results by numerical simulation. Time pattern activity data from two other serial killers further substantiate our analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Converting serial networks to Ethernet communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

    2008-07-01

    Many oil and gas producers and pipeline companies find themselves in an awkward position. They have invested millions of dollars in legacy serial communications systems and in most cases, millions more in older SCADA remote terminal units and electronic flow meters. There is a desire throughout most of the industry to convert these systems to Ethernet. This presentation will explore how Ethernet protocol offers advantages over the older serial communications in terms of peer to peer communication, faster polling cycles, and the ability to poll multiple devices at the same time. (author)

  11. Multistage parallel-serial time averaging filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodosiou, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Here, a new time averaging circuit design, the 'parallel filter' is presented, which can reduce the time jitter, introduced in time measurements using counters of large dimensions. This parallel filter could be considered as a single stage unit circuit which can be repeated an arbitrary number of times in series, thus providing a parallel-serial filter type as a result. The main advantages of such a filter over a serial one are much less electronic gate jitter and time delay for the same amount of total time uncertainty reduction. (orig.)

  12. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

  13. Effects of serial and concurrent training on receptive identification tasks: A Systematic replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Kara L; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2017-07-01

    The current study compared the use of serial and concurrent methods to train multiple exemplars when teaching receptive language skills, providing a systematic replication of Wunderlich, Vollmer, Donaldson, and Phillips (2014). Five preschoolers diagnosed with developmental delays or autism spectrum disorders were taught to receptively identify letters or letter sounds. Subjects learned the target stimuli slightly faster in concurrent training and a high degree of generalization was obtained following both methods of training, indicating that both the serial and concurrent methods of training are efficient and effective instructional procedures. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. On the Function of Stress Rhythms in Speech: Evidence of a Link with Grouping Effects on Serial Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Victor J.

    2006-01-01

    Language learning requires a capacity to recall novel series of speech sounds. Research shows that prosodic marks create grouping effects enhancing serial recall. However, any restriction on memory affecting the reproduction of prosody would limit the set of patterns that could be learned and subsequently used in speech. By implication, grouping…

  16. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logie, R.H.; Saito, S.; Morita, A.; Varma, S.; Norris, D.

    2016-01-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers

  17. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In 1995, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was developed as a versatile tool for gene expression studies. SAGE technology does not require pre-existing knowledge of the genome that is being examined and therefore SAGE can be applied to many different model systems. In this chapter, the SAGE

  18. Facial rejuvenation: Serial fat graft transfer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saad Mohamed Saad Ibrahiem

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... This a clinical study carried out to test the aesthetic outcome of serial injection of the cryo-preserved fat cells for both aesthetic and reconstructive purposes. Methods: Clinical ..... ucts, devices, or drugs mentioned in this manuscript that might create a ... Adipose stem cells and regenerative medicine. 7th ed.

  19. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  20. Forgetting in immediate serial recall: decay, temporal distinctiveness, or interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-07-01

    Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively. The models were fit to 2 experiments investigating the effect of filled delays between items at encoding or at recall. Short delays between items, filled with articulatory suppression, led to massive impairment of memory relative to a no-delay baseline. Extending the delays had little additional effect, suggesting that the passage of time alone does not cause forgetting. Adding a choice reaction task in the delay periods to block attention-based rehearsal did not change these results. The interference-based SOB fit the data best; the primacy model overpredicted the effect of lengthening delays, and SIMPLE was unable to explain the effect of delays at encoding. The authors conclude that purely temporal views of forgetting are inadequate. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Determination of motive of serial invaders as a stage of serial murders investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydov A.B.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article discusses the existing classification of motives of serial murderers. The author provides the classification, which is based on the technique of extreme meanings offered by D.A. Leontyev.

  2. Further evidence that similar principles govern recall from episodic and semantic memory: the Canadian prime ministerial serial position function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neath, Ian; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2011-06-01

    The serial position function, with its characteristic primacy and recency effects, is one of the most ubiquitous findings in episodic memory tasks. In contrast, there are only two demonstrations of such functions in tasks thought to tap semantic memory. Here, we provide a third demonstration, showing that free recall of the prime ministers of Canada also results in a serial position function. Scale Independent Memory, Perception, and Learning (SIMPLE), a local distinctiveness model of memory that was designed to account for serial position effects in episodic memory, fit the data. According to SIMPLE, serial position functions observed in episodic and semantic memory all reflect the relative distinctiveness principle: items will be well remembered to the extent that they are more distinct than competing items at the time of retrieval. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. An Investigation of Selective College and University Libraries' Serial Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Elizabeth Gates; Teborek, Gay

    Data from a survey on serials arrangement procedures and policies at academic libraries was used by the University of Rhode Island (URI) Library in changing current serials policies. Ten libraries, four of which have similar serial holdings and user populations to URI, responded to a questionnaire. Information was obtained on classification versus…

  4. Sensing the Opaque : Seriality and the Aesthetics of Televisual Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasgupta, S.; Kelleter, F.

    2017-01-01

    Recent work on TV seriality focuses on the deference of meaning through narrative extension. Contemporary seriality, it has been argued, exploits this expanding textuality to construct complicated narratives that tip the pleasures of seriality toward detecting the meaning of the plot's

  5. Serial Millisecond Crystallography of Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Kathrin; Dworkowski, Florian; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Milne, Christopher; Wang, Meitian; Standfuss, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) is a powerful method to determine high-resolution structures of pharmaceutically relevant membrane proteins. Recently, the technology has been adapted to carry out serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at synchrotron sources, where beamtime is more abundant. In an injector-based approach, crystals grown in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) or embedded in viscous medium are delivered directly into the unattenuated beam of a microfocus beamline. Pilot experiments show the application of microjet-based SMX for solving the structure of a membrane protein and compatibility of the method with de novo phasing. Planned synchrotron upgrades, faster detectors and software developments will go hand-in-hand with developments at free-electron lasers to provide a powerful methodology for solving structures from microcrystals at room temperature, ligand screening or crystal optimization for time-resolved studies with minimal or no radiation damage.

  6. Serial SPECT in children with partial epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Machiko; Ushiku, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    We performed serial single-photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-( 123 I)-Iodoamphetamine to measure the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 15 children with partial epilepsy. SPECT showed focal changes in 14 cases. Ten cases had abnormalities in the initial SPECT and another four cases in the second test. The cases with normal rCBF in initial SPECT had been tested in an early phase after the onset, and then decreased rCBF were observed in the second SPECT. The cases with both abnormal rCBF in the initial SPECT and improved rCBF in the second SPECT showed good prognosis in clinico-electrophysiological evolutions. In cases with abnormal changes of rCBF in the second SPECT, clinical prognosis was found to be not so good. These findings suggest that serial SPECT may be used to follow the course of epilepsy. (author)

  7. [Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morana, Hilda C P; Stone, Michael H; Abdalla-Filho, Elias

    2006-10-01

    To illustrate the basic characteristics of several specific personality disorders, focusing mainly in antisocial personality disorder. The differences between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy are highlighted. Serial killers and its psychopathic aspects are also discussed. A bibliographic review was completed in order to outline convergences and divergences among different authors about this controversial issue, especially those concerning the possibility of treatment. While anti-social personality disorder is a medical diagnosis, the term "psychopathy" (which belongs to the sphere of forensic psychiatry) may be understood as a "legal diagnosis". It is not still possible to identify an effective treatment for serial killers. Personality disorders, especially of the antisocial type, still represent a formidable challenge to forensic psychiatry today. Questions as yet unanswered include the best and most humane place for patients with this condition and the nature of a standardised treatment recommendation.

  8. The role of visual representations within working memory for paired-associate and serial order of spoken words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Taiji; Saito, Satoru

    2013-09-01

    Caplan and colleagues have recently explained paired-associate learning and serial-order learning with a single-mechanism computational model by assuming differential degrees of isolation. Specifically, two items in a pair can be grouped together and associated to positional codes that are somewhat isolated from the rest of the items. In contrast, the degree of isolation among the studied items is lower in serial-order learning. One of the key predictions drawn from this theory is that any variables that help chunking of two adjacent items into a group should be beneficial to paired-associate learning, more than serial-order learning. To test this idea, the role of visual representations in memory for spoken verbal materials (i.e., imagery) was compared between two types of learning directly. Experiment 1 showed stronger effects of word concreteness and of concurrent presentation of irrelevant visual stimuli (dynamic visual noise: DVN) in paired-associate memory than in serial-order memory, consistent with the prediction. Experiment 2 revealed that the irrelevant visual stimuli effect was boosted when the participants had to actively maintain the information within working memory, rather than feed it to long-term memory for subsequent recall, due to cue overloading. This indicates that the sensory input from irrelevant visual stimuli can reach and affect visual representations of verbal items within working memory, and that this disruption can be attenuated when the information within working memory can be efficiently supported by long-term memory for subsequent recall.

  9. A Survey of Electronic Serials Managers Reveals Diversity in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Branscome, B. A. (2013. Management of electronic serials in academic libraries: The results of an online survey. Serials Review, 39(4, 216-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.serrev.2013.10.004 Abstract Objective – To examine industry standards for the management of electronic serials and measure the adoption of electronic serials over print. Design – Survey questionnaire. Setting – Email lists aimed at academic librarians working in serials management. Subjects – 195 self-selected subscribers to serials email lists. Methods – The author created a 20 question survey that consisted primarily of closed-ended questions pertaining to the collection demographics, staff, budget, and tools of serials management groups in academic libraries. The survey was conducted via Survey Monkey and examined using the analytical features of the tool. Participants remained anonymous and the survey questions did not ask them to reveal identifiable information about their libraries. Main Results – Collection demographics questions revealed that 78% of surveyed librarians estimated that print-only collections represented 40% or fewer of their serials holdings. The author observed diversity in the factors that influence print to digital transitions in academic libraries. However 71.5% of participants indicated that publisher technology support like IP authentication was required before adopting digital subscriptions. A lack of standardization also marked serials workflows, department responsibilities, and department titles. The author did not find a correlation between serials budget and the enrollment size of the institution. Participants reported that they used tools from popular serials management vendors like Serials Solutions, Innovative Interfaces, EBSCO, and Ex Libris, but most indicated that they used more than one tool for serials management. Participants specified 52 unique serials management products used in their libraries. Conclusion

  10. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic.

  11. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic

  12. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  13. Anti-amyloid beta protein antibody passage across the blood-brain barrier in the SAMP8 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: an age-related selective uptake with reversal of learning impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William A; Farr, Susan A; Morley, John E; Wolf, Kathy M; Geylis, Valeria; Steinitz, Michael

    2007-08-01

    Amyloid beta protein (Abeta) levels are elevated in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Anti-Abeta antibodies can reverse the histologic and cognitive impairments in mice which overexpress Abeta. Passive immunization appears safer than vaccination and treatment of patients will likely require human rather than xenogenic antibodies. Effective treatment will likely require antibody to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Unfortunately, antibodies typically cross the BBB very poorly and accumulate less well in brain than even albumin, a substance nearly totally excluded from the brain. We compared the ability of two anti-Abeta human monoclonal IgM antibodies, L11.3 and HyL5, to cross the BBB of young CD-1 mice to that of young and aged SAMP8 mice. The SAMP8 mouse has a spontaneous mutation that induces an age-related, Abeta-dependent cognitive deficit. There was preferential uptake of intravenously administered L11.3 in comparison to HyL5, albumin, and a control human monoclonal IgM (RF), especially by hippocampus and olfactory bulb in aged SAMP8 mice. Injection of L11.3 into the brains of aged SAMP8 mice reversed both learning and memory impairments in aged SAMP8 mice, whereas IgG and IgM controls were ineffective. Pharmacokinetic analysis predicted that an intravenous dose 1000 times higher than the brain injection dose would reverse cognitive impairments. This predicted intravenous dose reversed the impairment in learning, but not memory, in aged SAMP8 mice. In conclusion, an IgM antibody was produced that crosses the BBB to reverse cognitive impairment in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Implementation of a Multichannel Serial Data Streaming Algorithm using the Xilinx Serial RapidIO Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxley, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current world of applications that use reconfigurable technology implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), there is a need for flexible architectures that can grow as the systems evolve. A project has limited resources and a fixed set of requirements that development efforts are tasked to meet. Designers must develop robust solutions that practically meet the current customer demands and also have the ability to grow for future performance. This paper describes the development of a high speed serial data streaming algorithm that allows for transmission of multiple data channels over a single serial link. The technique has the ability to change to meet new applications developed for future design considerations. This approach uses the Xilinx Serial RapidIO LOGICORE Solution to implement a flexible infrastructure to meet the current project requirements with the ability to adapt future system designs.

  15. Energy Information Data Base: serial titles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The Department of Energy Technical Information Center (TIC) is responsible for creating bibliographic data bases that are used in the announcement and retrieval of publications dealing with all phases of energy. The TIC interactive information processing system makes use of a number of computerized authorities so that consistency can be maintained and indexes can be produced. One such authority is the Energy Information Data Base: Serial Titles. This authority contains the full and abbreviated journal title, country of publication, CODEN, and certain codes. This revision replaces previous revisions of this document

  16. Serials collection management in recessionary times

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Karen G

    2015-01-01

    Strategic planning, collaboration, continual stewardship, best practices, and re-engineering can provide librarians with a toolkit of innovative strategies that meets the worst of economic times with bold, persistent experimentation. This book covers the implications for libraries of a broad range of technological and economic challenges. These challenges include the fallout from the global economic crisis, the positioning of usage statistics, the advent of open access scholarship, database management, responding to budgetary constrictions and general access to serials. Taken as a whole, this

  17. Inverse Kinematics of a Serial Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amici Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a technique to treat the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The inverse kinematics is obtained through the numerical inversion of the Jacobian matrix, that represents the equation of motion of the manipulator. The inversion is affected by numerical errors and, in different conditions, due to the numerical nature of the solver, it does not converge to a reasonable solution. Thus a soft computing approach is adopted to mix different traditional methods to obtain an increment of algorithmic convergence.

  18. Rapid serial visual presentation design for cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A powerful new image presentation technique has evolved over the last twenty years, and its value demonstrated through its support of many and varied common tasks. Conceptually, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is basically simple, exemplified in the physical world by the rapid riffling of the pages of a book in order to locate a known image. Advances in computation and graphics processing allow RSVP to be applied flexibly and effectively to a huge variety of common tasks such as window shopping, video fast-forward and rewind, TV channel selection and product browsing. At its heart is a

  19. CAR-T cells are serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Ritchie, David S; Prince, H Miles; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have enjoyed unprecedented clinical success against haematological malignancies in recent years. However, several aspects of CAR T cell biology remain unknown. We recently compared CAR and T cell receptor (TCR)-based killing in the same effector cell and showed that CAR T cells can not only efficiently kill single tumor targets, they can also kill multiple tumor targets in a sequential manner. Single and serial killing events were not sustained long term due to CAR down-regulation after 20 hours.

  20. Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers

    OpenAIRE

    Morana, Hilda C P; Stone, Michael H; Abdalla-Filho, Elias

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Apresentar as características básicas dos diversos transtornos específicos de personalidade, mas centrando-se no transtorno de personalidade anti-social, fazendo sua diferenciação com psicopatia. O estudo ainda se propõe a abordar a figura do serial killer, apontando a presença de aspectos psicopáticos no homicídio seriado. MÉTODO: Uma revisão bibliográfica foi feita no sentido de se abordar convergências e divergências entre diversos autores sobre um assunto tão polêmico, sobretudo...

  1. Serial position effects are sensitive predictors of conversion from MCI to Alzheimer's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Simone C; Beck, Irene R; Berres, Manfred; Foldi, Nancy S; Monsch, Andreas U; Sollberger, Marc

    2014-10-01

    It is unclear whether the predictive strength of established cognitive variables for progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) varies depending on time to conversion. We investigated which cognitive variables were best predictors, and which of these variables remained predictive for patients with longer times to conversion. Seventy-five participants with MCI were assessed on measures of learning, memory, language, and executive function. Relative predictive strengths of these measures were analyzed using Cox regression models. Measures of word-list position-namely, serial position scores-together with Short Delay Free Recall of word-list learning best predicted conversion to AD dementia. However, only serial position scores predicted those participants with longer time to conversion. Results emphasize that the predictive strength of cognitive variables varies depending on time to conversion to dementia. Moreover, finer measures of learning captured by serial position scores were the most sensitive predictors of AD dementia. Copyright © 2014 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phonological and semantic strategies in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoy, Guillermo; Baddeley, Alan

    2008-05-01

    It has been suggested that certain theoretically important anomalous results in the area of verbal short-term memory could be attributable to differences in strategy. However there are relatively few studies that investigate strategy directly. We describe four experiments, each involving the immediate serial recall of word sequences under baseline control conditions, or preceded by instruction to use a phonological or semantic strategy. Two experiments varied phonological similarity at a presentation rate of one item every 1 or 2 seconds. Both the control and the phonologically instructed group showed clear effects of similarity at both presentation rates, whereas these were largely absent under semantic encoding conditions. Two further experiments manipulated word length at the same two rates. The phonologically instructed groups showed clear effects at both rates, the control group showed a clear effect at the rapid rate which diminished with the slower presentation, while the semantically instructed group showed a relatively weak effect at the rate of one item per second, and a significant reverse effect with slower presentation. The latter finding is interpreted in terms of fortuitous differences in inter-item rated associability between the two otherwise matched word pools, reinforcing our conclusion that the semantically instructed group were indeed encoding semantically. Implications for controlling strategy by instruction are discussed.

  3. Galileo - The Serial-Production AIT Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnit, Ulrike; Brunner, Otto

    2008-01-01

    The Galileo Project is one of the most demanding projects of ESA, being Europe's autarkic navigation system and a constellation composed of 30 satellites. This presentation points out the different phases of the project up to the full operational capability and the corresponding launch options with respect to launch vehicles as well as launch configurations. One of the biggest challenges is to set up a small serial 'production line' for the overall integration and test campaign of satellites. This production line demands an optimization of all relevant tasks, taking into account also backup and recovery actions. A comprehensive AIT concept is required, reflecting a tightly merged facility layout and work flow design. In addition a common data management system is needed to handle all spacecraft related documentation and to have a direct input-out flow for all activities, phases and positions at the same time. Process optimization is a well known field of engineering in all small high tech production lines, nevertheless serial production of satellites are still not the daily task in space business and therefore new concepts have to be put in place. Therefore, and in order to meet the satellites overall system optimization, a thorough interface between unit/subsystem manufacturing and satellite AIT must be realized to ensure a smooth flow and to avoid any process interruption, which would directly lead to a schedule impact.

  4. Spatial serial order processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David; Park, Sohee; Clark, Gina; Yohanna, Daniel; Houk, James C

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine serial order processing deficits in 21 schizophrenia patients and 16 age- and education-matched healthy controls. In a spatial serial order working memory task, one to four spatial targets were presented in a randomized sequence. Subjects were required to remember the locations and the order in which the targets were presented. Patients showed a marked deficit in ability to remember the sequences compared with controls. Increasing the number of targets within a sequence resulted in poorer memory performance for both control and schizophrenia subjects, but the effect was much more pronounced in the patients. Targets presented at the end of a long sequence were more vulnerable to memory error in schizophrenia patients. Performance deficits were not attributable to motor errors, but to errors in target choice. The results support the idea that the memory errors seen in schizophrenia patients may be due to saturating the working memory network at relatively low levels of memory load.

  5. Serial position curves in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model accommodates the serial position curve for first recalls (where those data are available) as well as that for total recalls. Both curves are fit with the same parameter values, as also (with 1 exception) are all of the conditions compared within each experiment. The distributions of numbers of recalls are also examined and shown to have variances increased above what would be expected if successive recalls were independent. This is taken to signify that, in those experiments in which rehearsals were not recorded, the retrieval of words for possible recall follows the same pattern that is observed following overt rehearsal, namely, that retrieval consists of runs of consecutive elements from memory. Finally, 2 sets of data are examined that the present approach cannot accommodate. It is argued that the problem with these data derives from an interaction between the patterns of (covert) rehearsal and the parameters of list presentation.

  6. Rapid-Sequence Serial Sexual Homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Louis B; Ramirez, Stephanie; Tusa, Brittany; Jarvis, John P; Erdberg, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Serial sexual murderers have been described as committing homicides in a methodical manner, taking substantial time between offenses to elude the authorities. The results of our study of the temporal patterns (i.e., the length of time between homicides) of a nonrandom national sample of 44 serial sexual murderers and their 201 victims indicate that this representation may not always be accurate. Although 25 offenders (56.8%) killed with longer than a 14-day period between homicides, a sizeable subgroup was identified: 19 offenders (43.2%) who committed homicides in rapid-sequence fashion, with fewer than 14 days between all or some of the murders. Six offenders (13.6%) killed all their victims in one rapid-sequence, spree-like episode, with homicides just days apart or sometimes two murders in the same day. Thirteen offenders (29.5%) killed in one or two rapid-sequence clusters (i.e., more than one murder within a 14-day period, as well as additional homicides with greater than 14 days between each). The purpose of our study was to describe this subgroup of rapid-sequence offenders who have not been identified until now. These findings argue for accelerated forensic assessments of dangerousness and public safety when a sexual murder is detected. Psychiatric disorders with rapidly occurring symptom patterns, or even atypical mania or mood dysregulation, may serve as exemplars for understanding this extraordinary group of offenders. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  7. CMOS serial link for fully duplexed data communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeongho; Kim, Sungjoon; Ahn, Gijung; Jeong, Deog-Kyoon

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a CMOS serial link allowing fully duplexed 500 Mbaud serial data communication. The CMOS serial link is a robust and low-cost solution to high data rate requirements. A central charge pump PLL for generating multiphase clocks for oversampling is shared by several serial link channels. Fully duplexed serial data communication is realized in the bidirectional bridge by separating incoming data from the mixed signal on the cable end. The digital PLL accomplishes process-independent data recovery by using a low-ratio oversampling, a majority voting, and a parallel data recovery scheme. Mostly, digital approach could extend its bandwidth further with scaled CMOS technology. A single channel serial link and a charge pump PLL are integrated in a test chip using 1.2 micron CMOS process technology. The test chip confirms upto 500 Mbaud unidirectional mode operation and 320 Mbaud fully duplexed mode operation with pseudo random data patterns.

  8. The cortisol awakening response is associated with performance of a serial sequence reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyl, Nicolette A; Schneider, Luke; Vallence, Ann-Maree; Clow, Angela; Ridding, Michael C; Pitcher, Julia B

    2016-02-01

    There is emerging evidence of a relationship between the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether the CAR is associated with acquisition, retention and overnight consolidation or improvement of a serial sequence reaction time task. Salivary samples were collected at 0, 15, 30 and 45 min after awakening in 39 healthy adults on 2 consecutive days. The serial sequence reaction time task was repeated each afternoon. Participants completed the perceived stress scale and provided salivary samples prior to testing for cortisol assessment. While the magnitude of the CAR (Z score) was not associated with either baseline performance or the timed improvement during task acquisition of the serial sequence task, a positive correlation was observed with reaction times during the stable performance phase on day 1 (r=0.373, p=0.019). Residuals derived from the relationship between baseline and stable phase reaction times on day 1 were used as a surrogate for the degree of learning: these residuals were also correlated with the CAR mean increase on day 1 (r=0.357, p=0.048). Task performance on day 2 was not associated with the CAR obtained on this same day. No association was observed between the perceived stress score, cortisol at testing or task performance. These data indicate that a smaller CAR in healthy adults is associated with a greater degree of learning and faster performance of a serial sequence reaction time task. These results support recognition of the CAR as an important factor contributing to cognitive performance throughout the day. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. CAMAC serial highway interface for the LSI-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    A CAMAC Serial Highway Interface has been designed for the Local Control and Instrumentation System of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility. There are over 50 distinguishable systems in the facility, each of which consists of the LSI-11 computer, fiber optic communication links, and the CAMAC system. The LSI-11 computer includes a 32k memory, serial modem interface and the CAMAC Serial Highway Interface

  10. Implementation of Serial and Parallel Bubble Sort on Fpga

    OpenAIRE

    Purnomo, Dwi Marhaendro Jati; Arinaldi, Ahmad; Priyantini, Dwi Teguh; Wibisono, Ari; Febrian, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort r...

  11. SERIAL TELEVISI DEXTER SEBAGAI ANAKRONISME DALAM SASTRA POPULER

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Rochani Adi

    2014-01-01

    In the popular literature context, this study aims to investigate: (1) how the formulation of the characterization of Dexter in the television serial Dexter violates the tradition of literary characterization, and (2) how the formula of moral values is dramatized through Dexter, who is a sociopath, psychopath, serial killer, and person without moral. The research object was the television serial Dexter, which ranks five in popularity in the world. The data were collected by documenting 84 epi...

  12. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario.

  13. IMPLEMENTATION OF SERIAL AND PARALLEL BUBBLE SORT ON FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Marhaendro Jati Purnomo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort required smaller memory as well as utility compared to parallel bubble sort. Meanwhile, parallel bubble sort performed faster than serial bubble sort

  14. A psychological profile of a serial killer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, T D; Leenaars, Antoon A; Chadha, R K; Manju, Mehta; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Sood, Mamta; Lester, David; Raina, Anupuma; Behera, C

    2012-01-01

    Serial killers have always fascinated society. A serial killer is typically defined as a perpetrator who murders three or more people over a period of time. Most reported cases of serial killers come from the United States and Canada. In India, there are few reported cases. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first Indian case in the literature. The present case is of a 28-year-old man, Surinder Koli. The Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delphi handled the forensic study. We present a most unique psychological investigation into the mind of a serial killer.

  15. Malignant sex and aggression: an overview of serial sexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W C; Reccoppa, L; Burton, K; McElroy, R

    1993-01-01

    Serial murderers have attracted considerable attention in the popular press and criminal justice field, but scientific literature about these individuals is limited. This article provides an overview, from a psychiatric perspective, of serial sexual homicide, one type of serial killing. Characteristics of this type of murder and of these offenders are discussed. Defining qualities and diagnoses applicable to serial sexual killers are reviewed. Various etiologic theories are discussed, with emphasis on the role of fantasy and psychodynamic explanations. Governmental agencies involved in combating this type of crime, along with the role of mental health professionals in criminal profiling, are presented. Finally, the authors explore the reaction of society to this phenomenon.

  16. Woody Allen, serial schlemiel ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Brisset

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Woody Allen a développé au fil des années une persona cinématographique de schlemiel new-yorkais aisément reconnaissable par le spectateur. Elle marque nombre de ses films, qu’il y apparaisse en tant qu’acteur ou y dirige des substituts comédiens comme déclinaisons de lui-même. Si cette figure prototypique est le fondement de la sérialité dans sa filmographie, il est des traits stylistiques qui en portent trace tout au long de son œuvre : la récurrence annuelle de ses réalisations, la signature formelle symbolisée par ses génériques à la typographie singulière, le rythme de ses dialogues ponctués d’interjections et l’usage de l’autocitation sont autant de procédés qui marquent son cinéma d’un sceau très personnel. Ils fonctionnent comme des clins d’œil au spectateur qui reçoit dès lors LE Woody Allen millésimé comme une invitation à retrouver son microcosme. Ainsi la sérialité se pose comme à la fois initiale et conséquentielle de son système filmique, processus de création unique dans le cinéma américain.Woody Allen has long constructed a cinematographic persona of schlemiel New- Yorker that the audience can easily identify. It impacts most of his films, whether he stars in them or directs “substitute” actors to impersonate his character. If this prototypical figure is the basis of seriality in his cinematography, serial stylistic features can also be found all along his career: the annual recurrence of his productions, the formal signature symbolised by the typography of his singular credit titles, his rhythmical interjection-punctuated dialogues and the use of self-quotation imprint a very personal seal upon his movies. They all work as a recognition signals for the audience who thus receive THE Woody Allen vintage as an invitation to re-enter his microcosm. Seriality is then both initial and consequential to his cinematographic system, a unique creative process in American film history.

  17. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  18. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  19. Universal Linear Motor Driven Leg Press Dynamometer and Concept of Serial Stretch Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Paper deals with backgrounds and principles of universal linear motor driven leg press dynamometer and concept of serial stretch loading. The device is based on two computer controlled linear motors mounted to the horizontal rails. As the motors can keep either constant resistance force in selected position or velocity in both directions, the system allows simulation of any mode of muscle contraction. In addition, it also can generate defined serial stretch stimuli in a form of repeated force peaks. This is achieved by short segments of reversed velocity (in concentric phase) or acceleration (in eccentric phase). Such stimuli, generated at the rate of 10 Hz, have proven to be a more efficient means for the improvement of rate of the force development. This capability not only affects performance in many sports, but also plays a substantial role in prevention of falls and their consequences. Universal linear motor driven and computer controlled dynamometer with its unique feature to generate serial stretch stimuli seems to be an efficient and useful tool for enhancing strength training effects on neuromuscular function not only in athletes, but as well as in senior population and rehabilitation patients.

  20. KANBAN allocation in a serial suply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Andrés Sánchez C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to simulate a Kanban system using N stages with the objective of maintaining an acceptable throughput and mean system time. The document shows the production systems where Kanban is applicable and what the potential benefits are. A serial of simulations will be done using a demand given by a poison distribution with rate λ ^ ext. The simulation aimed to find the best number of withdrawal Kanban on all stages when the values of μ (for exponential distribution of the process and λ ^ ext increase and decrease. At the end of this simulation, the best way to allocate the withdrawal Kanban over N stages with the objective of maintaining acceptable throughput and mean system time will be clearer thus the conclusions of this work will be done.

  1. Serial CT scannings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, M.; Sawada, T.; Kuriyama, Y.; Kinugawa, H.; Yamaguchi, T. (National Cardivascular Center, Osaka (Japan))

    1981-10-01

    Two patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were studied by serial CT scannings. Case 1, a 60-year-old woman, was admitted to National Cardiovascular Center because of headache, fever, and attacks of Jacksonian seizure. Case 2, a 54-year-old man, was admitted because of fever, consciousness disturbance and right hemiparesis. Pleocytosis (mainly lymphocytes) and elevation of protein content in cerebrospinal fluid were observed in both cases. Both patients presented ''das apallische Syndrom'' one month after admission. The diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was confirmed by typical clinical courses and by greater than fourfold rises in serum antibody titer for herpes simplex virus as well as that in cerebrospinal fluid in case 1. Characteristic CT findings observed in these two cases were summarized as follows: Within a week after the onset, no obvious abnormalities could be detected on CT scans (Case 1). Two weeks after the onset, a large low-density area appeared in the left temporal lobe and in the contralateral insular cortex with midline shift toward the right side (Case 2). One month later, an ill-defined linear and ring-like high-density area (Case 1), or a well-defined high-density area (Case 2), that was enhanced after contrast administration, was observed in the large low-density area in the temporal lobe. These findings were considered as characteristic for hemorrhagic encephalitis. These high-density areas disappeared two months later, however, widespread and intensified low-density areas still remained. In both cases, the basal ganglia and thalamus were completely spared on CT scans. From these observations, it can be concluded that serial CT scannings are quite useful for diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis.

  2. Serial CT scannings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Masashi; Sawada, Tohru; Kuriyama, Yoshihiro; Kinugawa, Hidekazu; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    1981-01-01

    Two patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were studied by serial CT scannings. Case 1, a 60-year-old woman, was admitted to National Cardiovascular Center because of headache, fever, and attacks of Jacksonian seizure. Case 2, a 54-year-old man, was admitted because of fever, consciousness disturbance and right hemipare sis. Pleocytosis (mainly lymphocytes) and elevation of protein content in cerebrospinal fluid were observed in both cases. Both patients presented ''das apallische Syndrom'' one month after admission. The diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was confirmed by typical clinical courses and by greater than fourfold rises in serum antibody titer for herpes simplex virus as well as that in cerebrospinal fluid in case 1. Characteristic CT findings observed in these two cases were summarized as follows: Within a week after the onset, no obvious abnormalities could be detected on CT scans (Case 1). Two weeks after the onset, a large low-density area appeared in the left temporal lobe and in the contralateral insular cortex with midline shift toward the right side (Case 2). One month later, an ill-defined linear and ring-like high-density area (Case 1), or a well-defined high-density area (Case 2), that was enhanced after contrast administration, was observed in the large low-density area in the temporal lobe. These findings were considered as characteristic for hemorrhagic encephalitis. These high-density areas disappeared two months later, however, widespread and intensified low-density areas still remained. In both cases, the basal ganglia and thalamus were completely spared on CT scans. From these observations, it can be concluded that serial CT scannings are quite useful for diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. (author)

  3. Short- and long-term memory contributions to immediate serial recognition: evidence from serial position effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry; Jarrold, Christopher

    2010-04-01

    A long-standing body of research supports the existence of separable short- and long-term memory systems, relying on phonological and semantic codes, respectively. The aim of the current study was to measure the contribution of long-term knowledge to short-term memory performance by looking for evidence of phonologically and semantically coded storage within a short-term recognition task, among developmental samples. Each experimental trial presented 4-item lists. In Experiment 1 typically developing children aged 5 to 6 years old showed evidence of phonologically coded storage across all 4 serial positions, but evidence of semantically coded storage at Serial Positions 1 and 2. In a further experiment, a group of individuals with Down syndrome was investigated as a test case that might be expected to use semantic coding to support short-term storage, but these participants showed no evidence of semantically coded storage and evidenced phonologically coded storage only at Serial Position 4, suggesting that individuals with Down syndrome have a verbal short-term memory capacity of 1 item. Our results suggest that previous evidence of semantic effects on "short-term memory performance" does not reflect semantic coding in short-term memory itself, and provide an experimental method for researchers wishing to take a relatively pure measure of verbal short-term memory capacity, in cases where rehearsal is unlikely.

  4. Utilization of serial resources in libraries of selected tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... security personnel for adequate monitoring of the serial materials, as well as the need for authors and stakeholders in education to donate more serial materials in order to enrich the collections in the library and enhance academic performance.

  5. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Participants engaged in 2 picture-judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content…

  6. Effects of Serial Rehearsal Training on Memory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Charley; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Half the subjects were trained to use a serial rehearsal strategy during target set storage and half were given no strategy training. The results indicate that the rate of memory search is IQ-related, and that serial rehearsal training facilitates memory search when rehearsal is covert. (Author/BW)

  7. Indexing Serialized Fiction: May the Force Be with You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Melissa M.

    The adult novel offers indexers an unusual opportunity to create a serialized fiction index. This research paper involved designing and creating a Character Index, Thesaurus, Glossary, and Abstract (with descriptors) for 21 novels based on the "Star Wars" movies. The novels are an unusual example of serialized fiction featuring main…

  8. Infants' Memory Processing of a Serial List: List Length Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulya, Michele; Sweeney, Becky; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments demonstrated that increasing the length of a mobile serial list impaired 6-month olds' memory for serial order. Findings indicated that the primacy effect was absent on a 24-hour delayed recognition test and was exhibited on a reactivation test, adding to growing evidence that young infants possess two functionally distinct…

  9. Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior.

  10. LabVIEW Serial Driver Software for an Electronic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullin, Vincent; Garcia, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    A LabVIEW-language computer program enables monitoring and control of a Transistor Devices, Inc., Dynaload WCL232 (or equivalent) electronic load via an RS-232 serial communication link between the electronic load and a remote personal computer. (The electronic load can operate at constant voltage, current, power consumption, or resistance.) The program generates a graphical user interface (GUI) at the computer that looks and acts like the front panel of the electronic load. Once the electronic load has been placed in remote-control mode, this program first queries the electronic load for the present values of all its operational and limit settings, and then drops into a cycle in which it reports the instantaneous voltage, current, and power values in displays that resemble those on the electronic load while monitoring the GUI images of pushbuttons for control actions by the user. By means of the pushbutton images and associated prompts, the user can perform such operations as changing limit values, the operating mode, or the set point. The benefit of this software is that it relieves the user of the need to learn one method for operating the electronic load locally and another method for operating it remotely via a personal computer.

  11. Serial position effects in Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging: predictive value for conversion to dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Catarina; Guerreiro, Manuela; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Oliveira, Paulo Eduardo; Santana, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Serial position effects in word list learning have been used to differentiate normal aging and dementia. Prominent recency and diminished primacy have consistently been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined serial position effects in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), in patients with AD, and in normal healthy controls. Additionally, we classified MCI patients into those who progressed to AD (MCI-p) and those who did not (MCI-np). We compared two serial position measures: regional and standard scores. Regional scores, mainly the primacy effect, improved discrimination between MCI and controls and between MCI-np and MCI-p, proving to be more sensitive and specific than the recency effect.

  12. Highlights in radiation measuring technique's - Serial Micro Channel SMC 2100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandler, M.; Hoffmann, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    The Serial Micro Channel SMC 2100 offers an ''intelligent stand alone'' electronics for the radiation measuring technique's. First it is designed of being connected to a serial interface RS232 of a PC. With a RS485 serial interface on a PC, a network structure can be generated. It has all functional modules which are necessary for the measurement of detector signals. Hence it is possible to directly connect any detector for radiation measurement to a PC, laptop, or notebook. All variations can be operated without PC support too. It has a modular structure and consists of two blocks, the functional modules and the basic modules. The Serial Micro Channel SMC 2100 may be directly coupled to a detector, which therefore makes the realisation of an ''intelligent radiation detector'' with serial link RS232 or RS485. (orig.)

  13. SERIAL TELEVISI DEXTER SEBAGAI ANAKRONISME DALAM SASTRA POPULER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Rochani Adi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the popular literature context, this study aims to investigate: (1 how the formulation of the characterization of Dexter in the television serial Dexter violates the tradition of literary characterization, and (2 how the formula of moral values is dramatized through Dexter, who is a sociopath, psychopath, serial killer, and person without moral. The research object was the television serial Dexter, which ranks five in popularity in the world. The data were collected by documenting 84 episodes of the serial having been broadcast since 2006. They were analyzed by means of content analysis and qualitative descriptive techniques. Based on the findings, the conclusions are as follows. First, there is a violation or anachronism of characterization through the main character in the serial. Second, the dramatized moral values still contain conventional values although they are in different forms.

  14. Serial position effects in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early and moderate Alzheimer's disease compared with healthy comparison subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, B; Deisenhammer, E A; Marksteiner, J; Papousek, I; Fink, A; Weiss, E M

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the serial position effects in memory can differentiate patients with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from healthy controls and patients with different stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The serial position effects was tested with the CERAD word list task in 184 persons (39 healthy control subjects, 15 amnestic MCI single domain subjects, 23 amnestic MCI multiple domain subjects, 31 nonamnestic MCI subjects, 45 early or mild AD patients, and 31 moderate AD patients). With progression of dementia, memory deficits increased and the impairment in the primacy effect during the learning trials advanced, whereas the recall of recent items was less impaired. The serial position profile of nonamnestic MCI patients resembled that of healthy control subjects, whereas amnestic MCI patients showed poorer performance in all 3 positions but no significant difference as a function of serial word position. Analyses of the serial position effect may be a useful complement to clinical neuropsychological measures for distinguishing amnestic MCI patients from normal aging and patients with different stages of dementia. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse logistics. The thesis brings insights on reverse logistics decision-making and it lays down theoretical principles for reverse logistics as a research field.In particular it puts together a framework ...

  16. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarosh Patel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified.

  17. Serial neuroradiological studies in focal cerebritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, S.; Mochizuki, H.; Kuru, Y.; Miwa, H.; Kondo, T.; Mori, H.; Mizuno, Y.

    1994-01-01

    We report serial neuroradiological studies in a patient with focal cerebritis in the head of the left caudate nucleus. On the day after the onset of symptoms, CT showed an ill-defined low density lesion. The lack of contrast enhancement appeared to be the most important finding for differentiating focal cerebritis from an encapsulated brain abscess or a tumour. MRI two days later revealed the centre of the lesion to be of slightly low intensity on T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR) images and very low intensity on T2-weighted spin echo images, which appeared to correspond to the early cerebritis stage of experimentally induced cerebritis and brain abscess. Ten days after the onset of symptoms, CT revealed a thin ring of enhancement in the head of the caudate nucleus, and a similar small ring was seen in the hypothalamus 16 days after the onset, corresponding to the late cerebritis stage. MRI nine days later revealed ill-defined high signal lesions within the involved area on the T1-weighted IR images. To our knowledge, this is the first published MRI documentation of the early cerebritis stage developing into an encapsulated brain abscess. The mechanisms underlying of these radiographic changes are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse

  19. PORNOGRAFI DALAM SERIAL ANIME ANAK (ANALISIS SEMIOTIKA DALAM SERIAL CRAYON SHIN CHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sangidun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crayon Shin Chan, a Japanese two-dimension animation series broadcast in one of private Indonesian TVs, is categorized into child’s program since it is broadcast at child’s prime time, Sunday 08.30 a.m. In spite of its broadcast time, this series consist of symbols directed not for children, such as some acts that are not appropriate to be done by children, especially in Indonesia. Moreover, adult symbols of sex are also found in the program. For this reason it will be interesting to analyze it using semiotic analysis. Semiotics is the study of symbol and its meaning which its principle concept is that both signifier and signified consist of symbols and are related to denotation and connotation.   Crayon Shin Chan merupakan serial animasi dua dimensi yang tayang di salah satu stasiun televisi swasta di Indonesia. Ini merupakan produk animasi 2 dimensi yang diimpor dari Jepang. Di Indonesia, serial ini masuk dalam kategori acara anak. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari jam penayangannya yang merupakan waktu prime time bagi anak, yakni pada hari minggu pukul 08.30. Akan tetapi, pada serial ini banyak simbol-simbol yang mengarah pada tayangan yang bukan untuk anak-anak, yakni adeganadegan yang tidak pantas dilakukan oleh anak khususnya di Indonesia. Serta adanya pula simbol-simbol yang mengarah pada tayangan berbau dewasa. Tentu akan menarik jika tayangan ini diteliti menggunakan analisis semiotika. Semiotika sendiri merupakan kajian ilmu mengenai tanda dan makna. Yang pada prinsipnya, konsep penting seperti penanda (signifier dan petanda (signified sama-sama terdiri dari tanda dan terkait dengan denotasi dan konotasi.

  20. Transtornos de personalidade, psicopatia e serial killers Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda C P Morana

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar as características básicas dos diversos transtornos específicos de personalidade, mas centrando-se no transtorno de personalidade anti-social, fazendo sua diferenciação com psicopatia. O estudo ainda se propõe a abordar a figura do serial killer, apontando a presença de aspectos psicopáticos no homicídio seriado. MÉTODO: Uma revisão bibliográfica foi feita no sentido de se abordar convergências e divergências entre diversos autores sobre um assunto tão polêmico, sobretudo quanto à viabilidade de tratamento dessa clientela forense. RESULTADOS: Enquanto o transtorno de personalidade anti-social é um diagnóstico médico, pode-se entender o termo "psicopatia", pertencente à esfera psiquiátrico-forense, como um "diagnóstico legal". Não se pode falar ainda de tratamento eficaz para os chamados "serial killers". CONCLUSÃO: Os transtornos de personalidade, especialmente o tipo anti-social, representam ainda hoje um verdadeiro desafio para a psiquiatria forense. O local mais adequado e justo para seus portadores, bem como recomendação homogênea e padronizada de tratamento são questões ainda não respondidas.OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the basic characteristics of several specific personality disorders, focusing mainly in antisocial personality disorder. The differences between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy are highlighted. Serial killers and its psychopathic aspects are also discussed. METHOD: A bibliographic review was completed in order to outline convergences and divergences among different authors about this controversial issue, especially those concerning the possibility of treatment. RESULTS: While anti-social personality disorder is a medical diagnosis, the term "psychopathy" (which belongs to the sphere of forensic psychiatry may be understood as a "legal diagnosis". It is not still possible to identify an effective treatment for serial killers. CONCLUSION: Personality disorders

  1. A comparison of Lewis and Fischer rat strains on autoshaping (sign-tracking), discrimination reversal learning and negative auto-maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, David N; Gomez-Serrano, Maria A; Weiss, Stanley J; Riley, Anthony L

    2006-05-15

    Lewis (LEW) and Fischer (F344) rat strains differ on a number of physiological characteristics, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as well as on behavioral tasks, including those that measure impulsivity and drug reward. Since autoshaping, the phenomenon where animals approach and contact reward-paired conditioned stimuli, has been linked to HPA axis functioning, impulsivity and drug taking, the present study compared LEW and F344 rats on the rate of acquisition and performance of the autoshaping response. Rats were trained on an autoshaping procedure where insertions of one retractable lever (CS(+)) were paired response-independently with food, while insertions of another lever (CS(-)) were not paired with food. LEW rats acquired the autoshaping response more rapidly and also performed the autoshaping response at a higher rate than F344 rats. No differences between the strains were observed when rats were trained on a discrimination reversal where the CS(+) and CS(-) levers were reversed or during a negative auto-maintenance phase where CS(+) lever contacts cancelled food delivery. Potential physiological mechanisms that might mediate the present results, including strain differences in HPA axis and monoamine neurotransmitter activity, are discussed. The finding that LEW (as compared to F344 rats) more readily acquire autoshaping and perform more responses is consistent with research indicating that LEW rats behave more impulsively and more readily self-administer drugs of abuse.

  2. Serial forced displacement in American cities, 1916-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullilove, Mindy Thompson; Wallace, Rodrick

    2011-06-01

    Serial forced displacement has been defined as the repetitive, coercive upheaval of groups. In this essay, we examine the history of serial forced displacement in American cities due to federal, state, and local government policies. We propose that serial forced displacement sets up a dynamic process that includes an increase in interpersonal and structural violence, an inability to react in a timely fashion to patterns of threat or opportunity, and a cycle of fragmentation as a result of the first two. We present the history of the policies as they affected one urban neighborhood, Pittsburgh's Hill District. We conclude by examining ways in which this problematic process might be addressed.

  3. Serials cataloging at the turn of the century

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, James W

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the research topics and trends that have appeared over the last five years, Serials Cataloging at the Turn of the Century doesn't just tell you that there has been a lot of change--that the information environment is something of a chameleon, always beguiling and slipping out of grasp. Instead, it gives you the plain facts on the specific challenges serials catalogers have been facing and how they're meeting adversity head-on, ready to gain the advantage in the rumble with proliferating information and formats.Comprehensive, resource-packed, and easy-to-digest, Serials Catalogin

  4. The serial message-passing schedule for LDPC decoding algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingshan; Liu, Shanshan; Zhou, Yuan; Jiang, Xue

    2015-12-01

    The conventional message-passing schedule for LDPC decoding algorithms is the so-called flooding schedule. It has the disadvantage that the updated messages cannot be used until next iteration, thus reducing the convergence speed . In this case, the Layered Decoding algorithm (LBP) based on serial message-passing schedule is proposed. In this paper the decoding principle of LBP algorithm is briefly introduced, and then proposed its two improved algorithms, the grouped serial decoding algorithm (Grouped LBP) and the semi-serial decoding algorithm .They can improve LBP algorithm's decoding speed while maintaining a good decoding performance.

  5. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    distribution ratio of 80/20 and 90/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the serial CSTR could obtain 11% higher biogas yield compared to the single CSTR. The increased biogas yield in the serial CSTR was mainly from the second reactor, which accounted for 16% and 12% of total biogas yield......A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume...

  6. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  7. Abutment region dosimetry for serial tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Daniel A.; Mutic, Sasa; Dempsey, James F.; Markman, Jerry; Goddu, S. Murty; Purdy, James A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A commercial intensity modulated radiation therapy system (Corvus, NOMOS Corp.) is presently used in our clinic to generate optimized dose distributions delivered using a proprietary dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) (MIMiC) composed of 20 opposed leaf pairs. On our accelerator (Clinac 600C/D, Varian Associates, Inc.) each MIMiC leaf projects to either 1.00 x 0.84 or 1.00 x 1.70 cm 2 (depending on the treatment plan and termed 1 cm or 2 cm mode, respectively). The MIMiC is used to deliver serial (axial) tomotherapy treatment plans, in which the beam is delivered to a nearly cylindrical volume as the DMLC is rotated about the patient. For longer targets, the patient is moved (indexed) between treatments a distance corresponding to the projected leaf width. The treatment relies on precise indexing and a method was developed to measure the precision of indexing devices. A treatment planning study of the dosimetric effects of incorrect patient indexing and concluded that a dose heterogeneity of 10% mm -1 resulted. Because the results may be sensitive to the dose model accuracy, we conducted a measurement-based investigation of the consequences of incorrect indexing using our accelerator. Although the indexing provides an accurate field abutment along the isocenter, due to beam divergence, hot and cold spots will be produced below and above isocenter, respectively, when less than 300 deg. arcs were used. A preliminary study recently determined that for a 290 deg. rotation in 1 cm mode, 15% cold and 7% hot spots were delivered to 7 cm above and below isocenter, respectively. This study completes the earlier work by investigating the dose heterogeneity as a function of position relative to the axis of rotation, arc length, and leaf width. The influence of random daily patient positioning errors is also investigated. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using 8.0 cm diameter cylindrical target volumes within a homogeneous rectilinear film

  8. Serial-omics characterization of equine urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yuan

    Full Text Available Horse urine is easily collected and contains molecules readily measurable using mass spectrometry that can be used as biomarkers representative of health, disease or drug tampering. This study aimed at analyzing microliter levels of horse urine to purify, identify and quantify proteins, polar metabolites and non-polar lipids. Urine from a healthy 12 year old quarter horse mare on a diet of grass hay and vitamin/mineral supplements with limited pasture access was collected for serial-omics characterization. The urine was treated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and methanol to partition into three distinct layers for protein, non-polar lipid and polar metabolite content from a single liquid-liquid extraction and was repeated two times. Each layer was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to obtain protein sequence and relative protein levels as well as identify and quantify small polar metabolites and lipids. The results show 46 urine proteins, many related to normal kidney function, structural and circulatory proteins as well as 474 small polar metabolites but only 10 lipid molecules. Metabolites were mostly related to urea cycle and ammonia recycling as well as amino acid related pathways, plant diet specific molecules, etc. The few lipids represented triglycerides and phospholipids. These data show a complete mass spectrometry based-omics characterization of equine urine from a single 333 μL mid-stream urine aliquot. These omics data help serve as a baseline for healthy mare urine composition and the analyses can be used to monitor disease progression, health status, monitor drug use, etc.

  9. Tubal Ligation Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seal off the fallopian tubes, such as the Essure or Adiana systems, generally aren't reversible. Why ... electrocautery). Some types of sterilization, such as the Essure or Adiana systems, aren't considered reversible. Risks ...

  10. Opportunity recognition: delineating the process and motivators for serial entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Opportunity recognition is a fundamental research issue in entrepreneurship which this paper empirically investigates for serial entrepreneurs. Initially key definitions and boundary conditions of opportunity recognition are explored to elucidate the relevant motivators driving serial entrepreneurs. After operationalising the various concepts, data is collected by surveying serial entrepreneurs (n= 77 based on pre-determined selection criteria. Since the study’s objective is to build solid theory on these new phenomena, descriptive analysis on the empirical results is provided. To test the hypotheses inferential statistics employing parametric and non-parametric tests are used. The findings reveal that the opportunity recognition behaviours are manifest among serial entrepreneurs, with few significant differences on how many new, major businesses have been pursued, or whether they can be said to be successes.

  11. Attractive Serial Dependence in the Absence of an Explicit Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciai, Michele; Park, Joonkoo

    2018-03-01

    Attractive serial dependence refers to an adaptive change in the representation of sensory information, whereby a current stimulus appears to be similar to a previous one. The nature of this phenomenon is controversial, however, as serial dependence could arise from biased perceptual representations or from biased traces of working memory representation at a decisional stage. Here, we demonstrated a neural signature of serial dependence in numerosity perception emerging early in the visual processing stream even in the absence of an explicit task. Furthermore, a psychophysical experiment revealed that numerosity perception is biased by a previously presented stimulus in an attractive way, not by repulsive adaptation. These results suggest that serial dependence is a perceptual phenomenon starting from early levels of visual processing and occurring independently from a decision process, which is consistent with the view that these biases smooth out noise from neural signals to establish perceptual continuity.

  12. Fast Grasp Contact Computation for a Serial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianying (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system includes a controller and a serial robot having links that are interconnected by a joint, wherein the robot can grasp a three-dimensional (3D) object in response to a commanded grasp pose. The controller receives input information, including the commanded grasp pose, a first set of information describing the kinematics of the robot, and a second set of information describing the position of the object to be grasped. The controller also calculates, in a two-dimensional (2D) plane, a set of contact points between the serial robot and a surface of the 3D object needed for the serial robot to achieve the commanded grasp pose. A required joint angle is then calculated in the 2D plane between the pair of links using the set of contact points. A control action is then executed with respect to the motion of the serial robot using the required joint angle.

  13. BRAIN Journal - Some Considerations on Seriality and Synchronicity

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Nechita

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper presents an overview of the results that have been obtained lately on seriality and synchronicity and their link, in the light of the new theories and within the frame of complexity science.

  14. Serials Management In Polytechnic Libraries in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serials Management In Polytechnic Libraries in Nigeria: A Comparative Study of Kaduna Polytechnic And Yaba College of Technology Libraries. ... Samaru Journal of Information Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ...

  15. Energy information data base. Serial titles, February 1978--June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    This supplement contains changes and additions to TID-4579-R10 (the authority list for serial titles used by TIC), and is intended to be used with that publication. Supplements are cumulative until another revision is issued

  16. Fault tolerance based on serial communication of FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jing; Fang Zongliang; Xu Quanzhou; Hu Jiewei; Ma Guizhen

    2012-01-01

    There maybe appear mistake in serial communication. This paper was described the intellectual detector of γ dose ratemeter communication with FPGA. The software of FPGA designed the code about fault tolerance, prevented mistake effectively. (authors)

  17. Using Behavior Sequence Analysis to Map Serial Killers' Life Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, David A; Golightly, Hayley; Shephard, Rebecca; Yaksic, Enzo; Reid, Sasha

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the current research was to provide a novel method for mapping the developmental sequences of serial killers' life histories. An in-depth biographical account of serial killers' lives, from birth through to conviction, was gained and analyzed using Behavior Sequence Analysis. The analyses highlight similarities in behavioral events across the serial killers' lives, indicating not only which risk factors occur, but the temporal order of these factors. Results focused on early childhood environment, indicating the role of parental abuse; behaviors and events surrounding criminal histories of serial killers, showing that many had previous convictions and were known to police for other crimes; behaviors surrounding their murders, highlighting differences in victim choice and modus operandi; and, finally, trial pleas and convictions. The present research, therefore, provides a novel approach to synthesizing large volumes of data on criminals and presenting results in accessible, understandable outcomes.

  18. Comparison of Reversal Test Pictures among Three Groups of Students: Normal, Education Mental Retarded and Students with Learning Disabilities in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Koushesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Riversal visual perception discrimination test is one of the dyslexia diagnostic tests in children which can be performed in the group (group-based and it is reliable to detect these disorders in students of the primary schools especially those who spend their first educational weeks or months. The aim of this survey is comparison of Riversal test pictures among three groups of students: normal, educable mental retarded students and students with learning disabilities, aged 8-12 years old that were under coverage of Tehran Welfare Department. Materials & Methods: This Comparative cross – sectional study has performed on 150 girls and boys of mentioned groups that were selected by simple randomize selection. Results: The findings suggested that there was significant difference between surveyed groups (P=0.001. The highest scores were related to normal students and the lowest scores to educable mental retarded. The interval of negative scores of educable mental retarded from normal students was more than that of between educable mental retarded and learning disabilities. Conclusion: This survey indicates that students with learning disabilities (dyslexia have problems in their visual perception and this test can help to diagnose and determine abnormal children as soon as possible in order to better treatment.

  19. How Do We Write about Performance in Serial Television?

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott Logan

    2015-01-01

    Television studies has produced few sustained analyses of performance in serial television. Yet film studies scholarship has shown how attending to the integration of performances with other aspects of film style is crucial to the interpretation and appreciation of expression and meaning in filmed narrative fictions. However, as a particle form of filmed serial narrative, series television raises a number of questions about performance that will not necessarily be satisfyingly addressed by th...

  20. Reverse logistics - a framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of

  1. 'They hear "Africa" and they think that there can't be any good services'--perceived context in cross-national learning: a qualitative study of the barriers to Reverse Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew; Weisberger, Emily; Silver, Diana; Macinko, James

    2015-11-19

    Country-of-origin of a product can negatively influence its rating, particularly if the product is from a low-income country. It follows that how non-traditional sources of innovation, such as low-income countries, are perceived is likely to be an important part of a diffusion process, particularly given the strong social and cognitive boundaries associated with the healthcare professions. Between September and December 2014, we conducted eleven in-depth face-to-face or telephone interviews with key informants from innovation, health and social policy circles, experts in international comparative policy research and leaders in Reverse Innovation in the United States. Interviews were open-ended with guiding probes into the barriers and enablers to Reverse Innovation in the US context, specifically also to understand whether, in their experience translating or attempting to translate innovations from low-income contexts into the US, the source of the innovation matters in the adopter context. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically using the process of constant comparison. Our findings show that innovations from low-income countries tend to be discounted early on because of prior assumptions about the potential for these contexts to offer solutions to healthcare problems in the US. Judgments are made about the similarity of low-income contexts with the US, even though this is based oftentimes on flimsy perceptions only. Mixing levels of analysis, local and national, leads to country-level stereotyping and missed opportunities to learn from low-income countries. Our research highlights that prior expectations, invoked by the Low-income country cue, are interfering with a transparent and objective learning process. There may be merit in adopting some techniques from the cognitive psychology and marketing literatures to understand better the relative importance of source in healthcare research and innovation diffusion. Counter

  2. Three more semantic serial position functions and a SIMPLE explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2013-05-01

    There are innumerable demonstrations of serial position functions-with characteristic primacy and recency effects-in episodic tasks, but there are only a handful of such demonstrations in semantic memory tasks, and those demonstrations have used only two types of stimuli. Here, we provide three more examples of serial position functions when recalling from semantic memory. Participants were asked to reconstruct the order of (1) two cartoon theme song lyrics, (2) the seven Harry Potter books, and (3) two sets of movies, and all three demonstrations yielded conventional-looking serial position functions with primacy and recency effects. The data were well-fit by SIMPLE, a local distinctiveness model of memory that was originally designed to account for serial position effects in short- and long-term episodic memory. According to SIMPLE, serial position functions in both episodic and semantic memory tasks arise from the same type of processing: Items that are more separated from their close neighbors in psychological space at the time of recall will be better remembered. We argue that currently available evidence suggests that serial position functions observed when recalling items that are presumably in semantic memory arise because of the same processes as those observed when recalling items that are presumably in episodic memory.

  3. How Do We Write about Performance in Serial Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Logan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Television studies has produced few sustained analyses of performance in serial television. Yet film studies scholarship has shown how attending to the integration of performances with other aspects of film style is crucial to the interpretation and appreciation of expression and meaning in filmed narrative fictions. However, as a particle form of filmed serial narrative, series television raises a number of questions about performance that will not necessarily be satisfyingly addressed by the direct adoption and application of approaches to writing about performance that have been honed in regard to film. How, then, do we write about performance in television serials in ways that recognise and accommodate the form’s relationship to film, while at the same time appropriately acknowledging and responding to long-form television’s serial status? To examine the difficulties and opportunities of approaching performance in serial television this way, the article conducts close readings of various pieces of television studies writing on performance, by scholars such as Jason Mittell, Sue Turnbull, George Toles, and Steven Peacock. Their work brings into view film and television’s points of common relation, and the distinctive challenges, achievements, and rewards of appreciating the best television serials, and the performances in them.

  4. “It’s Always the Same, and It’s Always Different” Mythologisation and the Serial Killer in Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer.

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Serial killers are important in American horror because of their ability to exist between ‘myth’ and ‘reality’. The serial killer is one of the most important American myths, but it is one firmly rooted in real life: unlike Paul Bunyan or Superman, serial killers do exist. This essay examines the relationship between the ‘myth’ and the ‘reality’ of serial killers, and the complex relationship between the American public and the serial killer, using Henry: Portrait of a Serial K...

  5. SSP-002392, a new 5-HT4 receptor agonist, dose-dependently reverses scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Adrian C; De Maeyer, Joris H; Vermaercke, Ben; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Schuurkes, Jan A J; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2014-10-01

    5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) are suggested to affect learning and memory processes. Earlier studies have shown that animals treated with 5-HT4R agonists, often with limited selectivity, show improved learning and memory with retention memory often being assessed immediately after or within 24 h after the last training session. In this study, we characterized the effect of pre-training treatment with the selective 5-HT4R agonist SSP-002392 on memory acquisition and the associated long-term memory retrieval in animal models of impaired cognition. Pre-training treatment with SSP-002392 (0.3 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg and 7.5 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the cognitive deficits induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) in two different behavioral tasks: passive avoidance and Morris water maze. In the Morris water maze, spatial learning was significantly improved after treatment with SSP-002392 translating in an accelerated and more efficient localization of the hidden platform compared to scopolamine-treated controls. Moreover, retention memory was assessed 24 h (passive avoidance) and 72 h (Morris water maze) after the last training session of cognitive-impaired animals and this was significantly improved in animals treated with SSP-002392 prior to the training sessions. Furthermore, the effects of SSP-002392 were comparable to galanthamine hydrobromide. We conclude that SSP-002392 has potential as a memory-enhancing compound. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reversal of age-related learning deficiency by the vertebrate PACAP and IGF-1 in a novel invertebrate model of aging: the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirger, Zsolt; Naskar, Souvik; László, Zita; Kemenes, György; Reglődi, Dóra; Kemenes, Ildikó

    2014-11-01

    With the increase of life span, nonpathological age-related memory decline is affecting an increasing number of people. However, there is evidence that age-associated memory impairment only suspends, rather than irreversibly extinguishes, the intrinsic capacity of the aging nervous system for plasticity (1). Here, using a molluscan model system, we show that the age-related decline in memory performance can be reversed by administration of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP). Our earlier findings showed that a homolog of the vertebrate PACAP38 and its receptors exist in the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) brain (2), and it is both necessary and instructive for memory formation after reward conditioning in young animals (3). Here we show that exogenous PACAP38 boosts memory formation in aged Lymnaea, where endogenous PACAP38 levels are low in the brain. Treatment with insulin-like growth factor-1, which in vertebrates was shown to transactivate PACAP type I (PAC1) receptors (4) also boosts memory formation in aged pond snails. Due to the evolutionarily conserved nature of these polypeptides and their established role in memory and synaptic plasticity, there is a very high probability that they could also act as "memory rejuvenating" agents in humans. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  7. Affinity-based screening of combinatorial libraries using automated, serial-column chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D.M.; Williams, K.P.; McGuinness, B. [PerSeptive Biosystems, Framingham, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The authors have developed an automated serial chromatographic technique for screening a library of compounds based upon their relative affinity for a target molecule. A {open_quotes}target{close_quotes} column containing the immobilized target molecule is set in tandem with a reversed-phase column. A combinatorial peptide library is injected onto the target column. The target-bound peptides are eluted from the first column and transferred automatically to the reversed-phase column. The target-specific peptide peaks from the reversed-phase column are identified and sequenced. Using a monoclonal antibody (3E-7) against {beta}-endorphin as a target, we selected a single peptide with sequence YGGFL from approximately 5800 peptides present in a combinatorial library. We demonstrated the applicability of the technology towards selection of peptides with predetermined affinity for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). We expect that this technology will have broad applications for high throughput screening of chemical libraries or natural product extracts. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Analysis of assembly serial number usage in domestic light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, W.J.; Moore, R.S.

    1991-05-01

    Domestic light-water reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies are identified by a serial number that is placed on each assembly. These serial numbers are used as identifiers throughout the life of the fuel. The uniqueness of assembly serial numbers is important in determining their effectiveness as unambiguous identifiers. The purpose of this study is to determine what serial numbering schemes are used, the effectiveness of these schemes, and to quantify how many duplicate serial numbers occur on domestic LWR fuel assemblies. The serial numbering scheme adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ensures uniqueness of assembly serial numbers. The latest numbering scheme adopted by General Electric (GE), was also found to be unique. Analysis of 70,971 fuel assembly serial numbers from permanently discharged fuel identified 11,948 serial number duplicates. Three duplicate serial numbers were found when analysis focused on duplication within the individual fuel inventory at each reactor site, but these were traced back to data entry errors and will be corrected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). There were also three instances where the serial numbers used to identify assemblies used for hot cell studies differed from the serial numbers reported to the EIA. It is recommended that fuel fabricators and utilities adhere to the ANSI serial numbering scheme to ensure serial number uniqueness. In addition, organizations collecting serial number information, should request that all known serial numbers physically attached or associated with each assembly be reported and identified by the corresponding number scheme. 10 refs., 5 tabs

  9. Consistency of parametric registration in serial MRI studies of brain tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mang, Andreas; Buzug, Thorsten M.; Schnabel, Julia A.; Crum, William R.; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien; Hawkes, David J.; Camara-Rey, Oscar; Palm, Christoph; Caseiras, Gisele Brasil; Jaeger, H.R.

    2008-01-01

    The consistency of parametric registration in multi-temporal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies was evaluated. Serial MRI scans of adult patients with a brain tumor (glioma) were aligned by parametric registration. The performance of low-order spatial alignment (6/9/12 degrees of freedom) of different 3D serial MR-weighted images is evaluated. A registration protocol for the alignment of all images to one reference coordinate system at baseline is presented. Registration results were evaluated for both, multimodal intra-timepoint and mono-modal multi-temporal registration. The latter case might present a challenge to automatic intensity-based registration algorithms due to ill-defined correspondences. The performance of our algorithm was assessed by testing the inverse registration consistency. Four different similarity measures were evaluated to assess consistency. Careful visual inspection suggests that images are well aligned, but their consistency may be imperfect. Sub-voxel inconsistency within the brain was found for allsimilarity measures used for parametric multi-temporal registration. T1-weighted images were most reliable for establishing spatial correspondence between different timepoints. The parametric registration algorithm is feasible for use in this application. The sub-voxel resolution mean displacement error of registration transformations demonstrates that the algorithm converges to an almost identical solution for forward and reverse registration. (orig.)

  10. cDNA Microarray Analysis of Serially Sampled Cervical Cancer Specimens From Patients Treated With Thermochemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkamo, Erling Dahl; Schem, Baard-Christian; Fluge, Oystein; Bruland, Ove; Dahl, Olav; Mella, Olav

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate changes in gene expression after treatment with regional thermochemoradiotherapy in locally advanced squamous cell cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Tru-Cut biopsy specimens were serially collected from 16 patients. Microarray gene expression levels before and 24 h after the first and second trimodality treatment sessions were compared. Pathway and network analyses were conducted by use of Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA; Ingenuity Systems, Redwood City, CA). Single gene expressions were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: We detected 53 annotated genes that were differentially expressed after trimodality treatment. Central in the three top networks detected by IPA were interferon alfa, interferon beta, and interferon gamma receptor; nuclear factor κB; and tumor necrosis factor, respectively. These genes encode proteins that are important in regulation cell signaling, proliferation, gene expression, and immune stimulation. Biological processes over-represented among the 53 genes were fibrosis, tumorigenesis, and immune response. Conclusions: Microarrays showed minor changes in gene expression after thermochemoradiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. We detected 53 differentially expressed genes, mainly involved in fibrosis, tumorigenesis, and immune response. A limitation with the use of serial biopsy specimens was low quality of ribonucleic acid from tumors that respond to highly effective therapy. Another 'key limitation' is timing of the post-treatment biopsy, because 24 h may be too late to adequately assess the impact of hyperthermia on gene expression.

  11. Pointing movements both impair and improve visuospatial working memory depending on serial position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro

    2017-08-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of pointing movements on the item and order recall of random, horizontal, and vertical arrays consisting of 6 and 7 squares (Experiment 1) or 8 and 9 squares (Experiment 2). In the encoding phase, participants either viewed the items passively (passive-view condition) or pointed towards them (pointing condition). Then, after a brief interval, they were requested to recall the locations of the studied squares in the correct order of presentation. The critical result was that, for all types of arrays, the effects of the encoding condition varied as a function of serial position: for the initial and central positions accuracy was higher in the passive-view than in the pointing condition (confirming the standard inhibitory effect of pointing movements on visuospatial working memory), whereas the reverse pattern occurred in the final positions-showing a significant advantage of the pointing condition over the passive-view condition. Findings are interpreted as showing that pointing can have two simultaneous effects on the recall of spatial locations, a positive one due to the addition of a motor code and a negative one due to the attentional requirements of hand movements, with the net impact on serial recall depending on the amount of attention resources needed for the encoding of each position. Implications for the item-order hypothesis and the perceptual-gestural account of working memory are also discussed.

  12. Reversible flowchart languages and the structured reversible program theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Many irreversible computation models have reversible counterparts, but these are poorly understood at present. We introduce reversible flowcharts with an assertion operator and show that any reversible flowchart can be simulated by a structured reversible flowchart using only three control flow...... operators. Reversible flowcharts are r- Turing-complete, meaning that they can simuluate reversible Turing machines without garbage data. We also demonstrate the injectivization of classical flowcharts into reversible flowcharts. The reversible flowchart computation model provides a theoretical...

  13. What serial homologs can tell us about the origin of insect wings [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Tomoyasu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the insect wing is a textbook example of morphological novelty, the origin of insect wings remains a mystery and is regarded as a chief conundrum in biology. Centuries of debates have culminated into two prominent hypotheses: the tergal origin hypothesis and the pleural origin hypothesis. However, between these two hypotheses, there is little consensus in regard to the origin tissue of the wing as well as the evolutionary route from the origin tissue to the functional flight device. Recent evolutionary developmental (evo-devo studies have shed new light on the origin of insect wings. A key concept in these studies is “serial homology”. In this review, we discuss how the wing serial homologs identified in recent evo-devo studies have provided a new angle through which this century-old conundrum can be explored. We also review what we have learned so far from wing serial homologs and discuss what we can do to go beyond simply identifying wing serial homologs and delve further into the developmental and genetic mechanisms that have facilitated the evolution of insect wings.

  14. Hemispatial neglect and serial order in verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Sophie; Ranzini, Mariagrazia; van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Slama, Hichem; Bonato, Mario; Tousch, Ann; Dewulf, Myrtille; Bier, Jean-Christophe; Gevers, Wim

    2018-01-09

    Working memory refers to our ability to actively maintain and process a limited amount of information during a brief period of time. Often, not only the information itself but also its serial order is crucial for good task performance. It was recently proposed that serial order is grounded in spatial cognition. Here, we compared performance of a group of right hemisphere-damaged patients with hemispatial neglect to healthy controls in verbal working memory tasks. Participants memorized sequences of consonants at span level and had to judge whether a target consonant belonged to the memorized sequence (item task) or whether a pair of consonants were presented in the same order as in the memorized sequence (order task). In line with this idea that serial order is grounded in spatial cognition, we found that neglect patients made significantly more errors in the order task than in the item task compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, this deficit seemed functionally related to neglect severity and was more frequently observed following right posterior brain damage. Interestingly, this specific impairment for serial order in verbal working memory was not lateralized. We advance the hypotheses of a potential contribution to the deficit of serial order in neglect patients of either or both (1) reduced spatial working memory capacity that enables to keep track of the spatial codes that provide memorized items with a positional context, (2) a spatial compression of these codes in the intact representational space. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Development of serial magnification angiography and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tsuneo; Matsubara, Kazuhito; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Mashita, Shinichi; Kaii, Osamu

    1979-01-01

    In order to apply serial magnification angiography to clinical examinations so easily, a serial cardioangiography apparatus was equipped with a tube having 0.1 mm focal spot and with DRX-431HD diode. A CAT-FK Type catheter bed (Toshiba) was used as a roentgenographic table and a PUCK film changer was used. Thus, serial magnification angiography can be easily used to clinical examinations, and can be set in a usual x-ray photographic studio. Serial magnification angiography was used to examine the cerebral vessels in 6 patients, vessels of the pulmonary circulation in 1 patient, bronchial arteries in 6 patients, the celiac artery in 18 patients, the superior mesenteric artery in 2 patients, inferior mesenteric artery in 2 patients, the renal artery in 2 patients, and the adrenal vein in 7 patients. Owing to this angiography, minute changes in the vessel in the lesion can be observed and fine neovascularity can be detected. Thus, serial magnification angiography makes diagnoses of vascular disorders easier. (Ichikawa, K.)

  16. The relationship between serial sexual murder and autoerotic asphyxiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Bukhanovskiy, Alexandr; Justen, Elle; Morton, Robert J; Tilley, John; Adams, Kenneth; Vandagriff, Virgil L; Hazelwood, Robert R

    2008-04-07

    This case series documents and examines the association between autoerotic asphyxiation, sadomasochism, and serial sexual murderers. Autoerotic asphyxiation, along with other paraphilias found in this population, is reviewed. Five cases of serial sexual killers who engaged in autoerotic asphyxiation were identified worldwide: four from the United States and one from Russia. Case reports for each are provided. All (100%) were found to have sexual sadism in addition to autoerotic asphyxiation. Furthermore, two (40%) had bondage fetishism, and two (40%) had transvestic fetishism, consistent with these paraphilias co-occurring in those with autoerotic asphyxiation. Overall the group averaged 4.0 lifetime paraphilias. Some possible relationships were observed between the offenders' paraphilic orientation and their modus operandi, e.g., all of these serial killers strangled victims-suggesting an association between their sadistic and asphyxiative paraphilic interests. The overlap of seemingly polar opposite paraphilias in this sample--sexual sadism and autoerotic asphyxiation--is explored from a historical and clinical perspective. Multiple commonalities shared between these five offenders and serial sexual murderers in general are addressed. A primary limitation of this study is its small sample size and empirical basis; the results may not be generalizable beyond the sample. The findings from this study support the supposition that crime scene behaviors often reflect paraphilic disturbances in those who commit serial sexual homicides.

  17. A Replication of "Functional Equivalence of Verbal and Spatial Information in Serial Short-Term Memory (1995; Experiments 2 and 3)".

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic Guitard; Jean Saint-Aubin

    2015-01-01

    The present study is a direct replication of Experiments 2 and 3 of Jones, Farrand, Stuart, & Morris (1995). Functional Equivalence of Verbal and Spatial Information in Serial Short-Term Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 1008-1018.

  18. Introduction to reversible computing

    CERN Document Server

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    Few books comprehensively cover the software and programming aspects of reversible computing. Filling this gap, Introduction to Reversible Computing offers an expanded view of the field that includes the traditional energy-motivated hardware viewpoint as well as the emerging application-motivated software approach. Collecting scattered knowledge into one coherent account, the book provides a compendium of both classical and recently developed results on reversible computing. It explores up-and-coming theories, techniques, and tools for the application of rever

  19. Piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jianhua; Cui, Tianhong; Shao, Peige; Wang, Liding

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a new piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms. Serial bending arms are composed of two piezoelectric bimorphs with one end fixed and the other end free, driven by two signals of a biased square wave with a phase difference of pi/2. The free end of a cantilever arm will move along an elliptic orbit so that the cantilever is used to drive a cylinder rotor. The rotor's end surface contacts the free end of the cantilever, resulting in the rotor's rotation. There are six serial bending arms anchored on the base. The driving mechanism of the micromotor is proposed and analyzed. A new micromotor prototype, 5 mm in diameter, has been fabricated and characterized. The maximum rotational speed reaches 325 rpm, and the output torque is about 36.5 microNm.

  20. Numerical discrepancy between serial and MPI parallel computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Bong Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of 1D Burgers equation and 2D sloshing problem were carried out to study numerical discrepancy between serial and parallel computations. The numerical domain was decomposed into 2 and 4 subdomains for parallel computations with message passing interface. The numerical solution of Burgers equation disclosed that fully explicit boundary conditions used on subdomains of parallel computation was responsible for the numerical discrepancy of transient solution between serial and parallel computations. Two dimensional sloshing problems in a rectangular domain were solved using OpenFOAM. After a lapse of initial transient time sloshing patterns of water were significantly different in serial and parallel computations although the same numerical conditions were given. Based on the histograms of pressure measured at two points near the wall the statistical characteristics of numerical solution was not affected by the number of subdomains as much as the transient solution was dependent on the number of subdomains.

  1. A combination strategy for tracking the serial criminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuan; Zhang, Yuan-Biao; Wan, Jiadi; Yu, Wenjing

    2010-08-01

    We build a Geographic Profiling Model to generate the criminal's geographical profile, by combining two complementary strategies: the Spatial Distribution Strategy and the Probability Distance Strategy. In the first strategy, we designate the mean of all the known crime sites as the anchor point, and build a Standard Deviational Ellipse Model, considering the effect of landscape. In the second strategy, we take many factors such as the buffer zone and distance decay theory into consideration and calculate the probability of the offender's residence in a certain area by using the Bayesian Theorem and the Rossmo Algorithm. Then, we combine the result of two strategies and get three search areas suit different conditions of the police to track the serial criminal. Apply the model to the English serial killer Peter Sutcliffe's case, the calculation result shows that the model can effectively be used to track serial criminal.

  2. Reversibility of female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, A M; Hulka, J; Peretz, A

    1985-04-01

    The discussion considers the current status of reversibility of sterilization in the US and describes clinical and experimental efforts for developing techniques designed for reversibility. It focuses on regret following sterilization, reversal potential of current sterilization techniques, patient selection, current reversal techniques, results of sterilization procedures, experimental approaches to reversal of current techniques of sterilization, and sterilization procedures devised for reversibility, in humans and in animals. Request is the 1st stage of reversal, but a request for sterilization reversal (SR) does not always mean regret for a decision made at the time. Frequently it is a wish to restore fertility because life circumstances have changed after a sterilization that was ppropriate at the time it was performed. Schwyhart and Kutner reviewed 22 studies published between 1949-69 in which they found that the percentage of patients regretting the procedure ranged from 1.3-15%. Requests for reversal remain low in most countries, but if sterilization becomes a more popular method of contraception, requests will also increase. The ideal operation considered as a reversaible method of sterilization should include an easy, reliable outpatient method of tubal occlusion with miniml risk or patient discomfort that subsequently could be reversed without the need for a major surgical intervention. Endoscopic methods have progressed toward the 1st objective. A recent search of the literature uncovered few series of SR of more than 50 cases. The 767 operations found were analyzed with regard to pregnancy outcome. The precent of live births varied from 74-78.8%, and the occurance of tubal pregnancies ranged from 1.7-6.5%. All of the confounding variables in patient selection and small numbers of reported procedures preclude any conclusion about the different techniques or the number of operations that give a surgeon a level of expertise. Few authors classify their

  3. S3-1: The Serial Dependence of Visual Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Whitney

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In our moment-to-moment perceptual experience, visual scenes can change, but objects rarely spontaneously come into or out of existence. The visual system may therefore delicately balance the need to optimize sensitivity to image changes (e.g., by adapting to changes in color, orientation, object identity, etc with the desire to represent the temporal continuity of objects—the likelihood that objects perceived at this moment tend to exist in subsequent moments. One way that the visual system may promote such stability is through the introduction of serial dependence to visual perception: by biasing the current percept toward what was seen at previous moments, the brain could compensate for variability in visual input that might otherwise disrupt perceptual continuity. Here, in two sets of experiments, we tested for serial dependence in visual perception of orientation and facial expression. We found that on a given trial, a subject's perception of the orientation of a grating reflected not only the currently viewed stimulus, but also a systematic attraction toward the orientations of the previously viewed stimuli. We found the same serial dependence in the perception of facial expression. This perceptual attraction extended over several trials and seconds, and displayed clear tuning to the difference (in orientation or facial expression between the sequential stimuli. Furthermore, serial dependence in object perception was spatially specific and selective to the attended object within a scene. Several control experiments showed that the perceptual serial dependence we report cannot be explained by effects of priming, known hysteresis effects, visual short-term memory, or expectation. Our results reveal a systematic influence of recent visual experiences on perception at any given moment: visual percepts, even of unambiguous stimuli, are attracted toward what was previously seen. We propose that such serial dependence helps to maintain

  4. Synchronic Seriality: The Dissolving of Diegetic Borders Through Metalepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige M. Piper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In dialogue with Gérard Genette’s literary concept of metalepsis to television, this paper considers instances of meta-textual actor/character portrayals in serial narratives to show that meta-narrative intrusion fosters a greater empathetic link between the spectator and character, whilst simultaneously inviting the viewer to appreciate the technique as an artifice-aware gesture. The fluidity of diegetic borders brought on by the conflation of performer/performance replicates Baudrillard’s simulacra, creating a synchronic form of seriality and transcending rigid genre classifications.

  5. Quick, sensitive serial NMR experiments with Radon transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Rupashree; Kasprzak, Paweł; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    The Radon transform is a potentially powerful tool for processing the data from serial spectroscopic experiments. It makes it possible to decode the rate at which frequencies of spectral peaks shift under the effect of changing conditions, such as temperature, pH, or solvent. In this paper we show how it also improves speed and sensitivity, especially in multidimensional experiments. This is particularly important in the case of low-sensitivity techniques, such as NMR spectroscopy. As an example, we demonstrate how Radon transform processing allows serial measurements of 15 N-HSQC spectra of unlabelled peptides that would otherwise be infeasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serial MRI studies using gadolinium DTPA in active multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.H.; Johnson, G.; Barnes, D.; Rudge, P.; McDonald, W.I.

    1988-01-01

    It has been suggested that blood brain barrier (BBB) impairment is a necessary early event in the pathogenesis of the multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. To evaluate such an hypothesis in vivo would require: (1) serial imaging studies using a modality with high sensitivity for detecting plaques; (2) a contrast enhancing agent which demonstrates BBB impairment. A serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was undertaken of a group of MS patients using the contrast agent gadolinium-DTPA. As it has been suggested that T 1 and T 2 relaxation times are longer in acute than chronic MS lesions, these were also measured. 3 refs.; 1 figure

  7. IT-based Value Creation in Serial Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    serial acquirers realize IT-based value, we integrate and model the findings on individual acquisitions from the extant literature, and extend that model to explain the effects of sequential acquisitions in a growth-by-acquisition strategy. This extended model, drawing on the Resource-Based Theory......The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how...

  8. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur SAD phasing facilitates the structure determination of diverse native proteins using femtosecond X-rays from free-electron lasers via serial femtosecond crystallography. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures

  9. Clinical and anatomic pathology effects of serial blood sampling in rat toxicology studies, using conventional or microsampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexis; Lelong, Christine; Bartels, T; Dorchies, O; Gury, T; Chalier, Catherine; Benning, Véronique

    2015-08-01

    As a general practice in rodent toxicology studies, satellite animals are used for toxicokinetic determinations, because of the potential impact of serial blood sampling on toxicological endpoints. Besides toxicological and toxicokinetic determinations, blood samples obtained longitudinally from a same animal may be used for the assessment of additional parameters (e.g., metabolism, pharmacodynamics, safety biomarkers) to maximize information that can be deduced from rodents. We investigated whether removal of up to 6 × 200 μL of blood over 24h can be applied in GLP rat toxicology studies without affecting the scientific outcome. 8 week-old female rats (200-300 g) were dosed for up to 1 month with a standard vehicle and subjected or not (controls) to serial blood sampling for sham toxicokinetic/ancillary determinations, using miniaturized methods allowing collection of 6 × 50, 100 or 200 μL over 24h. In-life endpoints, clinical pathology parameters and histopathology of organs sensitive to blood volume reduction were evaluated at several time points after completion of sampling. In sampled rats, minimal and reversible changes in red blood cell mass (maximally 15%) and subtle variations in liver enzymes, fibrinogen and neutrophils were not associated with any organ/tissue macroscopic or microscopic correlate. Serial blood sampling (up to 6 × 200 μL over 24h) is compatible with the assessment of standard toxicity endpoints in adult rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantum reverse hypercontractivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubitt, Toby [Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom and Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kastoryano, Michael [NBIA, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Montanaro, Ashley [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Temme, Kristan [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We develop reverse versions of hypercontractive inequalities for quantum channels. By generalizing classical techniques, we prove a reverse hypercontractive inequality for tensor products of qubit depolarizing channels. We apply this to obtain a rapid mixing result for depolarizing noise applied to large subspaces and to prove bounds on a quantum generalization of non-interactive correlation distillation.

  11. Atrioventricular Pacemaker Lead Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K Aktas, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During cardiac surgery temporary epicardial atrial and ventricular leads are placed in case cardiac pacing is required postoperatively. We present the first reported series of patients with reversal of atrioventricular electrodes in the temporary pacemaker without any consequent deleterious hemodynamic effect. We review the electrocardiographic findings and discuss the findings that lead to the discovery of atrioventricular lead reversal.

  12. Sodium p-Aminosalicylic Acid Reverses Sub-Chronic Manganese-Induced Impairments of Spatial Learning and Memory Abilities in Rats, but Fails to Restore γ-Aminobutyric Acid Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-Jun; Ou, Chao-Yan; He, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Xiao-Wei; Luo, Hai-Lan; Meng, Hao-Yang; Lu, Guo-Dong; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Vieira Peres, Tanara; Luo, Yi-Ni; Deng, Xiang-Fa

    2017-01-01

    Excessive manganese (Mn) exposure is not only a health risk for occupational workers, but also for the general population. Sodium para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS-Na) has been successfully used in the treatment of manganism, but the involved molecular mechanisms have yet to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of PAS-Na on sub-chronic Mn exposure-induced impairments of spatial learning and memory, and determine the possible involvements of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in vivo. Sprague-Dawley male rats received daily intraperitoneal injections MnCl2 (as 6.55 mg/kg Mn body weight, five days per week for 12 weeks), followed by daily subcutaneous injections of 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg PAS-Na for an additional six weeks. Mn exposure significantly impaired spatial learning and memory ability, as noted in the Morris water maze test, and the following PAS-Na treatment successfully restored these adverse effects to levels indistinguishable from controls. Unexpectedly, PAS-Na failed to recover the Mn-induced decrease in the overall GABA levels, although PAS-Na treatment reversed Mn-induced alterations in the enzyme activities directly responsible for the synthesis and degradation of GABA (glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase, respectively). Moreover, Mn exposure caused an increase of GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) and decrease of GABA A receptor (GABAA) in transcriptional levels, which could be reverted by the highest dose of 300 mg/kg PAS-Na treatment. In conclusion, the GABA metabolism was interrupted by sub-chronic Mn exposure. However, the PAS-Na treatment mediated protection from sub-chronic Mn exposure-induced neurotoxicity, which may not be dependent on the GABA metabolism. PMID:28394286

  13. Recommendations for CAMAC Serial Highway drivers and LAM Graders for the SCC-L2 Serial Crate Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The functional requirements of Drivers for the CAMAC Serial Highway defined in IEEE Standard 595-1976 are described. The description is independent of the implementation, and in particular no assumption is made about the boundary between hardware and software within the Driver. Topics covered are the user interface, the supporting system services required, demand handling, and a detailed discussion of the message analysis for various levels of error recovery. An appendix describes the recommended features of LAM Graders for use with the Serial Crate Controller Type L2 of IEEE Std 595-1976

  14. Kiondo Bag Boutique: A Serial Case for Introductory Financial Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.

    2014-01-01

    Kiondo Bag Boutique is a hypothetical serial case involving a start-up retail business. The case evolves from an ambitious business idea to a successful business. Through the evolving business, the importance of accounting information is highlighted. Different iterations are used to illustrate the role of accounting in serving and managing…

  15. 'American Psycho': a double portrait of serial yuppie Patrick Bateman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.; Laine, T.

    2003-01-01

    Kooijman and Laine analyze Mary Harron's "American Psycho," a 2000 film adaptation of the 1980s satirical novel by Bret Easton Ellis in which Patrick Bateman, a narcissistic Wall Street young urban professional ("yuppie"), assumes an alternate identity as a serial killer. The authors examine the

  16. The stand-alone test and decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Thorlund-Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The rule of decreasing serial cost sharing defined in de Frutos [1] over the class of concave cost functions may violate the important stand-alone test. Sufficient conditions for the test to be satisfied are given, in terms of individual rationality as well as coalitional stability...

  17. Serial Comparison Processes and Sex Differences in Clerical Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeres, Raymond L.

    1988-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with 91 male and 91 female university students to assess sex differences in performance on speeded matching tests and theory on same-different judgments. Results are interpreted via the dual-process hypothesis of same-difference judgments with sex differences explained in terms of serial comparison processes rather…

  18. Serials Management by Microcomputer: The Potential of DBMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J. Thomas; Burns, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes serials management at Philadelphia College of Textiles and Science library via a microcomputer, a file manager called PFS, and a relational database management system called dBase II. Check-in procedures, programing with dBase II, "static" and "active" databases, and claim procedures are discussed. Check-in forms are…

  19. Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

  20. Development of parallel/serial program analyzing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Nagao, Saichi; Takigawa, Yoshio; Kumakura, Toshimasa

    1999-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing 'KMtool', a parallel/serial program analyzing tool, in order to promote the parallelization of the science and engineering computation program. KMtool analyzes the performance of program written by FORTRAN77 and MPI, and it reduces the effort for parallelization. This paper describes development purpose, design, utilization and evaluation of KMtool. (author)

  1. Auditory distraction and serial memory: The avoidable and the ineluctable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan M Jones

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One mental activity that is very vulnerable to auditory distraction is serial recall. This review of the contemporary findings relating to serial recall charts the key determinants of distraction. It is evident that there is one form of distraction that is a joint product of the cognitive characteristics of the task and of the obligatory cognitive processing of the sound. For sequences of sound, distraction appears to be an ineluctable product of similarity-of-process, specifically, the serial order processing of the visually presented items and the serial order coding that is the by-product of the streaming of the sound. However, recently emerging work shows that the distraction from a single sound (one deviating from a prevailing sequence results in attentional capture and is qualitatively distinct from that of a sequence in being restricted in its action to encoding, not to rehearsal of list members. Capture is also sensitive to the sensory task load, suggesting that it is subject to top-down control and therefore avoidable. These two forms of distraction-conflict of process and attentional capture-may be two consequences of auditory perceptual organization processes that serve to strike the optimal balance between attentional selectivity and distractability.

  2. Asymmetric binding in serial memory for verbal and spatial information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerard, Katherine; Morey, Candice C.; Lagace, Sebastien; Tremblay, Sebastien

    As the number of studies showing that items can be retained as bound representations in memory increases, researchers are beginning to investigate how the different features are bound together. In the present study, we examined the relative importances of the verbal and spatial features in serial

  3. FPGA based fast synchronous serial multi-wire links synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2013-10-01

    The paper debates synchronization method of multi-wire, serial link of constant latency, by means of pseudo-random numbers generators. The solution was designed for various families of FPGA circuits. There were debated synchronization algorithm and functional structure of parameterized transmitter and receiver modules. The modules were realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form.

  4. Serial assessment of doxorubicin cardiomyopathy with the computerized scintillation probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strashun, A.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Horowitz, S.F.

    1982-01-01

    Cardiac function was serially monitored in 55 patients receiving adriamycin chemotherapy over 18 months with quantitative radionuclide assessment by both a nonimaging computerized scintillation probe and gamma camera-computer imaging. Interval ejection fraction change was comparable with both techniques and predicted incipient cardiotoxicity. Probe data revealed ejection fraction decline was antedated by decline left ventricular emptying and filling rates

  5. Using identification in entertainment-education drama serials to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study used two entertainment-education drama serials which were designed using Albert Bandura's theoretical framework to communicate positive messages of women's rights to real life audiences in select communities. The study sought to find out if there was any significant relationship i.e. identification between TV ...

  6. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  7. Electronic conductance of quantum wire with serial periodic potential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Hisham M.; Shabat, Mohammed M.; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2000-08-01

    A theory based on the total transfer matrix is presented to investigate the electronic conductance in a quantum wire with serial periodic potentials. We apply the formalism in computation of the electronic conductance in a wire with different physical parameters of the wire structure. The numerical results could be used in designing some future quantum electronic devices. (author)

  8. Analysis of aging in lager brewing yeast during serial repitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühligen, Franziska; Lindner, Patrick; Fetzer, Ingo; Stahl, Frank; Scheper, Thomas; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Susann

    2014-10-10

    Serial repitching of brewing yeast inoculates is an important economic factor in the brewing industry, as their propagation is time and resource intensive. Here, we investigated whether replicative aging and/or the population distribution status changed during serial repitching in three different breweries with the same brewing yeast strain but different abiotic backgrounds and repitching regimes with varying numbers of reuses. Next to bud scar numbers the DNA content of the Saccharomyces pastorianus HEBRU cells was analyzed. Gene expression patterns were investigated using low-density microarrays with genes for aging, stress, storage compound metabolism and cell cycle. Two breweries showed a stable rejuvenation rate during serial repitching. In a third brewery the fraction of virgin cells varied, which could be explained with differing wort aeration rates. Furthermore, the number of bud scars per cell and cell size correlated in all 3 breweries throughout all runs. Transcriptome analyses revealed that from the 6th run on, mainly for the cells positive gene expression could be seen, for example up-regulation of trehalose and glycogen metabolism genes. Additionally, the cells' settling in the cone was dependent on cell size, with the lowest and the uppermost cone layers showing the highest amount of dead cells. In general, cells do not progressively age during extended serial repitching. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Whole-pattern fitting technique in serial femtosecond nanocrystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben A. Dilanian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX has created new opportunities in the field of structural analysis of protein nanocrystals. The intensity and timescale characteristics of the X-ray free-electron laser sources used in SFX experiments necessitate the analysis of a large collection of individual crystals of variable shape and quality to ultimately solve a single, average crystal structure. Ensembles of crystals are commonly encountered in powder diffraction, but serial crystallography is different because each crystal is measured individually and can be oriented via indexing and merged into a three-dimensional data set, as is done for conventional crystallography data. In this way, serial femtosecond crystallography data lie in between conventional crystallography data and powder diffraction data, sharing features of both. The extremely small sizes of nanocrystals, as well as the possible imperfections of their crystallite structure, significantly affect the diffraction pattern and raise the question of how best to extract accurate structure-factor moduli from serial crystallography data. Here it is demonstrated that whole-pattern fitting techniques established for one-dimensional powder diffraction analysis can be feasibly extended to higher dimensions for the analysis of merged SFX diffraction data. It is shown that for very small crystals, whole-pattern fitting methods are more accurate than Monte Carlo integration methods that are currently used.

  10. Benchmarking Usage Statistics in Collection Management Decisions for Serials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Cory

    2009-01-01

    Usage statistics are an important metric for making decisions on serials. Although the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) Libraries have been collecting usage statistics, the statistics had not frequently been used to make decisions and had not been included in collection development policy. After undergoing a collection assessment, the…

  11. Serials use in a College of Agriculture Education Library | Adzobu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serials use in a College of Agriculture Education Library. J Adzobu, JA Opare. Abstract. No Abstract. Ghana Library Journal Vol. 20 (1) 2008: pp. 81-88. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  12. Child serial murder-psychodynamics: closely watched shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R

    2001-01-01

    There is a malignant transformation in object relations resulting in an identification with an omnipotent and cruel object resulting in an identity transformation. If the tension, desperation, and dissociation increase, serial murder becomes spree murder. The presence of pathological narcissism and psychopathic tendencies are of diagnostic significance in understanding the murderer's personality functioning and motivation to kill. Meloy (1988) considered the degree of sadism and aggression combined with narcissistic qualities to reflect the "malignancy" of the psychopathic disturbance where gratification (of aggression) occurs in the service of narcissistic functioning--that is, cruelty toward others in the form of a triumphant victory over a rejecting object. Meloy also believes that dissociation is ubiquitious in the psychopath. The initial murder of the serial murderer may reflect a "new identity." The pathological object-relations of narcissism and the malignant narcissism are important diagnostic indicators in the personality functioning of serial killers and the occurrence of these phenomena is a significant factor in the formation of the personalities of serial killers, their inner motivations, and their pattern of commission.

  13. Serial Killers: Academic Libraries Respond to Soaring Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discusses ways in which academic libraries are responding to rising costs of serials. Topics addressed include pricing by publishers; the effect of journal cancellations on research activities; interlibrary loans and document delivery services; coordinated cancelling; electronic journals; and experiences at the University of Arizona. (LRW)

  14. The Rise in Consumerism: The Year's Work in Serials, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonberger, Jana

    1991-01-01

    Examines major issues and trends in serials management represented in the literature published during 1990. Topics covered include the pricing crisis; publishing and scholarly communication; cancellation projects; technological developments and alternatives to print; claiming and replacement activities; acquisitions and collection development;…

  15. Comparison of the serial position effect in very mild Alzheimer's disease, mild Alzheimer's disease, and amnesia associated with electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, P J; Salmon, D P; Bondi, M W; Bui, B K; Olichney, J; Delis, D C; Thomas, R G; Thal, L J

    2000-03-01

    Individuals given a series of words to memorize normally show better immediate recall for items from the beginning and end of the list than for mid-list items. This phenomenon, known as the serial position effect, is thought to reflect the concurrent contributions of secondary and primary memory, respectively, to recall performance. The present study compared the serial position effects produced on Trial 1 of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) in mildly demented (N = 25; M MMSE = 20.0) and very mildly demented (N = 25; M MMSE = 25.5) patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and age- and education-matched normal control (NC) participants (N = 50). In addition, the serial position effects of the very mildly demented AD patients were compared to those of patients with a transient, circumscribed amnesia arising from a prescribed series of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatments for the relief of depressive illness (N = 11). While the NC group exhibited the typical serial position effect, AD patients recalled significantly fewer words than NC participants overall, and exhibited a significantly reduced primacy effect (i.e., recall of the first 2 list items) with a normal recency effect (i.e., recall of the last 2 list items). Patients with circumscribed amnesia due to ECT were as impaired as the very mildly demented AD patients on most standard CVLT measures of learning and memory, but exhibited primacy and recency effects, which were within normal limits. These results suggest that a reduction in the primacy effect, but not the recency effect, is an early and ubiquitous feature of the memory impairment of AD. It is not, however, a necessary feature of all causes of memory impairment.

  16. An algebra of reversible computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  17. Comparing Young and Elderly Serial Reaction Time Task Performance on Repeated and Random Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ehsani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acquisition motor skill training in elderly is at great importance. The main purpose of this study was to compare young and elderly performance in serial reaction time task on different repeated and random conditions. Methods & Materials: A serial reaction time task by using software was applied for studying motor learning in 30 young and 30 elderly. Each group divided randomly implicitly and explicitly into subgroups. A task 4 squares with different colors appeared on the monitor and subjects were asked to press its defined key immediately after observing it. Subjects practiced 8 motor blocks (4 repeated blocks, then 2 random blocks and 2 repeated blocks. Block time that was dependent variable measured and Independent-samples t- test with repeated ANOVA measures were used in this test. Results: young groups performed both repeated and random sequences significantly faster than elderly (P0.05. Explicit older subgroup performed 7,8 blocks slower than 6 block with a significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusion: Young adults discriminate high level performance than elderly in both repeated and random practice. Elderly performed random practice better than repeated practice.

  18. Infants' long-term memory for a serial list: recognition and reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulya, M; Galluccio, L; Wilk, A; Rovee-Collier, C

    2001-04-01

    Serial lists contain information about item identity and item order. Using a task designed for nonverbal animals, we previously found that 3- and 6-month-olds exhibited a primacy effect after 24 hr, remembering both item identity and item order. Presently, we examined their memory of list information after longer delays. In Experiment 1, the serial-position curve reverted to a U-shape after 1 week at both ages, revealing that the common practice of attributing primacy and recency effects to long- and short-term memory, respectively, is flawed. In Experiment 2, a precuing procedure confirmed that 6-month-olds' memory still contained order information after 1 week, but 3-month-olds' reactivated memory contained none. Experiments 3A and 3B confirmed that increasing the complexity of information that was learned shortened the delay after which it could be retrieved. Testing infants after delays longer than have previously been used with animals or human adults sheds new light on an old phenomenon. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Monitoring transcranial direct current stimulation induced changes in cortical excitability during the serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Chaieb, Leila; Stilling, Roman; Rothkegel, Holger; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2016-03-11

    The measurement of the motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a common method to observe changes in motor cortical excitability. The level of cortical excitability has been shown to change during motor learning. Conversely, motor learning can be improved by using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In the present study, we aimed to monitor cortical excitability changes during an implicit motor learning paradigm, a version of the serial reaction time task (SRTT). Responses from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and forearm flexor (FLEX) muscles were recorded before, during and after the performance of the SRTT. Online measurements were combined with anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS for the duration of the SRTT. Negative correlations between the amplitude of online FDI MEPs and SRTT reaction times (RTs) were observed across the learning blocks in the cathodal condition (higher average MEP amplitudes associated with lower RTs) but no significant differences in the anodal and sham conditions. tDCS did not have an impact on SRTT performance, as would be predicted based on previous studies. The offline before-after SRTT MEP amplitudes showed an increase after anodal and a tendency to decrease after cathodal stimulation, but these changes were not significant. The combination of different interventions during tDCS might result in reduced efficacy of the stimulation that in future studies need further attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reconstructing genealogies of serial samples under the assumption of a molecular clock using serial-sample UPGMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A; Rodrigo, A G

    2000-12-01

    Reconstruction of evolutionary relationships from noncontemporaneous molecular samples provides a new challenge for phylogenetic reconstruction methods. With recent biotechnological advances there has been an increase in molecular sequencing throughput, and the potential to obtain serial samples of sequences from populations, including rapidly evolving pathogens, is fast being realized. A new method called the serial-sample unweighted pair grouping method with arithmetic means (sUPGMA) is presented that reconstructs a genealogy or phylogeny of sequences sampled serially in time using a matrix of pairwise distances. The resulting tree depicts the terminal lineages of each sample ending at a different level consistent with the sample's temporal order. Since sUPGMA is a variant of UPGMA, it will perform best when sequences have evolved at a constant rate (i.e., according to a molecular clock). On simulated data, this new method performs better than standard cluster analysis under a variety of longitudinal sampling strategies. Serial-sample UPGMA is particularly useful for analysis of longitudinal samples of viruses and bacteria, as well as ancient DNA samples, with the minimal requirement that samples of sequences be ordered in time.

  1. Smart grid serialization comparison: Comparision of serialization for distributed control in the context of the Internet of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo Søborg; Bindner, Henrik W.; You, Shi

    2017-01-01

    within a given timeframe, especially in the context of the Internet of Things, using low-bandwidth data connections and constrained devices. The paper shows that there are better alternatives than XML & JAXB and gives guidance in choosing the most appropriate serialization format and library depending...

  2. A simple statistical model for geomagnetic reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    The diversity of paleomagnetic records of geomagnetic reversals now available indicate that the field configuration during transitions cannot be adequately described by simple zonal or standing field models. A new model described here is based on statistical properties inferred from the present field and is capable of simulating field transitions like those observed. Some insight is obtained into what one can hope to learn from paleomagnetic records. In particular, it is crucial that the effects of smoothing in the remanence acquisition process be separated from true geomagnetic field behavior. This might enable us to determine the time constants associated with the dominant field configuration during a reversal.

  3. Contextual influences on reverse knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2010-01-01

    Further development of theories about how contextual factors influence the beneficial reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiary to head quarters in disparate national country contexts, is the aim of our study. Earlier studies do not fully capture the different effects national country cultures can....... A proposition model is developed where the dependent variable is beneficial reverse knowledge transfer. The independent variables are: higher relative knowledge level in subsidiaty than in HQ, authority respect, activity fit with contextual learning preference. The conclusion suggest that different contexts...

  4. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  5. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  6. Ranking serials in oceanography: An analysis based on the Indian contributions and their citations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tapaswi, M.P.; Maheswarappa, B.S.

    An analysis of serials preferred and cited in various communications by the Indian oceanographers during 1963 to 1992 is presented. A shift in preference of serials from general sciences to oceanography (interdisciplinary) and to core subject...

  7. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2011-01-01

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa

  8. Impact of Serials Management, Access and Use on Publication Output of Lecturers in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbode, Rahmon O. Onaolapo; Nwalo, Kenneth Ivo Ngozi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates serials management in university libraries, determines the extent to which serials are accessed and used and appraises the influence of availability, accessibility and use of serials on publications output of lecturers in federal universities in Nigeria. Questionnaire administration method was adopted to accumulate data for…

  9. A constrained rasch model of trace redintegration in serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodenrys, Steven; Miller, Leonie M

    2008-04-01

    The notion that verbal short-term memory tasks, such as serial recall, make use of information in long-term as well as in short-term memory is instantiated in many models of these tasks. Such models incorporate a process in which degraded traces retrieved from a short-term store are reconstructed, or redintegrated (Schweickert, 1993), through the use of information in long-term memory. This article presents a conceptual and mathematical model of this process based on a class of item-response theory models. It is demonstrated that this model provides a better fit to three sets of data than does the multinomial processing tree model of redintegration (Schweickert, 1993) and that a number of conceptual accounts of serial recall can be related to the parameters of the model.

  10. Plastic optical fiber serial communications link for distributed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Piyush; Sharangpani, K. K.; Vora, H. S.; Nakhe, S. V.; Jain, R.; Shenoy, N. M.; Bhatnagar, R.; Shirke, N. D.

    2001-09-01

    One of the most common interface for communications specified is RS 232C standard. Though widely accepted, RS232 has limited transmission speed, range and networking capabilities. RS 422 standard overcomes limitations by using differential signal lines. In automation of the operation of gas discharge lasers, multiple processors are used for control of lasers, cooling system, vacuum system etc. High EMI generated by lasers interfere through galvanic transmission or by radiation over the length of cables, and hang up operation of processors or control PC. A serial communications link was designed eliminating copper transmission media, using plastic optical fiber cables and components, to connect local controllers with the master PC working on RS232 protocols. The paper discusses the design and implementation of a high ly reliable EMI harden serial communications link.

  11. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Nogly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs. Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway.

  12. Serial network simplifies the design of multiple microcomputer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkes, D.

    1981-01-01

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in developing network communication schemes for carrying digital data between locally distributed computing stations. Many of these schemes have focused on distributed networking techniques for data processing applications. These applications suggest the use of a serial, multipoint bus, where a number of remote intelligent units act as slaves to a central or host computer. Each slave would be serially addressable from the host and would perform required operations upon being addressed by the host. Based on an MK3873 single-chip microcomputer, the SCU 20 is designed to be such a remote slave device. The capabilities of the SCU 20 and its use in systems applications are examined.

  13. Serial murder in America: case studies of seven offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, James O

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes and compares information on seven interviewed serial killers in an ongoing project designed to study similarities and differences among these individuals. The aim of this article is to increase our collective knowledge of the dynamics of serial murder by examining the perpetrators' backgrounds, as well as the unique ways in which they view themselves and the world around them. Although qualitative interview research alone is not sufficient to fully understand such behavior, it is useful in many ways. Some of the information discussed based on the seven offenders interviewed is compared with broader epidemiological studies, and the strengths and limitations of each type of research are discussed. Published in 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Some criminological and psychopathologic reflexions about serial crimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the concept of serial crime, including murder as well as any action for the purpose of inflicting bodily harm upon any person. It characterizes three types of multi-murderers: serial killers, mass murderers, and spree killers. These offenders often have a specific (ritual) behavior that is idiosyncratic and repeated on each crime, which allows the psychological profiling of the murderer. Examples, a psychopathological background, and a description of both their criminal behavior and dynamics are provided for each of these criminals. They are further classified according to their different motivations: psychotic, prophetic or enlightened, pleasure, secondary or pecuniary profits, power or control. Finally, the author shares his personal experience over 20 years in the assessment of sexual offenders.

  15. Reversible Communicating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Brown

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reversible distributed programs have the ability to abort unproductive computation paths and backtrack, while unwinding communication that occurred in the aborted paths. While it is natural to assume that reversibility implies full state recovery (as with traditional roll-back recovery protocols, an interesting alternative is to separate backtracking from local state recovery. For example, such a model could be used to create complex transactions out of nested compensable transactions where a programmer-supplied compensation defines the work required to "unwind" a transaction. Reversible distributed computing has received considerable theoretical attention, but little reduction to practice; the few published implementations of languages supporting reversibility depend upon a high degree of central control. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a practical reversible distributed language can be efficiently implemented in a fully distributed manner. We discuss such a language, supporting CSP-style synchronous communication, embedded in Scala. While this language provided the motivation for the work described in this paper, our focus is upon the distributed implementation. In particular, we demonstrate that a "high-level" semantic model can be implemented using a simple point-to-point protocol.

  16. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-12-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  17. Counterbalancing for serial order carryover effects in experimental condition orders

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Joseph L

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed for generating counterbalanced sequences for repeated-measures designs including those with multiple observations of each condition on one participant...

  18. A matter of emphasis: Linguistic stress habits modulate serial recall

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, John C.; Macken, Bill; Jones, Dylan M.

    2014-01-01

    Models of short-term memory for sequential information rely on item-level, feature-based descriptions to account for errors in serial recall. Transposition errors within alternating similar/dissimilar letter sequences derive from interactions between overlapping features. However, in two experiments, we demonstrated that the characteristics of the sequence are what determine the fates of items, rather than the properties ascribed to the items themselves. Performance in alternating sequences i...

  19. Serial MR imaging in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Hata, H.; Ohno, M. (Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan). Dept. of Radiology); Yoshinaga, M.; Shiokawa, O. (Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan). Stroke Care Unit)

    1991-08-01

    Serial magnetic resonance (MR) imagings of two autopsied patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are presented. Both patients showed a dramatic progression of brain atrophy. The initial MR imagings were, however, interpreted as normal except for localized mild cortical atrophy in one patient. When a normal MR image is obtained in a demented middle-aged or aged patient, CJD may still need to be ruled out: follow up MR imaging may be useful. (orig.).

  20. Serial MR imaging in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, A.; Hata, H.; Ohno, M.; Yoshinaga, M.; Shiokawa, O.

    1991-01-01

    Serial magnetic resonance (MR) imagings of two autopsied patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are presented. Both patients showed a dramatic progression of brain atrophy. The initial MR imagings were, however, interpreted as normal except for localized mild cortical atrophy in one patient. When a normal MR image is obtained in a demented middle-aged or aged patient, CJD may still need to be ruled out: follow up MR imaging may be useful. (orig.)

  1. Which serial killers commit suicide? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; White, John

    2012-11-30

    In a sample of 483 serial killers, 6.2% were documented to have committed suicide. Those who committed suicide were found to come from more dysfunctional homes characterized by more psychiatric disturbance in the parents. The sexual acts involved in the murders by the suicides seemed to be more deviant in some aspects, such as committing more bizarre sexual acts or more often taping the murder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Taking serial correlation into account in tests of the mean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiers, F.W.; Storch, H. von

    1993-01-01

    The comparison of means derived from samples of noisy data is a standard part of climatology. When the data are not serially correlated the appropriate statistical tool for this task is usually the conventional Student's t-test. However, data frequently are serially correlated in climatological applications with the result that the t-tests in its standard form is not applicable. The usual solution to this problem is to scale the t-statistic by a factor which depends upon the equivalent sample size n e . We show, by means of simulations, that the revised t-test is often conservative (the actual significance level is smaller than the specified significance level) when the equivalent sample size is known. However, in most practical cases the equivalent sample size is not known. Then the test becomes liberal (the actual significance level is greater than the specified significance level). This systematic error becomes small when the true equivalent sample size is large (greater than approximately 30). We re-examine the difficulties inherent in difference of means tests when there is serial dependence. We provide guidelines for the application of the 'usual' t-test and propose two alternative tests which substantially improve upon the 'usual' t-test when samples are small. (orig.)

  3. Cognitive, emotional and social markers of serial murdering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrilli, Alessandro; Sartori, Giuseppe; Donzella, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Although criminal psychopathy is starting to be relatively well described, our knowledge of the characteristics and scientific markers of serial murdering is still very poor. A serial killer who murdered more than five people, KT, was administered a battery of standardized tests aimed at measuring neuropsychological impairment and social/emotional cognition deficits. KT exhibited a striking dissociation between a high level of emotional detachment and a low score on the antisocial behavior scale on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 showed a normal pattern with the psychotic triad at borderline level. KT had a high intelligence score and showed almost no impairment in cognitive tests sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Theory of Mind, Tower of London, this latter evidenced a mild impairment in planning performance). In the tests on moral, emotional and social cognition, his patterns of response differed from matched controls and from past reports on criminal psychopaths as, unlike these individuals, KT exhibited normal recognition of fear and a relatively intact knowledge of moral rules but he was impaired in the recognition of anger, embarrassment and conventional social rules. The overall picture of KT suggests that serial killing may be closer to normality than psychopathy defined according to either the DSM IV or the PCL-R, and it would be characterized by a relatively spared moral cognition and selective deficits in social and emotional cognition domains.

  4. DDCMP protocol on a DMA serial-line board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, D.N.; Kessler, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Nuclear Chemistry Division of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is in the midst of an upgrade to their radiation counting facility. The result of this upgrade wil be a computer-based data acquisition network, the Nuclear Chemistry Counting Facility Network (NCCF-NET). This network will consist of forty dedicated LSI-11/2 based controllers, ten interactive LSI-11/23 based workstations and a VAX-11/750 central node for data reduction and storage. One of the data acquisition instruments used in this network is a Nuclear Data pulse-height analyzer, the ND66L. This analyzer communicates to a host system over a 9600-baud serial line, using the DDCMP link level protocol. In order to relieve the host computer from the overhead of handling the DDCMP protocol, an in-house designed DMA serial line board was implemented to communicate with the ND66L. The hardware used and its environment will be duscussed along with the design and implementation of the firmware, which implements the serial DDCMP link

  5. A matter of emphasis: Linguistic stress habits modulate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John C; Macken, Bill; Jones, Dylan M

    2015-04-01

    Models of short-term memory for sequential information rely on item-level, feature-based descriptions to account for errors in serial recall. Transposition errors within alternating similar/dissimilar letter sequences derive from interactions between overlapping features. However, in two experiments, we demonstrated that the characteristics of the sequence are what determine the fates of items, rather than the properties ascribed to the items themselves. Performance in alternating sequences is determined by the way that the sequences themselves induce particular prosodic rehearsal patterns, and not by the nature of the items per se. In a serial recall task, the shapes of the canonical "saw-tooth" serial position curves and transposition error probabilities at successive input-output distances were modulated by subvocal rehearsal strategies, despite all item-based parameters being held constant. We replicated this finding using nonalternating lists, thus demonstrating that transpositions are substantially influenced by prosodic features-such as stress-that emerge during subvocal rehearsal.

  6. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Subjects engaged in two picture judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content (concrete words in Experiment 1 and 3; nonwords in Experiments 2 and 3). Picture judgments varied in the extent to which they required accessing visual semantic information (i.e., semantic categorization and line orientation judgments). Results showed that, relative to line orientation judgments, engaging in semantic categorization judgments increased the proportion of item ordering errors for concrete lists but did not affect error proportions for nonword lists. Furthermore, although more ordering errors were observed for phonologically similar relative to dissimilar lists, no interactions were observed between the phonological overlap and picture judgment task manipulations. These results thus demonstrate that lexical-semantic representations can affect the serial ordering of items in short-term memory. Furthermore, the dual-task paradigm provides a new method for examining when and how semantic representations affect memory performance. PMID:21058880

  7. Voltage balancing strategies for serial connection of microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Firas; Ondel, Olivier; Allard, Bruno; Buret, François

    2015-07-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) converts electrochemically organic matter into electricity by means of metabolisms of bacteria. The MFC power output is limited by low voltage and low current characteristics in the range of microwatts or milliwatts per litre. In order to produce a sufficient voltage level (>1.5 V) and sufficient power to supply real applications such as autonomous sensors, it is necessary to either scale-up one single unit or to connect multiple units together. Many topologies of connection are possible as the serial association to improve the output voltage, or the parallel connection to improve the output current or the series/parallel connection to step-up both voltage and current. The association of MFCs in series is a solution to increase the voltage to an acceptable value and to mutualize the unit's output power. The serial association of a large number of MFCs presents several issues. The first one is the hydraulic coupling among MFCs when they share the same substrate. The second one is the dispersion between generators that lead to a non-optimal stack efficiency because the maximum power point (MPP) operation of all MFCs is not permitted. Voltage balancing is a solution to compensate non-uniformities towards MPP. This paper presents solutions to improve the efficiency of a stack of serially connected MFCs through a voltage-balancing circuit. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2014)", edited by Adel Razek

  8. Evidence for spontaneous serial refreshing in verbal working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwe, Evie; Langerock, Naomi; Cowan, Nelson

    2018-04-01

    Working memory (WM) keeps information temporarily accessible for ongoing cognition. One proposed mechanism to keep information active in WM is refreshing. This mechanism is assumed to operate by bringing memory items into the focus of attention, thereby serially refreshing the content of WM. We report two experiments in which we examine evidence for the spontaneous occurrence of serial refreshing in verbal WM. Participants had to remember series of red letters, while black probe letters were presented between these memory items, with each probe to be judged present in or absent from the list presented so far, as quickly as possible (i.e., the probe-span task). Response times to the probes were used to infer the status of the representations in WM and, in particular, to examine whether the content of the focus of attention changed over time, as would be expected if serial refreshing occurs spontaneously during inter-item pauses. In sharp contrast with this hypothesis, our results indicate that the last-presented memory item remained in the focus of attention during the inter-item pauses of the probe-span task. We discuss how these findings help to define the boundary conditions of spontaneous refreshing of verbal material in WM, and discuss implications for verbal WM maintenance and forgetting.

  9. Efficient multitasking: parallel versus serial processing of multiple tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    In the context of performance optimizations in multitasking, a central debate has unfolded in multitasking research around whether cognitive processes related to different tasks proceed only sequentially (one at a time), or can operate in parallel (simultaneously). This review features a discussion of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding parallel versus serial task processing in multitasking. In addition, we highlight how methodological differences and theoretical conceptions determine the extent to which parallel processing in multitasking can be detected, to guide their employment in future research. Parallel and serial processing of multiple tasks are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, questions focusing exclusively on either task-processing mode are too simplified. We review empirical evidence and demonstrate that shifting between more parallel and more serial task processing critically depends on the conditions under which multiple tasks are performed. We conclude that efficient multitasking is reflected by the ability of individuals to adjust multitasking performance to environmental demands by flexibly shifting between different processing strategies of multiple task-component scheduling.

  10. Simple measuring rod method for the coaxiality of serial holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Tongyu; Wang, Zhong; Ji, Yuchen; Liu, Changjie; Fu, Luhua

    2017-11-01

    Aiming at the rapid coaxiality measurement of serial hole part with a small diameter, a coaxiality measuring rod for each layer hole with a single LDS (laser displacement sensor) is proposed. This method does not require the rotation angle information of the rod, and the coaxiality of serial holes can be calculated from the measured values of LDSs after randomly rotating the measuring rod several times. With the mathematical model of the coaxiality measuring rod, each factor affecting the accuracy of coaxiality measurement is analyzed by simulation, and the installation accuracy requirements of the measuring rod and LDSs are presented. In the tolerance of a certain installation error of the measuring rod, the relative center of the hole is calculated by setting the over-determined nonlinear equations of the fitting circles of the multi-layer holes. In experiment, coaxiality measurement accuracy is realized by a 16 μm precision LDS, and the validity of the measurement method is verified. The manufacture and measurement requirements of the coaxiality measuring rod are low, by changing the position of LDSs in the measuring rod, the serial holes with different sizes and numbers can be measured. The rapid coaxiality measurement of parts can be easily implemented in industrial sites.

  11. A network-based Macintosh serial host interface program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, J.

    1991-03-01

    A program has been written for the Apple Macintosh to replace conventional host RS232 terminals with customizable user interfaces. Serial port NuBus cards in the Macintosh allow many simultaneous sessions to be maintained. A powerful system is attained by connecting multiple Macintoshes on a network, each running this program. Each is then able to share incoming data from any of its serial ports with any other Macintosh, as well as accept data from any other Macintosh for output to any of its serial ports. The program has been used to eliminate multiple host terminals, modernize the user interface, and to centralize operation of a complex control system. Minimal changes to host software have been required. By making extensive use of Macintosh resources, the same executable code serves in a variety of roles. An object oriented C language with a class library made the development straightforward and easy to modify. This program is used to control a 2 MW neutral beam system on the DIII-D magnetic fusion tokamak. 7 figs

  12. The neural signature of emotional memories in serial crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassy, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    Neural plasticity is the process whereby semantic information and emotional responses are stored in neural networks. It is hypothesized that the neural networks built over time to encode the sexual fantasies that motivate serial killers to act should display a unique, detectable activation pattern. The pathological neural watermark hypothesis posits that such networks comprise activation of brain sites that reflect four cognitive components: autobiographical memory, sexual arousal, aggression, and control over aggression. The neural sites performing these cognitive functions have been successfully identified by previous research. The key findings are reviewed to hypothesise the typical pattern of activity that serial killers should display. Through the integration of biological findings into one framework, the neural approach proposed in this paper is in stark contrast with the many theories accounting for serial killers that offer non-medical taxonomies. The pathological neural watermark hypothesis offers a new framework to understand and detect deviant individuals. The technical and legal issues are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Economic impact of reversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Estimations of the Norwegian hydropower production and various reversion models' market value have been made. The value of the Norwegian hydropower production until 01.01.2007 is estimated to about Nok 289 billion after taxes, or about 2,42 Nok/kWh medium production, given an expected future electricity price of around 0,25 Nok/kWh and a discount rate at 6,5 percent in nominal terms after taxes. The estimate is slightly above the level of prices for Norwegian hydropower plants in the last 8-10 years. The value of reversion in private plants which today have a limited licence time is estimated to Nok 5,5 billion. The value of reversion in public-owned Norwegian hydropower plants are about Nok 21 billion with a 60 year licence period from 01.01.2007, and about 12 billion for 75 years (ml)

  14. Reversible deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This presentation, given by the national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) at the meeting of October 8, 2009 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), describes the concept of deep reversible disposal for high level/long living radioactive wastes, as considered by the ANDRA in the framework of the program law of June 28, 2006 about the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The document presents the social and political reasons of reversibility, the technical means considered (containers, disposal cavities, monitoring system, test facilities and industrial prototypes), the decisional process (progressive development and blocked off of the facility, public information and debate). (J.S.)

  15. Serial measurements of serum human placental lactogen (hPL) and serial ultrasound examinations in the evaluation of fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; von Tabouillot, D; Schioler, V

    2000-01-01

    Serial serum hPL measurements and serial ultrasound fetometry were compared in the evaluation of fetal growth by relating these two parameters to size at birth and to clinical factors known to influence size at birth. The data were from a prospective study of 1000 consecutive pregnant women...... considered to be at risk for fetal growth retardation with retrospective analysis. Serum hPL was measured by radioimmunoassay and fetal weight estimated by ultrasound every 3 weeks during the last trimester. hPL values were expressed as multiples of the median (MoM) and linear regression analysis of the h......PL MoM values was carried out for each pregnancy to find the slope of the line (hPL-slope); at least 3 serum hPL values were required. The estimated fetal weight and weight-for-age at birth was expressed in Z-scores. The individual intrauterine growth velocity was calculated by regression analysis...

  16. Deployment and future prospects of high performance diagnostics featuring serial I/O (SIO) data acquisition (DAQ) at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behler, K., E-mail: karl.behler@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Blank, H.; Eixenberger, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Fitzek, M. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, Seeshaupterstr. 15, D-82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Lohs, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Lueddecke, K. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, Seeshaupterstr. 15, D-82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Merkel, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high sustained data rates transferring measured data from periphery into memory of computers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The achieved low latency in real-time interrupt handling under Solaris 10. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new prototype of an even more powerful 2nd generation SIO II device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion of all blocks of board logic (serializer, FIFO, TDC, merge engine, PCIe controller) into one single FPGA simplifying the boards physical layout significantly. - Abstract: The SIO DAQ concept used at the ASDEX Upgrade fusion experiment features data acquisition from a modular front-end (a modular crate-and-interface-cards concept for analog and digital input and output) over standardized serial lines and via a serial input/output computer interface card (the SIO card) in real-time directly into the main memory of a host computer. Deployment of a series of diagnostics using SIO led to various solutions and configurations for the different requirements. Experience has been gained and lessons learned applying the SIO concept at its technical limits. Requirements for a further development of the SIO concept have been identified, and a performance improvement by a factor of 4-8 beyond its current limits seems achievable. An effort has been started to develop a SIO version 2 (SIO II) featuring upgraded serial links and a more powerful FPGA for merging and forwarding data streams to host computer memory. (Compatibility with the existing SIO (SIO I) front-end system has to be maintained.) This paper presents results achieved and experiences gained in the deployment of SIO I, the status of SIO II development (currently in the prototype phase), and projected enhancements and updates to existing implementations.

  17. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of 'cold' and 'warm' materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  18. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of ‘cold’ and ‘warm’ materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  19. Time reversal communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  20. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Elastomers with Reversible Nanoporosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szewczykowski, Piotr Przemyslaw; Andersen, K.; Schulte, Lars

    2009-01-01

    nanostructure and displays liquid-filled cavities. Upon several cycles of swelling and drying the cavities open and close in a reversible fashion. When exposed to a nonsolvent, the material remains collapsed. This discriminating behavior of liquid-material interaction holds potential for the use...

  2. Word-serial Architectures for Filtering and Variable Rate Decimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Grayver

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A new flexible architecture is proposed for word-serial filtering and variable rate decimation/interpolation. The architecture is targeted for low power applications requiring medium to low data rate and is ideally suited for implementation on either an ASIC or an FPGA. It combines the small size and low power of an ASIC with the programmability and flexibility of a DSP. An efficient memory addressing scheme eliminates the need for power hungry shift registers and allows full reconfiguration. The decimation ratio, filter length and filter coefficients can all be changed in real time. The architecture takes advantage of coefficient symmetries in linear phase filters and in polyphase components.

  3. Diffusion thermopower of a serial double quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierschmann, H; Henke, M; Knorr, J; Maier, L; Buhmann, H; Molenkamp, L W; Heyn, C; Hansen, W

    2013-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the diffusion thermopower of a serial double quantum dot, defined electrostatically in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. We present the thermopower stability diagram for a temperature difference ΔT = (20 ± 10) mK across the device and find a maximum thermovoltage signal of several μV in the vicinity of the triple points. Along a constant energy axis in this regime, the data show a characteristic pattern which is in agreement with Mott's relation and can be well understood within a model of sequential transport. (paper)

  4. Hi-speed versatile serial crate controller for CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horelick, D.

    1984-10-01

    A serial crate controller, primarily for use in the SLC CAMAC control system, has been designed, and has been in use for about 2 years. The design supports a party line approach, with up to 16 crates on a single twisted pair for data transfers, plus another pair for prompt L response. The bit rate is 5 megabits/s, and complete transaction times of about 10 μs are achieved for 16-bit data transfers over cables up to 1000 feet long. One of the primary objects of the design was simplicity - there are approximately 60 chips in the two-board unit

  5. Lean buffering in serial production lines with Bernoulli machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Hu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean buffering is the smallest buffer capacity necessary to ensure the desired production rate of a manufacturing system. In this paper, analytical methods for selecting lean buffering in serial production lines are developed under the assumption that the machines obey the Bernoulli reliability model. Both closed-form expressions and recursive approaches are investigated. The cases of identical and nonidentical machines are analyzed. Results obtained can be useful for production line designers and production managers to maintain the required production rate with the smallest possible inventories.

  6. Key Conditions for Successful Serial Entrepreneurship in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron, Cameron

    2017-01-01

    As a serial entrepreneur in the medical device industry, the author embraces Snowdon's (2017) effort to create and stimulate dialogue among experts in health system innovation in an effort to define and support Canada's innovation agenda. In this paper, he outlines some of the attributes and skills that companies need to launch their products and scale their companies. He also identifies the main conditions of an innovation ecosystem that create the necessary infrastructure to enable and support highly successful companies while allowing them to accelerate their growth.

  7. Serial computed tomography findings in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenska, G.K.; Walter, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Serial CT investigations of 3 patients with histologically confirmed Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease revealed persisting slight brain atrophy to progressive extreme atrophy corresponding to the absolute, not the individual duration of illness. No correlation was observed between CT findings and the patients condition or electroencephalographic results. In one case with a duration of about 16 months and a terminal brain weight of 750 g a massive bilateral, later unilateral subdural hygroma appeared which probably was caused by retraction of the brain showing an enormous atrophy. (orig.)

  8. Serial computed tomography findings in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenska, G.K.; Walter, G.F.

    1989-09-01

    Serial CT investigations of 3 patients with histologically confirmed Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease revealed persisting slight brain atrophy to progressive extreme atrophy corresponding to the absolute, not the individual duration of illness. No correlation was observed between CT findings and the patients condition or electroencephalographic results. In one case with a duration of about 16 months and a terminal brain weight of 750 g a massive bilateral, later unilateral subdural hygroma appeared which probably was caused by retraction of the brain showing an enormous atrophy. (orig.).

  9. Serial radionuclide quantitative function studies for evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.C.; Hunter, J.L.; Lawton, M.B.; Berke, R.A.; Morton, M.E.

    1974-01-01

    A new method of assessing renal function following transplantation has been presented. The calculated rate of transfer to the kidney expressed as percent per minute, effective renal blood flow in milliliters per minute and the percentage of the dose in the urine at 20 minutes are calculated from data derived from a scintillation probe over the heart following a single injection of radiohippuran. These indices provide a means of interpreting serial determinations of renal function in states in which the more conventional parameters of renal function are not reliable. (U.S.)

  10. Freeform Optics: current challenges for future serial production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, C.; Köhler, T.; Roth, E.

    2017-10-01

    One of the major developments in optics industry recently is the commercial manufacturing of freeform surfaces for optical mid- and high performance systems. The loss of limitation on rotational symmetry enables completely new optical design solutions - but causes completely new challenges for the manufacturer too. Adapting the serial production from radial-symmetric to freeform optics cannot be done just by the extension of machine capabilities and software for every process step. New solutions for conventional optics productions or completely new process chains are necessary.

  11. Long-distance configuration of FPGA based on serial communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Song Kezhu; Zhang Sifeng

    2010-01-01

    To solve FPGA configuration in some nuclear electronics, which works in radioactivity environment, the article introduces a way of long-distance configuration with PC and CPLD, based on serial communication. Taking CYCLONE series FPGA and EPCS configuration chip from ALTERA for example, and using the AS configuration mode, we described our design from the aspects of basic theory, hardware connection, software function and communication protocol. With this design, we could configure several FPGAs in the distance of 100 meters, or we could configure on FPGA in the distance of 150 meters. (authors)

  12. The essential guide to Serial ATA and SATA express

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, David A

    2014-01-01

    Used in laptop and desktop computers, low-end servers, and mobile devices, Serial ATA (Advance Technology Attachment), or SATA, is the pervasive disk storage technology in use today. SATA has also penetrated the enterprise computing environment by adding hardware components for fail-over, extending command processing capabilities, and increasing device performance and link speeds. If you work in a data center or manage your company's storage resources, you will likely encounter storage solutions that require SATA software or hardware.In this book, leading storage networking technologist David

  13. POSSIBILITIES OF INCREASING EFFICIENCY WITHIN SERIAL PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the impact of transition to the new post-industrial society, massproduction recently faced the most numerous difficulties. They are caused by turbulences in theexternal environment in which companies operate, manifested in particular by enhancing thedynamism of markets and by deep changes in the structure of consumers’ demands. In thiscontext, specialized literature records the concerns for increasing the efficiency and flexibilityof products, elements involving radical changes of management and manufacturingtechnologies methods. Given these issues, the paper approaches two separate ways to improvethe management of serial production: increasing economic efficiency by optimizing the size ofbatches and flexible production systems by implementing techniques to reduce the change-overtime.

  14. Pulmonary mucormycosis. Serial morphologic changes on computed tomography correlate with clinical and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Bo Da; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Tae Sung; Chung, Myung Jin; Han, Joungho

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate serial computed tomography (CT) findings of pulmonary mucormycosis correlated with peripheral blood absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Between February 1997 and June 2016, 20 immunocompromised patients (10 males, 10 females; mean age, 48.9 years) were histopathologically diagnosed as pulmonary mucormycosis. On initial (n=20) and follow-up (n=15) CT scans, the patterns of lung abnormalities and their changing features on follow-up scans were evaluated, and the pattern changes were correlated with ANC changes. All patients were immunocompromised. On initial CT scans, nodule (≤3cm)/mass (>3cm) or consolidation with surrounding ground-glass opacity halo (18/20, 90%) was the most common pattern. On follow-up CT, morphologic changes (13/15, 87%) could be seen and they included reversed halo (RH) sign, central necrosis, and air-crescent sign. Although all cases did not demonstrate the regular morphologic changes at the same timeline, various combinations of pattern change could be seen in all patients. Sequential morphologic changes were related with recovering of ANC in 13 of 15 patients. Pulmonary mucormycosis most frequently presents as consolidation or nodule/mass with halo sign at CT. Morphologic changes into RH sign, central necrotic cavity or air-crescent sign occur with treatment and recovery of ANC. (orig.)

  15. Serial neurophysiological and neurophysiological examinations for delayed facial nerve palsy in a patient with Fisher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umekawa, Motoyuki; Hatano, Keiko; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Takahiro; Hashida, Hideji

    2017-05-27

    The patient was a 47-year-old man who presented with diplopia and gait instability with a gradual onset over the course of three days. Neurological examinations showed ophthalmoplegia, diminished tendon reflexes, and truncal ataxia. Tests for anti-GQ1b antibodies and several other antibodies to ganglioside complex were positive. We made a diagnosis of Fisher syndrome. After administration of intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient's symptoms gradually improved. However, bilateral facial palsy appeared during the recovery phase. Brain MRI showed intensive contrast enhancement of bilateral facial nerves. During the onset phase of facial palsy, the amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in the facial nerves was preserved. During the peak phase, the facial CMAP amplitude was within the lower limit of normal values, or mildly decreased. During the recovery phase, the CMAP amplitude was normalized, and the R1 and R2 responses of the blink reflex were prolonged. The delayed facial nerve palsy improved spontaneously, and the enhancement on brain MRI disappeared. Serial neurophysiological and neuroradiological examinations suggested that the main lesions existed in the proximal part of the facial nerves and the mild lesions existed in the facial nerve terminals, probably due to reversible conduction failure.

  16. Pulmonary mucormycosis. Serial morphologic changes on computed tomography correlate with clinical and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Bo Da; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Tae Sung; Chung, Myung Jin [Samsung Medical Centre, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Centre for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joungho [Samsung Medical Centre, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-02-15

    To evaluate serial computed tomography (CT) findings of pulmonary mucormycosis correlated with peripheral blood absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Between February 1997 and June 2016, 20 immunocompromised patients (10 males, 10 females; mean age, 48.9 years) were histopathologically diagnosed as pulmonary mucormycosis. On initial (n=20) and follow-up (n=15) CT scans, the patterns of lung abnormalities and their changing features on follow-up scans were evaluated, and the pattern changes were correlated with ANC changes. All patients were immunocompromised. On initial CT scans, nodule (≤3cm)/mass (>3cm) or consolidation with surrounding ground-glass opacity halo (18/20, 90%) was the most common pattern. On follow-up CT, morphologic changes (13/15, 87%) could be seen and they included reversed halo (RH) sign, central necrosis, and air-crescent sign. Although all cases did not demonstrate the regular morphologic changes at the same timeline, various combinations of pattern change could be seen in all patients. Sequential morphologic changes were related with recovering of ANC in 13 of 15 patients. Pulmonary mucormycosis most frequently presents as consolidation or nodule/mass with halo sign at CT. Morphologic changes into RH sign, central necrotic cavity or air-crescent sign occur with treatment and recovery of ANC. (orig.)

  17. Reversed field pinch diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP

  18. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy (PRES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moron E, Fanny E; Diaz Marchan, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinical Syndrome composed of cephalea, alteration in vision and convulsions, usually observed in patients with sudden elevation of arterial pressure. The imagenologic evidence shows reversible vasogenic brain edema without stroke. Its location is predominantly posterior; it affects the cortex and the subcortical white matter of the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. The treatment with antihypertensive drugs and the removing of immunosupressor medication are generally associated with complete neurological recovery; this is reflected also in the images which return to their basal condition. The untreated hypertension, on the other side, can result in a progressive defect of the autoregulation system of the central nervous system with cerebral hemorrhage, irreversible brain stroke, coma and death

  19. Reversible infantile mitochondrial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczonadi, Veronika; Bansagi, Boglarka; Horvath, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are usually severe and progressive conditions; however, there are rare forms that show remarkable spontaneous recoveries. Two homoplasmic mitochondrial tRNA mutations (m.14674T>C/G in mt-tRNA(Glu)) have been reported to cause severe infantile mitochondrial myopathy in the first months of life. If these patients survive the first year of life by extensive life-sustaining measures they usually recover and develop normally. Another mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of the 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase (TRMU) causes severe liver failure in infancy, but similar to the reversible mitochondrial myopathy, within the first year of life these infants may also recover completely. Partial recovery has been noted in some other rare forms of mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of mitochondrial tRNA synthetases and mitochondrial tRNA modifying enzymes. Here we summarize the clinical presentation of these unique reversible mitochondrial diseases and discuss potential molecular mechanisms behind the reversibility. Understanding these mechanisms may provide the key to treatments of potential broader relevance in mitochondrial disease, where for the majority of the patients no effective treatment is currently available.

  20. Positioning paper on reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    After having recalled the legal framework adopted in 2006 for the deep geological storage of radioactive wastes, and briefly introduced the concept of reversibility, this publication presents the principle of geological storage, presents high and medium level and long life wastes, highlights the ethical necessity to deal with these radioactive wastes, outlines that geological storage is the generally admitted and adopted solution at the international level, and presents additional means implemented for radioactive waste management. It presents the Cigeo project as the technical answer to the issue of radioactive waste storage, describes the Cigeo development process, its current status and its development planning, and justifies the choice of this technical solution, notably from an ethical point of view. It addresses the issue of reversibility and proposes an overview of the various tools and means which aim at guaranteeing this reversibility. Appendices propose figures illustrating the Cigeo project and its development process, and a rather detailed Power Point presentation of the project by the ANDRA (history, object, planning, installations, and so on)

  1. Convolutional Neural Network for Multi-Category Rapid Serial Visual Presentation BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran eManor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interfaces rely on machine learning algorithms to decode the brain's electrical activity into decisions. For example, in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP tasks, the subject is presented with a continuous stream of images containing rare target images among standard images, while the algorithm has to detect brain activity associated with target images. Here, we continue our previous work, presenting a deep neural network model for the use of single trial EEG classification in RSVP tasks. Deep neural networks have shown state of the art performance in computer vision and speech recognition and thus have great promise for other learning tasks, like classification of EEG samples. In our model, we introduce a novel spatio-temporal regularization for EEG data to reduce overfitting. We show improved classification performance compared to our earlier work on a five categories RSVP experiment. In addition, we compare performance on data from different sessions and validate the model on a public benchmark data set of a P300 speller task. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using neural network models compared to manually designing feature extraction algorithms.

  2. Implementation of Bluetooth serial port based profiles in embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanglei; Qiu, Zhengding; Wang, Quanping; Gao, Qiang

    2001-10-01

    Bluetooth is a new short-range wireless communication technology developing rapidly in recent years. Bluetooth software architecture consists of stack and profiles. Serial Port Profile (SPP) is an underlying profile that emulates RS232 serial cable connections between two peer devices. Based on SPP, Dial-up Networking (DUN) Profile establishes PPP connection with remote dial-up server, Fax Profile realizes document facsimile function and LAN Access Profile (LAP) provides local area network access service. When it comes to their implementation in embedded systems, there are several challenges such as memory consumption, code efficiency, code reliability, and code portability onto different OS and hardware platforms to be attacked. In this paper, we propose integrated software architecture after discussing the great similarities shared among the three SPP based profiles. Then implementation of the architecture is given, in which OS-dependent and OS-independent parts are clearly separated. Profile interfaces with stack and OS are specified respectively so that the three profiles as a whole can be ported onto various software and hardware platforms easily. As a result, policy of transplanting our implementation onto different platforms is addressed at the end of the paper.

  3. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llado, Xavier; Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Marti, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi; Valls, Laia; Vilanova, Joan C.; Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis; Rovira, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

  5. Serial album validation for promotion of infant body weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Costa Gonzaga Saraiva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to validate the content and appearance of a serial album for children aged from 7 to 10 years addressing the topic of prevention and control of body weight. Method: methodological study with descriptive nature. The validation process was attended by 33 specialists in educational technologies and/or in excess of infantile weight. The agreement index of 80% was the minimum considered to guarantee the validation of the material. Results: most of the specialists had a doctoral degree and a graduate degree in nursing. Regarding content, illustrations, layout and relevance, all items were validated and 69.7% of the experts considered the album as great. The overall agreement validation index for the educational technology was 0.88. Only the script-sheet 3 did not reach the cutoff point of the content validation index. Changes were made to the material, such as title change, inclusion of the school context and insertion of nutritionist and physical educator in the story narrated in the album. Conclusion: the proposed serial album was considered valid by experts regarding content and appearance, suggesting that this technology has the potential to contribute in health education by promoting healthy weight in the age group of 7 to 10 years.

  6. Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llado, Xavier; Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Marti, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Valls, Laia [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain); Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

  7. Serial sectioning methods for 3D investigations in materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zankel, Armin; Wagner, Julian; Poelt, Peter

    2014-07-01

    A variety of methods for the investigation and 3D representation of the inner structure of materials has been developed. In this paper, techniques based on slice and view using scanning microscopy for imaging are presented and compared. Three different methods of serial sectioning combined with either scanning electron or scanning ion microscopy or atomic force microscopy (AFM) were placed under scrutiny: serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, which facilitates an ultramicrotome built into the chamber of a variable pressure scanning electron microscope; three-dimensional (3D) AFM, which combines an (cryo-) ultramicrotome with an atomic force microscope, and 3D FIB, which delivers results by slicing with a focused ion beam. These three methods complement one another in many respects, e.g., in the type of materials that can be investigated, the resolution that can be obtained and the information that can be extracted from 3D reconstructions. A detailed review is given about preparation, the slice and view process itself, and the limitations of the methods and possible artifacts. Applications for each technique are also provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Working memory capacity and controlled serial memory search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mızrak, Eda; Öztekin, Ilke

    2016-08-01

    The speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) procedure was used to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and the dynamics of temporal order memory retrieval. High- and low-span participants (HSs, LSs) studied sequentially presented five-item lists, followed by two probes from the study list. Participants indicated the more recent probe. Overall, accuracy was higher for HSs compared to LSs. Crucially, in contrast to previous investigations that observed no impact of WMC on speed of access to item information in memory (e.g., Öztekin & McElree, 2010), recovery of temporal order memory was slower for LSs. While accessing an item's representation in memory can be direct, recovery of relational information such as temporal order information requires a more controlled serial memory search. Collectively, these data indicate that WMC effects are particularly prominent during high demands of cognitive control, such as serial search operations necessary to access temporal order information from memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Volume imaging NDE and serial sectioning of carbon fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Issa; Schumacher, David; Sundar, Veeraraghavan; Donaldson, Steven; Creuz, Aline; Schneider, Rainer; Keller, Juergen; Browning, Charles; May, Daniel; Ras, Mohamad Abo; Meyendorf, Norbert

    2018-04-01

    A composite material is a combination of two or more materials with very different mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. The various forms of composite materials, due to their high material properties, are widely used as structural materials in the aviation, space, marine, automobile, and sports industries. However, some defects like voids, delamination, or inhomogeneous fiber distribution that form during the fabricating processes of composites can seriously affect the mechanical properties of the composite material. In this study, several imaging NDE techniques such as: thermography, high frequency eddy current, ultrasonic, x-ray radiography, x-ray laminography, and high resolution x-ray CT were conducted to characterize the microstructure of carbon fiber composites. Then, a 3D analysis was implemented by the destructive technique of serial sectioning for the same sample tested by the NDE methods. To better analyze the results of this work and extract a clear volume image for all features and defects contained in the composite material, an intensive comparison was conducted among hundreds of 3D-NDE and multi serial sections' scan images showing the microstructure variation.

  10. Nonlinear Process Fault Diagnosis Based on Serial Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaogang; Tian, Xuemin; Chen, Sheng; Harris, Chris J

    2018-03-01

    Many industrial processes contain both linear and nonlinear parts, and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), widely used in nonlinear process monitoring, may not offer the most effective means for dealing with these nonlinear processes. This paper proposes a new hybrid linear-nonlinear statistical modeling approach for nonlinear process monitoring by closely integrating linear principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear KPCA using a serial model structure, which we refer to as serial PCA (SPCA). Specifically, PCA is first applied to extract PCs as linear features, and to decompose the data into the PC subspace and residual subspace (RS). Then, KPCA is performed in the RS to extract the nonlinear PCs as nonlinear features. Two monitoring statistics are constructed for fault detection, based on both the linear and nonlinear features extracted by the proposed SPCA. To effectively perform fault identification after a fault is detected, an SPCA similarity factor method is built for fault recognition, which fuses both the linear and nonlinear features. Unlike PCA and KPCA, the proposed method takes into account both linear and nonlinear PCs simultaneously, and therefore, it can better exploit the underlying process's structure to enhance fault diagnosis performance. Two case studies involving a simulated nonlinear process and the benchmark Tennessee Eastman process demonstrate that the proposed SPCA approach is more effective than the existing state-of-the-art approach based on KPCA alone, in terms of nonlinear process fault detection and identification.

  11. In vivo serial sampling of epididymal sperm in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Val, Gonzalo Moreno; Robledano, Patricia Muñoz

    2013-07-01

    This study was undertaken to refine the techniques of in vivo collection of sperm in the mouse. The principal objective was to offer a viable, safe and reliable method for serial collection of in vivo epididimary sperm through the direct puncture of the epididymis. Six C57Bl/6J males were subjected to the whole experiment. First we obtain a sperm sample of the right epididymis, and perform a vasectomy on the left side. This sample was used in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiment while the males were individually housed for 10 days to let them recover from the surgery, and then their fertility was tested with natural matings until we obtained a litter of each one. After that, the animals were subjected another time to the same process (sampling, recover and natural mating). The results of these experiments were a fertilization average value of 56.7%, and that all the males had a litter in the first month after the natural matings. This study documented the feasibility of the epididimary puncture technique to in vivo serial sampling of sperm in the mouse.

  12. Serial Contradictions. The Italian Debate on Tv Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cardini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the academic debate on television seriality has become lively and often quite animated, in the US as well as in Italy. The traditional hierarchic relation between cinema and television is clearly represented by the form of the most recent tv drama, whose boundaries are more and more difficult to locate. The main questions at stake seem to be the so-called “cinematic television” (Mills, 2013; Jaramillo, 2013, the umbrella definition of “quality tv” (McCabe and Akass, 2007 and its relation with the broadest concept of “complex tv” (Mittell, 2009, 2015. The essay will take into consideration these oxymorons, which are deeply rooted in the Italian tv series debate, with the aim of considering both their risks and their opportunities. A great variety of texts are grouped under the “tv series” label, but they are very different as far as content, production values and audience reactions are concerned. The academic discourse, however, only recently has tried to identify the differences between longstanding mainstream shows (such as, for instance, Grey’s Anatomy or CSI and some more recent, and supposedly “cinematic” series like True Detective or Fargo. Together with the analysis of the oxymoric nature of recent television seriality, the essay will explore the need to historicising what is proving to be one of the most dense and fruitful domains of recent television studies.

  13. Forgiveness and Suicidal Behavior: Cynicism and Psychache as Serial Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangel, Trever J; Webb, Jon R; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2018-02-17

    Research is burgeoning regarding the beneficial association of forgiveness with numerous health-related outcomes; however, its particular relationship to suicidal behavior has received relatively little attention. Both cynicism and psychache, or agonizing psychological pain, have displayed deleterious associations with suicidal behavior, but have rarely been incorporated into more comprehensive models of suicidal behavior. Consistent with the recent development of a theoretical model regarding the forgiveness-suicidal behavior association, the present study utilized an undergraduate sample of college students (N = 312) to test a mediation-based model of the cross-sectional association of forgiveness with suicidal behavior, as serially mediated by cynicism and psychache. Dispositional forgiveness of self and forgiveness of uncontrollable situations were each indirectly associated with less suicidal behavior via less psychache. Also, dispositional forgiveness of others was indirectly associated with less suicidal behavior via less cynicism and less psychache, in a serial fashion. The present results are consistent with the extent literature on the forgiveness-suicidal behavior association, cynicism, and psychache, and pending future studies, may be utilized to inform further treatment efforts for individuals at a high risk of attempting suicide.

  14. Status of time reversal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Time Reversal Invariance is introduced, and theories for its violation are reviewed. The present experimental and theoretical status of Time Reversal Invariance and tests thereof will be presented. Possible future tests will be discussed. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Introduction to time reversal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theory and reaction mechanisms relevant to time reversal invariance are reviewed. Consequences of time reversal invariance are presented under the headings of CP tests, electromagnetic moments, weak emissions or absorptions, and scattering reactions. 8 refs., 4 figs

  16. Evaluation of Esophageal Anastomotic Integrity With Serial Pleural Amylase Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel L; Helms, Gerald A; Mayfield, William R

    2018-01-01

    An anastomotic leak is the most devastating and potentially fatal complication after esophagectomy. Current detection methods can be inaccurate and place patients at risk of other complications. Analysis of pleural fluid for amylase may be more accurate and place patients at less of a risk for evaluating the integrity of an esophageal anastomosis. We retrospectively reviewed prospective data of 45 consecutive patients who underwent an Ivor Lewis esophagectomy over an 18-month period and evaluated their anastomotic integrity with serial pleural amylase levels (PAL). There were 40 men (89%), and median age was 63 years (range, 35 to 79). Indication for esophagectomy was cancer in 38 patients (84%); 27 (71%) underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation. A barium swallow was performed in the first 25 patients at median postoperative day (POD) 5 (range, 5 to 10); the swallow was negative in 23 patients (93%). Serial PALs were obtained starting on POD 3 and stopped 1 day after toleration of clear liquids. The PALs in the no-leak patients were highest on POD 3 (median 42 IU/L; range, 20 to 102 IU/L) and decreased (median 15 IU/L; range, 8 to 34 IU/L) to the lowest levels 1 day after clear liquid toleration (p = 0.04). Two patients had a leak and had peak PALs of 227 IU/L and 630 IU/L, respectively; both leaks occurred on POD 4, 1 day before their scheduled swallow test. The last 20 patients underwent serial PALs only, without a planned swallow test or computed tomography scan for anastomotic integrity evaluation. One of these patients had a leak on POD 5 with a low PAL of 55 IU/L the day before the spike of more than 4,000 IU/L. Two of the leaks were treated with esophageal stent placement and intravenous antibiotics, and the remaining patient's leak resolved with intravenous antibiotics, no oral intake, and observation only. None of the leak patients required transthoracic esophageal repair or drainage of an empyema. There was 1 postoperative death (2%) secondary to aspiration

  17. Plant experience with temporary reverse osmosis makeup water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidoroff, C.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), which is located on California's central coast, has access to three sources of raw water: creek water, well water, and seawater. Creek and well water are DCPP's primary sources of raw water; however, because their supply is limited, these sources are supplemented with seawater. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the temporary, rental, reverse osmosis systems used by PG and E to process DCPP's raw water into water suitable for plant makeup. This paper addresses the following issues: the selection of reverse osmosis over alternative water processing technologies; the decision to use vendor-operated temporary, rental, reverse osmosis equipment versus permanent PG and E-owned and -operated equipment; the performance of DCPP's rental reverse osmosis systems; and, the lessons learned from DCPP's reverse osmosis system rental experience that might be useful to other plants considering renting similar equipment

  18. The Causes of Preference Reversal.

    OpenAIRE

    Tversky, Amos; Slovic, Paul; Kahneman, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Observed preference reversal cannot be adequately explained by violations of independence, the reduction axiom, or transitivity. The primary cause of preference reversal is the failure of procedure invariance, especially the overpricing of low-probability, high-payoff bets. This result violates regret theory and generalized (nonindependent) utility models. Preference reversal and a new reversal involving time preferences are explained by scale compatibility, which implies that payoffs are wei...

  19. Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    It has frequently been suggested that only the geomagnetic dipole, rather than higher order poles, reverse during a geomagnetic field reversal. Under this assumption the geomagnetic field strength has been calculated for the surface of the Earth for various steps of the reversal process. Even without an eminent a reversal of the field, extrapolation of the present secular change (although problematic) shows that the field strength may become zero in some geographic areas within a few hundred years.

  20. A Study on Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Dhananjaya

    2011-01-01

    In the competitive world of manufacturing, companies are often searching for new ways to improve their process, customer satisfaction and stay ahead in the game with their competitors. Reverse logistics has been considered a strategy to bring these things to life for the past decade or so. This thesis work tries to shed some light on the basics of reverse logistics and how reverse logistics can be used as a management strategy. This paper points out the fundamentals of reverse logistics and l...

  1. Estimating the mean and variance of measurements from serial radioactive decay schemes with emphasis on 222Rn and its short-lived progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inkret, W.C.; Borak, T.B.; Boes, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    Classically, the mean and variance of radioactivity measurements are estimated from poisson distributions. However, the random distribution of observed events is not poisson when the half-life is short compared with the interval of observation or when more than one event can be associated with a single initial atom. Procedures were developed to estimate the mean and variance of single measurements of serial radioactive processes. Results revealed that observations from the three consecutive alpha emissions beginning with 222 Rn are positively correlated. Since the poisson estimator ignores covariance terms, it underestimates the true variance of the measurement. The reverse is true for mixtures of radon daughters only. (author)

  2. Geomagnetic Reversals during the Phanerozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinny, M W

    1971-04-09

    An antalysis of worldwide paleomagnetic measurements suggests a periodicity of 350 x 10(6) years in the polarity of the geomagnetic field. During the Mesozoic it is predominantly normal, whereas during the Upper Paleozoic it is predominantly reversed. Although geomagnetic reversals occur at different rates throughout the Phanerozoic, there appeaars to be no clear correlation between biological evolutionary rates and reversal frequency.

  3. Reversible bronchial dilatation in children: comparison of serial high-resolution computer tomography scans of the lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, E.A. E-mail: erol.gaillard@lwh-tr.nwest.nhs.uk; Carty, H.; Heaf, D.; Smyth, R.L

    2003-09-01

    Introduction: bronchiectasis is generally considered irreversible in the adult population, largely based on studies employing bronchography in cases with a significant clinical history. It is assumed, that the same is true for children. Few studies have examined the natural history of bronchiectasis in children and diagnostic criteria on high-resolution computer tomography of the lungs are derived from studies on adults. Frequently, bronchiectasis is reported in children in cases where localised bronchial dilatation is present, incorrectly labelling these children with an irreversible life-long condition. Objective: to evaluate changes in appearance of bronchial dilatation, unrelated to cystic fibrosis in children, as assessed by sequential high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) of the lungs. Methods: the scans of 22 children with a radiological diagnosis of bronchiectasis, seen at Alder Hey Children's Hospital between 1994 and 2000, who had at least two CT scans of the lungs were reviewed by a single radiologist, who was blinded to the original report. Results: following a median scan interval of 21 months (range 2-43), bronchial dilatation resolved completely in six children and there was improvement in appearances in a further eight, with medical treatment alone. Discussion: a radiological diagnosis of bronchiectasis should be considered with caution in children as diagnostic criteria derived from studies in adults have not been validated in children and the condition is generally considered irreversible.

  4. Smart grid communication comparison: Distributed control middleware and serialization comparison for the Internet of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo Søborg; Bindner, Henrik W.; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    To solve the problems caused by intermittent renewable energy production, communication between Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and system operators is necessary. The communication middleware and serialization used for communication are essential to ensure delivery of the messages within...... communication middleware and serialization format/library, aided by the authors' earlier work, which investigates the performance and characteristics of communication middleware and serialization independently. Given the performance criteria of the paper, ZeroMQ, YAMI4, and ICE are the middleware that performs...

  5. The Organized/Disorganized Typology of Serial Murder: Myth or Model?

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.; Alison, Laurence J.; Alison, Emily; Wentink, Natalia

    2004-01-01

    Despite weaknesses in the organized/disorganized classification of serial killers, it is drawn on for "offender profiles," theories of offending, and in murder trials. This dichotomy was therefore tested by the multidimensional scaling of the co-occurrence of 39 aspects of serial killings derived 100 murders committed by 100 U.S. serial killers. Results revealed no distinct subsets of offense characteristics reflecting the dichotomy. They showed a subset of organized features typical of most ...

  6. Reversal Strategies for NOACs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Steen; Verheugt, Freek; Comuth, Willemijn

    2015-01-01

    , coagulation factor concentrates or NOAC-specific antidotes could be used. Coagulation factor concentrates can be used in patients with haemophilia and to reverse the effect of VKAs but, in NOAC-treated patients, results are inconsistent and these agents could potentially have pro-thrombotic effects. Specific...... antidotes for NOACs are expected to be on the market soon. Phase III clinical trials with a humanized antibody fragment directed against dabigatran (idarucizumab) and recombinant, modified factor Xa (andexanet alfa) are ongoing. A molecule (aripazine) with broad activity against various anticoagulants...

  7. Reversible brazing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jim D.; Stephens, John J.; Walker, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  8. A comparison of serial order short-term memory effects across verbal and musical domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Simon; Mengal, Pierre; Majerus, Steve

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the mechanisms involved in the short-term retention of serial order information may be shared across short-term memory (STM) domains such as verbal and visuospatial STM. Given the intrinsic sequential organization of musical material, the study of STM for musical information may be particularly informative about serial order retention processes and their domain-generality. The present experiment examined serial order STM for verbal and musical sequences in participants with no advanced musical expertise and experienced musicians. Serial order STM for verbal information was assessed via a serial order reconstruction task for digit sequences. In the musical domain, serial order STM was assessed using a novel melodic sequence reconstruction task maximizing the retention of tone order information. We observed that performance for the verbal and musical tasks was characterized by sequence length as well as primacy and recency effects. Serial order errors in both tasks were characterized by similar transposition gradients and ratios of fill-in:infill errors. These effects were observed for both participant groups, although the transposition gradients and ratios of fill-in:infill errors showed additional specificities for musician participants in the musical task. The data support domain-general serial order STM effects but also suggest the existence of additional domain-specific effects. Implications for models of serial order STM in verbal and musical domains are discussed.

  9. Reverse case study: to think like a nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Deborah A

    2011-01-01

    Reverse case study is a collaborative, innovative, active learning strategy that nurse educators can use in the classroom. Groups of students develop a case study and a care plan from a list of medications and a short two- to three-sentence scenario. The students apply the nursing process to thoroughly develop a complete case study written as a concept map. The strategy builds on previous learned information and applies the information to new content, thus promoting critical thinking and problem solving. Reverse case study has been used in both associate and baccalaureate nursing degree theory courses to generate discussion and assist students in thinking like a nurse. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Quantum vertex model for reversible classical computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamon, C; Mucciolo, E R; Ruckenstein, A E; Yang, Z-C

    2017-05-12

    Mappings of classical computation onto statistical mechanics models have led to remarkable successes in addressing some complex computational problems. However, such mappings display thermodynamic phase transitions that may prevent reaching solution even for easy problems known to be solvable in polynomial time. Here we map universal reversible classical computations onto a planar vertex model that exhibits no bulk classical thermodynamic phase transition, independent of the computational circuit. Within our approach the solution of the computation is encoded in the ground state of the vertex model and its complexity is reflected in the dynamics of the relaxation of the system to its ground state. We use thermal annealing with and without 'learning' to explore typical computational problems. We also construct a mapping of the vertex model into the Chimera architecture of the D-Wave machine, initiating an approach to reversible classical computation based on state-of-the-art implementations of quantum annealing.

  11. Ciliates learn to diagnose and correct classical error syndromes in mating strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2013-01-01

    Preconjugal ciliates learn classical repetition error-correction codes to safeguard mating messages and replies from corruption by "rivals" and local ambient noise. Because individual cells behave as memory channels with Szilárd engine attributes, these coding schemes also might be used to limit, diagnose, and correct mating-signal errors due to noisy intracellular information processing. The present study, therefore, assessed whether heterotrich ciliates effect fault-tolerant signal planning and execution by modifying engine performance, and consequently entropy content of codes, during mock cell-cell communication. Socially meaningful serial vibrations emitted from an ambiguous artificial source initiated ciliate behavioral signaling performances known to advertise mating fitness with varying courtship strategies. Microbes, employing calcium-dependent Hebbian-like decision making, learned to diagnose then correct error syndromes by recursively matching Boltzmann entropies between signal planning and execution stages via "power" or "refrigeration" cycles. All eight serial contraction and reversal strategies incurred errors in entropy magnitude by the execution stage of processing. Absolute errors, however, subtended expected threshold values for single bit-flip errors in three-bit replies, indicating coding schemes protected information content throughout signal production. Ciliate preparedness for vibrations selectively and significantly affected the magnitude and valence of Szilárd engine performance during modal and non-modal strategy corrective cycles. But entropy fidelity for all replies mainly improved across learning trials as refinements in engine efficiency. Fidelity neared maximum levels for only modal signals coded in resilient three-bit repetition error-correction sequences. Together, these findings demonstrate microbes can elevate survival/reproductive success by learning to implement classical fault-tolerant information processing in social

  12. Ciliates learn to diagnose and correct classical error syndromes in mating strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Bradley Clark

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Preconjugal ciliates learn classical repetition error-correction codes to safeguard mating messages and replies from corruption by rivals and local ambient noise. Because individual cells behave as memory channels with Szilárd engine attributes, these coding schemes also might be used to limit, diagnose, and correct mating-signal errors due to noisy intracellular information processing. The present study, therefore, assessed whether heterotrich ciliates effect fault-tolerant signal planning and execution by modifying engine performance, and consequently entropy content of codes, during mock cell-cell communication. Socially meaningful serial vibrations emitted from an ambiguous artificial source initiated ciliate behavioral signaling performances known to advertise mating fitness with varying courtship strategies. Microbes, employing calcium-dependent Hebbian-like decision making, learned to diagnose then correct error syndromes by recursively matching Boltzmann entropies between signal planning and execution stages via power or refrigeration cycles. All eight serial contraction and reversal strategies incurred errors in entropy magnitude by the execution stage of processing. Absolute errors, however, subtended expected threshold values for single bit-flip errors in three-bit replies, indicating coding schemes protected information content throughout signal production. Ciliate preparedness for vibrations selectively and significantly affected the magnitude and valence of Szilárd engine performance during modal and nonmodal strategy corrective cycles. But entropy fidelity for all replies mainly improved across learning trials as refinements in engine efficiency. Fidelity neared maximum levels for only modal signals coded in resilient three-bit repetition error-correction sequences. Together, these findings demonstrate microbes can elevate survival/reproductive success by learning to implement classical fault-tolerant information processing in

  13. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  14. Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlesinger, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  15. Serial ultrasonographic appearance of postpartum uterine involution in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, A E; Concannon, P W

    1990-09-01

    Postpartum changes in uterine shape, architecture, echogenicity and diameter were determined during the serial examinations of five beagle bitches. During postpartum Week 1, the uterine horns were tubular structures composed of multiple layers of various echogenicity and had multiple, discrete enlargements with hypoechoic centers at placental sites. Diameters ranged from 1.1 to 3.8 cm at placental site enlargements, and 0.5 to 1.4 cm between enlargements. Uterine involution appeared to be completed by 15 wk post partum. At 15 weeks the uterine horns of each dog were uniform hypoechoic, tubular structures without enlargements and had a reduced diameter of 0.3 to 0.6 cm. These ultrasonographic findings are similar to previously reported gross and light microscopic descriptions of canine uterine involution.

  16. The primacy model: a new model of immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, M P; Norris, D

    1998-10-01

    A new model of immediate serial recall is presented: the primacy model. The primacy model stores order information by means of the assumption that the strength of activation of successive list items decreases across list position to form a primacy gradient. Ordered recall is supported by a repeated cycle of operations involving a noisy choice of the most active item followed by suppression of the chosen item. Word-length and list-length effects are attributed to a decay process that occurs both during input, when effective rehearsal is prevented, and during output. The phonological similarity effect is attributed to a second stage of processing at which phonological confusions occur. The primacy model produces accurate simulations of the effects of word length, list length, and phonological similarity.

  17. Analysis of XFEL serial diffraction data from individual crystalline fibrils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Wojtas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Serial diffraction data collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source from crystalline amyloid fibrils delivered in a liquid jet show that the fibrils are well oriented in the jet. At low fibril concentrations, diffraction patterns are recorded from single fibrils; these patterns are weak and contain only a few reflections. Methods are developed for determining the orientation of patterns in reciprocal space and merging them in three dimensions. This allows the individual structure amplitudes to be calculated, thus overcoming the limitations of orientation and cylindrical averaging in conventional fibre diffraction analysis. The advantages of this technique should allow structural studies of fibrous systems in biology that are inaccessible using existing techniques.

  18. Modelling and Forecasting Stock Price Movements with Serially Dependent Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasika Yatigammana

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The direction of price movements are analysed under an ordered probit framework, recognising the importance of accounting for discreteness in price changes. By extending the work of Hausman et al. (1972 and Yang and Parwada (2012,This paper focuses on improving the forecast performance of the model while infusing a more practical perspective by enhancing flexibility. This is achieved by extending the existing framework to generate short term multi period ahead forecasts for better decision making, whilst considering the serial dependence structure. This approach enhances the flexibility and adaptability of the model to future price changes, particularly targeting risk minimisation. Empirical evidence is provided, based on seven stocks listed on the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX. The prediction success varies between 78 and 91 per cent for in-sample and out-of-sample forecasts for both the short term and long term.

  19. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ∼700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ∼40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is an important step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  20. Whole brain imaging with Serial Two-Photon Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Amato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging entire mouse brains at submicron resolution has historically been a challenging undertaking and largely confined to the province of dedicated atlasing initiatives. The has limited systematic investigations into important areas of neuroscience, such as neural circuits, brain mapping and neurodegeneration. In this paper, we describe in detail Serial Two-Photon (STP tomography, a robust, reliable method for imaging entire brains with histological detail. We provide examples of how the basic methodology can be extended to other imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography, in order to provide unique contrast mechanisms. Furthermore we provide a survey of the research that STP tomography has enabled in the field of neuroscience, provide examples of how this technology enables quantitative whole brain studies, and discuss the current limitations of STP tomography-based approaches

  1. Serial interactome capture of the human cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Thomas; Albrecht, Anne-Susann; de Melo Costa, Veronica Rodrigues; Sauer, Sascha; Meierhofer, David; Ørom, Ulf Andersson

    2016-04-04

    Novel RNA-guided cellular functions are paralleled by an increasing number of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here we present 'serial RNA interactome capture' (serIC), a multiple purification procedure of ultraviolet-crosslinked poly(A)-RNA-protein complexes that enables global RBP detection with high specificity. We apply serIC to the nuclei of proliferating K562 cells to obtain the first human nuclear RNA interactome. The domain composition of the 382 identified nuclear RBPs markedly differs from previous IC experiments, including few factors without known RNA-binding domains that are in good agreement with computationally predicted RNA binding. serIC extends the number of DNA-RNA-binding proteins (DRBPs), and reveals a network of RBPs involved in p53 signalling and double-strand break repair. serIC is an effective tool to couple global RBP capture with additional selection or labelling steps for specific detection of highly purified RBPs.

  2. New method for designing serial resonant power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinov, Nikolay

    2017-12-01

    In current work is presented one comprehensive method for design of serial resonant energy converters. The method is based on new simplified approach in analysis of such kind power electronic devices. It is grounded on supposing resonant mode of operation when finding relation between input and output voltage regardless of other operational modes (when controlling frequency is below or above resonant frequency). This approach is named `quasiresonant method of analysis', because it is based on assuming that all operational modes are `sort of' resonant modes. An estimation of error was made because of the a.m. hypothesis and is compared to the classic analysis. The `quasiresonant method' of analysis gains two main advantages: speed and easiness in designing of presented power circuits. Hence it is very useful in practice and in teaching Power Electronics. Its applicability is proven with mathematic modelling and computer simulation.

  3. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  4. Continuous Heterogeneous Photocatalysis in Serial Micro-Batch Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Bartholomäus; Shalom, Menny; Antonietti, Markus; Seeberger, Peter H; Gilmore, Kerry

    2018-01-29

    Solid reagents, leaching catalysts, and heterogeneous photocatalysts are commonly employed in batch processes but are ill-suited for continuous-flow chemistry. Heterogeneous catalysts for thermal reactions are typically used in packed-bed reactors, which cannot be penetrated by light and thus are not suitable for photocatalytic reactions involving solids. We demonstrate that serial micro-batch reactors (SMBRs) allow for the continuous utilization of solid materials together with liquids and gases in flow. This technology was utilized to develop selective and efficient fluorination reactions using a modified graphitic carbon nitride heterogeneous catalyst instead of costly homogeneous metal polypyridyl complexes. The merger of this inexpensive, recyclable catalyst and the SMBR approach enables sustainable and scalable photocatalysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Cinema 4D Dalam Pipeline Produksi Serial Animasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiyansah Ardiyansah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cinema 4D is best known as software that is efficient in render time. This is very beneficial especially for those who engaged in animated projects with tight deadlines and require work time efficiency, such as serial project. In addition to time, in the animated series production pipeline also generally require various items of work that involves a lot of resources implemented in parallel. This is to avoid delays to the overall project progress whenever a work item suffers setback due to any reason. Cinema 4D as a tool, allowing a project carried out with the most efficient method in accordance with needs, and flexibility that is the appeal of Cinema 4D as well as strength in the context of the animated series production. 

  6. Cortical laminar necrosis in brain infarcts: serial MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskas, N.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Ioannidis, I.; Charitandi, A.; Dimitriadis, A.S. [Radiology Department, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotele University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2003-05-01

    High-signal cortical lesions are observed on T1-weighted images in cases of brain infarct. Histological examination has demonstrated these to be ''cortical laminar necrosis'', without haemorrhage or calcification. We report serial MRI in this condition in 12 patients with brain infarcts. We looked at high-signal lesions on T1-weighted images, chronological changes in signal intensity and contrast enhancement. High-signal cortical lesions began to appear about 2 weeks after the ictus, were prominent at 1 - 2 months, then became less evident, but occasionally remained for up to 1.5 years. They gave high signal or were isointense on T2-weighted images and did not give low signal at any stage. Contrast enhancement of these lesions was prominent at 1 - 2 months, and less apparent from 3 months, but was seen up to 5 months. (orig.)

  7. Unequal Input Voltages Distribution Between the Serial Connected Halfbridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Ovcarcik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a topology of DC-DC converter consisting in two serial connected half-bridges. Secondary circuit is realized like a conventional full-wave rectifier. The main advantage of this topology is the possibility of dividing the input voltage between the half-bridges. The converter is controlled using the phase-shift modulation, which allows a ZVSoperation mode. The voltage unbalance between the inputs causes an important problem of the presented topology. It is necessary to avoid it by the control algorithm, which is described in the text. The practical results show a zero voltage switching technique and the limits of the chosen topology and of the control.

  8. Linguistic ostracism causes prejudice: Support for a serial mediation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitlan, Robert Thomas; A Zárate, Michael; Kelly, Kristine M; Catherine DeSoto, M

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of linguistic ostracism, defined as any communication setting in which a target individual (or group) is ostracized by another individual (or group) in a language that the target has extremely limited ability to understand. Participants were included or ostracized by their group members during a computer-mediated group discussion. Half of the ostracized participants were linguistically ostracized via their group members conversing with one another in a language the participant did not know well (Spanish Ostracism: SO), or in a language the participant did know well (English Ostracism: EO). SO participants reported feeling less similar than both included and EO participants. SO participants also reported being angrier and expressed more prejudice than included participants (and EO participants using effect size estimates). Results also provided support for the hypothesized serial mediation model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for intergroup relations.

  9. Serial cultivation of human scalp hair follicle keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Roelofs, H M; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the serial cultivation of adult human hair follicle keratinocytes. Plucked scalp hair follicles, placed on bovine eye lens capsules as a growth substrate, give rise to quickly expanding colonies within a few days. After trypsinization, the cells are replated with irradiated 3T3 cells as 'feeders'. Using this combination of techniques the keratinocytes can be subcultured up to four times. In this way about 10(7) keratinocytes can be generated from one single hair follicle. Moreover, the technique enables cryogenic storage of the cells, allowing for instance, convenient transportation. Subcultured hair follicle keratinocytes can be plated on glass coverslips. This allows immunofluorescence studies. The keratin cytoskeletons visualized using an antiserum against human keratin.

  10. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in rat liver regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimica, Velasco; Batusic, Danko; Haralanova-Ilieva, Borislava; Chen, Yonglong; Hollemann, Thomas; Pieler, Tomas; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2007-01-01

    We have applied serial analysis of gene expression for studying the molecular mechanism of the rat liver regeneration in the model of 70% partial hepatectomy. We generated three SAGE libraries from a normal control liver (NL library: 52,343 tags), from a sham control operated liver (Sham library: 51,028 tags), and from a regenerating liver (PH library: 53,061 tags). By SAGE bioinformatics analysis we identified 40 induced genes and 20 repressed genes during the liver regeneration. We verified temporal expression of such genes by real time PCR during the regeneration process and we characterized 13 induced genes and 3 repressed genes. We found connective tissue growth factor transcript and protein induced very early at 4 h after PH operation before hepatocytes proliferation is triggered. Our study suggests CTGF as a growth factor signaling mediator that could be involved directly in the mechanism of liver regeneration induction

  11. Serialization and persistent objects turning data structures into efficient databases

    CERN Document Server

    Soukup, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the pressure for fast processing and efficient storage of large data with complex?relations increased beyond the capability of traditional databases. Typical examples include iPhone applications, computer aided design - both electrical and mechanical, biochemistry applications, and incremental compilers. Serialization, which is sometimes used in such situations is notoriously tedious and error prone.In this book, Jiri Soukup and Petr Macha?ek show in detail how to write programs which store their internal data automatically and transparently to disk. Together with special data structure libraries which treat relations among objects as first-class entities, and with a UML class-diagram generator, the core application code is much simplified. The benchmark chapter shows a typical example where persistent data is faster by the order of magnitude than with a traditional database, in both traversing and accessing the data.The authors explore and exploit advanced features of object-oriented languages in a...

  12. Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew

    2003-01-01

    A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the

  13. Depression and pain: testing of serial multiple mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Tanchakvaranont, Sitthinant; Bookkamana, Putipong; Pinyopornpanish, Manee; Wannarit, Kamonporn; Satthapisit, Sirina; Nakawiro, Daochompu; Hiranyatheb, Thanita; Thongpibul, Kulvadee

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that pain is related to depression, few studies have been conducted to investigate the variables that mediate between the two conditions. In this study, the authors explored the following mediators: cognitive function, self-sacrificing interpersonal problems, and perception of stress, and the effects they had on pain symptoms among patients with depressive disorders. An analysis was performed on the data of 346 participants with unipolar depressive disorders. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, the pain subscale of the health-related quality of life (SF-36), the self-sacrificing subscale of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Perceived Stress Scale were used. Parallel multiple mediator and serial multiple mediator models were used. An alternative model regarding the effect of self-sacrificing on pain was also proposed. Perceived stress, self-sacrificing interpersonal style, and cognitive function were found to significantly mediate the relationship between depression and pain, while controlling for demographic variables. The total effect of depression on pain was significant. This model, with an additional three mediators, accounted for 15% of the explained variance in pain compared to 9% without mediators. For the alternative model, after controlling for the mediators, a nonsignificant total direct effect level of self-sacrificing was found, suggesting that the effect of self-sacrificing on pain was based only on an indirect effect and that perceived stress was found to be the strongest mediator. Serial mediation may help us to see how depression and pain are linked and what the fundamental mediators are in the chain. No significant, indirect effect of self-sacrificing on pain was observed, if perceived stress was not part of the depression and/or cognitive function mediational chain. The results shown here have implications for future research, both in terms of testing the model and in

  14. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: the serial nature of recall and the effect of test expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR), using a within-subjects (Experiment 1) and a between-subjects (Experiment 2) design. In both experiments, participants read aloud lists of eight words and were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR. The serial position curves were U-shaped for free recall and showed extended primacy effects with little or no recency for ISR, and there was little or no difference between recall for the precued and the postcued conditions. Critically, analyses of the output order showed that although the participants started their recall from different list positions in the two tasks, the degree to which subsequent recall was serial in a forward order was strikingly similar. We argue that recalling in a serial forward order is a general characteristic of memory and that performance on ISR and free recall is underpinned by common memory mechanisms.

  15. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won; Song, Chang Joon; Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong; Kim, Man Deuk

    2001-01-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  16. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Joon [Chungnam National Univ. School of Medicine, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Myungji Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Deuk [College of Medicine Pochon CHA Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  17. A new fixed-target approach for serial crystallography at synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, Philip

    2017-07-15

    In the framework of this thesis, a new method for high-speed fixed-target serial crystallography experiments and its applicability to biomacromolecular crystallography at both synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) is presented. The method is based on a sample holder, which can carry up to 20,000 microcrystals and which is made of single-crystalline silicon. Using synchrotron radiation, the structure of Operophtera brumata cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 18 polyhedrin, lysozyme and cubic insulin was determined by collecting X-ray diffraction data from multiple microcrystals. Data collection was shown to be possible at both cryogenic and ambient conditions. For room-temperature measurements, both global and specific indications of radiation damage were investigated and characterized. Due to the sieve-like structure of the chip, the microcrystals tend to arrange themselves according to the micropore pattern, which allows for efficient sampling of the sample material. In combination with a high-speed scanning stage, the sample holder was furthermore shown to be highly suitable for serial femtosecond crystallography experiments. By fast raster scanning of the chip through the pulsed X-ray beam of an XFEL, structure determination of a virus, using the example of bovine enterovirus type 2, has been demonstrated at an XFEL for the first time. Hit rates of up to 100% were obtained by the presented method, which refers to a reduction in sample consumption by at least three orders of magnitude with respect to common liquid-jet injection methods used for sample delivery. In this way, the typical time needed for data collection in serial femtosecond crystallography is significantly decreased. The presented technique for sample loading of the chip is easy to learn and results in efficient removal of the surrounding mother liquor, thereby reducing the generated background signal. Since the chip is made of single-crystalline silicon, in principle no

  18. A new fixed-target approach for serial crystallography at synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedig, Philip

    2017-07-01

    In the framework of this thesis, a new method for high-speed fixed-target serial crystallography experiments and its applicability to biomacromolecular crystallography at both synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) is presented. The method is based on a sample holder, which can carry up to 20,000 microcrystals and which is made of single-crystalline silicon. Using synchrotron radiation, the structure of Operophtera brumata cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 18 polyhedrin, lysozyme and cubic insulin was determined by collecting X-ray diffraction data from multiple microcrystals. Data collection was shown to be possible at both cryogenic and ambient conditions. For room-temperature measurements, both global and specific indications of radiation damage were investigated and characterized. Due to the sieve-like structure of the chip, the microcrystals tend to arrange themselves according to the micropore pattern, which allows for efficient sampling of the sample material. In combination with a high-speed scanning stage, the sample holder was furthermore shown to be highly suitable for serial femtosecond crystallography experiments. By fast raster scanning of the chip through the pulsed X-ray beam of an XFEL, structure determination of a virus, using the example of bovine enterovirus type 2, has been demonstrated at an XFEL for the first time. Hit rates of up to 100% were obtained by the presented method, which refers to a reduction in sample consumption by at least three orders of magnitude with respect to common liquid-jet injection methods used for sample delivery. In this way, the typical time needed for data collection in serial femtosecond crystallography is significantly decreased. The presented technique for sample loading of the chip is easy to learn and results in efficient removal of the surrounding mother liquor, thereby reducing the generated background signal. Since the chip is made of single-crystalline silicon, in principle no

  19. Reverse osmosis application studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golomb, A.

    1982-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of applying reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF) for effective treatment of process and waste streams from operations at Ontario Hydro's thermal and nuclear stations, an extensive literature survey has been carried out. It is concluded that RO is not at present economic for pretreatment of Great Lakes water prior to ion exchange demineralization for boiler makeup. Using both conventional and novel commercial membrane modules, RO pilot studies are recommended for treatment of boiler cleaning wastes, fly ash leachates, and flue gas desulphurization scrubber discharges for removal of heavy metals. Volume reduction and decontamination of nuclear station low-level active liquid waste streams by RO/UF also appear promising. Research programmes are proposed

  20. Reverse photoacoustic standoff spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Senesac, Lawrence R [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-12

    A system and method are disclosed for generating a reversed photoacoustic spectrum at a greater distance. A source may emit a beam to a target and a detector measures signals generated as a result of the beam being emitted on the target. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance by monitoring the intensity of light collected at the detector at different wavelengths. As the wavelength of light is changed, the target may absorb or reject each optical frequency. Rejection may increase the intensity at the sensing element and absorption may decrease the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  1. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    2013-08-26

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  2. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.

  3. Sex Reversal in Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have been widely used to study developmental biology due to the fact that embryo development takes place independently of the maternal organism and that observations and experimental approaches are easy. Some amphibians like Xenopus became model organisms in this field. In the first part of this article, the differentiation of the gonads in amphibians and the mechanisms governing this process are reviewed. In the second part, the state of the art about sex reversal, which can be induced by steroid hormones in general and by temperature in some species, is presented. Also information about pollutants found in the environment that could interfere with the development of the amphibian reproductive apparatus or with their reproductive physiology is given. Such compounds could play a part in the amphibian decline, since in the wild, many amphibians are endangered species. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Role of echocardiography in reducing shock reversal time in pediatric septic shock: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. EL-Nawawy

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the role of echocardiography in reducing shock reversal time in pediatric septic shock. Methods: A prospective study conducted in the pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital from September 2013 to May 2016. Ninety septic shock patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio for comparing the serial echocardiography-guided therapy in the study group with the standard therapy in the control group regarding clinical course, timely treatment, and outcomes. Results: Shock reversal was significantly higher in the study group (89% vs. 67%, with significantly reduced shock reversal time (3.3 vs. 4.5 days. Pediatric intensive care unit stay in the study group was significantly shorter (8 ± 3 vs. 14 ± 10 days. Mortality due to unresolved shock was significantly lower in the study group. Fluid overload was significantly lower in the study group (11% vs. 44%. In the study group, inotropes were used more frequently (89% vs. 67% and initiated earlier (12[0.5-24] vs. 24[6-72] h with lower maximum vasopressor inotrope score (120[30-325] vs. 170[80-395], revealing predominant use of milrinone (62% vs. 22%. Conclusion: Serial echocardiography provided crucial data for early recognition of septic myocardial dysfunction and hypovolemia that was not apparent on clinical assessment, allowing a timely management and resulting in shock reversal time reduction among children with septic shock.

  5. The Effects of Mood, Cognitive Style, and Cognitive Ability on Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretz, Jean E.; Totz, Kathryn Sentman; Kaufman, Scott Barry

    2010-01-01

    In an experiment with 109 undergraduates, we examined the effect of mood, cognitive style, and cognitive ability on implicit learning in the Artificial Grammar (AG) and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. Negative mood facilitated AG learning, but had no significant effect on SRT learning. Rational cognitive style predicted greater learning on both…

  6. The Locus of Serial Processing in Reading Aloud: Orthography-to-Phonology Computation or Speech Planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousikou, Petroula; Rastle, Kathleen; Besner, Derek; Coltheart, Max

    2015-01-01

    Dual-route theories of reading posit that a sublexical reading mechanism that operates serially and from left to right is involved in the orthography-to-phonology computation. These theories attribute the masked onset priming effect (MOPE) and the phonological Stroop effect (PSE) to the serial left-to-right operation of this mechanism. However,…

  7. The effects of nidopallium caudolaterale inactivation on serial-order behaviour in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Melissa Jane; Clarkson, Andrew N; Gowing, Emma K; Scarf, Damian; Colombo, Mike

    2018-06-06

    Serial-order behaviour is the ability to complete a sequence of responses in a predetermined order to achieve a reward. In birds, serial-order behaviour is thought to be impaired by damage to the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL). In the current study, we examined the role of the NCL in serial-order behaviour by training pigeons on a 4-item serial-order task and a go/no-go discrimination task. Following training, pigeons were received infusions of 1μl of either tetrodotoxin (TTX) or saline. Saline infusions had no impact on serial-order behaviour whereas TTX infusions resulted in a significant decrease in performance. The serial-order impairments, however, were not the results of errors of any specific error at any specific list item. With respect to the go/no-go discrimination task, saline infusions also had no impact on performance whereas TTX infusions impaired pigeons' discrimination abilities. Given the impairments on the go/no-go discrimination task, which does not require processing of serial-order information, we tentatively conclude that damage to the NCL does not impair serial-order behaviour per se, but rather results in a more generalised impairment that may impact performance across a range of tasks.

  8. Serial Position Effects in the Identification of Letters, Digits, and Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tydgat, Ilse; Grainger, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated the form of serial position functions for identification of letters, digits, and symbols presented in strings. The results replicated findings obtained with the target search paradigm, showing an interaction between the effects of serial position and type of stimulus, with symbols generating a distinct…

  9. Visual and Phonological Similarity Effects in Verbal Immediate Serial Recall: A Test with Kanji Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satoru; Logie, Robert H.; Morita, Aiko; Law, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In a series of three experiments, native speakers of Japanese performed serial ordered written recall of visually presented Japanese kanji characters that varied systematically in visual and phonological similarity. Overall effects of phonological similarity were observed for retention of serial order under silent reading in Experiments 1 and 3…

  10. A study on the utilization of serial resources in selected tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the utilization of serial resources in selected tertiary institutions in Ogun State. ... Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science ... Serial resources are publications either in printed form or electronic format issued in successive parts usually having numerical or chronological designations and intended to be ...

  11. What's Your Money Worth? Materials Budgets and the Selection and Evaluation of Book and Serial Vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses budgets for library materials and how to select and evaluate book and serial vendors. Trends in automation, publishing, and economics that affect both libraries and vendors are discussed; and examples from the University of California at Berkeley that include serials service charges and approval plan discounts are presented. (six…

  12. 3D Topography of the Young Adult Anal Sphincter Complex Reconstructed from Undeformed Serial Anatomical Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yi; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F.; Hagoort, Jaco; Shan, Jin-Lu; Tan, Li-Wen; Fang, Bin-Ji; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic-floor anatomy is usually studied by artifact-prone dissection or imaging, which requires prior anatomical knowledge. We used the serial-section approach to settle contentious issues and an interactive 3D-pdf to make the results widely accessible. 3D reconstructions of undeformed thin serial

  13. Serial MR findings of metaphyseal cyst in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Chang Min; Na, Jae Boem; Moon, Haeng Jin

    2001-01-01

    Metaphyseal cysts are common findings in Lee-Calve-Perthes(LCP) disease, though usually disappear within 6-12 months several studies have described the MR imaging findings of these cysts, though serial MRI findings have not been documented. In this report, therefore, we report the serial MRI results of metaphyseal cyst in LCP patients

  14. A high speed serializer ASIC for ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The current front-end electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters need to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels and data rates expected at the upgraded LHC machine (HL-LHC), which will have 5 times more luminosity than the LHC in its ultimate configuration. This upgrade calls for an optical link system of 100 Gbps per front-end board (FEB). A high speed, low power, radiation tolerant serializer is the critical component in this system. In this paper, we present the design and test results of a single channel 16:1 serializer and the design of a double-channel 16:1 serializer. Both designs are based on a commercial 0.25 μm silicon-on-sapphire CMOS technology. The single channel serializer consists of a serializing unit, a PLL clock generator and a line driver implemented in current mode logic (CML). The serializing unit multiplexes 16 bit parallel LVDS data into 1-bit width serial CMOS data. The serializing unit is composed of a cascade of 2:1 multiplexing circuits based on static D-flip-fl...

  15. Subject-Verb Agreement in Children and Adults: Serial or Hierarchical Processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Isabelle; Chanquoy, Lucile; Fayol, Michel; Louis-Sidney, Maryse

    2005-01-01

    Two processes, serial and hierarchical, are generally opposed to account for grammatical encoding in language production. In a developmental perspective, the question addressed here is whether the subject-verb agreement during writing is computed serially, once the words are linearly ordered in the sentence, or hierarchically, as soon as the…

  16. Juvenility and serial vegetative propagation of Norway spruce clones (Picea abies Karst.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair; J. Kleinschmit; J. Svolba

    1985-01-01

    Effects associated with progressive maturation of clones are of greatest concern in clonal tree improvement programs. Serial propagation has been in use at the Lower Saxony Forest Research Institute since 1968 to arrest maturation in Norway spruce clones. By 1980 cuttings were established in the nursery that had been serially propagated from one to five cycles. This...

  17. Race as Seriality: A Response to David Benatar and Zimitri Erasmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouws, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article I draw on the Sarte's notion of "seriality" as theorized in his book "Dialectic of Reason" and as interpreted by Iris Marion Young. I argue that seriality can be used to escape the false essentialism and identity politics of race as a category for admissions to universities. A series is a social collective whose members are unified…

  18. Serial cranial ultrasonography or early MRI for detecting preterm brain injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Annemarie; Raets, Marlou M A; Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; Govaert, Paul; Feijen-Roon, Monique; Reiss, Irwin K M; Smit, Liesbeth S; Lequin, Maarten H; Dudink, Jeroen

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate detection ability and feasibility of serial cranial ultrasonography (CUS) and early MRI in preterm brain injury. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Level III neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 307 infants, born below 29 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Serial CUS

  19. Cross-domain interference costs during concurrent verbal and spatial serial memory tasks are asymmetric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Candice C.; Mall, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that memory for serial order is domain-general. Evidence also points to asymmetries in interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks. We confirm that concurrently remembering verbal and spatial serial lists provokes substantial interference compared with remembering a

  20. THE COMPARISON OF DESCRIPTIVE TEXT WRITING ABILITY USING YOU TUBE DOWNLOADED VIDEO AND SERIAL PICTURES AT THE STUDENTS’OF SMPN 2 METROACADEMIC YEAR 2012/2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Bayu Pramanca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses about how two different techniques affect the students’ ability in descriptive text at SMP N 2 Metro. The objectives of this research are (1 to know the difference result of using YouTube Downloaded Video and Serial Pictures media toward students’ writing ability in descriptive text and (2 to know which one is more effective of students’ writing ability in descriptive text instruction between learning by using YouTube Downloaded Video and Serial Pictures media. The implemented method is quantitative research design in that both researchers use true experimental research design. In this research , experimental and control class pre-test and post test are conducted. It is carried out at the first grade of SMP N 2 Metro in academic year 2012/2013. The population in this research is 7 different classes with total number of 224 students. 2 classes of the total population are taken as the samples; VII.1 students in experimental class and VII.2 students  in control class by using cluster random sampling technique.  The instruments of the research are tests, treatment and post-test. The data analyzing procedure uses t-test  and results the following output. The result of ttest is 3,96 and ttable  is 2,06. It means that tcount > ttable with the criterion of ttest is Ha is accepted if tcount  > ttable. So, there is any difference result of students’ writing ability using YouTube Downloaded Video and Serial Pictures Media. However; Youtube Downloaded Video media is more effective media than Serial Pictures media toward students’ writing ability. This research is consistent with the previous result of the studies and thus this technique is  recommended to use in writing instruction especially in descriptive text in order that students may feel fun and enjoy during the  learning process.